WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Adaptation of a globally important coccolithophore to ocean warming and acidification  

Science.gov (United States)

Although ocean warming and acidification are recognized as two major anthropogenic perturbations of today's oceans we know very little about how marine phytoplankton may respond via evolutionary change. We tested for adaptation to ocean warming in combination with ocean acidification in the globally important phytoplankton species Emiliania huxleyi. Temperature adaptation occurred independently of ocean acidification levels. Growth rates were up to 16% higher in populations adapted for one year to warming when assayed at their upper thermal tolerance limit. Particulate inorganic (PIC) and organic (POC) carbon production was restored to values under present-day ocean conditions, owing to adaptive evolution, and were 101% and 55% higher under combined warming and acidification, respectively, than in non-adapted controls. Cells also evolved to a smaller size while they recovered their initial PIC:POC ratio even under elevated CO2. The observed changes in coccolithophore growth, calcite and biomass production, cell size and elemental composition demonstrate the importance of evolutionary processes for phytoplankton performance in a future ocean.

Schlüter, Lothar; Lohbeck, Kai T.; Gutowska, Magdalena A.; Gröger, Joachim P.; Riebesell, Ulf; Reusch, Thorsten B. H.

2014-11-01

2

Global warming amplified by reduced sulphur fluxes as a result of ocean acidification  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change and decreasing seawater pH (ocean acidification) have widely been considered as uncoupled consequences of the anthropogenic CO2 perturbation. Recently, experiments in seawater enclosures (mesocosms) showed that concentrations of dimethylsulphide (DMS), a biogenic sulphur compound, were markedly lower in a low-pH environment. Marine DMS emissions are the largest natural source of atmospheric sulphur and changes in their strength have the potential to alter the Earth's radiation budget. Here we establish observational-based relationships between pH changes and DMS concentrations to estimate changes in future DMS emissions with Earth system model climate simulations. Global DMS emissions decrease by about 18(+/-3)% in 2100 compared with pre-industrial times as a result of the combined effects of ocean acidification and climate change. The reduced DMS emissions induce a significant additional radiative forcing, of which 83% is attributed to the impact of ocean acidification, tantamount to an equilibrium temperature response between 0.23 and 0.48K. Our results indicate that ocean acidification has the potential to exacerbate anthropogenic warming through a mechanism that is not considered at present in projections of future climate change.

Six, Katharina D.; Kloster, Silvia; Ilyina, Tatiana; Archer, Stephen D.; Zhang, Kai; Maier-Reimer, Ernst

2013-11-01

3

Acoustics Meets Global Warming: The impact of ocean acidification on underwater sound  

Science.gov (United States)

The principal cause of the absorption of low frequency sound in seawater is a chemical relaxation that is pH dependent. The predicted increases in ocean acidification could reduce low frequency absorption by a factor of 2 or more. Increased acidification would start at the surface and, over a significant duration, evolve down the water column, the sound channel axis depth being 1,000 meters or more in many ocean locations. However, when a surface duct propagation mode exists, and all the ``players'' (ship and wind generated noise, transiting marine mammals, etc.) are located in it, the impact would become noticable much sooner. Acoustically it should be a mixed bag; reducing propagation loss and thus raising vocalization levels while at the same time increasing the background noise.

Browning, David

2008-10-01

4

Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Use the links below to complete your research. The Heat Over Global Warming God and Global Warming Robert Redford: Business Warming Up to Environment Emission Impossible? Senator Stepping Up on Climate Control Interview: Bill McKibben Climate Change and the Media Senate Hearings Five Questions with Environmental Writer Tom Philpott Home Grown Oil, Politics Bribes E2: Energy The Greens Online NewsHour: The Global Warming Debate NewsHour Extra: Global Warming Linked to Humans NewsHour Extra: Global Warming Fears Lead to Ratification of the Kyoto Protocol Frontline: Doubters of Global Warming Journey to Planet Earth: The State of the Planet: Global Warming What s Up With the Weather? Some of the below resources were found in the book Global Warming : Opposing Viewpoints (available in the MRC) The Heritage Foundation - Global Warming Rainforest Alliance Doing a global warming search in this website will result in a list of various articles Sierra Club - homepage eLibrary (Proquest) is now available through the

Schultz, Ms.

2007-12-03

5

Are Salps A Silver Bullet Against Global Warming And Ocean Acidification?  

Science.gov (United States)

Oceanic uptake of 25 billion tons CO2 annually introduced into the atmosphere from carbon fuels must be mitigated to prevent further widespread changes in ocean biochemistry and potentially severe anthropogenic climate change. Larry Madin of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute and his colleagues have measured the carbon sequestration in the excretia produced by dense swarms of Salps of up to 4,000 tons per day over a 100,000 km2 ocean region, equivalent to over 14 thousand tons of CO2 per day. This poses several questions: 1. Given the ocean surface of 372 million km2, does the Madin report imply a potential removal of 20 billion tons of CO2 per year 80% of emissions? 2. What might be the natural limitations on widespread propagation of Salps, and how would these effect the carbon sequestration actually achieved? 3. What mechanism could encourage the propagation of Salps throughout the oceans? Since Salps feast on phytoplankton which require sunlight and sufficient nutrients, we must first reduce the available ocean by perhaps 60% as a seasonal limit on phytoplankton growth and allow 60% further limit for poor nutrient availability and assuming some ocean regions are an unfavorable environment for Salps. Combined, the net ocean area over which Salps could sequester carbon is thus 36%, or 134 million km2. Assuming Madin's values for carbon sequestration are achievable over this ocean region, about 7.2 billion tons of CO2 could be sequestered annually, equal to 29% of mankind's current fossil-fuel CO2 output. This converts to a carbon equivalent of 1.96 billion tons per year. The mechanism we propose to encourage widespread propagation of Salps is forced upwelling using Atmocean's arrays of wave-driven deep ocean pumps to bring up large volumes of cold, nutrient-rich deep ocean to enhance the ocean's primary production, absorbing CO2 and producing oxygen. The pump simply comprises a buoy, flexible tube, cylinder with valve, cable to connect the buoy and cylinder, and solar panel to power communications & provide remote control. Adjacent pumps are connected at the bottom to maintain relative position. If required, periodic seafloor anchoring can maintain absolute position within an ocean basin. Deployment is low cost as the pumps self-deploy when dropped into the ocean from barges. Pumps would not be deployed in ocean shipping channels, regions used by recreational boaters, nor where excessive tides or currents exist. In a global application, 1,340 arrays each 100,000 km2 are needed to cover the 134 million km2 calculated above. Assuming one pump per square km costing 2,000, an investment of 268 billion is needed. Using a five year payback, this investment is recouped if the carbon credit price is 26.80 per ton applied to sequestering 1.96 billion tons per year of carbon. This is not dramatically different from today's carbon credit price of about 15 per ton. Assuming a governmental mandate of carbon sequestration, today's price could easily increase many-fold, making ocean sequestration using forced upwelling economically attractive. Additional benefits of widespread forced upwelling include: 1 Buffering of ocean pH by removing CO2 during photosynthesis; 2 Possible cooling the upper mixed layer upstream from coral reefs to reduce bleaching from ocean hotspots; 3 Possible mitigation of rapid climate change by enhancing the mixing of arctic/Greenland meltwater; 4 Enhancement of wild fish populations; and, 5 Reduced hurricane intensity, achieved by cooling the upper mixed layer upon approach of a tropical storm in high risk regions such as the Gulf of Mexico.

Kithil, P. W.

2006-12-01

6

Ocean acidification and warming will lower coral reef resilience  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ocean warming and acidification from increasing levels of atmospheric CO2 represent major global threats to coral reefs, and are in many regions exacerbated by local-scale disturbances such as overfishing and nutrient enrichment. Our understanding of global threats and local-scale disturbances on reefs is growing, but their relative contribution to reef resilience and vulnerability in the future is unclear. Here, we analyse quantitatively how different combinations of CO2 and fishing pressure...

Anthony, Kenneth R. N.; Maynard, Jeffrey A.; Diaz-pulido, Guillermo; Mumby, Peter J.; Marshall, Paul A.; Cao, Long; Hoegh-guldberg, Ove

2011-01-01

7

Acid Test: The Global Challenge of Ocean Acidification  

Science.gov (United States)

"Acid Test", a film produced by NRDC, was made to raise awareness about the largely unknown problem of ocean acidification, which poses a fundamental challenge to life in the seas and the health of the entire planet. Like global warming, ocean acidification stems from the increase of carbon dioxide in the earthâs atmosphere since the start of the Industrial Revolution.

2009-09-17

8

Global warming  

CERN Document Server

Global warming-like deforestation, the ozone hole and the loss of species- has become one of the late 20the century icons of global environmental damage. The threat, is not the reality, of such a global climate change has motivated governments. businesses and environmental organisations, to take serious action ot try and achieve serious control of the future climate. This culminated last December in Kyoto in the agreement for legally-binding climate protocol. In this series of three lectures I will provide a perspective on the phenomenon of global warming that accepts the scientific basis for our concern, but one that also recognises the dynamic interaction between climate and society that has always exited The future will be no different. The challenge of global warning is not to pretend it is not happening (as with some pressure groups), nor to pretend it threatens global civilisation (as with other pressure groups), and it is not even a challenge to try and stop it from happening-we are too far down the ro...

Hulme, M

1998-01-01

9

Global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Global warming' is a phrase that refers to the effect on the climate of human activities, in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) and large-scale deforestation, which cause emissions to the atmosphere of large amounts of 'greenhouse gases', of which the most important is carbon dioxide. Such gases absorb infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface and act as blankets over the surface keeping it warmer than it would otherwise be. Associated with this warming are changes of climate. The basic science of the 'greenhouse effect' that leads to the warming is well understood. More detailed understanding relies on numerical models of the climate that integrate the basic dynamical and physical equations describing the complete climate system. Many of the likely characteristics of the resulting changes in climate (such as more frequent heat waves, increases in rainfall, increase in frequency and intensity of many extreme climate events) can be identified. Substantial uncertainties remain in knowledge of some of the feedbacks within the climate system (that affect the overall magnitude of change) and in much of the detail of likely regional change. Because of its negative impacts on human communities (including for instance substantial sea-level rise) and on ecosystems, global warming is the most important environmental problem the world faces. Adaptation to the inevitable impacts and mitigation to reduce their magnitude are both necessary. International action is being taken by the world's scientific and political communities. Because of the need for urgent action, the greatest challenge is to move rapidly to much increased energy efficiency and to non-fossil-fuel energy sources

10

Global warning, global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book provides insights into the formidable array of issues which, in a warmer world, could impinge upon every facet of readers lives. It examines climatic change and long-term implications of global warming for the ecosystem. Topics include the ozone layer and how it works; the greenhouse effect; the dangers of imbalance and its effects on human and animal life; disruptions to the basic ecology of the planet; and the real scientific evidence for and against aberrant climatic shifts. The author also examines workable social and political programs and changes that must be instituted to avoid ecological disaster

11

Global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The GEF was set up as a pilot programme in 1991 to provide grant and concessional funds to developing countries for projects and activities that aim to protect the global environment. In March 1994, participating governments successfully concluded negotiations to restructure the Facility. The Core Fund of the GEF was also replenished with over $2 billion to be committed over a three-year period. GEF resources are available for projects that address climate change, biological diversity, international waters and depletion of the ozone layer. Activities addressing land degradation, primarily desertification and deforestation, as they relate to the four areas, are also eligible for funding. The GEF is jointly implemented by the United Nations Development Programme, the United Nations Environment Programme and the World Bank

12

Calcium carbonate production response to future ocean warming and acidification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions are acidifying the ocean, affecting calcification rates in pelagic organisms and thereby modifying the oceanic alkalinity cycle. However, the responses of pelagic calcifying organisms to acidification vary widely between species, contributing uncertainty to predictions of atmospheric CO2 and the resulting climate change. Meanwhile, ocean warming caused by rising CO2 is expected to drive increased growth rates of all pelagic organisms, including calcifiers. It thus remains unclear whether anthropogenic CO2 will ultimately increase or decrease the globally-integrated pelagic calcification rate. Here, we assess the importance of this uncertainty by introducing a variable dependence of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 production on calcite saturation state (?CaCO3 in the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model, an intermediate complexity coupled carbon-climate model. In a series of model simulations, we examine the impact of this parameterization on global ocean carbon cycling under two CO2 emissions scenarios, both integrated to the year 3500. The simulations show a significant sensitivity of the vertical and surface horizontal alkalinity gradients to the parameterization, as well as the removal of alkalinity from the ocean through CaCO3 burial. These sensitivities result in an additional oceanic uptake of carbon when calcification depends on ?CaCO3 (of up to 13 % of total carbon emissions, compared to the case where calcification is insensitive to acidification. In turn, this response causes a reduction of global surface air temperature of up to 0.4 °C in year 3500, a 13 % reduction in the amplitude of warming. Narrowing these uncertainties will require better understanding of both temperature and acidification effects on pelagic calcifiers. Preliminary examination suggests that alkalinity observations can be used to constrain the range of uncertainties and may exclude large sensitivities of CaCO3 production on ?CaCO3.

A. J. Pinsonneault

2011-12-01

13

LETSNet Global Warming Unit  

Science.gov (United States)

This unit includes classroom activities to help students understand global warming and its possible effects on human beings. Lessons in the unit provide students with opportunities to study global climate changes, discuss and debate the current arguments for and against global warming and the Greenhouse Effect, investigate the possibility of global warming and the Greenhouse Effect, and present their findings in the form of research reports.

2011-04-26

14

Calcium carbonate production response to future ocean warming and acidification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions are acidifying the ocean, affecting calcification rates in pelagic organisms, and thereby modifying the oceanic carbon and alkalinity cycles. However, the responses of pelagic calcifying organisms to acidification vary widely between species, contributing uncertainty to predictions of atmospheric CO2 and the resulting climate change. At the same time, ocean warming caused by rising CO2 is expected to drive increased growth rates of all pelagic organisms, including calcifiers. It thus remains unclear whether anthropogenic CO2 emissions will ultimately increase or decrease pelagic calcification rates. Here, we assess the importance of this uncertainty by introducing a dependence of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 production on calcite saturation state (?CaCO3 in an intermediate complexity coupled carbon-climate model. In a series of model simulations, we examine the impact of several variants of this dependence on global ocean carbon cycling between 1800 and 3500 under two different CO2 emissions scenarios. Introducing a calcification-saturation state dependence has a significant effect on the vertical and surface horizontal alkalinity gradients, as well as on the removal of alkalinity from the ocean through CaCO3 burial. These changes result in an additional oceanic uptake of carbon when calcification depends on ?CaCO3 (of up to 270 Pg C, compared to the case where calcification does not depend on acidification. In turn, this response causes a reduction of global surface air temperature of up to 0.4 °C in year 3500. Different versions of the model produced varying results, and narrowing this range of uncertainty will require better understanding of both temperature and acidification effects on pelagic calcifiers. Nevertheless, our results suggest that alkalinity observations can be used to constrain model results, and may not be consistent with the model versions that simulated stronger responses of CaCO3 production to changing saturation state.

A. J. Pinsonneault

2012-06-01

15

Warming influences mg(2+) content, while warming and acidification influence calcification and test strength of a sea urchin.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the long-term effects of near-future changes in temperature and acidification on skeletal mineralogy, thickness, and strength in the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla reared in all combinations of three pH (pH 8.1, 7.8, 7.6) and three temperatures (22 °C, 25 °C, 28 °C) from the early juvenile to adult, over 146 days. As the high-magnesium calcite of the echinoderm skeleton is a biomineral form highly sensitive to acidification, and influenced by temperature, we documented the MgCO3 content of the spines, test plates, and teeth. The percentage of MgCO3 varied systematically, with more Mg(2+) in the test and spines. The percentage of MgCO3 in the test and teeth, but not the spines increased with temperature. Acidification did not change the percentage MgCO3. Test thickness increased with warming and decreased at pH 7.6, with no interaction between these factors. In crushing tests live urchins mostly ruptured at sutures between the plates. The force required to crush a live urchin was reduced in animals reared in low pH conditions but increased in those reared in warm conditions, a result driven by differences in urchin size. It appears that the interactive effects of warming and acidification on the Mg(2+) content and protective function of the sea urchin skeleton will play out in a complex way as global climatic change unfolds. PMID:25252045

Byrne, Maria; Smith, Abigail M; West, Samantha; Collard, Marie; Dubois, Philippe; Graba-Landry, Alexia; Dworjanyn, Symon A

2014-11-01

16

Rolling stones. Fast weathering of olivine in shallow seas for cost-effective CO2 capture and mitigation of global warming and ocean acidification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Human CO2 emissions may drive the Earth into a next greenhouse state. They can be mitigated by accelerating weathering of natural rock under the uptake of CO2. We disprove the paradigm that olivine weathering in nature would be a slow process, and show that it is not needed to mill olivine to very fine, 10 {mu}m-size grains in order to arrive at a complete dissolution within 1-2 year. In high-energy shallow marine environments olivine grains and reaction products on the grain surfaces, that otherwise would greatly retard the reaction, are abraded so that the chemical reaction is much accelerated. When kept in motion even large olivine grains rubbing and bumping against each other quickly produce fine clay- and silt-sized olivine particles that show a fast chemical reaction. Spreading of olivine in the world's 2% most energetic shelf seas can compensate a year's global CO2 emissions and counteract ocean acidification against a price well below that of carbon credits.

Schuiling, R.D.; De Boer, P.L. [Department of Earth Sciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.021, 3508TA Utrecht (Netherlands)

2011-07-01

17

A comparison of the global warming potential and the acidification potential of emissions of different fuels for grain drying; Comparacao de emissoes de gases de efeito estufa e gases acidificantes no uso de diferentes fontes energeticas para secagem de graos  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Today's large scale of grains yield in Brazil (near 115 millions of metric tones) raises concerns of the consequent large demand for thermal energy for grain drying in the post-harvest phase. For instance, to dry the crops of corn and soybeans in standardized conditions takes as much as 30,000 TJ. Mostly (90%) of the energy supply are met by wood burning of native wood and by silviculture projects. There are, consequently, environmental impacts worth accounting for. Previous studies have shown that the atmospheric emissions are the most important due to large volumes of flue gas at the dryers (e.g., Marques, 2006). Thus, we focused the problem of emissions of greenhouse gases and gases associated with acidification of the environment. The different energy solutions for energy conversion and fuel were compared regarding its global warming potential and acidification potential along the entire energy supply chain up to burning of the fuels in the furnaces of the dryers. Wood (eucalyptus), biodiesel B100, natural gas, LPG and diesel oil were the fuels considered and their respective burning technologies. The method chosen to study the environmental implications of the each one of the fuel was based on Life Cycle Assessment, widely known as LCA. Results were presented in tables and charts. They show lower GWP of the renewable fuels (when carbon sequestration and diesel for transportation were included) than the fossil fuels. On the other hand natural gas presented the lowest acidification potential (AP). These results support the necessity for balanced choosing of energy solutions for the generation of thermal energy in the post-harvest phase of corn and soybeans. (author)

Marques, Breno de Almeida [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Politecnico. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Recursos Hidricos e Ambiental (PPGERHA)], e-mail: engbrenomarques@yahoo.com.br; Errera, Marcelo Risso [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Politecnico. Dept. de Transporte], e-mail: errera@ufpr.br

2006-07-01

18

What is Global Warming?  

Science.gov (United States)

This textbook chapter presents evidence of a warming climate and outlines how a clear picture of global warming has emerged since the 1980s. Students learn about sampling error sources in climate data, and compare graphical data collected by climate scientists Jim Hansen, Philip Jones and Tom Wigley, as they follow the global warming hypothesis move through the process of science. This is the fourth chapter in the unit, Climate Change, which addresses the question of how human activities are changing Earth's climate. The resource includes three classroom investigations, links to current news articles, and a suite of pre- and post-unit assessments. A teacher's guide supports classroom use. This is chapter 4 of Climate Change, part of Global Systems Science (GSS), an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

19

Long range global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper explores one of the causes of global warming that is often overlooked, the direct heating of the environment by engineering systems. Most research and studies of global warming concentrate on the modification that is occurring to atmospheric air as a result of pollution gases being added by various systems; i.e., refrigerants, nitrogen oxides, ozone, hydrocarbons, halon, and others. This modification affects the thermal radiation balance between earth, sun and space, resulting in a decrease of radiation outflow and a slow rise in the earth's steady state temperature. For this reason the solution to the problem is perceived as one of cleaning up the processes and effluents that are discharged into the environment. In this paper arguments are presented that suggest, that there is a far more serious cause for global warming that will manifest itself in the next two or three centuries; direct heating from the exponential growth of energy usage by humankind. Because this is a minor contributor to the global warming problem at present, it is overlooked or ignored. Energy use from the combustion of fuels and from the output of nuclear reactions eventually is manifest as warming of the surroundings. Thus, as energy is used at an ever increasing rate the consequent global warming also increases at an ever increasing rate. Eventually this rate will become equal to a few percent of solar radiation. When this happens the earth's temperature will have risen by several degrees with catastrophic results. The trends in world energy use are reviewed and some mathematical models are presented to suggest future scenarios. These models can be used to predict when the global warming problem will become undeniably apparent, when it will become critical, and when it will become catastrophic

20

GLOBAL WARMING AND PATTERN OF MAIN ECONOMY IN SUNDARBAN  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article, the phrase “global warming” refers tothe change in the Earth's global average surfacetemperature. Measurements show a global temperatureincrease of 1.4 °F (0.78 °C) between the years 1900 and2005. Global warming is closely associated with a broadspectrum of other climate changes, such as increases inthe frequency of intense rainfall, decreases in snow coverand sea ice, more frequent and intense heat waves, risingsea levels, and widespread ocean acidification. TheIntergo...

Biplab Das

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Global Warming: Undo It  

Science.gov (United States)

Global Warming: Undo It is a national campaign developed by Environmental Defense "to ramp up the fight against global warming, the most critical environmental issue we face." The Web site contains a multimedia tutorial of sorts, where users can learn more about global warming and lifestyle changes they can make cut down on their carbon dioxide production. The site also includes a multimedia gallery, with video clips of the campaign's television commercials, an interview with Environmental Defense president Fred Drupp and another with Senator John McCain, and more. Users may also choose to sign an e-petition to help get the McCain-Lieberman bipartisan Climate Stewardship Act passed in Congress.

22

Global Warming Art  

Science.gov (United States)

Global Warming Art is an effort to collect and produce compelling graphs, figures and photos that accurately display scientific information relevant to the climate change debate. Emphasis is given to the consensus views held by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and other major research organizations. One of the guiding principles of Global Warming Art is that this information should be freely available to others for use in their discussions, presentations, and teaching, and hence nearly all of the information on the site is licensed in a way that allows for generous third party use.

Rohde, Robert

2006-01-01

23

Refrigeration and global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some aspects of global warming in general, and the implications for refrigerants and refrigerator efficiency in particular, are briefly considered in a question and answer format. The concepts of Global Warming Potential (GWP) and Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) are explained. GWP is an index which allows a simple comparison to be make between the warming effects of different gases on a kg to kg basis relative to carbon. The GWP depends both on the lifetime of a substance in the atmosphere and its infra-red absorption capacity. The overall warming effect of operating a refrigeration system for its entire life is measured by its TEWI. Chloroflourocarbons (CFCs) which have been widely used as refrigerants are powerful greenhouse gases with high GWPs. Because of the bank of CFCs in refrigerating systems, their levels in the atmosphere are still increasing and it will be some time before refrigerant changes will be effective in reducing the warming effects of refrigerant releases. Hydrocarbons, hydroflourocarbons and ammonia all have a part to play as substitute refrigerants. Refrigerator efficiency is very important in terms of reducing CO2 emissions. (UK)

24

Global Warming and Our Future  

Science.gov (United States)

What is the Evidence for Global Warming? What is causing it? Should we care? Could it affect our future? What can we do about it? What is Global Warming? Watch the movie on Global Warming EPA Kid pages on global warming Includes FLASH animations from the US Environmental Protection Agency. Its on the Kids Site under \\"Climate Animations\\" Take the Quiz on Global Warming at the end of the movie What is the Evidence for Global Warming? Introduction to Graphing: Watch this Graph of projected Cllimate change flash ...

Bahr, M.

2006-11-04

25

Global warming on trial  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Jim Hansen, a climatologist at NASA's Goddard Space Institute, is convinced that the earth's temperature is rising and places the blame on the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Unconvinced, John Sununu, former White House chief of staff, doubts that the warming will be great enough to produce serious threat and fears that measures to reduce the emissions would throw a wrench into the gears that drive the Unites States' troubled economy. During his three years at the White House, Sununu's view prevailed, and although his role in the debate has diminished, others continue to cast doubt on the reality of global warming. A new lobbying group called the Climate Council has been created to do just this. Burning fossil fuels is not the only problem; a fifth of emissions of carbon dioxide now come from clearing and burning forests. Scientists are also tracking a host of other greenhouse gases that emanate from a variety of human activities; the warming effect of methane, chlorofluorocarbons and nitrous oxide combined equals that of carbon dioxide. Although the current warming from these gases may be difficult to detect against the background noise of natural climate variation, most climatologists are certain that as the gases continue to accumulate, increases in the earth's temperature will become evident even to skeptics. If the reality of global warming were put on trial, each side would have trouble making its case. Jim Hansen's side could not prove beyond a rm Hansen's side could not prove beyond a reasonable doubt that carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases have warmed the planet. But neither could John Sununu's side prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the warming expected from greenhouse gases has not occurred. To see why each side would have difficulty proving its case, this article reviews the arguments that might be presented in such a hearing

26

Climate change - global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An explanation about climate, weather, climate changes. What is a greenhouse effect, i.e. global warming and reasons which contribute to this effect. Greenhouse gases (GHG) and GWP (Global Warming Potential) as a factor for estimating their influence on the greenhouse effect. Indicators of the climate changes in the previous period by known international institutions, higher concentrations of global average temperature. Projecting of likely scenarios for the future climate changes and consequences of them on the environment and human activities: industry, energy, agriculture, water resources. The main points of the Kyoto Protocol and problems in its realization. The need of preparing a country strategy concerning the acts of the Kyoto Protocol, suggestions which could contribute in the preparation of the strategy. A special attention is pointed to the energy, its resources, the structure of energy consumption and the energy efficiency. (Author)

27

Is Global Warming Accelerating?  

Science.gov (United States)

A global pattern that fluctuates naturally on decadal time scales is identified in climate simulations and observations. This newly discovered component, called the Global Multidecadal Oscillation (GMO), is related to the Atlantic Meridional Oscillation and shown to account for a substantial fraction of decadal fluctuations in the observed global average sea surface temperature. IPCC-class climate models generally underestimate the variance of the GMO, and hence underestimate the decadal fluctuations due to this component of natural variability. Decomposing observed sea surface temperature into a component due to anthropogenic and natural radiative forcing plus the GMO, reveals that most multidecadal fluctuations in the observed global average sea surface temperature can be accounted for by these two components alone. The fact that the GMO varies naturally on multidecadal time scales implies that it can be predicted with some skill on decadal time scales, which provides a scientific rationale for decadal predictions. Furthermore, the GMO is shown to account for about half of the warming in the last 25 years and hence a substantial fraction of the recent acceleration in the rate of increase in global average sea surface temperature. Nevertheless, in terms of the global average “well-observed” sea surface temperature, the GMO can account for only about 0.1° C in transient, decadal-scale fluctuations, not the century-long 1° C warming that has been observed during the twentieth century.

Shukla, J.; Delsole, T. M.; Tippett, M. K.

2009-12-01

28

Thinking About Global Warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Attitudes toward global warming are influenced by various heuristics, which may distort policy away from what is optimal for the well-being of people. These possible distortions, or biases, include: a focus on harms that we cause, as opposed to those that we can remedy more easily; a feeling that those who cause a problem should fix it; a desire to undo a problem rather than compensate for its presence; parochial concern with one's own group (nation); and neglect of risks that are not available. Although most of these biases tend to make us attend relatively too much to global warming, other biases, such as wishful thinking, cause us to attend too little. I discuss these possible effects and illustrate some of them with an experiment conducted on the World Wide Web

29

Slowing global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to the authors, global warming promises to be one of the central environmental issues of the nineties. After a decade of scientific concern but popular neglect, the eighties ended with a growing political as well as scientific consensus that the world can no longer afford to procrastinate about this issue. This paper reports on coping with global warming which, according to the author, will force societies to move rapidly into uncharted terrain, reversing powerful trends that have dominated the industrial age. This challenge cannot be met without a strong commitment on the part of both individual consumers and governments. In terms of the earth's carbon balance, the unprecedented policy changes that have now become urgent include a new commitment to greater energy efficiency and renewable energy sources, a carbon tax on fossil fuels, a reversal of deforestation in tropical countries, and the rapid elimination of CFCs

30

Global Warming Kid's Site  

Science.gov (United States)

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set up this site to teach kids about global warming, climate change, and climatology, as well as environmentally friendly habits that benefit the earth. The site allows students and educators to approach ecological issues from various perspectives. Global Warming (What it is) is an introduction to current climatological change. Other resources such as Climate and Weather and What is the Climate System? provide overviews of such climatological phenomena as the water cycle, greenhouse gasses, and climatological change over the world's history. Finally, socially and environmentally conscious resources such as So What's the BIG DEAL? and We CAN Make a Difference discuss how changes in our daily lives can affect our impact on the earth's climate. The site also has games, animations modeling climatological activity, and recommendations for educators interested in using the site.

31

Virtual Courseware: Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

This interactive feature uses two activities to illustrate principles of global warming and climate change due to natural and human caused factors. Students investigate the energy budget model of climate change using Mono Lake, California, as an example, by estimating the temperature for a particular time period using surface energy data for the area. The second activity incorporates data from the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) on fossil fuel emissions, population, gross domestic product, energy type, land use type, and other gas emissions. Students analyze and compare the data using a set of online tools to examine impacts of coastal flooding. Other materials include a set of tutorials on global warming (Milankovitch cycles, Earth's seasons, the carbon cycle, and others), assessment materials for instructors, and information on resource creators and technical requirements.

32

Global Warming Wheel Card  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, students construct a Global Warming Wheel Card, a hand-held tool that they can use to estimate their household's emissions of carbon dioxide and learn how they can reduce them. One side of the wheel illustrates how much carbon dioxide a household contributes to the atmosphere per year through activities such as driving a car, using energy in the home, and disposing of waste. The other side shows how changes in behavior can reduce personal emissions.

US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

33

Global Warming And Meltwater  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to find new approaches and new ideas for my students to appreciate the importance of science in their daily life, I proposed a theme for them to debate. They had to search for global warming information and illustrations in the media, and discuss the articles they found in the classroom. This task inspired them to search for new information about this important and timely theme in science. I informed my students that all the best information about global warming and meltwater they found would be used in a poster that would help us to update the knowledge base of the Physics laboratory. I guided them to choose the most eloquent images and significant information. Searching and working to create this poster, the students arrived to better appreciate the importance of science in their daily life and to critically evaluate scientific information transmitted via the media. In the poster we created, one can find images, photos and diagrams and some interesting information: Global warming refers to the rising average temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans and its projected evolution. In the last 100 years, the Earth's average surface temperature increased by about 0.8 °C with about two thirds of the increase occurring over just the last three decades. Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and scientists are more than 90% certain most of it is caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases produced by human activities such as deforestation and burning fossil fuel. They indicate that during the 21st century the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 1.1 to 2.9 °C for the lowest emissions scenario and 2.4 to 6.4 °C for the highest predictions. An increase in global temperature will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount and pattern of precipitation, and potentially result in expansion of subtropical deserts. Warming is expected to be strongest in the Arctic and would be associated with continuing decrease of glaciers, permafrost and sea ice. Other likely effects of the warming include more frequent occurrences of extreme weather events including heat waves, droughts and heavy rainfall events, species extinctions due to shifting temperature regimes, and changes in agricultural yields. Meltwater is the water released by the melting of snow or ice, including glacial ice and ice shelves in the oceans. Meltwater is often found in the ablation zone of glaciers, where the rate of snow cover is reduced. In a report published in June 2007, the United Nations Environment Program estimated that global warming could lead to 40% of the world's population being affected by the loss of glaciers, snow and the associated meltwater in Asia. This is one of many activities of the physics laboratory that the students of our high school are involved in.

Bratu, S.

2012-04-01

34

Global warming forecasts unreliability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports the opinions of a series of experts who have recently commented on the reliability of predictions of global warning in relation to observed and forecasted increases in carbon dioxide emissions. One of the more difficult to explain observations, evidenced through the analysis of past meteorological data, was the rapid increase in global temperature that took place during the period preceding 1940 and which was followed by a gradual decrease, during a thirty year period of heightened industrialization and consumption of fossil fuels, up to 1970 when global temperatures began again to rise rapidly. Variations in solar activity was suggested to explain this apparently anomalous trend in global temperatures. This question as to the existence of a strict correlation between global warming and rises in carbon dioxide emissions, as well as, forecasted increases in concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide due to the expected population growth in China are putting a strain on attempts by OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) environmental policy makers to gain support for energy tax proposals

35

Global warming potential  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the following greenhouse gases: CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, CFC-114, CFC-115, HCFC-22 and CCl{sub 4}, the Global Warming Potentials have been calculated for two time horizons, 100 and 500 years. For each trace gas, future global temperature increases, based on GWPs, can be estimated directly. In this way, these GWPs can be used to define quantified environmental targets which can serve as reference values for the development of international climate policies. In determining the GWP, both analytical and computer simulation methods can be applied. Both methods have been compared, and although there appeared to be differences, both methods can be used in calculating GWP values.

Rotmans, J.; Elzen, M.G.J. den (RIVM, Mondiale Biosfeer, Bilthoven (NL)); Lashof, D.A. (Natural Resources Defense Council, Washington, DC (US))

1990-10-01

36

Global Warming: the Sacrificial Temptation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The claimed unanimity of the scientific community about the human culpability for global warming is questioned. Up today there exists no scientific proof of human culpability. It is not the number of authors of a paper, which validates its scientific content. The use of probability to assert the degree of certainty with respect the global warming problem is shown to be misleading. The debate about global warming has taken on emotional tones driven by passion and irrationalit...

Galam, Serge

2008-01-01

37

Forests and global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The importance of forests to Canada, both in economic and environmental terms, is indisputable. A warmer global climate may well have profound effects on the Canadian boreal forest, and at least some of the effects will not be beneficial. With the state of the current knowledge of climate processes and climate change it is not possible to predict the extent or rate of projected changes of anthropogenic origin. Given these uncertainties, the appropriate course of action for the Canadian forest sector is to develop policies and strategies which will make good sense under the current climatic regime, and which will also be appropriate for actions in a warmer climate scenario. The business as usual approach is not acceptable in the context of pollution control as it has become clear that anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants must be substantially reduced, both to prevent (or at least slow the rate of) possible global warming, and to reduce impacts on the biophysical environment and human health. Effective mitigative actions must be introduced on both a national and global scale. Forest management policies more effectively geared to the sustainability of forests are needed. The programs that are developed out of such policies must be cognizant of the real possibility that climate in the present boreal forest regions may change in the near future. 13 refs

38

Global Warming on Triton  

Science.gov (United States)

Triton, Neptune's largest moon, has been predicted to undergo significant seasonal changes that would reveal themselves as changes in its mean frost temperature. But whether this temperature should at the present time be increasing, decreasing or constant depends on a number of parameters (such as the thermal properties of the surface, and frost migration patterns) that are unknown. Here we report observations of a recent stellar occultation by Triton which, when combined with earlier results, show that Triton has undergone a period of global warming since 1989. Our most conservative estimates of the rate of temperature and surface-pressure increase during this period imply that the atmosphere is doubling in bulk every 10 years, significantly faster than predicted by any published frost model for Triton. Our result suggests that permanent polar caps on Triton play a c dominant role in regulating seasonal atmospheric changes. Similar processes should also be active on Pluto.

Elliot, J. L.; Hammel, H. B.; Wasserman, L. H.; Franz, O. G.; McDonald, S. W.; Person, M. J.; Olkin, C. B.; Dunham, E. J.; Spencer, J. R.; Stansberry, J. A.; Buie, M. W.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; McConnochie, T. H.

1998-01-01

39

Predicting interactions among fishing, ocean warming, and ocean acidification in a marine system with whole-ecosystem models.  

Science.gov (United States)

An important challenge for conservation is a quantitative understanding of how multiple human stressors will interact to mitigate or exacerbate global environmental change at a community or ecosystem level. We explored the interaction effects of fishing, ocean warming, and ocean acidification over time on 60 functional groups of species in the southeastern Australian marine ecosystem. We tracked changes in relative biomass within a coupled dynamic whole-ecosystem modeling framework that included the biophysical system, human effects, socioeconomics, and management evaluation. We estimated the individual, additive, and interactive effects on the ecosystem and for five community groups (top predators, fishes, benthic invertebrates, plankton, and primary producers). We calculated the size and direction of interaction effects with an additive null model and interpreted results as synergistic (amplified stress), additive (no additional stress), or antagonistic (reduced stress). Individually, only ocean acidification had a negative effect on total biomass. Fishing and ocean warming and ocean warming with ocean acidification had an additive effect on biomass. Adding fishing to ocean warming and ocean acidification significantly changed the direction and magnitude of the interaction effect to a synergistic response on biomass. The interaction effect depended on the response level examined (ecosystem vs. community). For communities, the size, direction, and type of interaction effect varied depending on the combination of stressors. Top predator and fish biomass had a synergistic response to the interaction of all three stressors, whereas biomass of benthic invertebrates responded antagonistically. With our approach, we were able to identify the regional effects of fishing on the size and direction of the interacting effects of ocean warming and ocean acidification. PMID:23009091

Griffith, Gary P; Fulton, Elizabeth A; Gorton, Rebecca; Richardson, Anthony J

2012-12-01

40

Global Warming: Frequently Asked Questions  

Science.gov (United States)

This global warming site contains questions commonly addressed to climate scientists and brief replies (based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports and other research). The questions concern the greenhouse effect and its impact on our climate, whether greenhouse gases are increasing and the climate warming, the relation of El Nino to global warming, change in the hydrological cycle (evaporation and precipitation) and atmospheric/oceanic circulation, climate becoming more variable and extreme, the importance of these changes in a longer-term context, the rise of sea levels, whether the observed changes can be explained by natural variability, and the future of global warming.

Easterling, David; Karl, Tom

 
 
 
 
41

Global warming: understanding the forecast  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast is a comprehensive introduction to all aspects of global warming. Written in an accessible way, this important book examines the processes of climate change and climate stability, from the distant past to the distant future. Assumes no specialist scientific knowledge. Gives a detailed examination of the greenhouse effect, the carbon cycle and discussion of what the future holds for the global climate. A companion web site provides on-line interactive computer models of the physics and chemistry behind the global warming forecast, which can be used to support suggested student projects included at the end of each chapter. (author)

Archer, D.

2003-07-01

42

Acidification and warming affect both a calcifying predator and prey, but not their interaction : Feature article  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Both ocean warming and acidification have been demonstrated to affect the growth, performance and reproductive success of calcifying invertebrates. However, relatively little is known regarding how such environmental change may affect interspecific interactions. We separately treated green crabs Carcinus maenas and periwinkles Littorina littorea under conditions that mimicked either ambient conditions (control) or warming and acidification, both separately and in combination, for 5 mo. After 5 mo, the predators, prey and predator-prey interactions were screened for changes in response to environmental change. Acidification negatively affected the closer-muscle length of the crusher chela and correspondingly the claw-strength increment in C. maenas. The effects of warming and/or acidification on L. littorea were less consistent but indicated weaker shells in response to acidification. On the community level, however, we found no evidence that predator-prey interactions will change in the future. Further experiments exploring the impacts of warming and acidification on key ecological interactions are needed instead of basing predictions of ecosystem change solely on species-specific responses to environmental change.

Landes, Anja

2012-01-01

43

Global Warming Trends.  

Science.gov (United States)

Results from the analysis of land and marine records from the past century are presented. It is indicated that the planet earth has warmed about one-half of a degree celsius. The uncertainty of these measurements and future warming trends are discussed. (CW)

Jones, Philip D.; Wigley, Tom M. L.

1990-01-01

44

Global Warming: Early Warning Signs  

Science.gov (United States)

This science-based world map depicts the local and regional consequences of global climate change. It identifies direct manifestations of a warming trend (fingerprints), and events that are consistent with the projections for global climate change and are likely to become more frequent and widespread with continued warming (harbingers). These signs are linked to a full description of conditions in that part of the world which indicate warming. A curriculum guide engages students in an exploration of the impacts of global climate change.

45

Studies of global warming and global energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Global warming caused by increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration has been the focus of many recent global energy studies. CO2 is emitted to the atmosphere mainly from the combustion of fossil fuels. This means that global warming is fundamentally a problem of the global energy system. An analysis of the findings of recent global energy studies is made in this report. The results are categorized from the viewpoint of concern about global warming. The analysis includes energy use and CO2 emissions, measures taken to restrain CO2 emissions and the cost of such measure, and suggestions for long term global energy generation. Following this comparative analysis, each of the studies is reviewed in detail. (author) 63 refs

46

Global Warming Kids.net  

Science.gov (United States)

Global Warming Kids .Net is a project of ClimateChangeEducation.Org: science museum docents; students, staff and scientists at the University of California. Plus elementary, middle and high school student volunteers & interns.

47

Ocean Acidification’s Potential to Alter Global Marine Ecosystem Services  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ocean acidification lowers the oceanic saturation states of carbonate minerals and decreases the calcification rates of some marine organisms that provide a range of ecosystem services such as wild fishery and aquaculture harvests, coastal protection, tourism, cultural identity, and ecosystem support. Damage to marine ecosystem services by ocean acidification is likely to disproportionately affect developing nations and coastal regions, which often rely more heavily on a variety of marine-related economic and cultural activities. Losses of calcifying organisms or changes in marine food webs could significantly alter global marine harvests that provided 110 million metric tons of food for humans valued at US$160 billion in 2006. Some of the countries most dependent on seafood for dietary protein include developing island nations with few agricultural alternatives. Aquaculture, especially of mollusks, may meet some of the future protein demand of economically developing, growing populations, but ocean acidification may complicate aquaculture of some species. By 2050, both population increases and changes in carbonate mineral saturation state will be greatest in low-latitude regions, multiplying the stresses on tropical marine ecosystems and societies. Identifying cost-effective, adaptive strategies to mitigate the costs associated with ocean acidification requires development of transferrable management strategies that can be tailored to meet the specific needs of regional human and marine communities.

Sarah R. Cooley

2009-12-01

48

The politics of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The probable warming of the world over the next few decades due to human activity presents a unique threat. The threat of global warming has been brought about by the activities of the entire human race, and only action by a large part of the human race can slow down the process or halt it. Other unwanted effects of industrial activity are trans-national, and require international agreements to regulate them, most obviously radioactivity from nuclear power accidents, acid rain and river pollution; but climatic change, unlike these, is global. International negotiations are going on now to deal with the problem of global warming, mostly by reducing the emission of gases that contribute to it. These are preliminary, yet already different perceptions and conflicting interests are emerging. The aim of the present negotiations is a convention for the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) to be held in June 1992, the so-called ''Earth Summit''. (author)

49

Ocean warming and acidification have complex interactive effects on the dynamics of a marine fungal disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Diseases threaten the structure and function of marine ecosystems and are contributing to the global decline of coral reefs. We currently lack an understanding of how climate change stressors, such as ocean acidification (OA) and warming, may simultaneously affect coral reef disease dynamics, particularly diseases threatening key reef-building organisms, for example crustose coralline algae (CCA). Here, we use coralline fungal disease (CFD), a previously described CCA disease from the Pacific, to examine these simultaneous effects using both field observations and experimental manipulations. We identify the associated fungus as belonging to the subphylum Ustilaginomycetes and show linear lesion expansion rates on individual hosts can reach 6.5 mm per day. Further, we demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that ocean-warming events could increase the frequency of CFD outbreaks on coral reefs, but that OA-induced lowering of pH may ameliorate outbreaks by slowing lesion expansion rates on individual hosts. Lowered pH may still reduce overall host survivorship, however, by reducing calcification and facilitating fungal bio-erosion. Such complex, interactive effects between simultaneous extrinsic environmental stressors on disease dynamics are important to consider if we are to accurately predict the response of coral reef communities to future climate change.

Williams, Gareth J.; Price, Nichole N.; Ushijima, Blake; Aeby, Greta S.; Callahan, Sean; Davy, Simon K.; Gove, Jamison M.; Johnson, Maggie D.; Knapp, Ingrid S.; Shore-Maggio, Amanda; Smith, Jennifer E.; Videau, Patrick; Work, Thierry M.

2014-01-01

50

Ocean warming, more than acidification, reduces shell strength in a commercial shellfish species during food limitation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ocean surface pH levels are predicted to fall by 0.3-0.4 pH units by the end of the century and are likely to coincide with an increase in sea surface temperature of 2-4 °C. The combined effect of ocean acidification and warming on the functional properties of bivalve shells is largely unknown and of growing concern as the shell provides protection from mechanical and environmental challenges. We examined the effects of near-future pH (ambient pH -0.4 pH units) and warming (ambient temperature +4 °C) on the shells of the commercially important bivalve, Mytilus edulis when fed for a limited period (4-6 h day(-1)). After six months exposure, warming, but not acidification, significantly reduced shell strength determined as reductions in the maximum load endured by the shells. However, acidification resulted in a reduction in shell flex before failure. Reductions in shell strength with warming could not be explained by alterations in morphology, or shell composition but were accompanied by reductions in shell surface area, and by a fall in whole-body condition index. It appears that warming has an indirect effect on shell strength by re-allocating energy from shell formation to support temperature-related increases in maintenance costs, especially as food supply was limited and the mussels were probably relying on internal energy reserves. The maintenance of shell strength despite seawater acidification suggests that biomineralisation processes are unaffected by the associated changes in CaCO3 saturation levels. We conclude that under near-future climate change conditions, ocean warming will pose a greater risk to shell integrity in M. edulis than ocean acidification when food availability is limited. PMID:24489785

Mackenzie, Clara L; Ormondroyd, Graham A; Curling, Simon F; Ball, Richard J; Whiteley, Nia M; Malham, Shelagh K

2014-01-01

51

Enviropedia: Introduction to Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

This resource provides an overview of the concept of global warming, which is thought to be due to man-made emissions of greenhouse gases, which are largely a result of the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation. It explores the possibility that the impacts of global warming may include desertification and the destruction of other ecosystems, extreme weather conditions, and a danger to agriculture. Information on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, (IPCC), the Kyoto Protocol, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, (FCCC), and the United Kingdom Programme on Climate Change is also provided.

52

Efficiency, sustainability and global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Economic analyses of global warming have typically been grounded in the theory of economic efficiency. Such analyses may be inappropriate because many of the underlying concerns about climate change are rooted not in efficiency, but in the intergenerational allocation of economic endowments. A simple economic model is developed which demonstrates that an efficient economy is not necessarily a sustainable economy. This result leads directly to questions about the policy relevance of several economic studies of the issue. We then consider policy alternatives to address global warming in the context of economies with the dual objectives of efficiency and sustainability, with particular attention to carbon-based taxes

53

Global Warming: Early Warning Signs  

Science.gov (United States)

Created by a host of organizations (Environmental Defense Fund, Natural Resources Defense Council, Sierra Club, Union of Concerned Scientists, US Public Interest Research Group, World Resources Institute, and World Wildlife Fund), this site seeks to provide evidence of the "fingerprints" and "harbingers" of global warming. A clickable map of the world enables users to take a closer look at geographic regions, at specific examples of "fingerprints" (e.g., heat waves, sea level rise, melting glaciers, and Arctic and Antarctic warming) and "harbingers" (spreading disease, earlier arrival of spring, range shifts and population declines in plants and animals, bleaching of coral reefs, extreme weather events, and fires). While it is unclear that any specific event may be explained by global warming, the combination of events highlighted at this page provides powerful fodder for further thought.

1999-01-01

54

Global warming and climate change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A panel discussion was held to discuss climate change. Six panelists made presentations that summarized ozone depletion and climate change, discussed global responses, argued against the conventional scientific and policy dogmas concerning climate change, examined the effects of ultraviolet radiation on phytoplankton, examined the effects of carbon taxes on Canadian industry and its emissions, and examined the political and strategic aspects of global warming. A question session followed the presentations. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the six presentations

55

Global warming on Capitol Hill  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article reports on hearings in both congressional houses on ozone depletion and global warming. Topics covered include the drought in California, effect on electric rates, administration policy relating to international efforts to cut greenhouse gas, freons phaseout, methane emission phaseout, and energy efficiency provisions for buildings and vehicles

56

World View of Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

This page contains information and photographs related to climate change and its impact. The World View of Global Warming project is documenting this change through science photography from the Arctic to Antarctica, from glaciers to the oceans, across all climate zones.

57

Sustainability Management Based Approach to Global Warming:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The global warming is a kind of sustainability risk. For this reason, Global Warming should be considering in Sustainability Management concept. The global warming risk must be managed effectively since its consequences threats for sustainability of our world. While this is understandable by all of us, a broader view is necessary to manage this risk in both the short and long-term. Risk management mentality is useful to the best managing of global risks. In this study, the global warming is d...

AYSE KUCUK YILMAZ; Karakoc, Hikmet

2008-01-01

58

Greenhouse gases and global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From previous articles we have learned about the complexities of our environment, its atmosphere and its climate system. we have also learned that climate change and, therefore global warm and cool periods are naturally occurring phenomena. Moreover, all scientific evidence suggests that global warming, are likely to occur again naturally in the future. However, we have not yet considered the role of the rates of climate change in affecting the biosphere. It appears that how quickly the climate changes may be more important than the change itself. In light of this concern, let us now consider the possibility that, is due to human activity. We may over the next century experience global warming at rates and magnitudes unparalleled in recent geologic history. The following questions are answered; What can we learn from past climates? What do we know about global climates over the past 100 years? What causes temperature change? What are the greenhouse gases? How much have concentration of greenhouse gases increased in recent years? Why are increases in concentrations of greenhouse of concern? What is the enhanced greenhouse effect? How can human activity impact the global climate? What are some reasons for increased concentrations of greenhouse gases? What are fossil fuel and how do they transform into greenhouse gases? Who are the biggest emitters of greenhouse gases? Why are canada per capita emissions of greenhouse gases relatively high? (Author)

59

Power engineering and global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Problem of power industry development in the Russian Federation in connection with global warming is considered. Warming effect on spheres of both power generation and energy consumption in separate regions is discussed. It is shown that all power generating plants are sensitive to change climate factors. This fact showed be taken into account when evaluating prospects of power industry development. Regions with low demand for electric power and heat can widely use minor and industrial power generation and thus decrease by 25-40% the load on power grid of the Russian Federation

60

Impact and prevention on global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book deals with impact and prevention on global warming with eight chapters, which introduce the change after the earth was born and natural environment, how is global atmospheric environment under the control of radiant energy? What does global warming look with the earth history like? What's the status of global warming so far? How does climate change happen? What is the impact by global warming and climate change and for preservation of global environment of 21 century with consumption of energy, measure and prospect on global warming. It has reference, index and three appendixes.

 
 
 
 
61

Cosmic Rays and Global Warming  

CERN Document Server

It has been claimed by others that observed temporal correlations of terrestrial cloud cover with `the cosmic ray intensity' are causal. The possibility arises, therefore, of a connection between cosmic rays and Global Warming. If true, the implications would be very great. We have examined this claim to look for evidence to corroborate it. So far we have not found any and so our tentative conclusions are to doubt it. Such correlations as appear are more likely to be due to the small variations in solar irradiance, which, of course, correlate with cosmic rays. We estimate that less than 15% of the 11-year cycle warming variations are due to cosmic rays and less than 2% of the warming over the last 35 years is due to this cause.

Sloan, T

2007-01-01

62

Cosmic Rays and Global Warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some workers have claimed that the observed temporal correlations of (low level) terrestrial cloud cover with the cosmic ray intensity changes, due to solar modulation, are causal. The possibility arises, therefore, of a connection between cosmic rays and Global Warming. If true, the implications would be very great. We have examined this claim in some detail. So far, we have not found any evidence in support and so our conclusions are to doubt it. From the absence of corroborative evidence we estimate that less than 15% at the 95% confidence level, of the 11-year cycle warming variations are due to cosmic rays and less than 2% of the warming over the last 43 years is due to this cause. The origin of the correlation itself is probably the cycle of solar irradiance although there is, as yet, no certainty

63

Media Construction of Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Includes 383-page kit (may be downloaded as a pdf or ordered as a hard copy) with teacher guides for all eight units, including all activities, readings, slide shows, film clips, journal articles, advertisements, and more. Lessons teach core knowledge about the science of climate change, explore conflicting views, and integrate critical thinking skills. Students will apply knowledge of climate change to a rigorous analysis of media messages through asking and answering questions about accuracy, currency, credibility, sourcing, and bias. Lessons address basic climate science, the causes of climate change, scientific debate and disinformation, the consequences of global warming, the precautionary principle, carbon footprints, moral choices, and the history of global warming in media, science, and politics.

Sperry, Chris; Flerlage, Dan; Papouchis, Alexander

64

Cosmic rays and global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possible effects of cosmic rays on clouds could contribute to global warming. The argument is that the observed increased solar activity during the last century caused a decrease in the ionization due to cosmic rays since the lower energy cosmic particles are deflected by the magnetic field created by the increasing solar wind. This would lead to a decrease in cloud cover allowing more heating of the earth by the sun. Meteorological data combined to solar activity observations and simulations show that any effect of solar activity on clouds and the climate is likely to be through irradiance rather than cosmic rays. Since solar irradiance transfers 8 orders of magnitude more energy to the atmosphere than cosmic rays it is more plausible that this can produce a real effect. The total contribution of variable solar activity to global warming is shown to be less than 14% of the total temperature rise. (A.C.)

65

Cosmic rays and global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The possible effects of cosmic rays on clouds could contribute to global warming. The argument is that the observed increased solar activity during the last century caused a decrease in the ionization due to cosmic rays since the lower energy cosmic particles are deflected by the magnetic field created by the increasing solar wind. This would lead to a decrease in cloud cover allowing more heating of the earth by the sun. Meteorological data combined to solar activity observations and simulations show that any effect of solar activity on clouds and the climate is likely to be through irradiance rather than cosmic rays. Since solar irradiance transfers 8 orders of magnitude more energy to the atmosphere than cosmic rays it is more plausible that this can produce a real effect. The total contribution of variable solar activity to global warming is shown to be less than 14% of the total temperature rise. (A.C.)

Erlykin, A.D. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sloan, T. [Lancaster University (United Kingdom); Wolfendale, A.W. [Durham University (United Kingdom)

2010-07-01

66

Global warming and greenhouse gases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Global warming or Climate change refers to long-term fluctuations in temperature, precipitation, wind, and other elements of the Earth's climate system. Natural processes such as solar-irradiance variations, variations in the Earth's orbital parameters, and volcanic activity can produce variations in climate. The climate system can also be influenced by changes in the concentration of various gases in the atmosphere, which affect the Earth's absorption of radiation.

Beli? Dragoljub S.

2006-01-01

67

Automobility: Global Warming as Symptomatology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The argument of this paper is that sustainability requires a new worldview-paradigm. It critically evaluates Gore’s liberal-based environmentalism in order to show how “shallow ecologies” are called into question by deeper ecologies. This analysis leads to the notion that global warming is better understood as a symptom indicative of the worldview that is the source for environmental crises. Heidegger’s ontological hermeneutics and its critique of modern technology show that the moder...

Gary Backhaus

2009-01-01

68

Global warming; an alternative perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The document states New Zealand's current position regarding commitments to reduce CO[sub 2] emissions. It presents the main topics of world debate on the global warming theory. Views of the Energy Foundation are then expressed on the economic consequences of environmental policy on abatement of greenhouse gases (particularly CO[sub 2] and methane). Recommendations are made for government directions in energy and environmental policy. 87 refs.

1994-03-01

69

Global warming and greenhouse gases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Global warming or Climate change refers to long-term fluctuations in temperature, precipitation, wind, and other elements of the Earth's climate system. Natural processes such as solar-irradiance variations, variations in the Earth's orbital parameters, and volcanic activity can produce variations in climate. The climate system can also be influenced by changes in the concentration of various gases in the atmosphere, which affect the Earth's absorption of radiation.

Beli? Dragoljub S.

2006-01-01

70

Global warming: Economic policy responses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This volume contains the proceedings of a conference that brought together economic experts from Europe, the US, Latin America, and Japan to evaluate key issues in the policy debate in global warming. The following issues are at the center of debates on alternative policies to address global warming: scientific evidence on the magnitude of global warming and the extent to which it is due to human activities; availability of economic tools to control the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, and how vigorously should they be applied; and political economy considerations which influence the design of an international program for controlling greenhouse gases. Many perspectives are offered on the approaches to remedying environmental problems that are currently being pursued in Europe and the Pacific Rim. Deforestation in the Amazon is discussed, as well as ways to slow it. Public finance assessments are presented of both the domestic and international policy issues raised by plans to levy a tax on the carbon emissions from various fossil fuels. Nine chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

71

A global warning for global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The problem of global warming is a complex one not only because it is affecting desert areas such as the Sahel leading to famine disasters of poor rural societies, but because it is an even greater threat to modern well established industrial societies. Global warming is a complex problem of geographical, economical and societal factors together which definitely are biased by local environmental parameters. There is an absolute need to increase the knowledge of such parameters, especially to understand their limits of variance. The greenhouse effect is a global mechanism which means that in changing conditions at one point of the Earth, it will affect all other regions of the globe. Industrial pollution and devastation of the forest are quoted as similar polluting anthropogenic activities in far apart regions of the world with totally different societies and industrial compounds. The other important factor is climatic cyclicity which means that droughts are bound to natural cycles. These natural cycles are numerous as is reflected in the study of geo-proxydata from several sequential geological series on land, ice and deepsea. Each of these cycles reveals a drought cycle which occasionally interfere at the same time. It is believed that the present drought might well be a point of interference between the natural cycles of 2,500 and 1,000 years and the man induced cycle of the last century`s warming up. If the latter is the only cycle involved, man will be able to remediate. If not, global warming will become even more disastrous beyond the 21st century.

Paepe, R. [Earth Technology Inst., Brussels (Belgium)

1996-12-31

72

Global warming-setting the stages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most of us have heard or read about global warming. However, the messages we receive are often in conflict, raising more questions than answer. Is global warming a good or a bad thing? has it already started or is it part of our future? Are we, or are we not doing anything about it? Should we be concerned? This primer on Global Warming is designed to clear up some of this confusion by providing basic scientific information on global warming issue. It is clear that there is still much to learn about global warming. However, it is also clear that there is a lot that we already know - and that dose provide cause for concern. We must understand the global warming issue if we are to make wise decisions and take responsible actions in response to the challenges and opportunities posed by global warming. Chapter 1 of 'the primer on global Warming' set the stage with a brief overview of science of global warming within the context of climate change. In addition, it introduces the specific issues that surround the global warming problem. As far as the science of global warming is concerned the following questions are discussed. What is global climate? Is climate change natural? What causes climate to vary on a global scale? How does the composition of the atmosphere relate to climate change. but there are also certain issues discussed here which surround the global warming such as: If climate varies naturally, why is there a concern about 'global warming'? What are the potential consequences of 'global warning'. What human activities contribute to 'global warming'. (Author)

73

Nitrous oxide and global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The climatic impact of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions is calculated annually for the period 1900-2100, using a globally averaged computer model. Emissions of N2O have been increasing up top an estimated 12.7 Tg N/year in 1990 by human activities and global warming. If the current trends continue, emissions are estimated to be 25.7 Tg N/year by 2100, with fossil-fuel use and human food production as major contributors. The resulting equilibrium temperature increase (0.37 degree C) exceeds the forcing derived from climate goals that may be considered environmentally desirable. Limiting equilibrium warming to 0.1 degree C per decade would require anthropogenic-induced and warming-induced N2O emissions to be reduced by 80% relative to current trends and to be stabilized from 2050, so that 10.7 Tg N/year is emitted by 2100. To stabilize the current concentration or climate forcing of N2, substantially larger cuts are needed. However, even in an optimistic scenario, emissions keep increasing up to 14.4. Tg N/year by 2100. A major reason is the close connection between N2O emissions and human food production. Synthetic fertilizer use, land-use change, and production of manure increase almost inevitably as the human population grows. Thus if global warming is to be limited to 0.1 degree C per decade it may be necessary to set emission reductions for other greenhouse gases relatively high to compensate for growth in climatiy high to compensate for growth in climatic forcing by N2O

74

Nitrous oxide and global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The climatic impact of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions is calculated annually for the period 1900-2100, using a globally averaged computer model. Emissions of N{sub 2}O have been increasing up top an estimated 12.7 Tg N/year in 1990 by human activities and global warming. If the current trends continue, emissions are estimated to be 25.7 Tg N/year by 2100, with fossil-fuel use and human food production as major contributors. The resulting equilibrium temperature increase (0.37{degree}C) exceeds the forcing derived from climate goals that may be considered environmentally desirable. Limiting equilibrium warming to 0.1{degree}C per decade would require anthropogenic-induced and warming-induced N{sub 2}O emissions to be reduced by 80% relative to current trends and to be stabilized from 2050, so that 10.7 Tg N/year is emitted by 2100. To stabilize the current concentration or climate forcing of N{sub 2}, substantially larger cuts are needed. However, even in an optimistic scenario, emissions keep increasing up to 14.4. Tg N/year by 2100. A major reason is the close connection between N{sub 2}O emissions and human food production. Synthetic fertilizer use, land-use change, and production of manure increase almost inevitably as the human population grows. Thus if global warming is to be limited to 0.1{degree}C per decade it may be necessary to set emission reductions for other greenhouse gases relatively high to compensate for growth in climatic forcing by N{sub 2}O.

Kroeze, C. [University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Interfaculty Dept. of Environmental Science

1994-04-14

75

Global warming, bad weather, insurance losses and the global economy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Global warming causes extremely bad weather in the near term. The impact on the insurance industry is described. Why global warming in the near term causes very bad weather is explained. The continuing trend of very bad weather and the future impact on the insurance industry is explored. How very bad weather can affect the global financial market is explained. Taking a historical view of the development of the modern economy, the authors describe in the near term the impact of global warming on the global economy. The long term impact of global warming on the global economy and the human race is explored. Opportunities presented by global warming are described.

Low, N.C. [UOB Life Assurance Ltd., Singapore (Singapore); Shen, S. [Global Warming International Center, Woodridge, IL (United States)

1996-09-01

76

Ecosystem Responses to Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Last week, scientific results from three unrelated but complementary projects were announced, contributing to a greater understanding of global warming and ecosystem-wide responses to warming events (such as El Nino). The first article, appearing in the September 8, 2000 issue of Science and spearheaded by Dr. John Magnuson of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, documents a change in freeze and ice breakup dates for lakes and rivers across the Northern Hemisphere. The researchers found consistent evidence of later freeze and earlier breakup of ice during an 150-year span (1846-1995) at lakes and rivers across the US, Canada, Finland, Switzerland, Russia, and Japan. In continuing their research, Magnuson and colleagues plan to investigate the effects of extreme climate signals, such as El Nino, within the longer time series. A second research project, led by researchers at Cornell University and also published in the September 8 Science, links cholera outbreaks to climate cycles (such as El Nino) using a mathematical model. Third, researchers at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (published in the September 15 issue of Geophysical Research Letters), have described how El Nino events may skew the equilibrium of phytoplankton in ocean currents, with important consequences for food webs and carbon dioxide concentrations -- which, in turn, may affect global warming. The combination of these three scientific articles and the complex interactions they discuss, form the focus of this week's In The News.

Payne, Laura X.

77

Global Warming Blame the Sun  

CERN Document Server

Concern about climate change reaches a political peak at a UN conference in Kyoto, 1-10 December, but behind the scenes the science is in turmoil. A challenge to the hypothesis that greenhouse gases are responsible for global warming comes from the discovery that cosmic rays from the Galaxy are involved in making clouds (Svensmark and Friis-Christensen, 1997). During the 20th Century the wind from the Sun has grown stronger and the count of cosmic rays has diminished. With fewer clouds, the EarthÕs surface has warmed up. This surprising mechanism explains the link between the Sun and climate change that astronomers and geophysicists have suspected for 200 years.

Calder, N

1997-01-01

78

Public perceptions of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examines the way public opinion responds to the prospect of global warming. In particular, it focuses on the public's 'willingness to pay' in order to prevent various hypothetical climate scenarios from transpiring. To this end, fractional factorial survey methods are employed with a sample of over 600 residents of Southern California. By and large, the public is able to understand and evaluate rather complicated hypothetical climate scenarios, but the public appreciates some features of climate far better than others. In this context, the contingent valuation estimates provided, while promising, are clearly not ready of consideration by policy makers. 36 refs., 17 figs

79

The Discovery of Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

This web site provides an overview of the history of scientific research and public policy on climate change, from the nineteenth century to the present. The site is an expanded version of the book "The Discovery of Global Warming" by Spencer Weart, and is presented as a series of essays with hyperlinks connecting related topics from page to page. Topics include climate data, influences on climate, models of climate change, and societal impacts. The essays are searchable by keyword, and the entire site can be downloaded as a zipped file or a series of printable files (PDFs).

Weart, Spencer R.

80

Global Warming Control to Mitigate Climate Change  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Paper describes a proposed development of empirical model of global warming fit on the collective determinants in all countries. Aim is to enable establishment and comparison of the collective effects of global determinants on global warming in the prescription of the regulations most fit for the collective deployment in each of the determinant countries to enable mitigation of the greenhouse gases build-up caused global warming.

Massawe, Antipas T. S.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Global Warming Control to Mitigate Climate Change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Paper describes a proposed development of empirical model of global warming fit on the collective determinants in all countries. Aim is to enable establishment and comparison of the collective effects of global determinants on global warming in the prescription of the regulations most fit for the collective deployment in each of the determinant countries to enable mitigation of the greenhouse gases build-up caused global warming.

Antipas T. S. Massawe

2012-05-01

82

The economics of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The global warming threat is challenging the world community to both international cooperation and national policy action. This report focuses on the necessity to alternate between ''global and national climate policies''. The Swiss perspective is at issue. The economic rationales for comparing national climate policy options are analyzed. This report explicitly focusses on the fundamental role of the normative framework and the related environmental-economic requisites for establishing an efficient national climate policy and computing a ''carbon tax''. Finally, the latest results of the energy and greenhouse gas scenarios for Switzerland, elaborated on within the network of the IEA/ETSAP Project, Annex IV, ''Greenhouse Gases and National Energy Options: Technologies and Costs for Reducing Emissions of Greenhouse Gases'', illustrate Switzerland's difficulties in reducing greenhouse gas emissions at ''reasonable cost'' compared with other countries. This should make Switzerland very sensitive to the implementation of efficient environmental-policy instruments and international cooperation. (author) figs., tabs., refs

83

Global Warming and Energy Transition: A Public Policy Imperative  

Science.gov (United States)

The historic transition from fossil fuels to alternative energy resources has begun. This development is commonly attributed to increasing energy costs and the need for energy security. Looming ever larger, however, is the issue that will soon drive the third energy revolution: global warming. A preponderance of evidence documents accelerating warming, enlarging impacts, and human causes -- principally combustion of fossil fuels. The carbon dioxide (C02) content of Earth's atmosphere has increased more than 35 percent since the beginning of the industrial revolution and is the highest in 650,000 years. This dramatic rise of C02 and attendant positive feedbacks are already forcing significant impacts worldwide. These include atmospheric warming with shifting climatic and habitat zones, spreading tropical disease, and more extreme weather events; rapid ice loss at high latitude and high altitude; ocean warming and acidification with coral reef bleaching and intensifying tropical storms; rising sea level; and accelerating extinction rates. The 2007 draft report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts greater warming than in previous models. A tipping point to abrupt climate change may be imminent. It is incumbent upon geoscientists and geoscience educators to assume leadership in addressing this challenge through public outreach and general education. The following topics should be integrated into all appropriate courses: the evidence of global warming and its causes; observed present and predicted future impacts of global warming; mitigation and adaptation strategies; and implications for energy policies and economic opportunities. New entry-level science and general education courses -- such as Climate Change Fundamentals and Energy in Nature, Technology, and Society -- are proving to be effective should be widely developed In addition, by workshops and presentations to civic and business organizations and by demonstrated examples of institutional commitment to energy conservation, energy efficiency, and renewable energy resources, colleges and universities must focus public and professional attention on the imperative for action and the means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and countering global warming.

Stone, G. T.

2006-12-01

84

Global warming potential of pavements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pavements comprise an essential and vast infrastructure system supporting our transportation network, yet their impact on the environment is largely unquantified. Previous life-cycle assessments have only included a limited number of the applicable life-cycle components in their analysis. This research expands the current view to include eight different components: materials extraction and production, transportation, onsite equipment, traffic delay, carbonation, lighting, albedo, and rolling resistance. Using global warming potential as the environmental indicator, ranges of potential impact for each component are calculated and compared based on the information uncovered in the existing research. The relative impacts between components are found to be orders of magnitude different in some cases. Context-related factors, such as traffic level and location, are also important elements affecting the impacts of a given component. A strategic method for lowering the global warming potential of a pavement is developed based on the concept that environmental performance is improved most effectively by focusing on components with high impact potentials. This system takes advantage of the fact that small changes in high-impact components will have more effect than large changes in low-impact components.

85

Keeping cool on global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A number of scientific groups have concluded that the greenhouse effect caused by the man-made emissions of carbon dioxide and other bases has produced much or all of the rise in global temperatures. They predict that there will be an increase in greenhouse gases equivalent to a doubling of carbon dioxide by the middle of the 21st century, and that this will cause the temperature of the earth to rise by as much as 5C. According to these scientists, a temperature rise of this magnitude would cause major disruptions in the earth's ecosystem, including severe summer drought in the midwestern US and other agricultural regions. The worst-case scenarios predict a major rise in sea level as a result of the greenhouse warming, inundating areas of New York, Miami and other coastal cities as well as low-lying river deltas and islands. The lives of hundreds of millions of people would be disrupted. The available data on climate change, however, do not support these predictions, nor do they support the idea that human activity has caused, or will cause, a dangerous increase in global temperatures. As the authors make this statement, they are aware that it contradicts widespread popular opinion, as well as the technical judgments of some of their colleagues. But it would be imprudent to ignore the facts on global warming that have accumulated over the last two years. These facts indicate that theoretical estimates of the greenhouse problem have greatly exaggerated its seriousness. Enormous economic stakes ride on forthcoming government decisions regarding carbon taxes and other restrictions on CO2 emissions. Due attention must therefore be given to the scientific evidence, no matter how contrary to popular opinion its implications appear to be. This article discusses the scientific evidence

86

Environmental Protection Agency's Global Warming Web Site  

Science.gov (United States)

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Home Page on Global Warming is served by the Waste Policy Institute for the EPA Office of Economy and Environment. This well organized site contains a great deal of information on global warming, climate change, and the greenhouse effect. It contains reports, slide presentations, and a glossary of terms, among other features. It also contains predictions on the impacts of global warming and discusses governmental policies and actions. If you would like to make a difference in the study of global warming, this site can also give you the information you need to get involved.

1997-01-01

87

Forecasting phenology under global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

As a consequence of warming temperatures around the world, spring and autumn phenologies have been shifting, with corresponding changes in the length of the growing season. Our understanding of the spatial and interspecific variation of these changes, however, is limited. Not all species are responding similarly, and there is significant spatial variation in responses even within species. This spatial and interspecific variation complicates efforts to predict phenological responses to ongoing climate change, but must be incorporated in order to build reliable forecasts. Here, we use a long-term dataset (1953–2005) of plant phenological events in spring (flowering and leaf out) and autumn (leaf colouring and leaf fall) throughout Japan and South Korea to build forecasts that account for these sources of variability. Specifically, we used hierarchical models to incorporate the spatial variability in phenological responses to temperature to then forecast species' overall and site-specific responses to global warming. We found that for most species, spring phenology is advancing and autumn phenology is getting later, with the timing of events changing more quickly in autumn compared with the spring. Temporal trends and phenological responses to temperature in East Asia contrasted with results from comparable studies in Europe, where spring events are changing more rapidly than are autumn events. Our results emphasize the need to study multiple species at many sites to understand and forecast regional changes in phenology. PMID:20819816

Ibanez, Ines; Primack, Richard B.; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.; Ellwood, Elizabeth; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi; Lee, Sang Don; Kobori, Hiromi; Silander, John A.

2010-01-01

88

Automobility: Global Warming as Symptomatology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The argument of this paper is that sustainability requires a new worldview-paradigm. It critically evaluates Gore’s liberal-based environmentalism in order to show how “shallow ecologies” are called into question by deeper ecologies. This analysis leads to the notion that global warming is better understood as a symptom indicative of the worldview that is the source for environmental crises. Heidegger’s ontological hermeneutics and its critique of modern technology show that the modern worldview involves an enframing (a totalizing technological ordering of the natural. Enframing reveals entities as standing reserve (on demand energy suppliers. My thesis maintains that enframing is geographically expressed as automobility. Because of the energy needs used to maintain automobility, reaching the goal of sustainability requires rethinking the spatial organization of life as a function of stored energy technologies.

Gary Backhaus

2009-04-01

89

The tragedy of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author first evokes the consequences of global warming: ocean acidity, ice melt, sea level rise, repeated and always more intense extreme climatic events (a list of the main meteorological and climatic events which occurred in 2013 is given). He outlines that these phenomena happen more quickly than foreseen. He notices that these facts confirm the content of the different IPCC reports. The author outlines the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. He discusses the evolutions of these emissions between 1970 and 2010 in the different countries with respect to their level of economic development. It clearly appears that developed countries produce more emissions, and have only stabilized their emission level whereas emerging countries have notably increased their emissions. Developed and emerging countries should therefore act as quickly as possible

90

Mitigation of global warming through renewable biomass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rising level of atmospheric CO2 and consequent global warming is evident. Global surface temperature have already increased by 0.8 °C over the 20th century and is projected to increase by 1.4–5.8 °C during the twenty-first century. The global warming will continue till atmospheric concentrations of the major greenhouse gases are stabilized. Among them, CO2 is mainly responsible and is expected to account for about 60% of the warming over the next century. This study reviews advances on causes and consequences of global climate change and its impact on nature and society. Renewable biomass has tremendous potential to mitigate the global warming. Renewable biomass is expected to play a multifunctional role including food production, source of energy and fodder, biodiversity conservation, yield of goods and services to the society as well as mitigation of the impact of climate change. The review highlights the different management and research strategies in forestry, agriculture, agroforestry and grasslands to mitigate the global warming. -- Highlights: ? Rising level of atmospheric CO2 and consequent global warming is evident. ? CO2 is mainly responsible for global warming. ? Global temperature is predicted to increase by 1.4–5.8 °C during 21st century. ? Renewable biomass has great potential to mitigate the global warming

91

The effect of the global warming on marine ecosystems in the Arctic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article discusses various results from studies of development in the ecosystems in the Arctic region and the effect the global warming may have. The warming in these areas is larger than in the central Europe and influence the economic and social development of the region. The focus is on the fisheries, exploitation of oil and gas, transport, diversity in species, acidification of the oceans, meteorological phenomena etc.. Some environmental and energy related aspects are mentioned. (tk)

92

Sustainability Management Based Approach to Global Warming:  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The global warming is a kind of sustainability risk. For this reason, Global Warming should be considering in Sustainability Management concept. The global warming risk must be managed effectively since its consequences threats for sustainability of our world. While this is understandable by all of us, a broader view is necessary to manage this risk in both the short and long-term. Risk management mentality is useful to the best managing of global risks. In this study, the global warming is discussed within risk and sustainability concept. The risk management-based model and risk score formula has been developed to global warming. The model and formula are based on Enterprise Risk Model to Corporate Sustainability and Enterprise Risk Score Formula, 2008. This model is called as Cgw (Sustainability Risk Management Model to Global Warming, introduced as a useable way for a systematic and effective managerial approach of the global warming issue. Risk score formula has been developed for prioritization of identified global warming risks. Prioritization is useful to allocation of limited sources to managing top risks. Every risk has two dimensions as threat and opportunity in the holistic risk management concept that it is considered in the developing process of Cgw model.

AYSE KUCUK YILMAZ

2008-12-01

93

Atmospheric hypotheses' of Earth's global warming  

CERN Document Server

Two hypotheses are presented, outlining a new cause for global warming. We propose that the crucial factor in global warming is the amount and position of water vapour through the atmosphere. The purpose of this report is to open the debate and to encourage discussion among scientists.

Shaidurov, V

2005-01-01

94

Using isotopes for global warming observation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper, based on a literature review, discusses the main aspects of using isotopic techniques to obtain information about global warming. The rapid increase concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in the atmosphere will result in global warming by the greenhouse effect, and the isotopic techniques constitute an efficient tool to explain this complex environmental phenomenon. (author)

95

Exploring the Sociopolitical Dimensions of Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors present an activity to help high school students conceptualize the sociopolitical complexity of global warming through an exploration of varied perspectives on the issue. They argue that socioscientific issues such as global warming present important contexts for learning science and that the social and political dimensions of these…

Sadler, Troy D.; Klosterman, Michelle L.

2009-01-01

96

Turkish Students' Ideas about Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

A questionnaire was used to explore the prevalence of ideas about global warming in Year 10 (age 15-16 years) school students in Turkey. The frequencies of individual scientific ideas and misconceptions about the causes, consequences and "cures" of global warming were identified. In addition, several general findings emerged from this study.…

Kilinc, Ahmet; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

2008-01-01

97

Global Warming: Lessons from Ozone Depletion  

Science.gov (United States)

My teaching and textbook have always covered many physics-related social issues, including stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. The ozone saga is an inspiring good-news story that's instructive for solving the similar but bigger problem of global warming. Thus, as soon as students in my physics literacy course at the University of…

Hobson, Art

2010-01-01

98

Ocean Acidification’s Potential to Alter Global Marine Ecosystem Services  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ocean acidification lowers the oceanic saturation states of carbonate minerals and decreases the calcification rates of some marine organisms that provide a range of ecosystem services such as wild fishery and aquaculture harvests, coastal protection, tourism, cultural identity, and ecosystem support. Damage to marine ecosystem services by ocean acidification is likely to disproportionately affect developing nations and coastal regions, which often rely more heavily on a variety of marine-rel...

Cooley, Sarah R.; Kite-powell, Hauke L.; Doney, Scott C.

2009-01-01

99

Global warming and nuclear power  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is steadily increasing and it is widely believed that this will lead to global warming that will have serious consequences for life on earth. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has estimated that the temperature of the earth will increase by between 1 and 3.5 degrees in the next century. This will melt some of the Antarctic ice cap, raise the sea level and flood many low-lying countries, and also produce unpredictable changes in the earth's climate. The possible ways of reducing carbon dioxide emission are discussed. It is essential to reduce the burning of fossil fuels, but then how are we to obtain the energy we need? We can try to reduce energy use, but we will still need to generate large amounts energy. Some possible ways of doing this are by using wind and solar generators, by hydroelectric and tidal plants, and also by nuclear power. These possibilities will be critically examined. (author)

Hodgson, P.E. [Nuclear and Particle Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Oxford Univ., Oxford (United Kingdom)

1999-09-01

100

Global warming and reproductive health.  

Science.gov (United States)

The largest absolute numbers of maternal deaths occur among the 40-50 million women who deliver annually without a skilled birth attendant. Most of these deaths occur in countries with a total fertility rate of greater than 4. The combination of global warming and rapid population growth in the Sahel and parts of the Middle East poses a serious threat to reproductive health and to food security. Poverty, lack of resources, and rapid population growth make it unlikely that most women in these countries will have access to skilled birth attendants or emergency obstetric care in the foreseeable future. Three strategies can be implemented to improve women's health and reproductive rights in high-fertility, low-resource settings: (1) make family planning accessible and remove non-evidenced-based barriers to contraception; (2) scale up community distribution of misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage and, where it is legal, for medical abortion; and (3) eliminate child marriage and invest in girls and young women, thereby reducing early childbearing. PMID:22883918

Potts, Malcolm; Henderson, Courtney E

2012-10-01

 
 
 
 
101

Global warming and nuclear power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is steadily increasing and it is widely believed that this will lead to global warming that will have serious consequences for life on earth. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has estimated that the temperature of the earth will increase by between 1 and 3.5 degrees in the next century. This will melt some of the Antarctic ice cap, raise the sea level and flood many low-lying countries, and also produce unpredictable changes in the earth's climate. The possible ways of reducing carbon dioxide emission are discussed. It is essential to reduce the burning of fossil fuels, but then how are we to obtain the energy we need? We can try to reduce energy use, but we will still need to generate large amounts energy. Some possible ways of doing this are by using wind and solar generators, by hydroelectric and tidal plants, and also by nuclear power. These possibilities will be critically examined. (author)

102

Is global warming already changing ocean productivity?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Global warming is predicted to alter the ocean's biological productivity. But how will we recognise the impacts of climate change on ocean productivity? The most comprehensive information available on the global distribution of ocean productivity comes from satellite ocean colour data. Now that over ten years of SeaWiFS data have accumulated, can we begin to detect and attribute global warming trends in productivity? Here we compare recent trends in SeaWiFS data to longer-term records...

Henson, S. A.; Sarmiento, J. L.; Dunne, J. P.; Bopp, L.; Lima, I.; Doney, S. C.; John, J.; Beaulieu, C.

2009-01-01

103

Tempo and Magnitude of Greenhouse Warming and Ocean Acidification at the Paleocene- Eocene Boundary  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the discovery of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) ~15 years ago, significant progress has been made in characterizing the climatic and biogeochemical changes associated with this event. This includes the documentation of relatively uniform warming of 5 to 8°C over much of the earth, a global negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE), and widespread chemical erosion of seafloor carbonate sediment. The latter discovery is critical as it supports the hypothesis that the PETM and CIE were caused by the rapid release a large mass (>2000 GtC) of 12C enriched carbon to the ocean/atmosphere. Still, the exact source of this carbon remains a mystery, though several possibilities have been identified including volcanically driven thermal combustion of organic rich sediment, decomposition of seafloor methane hydrates, and dessication and oxidation of soil/sediment organics. None is mutually exclusive, and it is possible that all 3 sources contributed carbon, with the first in an activating role, and the latter two as positive feedbacks. In addition to identifying the source, constraining the mass and rate of carbon release is essential to investigating several other key issues regarding the PETM including; climate sensitivity to greenhouse forcing, the impacts of ocean acidification on marine biota, and the rate of carbon sequestration. To this end, proxy records of ocean carbonate chemistry (e.g., level of the lysocline, calcite compensation depth, C-isotope budget) are being generated for pelagic and hemi-pelagic sequences from around the world. These data, in turn, will serve as the primary targets for ocean modeling experiments designed to simulate the effects of carbon release on ocean biogeochemical cycles. The tempo of carbon release and sequestration are being constrained through the integration of cycle stratigraphy and orbital tuning with extraterrestrial He accumulation on high-quality, stratigraphically complete sediment sequences. Here I review recent progress in characterizing the scale and tempo of change in ocean carbonate chemistry during the PETM, and discuss implications for constraining the mass of carbon released, and possible sources.

Zachos, J. C.

2006-12-01

104

How warm days increase belief in global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change judgements can depend on whether today seems warmer or colder than usual, termed the local warming effect. Although previous research has demonstrated that this effect occurs, studies have yet to explain why or how temperature abnormalities influence global warming attitudes. A better understanding of the underlying psychology of this effect can help explain the public's reaction to climate change and inform approaches used to communicate the phenomenon. Across five studies, we find evidence of attribute substitution, whereby individuals use less relevant but available information (for example, today's temperature) in place of more diagnostic but less accessible information (for example, global climate change patterns) when making judgements. Moreover, we rule out alternative hypotheses involving climate change labelling and lay mental models. Ultimately, we show that present temperature abnormalities are given undue weight and lead to an overestimation of the frequency of similar past events, thereby increasing belief in and concern for global warming.

Zaval, Lisa; Keenan, Elizabeth A.; Johnson, Eric J.; Weber, Elke U.

2014-02-01

105

Global warming and climate change: control methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper aimed at finding causes of global warming and ways to bring it under control. Data based on scientific opinion as given by synthesis reports of news, articles, web sites, and books. global warming is the observed and projected increases in average temperature of Earth's atmosphere and oceans. Carbon dioxide and other air pollution that is collecting in the atmosphere like a thickening blanket, trapping the sun's heat and causing the planet to warm up. Pollution is one of the biggest man-made problems. Burning fossil fuels is the main factor of pollution. As average temperature increases, habitats, species and people are threatened by drought, changes in rainfall, altered seasons, and more violent storms and floods. Indeed the life cycle of nuclear power results in relatively little pollution. Energy efficiency, solar, wind and other renewable fuels are other weapons against global warming . Human activity, primarily burning fossil fuels, is the major driving factor in global warming . Curtailing the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere by reducing use of oil, gasoline, coal and employment of alternate energy, sources are the tools for keeping global warming under control. global warming can be slowed and stopped, with practical actions thal yield a cleaner, healthier atmosphere

106

Global Warming: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast.  

Science.gov (United States)

A resource for the teaching of the history and causes of climate change. Discusses evidence of climate change from the Viking era, early ice ages, the most recent ice age, natural causes of climate change, human-made causes of climate change, projections of global warming, and unequal warming. (LZ)

Andrews, Bill

1994-01-01

107

Is global warming already changing ocean productivity?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Global warming is predicted to alter the ocean's biological productivity. But how will we recognise the impacts of climate change on ocean productivity? The most comprehensive information available on the global distribution of ocean productivity comes from satellite ocean colour data. Now that over ten years of SeaWiFS data have accumulated, can we begin to detect and attribute global warming trends in productivity? Here we compare recent trends in SeaWiFS data to longer-term records from three biogeochemical models (GFDL, IPSL and NCAR. We find that detection of real trends in the satellite data is confounded by the relatively short time series and large interannual and decadal variability in productivity. Thus, recent observed changes in chlorophyll, primary production and the size of the oligotrophic gyres cannot be unequivocally attributed to the impact of global warming. Instead, our analyses suggest that a time series of ~40 yr length is needed to distinguish a global warming trend from natural variability. Analysis of modelled chlorophyll and primary production from 2001–2100 suggests that, on average, the global warming trend will not be unambiguously separable from decadal variability until ~2055. Because the magnitude of natural variability in chlorophyll and primary production is larger than, or similar to, the global warming trend, a consistent, decades-long data record must be established if the impact of climate change on ocean productivity is to be definitively detected.

S. A. Henson

2009-11-01

108

Is global warming already changing ocean productivity?  

Science.gov (United States)

Global warming is predicted to alter the ocean's biological productivity. But how will we recognise the impacts of climate change on ocean productivity? The most comprehensive information available on the global distribution of ocean productivity comes from satellite ocean colour data. Now that over ten years of SeaWiFS data have accumulated, can we begin to detect and attribute global warming trends in productivity? Here we compare recent trends in SeaWiFS data to longer-term records from three biogeochemical models (GFDL, IPSL and NCAR). We find that detection of real trends in the satellite data is confounded by the relatively short time series and large interannual and decadal variability in productivity. Thus, recent observed changes in chlorophyll, primary production and the size of the oligotrophic gyres cannot be unequivocally attributed to the impact of global warming. Instead, our analyses suggest that a time series of ~40 yr length is needed to distinguish a global warming trend from natural variability. Analysis of modelled chlorophyll and primary production from 2001-2100 suggests that, on average, the global warming trend will not be unambiguously separable from decadal variability until ~2055. Because the magnitude of natural variability in chlorophyll and primary production is larger than, or similar to, the global warming trend, a consistent, decades-long data record must be established if the impact of climate change on ocean productivity is to be definitively detected.

Henson, S. A.; Sarmiento, J. L.; Dunne, J. P.; Bopp, L.; Lima, I.; Doney, S. C.; John, J.; Beaulieu, C.

2009-11-01

109

Global warming: Towards a strategy for Ontario  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

eduction of peak-day electricity use. Action steps for future consideration are detailed in the categories of greenhouse gas emissions reductions, carbon dioxide absorption, and research and analysis into global warming

110

Can Global Warming be Stopped?  

Science.gov (United States)

Earlier this year, the CO2 levels exceeded the 400 ppm level and there is no sign that the 1-2 ppm annual increase is going to slow down. Concerns regarding the danger of global warming have been reported in numerous occasions for more than a generation, ever since CO2 levels reached the 350 ppm range in the mid 1980's. Nevertheless, all efforts to slow down the increase have showed little if any effect. Mobile sources, including surface and marine transportation and aviation, consist of 20% of the global CO2 emission. The only realistic way to reduce the mobile sources' CO2 signature is by improved fuel efficiency. However, any progress in this direction is more than compensated by continuous increased demand. Stationary sources, mostly electric power generation, are responsible for the bulk of the global CO2 emission. The measurements have shown, that the effect of an increase in renewable sources, like solar wind and geothermal, combined with conversion from coal to natural gas where possible, conservation and efficiency improvement, did not compensate the increased demand mostly in developing countries. Increased usage of nuclear energy can provide some relief in carbon emission but has the potential of even greater environmental hazard. A major decrease in carbon emission can be obtained by either significant reduction in the cost of non-carbon based energy sources or by of carbon sequestration. The most economical way to make a significant decrease in carbon emission is to apply carbon sequestration technology at large point sources that use coal. Worldwide there are about 10,000 major sources that burn >7 billion metric tons of coal which generate the equivalent of 30 trillion kwh. There is a limited experience in CO2 sequestration of such huge quantities of CO2, however, it is estimated that the cost would be US$ 0.01-0.1 per kwh. The cost of eliminating this quantity can be estimated at an average of 1.5 trillion dollars annually. The major emitters, US, China and India are expected pay the bulk of it. While the larger nations spend this kind of money on defense, it is highly unlikely that they will do so for an environmental cause. Controlling the rest of CO2 emissions such as agricultural waste and medium to small sources is either much more expensive or even technologically impossible. The discussion so far did not include other green house gases (GHG) such as methane, ozone, nitrous oxide and hydro-chloro-fluoro-carbons that are much more difficult to control. In conclusion, it will take trillions of US dollars to significantly decrease GHG emissions and the effect will only be seen tens of years in the future. It is more reasonable to invest a fraction of these resources in preparation for the inevitable effects of the forthcoming climate change. Investments in coastal line protection, better flood control in low elevation water basins and in water desalination in arid areas may are some of the actions that may give a much better return.

Luria, M.

2013-12-01

111

GLOBAL WARMING AND PATTERN OF MAIN ECONOMY IN SUNDARBAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, the phrase “global warming” refers tothe change in the Earth's global average surfacetemperature. Measurements show a global temperatureincrease of 1.4 °F (0.78 °C between the years 1900 and2005. Global warming is closely associated with a broadspectrum of other climate changes, such as increases inthe frequency of intense rainfall, decreases in snow coverand sea ice, more frequent and intense heat waves, risingsea levels, and widespread ocean acidification. TheIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC hasproduced several reports where the economics literatureon climate change is assessed. In 1995, the IPCCproduced its second set of assessment reports on climatechange. Working Group III of the IPCC produced a reporton the "Economic and Social Dimensions of ClimateChange." In the later third and fourth IPCC assessments,published in 2001 and 2007 respectively, the assessmentof the economics literature is divided across two reportsproduced by IPCC Working Groups II and III. In 2011IPCC Working Group III published a Special Report onRenewable Energy Sources and Climate Change.

Biplab Das

2013-02-01

112

What Should We do About Global Warming?  

Science.gov (United States)

This Web site created by Beloit College provides a challenging module devoted to the Global Warming phenomenon. Visitors will first be exposed to a series of QuickTime animations illustrating the Effects of Climate Change. Then, through a series of Sessions, students can learn about the characteristics of greenhouse gases as well as how to interpret their concentrations in the atmosphere through time. Lastly, the users are asked to incorporate their new found knowledge to answer the questions: Is the Earth Warming? and What Should We do About Global Warming?

113

GLOBAL WARMING: IMPLICATIONS AND ANTICIPATORY ADAPTIVE MEASURES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our earth is warming up. There is no denying to this fact that the gradual heating up of our globe has a tremendous effect on the climate. It in turn has affected the biotic factors that make up our biosphere, eventually directing the course of our socio-economic development. Some workers are, however, optimistic about this natural phenomenon. Various ways have been suggested to mitigate the effects of global warming, but the damage already done cannot be revoked. Hence, the thing that we are left with is to go for anticipatory adaptive measures so as to tone down the intensity of future implications of global warming.

MUNESH KUMAR

2011-12-01

114

Greenhouse gas emissions increase global warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper discusses the greenhouse gas emissions which cause the global warming in the atmosphere. In the 20th century global climate change becomes more sever which is due to greenhouse gas emissions. According to International Energy Agency data, the USA and China are approximately tied and leading global emitters of greenhouse gas emissions. Together they emit approximately 40% of global CO2 emissions, and about 35% of total greenhouse gases. The developed and developing industrialized co...

Mohajan, Haradhan

2011-01-01

115

A set of experiments to understand global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed a set of experiments addressed to pupils from the age of 14 to teach the basic causes and effects of global warming. Through ten experiments conducted in turns by the pupils themselves, they will understand the physics, biology and chemistry of the main issues linked to the increase in greenhouse gases in our atmosphere. More specifically, the hand-made, low-cost material, allow the students to discover and experiment the science of the greenhouse effect, sea level rise, ocean circulation, ocean acidification, species relocation and extinction, differential heating according to the albedo, carbon cycle, and photosynthesis. Technical notes give background theory input. All the experiments can easily be reproduced.

Bouquelle, Veronique; Bauwens, Anne; De Bont, Adele; Kivits, Sandrine; Marbaix, Philippe

2014-05-01

116

Global Warming: A Public Health Concern  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over the last 100 years the average temperature on the Earth has risen approximately 1ºFahrenheit (F, increasing at a rate twice as fast as has been noted for any period in the last 1,000 years. The Arctic ice cap is shrinking, glaciers are melting, and the Arctic permafrost is thawing. There is mounting evidence that these global climate changes are already affecting human health. This article provides a brief overview of global warming and climate changes, discusses effects of climate change on health, considers the factors which contribute to climate changes, and reviews individual and collective efforts related to reducing global warming.

Brenda M. Afzal

2007-05-01

117

Hydrological consequences of global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 2007 Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change indicates there is strong evidence that the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide far exceeds the natural range over the last 650,000 years, and this recent warming of the climate system is unequivocal, resulting in more frequent extreme precipitation events, earlier snowmelt runoff, increased winter flood likelihoods, increased and widespread melting of snow and ice, longer and more widespread droughts, and rising sea level. The effects of recent warming has been well documented and climate model projections indicate a range of hydrological impacts with likely to very likely probabilities (67 to 99 percent) of occurring with significant to severe consequences in response to a warmer lower atmosphere with an accelerating hydrologic cycle.

Miller, Norman L.

2009-06-01

118

Sharing the Cost of Global Warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Due to meteorological factors, the distribution of the environmental damage due to climate change bears no relationship to that of global emissions. We argue in favor of offsetting this discrepancy, and propose a "global insurance scheme" to be fincanced according to countries responsibility for climate change. Because GHG decay very slowly, we argue that the actual burden of global warming should be shared on the basis of cumulated emissions, raher than sharing the expected costs of actual e...

Leroux, Justin; Villemeur, E?tienne

2010-01-01

119

Researchers Find Genetic Response to Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

University of Alberta biologist Stan Boutin and his research team have recently published findings that North American red squirrels exhibit genetic changes in response to a warming climate. This Web site contains a University of Alberta press release detailing this first-ever demonstration of genetic adaptation to global warming. With implications that extend far beyond the immediate research concerns of geneticists and environmental scientists, Boutin's work as presented in this Web site should be interesting to wide audience.

Dey, Phoebe.

120

Interacting effects of ocean acidification and warming on growth and DMS-production in the haptophyte coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi.  

Science.gov (United States)

The production of the marine trace gas dimethyl sulfide (DMS) provides 90% of the marine biogenic sulfur in the atmosphere where it affects cloud formation and climate. The effects of increasing anthropogenic CO2 and the resulting warming and ocean acidification on trace gas production in the oceans are poorly understood. Here we report the first measurements of DMS-production and data on growth, DMSP and DMS concentrations in pH-stated cultures of the phytoplankton haptophyte Emiliania huxleyi. Four different environmental conditions were tested: ambient, elevated CO2 (+CO2 ), elevated temperature (+T) and elevated temperature and CO2 (+TCO2 ). In comparison to the ambient treatment, average DMS production was about 50% lower in the +CO2 treatment. Importantly, temperature had a strong effect on DMS production and the impacts outweighed the effects of a decrease in pH. As a result, the +T and +TCO2 treatments showed significantly higher DMS production of 36.2 ± 2.58 and 31.5 ± 4.66 ?mol L(-1) cell volume (CV) h(-1) in comparison with the +CO2 treatment (14.9 ± 4.20 ?mol L(-1) CV h(-1) ). As the cultures were aerated with an air/CO2 mixture, DMS was effectively removed from the incubation bottles so that concentration remained relatively low (3.6-6.1 mmol L(-1) CV). Intracellular DMSP has been shown to increase in E. huxleyi as a result of elevated temperature and/or elevated CO2 and our results are in agreement with this finding: the ambient and +CO2 treatments showed 125 ± 20.4 and 162 ± 27.7 mmol L(-1) CV, whereas +T and +TCO2 showed significantly increased intracellular DMSP concentrations of 195 ± 15.8 and 211 ± 28.2 mmol L(-1) CV respectively. Growth was unaffected by the treatments, but cell diameter decreased significantly under elevated temperature. These results indicate that DMS production is sensitive to CO2 and temperature in E. huxleyi. Hence, global environmental change that manifests in ocean acidification and warming may not result in decreased DMS as suggested by earlier studies investigating the effect of elevated CO2 in isolation. PMID:23504879

Arnold, Hayley E; Kerrison, Philip; Steinke, Michael

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
121

Global warming: a scientific trick; Rechauffement global: une imposture scientifique  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article proves that global warming is not unanimously accepted by the scientific community. The author reviews the numerous and important contradictions and inconsistencies between the real climatic facts and the results computed from models. In fact global warming theory is based on mathematical models that are far from taken into account all the most important processes involved in climate setting at the world scale. The author agrees to say that climate is becoming more violent since the beginning of the seventies and highlights that it is inconsistent with the global warming theory since nord-south temperature gradients that trigger meteorological instabilities, are expected to be lower in such a theory. Furthermore climate change is so widely accepted as a direct consequence of a worldwide air contamination problem to which it gives a strong moral alibi, that denying global warming means being pro-contamination. (A.C.)

Leroux, M. [Universite Jean Moulin Lyon-3, Lab. de Climatologie, Risques, Environnement, CNRS-UMR 5600, 69 - Lyon (France)

2003-04-01

122

The impacts and costs of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is now a scientific consensus that current rates of accumulation of greenhouses gases in the atmosphere will result in significant global warming and climate change. These changes are likely to have important impacts on a wide range of human activities and the natural environment. There has now been a considerable weight of literature published on the impacts of global warming, much of it very recent. This report seeks to summarise the important results, to analyse the uncertainties and to make a preliminary analysis of the feasibility of monetarising these environmental costs. The impacts of global warming are divided into ten major categories: agriculture, forests and forestry, terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity, hydrology and water resources, sea level rise and coastal zones, energy, infrastructure/transport/industry, human health and air quality, oceans, and cryospheric impacts. The results of major summary reports are analysed, notably the report of Working Group II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (the IPCC). (author)

123

Some coolness concerning global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

The greenhouse effect hypothesis is discussed. The effects of increasing CO2 levels in the atmosphere on global temperature changes are analyzed. The problems with models currently used to predict climatic changes are examined.

Lindzen, Richard S.

1990-01-01

124

The state of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article surveys recent research on climate and climatic models incorporating greenhouse gas contributions. The uncertainty in the models have been reduced considerably. The temperature predictions made 12 years ago are in good agreement with the global observations

125

Communicating the Dangers of Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

So far, in my opinion, we scientists have not done a good job of communicating the imminent threat posed by global warming, yet I believe there is still time for that if we work efficiently now to overcome existing obstacles. Several of those obstacles are illustrated by contrasting the roles of scientists, the media, special interests, politicians and the public in the ozone depletion and global warming crises. Scientists in America are further challenged by a decline in public science education, a perceived gap between science and religion, increasing politicization of public affairs offices in the government, and accumulation of power by a unitary executive. First order communication tasks are illustrated by a need for improved exchange and understanding, among scientists as well as with the public, of fundamental climate facts: (1) additional global warming exceeding 1C will yield large climate effects, (2) paleoclimate changes contain quantitatively specific information about climate sensitivity that is not widely appreciated, (3) carbon cycle facts, such as the substantial portion of carbon dioxide emissions that will remain in the air "forever", for practical purposes, (4) fossil fuel facts such as the dominant role of coal and unconventional fuels in all business-as-usual scenarios for future energy sources. The facts graphically illustrate the need for prompt actions to avoid disastrous climate change, yet they also reveal the feasibility of a course that minimizes global warming and yields other benefits. Perhaps the greatest challenge is posed by an inappropriate casting of the topic as a dichotomy between those who deny that there is a global warming problem and those who either are exceedingly pessimistic about the prospects for minimizing climate change or believe that solutions would be very expensive. Sensible evaluation of the situation, in my opinion, suggests a strategy for dealing with global warming that is not costly and has many subsidiary benefits, but it does require leadership. Practical difficulties in communicating this story will be illustrated with some personal experiences.

Hansen, J. E.

2006-12-01

126

Is the enhancement of global warming important?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is no doubt that global warming is important; without it the Earth's surface would have a mean temperature of 33oC lower than it has currently. The IPCC maintains that human activities are to blame for the observed increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere since pre-industrial times. There are some doubts about whether global warming is being enhanced by the activities of the human race. This article reviews these doubts and the proposed remedies to the alleged enhancement. (author)

127

The Petition: A Global Warming Case Study  

Science.gov (United States)

These are the teaching notes for a case study in which students consider the political, economic, and ethical issues surrounding the debate over global warming. This case was designed to strengthen their understanding of the greenhouse effect; global warming and its possible causes; how past changes in temperature and carbon dioxide concentration can be estimated; what controls weather patterns; geochemical cycles; and how to read graphs and interpret data. In addition, they will acquire a better understanding of how humans may impact the earth's environment; the politics and economics of scientific issues; how and why experts may differ; and their responsibility in dealing with ethical and political issues.

Allen, Bruce; Herreid, Clyde

128

Global warming: A Northwest perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Northwest Power Planning Council convened a symposium in Olympia, Washington, on the subject of global climate change ( the greenhouse effect'') and its potential for affecting the Pacific Northwest. The symposium was organized in response to a need by the Power Council to understand global climate change and its potential impacts on resource planning and fish and wildlife planning for the region, as well as a need to understand national policy developing toward climate change and the Pacific Northwest's role in it. 40 figs., 15 tabs.

Scott, M.J.; Counts, C.A. (eds.)

1990-02-01

129

Global Warming Estimation from MSU  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we have developed time series of global temperature from 1980-97 based on the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) Ch 2 (53.74 GHz) observations taken from polar-orbiting NOAA operational satellites. In order to create these time series, systematic errors (approx. 0.1 K) in the Ch 2 data arising from inter-satellite differences are removed objectively. On the other hand, smaller systematic errors (approx. 0.03 K) in the data due to orbital drift of each satellite cannot be removed objectively. Such errors are expected to remain in the time series and leave an uncertainty in the inferred global temperature trend. With the help of a statistical method, the error in the MSU inferred global temperature trend resulting from orbital drifts and residual inter-satellite differences of all satellites is estimated to be 0.06 K decade. Incorporating this error, our analysis shows that the global temperature increased at a rate of 0.13 +/- 0.06 K decade during 1980-97.

Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, Robert, Jr.

1999-01-01

130

Environmental harm of hidden subsidies: global warming and acidification.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigate environmental impacts of off-budget or indirect subsidies, which, unlike on-budget subsidies, are not visible in government budgets. Such subsidies have received little attention in economic and environmental research, even though they may be at least as important from an environmental perspective as on-budget subsidies. We offer a typology of indirect subsidies. Next, we estimate the magnitude of these subsidies and their impact on greenhouse gas (GHG) and acidifying emissions for the agriculture, energy, and transport sectors in The Netherlands. The calculations are based on a model approach that translates a particular subsidy into price and quantity changes using empirical elasticities, followed by environmental effect estimates using pollution-intensity parameters. The various environmental pollution effects are aggregated into environmental indicators. The results show, among others, that GHG emissions caused by off-budget subsidies contribute to more than 30% of the policy targets specified by the Kyoto Protocol for CO2 emissions reduction by The Netherlands. Reforming or removing off-budget subsidies may thus be an important strategy of effective climate policy. PMID:19860158

van Beers, Cees; van den Bergh, Jeroen C J M

2009-09-01

131

Environmental Harm of Hidden Subsidies: Global Warming and Acidification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We investigate environmental impacts of off-budget or indirect subsidies, which, unlike on-budget subsidies, are not visible in government budgets. Such subsidies have received little attention in economic and environmental research, even though they may be at least as important from an environmental perspective as on-budget subsidies. We offer a typology of indirect subsidies. Next, we estimate the magnitude of these subsidies and their impact on greenhouse gas (GHG) and acidifying emissions for the agriculture, energy, and transport sectors in The Netherlands. The calculations are based on a model approach that translates a particular subsidy into price and quantity changes using empirical elasticities, followed by environmental effect estimates using pollution-intensity parameters. The various environmental pollution effects are aggregated into environmental indicators. The results show, among others, that GHG emissions caused by off-budget subsidies contribute to more than 30% of the policy targets specified by the Kyoto Protocol for CO{sub 2} emissions reduction by The Netherlands. Reforming or removing off-budget subsidies may thus be an important strategy of effective climate policy

Beers, Cees van (Dept. of Innovation Economics and Management, Delft Univ. of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)). E-mail: c.p.vanbeers@tudelft.nl; Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den (Inst. for Environmental Science and Technology, and Dept. of Economics and Economic History, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain))

2009-10-15

132

Global warming impacts of chillers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most discussion of refrigerant impacts on the environment has focused on protection of stratospheric ozone. The now-familiar Montreal Protocol, as revised last November at a meeting in Copenhagen, provides a clear mandate for transition to alternatives that do not deplete the earth's ozone layer. Coupled with reduction in refrigerant emissions, substitution of fluids with low or zero ozone-depletion potential (ODP) minimize or, for the latter, eliminate damage to the ozone layer. With retirement of the chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants that once dominated in chillers for air conditioning systems, including r-11, R-12, R-113, R-114, and R-500 (which contains R-12), questions surface on other environmental concerns for the alternatives. The direct effect (chemical action as a greenhouse gas) alone however, is misleading. The thermodynamic properties of a refrigerant limit the efficiency that can be attained in a heat pump or refrigeration machine. Since the efficiency governs the amount of power required for a specific thermal load, the selection refrigerants also impacts the greenhouse gases, most notably carbon dioxide, released in supplying the required power. The warming stemming from combustion emissions to provide power is referred to as the indirect, or energy-related, effect. Atmospheric scientists use the term indirect effect to refer to the impact of greenhouse gases produced in the atmosphere by chemical reactions with an emission. The effect of this seco with an emission. The effect of this secondary chemistry is of much lesser magnitude and is not further discussed in this article

133

Technologies for fighting global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In January 1990, the Japanese government published an action programme against the greenhouse effect which reflected the country's future priorities as regards this issue. At the same time, the Minister of International Trade and Industry started the initiative 'the New Earth 21'. The present situation in Japan is reviewed with regard to the measures taken to prevent global heating and to the intended future technological developments. (orig.)

134

An apparent hiatus in global warming?  

Science.gov (United States)

Global warming first became evident beyond the bounds of natural variability in the 1970s, but increases in global mean surface temperatures have stalled in the 2000s. Increases in atmospheric greenhouse gases, notably carbon dioxide, create an energy imbalance at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) even as the planet warms to adjust to this imbalance, which is estimated to be 0.5-1 W m-2 over the 2000s. Annual global fluctuations in TOA energy of up to 0.2 W m-2 occur from natural variations in clouds, aerosols, and changes in the Sun. At times of major volcanic eruptions the effects can be much larger. Yet global mean surface temperatures fluctuate much more than these can account for. An energy imbalance is manifested not just as surface atmospheric or ground warming but also as melting sea and land ice, and heating of the oceans. More than 90% of the heat goes into the oceans and, with melting land ice, causes sea level to rise. For the past decade, more than 30% of the heat has apparently penetrated below 700 m depth that is traceable to changes in surface winds mainly over the Pacific in association with a switch to a negative phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) in 1999. Surface warming was much more in evidence during the 1976-1998 positive phase of the PDO, suggesting that natural decadal variability modulates the rate of change of global surface temperatures while sea-level rise is more relentless. Global warming has not stopped; it is merely manifested in different ways.

Trenberth, Kevin E.; Fasullo, John T.

2013-12-01

135

Dynamical analysis of the global warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Global warming is a major concern nowadays. Weather conditions are changing, and it seems that human activity is one of the main causes. In fact, since the beginning of the industrial revolution, the burning of fossil fuels has increased the nonnatural emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas that absorbs the infrared radiation produced by the reflection of the sunlight on the Earth’s surface, trapping the heat in the atmosphere. Global ...

Tenreiro Machado, J. A.; Lopes, Ant Amp Xf Nio M.

2012-01-01

136

Climate change and global warming potentials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Climate change and the global budgets of the two main energy consumption related greenhouse gases, CO2 and CH4, are discussed. The global warming potential (GWP) of the non-CO2 greenhouse gases is defined and the large range of GWPs of CH4 in the literature is discussed. GWPs are expected to play an important role in energy policies and negotiations concerning lowering greenhouse gas emissions. (author). 20 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

137

On Global Warming (Softening Global Constraints)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We describe soft versions of the global cardinality constraint and the regular constraint, with efficient filtering algorithms maintaining domain consistency. For both constraints, the softening is achieved by augmenting the underlying graph. The softened constraints can be used to extend the meta-constraint framework for over-constrained problems proposed by Petit, Regin and Bessiere.

Hoeve, Willem Jan; Pesant, Gilles; Rousseau, Louis-martin

2004-01-01

138

Can warming particles enter global climate discussions?  

Science.gov (United States)

'Soot' or 'black carbon', which comes from incomplete combustion, absorbs light and warms the atmosphere. Although there have been repeated suggestions that reduction of black carbon could be a viable part of decreasing global warming, it has not yet been considered when choosing actions to reduce climatic impact. In this paper, I examine four conceptual barriers to the consideration of aerosols in global agreements. I conclude that some of the major objections to considering aerosols under hemispheric or global agreements are illusory because: (1) a few major sources will be addressed by local regulations, but the remainder may not be addressed by traditional air quality management; (2) climate forcing by carbon particles is not limited to 'hot spots'—about 90% of it occurs at relatively low concentrations; (3) while aerosol science is complex, the most salient characteristics of aerosol behavior can be condensed into tractable metrics including, but not limited to, the global warming potential; (4) despite scientific uncertainties, reducing all aerosols from major sources of black carbon will reduce direct climate warming with a very high probability. This change in climate forcing accounts for at least 25% of the accompanying CO2 forcing with significant probability (25% for modern diesel engines, 90% for superemitting diesels, and 55% for cooking with biofuels). Thus, this fraction of radiative forcing should not be ignored.

Bond, Tami C.

2007-10-01

139

Can Global Warming Heat Up Environmental Education?  

Science.gov (United States)

Bronx Community College (CUNY) launched "Global Warming Campus Awareness and Action Days" in celebration of Earth Day, 2007. The purpose of this program was to raise awareness of environmental issues in the college population, especially students. To let more students have a grasp of what Environmental Education (EE) is all about, the author…

Mazzatenta, Claudio

2008-01-01

140

NASA: Black soot fuels global warming  

CERN Multimedia

New research from NASA's Goddard Space Center scientists suggests emissions of black soot have been altering the way sunlight reflects off Earth's snow. The research indicates the soot could be responsible for as much as 25 percent of global warming over the past century (assorted news items, 1 paragraph each).

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

CERN plans global-warming experiment  

CERN Multimedia

A controversial theory that proposes that cosmic rays are responsible for global warming, is going to be tested at CERN. Experimentalists will use a cloud chamber to mimic the Earth's atmosphere in order to try and find out if cloud formation is influenced by solar activity (1 page).

De Laine, M

1998-01-01

142

Frequency of Deep Convective Clouds and Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

This slide presentation reviews the effect of global warming on the formation of Deep Convective Clouds (DCC). It concludes that nature responds to global warming with an increase in strong convective activity. The frequency of DCC increases with global warming at the rate of 6%/decade. The increased frequency of DCC with global warming alone increases precipitation by 1.7%/decade. It compares the state of the art climate models' response to global warming, and concludes that the parametrization of climate models need to be tuned to more closely emulate the way nature responds to global warming.

Aumann, Hartmut H.; Teixeira, Joao

2008-01-01

143

GLOBAL WARMING: IMPLICATIONS AND ANTICIPATORY ADAPTIVE MEASURES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Our earth is warming up. There is no denying to this fact that the gradual heating up of our globe has a tremendous effect on the climate. It in turn has affected the biotic factors that make up our biosphere, eventually directing the course of our socio-economic development. Some workers are, however, optimistic about this natural phenomenon. Various ways have been suggested to mitigate the effects of global warming, but the damage already done cannot be revoked. Hence, the thing that we are...

MUNESH KUMAR; Sheikh, Mehraj A.; AABID RASOOL ZARGAR

2011-01-01

144

Nuclear energy and global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear energy emits no greenhouse gases during operations. Its life-cycle carbon emissions compete favorably with the best of renewable energy options. It is a proven, reliable base-load electricity generator with predictable and reasonable cost. Nuclear energy also has the potential to replace greenhouse gas emitting technologies in the manufacturing and transportation fuel sectors. National and international leaders are calling for the expansion of nuclear power to be a significant tool in eliminating 75% or more of global carbon dioxide emissions by 2050. Cuts of this magnitude are believed to be necessary in order to mitigate the effects of anthropogenic climate change. Nevertheless, significant expansion of nuclear energy will face technical, social and political hurdles. Because no combination of other supply technologies is likely to fully replace nuclear's carbon abatement potential, success in overcoming these barriers is vital. A nuclear renaissance born of environmental urgency will attract many capable men and women to challenging, rewarding careers in the application of nuclear science and technology. (author)

145

Global Warming: Claims, Science, and Consequences  

Science.gov (United States)

Widespread (and seemingly dominant) claims about the dire consequences of anthropogenic global warming (AGW) have been propagated by both scientists and politicians and have been prominently featured by much of the mass media. This talk will examine some of those claims --- such as those made in the popular pro-AGW film, An Inconvenient Truth^1 --- from the perspectives of science^2 and scientific methodology^3. Some of the issues considered will be: What are the major ``greenhouse gases''? To what extent is global warming a result of human influences through an increase of ``greenhouse gases''? Is an increase in (1) global temperature and (2) carbon dioxide bad/good? What are some meanings that can be given to the term ``consensus'' in science? What are the estimated financial and other costs of governments implementing the Kyoto accords? Links to readings and videos will be given at the conclusion of the talk. ^1Gore, Al, An Inconvenient Truth: The Planetary Emergency of Global Warming and What We Can Do About It -- (Rodale Press, May, 2006). ^2Marlo Lewis, ``A Skeptic's Guide to An Inconvenient Truth'' http://www.cei.org/pages/aitresponse-book.cfm ^3Aaron Wildavsky, But Is It True? A Citizen's Guide to Environmental Health and Safety Issues (Harvard University Press, 1995), Intro. and Chap. 11. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.NES07.C1.6

Gould, Laurence I.

2007-04-01

146

Combined effects of warming and ocean acidification on coral reef Foraminifera Marginopora vertebralis and Heterostegina depressa  

Science.gov (United States)

Warming and changes in ocean carbonate chemistry alter marine coastal ecosystems at an accelerating pace. The interaction between these stressors has been the subject of recent studies on reef organisms such as corals, bryozoa, molluscs, and crustose coralline algae. Here we investigated the combined effects of elevated sea surface temperatures and pCO2 on two species of photosymbiont-bearing coral reef Foraminifera: Heterostegina depressa (hosting diatoms) and Marginopora vertebralis (hosting dinoflagellates). The effects of single and combined stressors were studied by monitoring survivorship, growth, and physiological parameters, such as respiration, photochemistry (pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry and oxygen production), and chl a content. Specimens were exposed in flow-through aquaria for up to seven weeks to combinations of two pCO2 (~790 and ~490 µatm) and two temperature (28 and 31 °C) regimes. Elevated temperature had negative effects on the physiology of both species. Elevated pCO2 had negative effects on growth and apparent photosynthetic rate in H.depressa but a positive effect on effective quantum yield. With increasing pCO2, chl a content decreased in H. depressa and increased in M. vertebralis. The strongest stress responses were observed when the two stressors acted in combination. An interaction term was statistically significant in half of the measured parameters. Further exploration revealed that 75 % of these cases showed a synergistic (= larger than additive) interaction between the two stressors. These results indicate that negative physiological effects on photosymbiont-bearing coral reef Foraminifera are likely to be stronger under simultaneous acidification and temperature rise than what would be expected from the effect of each of the stressors individually.

Schmidt, Christiane; Kucera, Michal; Uthicke, Sven

2014-09-01

147

GLOBAL WARMING: IS A NEW THREAT?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the Post Cold War era, the concepts of ''security'', ''national security'', and ''international security'' have changed with regard to their contents and meanings. Such developments made states to renew their national security policies. Security is a special form of politics as well. All security issues are political problems but not all political conflicts are security issues. In the Post Cold War era, differentiating and increasing numbers of elements that constitutes threat changed the concept of threat and widen the capacity of security. In this term, many elements lost its effect of being a threat but also new threatening elements emerged. Environmental problems, human rights, mass migration, micro nationalism, ethnic conflicts, religious fundamentalism, contagious diseases, international terrorism, economic instabilities, drug and weapon smuggling and human trafficking are the new problems emerged in international security agenda. Environmental problems no longer take place in security issues and can be mentioned as a ''low security'' issue. They are threats to the global commons i.e. the oceans, the seas, the ozone layer and the climate system, which are life supports for mankind as a whole. Global warming is one of the most important environmental issues of our day that effects human life in every field and can be defined as a 'serious threat to international security'. Because of global warming, environmental changes will occur and these changes will cause conflicting issues in international relations. Because of global warming dwindling freshwater supplies, food shortages, political instability and other conflicts may take place. Some IR scholars see a need for global cooperation in order to face the threat. At the background of global warming and its effects, states have to get preventive measures and normally, each state form its own measures, therefore as a consequence of this, there will be a new platform in international system. The aim of this paper is to discuss whether global warming is a threat and which countries are most effected from this threat.

Ayca Eminoglu

2008-09-30

148

Global warming from an energy perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Global climate change and energy are integrally related. The majority of greenhouse gas emissions are the result of energy production and use; at the same time, warming will affect energy patterns in California through physical increases in energy demand, physical changes in energy supply, and changes in both energy end-use patterns and supplies resulting from climate-change policies. There seems to be a growing political consensus that the world (as well as the state) needs to act soon to minimize further commitment to future warming. While California is not likely to experience the physical changes resulting from a warmer climate for years or perhaps decades, policy responses to the warming issue may cause more immediate impacts. This chapter will discuss how policy response to potential warming may be the most significant early impact of the issue on California's energy system. Makers of energy policy face the dilemma of deciding how to respond to the climate warming issue in the face of scientific uncertainties about its timing and seriousness. The chapter will conclude by presenting a conceptual framework for dealing with this dilemma, along with general recommendations for action

149

National contributions to observed global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

There is considerable interest in identifying national contributions to global warming as a way of allocating historical responsibility for observed climate change. This task is made difficult by uncertainty associated with national estimates of historical emissions, as well as by difficulty in estimating the climate response to emissions of gases with widely varying atmospheric lifetimes. Here, we present a new estimate of national contributions to observed climate warming, including CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and land-use change, as well as methane, nitrous oxide and sulfate aerosol emissions While some countries’ warming contributions are reasonably well defined by fossil fuel CO2 emissions, many countries have dominant contributions from land-use CO2 and non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions, emphasizing the importance of both deforestation and agriculture as components of a country’s contribution to climate warming. Furthermore, because of their short atmospheric lifetime, recent sulfate aerosol emissions have a large impact on a country’s current climate contribution We show also that there are vast disparities in both total and per-capita climate contributions among countries, and that across most developed countries, per-capita contributions are not currently consistent with attempts to restrict global temperature change to less than 2 °C above pre-industrial temperatures.

Damon Matthews, H.; Graham, Tanya L.; Keverian, Serge; Lamontagne, Cassandra; Seto, Donny; Smith, Trevor J.

2014-01-01

150

Implications of global warming on human health  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to the build up of green house gases in atmosphere, less heat escapes through the atmosphere promoting global warming. This may result in world wide droughts, sea-level rise inundating islands and coastal countries, cataclysmic hurricanes etc. Human health as a result of these changes, will be affected both physiologically and psychologically. Physiological effects may be more pronounced in cases occurring due to changes in rainfall and temperature patterns, food production amounts, water availability, etc. Psychological impact may be more in cases of catastrophes like floods, hurricanes or famine. In this paper, an attempt has been made to highlight the implications of global warming on human health due to temperature change. Food production changes and ultra-violet radiation effects and cataclysmic disaster effects. (author)

151

A Paleo Perspective on Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Paleoclimatology Program has made available the Paleo Perspective on Global Warming Website. Sections included at the site are the Beginning, the Story, the Data, Final Word, and Image Gallery, among others. The Story provides the user with a background on climate and climate variability. The Data section gives an in-depth look at the "instrumental and paleoclimatic data that tells us how the Earth's temperature has changed over the past years to the millennia." A highlight of the site is the Image Gallery section, with images from the following NOAA slide sets: Coral Paleoclimatology, Tree Ring, Lake Sediments, Pollen, and Low-Latitude Ice Cores and Polar Ice Cores. The site helps to highlight the importance of paleoclimatic research and shows how paleoclimatic research relates to global warming and other issues regarding climate change and variability.

Program., National G.

152

Magnetic fusion development for global warming suppression  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy shortage and environmental pollution are two critical issues for human beings in the 21st century. There is an urgent need for new sustainable energy to meet the fast growing demand for clean energy. Fusion is one of the few options which may be able to satisfy the requirement for large scale sustainable energy generation and global warming suppression and therefore must be developed as quickly as possible. Fusion research has been carried out for the past 50 years. It is too long to wait for another 50 years to generate electricity by fusion. A much more aggressive approach should be taken with international collaboration towards the early use of fusion energy to meet the urgent needs for energy and global warming suppression.

153

Is man responsible for global warming?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to politicians, ecologists and mass media, it is now certain that with our CO2 emissions, we are all responsible for a major global warming to come with dramatic consequences. But, is this affirmation indisputable? Are we all responsible for the rise of sea level and the summer thawing of the arctic ice shelf? Is this expected global warming without precedent? And is CO2, necessary for life, the cause of our misfortune? The answers commonly claimed are maybe more complex in reality and the climate question more subtle than it looks like. This book tries to decode the wheels of the climate machine and the share of human responsibility in climate change. (J.S.)

154

Global warming : a guide to the science  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This guide dispels the popular hypothesis that increases in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere resulting from increased industrial activity have caused global warming. The report suggests that there is no evidence of catastrophic anthropogenic global warming and that temperature changes over the last 100 years has been due mostly to natural phenomena. The global temperature has increased by about 0.5 to 0.6 degrees C in the past 100 years, and this, before most of the greenhouse gases were added to the air by human activities such as burning of fossil fuels. The initial major rise in temperature was in 1940, before the rise in carbon dioxide levels, therefore, it was suggested that this warming must have been natural in origin. Computer based simulations of the climate system forecast disastrous rises in global temperature. But it was argued that current climate models are not accurate in forecasting future climate change because it is not possible to isolate the effect of an increased concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide on climate because about 5 million different variables have to be considered with all their important impacts and interactions. Science indicates that at most, a little warming will occur and certainly better plant grown which should be of great benefit to mankind. It was concluded that the human condition can be improved through unconstrained access to energy, but use of energy may also produce local unwanted pollutants as a by product. The sources of true environmental pollution can be mitigated based on rational considerations of the risks of pollutants and benefits of energy use. refs., figs

155

Global Warming and Caspian Sea Level Fluctuations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Coastal regions have a high social, economical and environmental importance. Due to this importance the sea level fluctuations can have many bad consequences. In this research the correlation between the increasing trend of temperature in coastal stations due to Global Warming and the Caspian Sea level has been established. The Caspian Sea level data has been received from the Jason-1 satellite. It was resulted that the monthly correlation between the temperature and sea lev...

Ardakanian, Reza; Alemohammad, Seyed Hamed

2013-01-01

156

Counting the cost of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report sets out the issues that are raised by global warming in the area of relations between generations, and suggests directions where research is needed. It is intended to prepare the way by mapping the territory. This is an area where the work of philosophers and economists overlaps. Generally, each discipline has simply ignored the other, and when there has been some communication there has also often been some misunderstanding. This report tries to bring together work in the two disciplines. (author)

157

Infectious diseases and global warming: Tracking disease incidence rates globally  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Given the increasing importance of impact of global warming on public health, there is no global database system to monitor infectious disease and disease in general, and to which global data of climate change and environmental factors, such as temperature, greenhouse gases, and human activities, e.g., coastal development, deforestation, can be calibrated, investigated and correlated. The author proposes the diseases incidence rates be adopted as the basic global measure of morbidity of infectious diseases. The importance of a correctly chosen measure of morbidity of disease is presented. The importance of choosing disease incidence rates as the measure of morbidity and the mathematical foundation of which are discussed. The author further proposes the establishment of a global database system to track the incidence rates of infectious diseases. Only such a global system can be used to calibrate and correlate other globally tracked climatic, greenhouse gases and environmental data. The infrastructure and data sources for building such a global database is discussed.

Low, N.C. [Low and Associates Actuary, Cerritos, CA (United States)

1995-09-01

158

Toward international law on global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Legal precedent in the history of international environmental law is considered. Then, the legal principles, rights and obligations related to transboundary environmental interference are drawn from the precedent. From this legal and historical background, and a brief overview of the principal technical aspects of the emerging global warming problem, the authors suggest a number of possible international protocols. These include outlines of multilateral treaties on energy efficiency, reduction in utilization of coal, increased adoption efficiency, reduction in utilization of coal, increased adoption of renewable and solar energy, and stimulation of several types of forestation, with creation of practical regimes and remedies. Each protocol has its own environmental social and economic merits and urgency, apart from the prevention of global warming. In each suggested protocol, the political obstacles are analyzed. Suggestions are presented for reduction of levels of disagreement standing in the way of obtaining viable treaties likely to be upheld in practice by the signatories. An agenda for study and action is presented, on the assumption that prudence dictates that international environmental law must be expanded as soon as feasible to regulate global warming

159

Weather extremes from anthropogenic global warming  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although sea levels are predicted to rise 1 to 2 meters by 2100, the more immediate effects of global warming are weather extremes. The number of natural disasters since 1996 costing $1 billion or more doubled compared with the previous 15-year period. Extreme summer heat anomalies now cover about 10% of land area, up from 0.2% in 1950-1980. The human influence on global warming is evident from climate data and physical modeling. Since the beginning of the industrial era, carbon dioxide (CO2 increases correlate with those of temperature. Carbon dating shows that the CO2 increase is from burning ancient fossil fuels. Increasing CO2 and other greenhouse gases blanket and warm the earth’s surface, allowing less heat to reach the stratosphere, which is cooling. This is consistent with satellite measurements showing that solar irradiance is not changing. The present CO2 rate increase of 2 ppm/year is 300 times higher than the rate at which the earth recovered from the ice age 18,000 years ago. Without the radiative forcing of noncondensing persistent CO2, the terrestrial greenhouse would collapse, plunging the global climate into an icebound earth state. Will new technologies lower our carbon emissions in time to prevent more weather extremes? Electric cars now get the equivalent of 100 miles per gallon. The cost of electricity from solar photovoltaic cells has reached grid parity.

Paul H. Carr

2013-01-01

160

Modeling and projection of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, the mathematical models used in relation to global warming are reviewed, and the main results of computation are reported. Global environment problems are characterized by the large temporal and spatial scales to be treated, and the large dispersion of the related knowledge. As for the fundamental role of the models, the miscellaneous related informations are put in order and systematized, and as the result, the future image of the global environment is depicted. To this work, much uncertainty follow. The first is that accompanying the development of human activities, the second is that accompanying the lack of scientific knowledge, and the third is that originating in the uncertainty of phenomena itself. For treating the global warming, the forecast using models and the countermeasures and the judgement of the effect are considered to be the indispensable works. The model for forecasting the discharge of greenhouse effect gas, the model for carbon dioxide discharge due to the change of land utilization centering around forests, the model for the circulation of greenhouse effect gas, the model for forecasting weather change and the model for forecasting the effect of the countermeasures on macroeconomy are described. (K.I.)

 
 
 
 
161

Global Warming: Evidence from Satellite Observations  

Science.gov (United States)

Observations made in Channel 2 (53.74 GHz) of the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) radiometer, flown on-board sequential, sun-synchronous, polar orbiting NOAA operational satellites, indicate that the mean temperature of the atmosphere over the globe increased during the period 1980 to 1999. In this study we have minimized systematic errors in the time series introduced by the satellite orbital drift in an objective manner. This is done with the help the onboard warm black body temperature, which is used in the calibration of the MSU radiometer. The corrected MSU Channel 2 observations of the NOAA satellite series reveal that the vertically weighted global mean temperature of the atmosphere, with a peak weight near the mid-troposphere, warmed at the rate of 0.13 K per decade (with an uncertainty of 0.05 K per decade) during 1980 to 1999. The global warming deduced from conventional meteorological data that have been corrected for urbanization effects agrees reasonably with this satellite deuced result.

Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R., Jr.; Yoo, J.-M.

2001-01-01

162

Will Melting Ice Caps Increase Global Warming?  

Science.gov (United States)

In this hands-on activity, students will test one aspect of a theory that reduction in the polar caps will speed global warming. They simulate a polar region with pans of water, one painted white to represent a glacier, and one painted black or blue to represent the same area after the ice has melted. They place the covered pans in the sun with water in the bottom, and measure and compare the temperature of the water in the two pans over time. A thermometer is needed in the investigation. The investigation is supported by the textbook, Climate Change, part of Global System Science, an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

163

Microwave sounding units and global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

A recent work of Spencer and Christy (1990) on precise monitoring of global temperature trends from satellites is critically examined. It is tentatively concluded in the present comment that remote sensing using satellite microwave radiometers can in fact provide a means for the monitoring of troposphere-averaged air temperature. However, for this to be successful more than one decade of data will be required to overcome the apparent inherent variability of global average air temperature. It is argued that the data set reported by Spencer and Christy should be subjected to careful review before it is interpreted as evidence of the presence or absence of global warming. In a reply, Christy provides specific responses to the commenters' objections.

Gary, Bruce L.; Keihm, Stephen J.

1991-01-01

164

Fossil-fuel constraints on global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2008 and 2009 two papers by Kharecha and Hansen and by Nel and Cooper examined possible fossil energy availability and energy consumption scenarios and consequences for future climate. The papers yield somewhat similar results regarding atmospheric CO2 levels, but they reach substantially different conclusions regarding future climate change. Here, we compare their methods and results. Our work shows that Nel and Cooper's paper significantly underestimates future warming. Nel and Cooper conclude that even if all the available fossil fuels would be burned at the maximum possible rate during this century, the consequent warming would cap at less than 1 deg. C above the 2000 level. We find that - under Nel and Cooper's assumption of an intensive exploitation of fossil fuels - the global temperature in 2100 will likely reach levels which would lead to severely damaging long-term impacts.

165

Fossil-fuel constraints on global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2008 and 2009 two papers by Kharecha and Hansen and by Nel and Cooper examined possible fossil energy availability and energy consumption scenarios and consequences for future climate. The papers yield somewhat similar results regarding atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels, but they reach substantially different conclusions regarding future climate change. Here, we compare their methods and results. Our work shows that Nel and Cooper's paper significantly underestimates future warming. Nel and Cooper conclude that even if all the available fossil fuels would be burned at the maximum possible rate during this century, the consequent warming would cap at less than 1 C above the 2000 level. We find that - under Nel and Cooper's assumption of an intensive exploitation of fossil fuels - the global temperature in 2100 will likely reach levels which would lead to severely damaging long-term impacts. (author)

Zecca, Antonio; Chiari, Luca [Physics Department, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, I-38050 Povo TN (Italy)

2010-01-15

166

Global warming and the hydrologic cycle  

Science.gov (United States)

Starting with a review of the basic processes that govern greenhouse warming, we have demonstrated that the hydrologic cycle plays a key role in the heat balance of the Earth's surface—atmosphere system. Through the water and other climatic feedbacks, the hydrologic cycle is shown to be a key factor in the climate's evolution as greenhouse gases continue to build up in the atmosphere. This paper examines the current predictive capability of general circulation models linked with macroscale and landscape-scale hydrologic models that simulate regional and local hydrologic regimes under global warming scenarios. Issues concerning hydrologic model calibration and validation in the context of climate change are addressed herein. It is shown that the natural uncertainty in hydrologic regimes in the present climate introduces a signal-to-noise interpretation problem for discerning greenhouse-induced variations in regional hydrologic regimes. Simulations of river basins by means of macroscale hydrologic models nested within general circulation models have been implemented in a few selected cases. From the perspective of water resources management, such simulations, carried out in detail under greenhouse-warming scenarios in midlatitudinal basins of the United States, predict shorter winter seasons, larger winter floods, drier and more frequent summer weather, and overall enhanced and protracted hydrologic variability. All these predictions point to potentially worsening conditions for flood control, water storage, and water supply in areas of semiarid midlatitudinal climate currently dependent of spring snowmelt. Little information of this type is currently available for other areas of the world. Practice of sound water resources engineering principles ought to be adequate to cope with additional hydrologic uncertainty that might arise from global warming.

Loaiciga, Hugo A.; Valdes, Juan B.; Vogel, Richard; Garvey, Jeff; Schwarz, Harry

1996-01-01

167

Punishments and Prizes for Explaining Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Some few gifted scientists, the late Carl Sagan being an iconic example, are superbly skilled at communicating science clearly and compellingly to non-scientists. Most scientists, however, have serious shortcomings as communicators. The common failings include being verbose, addicted to jargon, caveat- obsessed and focused on details. In addition, it is far easier for a scientist to scoff at the scientific illiteracy of modern society than to work at understanding the viewpoints and concerns of journalists, policymakers and the public. Obstacles await even those scientists with the desire and the talent to communicate science well. Peer pressure and career disincentives can act as powerful deterrents, discouraging especially younger scientists from spending time on non-traditional activities. Scientists often lack mentors and role models to help them develop skills in science communication. Journalists also face real difficulties in getting science stories approved by editors and other gatekeepers. Climate change science brings its own problems in communication. The science itself is unusually wide- ranging and complex. The contentious policies and politics of dealing with global warming are difficult to disentangle from the science. Misinformation and disinformation about climate change are widespread. Intimidation and censorship of scientists by some employers is a serious problem. Polls show that global warming ranks low on the public's list of important issues. Despite all the obstacles, communicating climate change science well is critically important today. It is an art that can be learned and that brings its own rewards and satisfactions. Academic institutions and research funding agencies increasingly value outreach by scientists, and they provide resources to facilitate it. Society needs scientists who can clearly and authoritatively explain the science of global warming and its implications, while remaining objective and policy-neutral. This need will only increase in coming years as climate change makes the transition from a topic of limited public interest to one of great concern to all society.

Somerville, R. C.

2006-12-01

168

Indentifying the Molecular Origin of Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Indentifying the Molecular Origin of Global Warming Partha P. Bera, Joseph S. Francisco and Timothy J. Lee NASA Ames Research Center, Space Science and Astrobiology Division, Moffett Field, California 94035, and Department of Chemistry and Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907-1393 Abstract The physical characteristics of greenhouse gases (GHGs) have been investigated to assess which properties are most important in determining the radiative efficiency of a GHG. Chlorofluorcarbons (CFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), hydrofluoroethers, fluoroethers, nitrogen fluorides, and various other known atmospheric trace molecules have been included in this study. Compounds containing the halogens F or Cl have in common very polar X-F or X-Cl bonds, particularly the X-F bonds. It is shown that as more F atoms bond to the same central atom, the bond dipoles become larger as a result of the central carbon atom becoming more positive. This leads to a linear increase in the total or integrated X-F bond dipole derivatives for the molecule, which leads to a non-linear (quadratic) increase in infrared (IR) intensity. Moreover, virtually all of the X-F bond stretches occur in the atmospheric IR window as opposed to X-H stretches, which do not occur in the atmospheric window. It is concluded that molecules possessing several F atoms will always have a large radiative forcing parameter in the calculation of their global warming potential. Some of the implications for global warming and climate change and a new design strategy for more environmentally friendly industrial materials from a molecular quantum chemistry perspective will be discussed.

Bera, P. P.; Lee, T. J.; Francisco, J.

2009-12-01

169

Marine ecosystems in alteration under global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is commonly thought among fishermen, researchers and in the fishing industries that the administration and harvesting of the fish resources is more important for the stock of fish than are changes in the climate. However, many scientific investigations now link changes in temperature with changes in the spreading, survival and beginning of life processes. There is solid evidence that there are important changes in progress in the North Atlantic marine ecosystem caused by global warming. If the heating of the water masses continues, it will probably have a large impact on the ocean's productivity and consequently for the fishing industry

170

Can global warming save nuclear power?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear powered electricity generation in the United Kingdom has an uncertain future. The relative costs of generating electricity by nuclear fission compared to other means and the need for a desirable mixture or ''portfolio'' of energy sources in the electricity industry are identified as the key to this uncertainty. The author argues that Government commitments to reducing Carbon Monoxide (CO) emissions, and hence global warming, may strengthen arguments in favour of a firm commitment to nuclear power, as even modern fossil-fuelled power plants emit nearly 90 times as much CO as nuclear plants. (UK)

171

Global Warming and Caspian Sea Level Fluctuations  

CERN Document Server

Coastal regions have a high social, economical and environmental importance. Due to this importance the sea level fluctuations can have many bad consequences. In this research the correlation between the increasing trend of temperature in coastal stations due to Global Warming and the Caspian Sea level has been established. The Caspian Sea level data has been received from the Jason-1 satellite. It was resulted that the monthly correlation between the temperature and sea level is high and also positive and almost the same for all the stations. But the yearly correlation was negative. It means that the sea level has decreased by the increase in temperature.

Ardakanian, Reza

2013-01-01

172

Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rai SM. 2013. Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 101-104. The present article is focused on global warming, which is an important global problem being faced by the humankind. The article discusses about the causes of the global warming, such as green house gases. The earth receives energy from the Sun in the form of solar radiations with small amount of infra red and ultraviolet rays. A part of these radiations is...

Rai, Shivani M.

2013-01-01

173

Global warming update: Recent scientific findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study, from the George C. Marshall Institute, considers recent scientific findings on the extent of human-induced global warming. The earth's temperature has risen by approximately half a degree Celsius in the last 100 years, coinciding with a substantial increase in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, apparently the result of human activity. Several scientific groups have concluded that manmade emissions of greenhouse gases has produced much or all of the recent rise in global temperatures. They predict a doubling of carbon dioxide by the mid-21st century resulting in a global temperature rise of 5 degrees C and causing severe disruptions in the earth's ecosystem. The available data on climatic change, however, do not support these predictions, nor do they support the idea that human activity has caused, or will cause, a dangerous increase in global temperatures. Enormous economic stakes ride on government decisions about carbon taxes and other CO2 emission restrictions. Attention must be paid to the scientific evidence, no matter how contrary to popular opinion its implications appear to be. The discussion is divided into five parts: introduction; Are the Greenhouse Forecasts Reliable?; The Cause of Recent Climate Changes; New Results on Global Flooding; Conclusions; Policy Implications. 27 refs., 9 figs

174

American lay conceptions of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ethnographic interviews were conducted with Americans from all walks of life in order to understand how ordinary citizens conceptualize global climate change and make value judgments about it. Most informants had heard of the greenhouse effect, but they held fundamental misconceptions that were shared across individuals. Many of these misconceptions derive from the process of fitting a new concept, global warming, into four preexisting categories: stratospheric ozone depletion, plant photosynthesis, tropospheric pollution, and personally-experienced seasonal and geographic temperature variation. Informants readily accepted that human activities could change climate and weather patterns. Indeed, most reported they had already observed changes in weather patterns, some citing space shots or atomic bomb testing as causes. Few informants connected the greenhouse effect to energy or fuel consumption, although the connection was easily understood when explained by the interviewers

175

Global Warming and the Microwave Background  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the work, the importance of assigning the microwave background to the Earth is addressed while emphasizing the consequences for global climate change. Climate models can only produce meaningful forecasts when they consider the real magnitude of all radiative processes. The oceans and continents both contribute to terrestrial emissions. However, the extent of oceanic radiation, particularly in the microwave region, raises concerns. This is not only since the globe is covered with water, but because the oceans themselves are likely to be weaker emitters than currently believed. Should the microwave background truly be generated by the oceans of the Earth, our planetwould be a much less efficient emitter of radiation in this region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Furthermore, the oceans would appear unable to increase their emissions in the microwave in response to temperature elevation, as predicted by Stefan’s law. Theresults are significant relative to the modeling of global warming.

Robitaille P.-M.

2009-04-01

176

IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON GLOBAL WARMING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Climate change has become an issue which touches upon all sphere of influence of life. To struggle the problem understanding the perceptions of all that have a stake in it provides with stronger ground for decision making. India is the country that is or going to be severely affected by climate change. India is faced with the challenge of sustaining its rapid economic growth while dealing with the global threat of climate change. This threat arises from collected greenhouse gas productions in the atmosphere, anthropogenically generated through long-term and intensive industrial growth and high consumption lifestyles in developed countries. The solution of which comparatively depends on how its key decision makers perceive the problem. The paper deals with the impact of climate change on global warming. The results of data analysis reveal that most identified rainfall variability, declining hydrology and increasing temperature as manifestations of climate change, and emissions reduction and forest protection as its key solutions.

Jalpa Rohit Patel

2014-04-01

177

Canada and global warming: Meeting the challenge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Canada accounts for ca 2% of total world emissions of greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide emissions are by far the largest greenhouse gas source in Canada, primarily from energy consumption. On a per capita basis, Canada ranks second among industrialized countries in terms of energy related carbon dioxide emissions. Canada's northern geography and climate, its export-oriented economy with energy-intensive resource industries, and its relatively small population dispersed over a wide land mass contribute to this high per-capita value. The effects of global warming induced by greenhouse gases are outlined, including a reduction in water supplies, droughts affecting agriculture and forestry, and large-scale thawing of permafrost. A national strategy to respond to global warming has been developed which includes limiting and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, preparing for potential climatic changes, and improving scientific understanding and predictive capabilities with respect to climate change. Details of this strategy are outlined, including provincial and territorial strategies in partnership with the national strategy. 11 figs., 2 tabs

178

Global warming and cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Earth and the oceans have warmed significantly over the past four decades, providing evidence that the Earth is undergoing long-term climate change. Increasing temperatures and changing rainfall patterns have been documented. Cyanobacteria have a long evolutionary history, with their first occurrence dating back at least 2.7 billion years ago. Cyanobacteria often dominated the oceans after past mass extinction events. They evolved under anoxic conditions and are well adapted to environmental stress including exposure to UV, high solar radiation and temperatures, scarce and abundant nutrients. These environmental conditions favor the dominance of cyanobacteria in many aquatic habitats, from freshwater to marine ecosystems. A few studies have examined the ecological consequences of global warming on cyanobacteria and other phytoplankton over the past decades in freshwater, estuarine, and marine environments, with varying results. The responses of cyanobacteria to changing environmental patterns associated with global climate change are important subjects for future research. Results of this research will have ecological and biogeochemical significance as well as management implications. PMID:18461772

Paul, Valerie J

2008-01-01

179

Identifying the Molecular Origin of Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

We have investigated the physical characteristics of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to assess which properties are most important in determining the efficiency of a GHG. Chlorofluorcarbons (CFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), nitrogen fluorides, and various other known atmospheric trace molecules have been included in this study. Compounds containing the halogens F or Cl have in common very polar X-F or X-Cl bonds, particularly the X-F bonds. It is shown that as more F atoms bond to the same central atom, the bond dipoles become larger as a result of the central atom becoming more positive. This leads to a linear increase in the total or integrated XF bond dipole derivatives for the molecule, which leads to a non-linear (quadratic) increase in infrared (IR) intensity. Moreover, virtually all of the X-F bond stretches occur in the atmospheric IR window as opposed to X-H stretches, which do not occur in the atmospheric window. It is concluded that molecules possessing several F atoms will always have a large radiative forcing parameter in the calculation of their global warming potential. Some of the implications for global warming and climate change are discussed.

Bera, Partha P.; Francisco, Joseph S.; Lee, Timothy J.

2009-01-01

180

Global warming and future fossil fuel consumption  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reviews the potential for reducing the emissions of CO{sub 2} by reducing the use of fossil fuels. Following a brief review of the current data on greenhouse gas emissions (on increase in CO{sub 2} levels of 25% is less than 150 years has taken place) and global warming, the paper considers three ways of decreasing fossil fuel comsumption: doing without; maximizing conversion efficiences; and reducing the use of energy-intensive products through better design and extensive recycling of materials. A major potential for such reductions is indentified in buildings, transportation and industry, but they will be difficult to implement, even if the public's desire for them is intensified by a clear condfirmation that a significant global warming is going to occur. These difficulties centre around the diffuse nature of the measures necessary for dramatic energy conservation and around the extreme cross-national inequalities in energy comsumption. Looking just 30 years ahead, United Nations (1988) projections forecast a 15% larger population in the rich countries and 84% more people in the poor world. Current annual per capita primary energy comsumption in the poor world averages about 20MJ (the rich world's mean is close to 150MJ). It is concluded that reductions in the population growth of the poor countries and in the energy, consumption per capita of the rich countries must be major components of any attempt to reduce greenhouse gas emission significantly. 46 refs., 4 figs.

Smil, V. (Univ. of Manitoba, MB (Canada))

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Global warming potential impact of bioenergy systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reducing dependence on fossil fuels and mitigation of GHG emissions is a main focus in the energy strategy of many Countries. In the case of Demark, for instance, the long-term target of the energy policy is to reach 100% renewable energy system. This can be achieved by drastic reduction of the energy demand, optimization of production/distribution and substitution of fossil fuels with biomasses. However, a large increase in biomass consumption will finally induce conversion of arable and currently cultivated land into fields dedicated to energy crops production determining significant environmental consequences related to land use changes. In this study the global warming potential impact associated with six alternative bioenergy systems based on willow and Miscanthus was assessed by means of life-cycle assessment. The results showed that bioenergy production may generate higher global warming impacts than the reference fossil fuel system, when the impacts from indirect land use changes are accounted for. In a life-cycle perspective, only highly-efficient co-firing with fossil fuel achieved a (modest GHG emission reduction.

Wenzel H.

2012-10-01

182

Global warming potential impact of bioenergy systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Reducing dependence on fossil fuels and mitigation of GHG emissions is a main focus in the energy strategy of many Countries. In the case of Demark, for instance, the long-term target of the energy policy is to reach 100% renewable energy system. This can be achieved by drastic reduction of the energy demand, optimization of production/distribution and substitution of fossil fuels with biomasses. However, a large increase in biomass consumption will finally induce conversion of arable and currently cultivated land into fields dedicated to energy crops production determining significant environmental consequences related to land use changes. In this study the global warming potential impact associated with six alternative bioenergy systems based on willow and Miscanthus was assessed by means of life-cycle assessment. The results showed that bioenergy production may generate higher global warming impacts than the reference fossil fuel system, when the impacts from indirect land use changes are accounted for. In a life-cycle perspective, only highly-efficient co-firing with fossil fuel achieved a (modest) GHG emission reduction.

Tonini, D.; Hamelin, L.; Wenzel, H.; Astrup, T.

2012-10-01

183

Global Warming Estimation From Microwave Sounding Unit  

Science.gov (United States)

Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) Ch 2 data sets, collected from sequential, polar-orbiting, Sun-synchronous National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration operational satellites, contain systematic calibration errors that are coupled to the diurnal temperature cycle over the globe. Since these coupled errors in MSU data differ between successive satellites, it is necessary to make compensatory adjustments to these multisatellite data sets in order to determine long-term global temperature change. With the aid of the observations during overlapping periods of successive satellites, we can determine such adjustments and use them to account for the coupled errors in the long-term time series of MSU Ch 2 global temperature. In turn, these adjusted MSU Ch 2 data sets can be used to yield global temperature trend. In a pioneering study, Spencer and Christy (SC) (1990) developed a procedure to derive the global temperature trend from MSU Ch 2 data. Such a procedure can leave unaccounted residual errors in the time series of the temperature anomalies deduced by SC, which could lead to a spurious long-term temperature trend derived from their analysis. In the present study, we have developed a method that avoids the shortcomings of the SC procedure, the magnitude of the coupled errors is not determined explicitly. Furthermore, based on some assumptions, these coupled errors are eliminated in three separate steps. Such a procedure can leave unaccounted residual errors in the time series of the temperature anomalies deduced by SC, which could lead to a spurious long-term temperature trend derived from their analysis. In the present study, we have developed a method that avoids the shortcomings of the SC procedures. Based on our analysis, we find there is a global warming of 0.23+/-0.12 K between 1980 and 1991. Also, in this study, the time series of global temperature anomalies constructed by removing the global mean annual temperature cycle compares favorably with a similar time series obtained from conventional observations of temperature.

Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R., Jr.; Yoo, J.-M.; Dalu, G.

1998-01-01

184

Understanding the challenges of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The evolution of the threat of global warming and the chronology of the last half century of efforts to prevent it from overwhelming humanity is chronicled. It was in the 1970s when it was first realized that the cumulative total of atmospheric carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning had been steadily rising from the pre-industrial 280 ppmv (parts per million by volume) to 325 ppmv, approximately parallel with the rise of industrialization. Nevertheless, the first attempt at a global accord to reduce emissions was not made until 1992, when the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit tried, but miserably failed to reach agreement, having been prevented from achieving anything of substance by a loose-knit group of nations and commercial interests. Binding agreements were finally reached at the next scheduled international meeting in Kyoto, Japan, in 1997. There is a detailed discussion of the Kyoto Protocols, the measures that Annex One nations such as Canada have to do to achieve the six per cent reductions targets below 1990 levels of emissions by 2010, and estimates of the costs involved. These discussions of proposed actions are balanced by a display of examples of the the growing volume of arguments advanced by opponents who not only disagree about what can be done to reduce emissions, but that there is anything that needs to be done at all. Central to their arguments is the denial that human activities are responsible for global warming, disregarding the overwhelming evidence by 3000+ leading scientists of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change that most of the global warming over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities. The rest of the article details what can and needs to be done to reverse the cumulative impact of greenhouse gas emissions, how we can produce the energy we need at the lowest environmental cost, and the types of energy (solar, wind, biomass, natural gas) that result in the smallest GHG emissions. Familiar arguments are recited to demonstrate the urgent need to move away from fossil fuels towards low emission and renewable sources, accompanied by examples of the Scandinavian experience to show that it is possible to enjoy a lifestyle similar to North American standards while reducing total average emissions to about six tonnes per person per year compared to the Canadian average of 16 tonnes per person per year. 2 tabs

185

Potential effects on health of global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Prediction of the impacts of global climate change on health is complicated by a number of factors. These include: the difficulty in predicting regional changes in climate, the capacity for adaptation to climate change, the interactions between the effects of global climate change and a number of other key determinants of health, including population growth and poverty, and the availability of adequate preventive and curative facilities for diseases that may be effected by climate change. Nevertheless, it is of importance to consider the potential health impacts of global climate change for a number of reasons. It is also important to monitor diseases which could be effected by climate change in order to detect changes in incidence as early as possible and study possible interactions with other factors. It seems likely that the possible impacts on health of climate change will be a major determinant of the degree to which policies aimed at reducing global warming are followed, as perceptions of the effect of climate change to human health and well-being are particularly likely to influence public opinion. The potential health impacts of climate change can be divided into direct (primary) and indirect (secondary and tertiary) effects. Primary effects are those related to the effect of temperature on human well-being and disease. Secondary effects include the impacts on health of changes in food production, availability of water and of sea level rise. A tertiary level of impacts can also be hypothesized.

Haines, A. (Univ. College London Medical School, London (United Kingdom). Whittington Hospital); Parry, M. (Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). Environmental Change Unit)

1993-12-01

186

Global Warming: The Complete Briefing (Second Edition)  

Science.gov (United States)

Enough coal exists to sustain world energy consumption growth through at least the end of the next century. If fossil carbon fuel consumption continues to increase at current rates, however, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations will likely more than double, probably leading to significant warming of global climate, shifts in regional climates, and sea-level rise. Scientists and citizens throughout the world are discussing what should be done about the effects of our energy economy on the global environment.The issue is very broad and engaging, ranging from basic issues of geoscience to economics to fundamental value systems, and it has mobilized great economic interests and concern for our global environment. We live in an interesting time when human activities have begun to compete with the global capacities of Earth to recycle the elements of life. In the coming years, we will see how the world community reacts to this challenge, and what combination of conservation, technological development, and adaptation is ultimately adopted.

Hartmann, Dennis L.

187

Compositional impact of acidification and warming on Fucus vesiculosus: First biogeochemical and stable isotope results from coastal benthocosm experiments  

Science.gov (United States)

In the frame of the German BIOACID II project, the separate and combined effects of warming and acidification on the elemental and stable isotope composition of Fucus vesiculosus are investigated by means of benthic mesocosm experiments in brackish waters of the Baltic Sea. We aim for a calibration of the composition of Fucus in response to single and combined temperature and pCO2 elevation. Benthocosm experiments are carried out in the Kiel Fjord with a fully crossed array of 2 globally importnant stressors: an increase in temperature and an increase in atmospheric CO2 partial pressure. The experiments run for almost 3 months per season (winter, spring, summer, autumn). There are analyses from the experiments of the aquatic chemistry (TA, pH, salinity, carbon isotope composition of DIC, main and trace elements and nutrients) as well as the composition of the Fucus vesiculosus organic tissues (C-N-S-P contents, and C and N stable isotope composition, as well as major and trace elements). The composition of the aqueous solution in the mesocosms was recovered two times a week and for the Fucus tissue at the start and the end of the experiments. In addition several 24h cycles were followed in high temporal resolution to characterize the community response to diurnal light cycles. It was found, that seasonal variations in the composition of the input solutions (brackish water from the Kiel Fjord) were reflected by changes in the experiments with short time delay. The changes in the aquatic chemistry of the mesocosms, however, were strongly superimposed for most parameters during daytime by biological activity. The response of the communities to light conditions was clearly observed during the 24h-campaigns, when alternating phases of net respiration and photosynthesis were creating strong variations in the dissolved carbonate system. These variations were accompanied by significant changes in the carbon isotope composition of DIC. The atmosphere of some experimental set-ups was enriched with isotopically light gaseous carbon dioxide. This caused fast corresponding changes in the isotopic composition of DIC, thereby acting as a tracer for newly formed organic tissue and carbonates. The chemical and isotopic parameters of the dissolved carbonate system showed differences between the set ups. Fucus vesiculosus shows seasonal variability in the C, N, S contents and the isotopic composition.

Winde, Vera; Al-Janabi, Balsam; Sokol, Steffani; Buchholz, Björn; Escher, Peter; Voss, Maren; Schneider, Bernd; Wahl, Martin; Böttcher, Michael E.

2014-05-01

188

Anesthesia and global warming: the real hazards of theoretic science  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Recent speculative articles in the medical literature have indicted certain inhalational anesthetics as contributing to global warming. This unfounded speculation may have deleterious patient impact

Ii, Mychaskiw George

2012-01-01

189

Anesthesia and global warming: the real hazards of theoretic science  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent speculative articles in the medical literature have indicted certain inhalational anesthetics as contributing to global warming. This unfounded speculation may have deleterious patient impact PMID:22444758

2012-01-01

190

Halocarbon ozone depletion and global warming potentials  

Science.gov (United States)

Concern over the global environmental consequences of fully halogenated chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) has created a need to determine the potential impacts of other halogenated organic compounds on stratospheric ozone and climate. The CFCs, which do not contain an H atom, are not oxidized or photolyzed in the troposphere. These compounds are transported into the stratosphere where they decompose and can lead to chlorine catalyzed ozone depletion. The hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs or HFCs), in particular those proposed as substitutes for CFCs, contain at least one hydrogen atom in the molecule, which confers on these compounds a much greater sensitivity toward oxidation by hydroxyl radicals in the troposphere, resulting in much shorter atmospheric lifetimes than CFCs, and consequently lower potential for depleting ozone. The available information is reviewed which relates to the lifetime of these compounds (HCFCs and HFCs) in the troposphere, and up-to-date assessments are reported of the potential relative effects of CFCs, HCFCs, HFCs, and halons on stratospheric ozone and global climate (through 'greenhouse' global warming).

Cox, Richard A.; Wuebbles, D.; Atkinson, R.; Connell, Peter S.; Dorn, H. P.; Derudder, A.; Derwent, Richard G.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Fisher, D.; Isaksen, Ivar S. A.

1990-01-01

191

Natural gas industry and global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Natural gas has a very good potential compared to other fossil fuels as regard to global warming because of its high content of hydrogen, and its versatility in uses. To take full advantage of this potential, further development of gas designed boilers and furnaces, gas catalytic combustion, fuel cells are needed, but progresses in the recent years have been very promising. The natural gas industry' environmental potential is discussed. Regarding methane emission, progresses have been done is Western Europe on the distribution network, and some improvement are underway. It is however important to rationalize the effort by acting on the most emitting subsystem: this can be achieved by cooperation along the whole gas chain. (R.P.)

192

Global warming implications of replacing CFCs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The late 1980s were a challenging time for the HVAC and R industries because of the demands being made for increased energy efficiency, the development of alternative refrigerants that do not destroy stratospheric ozone, and the intense pressures of international competition. The 1990s will not be any less demanding, with further requirements to improve efficiency and changing understandings of environmental acceptability. Dealing with the global warming issue creates further difficulties in adapting the refrigeration and insulation technologies for future needs as chlorofluorocarbons are phased out of production and use in accordance with the Montreal Protocol. The study reported in this article was conducted to help industry, government and international policymakers reach sound decisions during the change-over from the CFCs to alternative compounds and technologies. Information developed in this effort complements ongoing studies to assess safety, toxicology, cost and other factors influencing these decisions

193

Global warming and changes in ocean circulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This final report provides an overview of the goals and accomplishments of this project. Modeling and observational work has raised the possibility that global warming may cause changes in the circulation of the ocean. If such changes would occur they could have important climatic consequences. The first technical goal of this project was to investigate some of these possible changes in ocean circulation in a quantitative way, using a state-of -the-art numerical model of the ocean. Another goal was to develop our ocean model, a detailed three-dimensional numerical model of the ocean circulation and ocean carbon cycles. A major non-technical goal was to establish LLNL as a center of excellence in modelling the ocean circulation and carbon cycle

194

Decarbonization and sequestration for mitigating global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mitigating the global warming greenhouse effect while maintaining a fossil fuel economy, requires improving efficiency of utilization of fossil fuels, use of high hydrogen content fossil fuels, decarbonization of fossil fuels, and sequestering of carbon and CO2 applied to all the sectors of the economy, electric power generation, transportation, and industrial, and domestic power and heat generation. Decarbonization means removal of carbon as C or CO2 either before or after fossil fuel combustion and sequestration means disposal of the recovered C or CO2 including its utilization. Removal and recovery of CO2 from power generation plants and sequestration in the ocean represents one possibility of making a major impact on reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. This paper will briefly review the progress made in ocean disposal and present some alternative schemes. (author)

195

Global warming and SF6 molecule  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper the basic SF6 molecule physical characteristics are given concerning its influence on global warming and green house effect. Absorption and relaxation characteristics of this molecule have been investigated within the frame of nonlinear molecule – strong laser field interaction in different gas mixtures. All experiments have been performed on a different gas mixture pressures to analyze and investigate relaxation and energy transfer characteristics of absorbing molecules and non-absorbing collision partners. To show the SF6 absorption and relaxation and energy transfer capability comparison between SF6 and C2H4 was given using the same experimental conditions and argon as a buffer gas. All measurement points and their calculated values presented in this paper have been obtained using the infrared-pulsed photoacoustics technique adopted for atmospheric and subatmospheric pressures.

Gajevi? Jelena

2006-01-01

196

The Water Cycle and Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

The Baylor University College of Medicine continues to work at a furious pace on their delightful BioEd Online site, and educators everywhere love them for their work and dedication. Recently, they placed this ââ¬ÃÂready-to-goââˆlessson on the water cycle and global warming online, and itâ≢s a true delight. As with the other lessons in this series, the materials here include a brief description of the lessonâ≢s objective, along with information on the intended audience, the materials required to complete the lesson, and so on. Teachers will note that they will need to download a slide set, several activity sheets, and a ââ¬ÃÂState of the Climate Reportââˆoffered from the National Climatic Data Center.

197

Climate changes instead of global warming  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Air temperature changes on Earth in recent years are the subject of numerous and increasingly interdisciplinary research. In contrast to, conditionally speaking, generally accepted views that these changes are conditioned primarily by anthropogenic activity, more results appear to suggest that it is dominant natural processes about. Whether because of the proven existence of areas in which downtrends are registered or the stagnation of air temperature, as opposed to areas where the increase is determined, in scientific papers, as well as the media, the increasingly present is the use of the term climate changes instead of the global warming. In this paper, we shall try to present arguments for the debate relating to the official view of the IPCC, as well as research indicating the opposite view.

Radovanovi? Milan M.

2014-01-01

198

Biomass energy, forests and global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biomass in all its forms currently provides about 14% of the world's energy, equivalent to 25 million bbl oil/day; in developing countries where it is the major energy source, biomass supplies 35% of total energy use. Although biomass energy use affects the flux of carbon to the atmosphere, the main carbon emission problem is caused by fossil fuels and land clearance for agriculture. Biomass fuels make no net contribution to atmospheric CO2 if used sustainably. A major global revegetation and reforestation effort is a possible strategy to reduce CO2 emissions and to slow the pace of climatic change. However, a more attractive alternative strategy might be to substitute fossil fuels, especially coal, with biomass grown specifically for this purpose producing modern fuels such as electricity, liquids and gases. This paper examines biomass energy use, devegetation, biomass burning, the implications for global warming and the ability of biomass to sequester CO2 and substitute for fossil fuels. It also discusses some socioeconomic and political issues. (author)

199

Global Warming and 21st Century Drying  

Science.gov (United States)

Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twentyfirst century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman- Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both precipitation and PET changes increase the percentage of global land area projected to experience at least moderate drying (PDSI standard deviation of or = -1; 11 to 44 %), although this is likely less meaningful because much of the PET induced drying in the SPEI occurs in the aforementioned arid regions. Integrated accounting of both the supply and demand sides of the surface moisture balance is therefore critical for characterizing the full range of projected drought risks tied to increasing greenhouse gases and associated warming of the climate system.

Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdun, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

2014-01-01

200

Global Warming and 21st Century Drying  

Science.gov (United States)

Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twentyfirst century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman- Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both precipitation and PET changes increase the percentage of global land area projected to experience at least moderate drying (PDSI standard deviation of drying is even more severe in the SPEI projections (SPEI standard deviation of > or = -1; 11 to 44 %), although this is likely less meaningful because much of the PET induced drying in the SPEI occurs in the aforementioned arid regions. Integrated accounting of both the supply and demand sides of the surface moisture balance is therefore critical for characterizing the full range of projected drought risks tied to increasing greenhouse gases and associated warming of the climate system.

Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdun, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

20th century acidification and warming as recorded in two alpine lakes in the Tatra Mountains (South Poland, Europe).  

Science.gov (United States)

Sediment profiles of two alpine lakes located in the Tatra Mountains, the Toporowy Staw Nizni (TSN) and the Zielony Staw Gasienicowy (ZSG), were studied for their chronology, lithology, diatom and cladoceran remains. The sediment sequences, 50cm long from TSN and 30cm long from ZSG, were deposited during the last 1000 and 300 years, respectively. Vertical changes in lithology, diatom and Cladocera allow the reconstruction of three periods in the lakes' evolution: mild climatic conditions during Medieval Warm Period (MWP, only in TSN), severe conditions between the end of 14th and 19th centuries, identified as the Little Ice Age (LIA), and 20th century warming. The LIA was recorded in the sediments of both lakes in the form of intensified erosion and lower lake ecosystem productivity, as indicated by organic matter lower content, changes in diatom species composition, and decline in Daphnia. The 20th century was a time of acidification in both lakes. The scale of acidification was assessed based on the decline in diatom-inferred pH (DI-pH). DI-pH dropped by 1.2 pH units during the last century in TSN and by 0.4 pH unit in ZSG. The decline of DI-pH was noted in both lakes, but its intensity was clearly higher in TSN due to the lower acid neutralisation capacity (ANC) of this lake. The lower pH during the final decades of the 20th century was lethal to some water organisms while attracting others, such as Daphnia. The Daphnia population increased after the pH drop, probably due to the high food flexibility of this genus. A similar increase was not observed in ZSG, where planktonivorous fishes were introduced in the 1940s, which effectively limited the crustacean plankton density. PMID:19896170

Gasiorowski, Micha?; Sienkiewicz, Elwira

2010-02-01

202

Hot stuff. Global warming as a giant trend  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article presents various aspects of global warming with focus on meteorological data, global discharges, estimated surface temperature increments, ocean level elevations and net warming effects of various human activities. The consequences for the economic and social developments are discussed. Some action possibilities are mentioned. (tk)

203

Situational Influences upon Children's Beliefs about Global Warming and Energy  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores children's beliefs about global warming and energy sources from a psychological perspective, focusing upon situational influences upon subjective beliefs, including perceived self-efficacy. The context of the research is one of growing concern at the potential impacts of global warming, yet demonstrably low levels of…

Devine-Wright, Patrick; Devine-Wright, Hannah; Fleming, Paul

2004-01-01

204

Responses of terrestrial aridity to global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

dryness of terrestrial climate can be measured by the ratio of annual precipitation (P) to potential evapotranspiration (PET), where the latter represents the evaporative demand of the atmosphere, which depends on the surface air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and available energy. This study examines how the terrestrial mean aridity responds to global warming in terms of P/PET using the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 transient CO2 increase to 2 × CO2 simulations. We show that the (percentage) increase (rate) in P averaged over land is ~1.7%/°C ocean mean surface air temperature increase, while the increase in PET is 5.3%/°C, leading to a decrease in P/PET (i.e., a drier terrestrial climate) by ~3.4%/°C. Noting a similar rate of percentage increase in P over land to that in evaporation (E) over ocean, we propose a framework for examining the change in P/PET, in which we compare the change in PET over land and E over ocean, both expressed using the Penman-Monteith formula. We show that a drier terrestrial climate is caused by (i) enhanced land warming relative to the ocean, (ii) a decrease in relative humidity over land but an increase over ocean, (iii) part of increase in net downward surface radiation going into the deep ocean, and (iv) different responses of PET over land and E over ocean for given changes in atmospheric conditions (largely associated with changes in temperatures). The relative contributions to the change in terrestrial mean aridity from these four factors are about 35%, 35%, 15%, and 15%, respectively. The slight slowdown of the surface wind over both land and ocean has little impact on the terrestrial mean aridity.

Fu, Qiang; Feng, Song

2014-07-01

205

Impacts of Ocean Acidification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is growing scientific evidence that, as a result of increasing anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions, absorption of CO{sub 2} by the oceans has already noticeably increased the average oceanic acidity from pre-industrial levels. This global threat requires a global response. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), continuing CO{sub 2} emissions in line with current trends could make the oceans up to 150% more acidic by 2100 than they were at the beginning of the Anthropocene. Acidification decreases the ability of the ocean to absorb additional atmospheric CO{sub 2}, which implies that future CO{sub 2} emissions are likely to lead to more rapid global warming. Ocean acidification is also problematic because of its negative effects on marine ecosystems, especially marine calcifying organisms, and marine resources and services upon which human societies largely depend such as energy, water, and fisheries. For example, it is predicted that by 2100 around 70% of all cold-water corals, especially those in the higher latitudes, will live in waters undersaturated in carbonate due to ocean acidification. Recent research indicates that ocean acidification might also result in increasing levels of jellyfish in some marine ecosystems. Aside from direct effects, ocean acidification together with other global change-induced impacts such as marine and coastal pollution and the introduction of invasive alien species are likely to result in more fragile marine ecosystems, making them more vulnerable to other environmental impacts resulting from, for example, coastal deforestation and widescale fisheries. The Marine Board-ESF Position Paper on the Impacts of Climate Change on the European Marine and Coastal Environment - Ecosystems indicated that presenting ocean acidification issues to policy makers is a key issue and challenge. Indeed, as the consequences of ocean acidification are expected to emerge rapidly and drastically, but are often not well known or are completely unknown, a strategic workshop was organised by the ESF Standing Committee for Life, Earth and Environmental Sciences (LESC) in cooperation with the ESF EUROCORES Programme EuroCLIMATE. The aim was to address the issue of the impacts of ocean acidification on both the natural and socioeconomic systems, and to identify the gaps of knowledge in this field. The present Science Policy Briefing resulting from this strategic workshop has undergone external international peer review and has been approved by both the Marine Board-ESF and LESC. The ESF considers this Science Policy Briefing on the Impacts of Ocean Acidification an important step towards raising awareness amongst a wide range of research actors, policy makers and funding agencies. Taking into account the range of priorities and key areas of research requiring action at the pan-European level, a series of recommendations for European actions have been drawn up under the following five headings: (i) increase understanding and improve quantification of the organismal and ecosystem responses to ocean acidification; (ii) include the human dimension by increasing collaboration and integration efforts between natural and social sciences; (iii) rationalise, improve and focus monitoring and data gathering, management, processing and accessibility efforts; (iv) increase dissemination, outreach and capacity-building efforts, in particular related to communicating ocean acidification to stakeholders (policy makers, research founders, public, media, etc.); and (v) improve coordination of ocean acidification research and collaboration both at the national and international levels

Bijma, Jelle (Alfred Wegener Inst., D-27570 Bremerhaven (Germany)) (and others)

2009-08-15

206

Global crop yield losses from recent warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Global yields of the world-s six most widely grown crops--wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, sorghum--have increased since 1961. Year-to-year variations in growing season minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and precipitation explain 30% or more of the variations in yield. Since 1991, climate trends have significantly decreased yield trends in all crops but rice, leading to foregone production since 1981 of about 12 million tons per year of wheat or maize, representing an annual economic loss of $1.2 to $1.7 billion. At the global scale, negative impacts of climate trends on crop yields are already apparent. Annual global temperatures have increased by {approx}0.4 C since 1980, with even larger changes observed in several regions (1). While many studies have considered the impacts of future climate changes on food production (2-5), the effects of these past changes on agriculture remain unclear. It is likely that warming has improved yields in some areas, reduced them in others, and had negligible impacts in still others; the relative balance of these effects at the global scale is unknown. An understanding of this balance would help to anticipate impacts of future climate changes, as well as to more accurately assess recent (and thereby project future) technologically driven yield progress. Separating the contribution of climate from concurrent changes in other factors--such as crop cultivars, management practices, soil quality, and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels--requires models that describe the response of yields to climate. Studies of future global impacts of climate change have typically relied on a bottom-up approach, whereby field scale, process-based models are applied to hundreds of representative sites and then averaged (e.g., ref 2). Such approaches require input data on soil and management conditions, which are often difficult to obtain. Limitations on data quality or quantity can thus limit the utility of this approach, especially at the local scale (6-8). At the global scale, however, many of the processes and impacts captured by field scale models will tend to cancel out, and therefore simpler empirical/statistical models with fewer input requirements may be as accurate (8, 9). Empirical/statistical models also allow the effects of poorly modeled processes (e.g., pest dynamics) to be captured and uncertainties to be readily quantified (10). Here we develop new, empirical/statistical models of global yield responses to climate using datasets on broad-scale yields, crop locations, and climate variability. We focus on global average yields for the six most widely grown crops in the world: wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, and sorghum. Production of these crops accounts for over 40% of global cropland area (11). 55% of non-meat calories, and over 70% of animal feed (12).

Lobell, D; Field, C

2006-06-02

207

Report nixes Geritol fix for global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several years ago John Martin of the Moss Landing Marine Laboratory in California suggested a quick fix to the greenhouse problem: dump iron into the Southern Ocean near Antarctica. That, he said, would trigger a massive bloom of the ocean's microscopic plants, which in turn would suck carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere and help reduce global warming. His idea ignited a firestorm of controversy that rages on today. While the idea quickly won supporters - including some prominent members of the National Academy of Sciences - much of the oceanographic community was incensed, arguing that you don't tinker with a perfectly health ecosystem to clean up humanity's mess. Now the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) has a report that represents the views of much of the oceanographic community. In the report, released in late summer, ASLO trounces the idea of fertilizing the oceans with iron as a greenhouse fix, as expected. But in an unexpected twist, the society endorses a small-scale experiment in which iron would be added to the open ocean. The idea isn't to engineer the oceans, but to test the hypothesis that might answer one of the longstanding puzzles in biological oceanography: why do the phytoplankton of the Southern Ocean, as well as those in parts of the subarctic and equatorial Pacific, grow so poorly, even though the waters are rich in nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrogen The answer could shed light not only on how the food web operates, but on the global carbon cycle as well.

Roberts, L.

1991-09-27

208

Policy regarding responses to global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Earlier this year, 52 Nobel laureates and over 700 members of the National Academy of Sciences appealed to President Bush to take action now to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. Despite the need for further research, and the uncertainty over the timing and extent of the global warming threat, the President and Congress, as well as state and local governments, should immediately adopt measures that, in addition to curbing greenhouse gases, will have independent benefits. The US needs a new energy policy that promotes energy efficiency and renewable resources to reduce the burning of fossil fuels. Specifically, the federal government should raise motor vehicle fuel economy requirements to 45 miles per gallon by the year 2000 and increase funding for the research, development and commercialization of efficiency and renewable technologies. State and local governments should give utilities incentives to pursue aggressive energy efficiency programs, should incorporate environmental and health considerations into the costs of energy, and should adopt solid waste recycling instead of incineration or landfilling

209

Effect of global warming in Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The earth absorbs much radiation from the sun to warm the atmosphere, the land, and the oceans. This energy is reradiatedback into space. In the past, the thermal budget of the earth is more or less balanced, with radiation from the sun onpar with thermal radiation from the earth. With increasing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, some of the thermal radiationis absorbed by these gases resulting in an increase of global mean surface temperature, melting of polar ices and thuscontributing to a rising of sea level. However, sea-level changes depend upon four main processes: 1 Glacio-eustasy, 2Emergence/subsidence of land, 3 Man-made activities, and 4 Ocean-atmosphere effects. The assessment report of the IntergovernmentalPanel on Climate Change (IPCC, 1990, which was based on past data in Europe and the USA, including theNorth Atlantic Ocean, published a mean temperature of 14°C and an actual increase of 1°C in the last century, plus an increaseof CO2 from 370 ppmv to 550 ppmv, and a three-fold temperature increase of 3°C in this century. All these changes are projectinga sea level rise (SLR of 31-110 cm per century on global scale, which was in fact applicable to the North Atlantic. Theassessment report of the IPCC Working Group I (1996 has realized that differential SLR occurs due to different geographicalconditions. It identified ten regions on earth and compared the actual climate change to what it was postulated to be, andcame up with SLR of 15-95 cm per century. The assessment report of the IPCC Working Group II (2001 employed improveddata obtained from tide gauges and satellite images as well as mathematical model results with the most convincing evidencein the North Atlantic, and it concluded an SLR of 9-88 cm per century. But it had, however, noted a lack of data in the Pacificand Indian Ocean. The assessment report of the IPCC Summary for Policy Makers (SPM, 2007 that included six differentarctic and antarctic climate science scenarios reported relatively lower value of 18-59 cm per century. The North Atlantic thatis surrounded by glaciers might see a SLR due to ice melting related to an increase of the temperature in the Atlantic Ocean.Nevertheless, the lack of data on global warming in the tropics especially in the Pacific and the Indian Oceans, which haveno glaciers, might put a different view on the conclusions derived from temperature and arctic data. Six decades of comprehensiveinformation from the Gulf of Thailand regarding oceanographical and meteorological data is revealing a much lowerSLR. The mean monthly sea levels in six decades at Sattahip and Ko Lak showed no increasing trend, while those rises atSamut Prakan and Samut Sakhon are due to land subsidence from excessive groundwater pumping.

Suphat Vongvisessomjai

2010-08-01

210

Promotion of scientific literacy on global warming by process drama  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This project aims to investigate how process drama promotes scientific literacy in the context of global warming. Thirty-one lower (n = 24 and upper (n = 7 secondary students of one secondary school in Bangkok, Thailand participated in a seven-day workshop which process drama strategy was implemented. In the workshop, the students were actively engaged in a series of lab exercises, critically reviewed global warming issue presented in selected printed media, and watched a documentary film to understand the science, conflict, and solutions of the global warming. In addition, the students were trained on acting, elements of drama, and storytelling. They made and selected a story, developed a script, formed casts and production crews and performed the drama to the public. Data were collected by using a questionnaire, participant observation, informal interviews, student daily journals, and drama scripts. Results showed that the students developed scientific perception of the keywords related to global warming and conceptual understanding of the causes, processes, and consequences of global warming after the workshop. Students’ views on the solution of global warming were integrated, creative and critical. The students increases intensity in engagement in solving global warming.

Pongprapan PONGSOPHON

2010-06-01

211

40 CFR Table A-1 to Subpart A of... - Global Warming Potentials  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Global Warming Potentials A Table A-1...A-1 to Subpart A of Part 98—Global Warming Potentials [100-Year Time... CAS No. Chemical formula Global warming potential(100 yr.)...

2010-07-01

212

78 FR 20632 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Notice of Data Availability Regarding Global Warming...  

Science.gov (United States)

...of Data Availability Regarding Global Warming Potential Values for Certain Fluorinated...the availability of estimated global warming potentials, as well as data and...requesting comments on the estimated global warming potentials and the data and...

2013-04-05

213

Global warming 2007. An update to global warming: the balance of evidence and its policy implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the four years since my original review (Keller[25]; hereafter referred to as CFK03), research has clarified and strengthened our understanding of how humans are warming the planet. So many of the details highlighted in the IPCC's Third Assessment Report[21] and in CFK03 have been resolved that I expect many to be a bit overwhelmed, and I hope that, by treating just the most significant aspects of the research, this update may provide a road map through the expected maze of new information. In particular, while most of CFK03 remains current, there are important items that have changed: Most notable is the resolution of the conundrum that mid-tropospheric warming did not seem to match surface warming. Both satellite and radiosonde (balloon-borne sensors) data reduction showed little warming in the middle troposphere (4-8 km altitude). In the CFK03 I discussed potential solutions to this problem, but at that time there was no clear resolution. This problem has now been solved, and the middle troposphere is seen to be warming apace with the surface. There have also been advances in determinations of temperatures over the past 1,000 years showing a cooler Little Ice Age (LIA) but essentially the same warming during medieval times (not as large as recent warming). The recent uproar over the so-called "hockey stick" temperature determination is much overblown since at least seven other groups have made relatively independent determinations of northern hemisphere temperatures over the same time period and derived essentially the same results. They differ on how cold the LIA was but essentially agree with the Mann's hockey stick result that the Medieval Warm Period was not as warm as the last 25 years. The question of the sun's influence on climate continues to generate controversy. It appears there is a growing consensus that, while the sun was a major factor in earlier temperature variations, it is incapable of having caused observed warming in the past quarter century or so. However, this conclusion is being challenged by differing interpretations of satellite observations of Total Solar Insolation (TSI). Different satellites give different estimates of TSI during the 1996-7 solar activity minimum. A recent study using the larger TSI satellite interpretation indicates a stronger role for the sun, and until there is agreement on TSI at solar minimum, we caution completely disregarding the sun as a significant factor in recent warming. Computer models continue to improve and, while they still do not do a satisfactory job of predicting regional changes, their simulations of global aspects of climate change and of individual forcings are increasingly reliable. In addition to these four areas, the past five years have seen advances in our understanding of many other aspects of climate change--from albedo changes due to land use to the dynamics of glacier movement. However, these more are of second order importance and will only be treated very briefly. The big news since CFK03 is the first of these, the collapse of the climate critics' last real bastion, namely that satellites and radiosondes show no significant warming in the past quarter century. Figuratively speaking, this was the center pole that held up the critics' entire "tent." Their argument was that, if there had been little warming in the past 25 years or so, then what warming was observed would have been within the range of natural variations with solar forcing as the major player. Further, the models would have been shown to be unreliable since they were predicting warming that was not happening. But now both satellite and in-situ radiosonde observations have been shown to corroborate both the surface observations of warming and the model predictions. Thus, while uncertainties still remain, we are now seeing a coherent picture in which past climate variations, solar and other forcings, model predictions and other indicators such as glacier recession all point to a human-induced warming that needs to be considered carefully. A final topic touched

Keller, Charles F

2007-01-01

214

Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rai SM. 2013. Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 101-104. The present article is focused on global warming, which is an important global problem being faced by the humankind. The article discusses about the causes of the global warming, such as green house gases. The earth receives energy from the Sun in the form of solar radiations with small amount of infra red and ultraviolet rays. A part of these radiations is absorbed by green house gases which results into warming of the earth. These radiations increase temperature on the universe and are one of the most important global problems. The efforts from all the countries of the world are required for reduction of emissions of green house gases.

SHIVANI M. RAI

2013-11-01

215

Global warming: the significance of methane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

the concept of Global Warming Potential (GWP) indicates the relative contribution to global warming over a given period (for example 100 years) of a pulse emission at the start of the period of 1 kg of a specific greenhouse gas (GHG) in comparison to the contribution, over the same period, of an emission of 1 kg of CO2. The GWPs calculated for different time intervals take into account the differences in atmospheric lifetimes of the different GHGs. Using the '100-year GWP' to measure non CO2 GHG emissions is not well suited to the case of permanent or long lifetime measures whose effectiveness is to be assessed at a given time horizon. In this context, it contributes to significantly playing down the importance of reducing emissions of GHGs with short atmospheric lifetimes. Thus, for example, methane which is not emitted over the period 2020- 2100 as a result of a landfill site being closed in 2020 will have an impact (as opposed to if the site remained in operation) that would be far greater towards 2100 compared to a CO2 emission source that has also been stopped permanently and whose climate impact is measured in an equivalent manner. Using the GWP is only appropriate if applied year after year to time horizons considered to be of concern or decisive by climate studies, thus in particular 2050, 2100 and 2150. This is all the more significant as climate experts' current concerns lead them not only to advocate long-term stabilisation of GHG concentrations but also to avoid as far as possible intermediate excess of these concentrations over the coming century. Finally, it is noted that CH4 prevention policies implemented in the short term may continue to have a long-term impact greater than merely taking into account the current GWP would imply. To more or less ignore the impact of CH4 as it is unsuitable for accounting purposes affects the exclusive character of the link that may exist between the issue of GHGs and that of energy. Furthermore, if the increase in atmospheric concentrations of CH4 which was significant following the onset of the industrial revolution, has slowed down in the last few years for reasons that are still being debated, a renewed sharp increase in the event of the Arctic region melting, for example, remains quite possible. It is thus important, now that the most recent IPCC report points to the consequences of climate change in the medium term, that GHG emission reduction policies be defined individually for each GHG: both CH4 and N2O, on the basis of their real emissions, consistent with the scenarios used by climate experts and depending on the concentration levels they recommend be achieved at given time horizons. Purely economic and financial considerations linked to the emissions trading markets must not mask the importance of robust policies aimed at non CO2 GHGs. Specifically, in addition to the vital CO2 emissions reduction effort, greater attention must be paid to short-term reductions of CH4 emissions whose impacts are significant at a time horizon of a few decades. Climate experts and policy-makers should make the most of the two-year negotiating period on the post 2012 regime, officially launched at the recent Bali Climate Conference, to give thought to this issue

216

The European climate under a 2?°C global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

A global warming of 2?°C relative to pre-industrial climate has been considered as a threshold which society should endeavor to remain below, in order to limit the dangerous effects of anthropogenic climate change. The possible changes in regional climate under this target level of global warming have so far not been investigated in detail. Using an ensemble of 15 regional climate simulations downscaling six transient global climate simulations, we identify the respective time periods corresponding to 2?°C global warming, describe the range of projected changes for the European climate for this level of global warming, and investigate the uncertainty across the multi-model ensemble. Robust changes in mean and extreme temperature, precipitation, winds and surface energy budgets are found based on the ensemble of simulations. The results indicate that most of Europe will experience higher warming than the global average. They also reveal strong distributional patterns across Europe, which will be important in subsequent impact assessments and adaptation responses in different countries and regions. For instance, a North-South (West-East) warming gradient is found for summer (winter) along with a general increase in heavy precipitation and summer extreme temperatures. Tying the ensemble analysis to time periods with a prescribed global temperature change rather than fixed time periods allows for the identification of more robust regional patterns of temperature changes due to removal of some of the uncertainty related to the global models’ climate sensitivity.

Vautard, Robert; Gobiet, Andreas; Sobolowski, Stefan; Kjellström, Erik; Stegehuis, Annemiek; Watkiss, Paul; Mendlik, Thomas; Landgren, Oskar; Nikulin, Grigory; Teichmann, Claas; Jacob, Daniela

2014-03-01

217

Negatep: A Scenario for Combating Global Warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There have been an increasing number of foresight exercises in the field of energy and global warming in recent years, as we have seen from the articles devoted to these questions by Futuribles in 2011 (both in this special issue and in the April number). It is certainly the case that the goals for greenhouse-gas emission reduction are rather ambitious, particularly in France, it being the aim of the 2005 French framework law on energy to reduce carbon gas discharges by a factor of four. Among these scenarios, the Negatep scenario developed by Claude Acket and Pierre Bacher from the 'Sauvons le climat' [Let's save the climate] Association proposes to achieve this ('factor 4') goal in France by 2050 by reducing fossil fuel use by 75% and replacing this as quickly as possible with electricity produced from non-carbon-gas-emitting sources - chiefly, nuclear power and renewables. The authors lay out their goals here, backed up by figures, comparing these with the reference scenario. They also show the path that must be followed to arrive at these goals, particularly in the residential and tertiary sectors, and in transport and industry (through control of needs and recourse to alternative energy sources). They close by comparing the Negatep scenario with two other more recent scenarios aimed also at reducing greenhouse gas emissions, on the one hand in Europe, and on the other in Germany. The comparison confirms that they were right to rely on electricity as a substitute for oil, but gives them cause for concern in respect of the consequences (formidable in their view) that the replacement of nuclear power and coal energy by intermittent renewable energies might have in Europe, both with regard to costs and to the effects on the power network. (authors)

218

Global warming, energy use, and economic growth  

Science.gov (United States)

The dissertation comprises four papers that explore the interactions between global warming, energy use, and economic growth. While the papers are separate entities, they share the underlying theme of highlighting national differences in the growth experience and their implications for long-term energy use and climate change. The first paper provides an overview of some key economic issues in the climate change literature. In doing so, the paper critically appraises the 1995 draft report of Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The focus is the choice of a pure rate of time preference in the economic modeling of climate change, abatement costs differentials between developed and developing countries, and contrasting implications of standard discount rates and value of life estimates for these two country groups. The second paper develops a global model that takes account of the depletion of oil resources in the context of a geo-economic model for climate change. It is found that in the presence of non-decreasing carbon and energy intensities and declining petroleum availability, the carbon emissions trajectory is much higher than that typically projected by other models of this genre. Furthermore, by introducing price and income sensitive demand functions for fossil fuels, the model provides a framework to assess the effectiveness of fuel specific carbon taxes in reducing the COsb2 emissions trajectory. Cross-price substitution effects necessitate unrealistically high tax rates in order to lower the projected emissions trajectory to the optimal level. The economic structure of five integrated assessment models for climate change is reviewed in the third paper, with a special focus on the macroeconomic and damage assessment modules. The final paper undertakes an econometric estimation of the changing shares of capital, labour, energy, and technical change in explaining the growth patterns of 38 countries. Production elasticities vary by country group and also in response to the levels of factor use. It is found that classifying countries according to the GDP growth rate yields statistically different slope coefficients. Using the estimated translog production function, the capital and labour requirements of reductions in energy use are approximated. Analytical expressions for the elasticity of energy intensity with respect to factor inputs and also autonomous energy efficiency improvements are provided.

Khanna, Neha

219

A matter of degrees: A primer on global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A primer on global warming is presented in order to provide information to Canadians on making environmentally responsible decisions. The fundamentals of natural climate change, the atmospheric environment, factors that influence climate, and the greenhouse effect are explained. Global warming is then discussed with reference to paleoclimatic research, the influence of human activity on increased concentrations of greenhouse gases, and predictions of future climates. The possible impacts of global warming on Canada are described for such sectors as forests, fisheries, agriculture, sea levels, health, energy supply and demand, and the Arctic regions. The actions that citizens and governments can take in order to mitigate or adapt to global warming are then presented. A glossary and index are included. 55 refs., 17 figs

220

Anesthesia and global warming: the real hazards of theoretic science  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Recent speculative articles in the medical literature have indicted certain inhalational anesthetics as contributing to global warming. This unfounded speculation may have deleterious patient impact

Mychaskiw II George

2012-03-01

 
 
 
 
221

Critical Literacy in Action: Multimodal Texts on Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson provides a way to combine scientific topics into an English lesson. Students apply specific comprehension strategies to multimodal texts as they investigate and interrogate the effects and possible causes of global warming. Students explore global warming through a variety of photographs, diagrams, and websites. As they look at each type of media, students catalog the strengths and weaknesses of these representations before identifying comprehension strategies that can be applied across various media.

Wilson, Amy A.

2012-01-01

222

IMPACT OF Global Warming on Trees  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Trees store CO{sub 2}, drive food chain, produce oxygen and cause cooling effects through the transpiration process. However, increasing forests to cool the planet needs a lot of care regarding locations and types of trees. Initially it was thought that the city trees fight climate change but later it was found that only tropical trees do the best. Ozone absorption in soil affects its natural carbon sequestration capability. Interaction of plants and soil with changing atmosphere and climate is very complex and not yet understood. Some crops like cotton, wheat and rice are more productive in elevated CO{sub 2} but their response at high temperatures needs further studies (GWDTR, 1997-2007; ITGW, 1990-2008). Use of CO{sub 2} as input raw material in fuel cells might be a revolutionary innovation but there is a long way to go ahead. At this moment we can only start energy education to cope up the time to come. On average CO{sub 2} concentration has been increasing at rate of 2.25ppm/yr from 2004 to 2008 but later from 2007 to 2008 it has been found increasing exponentially at rate of 4ppm/yr. It continues to increase at this rate even after oil peaking then it might exceed 500ppm by 2040-2050. CO{sub 2} concentration in atmosphere was 280 ppm before industrial revolution and in last few centuries it has increased to 385 ppm at an average annual rate of 2 ppm. Weeds normally show poor response to high CO{sub 2} concentrations but crops, fruits and vegetables flourish well. Previous draught cycle was only three years long but recent draught cycle is much longer than earlier (IGWT, 1997-2008). However, few trees in the same constellation are still quite healthy and alive. Some trees were seen dead even close to water canals. Based on literature review and observations recorded in this study it is concluded that high CO{sub 2} induced heat wave (global warming) is responsible for helping beetles and wood ants to eat trees roots and stem to kill them by starvation. The trees have been found to dry from top to bottom in all the known cases in Pakistan. As the water stops reaching top branches due to insect attack at tree-ground interface or reduced water table or both the tree leaves start drying from the top.

Nasrullah Khan [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Naeem Abas [2Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Gujrat, Gujrat (Pakistan); Norman Mariun [University Putra Malaysia, Faculty of Engineering, UPM Serdang, Serdang (Malaysia)

2008-09-30

223

The Effect of Global Warming on Infectious Diseases  

Science.gov (United States)

Global warming has various effects on human health. The main indirect effects are on infectious diseases. Although the effects on infectious diseases will be detected worldwide, the degree and types of the effect are different, depending on the location of the respective countries and socioeconomical situations. Among infectious diseases, water- and foodborne infectious diseases and vector-borne infectious diseases are two main categories that are forecasted to be most affected. The effect on vector-borne infectious diseases such as malaria and dengue fever is mainly because of the expansion of the infested areas of vector mosquitoes and increase in the number and feeding activity of infected mosquitoes. There will be increase in the number of cases with water- and foodborne diarrhoeal diseases. Even with the strongest mitigation procedures, global warming cannot be avoided for decades. Therefore, implementation of adaptation measures to the effect of global warming is the most practical action we can take. It is generally accepted that the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases have not been apparent at this point yet in East Asia. However, these impacts will appear in one form or another if global warming continues to progress in future. Further research on the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases and on future prospects should be conducted. PMID:24159433

Kurane, Ichiro

2010-01-01

224

How does ocean ventilation change under global warming?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since the upper ocean takes up much of the heat added to the earth system by anthropogenic global warming, one would expect that global warming would lead to an increase in stratification and a decrease in the ventilation of the ocean interior. However, multiple simulations in global coupled climate models using an ideal age tracer which is set to zero in the mixed layer and ages at 1 yr/yr outside this layer show that the intermediate depths in the low latitudes become younger under global w...

Gnanadesikan, A.; Russell, J. L.; Zeng, F.

2006-01-01

225

Future oceanic warming and acidification alter immune response and disease status in a commercial shellfish species, Mytilus edulis L.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide are leading to physical changes in marine environments including parallel decreases in ocean pH and increases in seawater temperature. This study examined the impacts of a six month exposure to combined decreased pH and increased temperature on the immune response and disease status in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis L. Results provide the first confirmation that exposure to future acidification and warming conditions via aquarium-based simulation may have parallel implications for bivalve health. Collectively, the data suggests that temperature more than pH may be the key driver affecting immune response in M. edulis. Data also suggests that both increases in temperature and/or lowered pH conditions may lead to changes in parasite abundance and diversity, pathological conditions, and bacterial incidence in M. edulis. These results have implications for future management of shellfish under a predicted climate change scenario and future sustainability of shellfisheries. Examination of the combined effects of two stressors over an extended exposure period provides key preliminary data and thus, this work represents a unique and vital contribution to current research efforts towards a collective understanding of expected near-future impacts of climate change on marine environments. PMID:24927423

Mackenzie, Clara L; Lynch, Sharon A; Culloty, Sarah C; Malham, Shelagh K

2014-01-01

226

Future Oceanic Warming and Acidification Alter Immune Response and Disease Status in a Commercial Shellfish Species, Mytilus edulis L.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide are leading to physical changes in marine environments including parallel decreases in ocean pH and increases in seawater temperature. This study examined the impacts of a six month exposure to combined decreased pH and increased temperature on the immune response and disease status in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis L. Results provide the first confirmation that exposure to future acidification and warming conditions via aquarium-based simulation may have parallel implications for bivalve health. Collectively, the data suggests that temperature more than pH may be the key driver affecting immune response in M. edulis. Data also suggests that both increases in temperature and/or lowered pH conditions may lead to changes in parasite abundance and diversity, pathological conditions, and bacterial incidence in M. edulis. These results have implications for future management of shellfish under a predicted climate change scenario and future sustainability of shellfisheries. Examination of the combined effects of two stressors over an extended exposure period provides key preliminary data and thus, this work represents a unique and vital contribution to current research efforts towards a collective understanding of expected near-future impacts of climate change on marine environments. PMID:24927423

Mackenzie, Clara L.; Lynch, Sharon A.; Culloty, Sarah C.; Malham, Shelagh K.

2014-01-01

227

Life cycle analysis to minimise global warming impact  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes a technique to identify the effects on potential global warming of waste, of both energy and materials, in refrigeration and air-conditioning. The calculation converts emissions of the driving fluids and the energy used to run the equipment into the equivalent amounts of carbon dioxide, the sum is expressed as the Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI). Examples show that switch from CFCs to HFCs should result in marked reductions in the potential for global warming from refrigeration and air-conditioning and that the TEWIs of hermetically sealed systems are influenced more by energy efficiency than by the effect of total loss of the driving fluid. (author)

McCulloch, A. (ICI Chemicals and Polymers Ltd., Runcorn (United Kingdom). Safety and Environment Dept.)

1994-08-01

228

Global patterns of changes in underwater sound transmission caused by ocean acidification  

Science.gov (United States)

Oceanic uptake of man-made CO2 leads to a decrease in the ocean pH and carbonate saturation state. This processes, known as ocean acidification is expected to have adverse effects on a variety of marine organisms. A surprising consequence of ocean acidification, which has gone widely unrecognized, is its effect on underwater sound transmission. Low-frequency sound absorption in the ocean occurs due to chemical relaxation of the pH-dependent boric acid-borate ion reaction. As ocean pH drops, sound absorption in the audible range decreases. The decreased sound absorption will amplify ambient noise levels, and enhance long distance sound transmission, although its exact environmental impact is uncertain. Changes in the underwater sound absorption will affect the operation of scientific, commercial, and naval applications that are based on ocean acoustics, with yet unknown consequences for marine life. We project these changes using a global biogeochemical model (HAMOCC), which is forced by the anthropogenic CO2 emissions during the years 1800-2300. Based on model projections, we quantify when and where in the ocean these ocean chemistry induced perturbations in sound absorption will occur.

Ilyina, T.; Zeebe, R. E.; Brewer, P. G.

2009-04-01

229

Enhanced acidification of global coral reefs driven by regional biogeochemical feedbacks  

Science.gov (United States)

uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is the dominant driver of ocean acidification (OA) in the open ocean. Due to expected decreases in calcification and increased dissolution of CaCO3 framework, coral reefs are thought to be highly susceptible to OA. However, biogeochemical processes can influence the pCO2 and pH of coastal ecosystems on diel and seasonal time scales, potentially modifying the long-term effects of increasing atmospheric CO2. By compiling data from the literature and removing the effects of short-term variability, we show that the average pCO2 of coral reefs throughout the globe has increased ~3.5-fold faster than in the open ocean over the past 20 years. This rapid increase in pCO2 has the potential to enhance the acidification and predicted effects of OA on coral reef ecosystems. A simple model demonstrates that potential drivers of elevated pCO2 include additional anthropogenic disturbances beyond increasing global atmospheric CO2 such as enhanced nutrient and organic matter inputs.

Cyronak, Tyler; Schulz, Kai G.; Santos, Isaac R.; Eyre, Bradley D.

2014-08-01

230

How does ocean ventilation change under global warming?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the upper ocean takes up much of the heat added to the earth system by anthropogenic global warming, one would expect that global warming would lead to an increase in stratification and a decrease in the ventilation of the ocean interior. However, multiple simulations in global coupled climate models using an ideal age tracer which is set to zero in the mixed layer and ages at 1 yr/yr outside this layer show that the intermediate depths in the low latitudes become younger under global warming. This paper reconciles these apparently contradictory trends, showing that a decrease in upwelling of old water from below is responsible for the change. Implications for global biological cycling are considered.

A. Gnanadesikan

2006-07-01

231

How does ocean ventilation change under global warming?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the upper ocean takes up much of the heat added to the earth system by anthropogenic global warming, one would expect that global warming would lead to an increase in stratification and a decrease in the ventilation of the ocean interior. However, multiple simulations in global coupled climate models using an ideal age tracer which is set to zero in the mixed layer and ages at 1 yr/yr outside this layer show that the intermediate depths in the low latitudes, Northwest Atlantic, and parts of the Arctic Ocean become younger under global warming. This paper reconciles these apparently contradictory trends, showing that the decreases result from changes in the relative contributions of old deep waters and younger surface waters. Implications for the tropical oxygen minimum zones, which play a critical role in global biogeochemical cycling are considered in detail.

A. Gnanadesikan

2007-01-01

232

Global Warming Pattern Formation: Sea Surface Temperature and Rainfall  

Science.gov (United States)

Spatial variations in sea surface temperature (SST) and rainfall changes over the tropics are investigated based on ensemble simulations for the first half of the 21st century under the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission scenario A1B with coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) and National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). Despite a GHG increase that is nearly uniform in space, pronounced patterns emerge in both SST and precipitation. Regional differences in SST warming can be as large as the tropical mean warming. Specifically, the tropical Pacific warming features a conspicuous maximum along the equator and a minimum in the southeast subtropics. The former is associated with westerly wind anomalies while the latter is linked to intensified southeast trade winds, suggestive of wind-evaporation-SST feedback. There is a tendency for a greater warming in the northern than southern subtropics in accordance with asymmetries in trade wind changes. Over the equatorial Indian Ocean, surface wind anomalies are easterly, the thermocline shoals and the warming is reduced in the east, indicative of Bjerknes feedback. In the midlatitudes, ocean circulation changes generate narrow banded structures in SST warming. The warming is negatively correlated with wind speed change over the tropics, and positively correlated with ocean heat transport change in the northern extratropics. Tropical precipitation changes are positively correlated with spatial deviations of SST warming from the tropical mean. In particular, the equatorial maximum in SST warming over the Pacific anchors a band of pronounced rainfall increase. The gross moist instability follows closely relative SST change as equatorial wave adjustments flatten upper tropospheric warming. The comparison with atmospheric simulations in response to a spatially uniform SST warming illustrates the importance of SST patterns for rainfall change, an effect overlooked in current discussion of precipitation response to global warming. Implications for global and regional response of tropical cyclones are discussed.

Xie, S.; Deser, C.; Vecchi, G.; Ma, J.; Teng, H.; Wittenberg, A. T.

2010-12-01

233

Focus: Assessing the regional impacts of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five studies are presented which assess the impacts of global warming on physical, economic, and social systems in Canada. A study on the use of climatic change scenarios to estimate ecoclimatic impacts was carried out. These scenarios may include synthetic scenarios produced from historical data, global climate model (GCM) simulations, and hybrid scenarios. The advantages and drawbacks of various scenarios are discussed along with the criteria for selecting impact assessment models. An examination of water resources in the Great Lakes and the Saskatchewan River subbasin uses case studies of two areas that have experienced wide hydrological variations due to climatic variability in order to determine the impacts of global warming scenarios on net basin supply. Problems of developing regional models are discussed and results of projected changes in net basin supply are presented for GCM-based simulations and hypothetical warming scenarios. A study of the impacts of climate warming on transportation and the regional economy in northern Canada uses stochastic models to provide examples of how Mackenzie River barge traffic will be affected. The economic impacts of the resultant lengthened shipping season are outlined under three scenarios. The implications of climatic change on Ontario agriculture are assessed according to GCM scenarios. Results are presented for crop yields and production as well as land resource suitability. Finally, sociocultural implications of globalally, sociocultural implications of global warming on the Arctic and the Inuit are summarized, with reference to a past warming episode occurring around the year 1000. 45 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

234

Global warming: the complete briefing. 3rd ed.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The book describes the science of global warming, its impacts and what action might be taken, in a way which the intelligent non-scientist can understand. Chapter headings are: global warming and climate change; the greenhouse effect; the greenhouse gases; climates of the past; modelling the climate; climate change in the twenty-first century and beyond; the impacts of climate change; why should we be concerned?; weighing the uncertainty; a strategy for action to slow and stabilise climate change; energy and transport for the future; and the global village.

Houghton, J.T.

2004-08-01

235

Thai Youths and Global Warming: Media Information, Awareness, and Lifestyle Activities  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the exposure of Thai youths to media information on global warming, the relationship between exposure to global warming information and awareness of global warming, and the relationship between that awareness and lifestyle activities that contribute to global warming. A focus group of eight Thai youths provided information that…

Chokriensukchai, Kanchana; Tamang, Ritendra

2010-01-01

236

Fade of global dimming reveals full magnitude of greenhouse warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Speculations on the impact of variations in surface solar radiation on global warming range from concerns that solar dimming has largely masked the full magnitude of greenhouse warming, to claims that the recent reversal from solar dimming to brightening rather than the greenhouse effect was responsible for the observed warming. To disentangle surface solar and greenhouse influences on global warming, trends in diurnal temperature range are analyzed. The diurnal temperature ranges averaged over global land surfaces show, after decades of decline, a distinct tendency to level off since the mid 1980s. They suggest that solar dimming, possibly caused by increasing air pollution, was effective in masking greenhouse warming, but only up to the 1980s, when dimming gradually transformed into brightening. The reversal from dimming to brightening may be related to more effective air pollution measures and the breakdown of the economy in the former communist countries, leading to cleaner and more transparent atmospheres. With this transition, the uncovered greenhouse effect started to reveal its full dimension, as manifested in a rapid temperature rise (+0.38 /decade over land since mid-1980s). Recent solar brightening cannot supersede the greenhouse effect as main cause of global warming, since land temperatures increased by 0.8 from 1960 to 2000, even though solar brightening did not fully outweigh solar dimming within this period. (author)

237

Global warming is no longer making debate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Earth's climate is warming up, and the human activity is responsible for at least a part of this warming up. This is the scientifical consensus about which more than 500 specialists of the GIEC (intergovernmental group for climate evolution) have worked on at the Unesco, in Paris, from January 29, 2006 to February 1, 2007. This press kit seizes the opportunity of this meeting to present a status of the last theories and initiatives in the domain of climate change: the scientists' warning, the international mobilization, the initiatives of companies, the analyses made by the journalists of Les Echos, and the series of scientific files about the greenhouse effect, the computerized simulations, the example of past analogues (fast decay of Maya's civilization), and the consumers behaviour in front of the climate change threat. (J.S.)

238

Likely cause found for global warming "hiatus"  

Science.gov (United States)

An Atlantic current may be the cause of the recent warming "hiatus" observed since the beginning of the 21st century, according to new research published last week in the journal Science (doi:10.1126/science.1254937). The conclusion is based on observations of deep-sea temperatures in the Atlantic Ocean, from floats that sample water down to 2000 meters deep and from looking at historical records from the mid- to late 20th century.

Wendel, JoAnna

2014-08-01

239

The Hydrological Cycle Response to Rapid vs. Slow Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Held and Soden (2006) compared climate simulations of the 21st century included in the 4th Assessment Report of the IPCC (2007). All showed an increase of about 7.5% in globally averaged water vapor for each degree Celsius (C°) increase in globally averaged surface temperature. This result was thought to be explained by plugging a representative surface or lower tropospheric temperature into the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship. We find this is not the case for a 22,000-year paleoclimate simulation, where water vapor increases at a rate of only 4.2% per C°. This is not due to relative humidity changes or differences in absolute temperature. Instead, this is due to the geographic pattern of warming during the paleoclimate. Most water vapor resides in the tropics and 1 K of global surface warming is relatively more concentrated in the tropics for rapid anthropogenic-like warming than for slow, paleoclimate warming. This is due to thermal inertia of the southern ocean. We conclude that the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship applied to surface temperature cannot by itself constrain the rate of change in globally averaged water vapor with globally averaged surface temperature. Thus we propose an alternate formula that applies more generally to warming scenarios.

Russ, K. L.; Back, L. E.; Liu, Z.; Inoue, K.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.

2012-12-01

240

Simulation of future global warming scenarios in rice paddies with an open-field warming facility  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract To simulate expected future global warming, hexagonal arrays of infrared heaters have previously been used to warm open-field canopies of upland crops such as wheat. Through the use of concrete-anchored posts, improved software, overhead wires, extensive grounding, and monitoring with a thermal camera, the technology was safely and reliably extended to paddy rice fields. The system maintained canopy temperature increases within 0.5°C of daytime and nighttime set-point diff...

Rehmani Muhammad; Zhang Jingqi; Li Ganghua; Ata-Ul-Karim Syed; Wang Shaohua; Kimball Bruce A; Yan Chuan; Liu Zhenghui; Ding Yanfeng

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Seven steps to curb global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on best current estimates that the world needs to reduce global carbon dioxide emissions by 70% by 2050, and that there is at best a 10-year window of opportunity available to initiate the enormous changes needed, this paper proposes a set of seven self-contained steps that can be taken at a global level to tackle the problem with some prospect of success. The steps are self-financing and practicable, in that they are based on existing technologies. They involve agreement to create a new international agency charged with formulating and policing a global carbon pricing regime; a complementary step involving global monitoring of greenhouse gas emissions utilizing satellite resources; taking steps to compensate developing countries for preserving rainforest as carbon sinks; the dismantling of newly created trade barriers holding back global trade in biofuels; global promotion of a transition to renewable sources of electricity through facilitation of grid interconnections with independent power producers; a global moratorium on the building of new coal-fired power stations; and recycling of carbon revenues to promote uptake of renewable energy sources in developing countries, particularly Brazil, India and China. Taken as a group, it is argued that these steps are both necessary and sufficient. They call for institutional innovations at a global level that are politically difficult but feasible, given the magnitude of the problems addressed

242

Seven steps to curb global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on best current estimates that the world needs to reduce global carbon dioxide emissions by 70% by 2050, and that there is at best a 10-year window of opportunity available to initiate the enormous changes needed, this paper proposes a set of seven self-contained steps that can be taken at a global level to tackle the problem with some prospect of success. The steps are self-financing and practicable, in that they are based on existing technologies. They involve agreement to create a new international agency charged with formulating and policing a global carbon pricing regime; a complementary step involving global monitoring of greenhouse gas emissions utilizing satellite resources; taking steps to compensate developing countries for preserving rainforest as carbon sinks; the dismantling of newly created trade barriers holding back global trade in biofuels; global promotion of a transition to renewable sources of electricity through facilitation of grid interconnections with independent power producers; a global moratorium on the building of new coal-fired power stations; and recycling of carbon revenues to promote uptake of renewable energy sources in developing countries, particularly Brazil, India and China. Taken as a group, it is argued that these steps are both necessary and sufficient. They call for institutional innovations at a global level that are politically difficult but feasible, given the magnitude of the problems addressed.

Mathews, John [Macquarie Graduate School of Management, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia)]. E-mail: john.Mathews@mq.edu.au

2007-08-15

243

PBS Online NewsHour: The Global Warming Debate  

Science.gov (United States)

In-depth coverage of global warming, including related research and policy decisions, together with instructional materials. Includes interactives on rises in temperature and sea level and on comparing vehicles in terms of emissions and fuel costs; a lesson plan on Arctic warming; archived news stories; and links to related PBS features. Some of the archived news stories are available as streaming video, RealAudio as well as text.

244

Interpretation of High Projections for Global-Mean Warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has recently released its Third Assessment Report (TAR), in which new projections are given for global-mean warming in the absence of policies to limit climate change. The full warming range over 1990 to 2100, 1.4o to 5.8oC, is substantially higher than the range given previously in the IPCC Second Assessment Report. Here we interpret the new warming range in probabilistic terms, accounting for uncertainties in emissions, the climate sensit...

Wigley, T. M. L.; Raper, S. C. B.

2001-01-01

245

Relative contributions of greenhouse gas emissions to global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

IN the past few years, many workers have noted that the combined effect on climate of increases in the concentrations of a large number of trace gases could rival or even exceed that of the increasing concentration of carbon dioxide1-3. These trace gases, principally methane, nitrous oxide and chlorofluorocarbons, are present at concentrations that are two to six orders of magnitude lower than that of carbon dioxide, but are important because, per molecule, they absorb infrared radiation much more strongly than carbon dioxide. Indeed a recent study4 shows that trace gases are responsible for 43% of the increase in radiative forcing from 1980 to 1990 (Fig. 1). An index to compare the contribution of various 'greenhouse' gas emissions to global warming is needed to develop cost-effective strategies for limiting this warming. Estimates of relative contributions to additional greenhouse forcing during particular periods do not fully take into account differences in atmospheric residence times among the important greenhouse gases. Here we extend recent work on halocarbons5,6 by proposing an index of global warming potential for methane, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide and CFCs relative to that of carbon dioxide. We find, for example, that methane has, per mole, a global warming potential 3.7 times that of carbon dioxide. On this basis, carbon dioxide emissions account for 80% of the contribution to global warming of current greenhouse gas emissions, as compared with 57% of the increase in radiative forcing for the 1980s.

Lashof, Daniel A.; Ahuja, Dilip R.

1990-04-01

246

Global Warming: Knowledge and Views of Iranian Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Study of students’ knowledge about global warming can help authorities to have better imagination of this critical environmental problem. This research examines high school students' ideas about greenhouse effect and the results may be useful for the respective authorities to improve cultural and educational aspects of next generation. In this cross-sectional study, a 42 question questionnaire with mix of open and closed questions was used to evaluate high school students' view about the mechanism, consequences, causes and cures of global warming. To assess students’ knowledge, cognitive score was also calculated. 1035 students were randomly selected from 19 educational districts of Tehran. Sampling method was multi stage. Only 5.1% of the students could explain greenhouse effect correctly and completely. 88.8% and 71.2% respectively believed “if the greenhouse effect gets bigger the Earth will get hotter” and “incidence of more skin cancers is a consequence of global warming”. 69.6% and 68.8% respectively thought “the greenhouse effect is made worse by too much carbon dioxide” and “presence of ozone holes is a cause of greenhouse effect”. 68.4% believed “not using cars so much is a cure for global warming”. While a student’s ‘cognitive score’ could range from -36 to +36, Students' mean cognitive score was equal to +1.64. Mean cognitive score of male students and grade 2 & 3 students was respectively higher than female ones (P0.05. In general, students' knowledge about global warming was not acceptable and there were some misconceptions in the students’ mind, such as supposing ozone holes as a cause and more skin cancer as a consequence of global warming. The Findings of this survey indicate that, this important stratum of society have been received no sufficient and efficient education and sensitization on this matter.

Taraneh Yazdanparast, Sousan Salehpour, Mohammad Reza Masjedi, Seyed Mohammad Seyedmehdi, Eddie Boyes, Martin Stanisstreet, Mirsaeed Attarchi

2013-03-01

247

Global Warming at the East Coast Zone of Peninsular Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Global Warming is not a new phenomenon and it is already been felt by people all around the world. Not only the people affected by the global warming, but also our sea. There are a lot of potential threats that can be caused by global warming on the sea such as rise of sea level, changes in waves action, water current and wind velocity, but do one of the main users of the sea which are the fishermen have already felt these impacts? Approach: This is a quantitative study where a developed questionnaire was used to gain the data needed. Through a stratified random sampling a total of 300 registered fishermen from four states in the east coast zone of Peninsular Malaysia namely Kelantan, Terengganu, Pahang and East Johor have been selected. Results: This study provided a greater understanding of the fishermen views on the changes that happened to the sea due to the global warming impact. They stressed that the temperature, the rainfall season and the coastal areas have changed. Furthermore, according to them, the sea nowadays are no longer easy to predict as the water current, wind velocity and waves actions can easily change their pattern and endanger them while they are at the sea. Conclusion/Recommendation: Effective actions can be taken to assist the fishermen to adapt to impacts of global warming. One of it is to provide them with more information on global warming. Besides, fishermen in Malaysia also can be provided with trainings in order to provide them with other skills besides fishing.

Hayrol A.M. Shaffril

2011-01-01

248

Global warming tugs at trophic interactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change impacts are becoming increasingly evident as 1 degree C warming above pre-industrial temperatures is approached. One of the signature biological effects is a shift towards earlier-timed reproduction. If individual species lack sufficient adaptive plasticity to alter phenology, they will have reduced fitness in a hotter world. Yet, a long-term study of an oak-caterpillar-songbird-sparrowhawk food web reveals that what could matter as much is if trophic interactions are disrupted. Multiple selective pressures may be triggered by climate change, leading to a tug-of-war between the need to stay in synchrony with the timing of maximum food, and the benefits of minimizing predation. PMID:19120595

Brook, Barry W

2009-01-01

249

Our Changing Oceans: All about Ocean Acidification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The consequences of ocean acidification are global in scale. More research into ocean acidification and its consequences is needed. It is already known, for example, that there are regional differences in the vulnerability of fisheries to acidification. The combination of other factors, such as global warming, the destruction of habitats, overfishing and pollution, need to be taken into account when developing strategies to increase the marine environment’s resilience. Among steps that can be taken to reduce the impact is better protection of marine coastal ecosystems, such as mangrove swamps and seagrass meadows, which will help protect fisheries. This recommendation was one of the conclusions of a three-day workshop attended by economists and scientists and organized by the IAEA and the Centre Scientifique de Monaco in November 2012. In their recommendations the workshop also stressed that the impact of increasing ocean acidity must be taken into account in the management of fisheries, particularly where seafood is a main dietary source

250

Global Warming, Clouds, and Albedo: Feedback Loops  

Science.gov (United States)

This site, from the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), offers a detailed explanation, with diagrams, of both Earth's water cycle and the global heat flow, including the processes that produce the greenhouse effect. Greenhouse gases are listed, and their relative contributions to the greenhouse effect are enumerated. Special attention is paid to the role of clouds.

2009-05-27

251

Studying Global Warming in Biosphere 2  

Science.gov (United States)

In this video segment, two students discuss the greenhouse effect and visit with research scientists at Biosphere 2 in Arizona, who research the effects of global climate change on organisms in a controlled facility. Their current research (as of 2002) focuses on the response to increased quantities of CO2 in a number of different model ecosystems.

Thirteen; Wnet; Domain, Teachers'

252

Externality costs by pollutant. A. Global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The earth's atmosphere is a global commons into which the worlds population emits the gaseous by-products of its activities on the erroneous assumption that the atmosphere has limitless capacity to absorb invisible gaseous wastes without changing its characteristics, and that air pollution is cost-free waste disposal. However, all of these emissions effect changes in the worlds ecosystems, and some of the emissions, in particular emissions from electric power production, may radically alter the worlds climate. If one could determine the cost of the global climatic environmental impacts resulting from electricity production using fossil fuel, then the institutional structures of the electric power industry could be modified to incorporate that cost into the price of electricity and into decisions concerning how to provide electric power services. It is that cost that this chapter attempts to determine

253

Senate approves global warming bill; House bill introduced  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article examines the Senate approved global warming bill and its impact to the Department of Energy (DOE) and the power industry. The bill requires stabilization or reduction of the greenhouse gases produced by the United States by the year 2005. DOE is required to develop a least-cost national energy strategy. A similar bill has been introduced into the House

254

The core of the global warming problem: energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From the thermodynamic point of view, the global warming problem is an 'energy balance' problem. The heat (energy) accumulation in the earth and its atmosphere is the cause of global warming. This accumulation is mainly due to the imbalance of (solar) energy reaching and the energy leaving the earth, caused by 'greenhouse effect' in which the CO2 and other greenhouse gases play a critical role; so that balance of the energy entering and leaving the earth should be the key to solve the problem. Currently in the battle of tackling the global warming, we mainly focus on the development of CO2-related measures, i.e., emission reduction, CO2 sequestration, and CO2 recycle technologies. It is right in technical aspect, because they are attempting to thin the CO2 'blanket' around the earth. However, 'Energy' that is the core of the problem has been overlooked, at least in management/policy aspect. This paper is proposing an 'Energy Credit' i.e., the energy measure concept as an alternative to the 'CO2 credit' that is currently in place in the proposed emission trading scheme. The proposed energy credit concept has the advantages such as covering broad activities related to the global warming and not just direct emissions. Three examples are given in the paper to demonstrate the concept of the energy measure and its advantages over the CO2 credit concept. (Author)

255

Compilation of Ozone Depletion Potentials and Global Warming Potentials  

Science.gov (United States)

Five databases are available for free online from the Syracuse Research Corporation (SRC) a not-for-profit research and development firm. The ozone depletion potentials database (1) contains experimental Global Warming Potentials (GWPs) and Ozone Depletion Potentials (ODPs) compiled from the open literature. It is searchable by CAS Registry number, and a lookup table for CAS numbers is provided.

256

Global Warming: Discussion for EOS Science Writers Workshop  

Science.gov (United States)

The existence of global warming this century is no longer an issue of scientific debate. But there are many important questions about the nature and causes of long-term climate change, th roles of nature and human-made climate forcings and unforced (chaotic) climate variability, the practical impacts of climate change, and what, if anything, should be done to reduce global warming, Global warming is not a uniform increase of temperature, but rather involves at complex geographically varying climate change. Understanding of global warming will require improved observations of climate change itself and the forcing factors that can lead to climate change. The NASA Terra mission and other NASA Earth Science missions will provide key measurement of climate change and climate forcings. The strategy to develop an understanding of the causes and predictability of long-term climate change must be based on combination of observations with models and analysis. The upcoming NASA missions will make important contributions to the required observations.

Hansen, James E

1999-01-01

257

Turkish Prospective Teachers' Understanding and Misunderstanding on Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

The key objective of this study is to determine the Turkish elementary prospective teachers' opinions on global warming. It is also aimed to establish prospective teachers' views about the environmental education in Turkish universities. A true-false type scale was administered to 564 prospective teachers from science education, social studies…

Ocal, A.; Kisoglu, M.; Alas, A.; Gurbuz, H.

2011-01-01

258

Seventh Grade Students' Conceptions of Global Warming and Climate Change  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate seventh grade students' conceptions of global warming and climate change. The study was descriptive in nature and involved the collection of qualitative data from 91 seventh grade students from three different schools in the Midwest, USA. An open response and draw and explain assessment instrument was…

Shepardson, Daniel P.; Niyogi, Dev; Choi, Soyoung; Charusombat, Umarporn

2009-01-01

259

Promotion of Scientific Literacy on Global Warming by Process Drama  

Science.gov (United States)

This project aims to investigate how process drama promotes scientific literacy in the context of global warming. Thirty-one lower (n = 24) and upper (n = 7) secondary students of one secondary school in Bangkok, Thailand participated in a seven-day workshop which process drama strategy was implemented. In the workshop, the students were actively…

Pongsophon, Pongprapan; Yutakom, Naruemon; Boujaoude, Saouma B.

2010-01-01

260

A Noted Physicist's Contrarian View of Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

According to Freeman Dyson, an emeritus professor of physics at the Institute for Advanced Study, the debate about global warming has become too narrow and opinions have become too entrenched. Relying on a computer model designed by the Yale University economist William D. Nordhaus, Dyson compared the effectiveness and economic feasibility of…

Goldstein, Evan R., Comp.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Global warming and mycoflora in the Baltic Region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The author discusses possible effects of global warming on distribution and ecology of larger fungi, and presents examples of suggested indicator species which apparently are spreading from south to north. Only Basidiomycetes are corncerned, while actually no case of non-lichenized Ascomycetes is known. A continued monitoring of the mentioned species is recommended.

Hanns Kreisel

2006-06-01

262

THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE NIGERIAN CEMENT INDUSTRY TO GLOBAL WARMING.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The issues of global warming have taken the centre stage all over the world and its effects are manifesting every where especially in the sub-Saharan Africa. Industrialisation is the main cause of global warming. The highly developed countries that are highly industrialised are regarded as the main culprits in this menace. Thedeveloped countries have been at the receiving end of the negative effects of the global warming. With the modest development in industrialisation in the developing countries they are now gradually joining the league of green house gas emitters. In Nigeria the cement industry has made a considerable improvement in production capacity and development. This has resulted to an increase in cement production in Nigeria with its attendant increase in carbon dioxide generation into the atmosphere. Nigeria will be producing over 25million metric tonnes of cement annually and at the rate of one tonne of cement to one tonne of carbon dioxide, the country will likely be producing 25 million metric tonnes of carbon dioxide from cement production annually. The paper x-rayed this and showed the potential of the Nigeria cement industry in the contribution to global warming.

DR. NDEFO OKIGBO

2012-11-01

263

Global Warming: Carbon Dioxide and the Greenhouse Effect  

Science.gov (United States)

This video segment demonstrates carbon dioxide's role in the greenhouse effect and explains how increasing concentrations of C02 in the atmosphere may be contributing to global warming. Video includes an unusual demonstration of C02's heat-absorbing properties, using infrared film, a researcher's face, and a stream of C02 between them.

Frontline/nova; Foundation, Wgbh E.; Domain, Teachers'

264

Global warming and local dimming. The statistical evidence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two effects largely determine global warming: the well-known greenhouse effect and the less well-known solar radiation effect. An increase in concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases contributes to global warming: the greenhouse effect. In addition, small particles, called aerosols, reflect and absorb sunlight in the atmosphere. More pollution causes an increase in aerosols, so that less sunlight reaches the Earth (global dimming). Despite its name, global dimming is primarily a local (or regional) effect. Because of the dimming the Earth becomes cooler: the solar radiation effect. Global warming thus consists of two components: the (global) greenhouse effect and the (local) solar radiation effect, which work in opposite directions. Only the sum of the greenhouse effect and the solar radiation effect is observed, not the two effects separately. Our purpose is to identify the two effects. This is important, because the existence of the solar radiation effect obscures the magnitude of the greenhouse effect. We propose a simple climate model with a small number of parameters. We gather data from a large number of weather stations around the world for the period 1959-2002. We then estimate the parameters using dynamic panel data methods, and quantify the parameter uncertainty. Next, we decompose the estimated temperature change of 0.73C (averaged over the weather stations) into a greenhouse effect of 1.87C, a solar radiation effect of -1.09C, and a small remainder term. Finally, we subject our findings to extensive sensitivity analyses.

265

Global warming considerations in northern Boreal forest ecosystems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The northern boreal forests of circumpolar lands are of special significance to questions of global climate change. Throughout its range, these forests are characterized by a relatively few tree species, although they may exhibit great spatial heterogeneity. Their ecosystems are simpler than temperate systems, and ecosystem processes are strongly affected by interactions between water, the landscape, and the biota. Northern boreal forest vegetation patterns are strongly influenced by forest fires, and distribution of forest generally coincides with occurrence of permafrost. Boreal forest landscapes are extremely sensitive to thermal disruption; global warming may result in lasting thermal and physical degradation of soils, altered rates and patterns of vegetation succession, and damage to engineered structures. A change in fire severity and frequency is also a significant concern. The total carbon pool of boreal forests and their associated peatlands is significant on a global scale; this carbon may amount to 10-20% of the global carbon pool. A change in latitudinal or elevational treeline has been suggested as a probable consequence of global warming. More subtle aspects of boreal forest ecosystems which may be affected by global warming include the depth of the active soil layer, the hydrologic cycle, and biological attributes of boreal stream systems. 48 refs., 2 figs

266

Global warming and local dimming. The statistical evidence  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two effects largely determine global warming: the well-known greenhouse effect and the less well-known solar radiation effect. An increase in concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases contributes to global warming: the greenhouse effect. In addition, small particles, called aerosols, reflect and absorb sunlight in the atmosphere. More pollution causes an increase in aerosols, so that less sunlight reaches the Earth (global dimming). Despite its name, global dimming is primarily a local (or regional) effect. Because of the dimming the Earth becomes cooler: the solar radiation effect. Global warming thus consists of two components: the (global) greenhouse effect and the (local) solar radiation effect, which work in opposite directions. Only the sum of the greenhouse effect and the solar radiation effect is observed, not the two effects separately. Our purpose is to identify the two effects. This is important, because the existence of the solar radiation effect obscures the magnitude of the greenhouse effect. We propose a simple climate model with a small number of parameters. We gather data from a large number of weather stations around the world for the period 1959-2002. We then estimate the parameters using dynamic panel data methods, and quantify the parameter uncertainty. Next, we decompose the estimated temperature change of 0.73C (averaged over the weather stations) into a greenhouse effect of 1.87C, a solar radiation effect of -1.09C, and a small remainder term. Finally, we subject our findings to extensive sensitivity analyses.

Magnus, J.R.; Melenberg, B. [Department of Econometrics and Operations Research, Tilburg University, Tilburg (Netherlands); Muris, C. [CentER, Tilburg University, Tilburg (Netherlands)

2011-01-15

267

GLOBAL WARMING AND WHEAT PRODUCTION IN ARGENTINA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this work was to assess the impact of past and future changes in climate on potential wheat productivity. The study was based on long term daily climatic data (since 1930) and crop productivity, regional climatic scenarios based on the down scaling of HadCM3 GCM (MM5/CIMA), and a crop simulation model (DSSAT v4.0). In the central and northern part of the Pampas, potential wheat yield has been decreasing with increasing rates since 1930 (28.3 kg/ha between 1930-2000, and 52.7 kg/ha between 1970-2000) due mainly to winter and spring warming. Further increases in temperature could lead to wheat yield reductions of 7.5% for each C of temperature raise until 3 C. According to MM5/CIMA climatic projections, in 2080 under the SRES A2 scenario, temperature will rise between 2 C and 3 C and spring-summer precipitations will have slight increases. Under these conditions mean wheat yield will be reduced by 4% with a great spatial variability. The zones more affected will be those located in the north (Nor-west of Buenos Aires province, and parts of Santa Fe and Cordoba with decreases between 20% and 30%), while the south-west portion could be benefited with increases near to 20% . If CO2 effects are considered mean wheat yield could increase by 14% in the Pampas. However in isolated sites, located mainly in the central and northern part, yields could decrease up to 10% despite CO2 effects. In the future should be convenient to advance planting dates for taking advantage of the new environmental conditions where frost free periods would be prolonged.

Maria I. Travasso; Graciela O. Magrin; Gabriel R. Rodriguez [INTA, Instituto de Clima y Agua, Castelar (Argentina); Silvina Solman; Mario Nunez [CIMA, C. Universitaria, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2008-09-30

268

Bioenergy, global warming, and environmental impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bioenergy is one of the forms of renewable energy. Bioenergy, the energy from biomass, has been used for thousands of years, ever since people started burning wood to cook food, and today wood is still our largest biomass resource for bioenergy. The use of bioenergy has the potential to greatly reduce our greenhouse gas emissions. Replacing fossil fuels with energy from biomass has several distinct environmental implications. If biomass is harvested at a rate that is sustainable, using it for energy purposes does not result in any net increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. States have played a leading role in protecting the environment by reducing emissions of greenhouse gasses (GHGs), and state emissions are significant on a global scale. CO2 and CO are the main greenhouse gases associated with global warning. At the present time, coal is responsible for 30-40% of world CO2 emissions from fossil fuels. SO2 and NOx contribute to acid rain. Carbon assessments can play an important role in a strategy to control carbon dioxide emissions while raising revenue. (author)

269

Bioenergy, global warming, and environmental impacts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bioenergy is one of the forms of renewable energy. Bioenergy, the energy from biomass, has been used for thousands of years, ever since people started burning wood to cook food, and today wood is still our largest biomass resource for bioenergy. The use of bioenergy has the potential to greatly reduce our greenhouse gas emissions. Replacing fossil fuels with energy from biomass has several distinct environmental implications. If biomass is harvested at a rate that is sustainable, using it for energy purposes does not result in any net increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. States have played a leading role in protecting the environment by reducing emissions of greenhouse gasses (GHGs), and state emissions are significant on a global scale. CO{sub 2} and CO are the main greenhouse gases associated with global warning. At the present time, coal is responsible for 30-40% of world CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuels. SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} contribute to acid rain. Carbon assessments can play an important role in a strategy to control carbon dioxide emissions while raising revenue. (author)

Demirbas, A. [Selcuk Univ., Konya (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

2004-02-15

270

Simulation of future global warming scenarios in rice paddies with an open-field warming facility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract To simulate expected future global warming, hexagonal arrays of infrared heaters have previously been used to warm open-field canopies of upland crops such as wheat. Through the use of concrete-anchored posts, improved software, overhead wires, extensive grounding, and monitoring with a thermal camera, the technology was safely and reliably extended to paddy rice fields. The system maintained canopy temperature increases within 0.5°C of daytime and nighttime set-point differences of 1.3 and 2.7°C 67% of the time.

Rehmani Muhammad

2011-12-01

271

Simulation of future global warming scenarios in rice paddies with an open-field warming facility  

Science.gov (United States)

To simulate expected future global warming, hexagonal arrays of infrared heaters have previously been used to warm open-field canopies of upland crops such as wheat. Through the use of concrete-anchored posts, improved software, overhead wires, extensive grounding, and monitoring with a thermal camera, the technology was safely and reliably extended to paddy rice fields. The system maintained canopy temperature increases within 0.5°C of daytime and nighttime set-point differences of 1.3 and 2.7°C 67% of the time. PMID:22145582

2011-01-01

272

Global warming and extinctions of endemic species from biodiversity hotspots.  

Science.gov (United States)

Global warming is a key threat to biodiversity, but few researchers have assessed the magnitude of this threat at the global scale. We used major vegetation types (biomes) as proxies for natural habitats and, based on projected future biome distributions under doubled-CO2 climates, calculated changes in habitat areas and associated extinctions of endemic plant and vertebrate species in biodiversity hotspots. Because of numerous uncertainties in this approach, we undertook a sensitivity analysis of multiple factors that included (1) two global vegetation models, (2) different numbers of biome classes in our biome classification schemes, (3) different assumptions about whether species distributions were biome specific or not, and (4) different migration capabilities. Extinctions were calculated using both species-area and endemic-area relationships. In addition, average required migration rates were calculated for each hotspot assuming a doubled-CO2 climate in 100 years. Projected percent extinctions ranged from change or migration rates; in some scenarios, however, botspots exhibited relatively high biome change and low migration rates. Especially vulnerable hotspots were the Cape Floristic Region, Caribbean, Indo-Burma, Mediterranean Basin, Southwest Australia, and Tropical Andes, where plant extinctions per hotspot sometimes exceeded 2000 species. Under the assumption that projected habitat changes were attained in 100 years, estimated global-warming-induced rates of species extinctions in tropical hotspots in some cases exceeded those due to deforestation, supporting suggestions that global warming is one of the most serious threats to the planet's biodiversity. PMID:16903114

Malcolm, Jay R; Liu, Canran; Neilson, Ronald P; Hansen, Lara; Hannah, Lee

2006-04-01

273

I'll Save the World from Global Warming--Tomorrow: Using Procrastination Management to Combat Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

In the provocatively titled "I'll Save the World from Global Warming--Tomorrow," Dick Malott says that although we all want to do the right thing to help the environment, whether it's buying and installing compact fluorescent light bulbs (CFLs) or replacing an energy-guzzling appliance with a more efficient one, we put it off because there's no…

Malott, Richard W.

2010-01-01

274

Global warming What does the data tell us?  

CERN Document Server

We analyze global surface temperature data obtained at 13472 weather stations from the year 1702 to 1990. The mean annual temperature of a station fluctuates from year to year by typically +-0.6oC (one standard deviation). Superimposed on this fluctuation is a linear increase of the temperature by typically 0.40oC per century ever since reliable data is available, i.e. since 1702. The world population has doubled from 1952 to 1990, yet we see no statistically significant acceleration of global warming in this period. We conclude that the effect of humankind on global warming up to 1990 is 0.0 +- 0.1oC.

Alban, E X

2002-01-01

275

An Investigation of Student Engagement in a Global Warming Debate  

Science.gov (United States)

NOTE: This is a large file, 77 mb in size! This article describes an investigation into how using debate as a pedagogical tool for addressing earth system science concepts can promote active student learning, present a realistic and dynamic view of science, and provide a mechanism for integrating the scientific, political and social dimensions of global environmental change. Using global warming as an example of earth system science, the authors consider how participation in debate provides an avenue for engaging students in science. The investigation draws from studies of school science that focus on the use of argument as a pedagogical tool and examines how students make use of observationally-based climatic data sets when debating the cause of global warming.

Schweizer, Diane; Kelly, Gregory

2005-01-01

276

The global warming debate heats up - An analysis and perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Estimates of present and future effects of global warming are discussed and the two opposing schools of thought concerning global warming are summarized. It is pointed out that scientific concern for a high probability of unprecedented climatic change over the next 50 years is not based upon the detailed fluctuations in the climate record to date, but on physical processes that comprise the greenhouse effect. The most recent climatic models are described and validation of these models discussed. Results from these models suggest that global average surface temperatures will increase by 1.5-4.5 C during the next century. However, changes in greenhouse gas concentrations, other nongreenhouse forcings such as solar variability or atmospheric aerosols, and feedback processes not properly accounted for in the present models could produce greater or smaller increases. Sea-level rises of 0.2-1.2 m are typically projected for the next century. Some discussion of policy responses is presented. 62 refs.

Schneider, S.H. (NCAR, Boulder, CO (USA))

1990-09-01

277

Signature of ocean warming in global fisheries catch.  

Science.gov (United States)

Marine fishes and invertebrates respond to ocean warming through distribution shifts, generally to higher latitudes and deeper waters. Consequently, fisheries should be affected by 'tropicalization' of catch (increasing dominance of warm-water species). However, a signature of such climate-change effects on global fisheries catch has so far not been detected. Here we report such an index, the mean temperature of the catch (MTC), that is calculated from the average inferred temperature preference of exploited species weighted by their annual catch. Our results show that, after accounting for the effects of fishing and large-scale oceanographic variability, global MTC increased at a rate of 0.19 degrees Celsius per decade between 1970 and 2006, and non-tropical MTC increased at a rate of 0.23 degrees Celsius per decade. In tropical areas, MTC increased initially because of the reduction in the proportion of subtropical species catches, but subsequently stabilized as scope for further tropicalization of communities became limited. Changes in MTC in 52 large marine ecosystems, covering the majority of the world's coastal and shelf areas, are significantly and positively related to regional changes in sea surface temperature. This study shows that ocean warming has already affected global fisheries in the past four decades, highlighting the immediate need to develop adaptation plans to minimize the effect of such warming on the economy and food security of coastal communities, particularly in tropical regions. PMID:23676754

Cheung, William W L; Watson, Reg; Pauly, Daniel

2013-05-16

278

The contribution of cosmic rays to global warming  

CERN Document Server

A search has been made for a contribution of the changing cosmic ray intensity to the global warming observed in the last century. The cosmic ray intensity shows a strong 11 year cycle due to solar modulation and the overall rate has decreased since 1900. These changes in cosmic ray intensity are compared to those of the mean global surface temperature to attempt to quantify any link between the two. It is shown that, if such a link exists, the changing cosmic ray intensity contributes less than 8% to the increase in the mean global surface temperature observed since 1900.

Sloan, Terry

2011-01-01

279

ASM Lecture Series: Global Warming and Climate Change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The melting of ice and permafrost in the north polar region and the shrinking of the tropical glaciers are signals that global warming is no longer solely a warning about the future, but changes which have already arrived. The initial effects of this warming are noticeably present, and the concerns are now of substantial climate change in the near future. Modeling of the consequences on the future atmosphere from increased release of greenhouse gases and some of the possible consequences of climate change, such as rising sea levels and melting of the north polar ice, are discussed. (author)

280

El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO and global warming  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is widely accepted by the international scientific community that human activities have increased atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG and aerosols since the pre-industrial era. This increase has contributed to most of the warming (0.6±0.2°C observed over the 20th century, land areas warming more than the oceans, with the 1990s very likely to be the warmest decade of the 20th century (IPCC, 2001. How this warming influences the occurrence, severity and frequency of ENSO episodes remains highly uncertain. The IPCC (2001 assessment of the scientific literature found insufficient evidence to suggest any direct attribution between increase in ENSO events that occurred in the last 20 to 30 years of the 20th century and global warming (IPCC, 2001. However, assessments carried out since then (e.g. IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4, in preparations suggest El Niño events have become more frequent, persistent and intense during the last 20 to 30 years compared to the previous 100 years. Attribution to global warming, however, remains highly uncertain. Efforts to simulate and model past, present and future behaviour of ENSO under a warming world due to enhanced GHG concentrations produce conflicting results. Since substantial internally-generated variability of ENSO behaviour on multi-decadal to century timescales occurs in long, unforced atmospheric-oceanic general circulation model (AOGCM simulations, the attribution of past and future changes in ENSO amplitude and frequency to external forcing like GHG concentrations cannot be made with certainty. Such attribution would require extensive use of ensemble climate experiments or long experiments with stabilised GHG forcing. Although there are now better ENSO simulations in AOGCM, further model improvements are needed to simulate a more realistic Pacific climatology and seasonal cycle of the key modes influencing the climate of the region, as well as more realistic ENSO variability. More research is needed to further enhance scientific understanding of possible teleconnections between ENSO and global warming. It is worth noting the IPCC AR4 due to be release in September 2007, would provide a more detailed assessment of ENSO and global warming than what is being covered in this paper.

B. Nyenzi

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Calcification rates of the Caribbean reef-building coral Siderastrea siderea adversely affected by both seawater warming and CO2-induced ocean acidification  

Science.gov (United States)

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts that atmospheric pCO2 will increase to ca. 550-950 ppm by the end of the century, primarily due to the anthropogenic combustion of fossil fuels, deforestation, and cement production. This is predicted to cause SST to increase by 1-3 °C and seawater pH to decrease by 0.1-0.3 units. Laboratory studies have shown that warming depresses calcification rates of scleractinian corals and that acidification yields mixed effects on coral calcification. With both warming and ocean acidification predicted for the next century, we must constrain the interactive effects of these two CO2-induced stressors on scleractinian coral calcification. Here, we present the results of experiments designed to assess the response of the scleractinian coral Siderastrea siderea to both ocean warming and acidification. Coral fragments (12/tank) were reared for 60 days under three temperatures (25.1± 0.02 °C, 28.0± 0.02 °C, 31.8± 0.02 °C) at near modern pCO2 (436 ± 7) and near the highest IPCC estimate for atmospheric pCO2 for the year 2100 AD (883 ± 16). Each temperature and pCO2 treatment was executed in triplicate and contained similarly sized S. Siderea fragments obtained from the same suite of coral colonies equitably distributed amongst the nearshore, backreef, and forereef zones of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System off the coast of southern Belize. Individual coral fragments were hand fed Artemia sp. to satiation twice weekly. Weekly seawater samples (250 ml) were collected and analyzed for dissolved inorganic carbon via coulometry and total alkalinity via closed-cell potentiometric titration. Seawater pCO2, pH, carbonate ion concentration, bicarbonate ion concentration, aqueous CO2, and aragonite saturation state (?A) were calculated with the program CO2SYS. Under near-modern atmospheric pCO2 of ca. 436 ± 7 ppm, seawater warming from 25 to 28 to 32°C caused coral calcification rates (estimated from change in buoyant weight) to decrease nearly linearly. Under the high-pCO2 treatment, warming exerted a parabolic effect on calcification rate, i.e., calcification rate increased from 25 to 28 °C and then declined from 28 to 32 ° C. Under each of the three temperature treatments, increasing atmospheric pCO2 cause calcification rates to significantly decline (p yields the least favorable outcome for calcification by this coral species.

Horvath, K. M.; Connolly, B. D.; Westfield, I. T.; Chow, E.; Castillo, K. D.; Ries, J. B.

2013-05-01

282

On the Present Halting of Global Warming  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The rise in global average temperature over the last century has halted since roughly the year 2000, despite the fact that the release of CO2 into the atmosphere is still increasing. It is suggested here that this interruption has been caused by the suspension of the near linear (+ 0.5 °C/100 years or 0.05 °C/10 years temperature increase over the last two centuries, due to recovery from the Little Ice Age, by a superposed multi-decadal oscillation of a 0.2 °C amplitude and a 50~60 year period, which reached its positive peak in about the year 2000—a halting similar to those that occurred around 1880 and 1940. Because both the near linear change and the multi-decadal oscillation are likely to be natural changes (the recovery from the Little Ice Age (LIA and an oscillation related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO, respectively, they must be carefully subtracted from temperature data before estimating the effects of CO2.

Syun-Ichi Akasofu

2013-05-01

283

Imminent ocean acidification projected with the NCAR global coupled carbon cycle-climate model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ocean acidification from the uptake of anthropogenic carbon is simulated for the industrial period and IPCC SRES emission scenarios A2 and B1 with a global coupled carbon cycle-climate model. Earlier studies identified seawater saturation state with respect to aragonite, a mineral phase of calcium carbonate, as a key variable governing impacts on corals and other shell-forming organisms. Globally in the A2 scenario, water saturated by more than 300%, considered suitable for coral growth, vanishes by 2070 AD (CO2?630 ppm, and the ocean volume fraction occupied by saturated water decreases from 42% to 25% over this century. The largest simulated pH changes worldwide occur in Arctic surface waters, where hydrogen ion concentration increases by up to 185%. Projected climate change amplifies the decrease in Arctic surface mean saturation and pH by more than 20%, mainly due to freshening and increased carbon uptake in response to sea ice retreat. Modeled saturation compares well with observation-based estimates along an Arctic transect and simulated changes have been corrected for remaining model-data differences in this region. Aragonite undersaturation in Arctic surface waters is projected to occur locally soon and to become more widespread as atmospheric CO2 continues to grow. The results imply that surface waters in the Arctic Ocean will become corrosive to aragonite, with potentially large implications for the marine ecosystem, if anthropogenic carbon emissions are not reduced and atmospheric CO2 not kept below 450 ppm.

M. Steinacher

2008-11-01

284

Projected impacts of climate change and ocean acidification on the global biogeography of planktonic foraminifera  

Science.gov (United States)

Planktonic foraminifera are a major contributor to the deep carbonate-flux and the planktonic biomass of the global ocean. Their microfossil deposits form one of the richest databases for reconstructing paleoenvironments, particularly through changes in their taxonomic and shell composition. Using an empirically-based foraminifer model that incorporates three known major physiological drivers of foraminifer biogeography - temperature, food and light - we investigate (i) the global redistribution of planktonic foraminifera under anthropogenic climate change, and (ii) the alteration of the carbonate chemistry of foraminifer habitat with ocean acidification. The present-day and future (2090-2100) 3-D distributions of foraminifera are simulated using temperature, plankton biomass, and light from an Earth system model forced with historical and a future (IPCC A2) high CO2 emission scenario. The broadscale patterns of present day foraminifer biogeography are well reproduced. Foraminifer abundance and diversity are projected to decrease in the tropics and subpolar regions and increase in the subtropics and around the poles. In the tropics, the geographical shifts are driven by temperature, while the vertical shifts are driven by both temperature and food availability. In the high-latitudes, vertical shifts are driven by food availability, while geographical shifts are driven by both food availability and temperature. Changes in the marine carbon cycle would be expected in response to (i) the large-scale rearrangements in foraminifer abundance, and (ii) the reduction of the carbonate concentration in the habitat range of planktonic foraminifers: from 10-30 ?mol kg-1 in the polar/subpolar regions to 30-70 ?mol kg-1 in the subtropical/tropical regions. High-latitude species are most vulnerable to anthropogenic change: their abundance and available habitat decrease and up to 10% of their habitat drops below the calcite saturation horizon.

Roy, T.; Lombard, F.; Bopp, L.; Gehlen, M.

2014-06-01

285

Global warming: What should we do to stop or slow?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Earth is warming much faster than had been predicted. 2005 was the warmest year on record, surpassing 1998. The multinational Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) report recently concluded that in Alaska, western Canada, and eastern Russia, average temperatures have increased 3 to 4 degrees Celsius in the past 50 years. Rising temperatures have a dramatic impact on Arctic ice. Since 1978 Arctic sea ice area has shrunk by some 9 percent per decade, and thinned as well. There are three specific events especially worrisome and potentially imminent, although the time frames are a matter of dispute: dramatic sea level rise by the end of the century that would take tens of thousand years to reverse; widespread coral bleaching that could be damage the world's fisheries within three decades; and, within 200 years, a shutdown of the ocean current that moderates temperatures in northern Europe. Global warming is caused by human activities such as burning nature's vast store of coal, oil and nature gas which releases billions of tones carbon dioxide (CO2) every year. If current trends continue, we will raise atmospheric CO2 concentrations to double pre-industrial levels during this century. That will probably be enough to raise global temperatures by around 2 degree C to 5 degree C. Even if humans stop burning oil and coal tomorrow we have already spewed enough greenhouse gases into the atmosphere to cause temperatures to warm and sea levels to rise for at least another century. So what should we do? We can not continue drawing energy from fossil fuels and there is no chance that the renewable, wind, tide, and water power can provide enough energy and in time. Nuclear energy is the only one immediately available source does not cause global warming. In this presentation consequences and risks of global warming, as well as nuclear power comparisons will be discussed comprehensively

286

Global warming and the insurance industry  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last few decades, the international insurance industry has been confronted with a drastic increase in the scope and frequency of great natural disasters. The trend is primarily attributable to the continuing steady growth of the world population and the increasing concentration of people and economic values in urban areas. An additional factor is the global migration of populations and industries into areas like the coastal regions which are particularly exposed to natural hazards. The natural hazards themselves, on the other hand, have not yet shown any significant increase. In addition to the problems the insurance industry has with regard to pricing, capacity and loss reserves, the assessment of insured liabilities, preventive planning and the proper adjustment of catastrophe losses are gaining importance. The present problems will be dramatically aggravated if the greenhouse predictions come true. The increased intensity of all convective processes in the atmosphere will force up the frequency and severity of tropical cyclones, tornados, hailstorms, floods and storm surges in many parts of the world with serious consequences for all types of property insurance. Rates will have to be raised and in certain coastal areas insurance coverage will only be available after considerable restrictions have been imposed, e.g., significant deductibles and/or liability or loss limits. In areas of high insurance density the loss potential of individual catastrophes can reach a level where the national and international insurance industries run into serious capacity problems. Recent disasters showed the disproportionately high participation of reinsurers in extreme disaster losses and the need for more risk transparency if the insurance industry is to fulfill its obligations in an increasingly hostile environment.

Berz, G. A.

1992-06-01

287

The impact of global warming on the Antarctic mass balance and global sea level  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

the Antarctic precipitation (P) and evaporation (E) resulting separately from decreasing incrementally the Antarctic sea ice concentration and from global warming accompanied by decreased sea ice cover. For total sea ice removal the changes obtained were P:+23%; E:-8%; (P-E):+48%. For global warming with sea ice reduction by about two thirds the changes were P:+47%; E:+22%; (P-E):+68%

288

Aspectos éticos del calentamiento climático global / ETHICAL ASPECTS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este artículo presenta, de una manera clara y sencilla, la complejidad asociada al calentamiento global. Además, señala algunos de los debates éticos asociados a este fenómeno. El calentamiento global no es un fenómeno que sea ajeno al diario vivir de de cada persona. [...] Abstract in english This article presents in a clear and simple way, the complexity associated to the global warming. In addition, to indicate some of the associated ethical debates to this phenomenon. The global warming is not a phenomenon that is strange to the day living of each person. [...

Andrés, Guhl Corpas.

2008-12-01

289

Global warming and the forest fire business in Canada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current forest fire situation in Canada is outlined, and an attempt is made to predict the impact of global warming on the forest fire business in Canada. Despite the development of extremely sophisticated provincial and territorial fire management systems, forest fires continue to exert a tremendous influence on the Canadian forest resource. Research into the relationship between climate warming and forest fires has fallen into two categories: the effect of future global warming on fire weather severity, and the current contribution of forest fires to global atmospheric greenhouse gas budgets. A 46% increase in seasonal fire severity across Canada is suggested under a doubled atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration scenario. Approximately 89% of carbon released to the atmosphere by forest fire burning is in the form of carbon dioxide, 9% is carbon monoxide, and the remaining carbon is released as methane or non-methane hydrocarbons. It is estimated that forest fires in northern circumpolar countries contribute from 1-2% of the carbon released globally through biomass burning. Fire may be the agent by which a northerly shift of forest vegetation in Canada occurs. 13 refs., 2 figs

290

No Such Luck: Nitrogen from Air Pollution Unlikely to Moderate Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

... from Air Pollution Unlikely to Moderate Global Warming December 5, 1996 This material is available ... dioxide in the atmosphere to moderate global warming. That scenario now seems unlikely, say ...

291

Polynomial cointegration tests of anthropogenic impact on global warming  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We use statistical methods for nonstationary time series to test the anthropogenic interpretation of global warming (AGW, according to which an increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations raised global temperature in the 20th century. Specifically, the methodology of polynomial cointegration is used to test AGW since during the observation period (1880–2007 global temperature and solar irradiance are stationary in 1st differences, whereas greenhouse gas and aerosol forcings are stationary in 2nd differences. We show that although these anthropogenic forcings share a common stochastic trend, this trend is empirically independent of the stochastic trend in temperature and solar irradiance. Therefore, greenhouse gas forcing, aerosols, solar irradiance and global temperature are not polynomially cointegrated, and the perceived relationship between these variables is a spurious regression phenomenon. On the other hand, we find that greenhouse gas forcings might have had a temporary effect on global temperature.

M. Beenstock

2012-11-01

292

Revisiting social and deep ecology in the light of global warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this article is largely theoretical. It asks what type of perspective is needed in order for left libertarians and anarchists to develop a deeper understanding of global warming. This way of framing the question builds on a set of premises which I will spell out. First, global warming is real. Second, the reality of global warming exists independently of our discourse about it. Third, global warming will have real and dangerous consequences for humans and human society. Fourth,...

Krøvel, Roy

2013-01-01

293

Floods, Droughts and Global Warming: Rolling the Climate Dice  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we find from analyses of projections of 14 CMIP5 models a robust, canonical global response in rainfall characteristics to CO2 greenhouse warming. Under a scenario of 1% increase per year of CO2 emission, the model ensemble projects globally more heavy precipitation (+7×2.4%K-1), less moderate precipitation (-2.5×0.6%K-1), more light precipitation (+1.8×1.3%K-1), and increased length of dry (no-rain) periods (+4.7×2.1%K-1). Regionally, a majority of the models project a consistent response with more heavy precipitation over climatologically wet regions of the deep tropics especially the equatorial Pacific Ocean and the Asian monsoon regions, and more dry periods over the land areas of the subtropics and the tropical marginal convective zones. Changes in the global circulation associated with the precipitation changes include a narrowing and deepening of convective zone, a rise of the center of gravity and acceleration of the upper branch of the Hadley circulation, an expansion of the subtropics and a poleward shift of the jetstream. Our results suggest that increased risks of severe floods and droughts worldwide induced by increased CO2 emission is the manifestation of a canonical response of the global rainfall system in association with a re-adjustment of the global circulation system, in a competition for increased availability of atmospheric moisture from global warming.

Lau, W. K.; Wu, H.; Kim, K.

2013-12-01

294

Writing about Warming : A Content Analysis on Global Warming in Dagens Nyheter & Aftonbladet  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The issue of climate change is of great importance in our contemporary world and has been given more media coverage during the last decades. Therefore, this thesis analyzes articles on global warming in the Swedish newspapers Dagens Nyheter and Aftonbladet (2010-2013), and explores how the issue is made understandable to the readers. The applied methodology is a content analysis. The result shows that the studied newspapers, with few exceptions, either write about problems caused by; or solut...

Reuter, Oliver

2013-01-01

295

Barriers to using nuclear power for mitigation of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has lately been suggested that nuclear power technologies could be used to mitigate potential global warming. Doing this would give nuclear power technology a new role, and would lead to its widespread deployment worldwide. When examined carefully several barriers to accomplishing this goal are evident, even should the uncertainties of global warming become reduced enough that it could be treated as an established fact. These barriers involve the need for alternative forms of nuclear energy, uranium resource limitations, technology development requirements and difficulties in widespread deployment of nuclear power plants. Overcoming the barriers may prove to be much more difficult than has been appreciated to date, and could strongly influence the future research and development agenda for nuclear and associated technologies. (author)

296

The role of clouds and oceans in global greenhouse warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the past three years we have conducted several studies using models and a combination of satellite data, in situ meteorological and oceanic data, and paleoclimate reconstructions, under the DoE program, ''Quantifying the Link Between Change in Radiative Balance and Atmospheric Temperature''. Our goals were to investigate effects of global cloudiness variations on global climate and their implications for cloud feedback and continue development and application of NYU transient climate/ocean models, with emphasis on coupled effects of greenhouse warming and feedbacks by both the clouds and oceans. Our original research plan emphasized the use of cloud, surface temperature and ocean data sets interpreted by focused climate/ocean models to develop a cloud radiative forcing scenario for the past 100 years and to assess the transient climate response; to narrow key uncertainties in the system; and to identify those aspects of the climate system most likely to be affected by greenhouse warming over short, medium and long time scales

297

Global warming mitigation strategies and programs for power plant developers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Power plant developers are increasingly being surprised by regulatory agencies requiring them to mitigate the carbon dioxide(CO2) emissions from their proposed power plants, as part of the plant's operating permit conditions. Since carbon dioxide is not a criteria pollutant with a National Ambient Air Quality Standard, power plant developers are often troubled by this additional regulatory requirement. This presentation will describe the contribution that CO2makes to global warming, the role of trees and forests as carbon sequesters or sinks, some non-forestry related and forestry related mitigation programs, including the advantages, disadvantages, and some cost estimates for the forestry related CO2 mitigation programs. As public concern about global warming continues to escalate, it is almost certain that regulatory agencies will increase their focus on CO2 mitigation

298

Scientists have lost the North. Reflections on global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A huge difference exists between a scientific proof and a scientific theory. This is the case with global warming. No honest scientist can prove that mankind is the only responsible of it. The possibility of a natural cause to the observed disturbances is much more worrying, considering that with our present day knowledge, no determining element allows to identify its origin and there exist no warranty that we can face up to it. The author considers that in this affair, scientists have become gurus and their opinions are considered as absolute truths. Science is now decreed and not proven, information has become propaganda and the real risk of global warming is in its social impact. On this point it is effectively urgent to act

299

The carbon dioxide thermometer and the cause of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbon dioxide in the air may be increasing because the world is warming. This possibility, which contradicts the hypothesis of an enhanced greenhouse warming driven by manmade emissions, is here pursued in two ways. First, increments in carbon dioxide are treated as readings of a natural thermometer that tracks global and hemispheric temperature deviations, as gauged by meteorologists' thermometers. Calibration of the carbon dioxide thermometer to conventional temperatures then leads to a history of carbon dioxide since 1856 that diverges from the ice-core record. Secondly, the increments of carbon dioxide can also be accounted for, without reference to temperature, by the combined effects of cosmic rays, El Nino and volcanoes. The most durable effect is due to cosmic rays. A solar wind history, used as a long-term proxy for the cosmic rays, gives a carbon dioxide history similar to that inferred from the global temperature deviations. (author)

300

Global variations of zonal mean ozone during stratospheric warming events  

Science.gov (United States)

Eight years of Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) ozone data are examined to study zonal mean variations associated with stratospheric planetary wave (warming) events. These fluctuations are found to be nearly global in extent, with relatively large variations in the tropics, and coherent signatures reaching up to 50 deg in the opposite (summer) hemisphere. These ozone variations are a manifestation of the global circulation cells associated with stratospheric warming events; the ozone responds dynamically in the lower stratosphere to transport, and photochemically in the upper stratosphere to the circulation-induced temperature changes. The observed ozone variations in the tropics are of particular interest because transport is dominated by zonal-mean vertical motions (eddy flux divergences and mean meridional transports are negligible), and hence, substantial simplifications to the governing equations occur. The response of the atmosphere to these impulsive circulation changes provides a situation for robust estimates of the ozone-temperature sensitivity in the upper stratosphere.

Randel, William J.

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Pre-Service Elementary Teachers’ Opinions about Global Warming  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Through this research, it has been aimed to determine the perceptions, opinions and ideas of pre-service elementary teachers about global warming which is an environmental problem that threatens the world. This research was applied to 10 pre-service elementary teachers. The data in the research were collected through face-to-face oral interviews. Collected qualitative data were analyzed with descriptive analysis technique. According to the results of the research, it was observed that pre-service teachers worried about the possible outcomesof global warming and were not equipped with sufficient information about environmental problems. It was concluded that preservice teachers established the false cause-effect relationship between the environmental problems such as greenhouse effect, ozone layer problem, acid rain.

Zeynep AKSAN

2013-06-01

302

Global Warming and the Power-Laws of Ecology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A model based on Watson’s power law for the species-area relationship predicts that full global warming, projected up to the year 2050, could provoke the disappearance of roughly one-quarter of existing species. Here, an alternative approach is worked out, based on the combination of two ecology laws: Taylor and Watson’s power laws, where the former relates species variability with their mean abundance. Just how severely global warming would affect not only the number but the diversity of the surviving species is addressed by this approach, while at the same time giving indications for the post-disaster fate of the remaining species (extinction or recovery.

Joseph Harari

2012-01-01

303

Health effects of global warming: Problems in assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Global warming is likely to result in a variety of environmental effects ranging from impacts on species diversity, changes in population size in flora and fauna, increases in sea level and possible impacts on the primary productivity of the sea. Potential impacts on human health and welfare have included possible increases in heat related mortality, changes in the distribution of disease vectors, and possible impacts on respiratory diseases including hayfever and asthma. Most of the focus thus far is on effects which are directly related to increases in temperature, e.g., heat stress or perhaps one step removed, e.g., changes in vector distribution. Some of the more severe impacts are likely to be much less direct, e.g., increases in migration due to agricultural failure following prolonged droughts. This paper discusses two possible approaches to the study of these less-direct impacts of global warming and presents information from on-going research using each of these approaches

304

Flooding in Bangladesh under global warming and future flood defence  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bangladesh is very vulnerable to flooding due to its unique location in the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM) basins and their hydrological characteristics. On average, annually floods inundate 21 percent area of the country and in exceptional cases, this may exceed 60 per cent. Global warming, due to the enhanced greenhouse effect, is likely to have significant effects on the hydrology and water resources of the GBM basins that might ultimately lead to more serious floods in Bangladesh. Use of climate change scenarios from four General Circulation Models in hydrological models demonstrates substantial increases in peak discharges in the GBM rivers. Therefore, Bangladesh may well experience a larger flooded area and a longer flooding period. The simulated results further indicate that more land could be deeply flooded under future climate change. Bangladesh needs a shift in flood management policy paradigm in the context of global warming in order to reduce increased flood hazards. (orig.)

Mirza, M.M.Q. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Inst. for Environmental Studies

2000-07-01

305

Marine methane cycle simulations for the period of early global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Geochemical environments, fates, and effects are modeled for methane released into seawater by the decomposition of climate-sensitive clathrates. A contemporary global background cycle is first constructed, within the framework of the Parallel Ocean Program. Input from organics in the upper thermocline is related to oxygen levels, and microbial consumption is parameterized from available rate measurements. Seepage into bottom layers is then superimposed, representing typical seabed fluid flow. The resulting CH{sub 4} distribution is validated against surface saturation ratios, vertical sections, and slope plume studies. Injections of clathrate-derived methane are explored by distributing a small number of point sources around the Arctic continental shelf, where stocks are extensive and susceptible to instability during the first few decades of global warming. Isolated bottom cells are assigned dissolved gas fluxes from porous-media simulation. Given the present bulk removal pattern, methane does not penetrate far from emission sites. Accumulated effects, however, spread to the regional scale following the modeled current system. Both hypoxification and acidification are documented. Sensitivity studies illustrate a potential for material restrictions to broaden the perturbations, since methanotrophic consumers require nutrients and trace metals. When such factors are considered, methane buildup within the Arctic basin is enhanced. However, freshened polar surface waters act as a barrier to atmospheric transfer, diverting products into the deep return flow. Uncertainties in the logic and calculations are enumerated including those inherent in high-latitude clathrate abundance, buoyant effluent rise through the column, representation of the general circulation, and bacterial growth kinetics.

Elliott, S.; Maltrud, M.; Reagan, M.T.; Moridis, G.J.; Cameron-Smith, P.J.

2011-01-02

306

Limiting global warming to 2°C is unlikely to save most coral reefs  

Science.gov (United States)

Mass coral bleaching events have become a widespread phenomenon causing serious concerns with regard to the survival of corals. Triggered by high ocean temperatures, bleaching events are projected to increase in frequency and intensity. Here, we provide a comprehensive global study of coral bleaching in terms of global mean temperature change, based on an extended set of emissions scenarios and models. We show that preserving >10% of coral reefs worldwide would require limiting warming to below 1.5°C (atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) range: 1.3-1.8°C) relative to pre-industrial levels. Even under optimistic assumptions regarding corals' thermal adaptation, one-third (9-60%, 68% uncertainty range) of the world's coral reefs are projected to be subject to long-term degradation under the most optimistic new IPCC emissions scenario, RCP3-PD. Under RCP4.5 this fraction increases to two-thirds (30-88%, 68% uncertainty range). Possible effects of ocean acidification reducing thermal tolerance are assessed within a sensitivity experiment.

Frieler, K.; Meinshausen, M.; Golly, A.; Mengel, M.; Lebek, K.; Donner, S. D.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.

2013-02-01

307

Scaled biotic disruption during early Eocene global warming events  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Late Paleocene and early Eocene hyperthermals are transient global warming events associated with massive carbon injection or carbon redistribution in the ocean-atmosphere system, and are considered partial analogues for current anthropogenic climate change. Because the magnitude of carbon release varied between the events, they are natural experiments ideal for exploring the relationship between carbon cycle perturbations, climate change and biotic response. Here we quantify marine biotic va...

Gibbs, S. J.; Bown, P. R.; Murphy, B. H.; Sluijs, A.; Edgar, K. M.; Pa?like, H.; Bolton, C. T.; Zachos, J. C.

2012-01-01

308

The IEA is worried about inability to limit global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Energy Agency (IEA) is launching a strong appeal to mobilise public authorities: the world is definitely not in a position to respect its commitments on reducing carbon emissions and thus of putting a brake on global warming. Carbon intensity has hardly budged since 1990, the IEA estimates. The reason? Increased energy output has relied more on fossil fuel expansion than on recourse to renewable sources. (author)

309

Global warming, sea-level rise, and coastal marsh survival  

Science.gov (United States)

Coastal wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems in the world. These wetlands at the land-ocean margin provide many direct benefits to humans, including habitat for commercially important fisheries and wildlife; storm protection; improved water quality through sediment, nutrient, and pollution removal; recreation; and aesthetic values. These valuable ecosystems will be highly vulnerable to the effects of the rapid rise in sea level predicted to occur during the next century as a result of global warming.

Cahoon, Donald R.

1997-01-01

310

Global Warming was not Proved at Showa Base in Antarctica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The changes in temperatures at Showa base in Antarctica were evaluated. Various parameters of temperatures at Showa base in Antarctica were obtained from Japan Metrological Agency. Parameters of temperatures were not correlated with years at Showa base (mean temperature in a year: r = 0.056, p = 0.7267. In addition, the number of days over 4?C was negatively correlated with years. Global warming was not proved at Showa base in Antarctica in this study.

Tomohiro Hirao

2011-05-01

311

Global warming factor of municipal solid waste management in Europe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The global warming factor (GWF; CO2-eq. tonne—1 waste) performance of municipal waste management has been investigated for six representative European Member States: Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Poland and the United Kingdom. The study integrated European waste statistical data for 2007 in a life-cycle assessment modelling perspective. It is shown that significant GWF benefit was achieved due to the high level of energy and material recovery substituting fossil energy and raw materials...

Gentil, Emmanuel; Clavreul, Julie; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

2009-01-01

312

Man made global warming explained - closing the blinds  

CERN Document Server

One of the big problems of the age concerns 'Global Warming', and whether it is 'man-made' or 'natural'. Most climatologists believe that it is very likely to be the former but some scientists (mostly non-climatologists) subscribe to the latter. Unsurprisingly, the population at large is often confused and and is not convinced either way. Here we try to explain the principles of man-made global warming in a simple way. Our purpose is to try to understand the story which the climatologists are telling us through their rather complicated general circulation models. Although the effects in detail are best left to the climatologists' models, we show that for the Globe as a whole the effects of man-made global warming can be demonstrated in a simple way. The simple model of only the direct heating from the absorption of infrared radiation, illustrates the main principles of the science involved. The predicted temperature increase due to the increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere over the last century descr...

Sloan, T

2010-01-01

313

Global Warming: some back-of-the-envelope calculations  

CERN Document Server

We do several simple calculations and measurements in an effort to gain understanding of global warming and the carbon cycle. Some conclusions are interesting: (i) There has been global warming since the end of the "little ice age" around 1700. There is no statistically significant evidence of acceleration of global warming since 1940. (ii) The increase of CO_2 in the atmosphere, beginning around 1940, accurately tracks the burning of fossil fuels. Burning all of the remaining economically viable reserves of oil, gas and coal over the next 150 years or so will approximately double the pre-industrial atmospheric concentration of CO_2. The corresponding increase in the average temperature, due to the greenhouse effect, is quite uncertain: between 1.3 and 4.8K. This increase of temperature is (partially?) offset by the increase of aerosols and deforestation. (iii) Ice core samples indicate that the pre-historic CO_2 concentration and temperature are well correlated. We conclude that changes in the temperatures o...

Fabara, C

2005-01-01

314

Physics for future Presidents - nuclear power, terrorism, global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book explains the science behind the concerns that our nation faces in the immediate future. It outlines the tools of terrorists, the dangers of nuclear power, and the reality of global warming. As citizens who will elect future presidents of the most powerful and influential countries in the world, we need to know-truly understand if Iran's nascent nuclear capability is a genuine threat to the West, if biochemical weapons are likely to be developed by terrorists, if there are viable alternatives to fossil fuels that should be nurtured and supported by the government, if nuclear power should be encouraged, and if global warming is actually happening. This book is written in everyday, nontechnical language on the science behind the concerns that our nations faces in the immediate future. This book is translated from 'Physics for Future Presidents: The Science Behind the Headlines', published by W. W. Norton and Company in August 2008. Contents: 1 - Terrorism: Nine-eleven, Terrorist nukes, The next terrorist attack, Biological terrorism; 2 - Energy: Key energy surprises, Solar Power, The end of oil; 3 - Nukes: Radioactivity and death, Radioactive decay, Nuclear weapons, Nuclear madness, Nuclear power, Nuclear waste, Controlled fusion; 4 - Space: Space and satellites, Gravity applications, Humans in space, Spying with invisible light; 5 - Global Warming: A brief history of climate, The greenhouse effect, A very likely cause, Evidence, Non-solutions, The fruit on the ground, New technologies

315

An innovative nuclear reactor as a solution to global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problem of global warming is no longer a philosophical discussion, but it is a fact seriously threatening the future of humanity. In this paper a practical solution to the problem of global warming resulting from the fossil fuelled energy suppliers is presented. The energy conservation and alternative forms of energy such as solar, wind, and bio even though having important roles, do not satisfy the energy demand generated by an increasing world population that desires to increase its standard of living. The fission process in the nuclear reactors does not produce greenhouse gases that cause global warming. The new paradigm in nuclear energy is the future innovative reactors that meet the new standards set by the INPRO Program of the IAEA. One such a reactor is presented in this paper, namely the Fixed Bed Nuclear Reactor (FBNR) that is supported by the International Atomic Energy (IAEA) in its program of Small Reactors Without On-Site Refuelling (SRWOSR), being one of the four water cooled reactors in this program. The other three reactor concepts are PFPWR50 of Japan, BWRPB of Russia and AFPR-100 of USA. It is shown that the nuclear energy of the future is totally different than what is today in respect to safety, economics, environmental impact and proliferation. In this manner, the public perception of nuclear energy will change and its acceptability is promoted. (author)

316

Global Warming in the 21st Century: An Alternate Scenario  

Science.gov (United States)

A common view is that the current global warming rate will continue or accelerate. But we argue that rapid warming in recent decades has been driven by non-CO2 greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as CFCs, CH4 and N2O, not by the products of fossil fuel burning, CO2 and aerosols, whose positive and negative climate forcings are partially offsetting. The growth rate of non-CO2 GHGs has declined in the past decade. If sources of CH4 and O3 precursors were reduced in the future, the change of climate forcing by non-CO2 GHGs In the next 50 years could be near zero. Combined with a reduction of black carbon emissions and plausible success in slowing CO2 emissions, this could lead to a decline in the rate of global warming, reducing the danger of dramatic climate change. Such a focus on air pollution has practical benefits that unite the interests of developed and developing countries. However, assessment of ongoing and future climate change requires composition-specific longterm global monitoring of aerosol properties.

Hansen, James E.; Sato, Makiko; Ruedy, Reto; Lacis, Andrew; Oinas, Valdar

2000-01-01

317

The impact of possible climate catastrophes on global warming policy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent studies on global warming have introduced the inherent uncertainties associated with the costs and benefits of climate policies and have often shown that abatement policies are likely to be less aggressive or postponed in comparison to those resulting from traditional cost-benefit analyses (CBA). Yet, those studies have failed to include the possibility of sudden climate catastrophes. The aim of this paper is to account simultaneously for possible continuous and discrete damages resulting from global warming, and to analyse their implications on the optimal path of abatement policies. Our approach is related to the new literature on investment under uncertainty, and relies on some recent developments of the real option in which we incorporated negative jumps (climate catastrophes) in the stochastic process corresponding to the net benefits associated with the abatement policies. The impacts of continuous and discrete climatic risks can therefore be considered separately. Our numerical applications lead to two main conclusions: (i) gradual, continuous uncertainty in the global warming process is likely to delay the adoption of abatement policies as found in previous studies, with respect to the standard CBA; however (ii) the possibility of climate catastrophes accelerates the implementation of these policies as their net discounted benefits increase significantly

318

An innovative nuclear reactor as a solution to global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The problem of global warming is no longer a philosophical discussion, but it is a fact seriously threatening the future of humanity. In this paper a practical solution to the problem of global warming resulting from the fossil fuelled energy suppliers is presented. The energy conservation and alternative forms of energy such as solar, wind, and bio even though having important roles, do not satisfy the energy demand generated by an increasing world population that desires to increase its standard of living. The fission process in the nuclear reactors does not produce greenhouse gases that cause global warming. The new paradigm in nuclear energy is the future innovative reactors that meet the new standards set by the INPRO Program of the IAEA. One such a reactor is presented in this paper, namely the Fixed Bed Nuclear Reactor (FBNR) that is supported by the International Atomic Energy (IAEA) in its program of Small Reactors Without On-Site Refuelling (SRWOSR), being one of the four water cooled reactors in this program. The other three reactor concepts are PFPWR50 of Japan, BWRPB of Russia and AFPR-100 of USA. It is shown that the nuclear energy of the future is totally different than what is today in respect to safety, economics, environmental impact and proliferation. In this manner, the public perception of nuclear energy will change and its acceptability is promoted. (author)

Silva, Robson Silva da; Sefidvash, Farhang [Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Nuclear Engineering Dept.]. E-mail: robsonsilvadasilva@gmail.com

2007-07-01

319

Defining risk, motivating responsibility and rethinking global warming.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper breaks with the sociological notion of 'risk society' and argues in favour of a philosophical view that sees the two planetary threats of late modernity, nuclear weapons and global warming, as ultimate challenges to morality and politics rather than risks that we can take and manage. The paper also raises the question of why we should feel responsible for the effects of these two global challenges on future generations and in this sense elaborates on the transgenerational chain of parenthood rather than on considerations of justice. PMID:19798589

Cerutti, Furio

2010-09-01

320

The regions and global warming: Impacts and response strategies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To date, much of the attention given to global warming in scientific research as well as in policy development has focused on the global picture. International negotiations and agreements to stabilize, and eventually reduce, greenhouse gas emissions are very important. By themselves, however, they are not sufficient to address global warming. Regional strategies are also needed. They can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and they will be the most effective way to mitigate the consequences of global warming. Adaptive strategies must respond to local and regional conditions. In many countries, subnational jurisdictions such as states and provinces or community organizations can already take effective actions without direction from their national government or waiting for international agreements. An important factor in defining regional approaches is the disparate consequences of climate change for developed and developing areas. Different strategies will also be needed for industrial and agricultural regions. Wealthy industrial regions may be better able to develop capital-intensive, adaptive infrastructure than regions with fewer discretionary resources where people are more vulnerable to the vagaries of weather patterns. On the other hand, regions that rely on indigenous knowledge and local resources may be better equipped to make incremental adaptations and more willing to modify life-styles. Ultimately, all climate change effects are experienced in specific places and effective response depends upon local action. We recognize that individual localities cannot solve a problem of global proportions by acting alone. However, a regional strategy can supplement international and national action and be the focal point for addressing risks in the unique social and economic context of a particular area. These meetings discussions dealt with the impacts and implications of climate change on such things as agriculture, forestry, and policy

 
 
 
 
321

Gas hydrate contribution to Late Permian global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Rapid gas hydrate release (the “clathrate gun” hypothesis) has been invoked as a cause for the rapid global warming and associated negative carbon isotope excursion observed during the Latest Permian Extinction (LPE). We modeled the stability of gas hydrates through a warming Middle to Late Permian world, considering three settings for methane reservoirs: 1) terrestrial hydrates, 2) hydrates on exposed continental shelves during glacial sea level drop, and 3) hydrates in deep marine settings. Model results show that terrestrial hydrates would rapidly destabilize over ?400 ky after deglaciation for moderate heatflow (40 mW/m2), and more rapidly for higher heat flow values. Exposed continental shelves would lose hydrates even more rapidly, after being flooded due to loss of ice storage on land. These two major hydrate reservoirs would thus have destabilized during the Middle to Late Permian climate warming, well prior to the LPE event. However, they may have contributed to the >2‰ negative C-isotopic shift during the late Middle Permian. Deep marine hydrates would have remained stable until LPE time. Rapid warming of deep marine waters during this time could have triggered destabilization of this reservoir, however given the configuration of one super continent, Pangea, hydrate bearing continental slopes would have been less extensive than modern day. This suggests that any potential gas hydrate release would have had only a minor contributing impact to the runaway greenhouse during the Latest Permian extinction.

Majorowicz, J.; Grasby, S. E.; Safanda, J.; Beauchamp, B.

2014-05-01

322

Door still open for action on issue of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Global warming may or may not be a legitimate environmental threat, but Washington lobbyists consider it a legislative threat. It does not appear the current Congress will limit or tax use of U.S. fossil fuels, whose burning releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. This paper reports that some scientists have claimed a concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will result in a significant warming of the earth by 2050, threatening agriculture, altering ecosystems, and even melting polar ice and causing rising oceans to flood coastal areas and islands. In 1990 a United Nations panel of climate scientists predicted a 2 degrees C. increase in world temperatures within 35 years and 6 degrees by the end of the next century. Some scientists say preventing further increases will require a 60% reduction in current CO2 emissions. The oil industry already is beginning to feel heat from the global warming issue. The Environmental Protection Agency calculates energy production and use is responsible for 57% of current emissions caused by man

323

The Disputed Science of Global Warming. Version 1.1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

About twenty thousands scientists have publicly expressed their scepticism about the statements made by the IPCC and those by supporters of the notion of global warming. These sceptical scientists argue that the claims for warming are not matched by the observations and that certain variability is a natural part of the climate. Most fundamentally they argue that there is no proof that a rise in carbon dioxide levels is the cause of rising temperatures and if this is the case, then the principles underlying the Kyoto Agreement are without foundation and the money spent to reach the proscribed emission targets will return no benefits at all. If the Kyoto Agreement is without foundation then introduction of alternative energy sources is also meaningless if the aim is to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide. This document was created in order that readers may ask informed questions of both those who support and refute the IPCC's statements about global warming notions and, by extension, those who support or refute the Kyoto Agreement. It contains brief discussions of the issues and then provides references for further information. In most cases those references are to the original publications and not to reports which summarise the work

324

Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract global warming?  

Science.gov (United States)

Field measurements and model results have recently shown that aerosols may have important climatic impacts. One line of inquiry has investigated whether reducing climate-warming soot or black carbon aerosol emissions can form a viable component of mitigating global warming. We review and acknowledge scientific arguments against considering aerosols and greenhouse gases in a common framework, including the differences in the physical mechanisms of climate change and relevant time scales. We argue that such a joint consideration is consistent with the language of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. We synthesize results from published climate-modeling studies to obtain a global warming potential for black carbon relative to that of CO2 (680 on a 100 year basis). This calculation enables a discussion of cost-effectiveness for mitigating the largest sources of black carbon. We find that many emission reductions are either expensive or difficult to enact when compared with greenhouse gases, particularly in Annex I countries. Finally, we propose a role for black carbon in climate mitigation strategies that is consistent with the apparently conflicting arguments raised during our discussion. Addressing these emissions is a promising way to reduce climatic interference primarily for nations that have not yet agreed to address greenhouse gas emissions and provides the potential for a parallel climate agreement. PMID:16173547

Bond, Tami C; Sun, Haolin

2005-08-15

325

A Contribution by Ice Nuclei to Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Ice nuclei (IN) significantly affect clouds via supercooled droplets, that in turn modulate atmospheric radiation and thus climate change. Since the IN effect is relatively strong in stratiform clouds but weak in convective ones, the overall effect depends on the ratio of stratiform to convective cloud amount. In this paper, 10 years of TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) satellite data are analyzed to confirm that stratiform precipitation fraction increases with increasing latitude, which implies that the IN effect is stronger at higher latitudes. To quantitatively evaluate the IN effect versus latitude, large-scale forcing data from ten field campaigns are used to drive a CRM (cloud-resolving model) to generate longterm cloud simulations. As revealed in the simulations, the increase in the net downward radiative flux at the TOA (top of the atmosphere) from doubling the current IN concentrations is larger at higher latitude, which is attributed to the meridional tendency in the stratiform precipitation fraction. Surface warming from doubling the IN concentrations, based on the radiative balance of the globe, is compared with that from anthropogenic COZ . It is found that the former effect is stronger than the latter in middle and high latitudes but not in the Tropics. With regard to the impact of IN on global warming, there are two factors to consider: the radiative effect from increasing the IN concentration and the increase in IN concentration itself. The former relies on cloud ensembles and thus varies mainly with latitude. In contrast, the latter relies on IN sources (e.g., the land surface distribution) and thus varies not only with latitude but also longitude. Global desertification and industrialization provide clues on the geographic variation of the increase in IN concentration since pre-industrial times. Thus, their effect on global warming can be inferred and then be compared with observations. A general match in geographic and seasonal variations between the inferred and observed warming suggests that IN may have contributed positively to global warming over the past decades, especially in middle and high latitudes.

Zeng, Xiping; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Zhang, Minghua; Hou, Arthur Y.; Xie, Shaocheng; Lang, Stephen; Li, Xiaowen; Starr, David O.; Li, Xiaofan

2009-01-01

326

A new international environmental order? An assessment of the impact of the global warming epistemic community  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Global warming is a problem which ignores national boundaries, making international cooperation essential. The role of epistemic communities, or those composed of professionals who share a commitment to a common causal model and a set of political values, in affecting the international response to the global warming problem is examined. It is claimed that the epistemic global warming community can affect the policy process, both domestically and internationally, and facilitate cooperation in an era of ecological interdependence. This claim is explored and eventually supported through the examination of two case studies: the responses of Canada and Britain to the issue of global warming between 1988 and November 1990. The case studies are supplemented with a more general discussion of the issues surrounding the international politics of global warming through the same period. Through these studies, it is found that a global warming community can be identified and that its efforts have played a significant role in framing the global warming issue. 121 refs

327

Projection of Global Warming using an Empirical Model of Climate  

Science.gov (United States)

An empirical model of climate based on multiple linear regression of the century-long global surface temperature record is used to quantify the rise in global average temperature in 2053, the time CO2 reaches 560 ppm (2x pre-industrial) in the RCP 8.5 scenario. This rise in temperature is inherently uncertain due to the cantilevering of aerosol radiative forcing and climate feedback, coupled with the projection that aerosol radiative forcing will diminish in the coming decades due to air quality concerns. We show that, considering this cantilevering, the rise in global temperature at the time CO2 doubles will likely be between 1 and 2 degrees Celsius (relative to a 1961 to 1990 baseline). This empirically driven estimate of future warming is considerably less than projected by CMIP5 models.

Canty, Tim; Hope, Austin; Mascioli, Nora; Salawitch, Ross

2014-05-01

328

Climate Change and Global Warming: Signs, Impact and Solutions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is no gain saying our Planet has changed fundamentally. Our World is undergoing a catastrophic climatic drift and is hotter today than it has been in two thousand years. Global temperatures are believed to be on an ever increasing high, with its attendant consequences and it is feared that the trend will continued if not controlled. Some of the causative agents/ indicators of this menace are human propelled and induced and can be curtailed to the barest minimum. The consequences of not attending to these variables are dire, affecting global temperatures, weather patterns, sea acidity and aquatic life, prevalence of pests and diseases, poor agricultural yield, to mention but a few. This paper is an expose on the imperativeness of, inter-relationship between, and negative impacts of climate change and global warming, on the entire ecosystem. Comparative excerpts are highlighted and solutions proffered.

D. S. Matawal

2013-02-01

329

Energy and global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The primary objective of this study is to develop representative indications of the relative energy use, associated CO2 emissions, and total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of viable option to replace CFCs in their major energy-related application areas. It was motivated, in part, by a concern that most attention to data has focused on the DIRECT global warming effect of CFCs and their alternatives, with inadequate attention being paid to the INDIRECT effect of the CO2 emissions arising from the differences in energy consumption by systems using different alternatives. The DIRECT and INDIRECT contributions are combined in this analysis to determine the TEWI of the various technical options. The study is international in scope and takes into account significant differences in present CFC end-use practices, sources of energy, and other societal factors between Europe, Japan, and North America

330

Global warming and body mass decline in Israeli passerine birds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Global warming may affect the physiology, distributions, phenology and adaptations of plants and animals. In Israel, minimum summer temperatures increased by an average of 0.26 degrees C per decade during the second half of the 20th century. Bergmann's rule predicts that, in warm-blooded animals, races from warm regions are smaller than races from cold regions. Numerous studies have reported general correlations between body mass in fossil animals and independently established palaeoclimatic changes from various parts of the world in accordance with this rule. Using museum specimens, I tested the prediction that the body mass and tarsus length of five resident passerine species in Israel declined between 1950 and 1999. The body mass of four species (the graceful warbler Prinia gracilis, the house sparrow Passer domesticus, the yellow-vented bulbul Pycnonotus xanthopygos and the Sardinian warbler Sylvia melanocephala, but not of the crested lark Galerida cristata) declined significantly during this period. Tarsus length also declined significantly during this period for two species (the graceful warbler and the house sparrow). Body condition (body mass-to-tarsus length ratio) decreased in the Sardinian warbler, the yellow-vented bulbul and the crested lark. It is suggested that the above declines in body mass and tarsus length are due to global warming and also in accordance with Bergmann's rule. The above explanation does not exclude the possibility that other factors, such as a decrease in food availability, contributed to the decline in body mass. These declines may have serious implications for community structure and competition among bird species and may affect the survival of small passerines. PMID:11370968

Yom-Tov, Y

2001-05-01

331

Continued global warming after CO2 emissions stoppage  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies have suggested that global mean surface temperature would remain approximately constant on multi-century timescales after CO2 emissions are stopped. Here we use Earth system model simulations of such a stoppage to demonstrate that in some models, surface temperature may actually increase on multi-century timescales after an initial century-long decrease. For example, global mean surface temperature may increase by 0.6°C after a carbon emissions stoppage at 2-degree. This increase occurs in spite of a decline in radiative forcing that exceeds the decline in ocean heat uptake—a circumstance that would otherwise be expected to lead to a decline in global temperature. The reason is that the warming effect of decreasing ocean heat uptake together with feedback effects arising in response to the geographic structure of ocean heat uptake overcompensates the cooling effect of decreasing atmospheric CO2 on multi-century timescales. Our study also reveals that equilibrium climate sensitivity estimates based on a widely used method of regressing the Earth's energy imbalance against surface temperature change are biased. Uncertainty in the magnitude of the feedback effects associated with the magnitude and geographic distribution of ocean heat uptake therefore contributes substantially to the uncertainty in allowable carbon emissions for a given multi-century warming target.

Frölicher, Thomas; Winton, Michael; Sarmiento, Jorge

2014-05-01

332

Slowing global warming. Mitigation strategy for the developing world  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Globally, a range of human activities that characterize modern economic systems are leading to emissions of greenhouse gases. For some activities like the cultivation of paddy rice in flooded soils, there is reason to believe that there are no economically viable or practical alternatives to the current methods which produce these emissions. However, there are several other areas of human activity ranging from the generation of electricity to the provision of passenger and freight transport, in which there clearly exists the potential for preparing the agenda for change which would mitigate global warming. The objective of this paper is to discuss and evaluate a suitable mix of innovative measures which would make efficient use of scarce resources and maximize returns from the resources invested to limit CO2 emissions. In particular, this paper evolves a three phase approach for mitigating CO2 emissions that can be widely applied to reorient economic development policies in the developing world. Comprising an agenda for change, it underlines specific failures in national policies, identifies thrust areas for mitigating CO2 emissions and suggests policy responses in major sectors of the economy. The guiding premise here is simple and straightforward - the energy sector (inclusive of the services provided by energy rather than energy per se) which has been a major cause for invoking the threat of climate change and global warming, must now become a part of the solution. (au) 11 refs

333

Modification of cirrus clouds to reduce global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Greenhouse gases and cirrus clouds regulate outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and cirrus cloud coverage is predicted to be sensitive to the ice fall speed which depends on ice crystal size. The higher the cirrus, the greater their impact is on OLR. Thus by changing ice crystal size in the coldest cirrus, OLR and climate might be modified. Fortunately the coldest cirrus have the highest ice supersaturation due to the dominance of homogeneous freezing nucleation. Seeding such cirrus with very efficient heterogeneous ice nuclei should produce larger ice crystals due to vapor competition effects, thus increasing OLR and surface cooling. Preliminary estimates of this global net cloud forcing are more negative than -2.8 W m-2 and could neutralize the radiative forcing due to a CO2 doubling (3.7 W m-2). A potential delivery mechanism for the seeding material is already in place: the airline industry. Since seeding aerosol residence times in the troposphere are relatively short, the climate might return to its normal state within months after stopping the geoengineering experiment. The main known drawback to this approach is that it would not stop ocean acidification. It does not have many of the drawbacks that stratospheric injection of sulfur species has.

334

Greenhouse: the 200-year story of global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The book relates the biography of a scientific idea, the story of what global warming - the greenhouse effect - is and how it came to be. In part 1, the story is told of Charles Fourier, and other time travellers, who first described, independent of religious accounts, over time the great changes, both climatic and geologic, which the earth has been subject to over its four billion years of existence. The individuals whose ideas are considered include James Hutton, Charles Lyell, and Charles Darwin. In part two, the world 'eaters' are encountered who as inventors and capitalists wrested fossil fuels from the earth and used them to transform the planet. The individuals introduced here include Richard Arkwright, Abraham Darby, Thomas Newcomen, Richard Trevithick, George Stephenson, Henry Bessemer, Andrew Carnegie, J.D. Rockefeller, I.K. Brunhel, and Henry Ford. In part three, the major discoveries are described, and the debates, both scientific and public, from the early 20th century through to the 1997 United Nations Conference in Climate Change in Kyoto and beyond are traced. Among the individuals who figured prominently in these developments are George Callendar, Charles Keeling, Thomas Midgley, and Joseph Farman. In the closing stages of the book, a glimpse is given of what the future might be like should global warming continue unchecked. The options are either drought, fire, disease, torrential rains, mud slides, and oppressive heat, or a harbinger of more greenery, less privation, and freedom from cold. The fierce debate surrounding the global warming treaty hammered out in Kyoto, is described. 250 refs.

Christianson, G.E.

1999-07-01

335

Energy Prices and Carbon Taxes under Uncertainty about Global Warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper extends the strategic interactions between producers of fossil fuels concerned about their profits and a taxing government concerned about the consumers' welfare for uncertainty: global warming follows an Ito -process. Stochasticity requires to differentiate between reversible and irreversible emissions in contrast to the deterministic version. The unconstrained (= reversible) case allows for a closed form solution but not the more realistic and constrained case. Nevertheless interesting analytical properties (e.g. about when to stop emissions, implicit conservation due to monopolistic supply) are derived and complemented by a numerical example

336

CO sub 2 technology adds fizz to global warming debate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article examines some of the CO{sub 2} removal technology being developed in response to global warming. Technologies discussed include: scrubbing with, for example, amines or potassium carbonate; membranes and molecular-sieve adsorbents; and biological CO{sub 2} fixation. The recovered CO{sub 2} would be used in food manufacture, or disposed of in acquifers or in the ocean. Research programmes are studying combining CO{sub 2} removal with a high thermal combustion process such as integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC). 2 figs., 1 tab.

Basta, N.; Ondrey, G.; Moore, S.

1992-08-01

337

Global Warming and the Political Ecology of Health - Climate &  

... The public perception, shaped by too-brief media soundbites and disinformation from denialists has made it hard to paint a comprehensive and clear picture for the general public. Yet those who have studied the subject in detail are rightly scared by what they find. This book goes a long way to explaining why, and proposes radical solutions that attack the root cause of the crisis. Baer and Singer are anthropologists, and the book focuses on the medical anthropology of global warming - not just as it is predicted to occur, ...

338

Global warming potentials. The case of emissions from dams  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The global warming potential index (GWP) has been proposed to quantitatively compare the integrated greenhouse effect of different gases. However, the use of the GWP index is still subject to major conceptual difficulties. Here we revise and generalize this index and then apply our alternative index to the case of emissions from some hydroelectric reservoirs in Brazil. Our results suggest that, though the cumulative heating effects of emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs may be far from negligible, for the cases studied, hydroelectricity in general contributes less to the greenhouse effect over a long time horizon than fossil fuelled electricity generation. (Author)

339

Study on Global Warming and Fuel Conservation in Surat City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study reveals that though middle and upper middle class of people in Surat city are aware of global warming, contributory reasons and containment measures, yet remain insensitive in terms of practices. The paper points to the need to increase their collective consciousness and responsiveness to this issue through intense awareness campaigns and rallies to promote measures as pooling of vehicles, cycling, hybrid cars and efficient rapid public transport systems through institution of measures at individual, community and government levels to ameliorate hindrances to the adoption of environment friendly practices as reported in the observations.

Neha Bansal, Hormaz Garda, Ghanshyam Padmani

2010-06-01

340

The nuclear, an efficient tool against global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proposing and commenting some extracts of a book by Francis Sorin (Le nucleaire et la planete), this document aims at showing that nuclear energy production is a tool to struggle against global warming because of its low carbon emission. Some assessments of this characteristic are given and discussed, as well as figures on carbon emissions in different western countries. This document also criticises the statements made by ecologists against nuclear energy. The author put nuclear energy at the same level as energy savings and renewable energies, as means to reach the desirable CO2 saving level

 
 
 
 
341

The influence of global warming in Earth rotation speed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The tendency of the atmospheric angular momentum (AAM is investigated using a 49-year set of monthly AAM data for the period January 1949-December 1997. This data set is constructed with zonal wind values from the reanalyses of NCEP/NCAR, used in conjunction with a variety of operationally produced AAM time series with different independent sources and lengths over 1976-1997. In all the analyzed AAM series the linear trend is found to be positive. Since the angular momentum of the atmosphere-earth system is conserved this corresponds to a net loss of angular momentum by the solid earth, therefore decreasing the Earth rotation speed and increasing the length of day (LOD. The AAM rise is significant to the budget of angular momentum of the global atmosphere-earth system; its value in milliseconds/century (ms/cy is +0.56 ms/cy, corresponding to one-third of the estimated increase in LOD (+1.7 ms/cy. The major contribution to this secular trend in AAM comes from the equatorial Tropopause. This is consistent with results from a previous study using a simplified aqua-planet model to investigate the AAM variations due to near equatorial warming conditions. During the same time interval, 1949-1997, the global marine + land-surface temperature increases by about 0.79 °C/cy, showing a linear correspondence between surface temperature increase and global AAM of about 0.07 ms per 0.1 °C. These results imply that atmospheric angular momentum may be used as an independent index of the global atmosphere's dynamical response to the greenhouse forcing, and as such, the length of day may be used as an indirect indicator of global warming.

Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (general circulation · Geodesy

R. Abarca del Rio

342

Global warming and its impact: a story of adaptations, extinctions and diseases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Global warming and its impact were severely underestimated. Recent research has shown that the effects of global warming on biological systems are more far reaching than were assumed previously. It has been proved that global warming can influence animal evolution, which includes influence on adaptive evolution both on genetic as well as behavioral levels. The phenomenon of increased disease prevalence and progression with increase in global temperatures, has also received acknowledgment acro...

Garg, Abhishek D.; Hippargi, Rajshekhar V.; Gadegone, M. M.

2007-01-01

343

Global warming, drought events, and GPP performance (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

The first decade of the 21st century was the warmest decade recorded since the start of modern measurements in 1850, according to a new report on July 3, 2013 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Global warming may now be exacerbating droughts in the world, and leading to more reduction in crop production, plant growth and hence carbon fixation, and further warming climate. How do we quantify the relationship between drought event and ecosystem performance? Here, we developed a method called 'perfect-deficit approach' and a local dryness index based on eddy-flux measurements. We applied these concepts and mathematical method to remote sensing observations (MODIS) to examine the world ecosystem performance in the first decade of 21st century and identify the associated climate extremes. The initial results show that the deficits of ecosystem performances in lower latitudes were caused mainly by drought events, while at high latitudes cold/warm events also exert substantial influences on ecosystem performances, particularly in spring season. Acknowledgements This research was financially supported by PSC-CUNY Award (PSC-CUNY-ENHC-44-83)

Yi, C.; Jensen, K.; Wei, S.; Hendrey, G.

2013-12-01

344

Modeling evidences for global warming, Arctic seawater freshening, and sluggish oceanic circulation during the Early Toarcian anoxic event  

Science.gov (United States)

The paleoecological disturbances recorded during the Early Toarcian warming event (183 Myr ago), including marine anoxia, sea level rise, seawater acidification, carbonate production crisis, and species extinctions, are often regarded as past examples of Earth's possible responses to the rapid emergence of super greenhouse conditions. However, physical mechanisms explaining both the global and local expressions of paleoenvironmental events are still highly debated. Here we analyze the paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic consequences of increases in atmospheric pCO2 levels at a multiscale resolution using a fully coupled ocean-atmosphere model (FOAM). We show that, in association with stronger high-latitude precipitation rates and enhanced continental runoff, the demise of polar sea ice due to the global warming event involved a regional freshening of Arctic surface seawaters. These disturbances lead to progressive slowdowns of the global oceanic circulation accountable for widespread ocean stratification and bottom anoxia processes in deep oceanic settings and epicontinental basins. In agreement with very negative oxygen isotope values measured on fossil shells from the NW Tethys, our simulations also show that recurrent discharges of brackish and nutrient-rich Arctic surface waters through the Viking Corridor could have led to both vertical and geographical gradients in salinity and seawater ?18O in the NW Tethyan seas. Locally contrasted conditions in water mass density and rises in productivity rates due to strong nutrient supplies could partly explain the regional severity of the anoxic event in the restricted Euro-boreal domains, as it has been previously suggested and modeled regionally.

Dera, Guillaume; Donnadieu, Yannick

2012-06-01

345

Ocean acidification postcards  

Science.gov (United States)

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting research on ocean acidification in polar, temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions including the Arctic, West Florida Shelf, and the Caribbean. Project activities include field assessment, experimental laboratory studies, and evaluation of existing data. The USGS is participating in international and interagency working groups to develop research strategies to increase understanding of the global implications of ocean acidification. Research strategies include new approaches for seawater chemistry observation and modeling, assessment of physiological effects on organisms, changes in marine ecosystem structure, new technologies, and information resources. These postcards highlight ongoing USGS research efforts in ocean acidification and carbon cycling in marine and coastal ecosystems in three different regions: polar, temperate, and tropical. To learn more about ocean acidification visit: http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/ocean-acidification/.

Schreppel, Heather A.; Cimitile, Matthew J.

2011-01-01

346

Uncertainties of global warming metrics: CO2 and CH4  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a comprehensive evaluation of uncertainties in the Global Warming Potential (GWP) and Global Temperature Change Potential (GTP) of CH4, using a simple climate model calibrated to AOGCMs and coupled climate-carbon cycle models assessed in the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4). In addition, we estimate uncertainties in these metrics probabilistically by using a method that does not rely on AOGCMs but instead builds on historical constraints and uncertainty estimates of current radiative forcings. While our mean and median GWPs and GTPs estimates are consistent with previous studies, our analysis suggests that uncertainty ranges for GWPs are almost twice as large as estimated in the AR4. Relative uncertainties for GTPs are larger than for GWPs, nearly twice as high for a time horizon of 100 years. Given this uncertainty, our results imply the possibility for substantial future adjustments in best-estimate values of GWPs and in particular GTPs.

Reisinger, Andy; Meinshausen, Malte; Manning, Martin; Bodeker, Greg

2010-07-01

347

Environmental effects on acoustic measures of global ocean warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Munk and Forbes (1989) have proposed an acoustic technique for measuring the ocean warming caused by the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Travel time from a source in the South Indian Ocean will be monitored at receivers as far away as the North Atlantic and North Pacific. However, there are natural perturbations of acoustic travel time over long distances as a result of oceanic mesoscale eddies, seasonal fluctuations, and interannual variability. Results from a global eddy-resolving ocean model are used here to assess the importance of two of these noise factors. Neither mesoscale nor seasonal effects are found to be large enough to obscure the anticipated signal of global change in the ocean. Analyses of the modeled temperature trends and variability along three selected paths give insights into where mesoscale and seasonal variability affect the acoustics.

Semtner, Albert J., Jr.; Chervin, Robert M.

1990-08-01

348

Energy and global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are used in a number of applications, and volumes of CFCs used grew at a tremendous pace during the 1960s and 1970s. However, in the mid-1980s, it was confirmed that these extremely useful chemicals contribute to the destruction of stratospheric ozone. These chemicals are being phased out of use rapidly to protect the ozone layer and it is very important that the replacements for CFSs do not result in a net increase in global warming by introducing less efficient processes that lead to higher energy use and increased carbon dioxide emissions. A study was conducted to identify those alternative chemicals and technologies that could replace CFCs in energy related applications before the year 2000, and to assess the total potential impact of these alternatives on global warming. The analysis for this project included an estimate of the direct effects from the release of blowing agents, refrigerants, and solvents into the atmosphere and the indirect effects in the form of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from energy use for commercial and residential heating and cooling, household and commercial refrigeration, building and automobile air-conditioning, and general metal and electronics solvent cleaning. The discussion in this paper focuses on those aspects of the study relevant to refrigeration and air-conditioning. In general the use of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) alternatives for CFCs lead to large and sometimestives for CFCs lead to large and sometimes dramatic reduction in total equivalent warming impact (TEWI), lifetime equivalent CO2 emission. Most of the reductions result from decreased direct effects without significant changes in energy use. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

349

Global warming: discounting is not the issue, but substitutability is  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cost-benefit study of Nordhaus (1994) is representative for the neoclassical approach towards global warming. Nordhaus found that no substantial emission cuts are warranted. Most of his critics have concentrated on the issue of discounting and demanded that a lower discount rate should be applied. These criticisms first miss the point and second lead to ethically dubious, inconsistent conclusions and inefficient policy choices. They miss the point because the real problem of Nordhaus's methodology is his implicit underlying assumption of perfect substitutability between natural and other forms of capital. Given the validity of this assumption, lowering the rate of discount is inconsistent with current savings behaviour, is ethically dubious because future generations will be much richer than the current one anyway, and is inefficient because scarce financial resources are channelled into emissions abatement that exhibits rates of return far inferior to alternative public investments. Any call for aggressive emission abatement must therefore directly attack the perfect substitutability assumption of neoclassical economics. The real disagreement is about whether consumption growth can compensate for environmental degradation caused by global warming. Discounting is not the issue, but substitutability is. (author)

350

[Global warming: trailblazer for tropical infections in Germany?].  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 1850, the CO (2) content of the atmosphere has increased from 280 to 360 ppm, and the average surface temperature has risen from 14.6 to 15.3 C . A further increase between 1.8 and 4.0 C is expected for the 21st century. Temperate and cold climate zones are affected predominantly, but tropical regions are not spared. At the same time, the world wide climate effects of the "El Niño Southern Oscillation" are amplified. Global warming enhances the growth of tropical pathogens (malarial plasmodia, leishmania, yellow fever virus, dengue virus, West Nile virus, Vibrio cholerae) and vectors (anopheles, aedes, culex, and phlebotomus mosquitos; hard ticks). Global warming may lead to the emergence of diseases which at present are not endemic in Germany, like West Nile fever, Dengue fever, or Leishmaniases, and to enhanced transmission of borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis. Malaria and cholera, in contrast, are influenced more strongly by socioeconomic factors. Improved surveillance and intensified research on the relationship between climate change and infectious diseases is needed. PMID:18033654

Hemmer, C J; Frimmel, S; Kinzelbach, R; Gürtler, L; Reisinger, E C

2007-11-01

351

Global Warming Potential Of A Waste Refinery Using Enzymatic Treatment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Decrease of fossil fuel dependence and resource saving has become increasingly important during the last years. In this perspective, higher recycling rates for valuable materials as well as energy recovery from waste streams could play a significant role substituting for virgin material production and fossil resources. This is especially important with respect to the residual waste (i.e. the remains after source-separation and separate collection) which is typically incinerated or landfilled. In this paper the energy and Global Warming performance of a pilot-scale waste refinery for the enzymatic treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) was presented. The refinery produced a liquid (liquefied organic materials and paper) and a solid fraction (non-degradable materials) from the initial waste. A number of scenarios for the utilization of the two outputs were analyzed. Co-combustion in existing power plants and utilization of the liquid fraction for biogas production turned out to be the best options with respect to energy and Global Warming performance.

Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas

2010-01-01

352

Issues in Global Warming: Polar Ice Cap Thins Dramatically  

Science.gov (United States)

On a recent expedition from Norway to the North Pole, a group of scientists and tourists aboard a Russian icebreaker found about a mile of open water right at the North Pole. This caused great alarm for the passengers, including paleontologist Malcolm McKenna, because it indicated the harsh reality of global warming. McKenna took photographs and spoke to the media about the finding. Since that startling report, scientists at Lamont Doherty Observatory have suggested that the polar ice was broken apart by wind, and not melted by rising temperatures, but stressed that thinning of polar ice is real and should not be ignored. A number of research teams have been recording the changing sea surface temperatures and thickness of polar ice using satellite imaging and other technology. Findings show that average winter surface temperatures in the Arctic have increased by two degrees centigrade during the past century, melting ice caps, glaciers, sea ice, and permafrost. This week's In the News observes the thinning polar ice, investigates the technology behind climate study, and visits clearinghouses for information on global warming.

Sanders, Hilary C.

353

Global warming benefits the small in aquatic ecosystems  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the ecological impacts of climate change is a crucial challenge of the twenty-first century. There is a clear lack of general rules regarding the impacts of global warming on biota. Here, we present a metaanalysis of the effect of climate change on body size of ectothermic aquatic organisms (bacteria, phyto- and zooplankton, and fish) from the community to the individual level. Using long-term surveys, experimental data and published results, we show a significant increase in the proportion of small-sized species and young age classes and a decrease in size-at-age. These results are in accordance with the ecological rules dealing with the temperature–size relationships (i.e., Bergmann's rule, James' rule and Temperature–Size Rule). Our study provides evidence that reduced body size is the third universal ecological response to global warming in aquatic systems besides the shift of species ranges toward higher altitudes and latitudes and the seasonal shifts in life cycle events. PMID:19620720

Daufresne, Martin; Lengfellner, Kathrin; Sommer, Ulrich

2009-01-01

354

The importance of expressly examining global warming policy issues through an ethical prism  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A vast scientific and economic literature on global warming has emerged in the last two decades. Surprisingly, however, there has been little written on the ethical dimensions of human-induced climate change despite the numerous, obvious, and profoundly important ethical questions raised by human activities that are now clearly threatening human health, the environment, and many things humans value greatly. This paper argues that ethical analysis of global warming issues is practically imperative for two reasons. First, unless ethical analysis is made of global warming issues, ethically dubious decisions about global warming will be made because many of the most important ethical considerations are hidden in what appear to be ethically neutral scientific and economic arguments about global warming policy options. Secondly, unless issues of ethics, justice and equity are expressly dealt with, urgently needed global solutions to global warming will not likely be adopted by many nations. That is, an ethical focus on global warming matters is the key to achieve a globally acceptable solution and to harness political support for action. The paper concludes with a recommendation on how institutions and nations should go about implementing express examination of the ethical dimensions of global warming questions. The paper argues for express identification of ethical issues often hidden in scientific and economic analyses of global warming policy options. (Author)

Brown, Donald A. [Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Pennsylvania Consortium for Interdisciplinary Environmental Policy, Harrisburg, PA (United States)

2003-12-01

355

Global Deliberative Democracy and Climate Change: Insights from World Wide Views on Global Warming in Australia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

On 26 September 2009, approximately 4,000 citizens in 38 countries participated in World Wide Views on Global Warming (WWViews). WWViews was an ambitious first attempt to convene a deliberative mini-public at a global scale, giving people from around the world an opportunity to deliberate on international climate policy and to make recommendations to the decision-makers meeting at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen (COP-15) in December 2009. In this paper, we examine t...

Chris Riedy; Jade Herriman

2011-01-01

356

More powerful hurricanes following global warming; Kraftigere orkaner med global oppvarming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rising sea temperature and more moisture in the atmosphere in a warmer climate will probably give more intense tropical hurricanes, but not necessarily more of them. When climatologists are asked if the apparent increase in the number of hurricanes in the Caribbean is caused by global warming, the standard answer is that global warming is expected to give elevated temperatures of the tropical seas, where these cyclones arise, and that this increases the chance of strong hurricanes. It is added that there is considerable natural variation in the frequency of such incidents from one decade to the next and that it is difficult to identify the effect of global warming. Consequently, so far it is unknown whether some of the heavy damage that follows in the wake of hurricanes can be ascribed to global warming. Typhoons are among the natural disasters that take most human lives and inflict the greatest material damage. In the USA the losses correspond to five billion US D per year, on average. In the Philippines, the damage amounts to about five per cent of the national income. In 1998, hurricane Mitch killed at least 10 000 people in Central America. The article discusses the physics of hurricanes and how they are classed. Some of the variation in the occurrence of hurricanes is ascribed to changes in the El Nino phenomenon, which affect how the winds vary with altitude in the relevant cyclone regions.

Groenaas, Sigbjoern; Rytter, Jens

2004-07-01

357

Limiting Global Warming to 2 deg C and Beyond  

Science.gov (United States)

This presentation addresses the question of how feasible is it to limit global warming to a specific temperature rise, whether 1.5, 2 or 3 deg C. Inherent in the idea of limiting global warming to a specific temperature level is the notion that future GHG emissions will be subject to a top-down international agreement. In the post-Copenhagen era, however, such an agreement is unlikely, and a bottoms-up approach of national pledges will likely have to serve as a surrogate for achieving emissions reduction. In this case, an additional question is what temperature targets are realistic under scenarios that are bounded by achievable national pledges as opposed to binding mandates. The question of feasibility depends largely on future emission pathways of CO2, other GHGs, black carbon and aerosols. Those pathways depend on many societal, technological and economic factors, but it is likely that the ultimate limiting factor is the maximum possible rate of absolute emission reduction. That rate is limited by how rapidly energy infrastructure can be turned over. Most studies suggest that an absolute emission reduction rate of 3.5% is the highest rate achievable. Climate sensitivity and the current cooling effect of aerosols and earth system responses such as the rate of ocean heat uptake and carbon cycle feedbacks determine how a specific emissions pathway translates into probable climate change. A useful framework for CO2 alone is provided by the newly emerging paradigm of cumulative emissions, which holds that peak temperature can be largely predicted by the total amount of carbon emitted, regardless of pathway. Most studies suggest that 1 Tt of cumulative carbon is equivalent to ~2 deg of peak warming. A consideration of these factors suggests that limiting warming to 1.5 deg C is no longer possible under any feasible economic scenario. For one, currently emitted GHGs are equivalent to a ~1.3 deg C warming commitment. This leaves very little room for future emissions and makes a 1.5 deg C target far more difficult to achieve than a 2 deg C target. For example, one credible 1.5 deg C scenario requires average total emission reductions of ~15% per year, well above the rate that is considered feasible. Limiting warming to 2 deg C requires an immediate start to mitigation, with emissions peaking in c. 2020 and absolute emission reduction rates of ~3% per year. Such a reduction is considered economically feasible, although historical absolute emission reduction rates from 1990 - 2010, which reflect the net of carbon intensity decline and economic growth, have only reached ~1% per year in a few EU countries such as Denmark and Germany. Delaying the start of mitigation rapidly increases the required absolute emission reduction rates and moves the 2 deg C goal beyond the realm of economic feasibility. A later start of mitigation or lower absolute emission reduction rates would lead to warming of 3 to 4 deg C. For example, a 3 deg goal could be achieved with emission reductions of 0.7% per year and emissions peaking in c. 2030. Current national pledges, as analyzed by both UNEP and IEA, still allow for growth in emissions of >1% per year and therefore do not meet the requirements of any of the temperature targets.

Lea, D. W.

2011-12-01

358

Global Swindle or Global Warming. How technology can deal with it; Global Swindle of Global Warming. Hoe moet de techniek hiermee omgaan?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Some people are still not convinced that human-caused global warming is taking place. The media tend to pay attention to both proponents and opponents of their points of view. The impression is that the subject is still widely open to debate. One of the best-known contributions is Al Gore's film 'An Inconvenient Truth'. Channel 4 Television in the United Kingdom countered Gore's arguments with the documentary 'The Great Global Warming Swindle' (TGGWS), a production which went on to enjoy worldwide media exposure. Both Al Gore and the makers of TGGWS play on the viewer's emotions. The Climate Portal, the Dutch website of the Platform for Communication on Climate Change (PCCC), examines the arguments presented in TGGWS in the light of current knowledge on climate change. It is also clear from the recently published Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC, that not one of the arguments of TGGWS is scientifically valid. The makers of the film created arguments by manipulating graphs and making selective use of the data. [Dutch] Voor sommige mensen is het nog steeds niet aannemelijk dat we te maken hebben met de effecten van 'Global Warming'. In de media worden voor- en tegenstanders aan het woord gelaten. Hierdoor ontstaat een beeld dat er nog veel discussie over dit onderwerp mogelijk is. Het meest bekend is AI Gore's 'An Inconvenient truth', maar als antwoord daarop heeft het Engelse Channel 4 de documentaire 'The Great Global Warming Swindle' (TGGWS), ook een wereldtournee door de media gemaakt. Zowel Al Gore als de makers van deze documentaire spelen in op de emoties van het publiek. Op het klimaatportaal, de site van het Platform Communication on Climate Change (PCCC) worden de beweringen in TGGWS in de context van de kennis over klimaatverandering geplaatst. Daaruit blijkt, zoals onder andere in het recent verschenen vierde Assessment Report van het IPCC te lezen is, dat geen van de in de TGGWS gebruikte argumenten wetenschappelijk correct zijn. De makers van de film hebben argumenten gefabriceerd door bewerking van grafieken en het selectief omgaan met gegevens.

Zeiler, W. [Kropman Installatietechniek, Breda (Netherlands)

2008-02-15

359

Entropy Shows that Global Warming Should Cause Increased Variability in the Weather  

CERN Document Server

Elementary physical reasoning seems to leave it inevitable that global warming would increase the variability of the weather. The first two terms in an approximation to the global entropy may be used to show that global warming has increased the free energy available to drive the weather, and that the variance of the weather has increased correspondingly.

Williams, J M

2000-01-01

360

Global Warming: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast. Part A The Greenhouse Effect.  

Science.gov (United States)

Provides information necessary for an interdisciplinary analysis of the greenhouse effect, enhanced greenhouse effect, global warming, global climate change, greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, and scientific study of global warming for students grades 4-12. Several activity ideas accompany the information. (LZ)

Andrews, Bill

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Indirect Global Warming Potentials of Halons Using Atmospheric Models  

Science.gov (United States)

Emission of bromochlorofluorocarbons, or Halons, results in stratospheric ozone depletion. This leads to cooling of the climate system in the opposite direction to direct warming contribution of the Halons as greenhouse gases. This cooling is a key indirect effect of Halons on radiative forcing or climate. The Global Warming Potential (GWP) is a relative index used to compare the climate impact of an emitted greenhouse gas, relative to an equal amount of carbon dioxide. Until now, indirect GWPs have been calculated based on the concept of Equivalent Effective Stratospheric Chlorine (EESC), which oversimplifies the complex processes in the atmosphere. As a step towards obtaining indirect GWPs through a more robust approach, 2-D and 3-D global chemical transport models (CTM) were used as the computational tool to derive more realistic ozone changes caused by pulse perturbation of Halons at the surface. Indirect GWPs of Halon-1211 and -1301 for a 100-year time horizon were explicitly calculated based on the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) 2-D global CTM and radiative transport model (RTM) and the 3-D CTM, MOZART-3.1. The 2-D and 3-D model simulations show acceptable temporal variations in the atmosphere as well as derived lifetimes and direct GWP values of the Halons. The 2-D model-based indirect GWPs for a 100-year horizon are -16,294 for Halon-1211 and -33,648 for Halon-1301. 3-D indirect GWP for Halon-1211 is -18,216. The indirect GWPs for Halon-1211 presented here are much smaller than previous published results using the previous simplified appraoch.

Youn, D.; Patten, K. O.; Wuebbles, D. J.

2007-05-01

362

An electric utility program to address global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation believes that despite the incomplete and uncertain state of scientific knowledge concerning global atmospheric change, the plausible negative effects of accelerated global warming, known as open-quotes the Greenhouse Effect,close quotes are so large that purdent actions can and should be taken now to reduce so-called greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, the corporation has adopted a Greenhouse Warming Action Program based on strategies recommended by the National Academy of Sciences and the corporation's Integrated Electric Resource Plan. The program is a logical outgrowth of the company's policy statement on protection of the environment and is designed to surpass the Rio Earth Summit's goal of stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions. Central to the Action Program are increased use of natural gas, aggressive expansion of energy efficiency programs, and maximized generation from hydroelectric and nuclear energy sources. Additional elements include preventing releases of CFC's through customer incentive recycling programs; a forest conservation program of managing lands on a sustainable yield basis, environmentally-conscious use of paper products, and waste paper and cardboard recycling; promoting commercialization of low emitting vehicles; and developing and demonstrating low-CO2 technologies such as wind turbines and photo-voltaic cells. Niagara Mohawk believes that acting now to implement such a policy is a responsible step that makes sense from both scientific and business perspectives. Moreover, voluntary action now by utilities and other segments of the private sector is the best way to avoid the need for future regulation by government designed to achieve the same end. We intend to do our part to stabilize and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, while recognizing that our contribution is only a small fraction of total global greenhouse gas emissions

363

Global warming, population growth, and natural resources for food production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Destruction of forests and the considerable burning of fossil fuels is directly causing the level of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases including methane, carbon monoxide, and nitrous oxide in the atmosphere to rise. Population growth in the US and the world indirectly contributes to this global warming. This has led the majority of scientists interested in weather and climate to predict that the planet's temperature will increase from 1.5 to 4.5 degrees Celsius by 2050. These forecasted climactic changes will most likely strongly affect crop production. Specifically these scientists expect the potential changes in temperature, moisture, carbon dioxide, and pests to decrease food production in North America. The degree of changes hinges on each crop and its environmental needs. If farmers begin using improved agricultural technology, the fall in crop yields can be somewhat counterbalanced. Even without global warming, however, agriculture in North America must embrace sensible ecological resource management practices such as conserving soil, water, energy, and biological resources. These sustainable agricultural practices would serve agriculture, farmers, the environment, and society. Agriculturalists, farmers, and society are already interested in sustainable agriculture. Still scientists must conduct more research on the multiple effects of potential global climate change on many different crops under various environmental conditions and on new technologies that farmers might use in agricultural production. We must cut down our consumption of fossil fuel, reduce deforestation, erase poverty, and protect our soil, water, and biological resources. The most important action we need to take, however, is to check population growth. PMID:12344889

Pimentel, D

1991-01-01

364

Transportation in El Salvador: a commitment to global warming management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

San Salvador City, El Salvador, is a city plagued with air pollution caused by traffic and congestion. Forecasts indicate the problem is likely to worsen in the coming years. Delcan International Corporation was commissioned by the Ministry of Public Works of El Salvador to study and evaluate the design and alternatives to a Ring Road circling San Salvador. The project, financed by the Inter-American Development Bank, is discussed in this paper, along with a summary of aspects of an Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) and the environmental impacts assessment conducted. Human-induced changes in climate, increasing levels of greenhouse gases are referred to as global warming of climate change. Water vapour, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone are the main greenhouse gases, with carbon dioxide representing the biggest threat. Approximately 14 per cent of global carbon dioxide emissions are caused by fumes emanating from motor-vehicle gasoline-fuels, and 50 per cent of those are produced in developing countries. Motor vehicles produce 60 to 90 per cent of carbon dioxide emissions in Latin America urban centres. Some ways of reducing carbon dioxide emissions are: reduce travel, use more efficient vehicles, improving existing vehicle technologies and fuels, improving traveller behaviour, reducing congestion. ITS could be a valuable tool for measuring the effectiveness of measures designed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The Intelligent Transportation System assists with tigent Transportation System assists with the evaluation of the optimization and enlargement of existing roads, especially downtown, the construction of a highway around the city. This evaluation includes an environmental impact assessment, a traffic study and the highway final design. The Government of El Salvador has shown its commitment to sustainable practices toward global warming

365

Public perception of global warming and related environmental issues in Kano city, Nigeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sub-Saharan African countries are at an increased risk of the effects of global warming. Unfortunately they have the least capacity to adapt to its untoward effects. We studied public awareness of global warming, its perceived causes, effects and prevention in Kano city, northern Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were administered on a cross section of 181 adults in Kano eliciting their awareness of global warming, as well as perceived causes, effects and ways of prevention. Of the 181 respondents, 132 (72.9%) were aware of global warming mainly from electronic media (44.4%), the Internet (20.5%) and schools (18.7%). They mostly attributed it to air pollution (99.2%), use of fossil fuels (97.7%), toxic waste (78.0%) and chlorofluorocarbons (73.5%). Perceived effects of global warming include extremes of ambient temperature (97.7%), increased disease outbreaks (92.4%), floods (68.2%), droughts (51.5%) and loss of species (50.0%). Respondents opined that global warming could be prevented by using renewable sources of energy such as the sun (53.8%), massive tree planting (44.7%) and phasing out of old automobiles (43.2%). A significantly higher proportion of males, younger and educated respondents were aware of global warming. The high awareness about global warming needs to be reinforced through use of media to encourage advocacy and community action towards preventing global warming and ensuring environmental sustainability.

Iliyasu, Z.; Abubakar, I.; Gajida, A.U.

2010-07-01

366

Voluminous Icelandic Basaltic Eruptions Appear To Cause Abrupt Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Beginning on June 21, 1783, Laki volcano in southern Iceland erupted 14.7 km3 basalt, ejecting 24 Mt SO_{2} into the stratosphere where it was blown eastward and northward and 98 Mt into the troposphere where the jet stream transported it southeastward to Europe. The "dry fog" observed in Europe with an estimated mean concentration of 60 ppbv SO2, raised daytime temperatures as much as 3.3^{o}C, causing the warmest July in England from 1659 when measurements began until 1983. SO2, tropospheric O_{3}, NO2, and fine ash absorb ultraviolet energy from the sun that causes the bonds between and within their atoms to oscillate at 47 times higher frequency than the bonds in CO_{2} absorbing infrared radiation. Temperature is proportional to the kinetic energy of these oscillations, i.e. the frequency squared. Thus these gases are raised to much higher temperatures than greenhouse gases. The Stefan-Boltzmann law says that radiation from these molecules is a constant times temperature raised to the fourth power. As a result, SO2 and ash radiate far more energy back to earth than CO_{2}, causing warming. Another way to look at the energy involved shows that 15 ppbv SO2 in the 0.3-0.42 ?m wavelength band absorbs as much solar energy per unit volume as 388,000 ppbv CO_{2} absorbs infrared energy in the 12.7-17.5 ?m band. Basaltic volcanoes such as Laki emit 10 to 100 times more SO2 than more evolved magmas and are less explosive, leaving most of the SO_{2} in the troposphere. All 14 Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) sudden warmings between 46 and 11 ka are contemporaneous with the highest levels of sulfate in the GISP2 drill hole near Summit Greenland. These DO events typically warmed the northern hemisphere out of the ice age within decades, but as volcanism waned, ocean temperatures cooled the world back into an ice age within centuries. The world finally exited the ice age when voluminous volcanism continued from 11.6 to 9.6 ka. Basaltic table mountains or tuyas in Iceland document major sub-glacial eruptions that occurred during DO 0, A, and 1 (11.6, 13.1, and 14.6 ka) and similar but less well dated activity at least over the past million years. Massive melting of a thick ice sheet by volcanoes would decrease overburden pressure on the magma chambers, potentially increasing volcanism. Continued basaltic eruptions over decades enhanced by such a feedback c8ould explain why the intervals between DO events (1300 to 8800 years) are more random than cyclic and the evidence for sudden influxes of fresh water into the North Atlantic documented during DO events. Concentrations of sulfate in Greenland were as high from 1928 to 1985 as during the largest DO event. Trace element analysis shows this sulfate came from smoke stacks in northern Russia, Europe, and central North America. Observed levels of SO2, NO_{x}, tropospheric O$_{3} and black carbon are more than sufficient to have been the primary cause of 20th century global warming. Efforts to reduce acid rain by reducing emissions of these pollutants "accidentally" slowed global warming by 1998. Mean global surface temperatures have remained high but have not increased since then.

Ward, P. L.

2011-12-01

367

Global Deliberative Democracy and Climate Change: Insights from World Wide Views on Global Warming in Australia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available On 26 September 2009, approximately 4,000 citizens in 38 countries participated in World Wide Views on Global Warming (WWViews. WWViews was an ambitious first attempt to convene a deliberative mini-public at a global scale, giving people from around the world an opportunity to deliberate on international climate policy and to make recommendations to the decision-makers meeting at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen (COP-15 in December 2009. In this paper, we examine the role that deliberative mini-publics can play in facilitating the emergence of a global deliberative system for climate change response. We pursue this intent through a reflective evaluation of the Australian component of the World Wide Views on Global Warming project (WWViews. Our evaluation of WWViews is mixed. The Australian event was delivered with integrity and feedback from Australian participants was almost universally positive. Globally, WWViews demonstrated that it is feasible to convene a global mini-public to deliberate on issues of global relevance, such as climate change. On the other hand, the contribution of WWViews towards the emergence of a global deliberative system for climate change response was limited and it achieved little influence on global climate change policy. We identify lessons for future global mini-publics, including the need to prioritise the quality of deliberation and provide flexibility to respond to cultural and political contexts in different parts of the world. Future global mini-publics may be more influential if they seek to represent discourse diversity in addition to demographic profiles, use designs that maximise the potential for transmission from public to empowered space, run over longer time periods to build momentum for change and experiment with ways of bringing global citizens together in a single process instead of discrete national events.

Chris Riedy

2011-08-01

368

Global Deliberative Democracy and Climate Change: Insights from World Wide Views on Global Warming in Australia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available On 26 September 2009, approximately 4,000 citizens in 38 countries participated in World Wide Views on Global Warming (WWViews. WWViews was an ambitious first attempt to convene a deliberative mini-public at a global scale, giving people from around the world an opportunity to deliberate on international climate policy and to make recommendations to the decision-makers meeting at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen (COP-15 in December 2009. In this paper, we examine the role that deliberative mini-publics can play in facilitating the emergence of a global deliberative system for climate change response. We pursue this intent through a reflective evaluation of the Australian component of the World Wide Views on Global Warming project (WWViews. Our evaluation of WWViews is mixed. The Australian event was delivered with integrity and feedback from Australian participants was almost universally positive. Globally, WWViews demonstrated that it is feasible to convene a global mini-public to deliberate on issues of global relevance, such as climate change. On the other hand, the contribution of WWViews towards the emergence of a global deliberative system for climate change response was limited and it achieved little influence on global climate change policy. We identify lessons for future global mini-publics, including the need to prioritise the quality of deliberation and provide flexibility to respond to cultural and political contexts in different parts of the world. Future global mini-publics may be more influential if they seek to represent discourse diversity in addition to demographic profiles, use designs that maximise the potential for transmission from public to empowered space, run over longer time periods to build momentum for change and experiment with ways of bringing global citizens together in a single process instead of discrete national events.

Chris Riedy

2011-12-01

369

Global warming policy, energy and the Chinese economy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pressure is mounting to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases from the combustion of fossil fuels. A global problem of this magnitude requires a global solution, and therefore the cooperation of energy-intensive economies, whether industrialized or developing, is crucial. As the world`s largest producer and consumer of coal, China is an obvious candidate to take a lead role in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, with a per capita income of less than $400, China is also one of the 25 poorest countries in the world. Some analysts suggest that curbing GHG emissions will be very costly. Thus, the question arises as to the equity, if not the feasibility, of having the Chinese initiate major mitigation measures. Other analysts suggest that efforts to cope with global warming open up a realm of opportunities to improve energy and overall economic efficiency simultaneously. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impacts of greenhouse gas mitigation policies on the growth of the Chinese economy over the next 30 years. Our focus is on the reduction of coal use and its implication for reducing CO{sub 2}, but we also examine the implications for other fossil fuels and renewable energy resources. Specifically, we examine partial and general equilibrium impacts of achieving a 20% reduction in year 2000 baseline CO{sub 2} emissions by the year 2025, according to a phased-in compliance schedule.

Rose, A.; Benavides, J.; Lim, D.; Frias, O.

1995-12-31

370

Monitoring Global Climate Change: The Case of Greenhouse Warming.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent record high temperatures and drought conditions in many regions of the United States have prompted heightened concern about whether these are early manifestations of the global green house warming projected by the major climate models. An improved global climate monitoring and reporting capability is urgently needed in order to ensure that interpretation of climate trends and comparison with model projections are based on the mast complete and accurate datasets available. Priority should be placed on identifying those key variables for which data are already being collected, and then integrating these quality controlled datasets into one consolidated climate monitoring report that would be issued at regular intervals. Quality control is essential in order to avoid errors in the datasets that lead to misleading interpretations that further confound the identification of an anthropogenic climate change "signal" against the background of natural climate variability.Data on several key variables indicate that the pattern or fingerprint of climate change during the 1980s has both significant similarities and differences when compared with the pattern projected by the major climate models for an equilibrium response to a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Overall, the present state of the global climate appears to be at a critical juncture, with improved monitoring an important prerequisite for reliably tracking climate change over the next few years.

Wood, Fred B.

1990-01-01

371

The impact of global warming on the Southern Oscillation Index  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) - a measure of air pressure difference across the Pacific Ocean, from Tahiti in the south-east to Darwin in the west - is one of the world's most important climatic indices. The SOI is used to track and predict changes in both the El Nino-Southern Oscillation phenomenon, and the Walker Circulation (WC). During El Nino, for example, the WC weakens and the SOI tends to be negative. Climatic variations linked to changes in the WC have a profound influence on climate, ecosystems, agriculture, and societies in many parts of the world. Previous research has shown that (1) the WC and the SOI weakened in recent decades and that (2) the WC in climate models tends to weaken in response to elevated atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Here we examine changes in the SOI and air pressure across the Pacific in the observations and in numerous WCRP/CMIP3 climate model integrations for both the 20th and 21st centuries. The difference in mean-sea level air pressure (MSLP) between the eastern and western equatorial Pacific tends to weaken during the 21st century, consistent with previous research. Here we show that this primarily arises because of an increase in MSLP in the west Pacific and not a decline in the east. We also show, in stark contrast to expectations, that the SOI actually tends to increase during the 21st century, not decrease. Under global warming MSLP tends to increase at both Darwin and Tahiti, but tends to rise more at Tahiti than at Darwin. Tahiti lies in an extensive region where MSLP tends to rise in response to global warming. So while the SOI is an excellent indicator of interannual variability in both the equatorial MSLP gradient and the WC, it is a highly misleading indicator of long-term equatorial changes linked to global warming. Our results also indicate that the observed decline in the SOI in recent decades has been driven by natural, internally generated variability. The externally forced signal in the June-December SOI during 2010 is estimated to be approximately 5% of the standard deviation of variability in the SOI during the 20th century. This figure is projected to increase to 40% by the end of the 21st century under the A2 SRES scenario. The 2010 global warming signal is already a major contributor to interdecadal variability in the SOI, equal to 45% of the standard deviation of 30-year running averages of the SOI. This figure is projected to increase to nearly 340% by the end of the 21st century. Implications that these discoveries have for understanding recent climatic change and for seasonal prediction are discussed. (orig.)

Power, Scott B.; Kociuba, Greg [Bureau of Meteorology, Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, Melbourne (Australia)

2011-11-15

372

The European oil industry's position on global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Despite the existing scientific uncertainly, the planet's governments have decided to act against global warming by limiting CO2 emissions. In 1995, the European Union opened the way by deciding to stabilize emissions at the 1990 level by the year 2000. At the Rio de Janeiro summit in july 1997, heads of European governments pleaded for reducing emissions by 15 % between 1990 and 2010. Meanwhile, emissions are still increasing in Europe. To meet deadlines and stop this increase, Europia, a petroleum industry trade association, sees only two ways. The one calls for a significant decrease in economic activity and a drastic effort by consumers. Instead of this solution (deemed unrealistic), Europia has worked out a five-point alternative. It does not object to the proposed goals for reducing emissions, but it does question the haste to reach them. For many 'especially economic and social' seasons, it is demanding time. (author)

373

Gas emissions from landfills and their contributions to global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contribution of methane from UK landfills is described in relation to total gas emissions to the atmosphere and how these have been shown to contribute to global warming. The known effects that methane has on the atmosphere are reviewed and the relationship to those effects caused by other greenhouse gases is described. A methodology utilized in assessing the quantity of landfill gas emitted from landfill sites is described, as are the main principles used in a gas generation model. Results of a survey, field trials and categorisation of the many types of site condition and waste mixtures are explained, including the techniques incorporated into the model to allow a potential gas yield to be predicted. The factors that limit this potential yield of methane such as the oxidizing capacity of soil are identified and assessed. (author)

374

New electric technologies to reduce global warming impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Advanced electric technologies hold significant potential to reduce global warming impact through reduction of primary fuel needed to power end-use applications. These reductions can occur in two forms: (1) reduced kilowatt-hour usage and power plant emissions through efficiency improvements and technological enhancements of existing electrically-driven applications; (2) the development of new electric technologies to replace traditional fossil-fuel driven applications which can result in less overall primary energy consumption and lower overall emissions. Numerous new electric technologies are presently being developed by the Electric Power Research Institute. The technologies reviewed in this paper include: Microwave Fabric Dryer, Advanced Heat Pumps, Heat Pump Water Heater, Infrared Sand Reclaimer, Freeze Concentration, Membrane Water Recovery, Microwave Petrochemical Production, Infrared Drying, and Electric Vehicles. Full commercialization of these technologies can result in significant energy savings and CO2 reductions, in addition to improving the competitiveness of businesses using these technologies

375

The Early Rice Project: From Domestication to Global Warming  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Early Rice Project, at the UCL Institute of Archaeology, is clarifying the origins of Asian rice agriculture. In the Lower Yangtze region of China, we have found the tipping point when domesticated forms first outnumber wild types c.4600 BC. Investigations of assorted weed flora are also revealing how the cultivation of rice changed over time, with early cultivation in small, irregular, dug-out paddy fields in the Lower Yangtze from c.4000 BC, providing a means for the careful control of water conditions. We also work on early rice cultivation in Thailand and India. By better characterising how rice was cultivated across its entire range, we aim to model the ancient output of atmospheric methane from wet rice fields, as this was a potential contributor to the long story of human-caused global warming.

Dorian Q. Fuller

2011-10-01

376

Energy conversion of biomass in coping with global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main purpose of the present paper is to propose energy conversion technologies of biomass in coping with global warming. Among thermochemical conversion, liquid fuel production by high pressure process is mainly introduced. Biomass is a term used to describe materials of biological origin, either purpose-grown or arising as by-products, residues or wastes from forestry, agriculture and food processing. Such biomass is a renewable energy sources dependent on solar energy. Through photosynthesis, plants converts carbon dioxide into organic materials used in their growth. Energy can be recovered from the plant materials by several processes, the simplest way is burning in air. As far as biomass is used in this way, there is no atmospheric accumulation of carbon dioxide making no effect on the Greenhouse Effect, provided that the cycle of regrowth and burning is sustained.

Yokoyama, Shin-ya; Ogi, Tomoko; Minowa, Tomoaki [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

1993-12-31

377

Global Warming Will Bring New Fungal Diseases for Mammals  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT Fungi are major pathogens of plants, other fungi, rotifers, insects, and amphibians, but relatively few cause disease in mammals. Fungi became important human pathogens only in the late 20th century, primarily in hosts with impaired immunity as a consequence of medical interventions or HIV infection. The relatively high resistance of mammals has been attributed to a combination of a complex immune system and endothermy. Mammals maintain high body temperatures relative to environmental temperatures, creating a thermally restrictive ambient for the majority of fungi. According to this view, protection given by endothermy requires a temperature gradient between those of mammals and the environment. We hypothesize that global warming will increase the prevalence of fungal diseases in mammals by two mechanisms: (i) increasing the geographic range of currently pathogenic species and (ii) selecting for adaptive thermotolerance for species with significant pathogenic potential but currently not pathogenic by virtue of being restricted by mammalian temperatures. PMID:20689745

Garcia-Solache, Monica A.; Casadevall, Arturo

2010-01-01

378

Global warming factor of municipal solid waste management in Europe  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The global warming factor (GWF; CO2-eq. tonne—1 waste) performance of municipal waste management has been investigated for six representative European Member States: Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Poland and the United Kingdom. The study integrated European waste statistical data for 2007 in a life-cycle assessment modelling perspective. It is shown that significant GWF benefit was achieved due to the high level of energy and material recovery substituting fossil energy and raw materials production, especially in Denmark and Germany. The study showed that, despite strong regulation of waste management at European level, there are major differences in GWF performance among the member states, due to the relative differences of waste composition, type of waste management technologies available nationally, and the average performance of these technologies. It has been demonstrated through a number of sensitivity analyses that, within the national framework, key waste management technology parameters can influence drastically the national GWF performance of waste management.

Gentil, Emmanuel; Clavreul, Julie

2009-01-01

379

Global warming potentials; Part 7 of 7 supporting documents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document provides methods to account for the different effects of different gases on the atmosphere. It discusses the rationale and uses for simplified measures to represent human-related effects on climate and provides a brief introduction to a major index, the global warming potential (GWP) index. Appendix 7.A analyzes the science underlying the development of indices for concerns about climate, which is still evolving, evaluates the usefulness of currently available indices, and presents the state of the art for numerical indices and their uncertainties. For concerns about climate, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has been instrumental in examining relative indices for comparing the radiative influences of greenhouse gases. The IPCC developed the concept of GWPs to provide a simple representation of the relative effects on climate resulting from a unit mass emission of a greenhouse gas. Alternative measures and variations on the definition of GWPs have also been considered and reported

380

'Carbon-Money Exchange' to contain global warming and deforestation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper builds a basic theory of 'Carbon-Money Exchange' in which carbon as currency in nature's household (ecosystems) and money as currency in humankind's household (economy) are exchanged just like in a foreign exchange. The simple chemical equation below makes it possible (CO2?C+O2=C+O2?CO2). The left-hand side represents the work of plants to remove atmospheric CO2. The right-hand side represents the work of humans as fossil fuel consumers to produce it. The exchange of the two currencies is possible by copying the fossil fuel market. The paper concludes that this new exchange can automatically contain global warming and deforestation, replacing onerous emissions trading. Moreover, it could revolutionize the conventional economy, creating counter-capitalism, or 'carbonism'

 
 
 
 
381

Nuclear energy the best alternative in alleviating global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the last century, the average temperature of the earth has abnormally increased by 0.74 c, causing concern among scientists. Some experts believe that the earth has experienced the warmest years during the last decades of 20 century, to the extent that the last 400 years have been the warmest years. The reports 2007 suggest that the hottest periods recorded occur a 1990 - 2007 which was a record high during the past 150 years. It seems that industrialization has contributed significantly to the global warming. The measurement of earth temperature dates hack to 1880 which has continued up to the present time. It is also predicted that the year 2014 would witness an unprecedented high air temperature. Moreover, scientists have expressed grave concern about the occurrence of severe droughts, scorching heat and formidable storms which are yet to strike the earth in the year 2100. According to the International atomic agency, nuclear energy is by far, the best and safest production source of electricity in the future due to it's low emission rate of carbon dioxide. However , prior to making any commitment, it seem imperative to increase public awareness about the dire consequences of the continued utilization of fossil fuels. Based on research carried out by International atomic agency, nuclear energy is superior to other sources of energy in two major respects: lack of any so-called greenhouse gas emission and the utilization of uranium as thesion and the utilization of uranium as the single source the energy production. The study aims at first; probing into the causes of global warming, the outcomes and ultimately provision of a way out of the problem and identifying the means to seriously cope with the problem. 5

382

Sensitivity of direct global warming potentials to key uncertainties  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concept of global warming potential was developed as a relative measure of the potential effects on climate of a greenhouse gas. In this paper a series of sensitivity studies examines several uncertainties in determination of Global Warming Potentials (GWPs). The original evaluation of GWPs did not attempt to account for the possible sinks of carbon dioxide (CO2) that could balance the carbon cycle and produce atmospheric concentrations of CO2 that match observations. In this study, a balanced carbon cycle model is applied in calculation of the radiative forcing from CO2. Use of the balanced model produces up to 21% enhancement of the GWPs for most trace gases compared with the IPCC (1990) values for time horizons up to 100 years, but a decreasing enhancement with longer time horizons. Uncertainty limits of the fertilization feedback parameter contribute a 20% range in GWP values. Another systematic uncertainty in GWPs is the assumption of an equilibrium atmosphere (one in which the concentration of trace gases remains constant) versus a disequilibrium atmosphere (one in which the concentration of trace gases varies with time). The latter gives GWPs that are 19 to 32% greater than the former for a 100 year time horizons, depending upon the carbon dioxide emission scenario chosen. Five scenarios are employed: constant-concentration, constant-emission past 1990 and the three IPCC (1992) emission scenarios. For the analysis of uncertainties in atmospheric lifetime (tor) of the GWP changes in direct proportion to (tor) for short-lived gases, but to a lesser extent for gases with (tor) greater than the time horizontal for the GWP calculation. 40 refs., 7 figs., 13 tabs

383

Simulation of global warming effect on outdoor thermal comfort conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the coming decades, global warming and increase in temperature, in different regions of the world, may change indoor and outdoor thermal comfort conditions and human health. The aim of this research was to study the effects of global warming on thermal comfort conditions in indoor ambiences in Iran. To study the increase in temperature, model for assessment of greenhouse-gas induced climate change scenario generator compound model has been used together with four scenarios and to estimate thermal comfort conditions, adaptive model of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers has been used. In this study, Iran was divided into 30 zones, outdoor conditions were obtained using meteorological data of 80 climatological stations and changes in neutral comfort conditions in 2025, 2050, 2075 and 2100 were predicted. In accordance with each scenario, findings from this study showed that temperature in the 30 zones will increase by 2100 to between 3.4 C and 5.6 C. In the coming decades and in the 30 studied zones, neutral comfort temperature will increase and be higher and more intense in the central and desert zones of Iran. The low increase in this temperature will be connected to the coastal areas of the Caspian and Oman Sea in southeast Iran. This increase in temperature will be followed by a change in thermal comfort and indoor energy consumption from 8.6 % to 13.1 % in air conditioning systems. As a result, passive methods as thermal inertia are proposed as a possible solution.

Roshan, G.R.; Ranjbar, F. [Univ. of Tehran (IR). Dept. of Physical Geography; Orosa, J.A. [Univ. of A Coruna (Spain). Dept. of Energy

2010-07-01

384

Solar Panels reduce both global warming and Urban Heat Island  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The production of solar energy in cities is clearly a way to diminish our dependency to fossil fuels, and is a good way to mitigate global warming by lowering the emission of greenhouse gases. However, what are the impacts of solar panels locally ? To evaluate their influence on urban weather, it is necessary to parameterize their effects within the surface schemes that are coupled to atmospheric models. The present paper presents a way to implement solar panels in the Town Energy Balance scheme, taking account of the energy production (for thermal and photovoltaic panels, the impact on the building below and feedback towards the urban micro-climate through radiative and convective fluxes. A scenario of large but realistic deployment of solar panels on the Paris metropolitan area is then simulated. It is shown that solar panels, by shading the roofs, slightly increases the need for domestic heating (3%. In summer however, the solar panels reduce the energy needed for air-conditioning (by 12% and also the Urban Heat Island (UHI: 0.2K by day and up to 0.3K at night. These impacts are larger than those found in previous works, because of the use of thermal panels (that are more efficient than photovoltaic panels and the geographical position of Paris, which is relatively far from the sea. This means that it is not influenced by sea breezes, and hence that its UHI is stronger than for a coastal city of the same size. But this also means that local adaptation strategies aiming to decrease the UHI will have more potent effects. In summary, the deployment of solar panels is good both globally, to produce renewable energy (and hence to limit the warming of the climate and locally, to decrease the UHI, especially in summer, when it can constitute a health threat.

ValéryMasson

2014-06-01

385

Stratospheric sudden warming with projected global warming and related tropospheric wave activity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An abrupt stratospheric temperature jump, known as stratospheric sudden warming (SSW), was first observed in the early 1950s and has been explained by the theory of wave-mean flow interaction (Matsuno 1971). Large-amplitude Rossby waves propagating from the troposphere tend to trigger SSW. The effects of projected global warming (GW) on SSW have been discussed since the 1990s. Rind et al. (1990) suggested that double-carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) forcing tends to result in the earlier timing of SSW. However, although Rind et al. (1998) suggested a reduction in SSW events in association with GW, Mahfouf et al. (1994) suggested an increase. The occurrence of SSW events is closely related to stratospheric circulation. Shindell et al. (1999) proposed that increased CO{sub 2} concentration enhances the subtropical jet (STJ), toward which tropospheric waves tend to be refracted, strengthening the polar vortex. Thompson et al. (2000) insisted that a strengthening trend was found in the stratosphere. However, Fyre et al. (1999) found no significant Arctic Oscillation trend until after year 2020 in atmosphere-ocean coupled GCM (AOGCM) experiments. The responses of the polar vortex and SSW to GW remain highly debated, with the results of GCMs not yet in agreement. Here, the authors describe a GW projection and associated SSW events simulated using the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MIROC) AOGCM. SSW in association with projected global warming in the Northern Hemisphere was investigated by 20th-century and 21st-century simulations (20CS and 21CS) using the atmosphere-ocean coupled general circulation model. Composite analysis revealed that the model simulated 20th-century dynamical aspects of SSW well. Although SSW events in early winter are missing, considering difficulties in reasonable SSW simulation, we regard the 20CS results as reference values. The 21CS suggests that forcing by GW increases the number of both major and minor SSW events in Dec, Jan, and early Feb, in correlation with larger eddy heat flux (EHF) at 100 hPa in Nov, Dec, and early Jan. The increase of the flux mainly originates from tropospheric stationary wave response. The greater flux continues until early Jan and then the polar night jet is much more weakened in Feb. This background state then effectively blocks wave propagation into the stratosphere and the EHF at 100 hPa slightly decreases though the difference is not statistically significant. The major SSW events decrease in Mar.

Inatsu, M. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Graduate School of Science; Kimoto, M.; Sumi, A. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

2007-07-01

386

Effects of Ocean Acidification and Warming on Sperm Activity and Early Life Stages of the Mediterranean Mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Larval stages are among those most vulnerable to ocean acidification (OA. Projected atmospheric CO2 levels for the end of this century may lead to negative impacts on communities dominated by calcifying taxa with planktonic life stages. We exposed Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis sperm and early life stages to pHT levels of 8.0 (current pH and 7.6 (2100 level by manipulating pCO2 level (380 and 1000 ppm. Sperm activity was examined at ambient temperatures (16–17 °C using individual males as replicates. We also assessed the effects of temperature (ambient and ?20 °C and pH on larval size, survival, respiration and calcification of late trochophore/early D-veliger stages using a cross-factorial design. Increased pCO2 had a negative effect on the percentage of motile sperm (mean response ratio R= 71% and sperm swimming speed (R= 74%, possibly indicating reduced fertilization capacity of sperm in low concentrations. Increased temperature had a more prominent effect on larval stages than pCO2, reducing performance (RSize = 90% and RSurvival = 70% and increasing energy demand (RRespiration = 429%. We observed no significant interactions between pCO2 and temperature. Our results suggest that increasing temperature might have a larger impact on very early larval stages of M. galloprovincialis than OA at levels predicted for the end of the century.

Mikko Vihtakari

2013-11-01

387

Constraints of fossil fuels depletion on global warming projections  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A scientific debate is in progress about the intersection of climate change with the new field of fossil fuels depletion geology. Here, new projections of atmospheric CO2 concentration and global-mean temperature change are presented, should fossil fuels be exploited at a rate limited by geological availability only. The present work starts from the projections of fossil energy use, as obtained from ten independent sources. From such projections an upper bound, a lower bound and an ensemble mean profile for fossil CO2 emissions until 2200 are derived. Using the coupled gas-cycle/climate model MAGICC, the corresponding climatic projections out to 2200 are obtained. We find that CO2 concentration might increase up to about 480 ppm (445-540 ppm), while the global-mean temperature increase w.r.t. 2000 might reach 1.2 deg. C (0.9-1.6 deg. C). However, future improvements of fossil fuels recovery and discoveries of new resources might lead to higher emissions; hence our climatic projections are likely to be underestimated. In the absence of actions of emissions reduction, a level of dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system might be already experienced toward the middle of the 21st century, despite the constraints imposed by the exhaustion of fossil fuels. - Highlights: ? CO2 and global temperature are projected under fossil fuels exhaustion scenarios. ? Temperature is projected to reach a minimum of 2 deg. rojected to reach a minimum of 2 deg. C above pre-industrial. ? Temperature projections are possibly lower than the IPCC ones. ? Fossil fuels exhaustion will not avoid dangerous global warming.

388

Constraints of fossil fuels depletion on global warming projections  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A scientific debate is in progress about the intersection of climate change with the new field of fossil fuels depletion geology. Here, new projections of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration and global-mean temperature change are presented, should fossil fuels be exploited at a rate limited by geological availability only. The present work starts from the projections of fossil energy use, as obtained from ten independent sources. From such projections an upper bound, a lower bound and an ensemble mean profile for fossil CO{sub 2} emissions until 2200 are derived. Using the coupled gas-cycle/climate model MAGICC, the corresponding climatic projections out to 2200 are obtained. We find that CO{sub 2} concentration might increase up to about 480 ppm (445-540 ppm), while the global-mean temperature increase w.r.t. 2000 might reach 1.2 deg. C (0.9-1.6 deg. C). However, future improvements of fossil fuels recovery and discoveries of new resources might lead to higher emissions; hence our climatic projections are likely to be underestimated. In the absence of actions of emissions reduction, a level of dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system might be already experienced toward the middle of the 21st century, despite the constraints imposed by the exhaustion of fossil fuels. - Highlights: > CO{sub 2} and global temperature are projected under fossil fuels exhaustion scenarios. > Temperature is projected to reach a minimum of 2 deg. C above pre-industrial. > Temperature projections are possibly lower than the IPCC ones. > Fossil fuels exhaustion will not avoid dangerous global warming.

Chiari, Luca, E-mail: chiari@science.unitn.it [Department of Physics, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Povo (Italy); Zecca, Antonio, E-mail: zecca@science.unitn.it [Department of Physics, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Povo (Italy)

2011-09-15

389

Ocean Acidification in the California Current System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eastern boundary upwelling systems (EBUS are naturally more acidic than most of the rest of the surface ocean. Observations of EBUS already show pH values and saturation states with regard to the carbonate mineral aragonite that are as low as those expected for most open ocean waters several decades from now. Thus, as atmospheric CO2 increases further, EBUS are prone to widespread and persistent undersaturation with regard to aragonite, making them especially sensitive to ocean acidification. Here, we describe ocean carbonate chemistry and its short-term-to-seasonal variability in one major EBUS, the California Current System (CCS, based on observations and results from an eddy-resolving regional model. Results reveal high variability in ocean carbonate chemistry, largely driven by seasonal upwelling of waters with low pH and saturation states, and subsequent interactions of transport and biological production. Model simulations confirm that the pH of CCS waters has decreased by about 0.1 pH unit and by 0.5 in saturation state since preindustrial times. A first assessment of the vulnerability of CCS marine organisms and ecosystems to ocean acidification suggests that there will be winners and losers, likely provoking changes in species composition. Benthic organisms appear to be among those that will be most affected by the continuing acidification of the CCS. More accurate projections require special consideration of the integrated effects of ocean acidification, ocean warming, decreasing oxygen levels, and other processes that are expected with global change.

Claudine Hauri

2009-12-01

390

Changes in the Tsushima Warm Current and the Impact under a Global Warming Scenario in Coupled Climate Models  

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Full Text Available In this study we investigated changes in the Tsushima Warm Current (TWC under the global warming scenario RCP 4.5 by analysing the results from the World Climate Research Program’s (WCRP Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5. Among the four models that had been employed to analyse the Tsushima Warm Current during the 20th Century, in the CSIRO-Mk3.6.0 and HadGEM2-CC models the transports of the Tsushima Warm Current were 2.8 Sv and 2.1 Sv, respectively, and comparable to observed transport, which is between 2.4 and 2.77 Sv. In the other two models the transports were much greater or smaller than the observed estimates. Using the two models that properly reproduced the transport of the Tsushima Warm Current we investigated the response of the current under the global warming scenario. In both models the volume transports and the temperature were greater in the future climate scenario. Warm advection into the East Sea was intensified to raise the temperature and consequently the heat loss to the air.

A-Ra Choi

2013-06-01

391

Global Warming and Food Insecurity in Rural Latin America  

Science.gov (United States)

Food insecurity is one of the most important challenges facing humanity in the 21st century - a challenge that will be further exacerbated by the changing climate. The effects of human induced climate change will be most disproportionate and severe in the developing world, where a stable food supply, decreased purchasing power, and adequate nutrition are often already a daily struggle. This study will build on work done by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (UN), and will assess how vulnerability to household food insecurity will be affected by global warming in various rural parts of Latin America. Temperature data from downscaled Global Circulation Models (GCM) will be used in conjunction with the results of national household surveys to generate information on each rural farming household's probability of falling below a food poverty threshold in the near future. The results of the study will allow us to distinguish between households that are lik