WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Projecting coral reef futures under global warming and ocean acidification.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many physiological responses in present-day coral reefs to climate change are interpreted as consistent with the imminent disappearance of modern reefs globally because of annual mass bleaching events, carbonate dissolution, and insufficient time for substantial evolutionary responses. Emerging evidence for variability in the coral calcification response to acidification, geographical variation in bleaching susceptibility and recovery, responses to past climate change, and potential rates of adaptation to rapid warming supports an alternative scenario in which reef degradation occurs with greater temporal and spatial heterogeneity than current projections suggest. Reducing uncertainty in projecting coral reef futures requires improved understanding of past responses to rapid climate change; physiological responses to interacting factors, such as temperature, acidification, and nutrients; and the costs and constraints imposed by acclimation and adaptation.

Pandolfi JM; Connolly SR; Marshall DJ; Cohen AL

2011-07-01

2

Future habitat suitability for coral reef ecosystems under global warming and ocean acidification.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations are placing spatially divergent stresses on the world's tropical coral reefs through increasing ocean surface temperatures and ocean acidification. We show how these two stressors combine to alter the global habitat suitability for shallow coral reef ecosystems, using statistical Bioclimatic Envelope Models rather than basing projections on any a priori assumptions of physiological tolerances or fixed thresholds. We apply two different modeling approaches (Maximum Entropy and Boosted Regression Trees) with two levels of complexity (one of them a simplified and reduced environmental variable version of the other). Our models project a marked temperature-driven decline in habitat suitability for many of the most significant and bio-diverse tropical coral regions, particularly in the central Indo-Pacific. This is accompanied by a temperature-driven poleward range expansion of favorable conditions accelerating up to 40-70 km per decade by 2070. We find that ocean acidification is less influential for determining future habitat suitability than warming, and its deleterious effects are centered evenly in both hemispheres between 5-20° latitude. Contrary to expectations, the combined impact of ocean surface temperature rise and acidification leads to little, if any, degradation in future habitat suitability across much of the Atlantic and areas currently considered 'marginal' for tropical corals, such as the eastern Equatorial Pacific. These results are consistent with fossil evidence of range expansions during past warm periods. In addition, the simplified models are particularly sensitive to short-term temperature variations and their projections correlate well with reported locations of bleaching events. Our approach offers new insights into the relative impact of two global environmental pressures associated with rising atmospheric CO2 on potential future habitats, but greater understanding of past and current controls on coral reef ecosystems is essential to their conservation and management under a changing climate. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Couce E; Ridgwell A; Hendy EJ

2013-07-01

3

Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides a brief discussion of the issues surrounding global warming. Topics include greenhouse gas emissions, the possible consequences of global warming, and debates among proponents and opponents about whether global warming is indeed happening and whether it represents a danger to the planet.

4

Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Use the links below to complete your research. The Heat Over Global Warming God and Global Warming Robert Redford: Business Warming Up to Environment Emission Impossible? Senator Stepping Up on Climate Control Interview: Bill McKibben Climate Change and the Media Senate Hearings Five Questions with Environmental Writer Tom Philpott Home Grown Oil, Politics Bribes E2: Energy The Greens Online NewsHour: The Global Warming Debate NewsHour Extra: Global Warming Linked to Humans NewsHour Extra: Global Warming Fears Lead to Ratification of the Kyoto Protocol Frontline: Doubters of Global Warming Journey to Planet Earth: The State of the Planet: Global Warming What s Up With the Weather? Some of the below resources were found in the book Global Warming : Opposing Viewpoints (available in the MRC) The Heritage Foundation - Global Warming Rainforest Alliance Doing a global warming search in this website will result in a list of various articles Sierra Club - homepage eLibrary (Proquest) is now available through the

Schultz, Ms.

2007-12-03

5

Global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Canada's Green Plan strategy for dealing with global warming is being implemented as a multidepartmental partnership involving all Canadians and the international community. Many of the elements of this strategy are built on an existing base of activities predating the Green Plan. Elements of the strategy include programs to limit emissions of greenhouse gases, such as initiatives to encourage more energy-efficient practices and development of alternate fuel sources; studies and policy developments to help Canadians prepare and adapt to climate change; research on the global warming phenomenon; and stimulation of international action on global warming, including obligations arising out of the Framework Convention on Climate Change. All the program elements have been approved, funded, and announced. Major achievements to date are summarized, including improvements in the Energy Efficiency Act, studies on the socioeconomic impacts of global warming, and participation in monitoring networks. Milestones associated with the remaining global warming initiatives are listed

1992-06-25

6

Global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Twenty-one papers from the 1991 Global Warming Debate are presented. The keynote address, all five papers from the 'Energy Debate' and one paper from the 'Transport Debate' are selected and indexed separately. (UK).

1991-01-01

7

Global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This 1992 progress report concentrates on summarizing developments in the science of global climate change. Three aspects of the science are addressed: developments in palaeoclimatology as providing a context for interpreting the instrumental temperature record; climate change detection; and scenarios of future greenhouse gas emissions and their associated global warming projections. 42 refs., 3 figs.

Hulme, M. (East Anglia University, Norwich (United Kingdom). Climatic Research Unit, School of Environmental Sciences)

1993-03-01

8

Global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The earth seems to be getting warmer, but scientists are unsure about the rate and extent of this trend. GAO found that the administration has not established a national policy, defined agency role and interagency relationships, or provided adequate guidance to agencies on how to address the global warming issue. This report states that U.S. administration policy so far has concentrated on doing the scientific research needed to reduce any uncertainty about the timing and threat of global warming. The United States has also focused on assuming a leading international role in formulating policy responses aimed at limiting or adapting to world climate change.

1990-02-01

9

Global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Twenty-one papers from the 1991 Global Warming Debate are presented. The keynote address, all five papers from the 'Energy Debate' and one paper from the 'Transport Debate' are selected and indexed separately. (UK).

Thompson, P. (Strategy Europe Ltd., London (United Kingdom)); O' Hara, J.P. (Denton Hall Burgin and Warrens (United Kingdom)) (eds.)

1991-01-01

10

Global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] 'Global warming' is a phrase that refers to the effect on the climate of human activities, in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) and large-scale deforestation, which cause emissions to the atmosphere of large amounts of 'greenhouse gases', of which the most important is carbon dioxide. Such gases absorb infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface and act as blankets over the surface keeping it warmer than it would otherwise be. Associated with this warming are changes of climate. The basic science of the 'greenhouse effect' that leads to the warming is well understood. More detailed understanding relies on numerical models of the climate that integrate the basic dynamical and physical equations describing the complete climate system. Many of the likely characteristics of the resulting changes in climate (such as more frequent heat waves, increases in rainfall, increase in frequency and intensity of many extreme climate events) can be identified. Substantial uncertainties remain in knowledge of some of the feedbacks within the climate system (that affect the overall magnitude of change) and in much of the detail of likely regional change. Because of its negative impacts on human communities (including for instance substantial sea-level rise) and on ecosystems, global warming is the most important environmental problem the world faces. Adaptation to the inevitable impacts and mitigation to reduce their magnitude are both necessary. International action is being taken by the world's scientific and political communities. Because of the need for urgent action, the greatest challenge is to move rapidly to much increased energy efficiency and to non-fossil-fuel energy sources

2005-01-01

11

Global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

'Global warming' is a phrase that refers to the effect on the climate of human activities, in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) and large-scale deforestation, which cause emissions to the atmosphere of large amounts of 'greenhouse gases', of which the most important is carbon dioxide. Such gases absorb infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface and act as blankets over the surface keeping it warmer than it would otherwise be. Associated with this warming are changes of climate. The basic science of the 'greenhouse effect' that leads to the warming is well understood. More detailed understanding relies on numerical models of the climate that integrate the basic dynamical and physical equations describing the complete climate system. Many of the likely characteristics of the resulting changes in climate (such as more frequent heat waves, increases in rainfall, increase in frequency and intensity of many extreme climate events) can be identified. Substantial uncertainties remain in knowledge of some of the feedbacks within the climate system (that affect the overall magnitude of change) and in much of the detail of likely regional change. Because of its negative impacts on human communities (including for instance substantial sea-level rise) and on ecosystems, global warming is the most important environmental problem the world faces. Adaptation to the inevitable impacts and mitigation to reduce their magnitude are both necessary. International action is being taken by the world's scientific and political communities. Because of the need for urgent action, the greatest challenge is to move rapidly to much increased energy efficiency and to non-fossil-fuel energy sources.

Houghton, J. [Meteorological Office, Exeter (United Kingdom). Hadley Centre

2005-06-01

12

Global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

How should we respond to the greenhouse threat The great majority of the world's climate scientists have no doubts about the reality of global warming if nothing is done to cut greenhouse gas emissions. Yet so far governments have been reluctant to act. The Greenpeace Report, written by leading scientists and energy analysts from around the world, explains the scientific data and assesses its implications. Commissioned as a shadow document to the findings of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the report outlines the urgent measures that the policy-makers ought to be asking our governments to adopt if we are to escape what could be the most serious threat our planet has ever faced. (author).

Leggett, J. (Greenpeace, London (UK)) (ed.)

1990-01-01

13

Global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper is the first of 3 annual progress reports and concentrates on work completed in the last 18 months. The 3 most important unknowns behind any projection of climate are: the date of doubling of CO{sub 2}-equivalent concentration; the global climate sensitivity; and the regional climate sensitivity. To establish doubling dates of atmospheric CO{sub 2} a global emissions trajectory for the major greenhouse gases must be established, and the emissions must be converted into atmospheric concentrations. Projections of these are only a best guess. Atmospheric GCMs are usually used to establish climate sensitivity. Two sources of uncertainty are the way in which clouds are modelled and the magnitude of the water vapour feedback. Regional scenarios of future climate are generally produced using the analogue approach or GCMs. Model validation is a problem. 52 refs., 3 figs.

Hulme, M. (University of East Anglia, Norwich (UK). Climatic Research Unit, School of Environmental Sciences)

1991-09-01

14

Global warning, global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This book provides insights into the formidable array of issues which, in a warmer world, could impinge upon every facet of readers lives. It examines climatic change and long-term implications of global warming for the ecosystem. Topics include the ozone layer and how it works; the greenhouse effect; the dangers of imbalance and its effects on human and animal life; disruptions to the basic ecology of the planet; and the real scientific evidence for and against aberrant climatic shifts. The author also examines workable social and political programs and changes that must be instituted to avoid ecological disaster

1992-01-01

15

Global warning, global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book provides insights into the formidable array of issues which, in a warmer world, could impinge upon every facet of readers lives. It examines climatic change and long-term implications of global warming for the ecosystem. Topics include the ozone layer and how it works; the greenhouse effect; the dangers of imbalance and its effects on human and animal life; disruptions to the basic ecology of the planet; and the real scientific evidence for and against aberrant climatic shifts. The author also examines workable social and political programs and changes that must be instituted to avoid ecological disaster.

Benarde, M.A. (Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States))

1992-01-01

16

Calcium carbonate production response to future ocean warming and acidification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are acidifying the ocean, affecting calcification rates in pelagic organisms and thereby modifying the oceanic alkalinity cycle. However, the responses of pelagic calcifying organisms to acidification vary widely between species, contributing uncertainty to predictions of atmospheric CO2 and the resulting climate change. Meanwhile, ocean warming caused by rising CO2 is expected to drive increased growth rates of all pelagic organisms, including calcifiers. It thus remains unclear whether anthropogenic CO2 will ultimately increase or decrease the globally-integrated pelagic calcification rate. Here, we assess the importance of this uncertainty by introducing a variable dependence of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) production on calcite saturation state (?CaCO3) in the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model, an intermediate complexity coupled carbon-climate model. In a series of model simulations, we examine the impact of this parameterization on global ocean carbon cycling under two CO2 emissions scenarios, both integrated to the year 3500. The simulations show a significant sensitivity of the vertical and surface horizontal alkalinity gradients to the parameterization, as well as the removal of alkalinity from the ocean through CaCO3 burial. These sensitivities result in an additional oceanic uptake of carbon when calcification depends on ?CaCO3 (of up to 13 % of total carbon emissions), compared to the case where calcification is insensitive to acidification. In turn, this response causes a reduction of global surface air temperature of up to 0.4 °C in year 3500, a 13 % reduction in the amplitude of warming. Narrowing these uncertainties will require better understanding of both temperature and acidification effects on pelagic calcifiers. Preliminary examination suggests that alkalinity observations can be used to constrain the range of uncertainties and may exclude large sensitivities of CaCO3 production on ?CaCO3.

A. J. Pinsonneault; H. D. Matthews; E. D. Galbraith; A. Schmittner

2011-01-01

17

Global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The GEF was set up as a pilot programme in 1991 to provide grant and concessional funds to developing countries for projects and activities that aim to protect the global environment. In March 1994, participating governments successfully concluded negotiations to restructure the Facility. The Core Fund of the GEF was also replenished with over $2 billion to be committed over a three-year period. GEF resources are available for projects that address climate change, biological diversity, international waters and depletion of the ozone layer. Activities addressing land degradation, primarily desertification and deforestation, as they relate to the four areas, are also eligible for funding. The GEF is jointly implemented by the United Nations Development Programme, the United Nations Environment Programme and the World Bank.

1995-01-01

18

Calcium carbonate production response to future ocean warming and acidification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are acidifying the ocean, affecting calcification rates in pelagic organisms, and thereby modifying the oceanic carbon and alkalinity cycles. However, the responses of pelagic calcifying organisms to acidification vary widely between species, contributing uncertainty to predictions of atmospheric CO2 and the resulting climate change. At the same time, ocean warming caused by rising CO2 is expected to drive increased growth rates of all pelagic organisms, including calcifiers. It thus remains unclear whether anthropogenic CO2 emissions will ultimately increase or decrease pelagic calcification rates. Here, we assess the importance of this uncertainty by introducing a dependence of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) production on calcite saturation state (?CaCO3) in an intermediate complexity coupled carbon-climate model. In a series of model simulations, we examine the impact of several variants of this dependence on global ocean carbon cycling between 1800 and 3500 under two different CO2 emissions scenarios. Introducing a calcification-saturation state dependence has a significant effect on the vertical and surface horizontal alkalinity gradients, as well as on the removal of alkalinity from the ocean through CaCO3 burial. These changes result in an additional oceanic uptake of carbon when calcification depends on ?CaCO3 (of up to 270 Pg C), compared to the case where calcification does not depend on acidification. In turn, this response causes a reduction of global surface air temperature of up to 0.4 °C in year 3500. Different versions of the model produced varying results, and narrowing this range of uncertainty will require better understanding of both temperature and acidification effects on pelagic calcifiers. Nevertheless, our results suggest that alkalinity observations can be used to constrain model results, and may not be consistent with the model versions that simulated stronger responses of CaCO3 production to changing saturation state.

A. J. Pinsonneault; H. D. Matthews; E. D. Galbraith; A. Schmittner

2012-01-01

19

Global warming desk reference  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rapidly rising global temperatures or infrared forcing, popularly known as the greenhouse effect, has attracted worldwide concern. This book is a concise, college-level compendium of the research on global warming. It surveys the scientific consensus on the issue, describes recent findings, and also considers the arguments of sceptics who doubt that at global warming is a threat. It reviews possible solutions.

Johansen, B.E. [University of Nebraska, Omaha, NE (United States)

2001-10-01

20

Global warming: the debate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The book is the result of an international debate on global warming. It is divided into six sections as follows: the scientific debate; the energy debate; the transport debate; framework policy and legislation; the economic debate; and the business response to global warming. Seventeen papers are abstracted separately.

Thompson, P.; O' Hara, J.P. (eds.)

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Global Warming Effects Map  

Science.gov (United States)

This interactive map from National Geographic shows selected geographic locations for a number of impacts of global warming (on freshwater resources, food and forests, ecosystems, etc). Impact overview is summarized for each highlighted impact.

Geographic, National

22

Draft global warming study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 1990 Resource Program Global Warming Study examines potential Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) resource alternatives related to the risk of global warming. The study evaluates strategies for reducing net carbon emissions, and identifies the net carbon contribution of certain resource strategies designed to reduce those emissions. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is the greenhouse gas'' most associated with electricity production. The main purpose of the global warming study is to identify possible courses of action that BPA might take to reduce its contributions to the risk of global warming and to estimate the efficacy and costs of each approach. The principal measure of effectiveness is the reduction in total atmospheric carbon emissions compared to a base case. 13 refs., 2 tabs.

1990-01-01

23

Global warming elucidated  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The meaning of global warming and its relevance to everyday life is explained. Simple thermodynamics is used to predict an oscillatory nature of the change in climate due to global warming. Global warming causes extreme events and bad weather in the near term. In the long term it may cause the earth to transition to another equilibrium state through many oscillation in climatic patterns. The magnitudes of these oscillations could easily exceed the difference between the end points. The author further explains why many no longer fully understands the nature and magnitudes of common phenomena such as storms and wind speeds because of these oscillations, and the absorptive properties of clouds. The author links the increase in duration of the El Nino to global warming, and further predicts public health risks as the earth transitions to another equilibrium state in its young history.

Shen, S. [Global Warming International Center, Woodridge, IL (United States)

1995-03-01

24

Global warming yearbook: 1998  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report brings together a year`s worth of global warming stories - over 280 in all - in one convenient volume. It provides a one-stop report on the scientific, political and industrial implications of global warming. The report includes: detailed coverage of negotiations on the Kyoto Protocol; scientific findings on carbon sources and sinks, coral bleaching, Antarctic ice shelves, plankton, wildlife and tree growth; new developments on fuel economy, wind power, fuel cells, cogeneration, energy labelling and emissions trading.

Arris, L. [ed.

1999-02-01

25

Global warming trends  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One way to see if the earth is actually getting warmer is to check historical temperature records. A decade ago the authors began to do just that. They collected a hodgepodge of readings going back 300 years. Then they attempted to quantify the data. Analysis of land and marine records confirms that our planet has warmed half a degree Celsius in the past century. Future warming trends, however, remain uncertain. The method used in the analysis are described. The range of global warming predicted by various computer models roughly matches historical trends, and all the models predict that warming will accelerate significantly in coming decades.

Jones, P.D.; Wigley, T.M.L. (Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (England))

1990-08-01

26

The global warming problem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this chapter, a discussion is presented of the global warming problem and activities contributing to the formation of acid rain, urban smog and to the depletion of the ozone layer. Globally, about two-thirds of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions arise from fossil-fuel burning; the rest arise primarily from deforestation. Chlorofluorocarbons are the second largest contributor to global warming, accounting for about 20% of the total. The third largest contributor is methane, followed by ozone and nitrous oxide. A study of current activities in the US that contribute to global warming shows the following: electric power plants account for about 33% of carbon dioxide emissions; motor vehicles, planes and ships (31%); industrial plants (24%); commercial and residential buildings (11%)

1990-01-01

27

Long range global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper explores one of the causes of global warming that is often overlooked, the direct heating of the environment by engineering systems. Most research and studies of global warming concentrate on the modification that is occurring to atmospheric air as a result of pollution gases being added by various systems; i.e., refrigerants, nitrogen oxides, ozone, hydrocarbons, halon, and others. This modification affects the thermal radiation balance between earth, sun and space, resulting in a decrease of radiation outflow and a slow rise in the earth's steady state temperature. For this reason the solution to the problem is perceived as one of cleaning up the processes and effluents that are discharged into the environment. In this paper arguments are presented that suggest, that there is a far more serious cause for global warming that will manifest itself in the next two or three centuries; direct heating from the exponential growth of energy usage by humankind. Because this is a minor contributor to the global warming problem at present, it is overlooked or ignored. Energy use from the combustion of fuels and from the output of nuclear reactions eventually is manifest as warming of the surroundings. Thus, as energy is used at an ever increasing rate the consequent global warming also increases at an ever increasing rate. Eventually this rate will become equal to a few percent of solar radiation. When this happens the earth's temperature will have risen by several degrees with catastrophic results. The trends in world energy use are reviewed and some mathematical models are presented to suggest future scenarios. These models can be used to predict when the global warming problem will become undeniably apparent, when it will become critical, and when it will become catastrophic

1995-08-05

28

Long range global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper explores one of the causes of global warming that is often overlooked, the direct heating of the environment by engineering systems. Most research and studies of global warming concentrate on the modification that is occurring to atmospheric air as a result of pollution gases being added by various systems; i.e., refrigerants, nitrogen oxides, ozone, hydrocarbons, halon, and others. This modification affects the thermal radiation balance between earth, sun and space, resulting in a decrease of radiation outflow and a slow rise in the earth`s steady state temperature. For this reason the solution to the problem is perceived as one of cleaning up the processes and effluents that are discharged into the environment. In this paper arguments are presented that suggest, that there is a far more serious cause for global warming that will manifest itself in the next two or three centuries; direct heating from the exponential growth of energy usage by humankind. Because this is a minor contributor to the global warming problem at present, it is overlooked or ignored. Energy use from the combustion of fuels and from the output of nuclear reactions eventually is manifest as warming of the surroundings. Thus, as energy is used at an ever increasing rate the consequent global warming also increases at an ever increasing rate. Eventually this rate will become equal to a few percent of solar radiation. When this happens the earth`s temperature will have risen by several degrees with catastrophic results. The trends in world energy use are reviewed and some mathematical models are presented to suggest future scenarios. These models can be used to predict when the global warming problem will become undeniably apparent, when it will become critical, and when it will become catastrophic.

Rolle, K.C.; Pulkrabek, W.W.; Fiedler, R.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Platteville, WI (United States)

1995-12-31

29

Rolling stones; fast weathering of olivine in shallow seas for cost-effective CO2 capture and mitigation of global warming and ocean acidification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Human CO2 emissions may drive the Earth into a next greenhouse state. They can be mitigated by accelerating weathering of natural rock under the uptake of CO2. We disprove the paradigm that olivine weathering in nature would be a slow process, and show that it is not needed to mill olivine to very fine, 10 ?m-size grains in order to arrive at a complete dissolution within 1–2 year. In high-energy shallow marine environments olivine grains and reaction products on the grain surfaces, that otherwise would greatly retard the reaction, are abraded so that the chemical reaction is much accelerated. When kept in motion even large olivine grains rubbing and bumping against each other quickly produce fine clay- and silt-sized olivine particles that show a fast chemical reaction. Spreading of olivine in the world's 2% most energetic shelf seas can compensate a year's global CO2 emissions and counteract ocean acidification against a price well below that of carbon credits.

R. D. Schuiling; P. L. de Boer

2011-01-01

30

Rolling stones. Fast weathering of olivine in shallow seas for cost-effective CO2 capture and mitigation of global warming and ocean acidification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Human CO2 emissions may drive the Earth into a next greenhouse state. They can be mitigated by accelerating weathering of natural rock under the uptake of CO2. We disprove the paradigm that olivine weathering in nature would be a slow process, and show that it is not needed to mill olivine to very fine, 10 {mu}m-size grains in order to arrive at a complete dissolution within 1-2 year. In high-energy shallow marine environments olivine grains and reaction products on the grain surfaces, that otherwise would greatly retard the reaction, are abraded so that the chemical reaction is much accelerated. When kept in motion even large olivine grains rubbing and bumping against each other quickly produce fine clay- and silt-sized olivine particles that show a fast chemical reaction. Spreading of olivine in the world's 2% most energetic shelf seas can compensate a year's global CO2 emissions and counteract ocean acidification against a price well below that of carbon credits.

Schuiling, R.D.; De Boer, P.L. [Department of Earth Sciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.021, 3508TA Utrecht (Netherlands)

2011-07-01

31

Global Warming: Undo It  

Science.gov (United States)

Global Warming: Undo It is a national campaign developed by Environmental Defense "to ramp up the fight against global warming, the most critical environmental issue we face." The Web site contains a multimedia tutorial of sorts, where users can learn more about global warming and lifestyle changes they can make cut down on their carbon dioxide production. The site also includes a multimedia gallery, with video clips of the campaign's television commercials, an interview with Environmental Defense president Fred Drupp and another with Senator John McCain, and more. Users may also choose to sign an e-petition to help get the McCain-Lieberman bipartisan Climate Stewardship Act passed in Congress.

32

Global Warming Art  

Science.gov (United States)

Global Warming Art is an effort to collect and produce compelling graphs, figures and photos that accurately display scientific information relevant to the climate change debate. Emphasis is given to the consensus views held by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and other major research organizations. One of the guiding principles of Global Warming Art is that this information should be freely available to others for use in their discussions, presentations, and teaching, and hence nearly all of the information on the site is licensed in a way that allows for generous third party use.

Rohde, Robert

2006-01-01

33

Economic global warming potentials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A reformulation of global warming potentials is propounded, that combines the time-horizon and discounting definitions, and covers both ordinary atmospheric forcing (via greenhouse gases) and its rate-of-change. Insofar as GWPs (global warming potentials) are used to guide investment and socioeconomic choices, there is merit in adopting cost-benefit techniques. The parametric equivalence of the two definitions applies for the ordinary atmospheric forcing; but for its rate-of-change, only the discounting definition gives realistic results, as shown in application to methane, a short-lived greenhouse gas. (author)

Wallis, M.K. (University of Wales Coll. of Cardiff (United Kingdom)); Lucas, N.J.D. (Imperial Coll. of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom))

1994-01-01

34

Global warming - update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The World Conference on Environment and Development (June 1992) will decide on a global climate convention; the outcome will depend on nations' assessment of the current science and its remaining uncertainties. The UK is active not only in original scientific research but also in the assessment of current knowledge by the Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). This briefing examines recent scientific findings and how they may influence policies on global warming. (author).

Anon.

1992-06-01

35

The global warming scare  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is argued that the present propaganda about the global warming with its disastrous consequences is a scare spread by some First World countries, especially the United States, to prevent the rapid industrialization of developing third world countries. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab.

1992-01-01

36

Global Warming and Our Future  

Science.gov (United States)

What is the Evidence for Global Warming? What is causing it? Should we care? Could it affect our future? What can we do about it? What is Global Warming? Watch the movie on Global Warming EPA Kid pages on global warming Includes FLASH animations from the US Environmental Protection Agency. Its on the Kids Site under \\"Climate Animations\\" Take the Quiz on Global Warming at the end of the movie What is the Evidence for Global Warming? Introduction to Graphing: Watch this Graph of projected Cllimate change flash ...

Bahr, M.

2006-11-04

37

Global warming on trial  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Jim Hansen, a climatologist at NASA's Goddard Space Institute, is convinced that the earth's temperature is rising and places the blame on the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Unconvinced, John Sununu, former White House chief of staff, doubts that the warming will be great enough to produce serious threat and fears that measures to reduce the emissions would throw a wrench into the gears that drive the Unites States' troubled economy. During his three years at the White House, Sununu's view prevailed, and although his role in the debate has diminished, others continue to cast doubt on the reality of global warming. A new lobbying group called the Climate Council has been created to do just this. Burning fossil fuels is not the only problem; a fifth of emissions of carbon dioxide now come from clearing and burning forests. Scientists are also tracking a host of other greenhouse gases that emanate from a variety of human activities; the warming effect of methane, chlorofluorocarbons and nitrous oxide combined equals that of carbon dioxide. Although the current warming from these gases may be difficult to detect against the background noise of natural climate variation, most climatologists are certain that as the gases continue to accumulate, increases in the earth's temperature will become evident even to skeptics. If the reality of global warming were put on trial, each side would have trouble making its case. Jim Hansen's side could not prove beyond a reasonable doubt that carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases have warmed the planet. But neither could John Sununu's side prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the warming expected from greenhouse gases has not occurred. To see why each side would have difficulty proving its case, this article reviews the arguments that might be presented in such a hearing

1992-01-01

38

Global warming on trial  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Jim Hansen, a climatologist at NASA's Goddard Space Institute, is convinced that the earth's temperature is rising and places the blame on the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Unconvinced, John Sununu, former White House chief of staff, doubts that the warming will be great enough to produce serious threat and fears that measures to reduce the emissions would throw a wrench into the gears that drive the Unites States' troubled economy. During his three years at the White House, Sununu's view prevailed, and although his role in the debate has diminished, others continue to cast doubt on the reality of global warming. A new lobbying group called the Climate Council has been created to do just this. Burning fossil fuels is not the only problem; a fifth of emissions of carbon dioxide now come from clearing and burning forests. Scientists are also tracking a host of other greenhouse gases that emanate from a variety of human activities; the warming effect of methane, chlorofluorocarbons and nitrous oxide combined equals that of carbon dioxide. Although the current warming from these gases may be difficult to detect against the background noise of natural climate variation, most climatologists are certain that as the gases continue to accumulate, increases in the earth's temperature will become evident even to skeptics. If the reality of global warming were put on trial, each side would have trouble making its case. Jim Hansen's side could not prove beyond a reasonable doubt that carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases have warmed the planet. But neither could John Sununu's side prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the warming expected from greenhouse gases has not occurred. To see why each side would have difficulty proving its case, this article reviews the arguments that might be presented in such a hearing.

Broeker, W.S.

1992-04-01

39

Climate change - global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] An explanation about climate, weather, climate changes. What is a greenhouse effect, i.e. global warming and reasons which contribute to this effect. Greenhouse gases (GHG) and GWP (Global Warming Potential) as a factor for estimating their influence on the greenhouse effect. Indicators of the climate changes in the previous period by known international institutions, higher concentrations of global average temperature. Projecting of likely scenarios for the future climate changes and consequences of them on the environment and human activities: industry, energy, agriculture, water resources. The main points of the Kyoto Protocol and problems in its realization. The need of preparing a country strategy concerning the acts of the Kyoto Protocol, suggestions which could contribute in the preparation of the strategy. A special attention is pointed to the energy, its resources, the structure of energy consumption and the energy efficiency. (Author)

2001-01-01

40

Energy consumption and global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Discussion is presented of current knowledge of the greenhouse effect and global warming, the effects of human activities on the emission of greenhouse gases, and scenarios for global warming control measures. 15 figs., 10 tabs.

Ogawa, Y.

1990-02-01

 
 
 
 
41

Thermostat and global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Deep convection over the tropical oceans is triggered primarily when sea surface temperatures (SSTs) exceed about 300K. The central question is why the maximum SSTs are within a few degrees of the convection threshold temperatures in regions of convection such as the western Pacific warm pool. Observational estimates for evaporative heat flux on several time and spatial scales are examined. It appears that in regions where the warm SSTs and deep convection occur together, evaporation decreased with SST. The implication is that SST is only one of the many variables that control evaporation from the ocean surface. It is suggested that there is a thermostat-type mechanism involving clouds, which explains the equilibrium state. However, it is premature to extrapolate the thermostat to the global warming problem. 9 refs., 1 fig.

Ramanathan, V.; Collins, W. (University of California, San Diego, CA (USA). Scripps Inst. of Oceanography, Center for Clouds, Chemistry and Climate)

1992-06-25

42

Multistressor impacts of warming and acidification of the ocean on marine invertebrates' life histories.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Benthic marine invertebrates live in a multistressor world where stressor levels are, and will continue to be, exacerbated by global warming and increased atmospheric carbon dioxide. These changes are causing the oceans to warm, decrease in pH, become hypercapnic, and to become less saturated in carbonate minerals. These stressors have strong impacts on biological processes, but little is known about their combined effects on the development of marine invertebrates. Increasing temperature has a stimulatory effect on development, whereas hypercapnia can depress developmental processes. The pH, pCO2, and CaCO3 of seawater change simultaneously with temperature, challenging our ability to predict future outcomes for marine biota. The need to consider both warming and acidification is reflected in the recent increase in cross-factorial studies of the effects of these stressors on development of marine invertebrates. The outcomes and trends in these studies are synthesized here. Based on this compilation, significant additive or antagonistic effects of warming and acidification of the ocean are common (16 of 20 species studied), and synergistic negative effects also are reported. Fertilization can be robust to near-future warming and acidification, depending on the male-female mating pair. Although larvae and juveniles of some species tolerate near-future levels of warming and acidification (+2°C/pH 7.8), projected far-future conditions (ca. ?4°C/ ?pH 7.6) are widely deleterious, with a reduction in the size and survival of larvae. It appears that larvae that calcify are sensitive both to warming and acidification, whereas those that do not calcify are more sensitive to warming. Different sensitivities of life-history stages and species have implications for persistence and community function in a changing ocean. Some species are more resilient than others and may be potential "winners" in the climate-change stakes. As the ocean will change more gradually over coming decades than in "future shock" perturbation investigations, it is likely that some species, particularly those with short generation times, may be able to tolerate near-future oceanic change through acclimatization and/or adaption.

Byrne M; Przeslawski R

2013-10-01

43

Is Global Warming Accelerating?  

Science.gov (United States)

A global pattern that fluctuates naturally on decadal time scales is identified in climate simulations and observations. This newly discovered component, called the Global Multidecadal Oscillation (GMO), is related to the Atlantic Meridional Oscillation and shown to account for a substantial fraction of decadal fluctuations in the observed global average sea surface temperature. IPCC-class climate models generally underestimate the variance of the GMO, and hence underestimate the decadal fluctuations due to this component of natural variability. Decomposing observed sea surface temperature into a component due to anthropogenic and natural radiative forcing plus the GMO, reveals that most multidecadal fluctuations in the observed global average sea surface temperature can be accounted for by these two components alone. The fact that the GMO varies naturally on multidecadal time scales implies that it can be predicted with some skill on decadal time scales, which provides a scientific rationale for decadal predictions. Furthermore, the GMO is shown to account for about half of the warming in the last 25 years and hence a substantial fraction of the recent acceleration in the rate of increase in global average sea surface temperature. Nevertheless, in terms of the global average “well-observed” sea surface temperature, the GMO can account for only about 0.1° C in transient, decadal-scale fluctuations, not the century-long 1° C warming that has been observed during the twentieth century.

Shukla, J.; Delsole, T. M.; Tippett, M. K.

2009-12-01

44

Controversy about global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A short report released by the George C. Marshall Institute in Washington has stirred up controversy concerning the issue of global warming. The report suggests that uncertainties surrounding climate model projections of increasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations and its results are so largeected warming could well be non-existent. The report concludes that 'current forecasts do not appear to to be sufficiently accurate to be used as a basis for sound national policy decision'; it suggests, however, that $100 million investment into supercomputing facilities would help to provide, within 3-5 years, the information required for sound decisions. Although not all of the science surrounding the global warming issue is uncertain, the complex feedbacks and dynamics internal to the climate system are increasingly uncertain. The uneasiness about policy in an environment of uncertainty may be at least in part attributable to the scientific preoccupation that supporting evidence be significant to at least 95%. Practical questions deal with much more than the scientific probability of an event and its consequences. They also deal with ecological, economic, social and ethical values and costs associated with an event. Thus when dealing with questions of policy response strategies related to climate warming, science can help to provide technical assessment and contribute to the analysis of the options, but the final decisions are not scientific but value-ladden policy responses. Uncertainty by itself is not a valid reason for a policy choice of inaction. 8 refs., 1 figs.

Hengeweld, H

1990-01-01

45

Global Warming Kid's Site  

Science.gov (United States)

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set up this site to teach kids about global warming, climate change, and climatology, as well as environmentally friendly habits that benefit the earth. The site allows students and educators to approach ecological issues from various perspectives. Global Warming (What it is) is an introduction to current climatological change. Other resources such as Climate and Weather and What is the Climate System? provide overviews of such climatological phenomena as the water cycle, greenhouse gasses, and climatological change over the world's history. Finally, socially and environmentally conscious resources such as So What's the BIG DEAL? and We CAN Make a Difference discuss how changes in our daily lives can affect our impact on the earth's climate. The site also has games, animations modeling climatological activity, and recommendations for educators interested in using the site.

46

Virtual Courseware: Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

This interactive feature uses two activities to illustrate principles of global warming and climate change due to natural and human caused factors. Students investigate the energy budget model of climate change using Mono Lake, California, as an example, by estimating the temperature for a particular time period using surface energy data for the area. The second activity incorporates data from the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) on fossil fuel emissions, population, gross domestic product, energy type, land use type, and other gas emissions. Students analyze and compare the data using a set of online tools to examine impacts of coastal flooding. Other materials include a set of tutorials on global warming (Milankovitch cycles, Earth's seasons, the carbon cycle, and others), assessment materials for instructors, and information on resource creators and technical requirements.

47

Thinking About Global Warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Attitudes toward global warming are influenced by various heuristics, which may distort policy away from what is optimal for the well-being of people. These possible distortions, or biases, include: a focus on harms that we cause, as opposed to those that we can remedy more easily; a feeling that those who cause a problem should fix it; a desire to undo a problem rather than compensate for its presence; parochial concern with one's own group (nation); and neglect of risks that are not available. Although most of these biases tend to make us attend relatively too much to global warming, other biases, such as wishful thinking, cause us to attend too little. I discuss these possible effects and illustrate some of them with an experiment conducted on the World Wide Web.

Baron, J. [Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, 3720 Walnut St., Philadelphia, 19104-6241, PA (United States)

2006-07-15

48

Thinking About Global Warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Attitudes toward global warming are influenced by various heuristics, which may distort policy away from what is optimal for the well-being of people. These possible distortions, or biases, include: a focus on harms that we cause, as opposed to those that we can remedy more easily; a feeling that those who cause a problem should fix it; a desire to undo a problem rather than compensate for its presence; parochial concern with one's own group (nation); and neglect of risks that are not available. Although most of these biases tend to make us attend relatively too much to global warming, other biases, such as wishful thinking, cause us to attend too little. I discuss these possible effects and illustrate some of them with an experiment conducted on the World Wide Web.

2006-01-01

49

Slowing global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to the authors, global warming promises to be one of the central environmental issues of the nineties. After a decade of scientific concern but popular neglect, the eighties ended with a growing political as well as scientific consensus that the world can no longer afford to procrastinate about this issue. This paper reports on coping with global warming which, according to the author, will force societies to move rapidly into uncharted terrain, reversing powerful trends that have dominated the industrial age. This challenge cannot be met without a strong commitment on the part of both individual consumers and governments. In terms of the earth's carbon balance, the unprecedented policy changes that have now become urgent include a new commitment to greater energy efficiency and renewable energy sources, a carbon tax on fossil fuels, a reversal of deforestation in tropical countries, and the rapid elimination of CFCs.

1990-01-01

50

Global Warming Wheel Card  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, students construct a Global Warming Wheel Card, a hand-held tool that they can use to estimate their household's emissions of carbon dioxide and learn how they can reduce them. One side of the wheel illustrates how much carbon dioxide a household contributes to the atmosphere per year through activities such as driving a car, using energy in the home, and disposing of waste. The other side shows how changes in behavior can reduce personal emissions.

US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

51

Special report: global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Brief discussion is presented of several global warming initiatives: the EC draft directive designed to encourage its member states towards the goal of carbon dioxide stabilisation at 1990 levels by the year 2000; the watered-down US treaty to curb emissions of greenhouse gases; Japan's carbon dioxide pledge; and the Swiss proposal to set up a 'Green Cross' to provide worldwide monitoring of and assistance for ecological disasters.

1992-05-29

52

Ocean acidification and warming scenarios increase microbioerosion of coral skeletons.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Biological mediation of carbonate dissolution represents a fundamental component of the destructive forces acting on coral reef ecosystems. Whereas ocean acidification can increase dissolution of carbonate substrates, the combined impact of ocean acidification and warming on the microbioerosion of coral skeletons remains unknown. Here, we exposed skeletons of the reef-building corals, Porites cylindrica and Isopora cuneata, to present-day (Control: 400 ?atm - 24 °C) and future pCO2 -temperature scenarios projected for the end of the century (Medium: +230 ?atm - +2 °C; High: +610 ?atm - +4 °C). Skeletons were also subjected to permanent darkness with initial sodium hypochlorite incubation, and natural light without sodium hypochlorite incubation to isolate the environmental effect of acidic seawater (i.e., ?aragonite <1) from the biological effect of photosynthetic microborers. Our results indicated that skeletal dissolution is predominantly driven by photosynthetic microborers, as samples held in the dark did not decalcify. In contrast, dissolution of skeletons exposed to light increased under elevated pCO2 -temperature scenarios, with P. cylindrica experiencing higher dissolution rates per month (89%) than I. cuneata (46%) in the high treatment relative to control. The effects of future pCO2 -temperature scenarios on the structure of endolithic communities were only identified in P. cylindrica and were mostly associated with a higher abundance of the green algae Ostreobium spp. Enhanced skeletal dissolution was also associated with increased endolithic biomass and respiration under elevated pCO2 -temperature scenarios. Our results suggest that future projections of ocean acidification and warming will lead to increased rates of microbioerosion. However, the magnitude of bioerosion responses may depend on the structural properties of coral skeletons, with a range of implications for reef carbonate losses under warmer and more acidic oceans.

Reyes-Nivia C; Diaz-Pulido G; Kline D; Guldberg OH; Dove S

2013-06-01

53

Aerosols and global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Man's activities have not only led to increases of concentrations of greenhouse gases but as well to corresponding increases of concentrations of aerosols and aerosols precursors. Possible impacts of greenhouse gases on global climate have been investigated extensively, though not unambiguously, by models. The possible impact of anthropogenically released greenhouse gases on global climate has been analyzed extensively by employing models, the result: doubling of concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will increase the global average surface temperature by 2 to 5 centigrade. In contrast, the releases of aerosols and aerosol precursor gases and their impact on global climate have not been adequately included in climate modeling and are not sufficiently understood. The most used parameter to indicate global warming is the average global surface temperature, the present-day absolute values is 15 C (288 K), which is known with an accuracy of about 1/2 centigrade, but deviations from it are estimated more accurately to about 0.1 centigrade.

Preining, O. (Univ. of Vienna (Austria). Inst. of Experimental Physics)

1993-12-01

54

Global Warming Webquest  

Science.gov (United States)

In this Webquest activity, students assume roles of scientist, business leader, or policy maker. The students then collaborate as part of a climate action team and learn how society and the environment might be impacted by global warming. They explore the decision making process regarding issues of climate change, energy use, and available policy options. Student teams investigate how and why climate is changing and how humans may have contributed to these changes. Upon completion of their individual tasks, student teams present their findings and make recommendations that address the situation.

Sciences, Marian K.

55

Storms and global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is a lack of good data on the ways in which global warming could affect storms. The insurance industry however, has noticed that the temperature trend and the trend in damage due to natural disasters are both increasing. The burden of claims due to natural disasters in the 1980s was eight times greater than in the 1960s. There may be more storms in a greenhouse world; there may be fewer. There may be fewer storms in mid-latitudes, but a greater number of intense ones.

1992-12-19

56

Global warming from HFC  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using a variety of public sources, a computer model of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerant emissions in the UK has been developed. This model has been used to estimate and project emissions in 2010 under three types of scenarios: (1) business as usual; (2) voluntary agreements to reduce refrigerant leakage; and (3) comprehensive regulations to reduce refrigerant leakage. This resulting forecast is that UK emissions of HFC refrigerants in 2010 will account for 2% to 4% of the UK`s 1990 baseline global warming contribution.

Johnson, E. [Atlantic Consulting, London (United Kingdom)

1998-11-01

57

Arrhenius and global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although concern about global atmospheric warming has intensified in recent decades, research into the greenhouse effect actually began in the 19th century. Fourier and other scientists appreciated that without heat-absorbing gases in the atmosphere, the temperature on the ground would be considerably lower, making life as we know it impossible. In 1896, the Swedish scientist Svante Arrhenius was the first to make a quantitative link between changes in carbon dioxide concentration and climate. Publication of his paper was celebrated at a recent Swedish workshop. 13 refs., 1 fig.

Uppenbrink, J.

1996-05-24

58

Global warming forecasts unreliability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports the opinions of a series of experts who have recently commented on the reliability of predictions of global warning in relation to observed and forecasted increases in carbon dioxide emissions. One of the more difficult to explain observations, evidenced through the analysis of past meteorological data, was the rapid increase in global temperature that took place during the period preceding 1940 and which was followed by a gradual decrease, during a thirty year period of heightened industrialization and consumption of fossil fuels, up to 1970 when global temperatures began again to rise rapidly. Variations in solar activity was suggested to explain this apparently anomalous trend in global temperatures. This question as to the existence of a strict correlation between global warming and rises in carbon dioxide emissions, as well as, forecasted increases in concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide due to the expected population growth in China are putting a strain on attempts by OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) environmental policy makers to gain support for energy tax proposals.

1993-01-01

59

Virtual Courseware: Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

These materials illustrate the principles of global warming and climate change due to natural and human-caused factors. They include a set of activities on the Earth's energy budget and future climate change. The energy budget model uses Mono Lake, California as an example. The future climate change activity uses the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Data for six scenarios can be examined and comparisons can be observed by selecting a change or stabilization in emissions. The tools in the activity can generate data that examine predicted changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, global and regional temperatures, sea level, and flooding. There are also tutorials on a variety of topics, such as Milankovitch Cycles, Earth's seasons, the Carbon cycle, and others. An assessment tool is included so that instructors can determine how well learning objectives are being met.

60

Global warming potential  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the following greenhouse gases: CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, CFC-114, CFC-115, HCFC-22 and CCl{sub 4}, the Global Warming Potentials have been calculated for two time horizons, 100 and 500 years. For each trace gas, future global temperature increases, based on GWPs, can be estimated directly. In this way, these GWPs can be used to define quantified environmental targets which can serve as reference values for the development of international climate policies. In determining the GWP, both analytical and computer simulation methods can be applied. Both methods have been compared, and although there appeared to be differences, both methods can be used in calculating GWP values.

Rotmans, J.; Elzen, M.G.J. den (RIVM, Mondiale Biosfeer, Bilthoven (NL)); Lashof, D.A. (Natural Resources Defense Council, Washington, DC (US))

1990-10-01

 
 
 
 
61

Global warming challenge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Global warming will necessitate significant adjustments in Canadian society and its economy. In 1979, the Canadian federal government created its Canadian Climate Program (CCP) in collaboration with other agencies, institutions, and individuals. It sought to coordinate national efforts to understand global and regional climate, and to promote better use of the emerging knowledge. Much of the CCP-coordinated research into sources and sinks of greenhouse gases interfaces with other national and international programs. Other researchers have become involved in the Northern Wetlands Study, a cooperative United States-Canada initiative to understand the role of huge northern bogs and muskegs in the carbon cycle. Because of the need to understand how the whole, linked climate system works, climate modeling emerged as a key focus of current research. 35 refs., 4 figs.

Hengeveld, H. (Environment Canada, Downsview, Ontario (Canada))

1994-11-01

62

Energy and global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose is to describe the nature of the greenhouse effect including the greenhouse gases and their sources and sinks, world and Canadian carbon emissions, carbon dioxide reduction strategies, advanced clean coal technologies, the Canadian electricity perspective, and strategic issues. Three complex issues block strategies to mitigate the potential for global warming, namely, the meagre evidence available, the world's dependence on carbon based fuels, and the global nature of the problem. A workable strategy for Canada includes a recognition that the world will depend on carbon-based fuels for another generation at least, many measures can be taken to reduce the rate of increase in carbon emissions, more efficient methods of energy generation must be developed and implemented, and Canada can play a leadership role by contributing expertise in thermal energy technology, energy conservation, and research and development to the developing countries. 23 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Lee, G.K.; Friedrich, F.D.

1992-07-01

63

The challenge of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The chapter outlines the science of global warming, the likely consequences of global warming and some of the major challenges in dealing with global climate change. Some of the major international organisations concerned with environmental issues are listed. International agreements might be used to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. 32 refs., 2 tabs

1992-01-01

64

Forests and global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The importance of forests to Canada, both in economic and environmental terms, is indisputable. A warmer global climate may well have profound effects on the Canadian boreal forest, and at least some of the effects will not be beneficial. With the state of the current knowledge of climate processes and climate change it is not possible to predict the extent or rate of projected changes of anthropogenic origin. Given these uncertainties, the appropriate course of action for the Canadian forest sector is to develop policies and strategies which will make good sense under the current climatic regime, and which will also be appropriate for actions in a warmer climate scenario. The business as usual approach is not acceptable in the context of pollution control as it has become clear that anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants must be substantially reduced, both to prevent (or at least slow the rate of) possible global warming, and to reduce impacts on the biophysical environment and human health. Effective mitigative actions must be introduced on both a national and global scale. Forest management policies more effectively geared to the sustainability of forests are needed. The programs that are developed out of such policies must be cognizant of the real possibility that climate in the present boreal forest regions may change in the near future. 13 refs.

1991-01-01

65

Global warming debate continues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent contributions in the USA to the debate on reducing emissions of greenhouse gases are reported. In February 1991 the 'National Energy Policy Act of 1991' included provisions relating to global warming. Also in February the Intergovernmental Negotiating Convention on Climate Change formed working groups (1) to seek methods to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions through energy efficiency, protecting forests and technology transfer to third world countries and (2) to prepare material to be included in a treaty outlining financial and legal mechanisms for financial assistance to developing countries. The US government presented its Action Agenda for climate change at this meeting - this was met with some criticism. An Office of Technology Assessment study on steps to reduce greenhouse gases was better received. An update of government actions by Canada, Japan and various other countries to stabilize or reduce greenhouse gas emissions is included.

Rodgers, L.M.

1991-05-01

66

Reducing Global Warming  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A system and method for reducing global warming. The system can include a container having a body portion for retaining a quantity of alkaline metal hydroxide and collecting a precipitate. At least one inlet on the container can be utilized for introducing a volume of air containing CO2 into the alkaline metal hydroxide, so that the CO2 in the volume of air can react with the alkaline metal hydroxide to reduce the amount of CO2 in the volume of air and to form a precipitate in the body portion of the container. At least one outlet on the container can be included for releasing the volume of air having reduced CO2 content into the atmosphere. A pump can be included for injecting the volume of air containing CO2 into the alkaline metal hydroxide under pressure.

ELMALEH DAVID R

67

Special report: global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The problems encountered during the preparatory negotiations for UNCED are discussed. The main issues appear to be whether President Bush will attend or not, and his refusal to commit the US to greenhouse gas emission targets. Other subjects that are reviewed briefly include: an EC review of plans for a carbon tax; a prediction that the share of CO{sub 2} emissions from the EC will decline; the US has still to bring its CO{sub 2} stabilisation policy in line with the EC; the high amount that the Dutch government spends on energy efficiency; Antarctic research into climate change; sulphur pollution may be delaying global warming; some actions being taken by conurbations to reduce emissions; and a statement from 19 international energy businesses calling for 'cost effective integration of economic, social and environmental policies' between North and South. 1 tab.

1992-04-03

68

Halocarbons and global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The production of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), contributing both to the deterioration of the ozone layer and to the greenhouse effect, will be reduced in the near future. Hydro(chloro)-fluorocarbons, H(C)FCs, having a relatively low or no ozone depletion potential, are expected to partially replace CFCs. However, these H(C)FCs vary in global warming potential (GWP). Two groups can be distinguised: Class I H(C)FCs (HCFC-22, HCFC-142b, HFC-125, HFC-134a and HFC-143a) have a relatively high GWP, and Class II H(C)FCs (HCFC-123, FCFC-124, HCFC-14b and HFC-152a) have a relatively low GWP. In this study, using a 0-dimensional computer model, temperature forcing by halocarbons between 1985 and 2100 is calculated assuming different production scenarios for the halocarbons: CFCs, H(C)FCs, CH3CCl3 and CCl4. The results indicate that, while strongly restricting the use of CFCs, the most important factors determining the impact of halocarbons on future global warming may be the choice of H(C)FCs and the presence or absence of restrictions on H(C)FCs and the presence or absence of restrictions on H(C)FC applications. Unrestricted use of H(C)FCs exclusively from Class I could, by 2100, result in an equilibrium temperature increase that is 0.28-0.66-degrees-C higher than that resulting from the use of Class II H(C)FCs. However, if there is a phase-out of CFs and Class I H(C)FCs by 2000, and if Class II H(C) FCS are only used as well-conserved refrigerants, the long-term climatic impact of halocarbons could become lower than the present impact of halocarbons. The same holds if there is a rapid total phase-out of radiatively active halocarbons.

Kroeze, C.; Reijnders, L. (University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands))

1992-01-01

69

Global warming - A reduced threat  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Issues associated with global warming are analyzed focusing on global and hemispheric temperature histories and trace gas concentrations; artificial warming from urban heat islands; high-latitude and diurnal temperatures; recent climate models; direct effects on vegetation of an increase in carbon dioxide; and compensatory cooling from other industrial products. Data obtained indicate that anthropogenerated sulfate emissions are mitigating some of the warming, and that increased cloudiness as a result of these emissions will further enhance night, rather than day, warming. It is noted that the sulfate emissions are not sufficient to explain all of the night warming. The sensitivity of climate to anthropogenerated aerosols, and the general lack of previously predicted warming, could drastically alter the debate on global warming in favor of less expensive policies. 61 refs.

Michaels, P.J.; Stooksbury, D.E. (Virginia Univ., Charlottesville (United States))

1992-10-01

70

Global warming: narrowing the debate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Global warming models indicate a major warming trend from greenhouse gas build-up in the next century. The diverse impacts of global climate change and the discrepancy between global warming models and real life observations were discussed. It was pointed out that to truly understand the causes and effects of global warming, cooperation from researchers from many disciplines such as geology, geophysics, biology, and climatology, is needed. The global effect of the Mount Pinatubo 1991 eruption, in which a huge amount of sulfur dioxide was released into the stratosphere, which produced a surface cooling worldwide of about 0.5 degree C was described as proof of the general reliability of predictions made by various modelling studies on global warming. 2 figs.

Hare, K.

1996-12-31

71

Global Warming: Frequently Asked Questions  

Science.gov (United States)

This global warming site contains questions commonly addressed to climate scientists and brief replies (based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports and other research). The questions concern the greenhouse effect and its impact on our climate, whether greenhouse gases are increasing and the climate warming, the relation of El Nino to global warming, change in the hydrological cycle (evaporation and precipitation) and atmospheric/oceanic circulation, climate becoming more variable and extreme, the importance of these changes in a longer-term context, the rise of sea levels, whether the observed changes can be explained by natural variability, and the future of global warming.

Easterling, David; Karl, Tom

72

Making global warming public property  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Discusses the controversy, uncertainty, models and forecasts for global warming. Concern is expressed that the research community involved with the behaviour of the Earth's atmosphere, does not present a coherent or rounded picture of the effects and causes of global warming.

Maddox, J.

1991-01-17

73

Global warming: understanding the forecast  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast is a comprehensive introduction to all aspects of global warming. Written in an accessible way, this important book examines the processes of climate change and climate stability, from the distant past to the distant future. Assumes no specialist scientific knowledge. Gives a detailed examination of the greenhouse effect, the carbon cycle and discussion of what the future holds for the global climate. A companion web site provides on-line interactive computer models of the physics and chemistry behind the global warming forecast, which can be used to support suggested student projects included at the end of each chapter. (author)

Archer, D.

2003-07-01

74

Global warming: the complete briefing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The science of global warming, its impacts, and what action might be taken, are described in this book, in a way which the intelligent non-scientist can understand. It also examines ethical and moral issues of concern about global warming, considering mankind as stewards of the earth. Chapter headings of the book are: global warming and climate change; the greenhouse effect; the greenhouse gases; climates of the past; modelling the climate; climate change and business-as-usual; the impacts of climate change; why should we be concerned ; weighing the uncertainty; action to slow and stabilize climate change; energy and transport for the future; and the global village.

Houghton, J.

1994-01-01

75

GLOBAL WARMING IS GLOBAL ENERGY STORAGE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The global air temperature increase is an inadequate measure of global warming, which rather should be considered in terms of energy. The ongoing global warming means that heat has been accumulating since 1880, in air, ground, and water. Before explaining this warming by external heat sources the net heat emissions on Earth must be considered. Such emissions, from e.g. the global use of fossil fuel and nuclear power, must contribute to global warming. The aim of this study was to compare globally accumulated and emitted heat. The heat accumulated in air corresponds to 6.6% of the global warming, while the remaining heat is stored in the ground (31.5%), melting of ice (33.4%), and sea water (28.5%). It was found that the net heat emissions 1880-2000 correspond to 74% of accumulated heat, i.e. the global warming, during the same period. The missing heat (26%) must have other causes; e.g. the greenhouse effect, natural variation of the climate, and/or underestimation of net heat emissions. Most measures already taken to combat global warming are beneficial also for current explanation, though nuclear power is not a solution but part of the problem.

Bo Nordell; Bruno Gervet [Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Lulea University of Technology, Lulea (Sweden)

2008-09-30

76

Warm up to the idea: Global warming is here  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article summarizes recent information about global warming as well as the history of greenhouse gas emissions which have lead to more and more evidence of global warming. The primary source detailed is the second major study report on global warming by the Intergovernmental Panel on climate change. Along with comments about the environmental effects of global warming such as coastline submersion, the economic, social and political aspects of alleviating greenhouse emissions and the threat of global warming are discussed.

Lynch, C.F.

1996-07-01

77

Transport and global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this study was to provide price-sensitive forecasts of greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, and carbon monoxide) from the transport sector in Britain in order to contribute to the policy debate on how to deal with the global warming impacts of transport. The study has developed software for a disaggregated model of the car stock: this model breaks down the stock by 9 categories of vehicle size and 16 age categories, to predict how changes in fuel prices will alter fuel consumption characteristics, annual mileage and driving behaviour. The public transport model provides forecasting equations for six separate categories of public transport demand. The car and public transport models are linked by a set of cross-elasticities of demand developed in the study. The models can therefore consider other sources of inter-modal changes in demand, and provide a set of long-term national public transport demand equations to complement the Government`s National Road Traffic Forecasts. In addition an alternative model for forecasting national car ownership has been developed using co-integration techniques. The study has also derived new estimates of public transport emissions from different types of rail service, and from bus services. Finally, the study has produced emissions forecasts for the road freight sector. (Author)

Dodgson, J.

1997-12-31

78

Global Warming: Early Warning Signs  

Science.gov (United States)

This science-based world map depicts the local and regional consequences of global climate change. It identifies direct manifestations of a warming trend (fingerprints), and events that are consistent with the projections for global climate change and are likely to become more frequent and widespread with continued warming (harbingers). These signs are linked to a full description of conditions in that part of the world which indicate warming. A curriculum guide engages students in an exploration of the impacts of global climate change.

79

Global warming and prairie wetlands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this article, the authors discuss current understanding and projections of global warming; review wetland vegetation dynamics to establish the strong relationship among climate, wetland hydrology, vegetation patterns and waterfowl habitat; discuss the potential effects of a greenhouse warming on these relationships; and illustrate the potential effects of climate change on wetland habitat by using a simulation model.

Poiani, K.A. (Fish and Wildlife Service, Fort Collins, CO (United States)); Johnson, W.C. (South Dakota State Univ., Brookings (United States))

1991-10-01

80

Global warming and prairie wetlands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this article, the authors discuss current understanding and projections of global warming; review wetland vegetation dynamics to establish the strong relationship among climate, wetland hydrology, vegetation patterns and waterfowl habitat; discuss the potential effects of a greenhouse warming on these relationships; and illustrate the potential effects of climate change on wetland habitat by using a simulation model

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Studies of global warming and global energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Global warming caused by increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration has been the focus of many recent global energy studies. CO2 is emitted to the atmosphere mainly from the combustion of fossil fuels. This means that global warming is fundamentally a problem of the global energy system. An analysis of the findings of recent global energy studies is made in this report. The results are categorized from the viewpoint of concern about global warming. The analysis includes energy use and CO2 emissions, measures taken to restrain CO2 emissions and the cost of such measure, and suggestions for long term global energy generation. Following this comparative analysis, each of the studies is reviewed in detail. (author) 63 refs

1993-01-01

82

Global warming, global research, and global governing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The anticipated dangers of Global Warming can be mitigated by reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, especially CO{sub 2}. To reach acceptable, constant levels within the next couple of centuries it might be necessary to accept stabilization levels higher than present ones, The annual CO{sub 2} emissions must be reduced far below today`s values. This is a very important result of the models discussed in the 1995 IPCC report. However, any even very modest scenario for the future must take into account a substantial increase in the world population which might double during the 21st century, There is a considerable emission reduction potential of the industrialized world due to efficiency increase, However, the demand for energy services by the growing world population will, inspite of the availability of alternative energy resources, possibly lead to a net increase in fossil fuel consumption. If the climate models are right, and the science community believes they are, we will experience a global warming of the order of a couple of degrees over the next century; we have to live with it. To be prepared for the future it is essential for us to use new research techniques embracing not only the familiar fields of hard sciences but also social, educational, ethical and economic aspects, We must find a way to build up the essential intellectual capacities needed to deal with these kinds of general problems within all nations and all societies. But this is not Although, we also have to find the necessary dynamical and highly flexible structures for a global governing using tools such as the environmental regime. The first step was the Framework Convention On Climate Change, UN 1992; for resolution of questions regarding implementations the Conference of the Parties was established.

Preining, O.

1997-12-31

83

Global Warming Kids.net  

Science.gov (United States)

Global Warming Kids .Net is a project of ClimateChangeEducation.Org: science museum docents; students, staff and scientists at the University of California. Plus elementary, middle and high school student volunteers & interns.

84

Global warming - an engineering appraisal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Discussion is presented of methods of evaluating the likelihood of global warming caused by the activities of man, changes in climate throughout history, and computer modelling of the greenhouse effect and how they compare to reality. 5 refs., 2 figs.

Kazmann, R.G.

1992-02-01

85

Bioenergy - global advantage and local acidification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bioenergy is usually considered an environmentally friendly source of energy, mainly because of the international focus on carbon dioxide emission. The article questions this point of view. Less emission of global climate gases comes from bioenergy than from the combustion of natural gas and fuel oil, but much more particulate and acidifying matter. According to a Swedish investigation, bioenergy, waste combustion and fuel oil are worse than natural gas if particles, SOx, NOx and CO2 are weighted equally. Biofuel and fuel oil emit almost twice as much nitrogen oxides as do natural gas and waste combustion. Bioenergy and waste emit on the average 160-210 times as much sulphur as do natural gas and 40-170 times as much particles. To what extent bioenergy is environmentally sound is very technology-dependent. Bioenergy is advantageous with respect to emission of climate gases and by definition does not emit carbon dioxide since this is compensated by photosynthetic absorption. As for hydrocarbons, NOx and SOx, which cause local acidification, bioenergy comes in about halfway between the best and the worst energy sources. The pollution from large bioenergy plants can be effectively reduced, but cleaning systems on small plants are not economical. Small bioenergy plants should not be localised in areas with high particle emission

2000-01-01

86

Global warming: A vicious circle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases the planet is already committed to regional droughts, storms, disruption of fisheries and the extinction of many plant and animal species. But current predictions of global warming do not take into account the reactions and interactions of the planet's land, ocean and ice masses to the rise in temperatures. It seems likely that the greenhouse effect will give rise to positive feedback reactions, leading to greater global warming than predicted.

1991-01-01

87

A perspective on global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A review is given of the basic physics of the greenhouse effect and of the evidence that human activity is leading to an increase in many gases involved in the effect. The most recent predictions of global warming are discussed. The complexity of the climate system and uncertainties in the predictions are stressed, but it is concluded that global warming and measures to reduce it should be taken very seriously. (author).

Hoskins, Brian (Reading Univ. (GB). Dept. of Meteorology)

1991-01-01

88

Global warming and nuclear power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The problems of pollution, global warming and renewable energy sources are not going to go away. Governments need to act with urgency if they are to produce a long-term energy policy. This paper looks at the current energy situation, and how this would project into the future without the instigation of radical changes. It concludes that nuclear is the best option available for averting a growing energy, pollution and global warming crisis. (author)

1999-01-01

89

Global warming - fact or claim  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article reports on a one-day conference titled 'Global warming - fact or claim'. The increase in temperature forecast by climate models has yet to become apparent. This may be due to sulphate pollution or volcanic eruptions. Some of the recorded temperature increase may be due to where the temperature is taken. Even if global warming does not occur as was originally forecast energy saving and efficient use of fossil fuels are still commendable.

1993-07-02

90

Global warming impacts of transport  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Global warming is expected to occur due to carbon dioxide and other gases emitted in the course of human activities. Due to uncertainities about atmospheric chemistry, few attempts have been made to quantify the impact of emissions of NO[sub x], non-methane hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. Atmospheric chemistry modelling at Harwell Laboratory has resulted in preliminary estimates of the impact of trace gases including NO[sub x], many hydrocarbon species, carbon monoxide and water vapour on global warming. These estimates have been applied to emissions from transport, with particular attention to cars. It is found that the use of three-way catalysts on cars could reduce their global warming impact. IDI diesel engines have still less global warming impact. High NO[sub x], CO and hydrocarbon emissions from DI diesels could result in a higher impact from these engines than from IDI diesels. Emissions from air-craft are injected into the troposphere at the height where they have a maximal effect on global warming. Although modelling of aircraft impact is at a very early stage, the first results indicate that air travel could become an important cause of global warming.

Michaelis, L. (Harwell Laboratory, Abingdon (United Kingdom). Energy Technology Support Unit)

1993-06-25

91

Media narratives of global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The way in which the North American print media are representing global warming was the focus of this paper. It was suggested that the way in which the media presents the issue and proposed responses to it, will influence how the public and decision-makers perceive and respond to the problem. This paper also presented examples demonstrating how nature and humanity's relationship to nature are being presented and what types of responses to global warming are being presented. The issue of who is responsible for acting to prevent or mitigate climate change was also discussed. It was shown that media narratives of global warming are not just stories of scientists debating the existence of global warming, but that they now largely accept global warming as a reality. However, the media continue to construct the problem in narrow technical, economic and anthropocentric terms. Mass media interpretation of global warming offer up a limited selection of problem definitions, reasons for acting and ways of addressing the problem. It was cautioned that this approach will likely promote futility, denial and apathy on the part of the public. 21 refs.

Meisner, M. [Syracuse Univ., Syracuse, NY (United States)

2000-06-01

92

Global temperatures and the global warming ``debate''  

Science.gov (United States)

Many ordinary citizens listen to pronouncements on talk radio casting doubt on anthropogenic global warming. Some op-ed columnists likewise cast doubts, and are read by credulous citizens. For example, on 8 March 2009, the Boston Globe published a column by Jeff Jacoby, ``Where's global warming?'' According to Jacoby, ``But it isn't such hints of a planetary warming trend that have been piling up in profusion lately. Just the opposite.'' He goes on to write, ``the science of climate change is not nearly as important as the religion of climate change,'' and blamed Al Gore for getting his mistaken views accepted. George Will at the Washington Post also expressed denial. As a result, 44% of U.S. voters, according to the January 19 2009 Rasmussen Report, blame long-term planetary trends for global warming, not human beings. Is there global cooling, as skeptics claim? We examine the temperature record.

Aubrecht, Gordon

2009-04-01

93

Global warming: Subtle or sulfates?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper disputes a pattern-correlation analysis which concluded that human activity was evident in the atmosphere based on similarities between observed and predicted changes in zonal-mean vertical patterns of temperature change. A reanalysis is performed using data from the original study and from similar studies. An analysis of the methodology sensitivity is also performed. Based on these analyses, it is found that sulfate aerosol is not a sufficient explanation for differences in observed global warming and global warming predicted by earlier models. The more likely explanation for the lack of warming is the cooling of the upper troposphere, which explains observations of increased cloudiness, relative night warming, and portends a generally small overall greenhouse warming. 13 refs., 4 figs.

Michaels, P.J.; Knappenberger, P.C.; Davis, R.E. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)] [and others

1997-11-01

94

Global Warming: Physics and Facts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains papers on: A tutorial on global atmospheric energetics and the greenhouse effect; global climate models: what and how; comparison of general circulation models; climate and the earth's radiation budget; temperature and sea level change; short-term climate variability and predictions; the great ocean conveyor; trace gases in the atmosphere: temporal and spatial trends; the geochemical carbon cycle and the uptake of fossil fuel CO2; forestry and global warming; the physical and policy linkages; policy implications of greenhouse warming; options for lowering US carbon dioxide emissions; options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions; and science and diplomacy: a new partnership to protect the environment

1992-01-01

95

Global Warming: Physics and Facts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report contains papers on: A tutorial on global atmospheric energetics and the greenhouse effect; global climate models: what and how; comparison of general circulation models; climate and the earth`s radiation budget; temperature and sea level change; short-term climate variability and predictions; the great ocean conveyor; trace gases in the atmosphere: temporal and spatial trends; the geochemical carbon cycle and the uptake of fossil fuel CO{sub 2}; forestry and global warming; the physical and policy linkages; policy implications of greenhouse warming; options for lowering US carbon dioxide emissions; options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions; and science and diplomacy: a new partnership to protect the environment.

Levi, B.G. [Physics Today, New York, NY (United States); Hafemeister, D. [Committee on Foreign Relations (U.S. Senate), Washington, DC (United States); Scribner, R. [Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (United States)] [eds.

1992-05-01

96

Global Warming: Physics and Facts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report contains papers on: A tutorial on global atmospheric energetics and the greenhouse effect; global climate models: what and how; comparison of general circulation models; climate and the earth's radiation budget; temperature and sea level change; short-term climate variability and predictions; the great ocean conveyor; trace gases in the atmosphere: temporal and spatial trends; the geochemical carbon cycle and the uptake of fossil fuel CO{sub 2}; forestry and global warming; the physical and policy linkages; policy implications of greenhouse warming; options for lowering US carbon dioxide emissions; options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions; and science and diplomacy: a new partnership to protect the environment.

Levi, B.G. (Physics Today, New York, NY (United States)); Hafemeister, D. (Committee on Foreign Relations (U.S. Senate), Washington, DC (United States)); Scribner, R. (Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (United States)) (eds.)

1992-01-01

97

Acidification and warming affect both a calcifying predator and prey, but not their interaction : Feature article  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Both ocean warming and acidification have been demonstrated to affect the growth, performance and reproductive success of calcifying invertebrates. However, relatively little is known regarding how such environmental change may affect interspecific interactions. We separately treated green crabs Carcinus maenas and periwinkles Littorina littorea under conditions that mimicked either ambient conditions (control) or warming and acidification, both separately and in combination, for 5 mo. After 5 mo, the predators, prey and predator-prey interactions were screened for changes in response to environmental change. Acidification negatively affected the closer-muscle length of the crusher chela and correspondingly the claw-strength increment in C. maenas. The effects of warming and/or acidification on L. littorea were less consistent but indicated weaker shells in response to acidification. On the community level, however, we found no evidence that predator-prey interactions will change in the future. Further experiments exploring the impacts of warming and acidification on key ecological interactions are needed instead of basing predictions of ecosystem change solely on species-specific responses to environmental change.

Landes, Anja; Zimmer, Martin

2012-01-01

98

Global warming continues in 1989  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nineteen eight-nine ranks as one of the warmest years on record despite the chill of unusually cool water in the tropical Pacific. The continued robustness of the warming trend that began in the mid-1970s lends support to claims that an intensifying greenhouse effect is behind it all, although that case has not yet been made definitively. Even at the current rate of global warming it will take another 10 years or so to be confident that the greenhouse effect is with us. Although the global warming trend is consistent with an increasing contribution by the greenhouse effect, direct signs that the greenhouse effect is intensifying are still hard to come by in the temperature record. Greenhouse models agree that if that is happening, the temperature increase should be most pronounced around the Arctic. Alaska, northwestern Canada, and northern Siberia warmed sharply in the 1980s, but the region from eastern Canada through Greenland and into Scandinavia cooled markedly.

Kerr, R.A.

1990-02-02

99

Local cooling, global warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The growing use of refrigeration and air conditioning systems and the shift in refrigerant types due to the Montreal Protocol lead to rapidly increasing HFC refrigerant emissions globally, especially in developing countries. Reducing the emission of these potent greenhouse gases globally seems to be...

Hekkenberg, M,

100

The politics of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The probable warming of the world over the next few decades due to human activity presents a unique threat. The threat of global warming has been brought about by the activities of the entire human race, and only action by a large part of the human race can slow down the process or halt it. Other unwanted effects of industrial activity are trans-national, and require international agreements to regulate them, most obviously radioactivity from nuclear power accidents, acid rain and river pollution; but climatic change, unlike these, is global. International negotiations are going on now to deal with the problem of global warming, mostly by reducing the emission of gases that contribute to it. These are preliminary, yet already different perceptions and conflicting interests are emerging. The aim of the present negotiations is a convention for the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) to be held in June 1992, the so-called ''Earth Summit''. (author)

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Global warming, forests, and biodiversity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The role that terrestrial sinks of carbon dioxide, more particularly forests, could play in reducing the danger of global warming is discussed. The contribution of deforestation to global warming and the importance of tropical forests in the preservation of biodiversity is highlighted. A review of experiences to date show that some forestry-based projects could be economically attractive for mitigating buildup of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The authors believe that while forest projects alone would not solve the problem of global warming they should, nevertheless, be included in the options available for reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. This would be especially appropriate if forest projects were considered part and parcel of the larger context of sustainable development and the rights of indigenous people, and were designed to meet UNFCCC guidelines and contribute to poverty alleviation. 17 refs.

Saphores, J-D.; Bakshi, B. [California Univ, Irvine, Dept. of Economics, Irvine, CA (United States)

2001-07-01

102

The economics of global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The analysis begins with an evaluation of the science of global warming. Valid policy decisions cannot be made without taking into account the very long-term implications - global warming will not stop at a doubling of (CO[sub 2]). The damages from global warming are likely to warrant major efforts to curtail emissions of greenhouse gases. A two-stage, contingent policy strategy is proposed. First, countries would make their best efforts to limit further greenhouse gas emissions through modest carbon taxes, reduced deforestation and pursuit of energy efficiency. By 2000, the international community would review the scientific analysis; if the current diagnosis is confirmed it would then be appropriate to adopt an intensified policy regime. 266 refs., 22 figs., 28 tabs.

Cline, W.R.

1992-06-01

103

Adaptive capacity of the habitat modifying sea urchin Centrostephanus rodgersii to ocean warming and ocean acidification: performance of early embryos.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Predicting effects of rapid climate change on populations depends on measuring the effects of climate stressors on performance, and potential for adaptation. Adaptation to stressful climatic conditions requires heritable genetic variance for stress tolerance present in populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We quantified genetic variation in tolerance of early development of the ecologically important sea urchin Centrostephanus rodgersii to near-future (2100) ocean conditions projected for the southeast Australian global change hot spot. Multiple dam-sire crosses were used to quantify the interactive effects of warming (+2-4 °C) and acidification (-0.3-0.5 pH units) across twenty-seven family lines. Acidification, but not temperature, decreased the percentage of cleavage stage embryos. In contrast, temperature, but not acidification decreased the percentage of gastrulation. Cleavage success in response to both stressors was strongly affected by sire identity. Sire and dam identity significantly affected gastrulation and both interacted with temperature to determine developmental success. Positive genetic correlations for gastrulation indicated that genotypes that did well at lower pH also did well in higher temperatures. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Significant genotype (sire) by environment interactions for both stressors at gastrulation indicated the presence of heritable variation in thermal tolerance and the ability of embryos to respond to changing environments. The significant influence of dam may be due to maternal provisioning (maternal genotype or environment) and/or offspring genotype. It appears that early development in this ecologically important sea urchin is not constrained in adapting to the multiple stressors of ocean warming and acidification. The presence of tolerant genotypes indicates the potential to adapt to concurrent warming and acidification, contributing to the resilience of C. rodgersii in a changing ocean.

Foo SA; Dworjanyn SA; Poore AG; Byrne M

2012-01-01

104

Antarctic global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Changes to a glacial feature in Antarctica are noted. It was a snow ramp with dimensions described thus in 1961 - a minimum width of 175m, a gradient of near zero (sea level) to 30m elevation in a horizontal distance of 100m. The presence of the snow ramp was reported in 1936, 1946, 1961 and 1975. By 1990 the ramp had gone and there was an open-water channel between Back Bay and the main part of Marguerite Bay. It probably disappeared around 1980, and may contribute to the effects of what might be a progressively warming period in that region of Antarctica. 6 refs.

Splettstoesser, J.

1992-02-06

105

Efficiency, sustainability and global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Economic analyses of global warming have typically been grounded in the theory of economic efficiency. Such analyses may be inappropriate because many of the underlying concerns about climate change are rooted not in efficiency, but in the intergenerational allocation of economic endowments. A simple economic model is developed which demonstrates that an efficient economy is not necessarily a sustainable economy. This result leads directly to questions about the policy relevance of several economic studies of the issue. We then consider policy alternatives to address global warming in the context of economies with the dual objectives of efficiency and sustainability, with particular attention to carbon-based taxes

Woodward, Richard T.; Bishop, Richard C. [Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States)

1995-08-01

106

Enviropedia: Introduction to Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

This resource provides an overview of the concept of global warming, which is thought to be due to man-made emissions of greenhouse gases, which are largely a result of the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation. It explores the possibility that the impacts of global warming may include desertification and the destruction of other ecosystems, extreme weather conditions, and a danger to agriculture. Information on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, (IPCC), the Kyoto Protocol, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, (FCCC), and the United Kingdom Programme on Climate Change is also provided.

107

Efficiency, sustainability and global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Economic analyses of global warming have typically been grounded in the theory of economic efficiency. Such analyses may be inappropriate because many of the underlying concerns about climate change are rooted not in efficiency, but in the intergenerational allocation of economic endowments. A simple economic model is developed which demonstrates that an efficient economy is not necessarily a sustainable economy. This result leads directly to questions about the policy relevance of several economic studies of the issue. We then consider policy alternatives to address global warming in the context of economies with the dual objectives of efficiency and sustainability, with particular attention to carbon-based taxes.

1995-01-01

108

Global Warming Materials for Educators  

Science.gov (United States)

Materials available at this site include a set of educational toolkits about ecosystems, a global warming map, a renewable energy teaching guide, and two reports. Each of the toolkits focuses on a specific ecosystem service, such as water purification or forest carbon storage. The map (and accompanying curriculum guide) shows where the fingerprints and harbingers of global warming have occurred in recent years. The teaching guide includes hands-on activities, games, action projects, and a resource guide. The reports focus on climate change impacts in California and in the Gulf Coast region. Corresponding teaching guides consist of multiple activities that are closely tied to and build upon the reports.

2011-04-21

109

Global warming: the worst case  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Formulating a policy response to global warming is, at heart, an exercise in risk assessment. It is vital that policy-makers appreciate the risks associated with global warming and what scientists know and do not know about feedbacks involved in the climate system. A minority of world-class atmospheric scientists subscribe to the best-case analysis of feedback interactions, which suggests that the enhanced greenhouse effect is a non-problem. The main worry however is that a coalescing pattern of positive feedbacks might be awakened, and continue unchecked by negative feedbacks. The worst-case scenario is central to formulating a policy response.

Leggett, J. (Greenpeace Atmosphere and Energy Campaign, Cambridge (UK))

1992-06-01

110

Managing Local Coastal Stressors to Reduce the Ecological Effects of Ocean Acidification and Warming  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anthropogenic activities have increased the number of stressors acting on ecosystems. When multiple stressors act simultaneously, there is a greater probability of additive, synergistic and antagonistic effects occurring among them. Where additive and synergistic effects occur, managers may yield disproportionately large benefits where they first act upon synergies. Stressors act, however, at different spatial and temporal scales. Global stressors (e.g., ocean acidification and warming) tend to change slowly over long periods of time, although their intensity and effects are contingent on local conditions. On the other hand, local stressors tend to change rapidly over shorter, more defined spatial and temporal scales. Hence, local stressors can be subject to a greater degree of control through local management (e.g., eutrophication and overfishing) while global stressors are characterized by an intrinsic inertia whose effects last for decades, if not centuries. Although the reduction of carbon emissions is an international priority for managing global stressors, it requires international agreements and management applications that take considerable time to develop. Managers, however, may ‘buy time’ by acting on stressors whose governance is local (e.g., reducing nutrient input) and are known to synergize with global stressors (e.g., enriched CO2). Such local actions may potentially disrupt synergies with the more slowly changing global stressors that can only be reduced over longer time scales.

Giulia Ghedini; Bayden D. Russell; Sean D. Connell

2013-01-01

111

GLOBAL WARMING: A NEW PERSPECTIVE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A lot has been said about global warming, various models projected and debated to show its importance in the present day. All these have actually made the issue more complex and confusing. Present paper is based on the observations made by the author during the drilling operations for providing sustainable water solutions based on developing groundwater resources in the various hydrostraigraphic zones identified by Arya,(1996) for the last 15 years in Himachal Pradesh and the high altitude, cold mountain, deserts of Ladakh in NW Indian Himalayas. The author tends to redefine global warming as phenomenon for transporting the weathered and eroded material which had been accumulated during the global cooling phase in the past. The agents can be biotic (man and living organisms) and abiotic (geological, geomorphologic, climatologic, planetary). The author also tends to introduce a biogeologic cycle which will explain in a very simple way the relevance of global warming in shaping the earth now and in future. The paper also discuses the fact that no phenomenon can be understood in isolation and the history and its cycle has to be understood to enjoy the concept in totality. Present paper will focus on these issues and try to touch the genesis of the problem in a very simple but scientific manner. Last but not the least the paper will end with an optimistic note ''Global warming is natural, Enjoy it''.

Ritesh Arya [Arya Drillers, 405, GH7A, Sector 20, Panchkula, Haryana (India)

2008-09-30

112

Global Warming: Early Warning Signs  

Science.gov (United States)

Created by a host of organizations (Environmental Defense Fund, Natural Resources Defense Council, Sierra Club, Union of Concerned Scientists, US Public Interest Research Group, World Resources Institute, and World Wildlife Fund), this site seeks to provide evidence of the "fingerprints" and "harbingers" of global warming. A clickable map of the world enables users to take a closer look at geographic regions, at specific examples of "fingerprints" (e.g., heat waves, sea level rise, melting glaciers, and Arctic and Antarctic warming) and "harbingers" (spreading disease, earlier arrival of spring, range shifts and population declines in plants and animals, bleaching of coral reefs, extreme weather events, and fires). While it is unclear that any specific event may be explained by global warming, the combination of events highlighted at this page provides powerful fodder for further thought.

1999-01-01

113

Global warming and climate change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A panel discussion was held to discuss climate change. Six panelists made presentations that summarized ozone depletion and climate change, discussed global responses, argued against the conventional scientific and policy dogmas concerning climate change, examined the effects of ultraviolet radiation on phytoplankton, examined the effects of carbon taxes on Canadian industry and its emissions, and examined the political and strategic aspects of global warming. A question session followed the presentations. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the six presentations.

1992-05-12

114

Science Sampler: Global Warming Project  

Science.gov (United States)

To address the issue of global warming locally, the author developed an inquiry-based project to examine the impact of the schoolâs traffic situation on climate change. In this project, students collected data in the parking lot/driveway, researched greenhouse gas emissions of vehicles, and developed solutions to the traffic problem. Their solutions, if implemented, will reduce their schoolâs carbon footprint. Completing this project made other students in the school aware of the severity of the global climate change problem.

Blough, Christopher

2009-11-01

115

Oceanography: Has global warming stalled?  

Science.gov (United States)

Following a period of rapid warming from the 1970s, global temperatures seem to have stalled. New analysis of the uptake of heat by the upper ocean sheds light on the cause and suggests that the slowdown could have been predicted.

Smith, Doug

2013-07-01

116

Global warming and greenhouse gases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Global warming or Climate change refers to long-term fluctuations in temperature, precipitation, wind, and other elements of the Earth's climate system. Natural processes such as solar-irradiance variations, variations in the Earth's orbital parameters, and volcanic activity can produce variations i...

Beli? Dragoljub S.

117

Automobility: Global Warming as Symptomatology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The argument of this paper is that sustainability requires a new worldview-paradigm. It critically evaluates Gore’s liberal-based environmentalism in order to show how “shallow ecologies” are called into question by deeper ecologies. This analysis leads to the notion that global warming is better un...

Gary Backhaus

118

World View of Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

This page contains information and photographs related to climate change and its impact. The World View of Global Warming project is documenting this change through science photography from the Arctic to Antarctica, from glaciers to the oceans, across all climate zones.

119

Global warming on Capitol Hill  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article reports on hearings in both congressional houses on ozone depletion and global warming. Topics covered include the drought in California, effect on electric rates, administration policy relating to international efforts to cut greenhouse gas, freons phaseout, methane emission phaseout, and energy efficiency provisions for buildings and vehicles.

Berg, T.F.

1991-09-01

120

Impact of global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Scenarios have been produced by the IEA to demonstrate the scale of adjustment that would have to be made by OECD countries to stabilise CO{sub 2} emissions at present levels by the year 2005. Some of the proposals involve: a substantial carbon tax, energy intensity improvements, and a massive switch to nuclear power. None of these measures, however, would be sufficient to reduce global energy related CO{sub 2} emission. The IEA concludes that the solution to the climate change problem in the longer term will have to lie in the enhancement and development of new technological options. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Bley, L. (Bley Oil News Services, Washington, DC (USA))

1990-03-01

 
 
 
 
121

Combating global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study is designed to outline how an international system of tradeable carbon emission entitlements could work. The proposal has two main aspects: (1) an international market-based instrument for controlling the world-wide growth of carbon emissions at minimum cost, and (2) an effective mechanism for transferring resources (i.e. environmentally sound technologies and finance) to developing countries, to enable them to contribute to the global effort to abate greenhouse emissions without holding back their own development. figs., tabs., refs.

1992-01-01

122

Greenhouse gases and global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] From previous articles we have learned about the complexities of our environment, its atmosphere and its climate system. we have also learned that climate change and, therefore global warm and cool periods are naturally occurring phenomena. Moreover, all scientific evidence suggests that global warming, are likely to occur again naturally in the future. However, we have not yet considered the role of the rates of climate change in affecting the biosphere. It appears that how quickly the climate changes may be more important than the change itself. In light of this concern, let us now consider the possibility that, is due to human activity. We may over the next century experience global warming at rates and magnitudes unparalleled in recent geologic history. The following questions are answered; What can we learn from past climates? What do we know about global climates over the past 100 years? What causes temperature change? What are the greenhouse gases? How much have concentration of greenhouse gases increased in recent years? Why are increases in concentrations of greenhouse of concern? What is the enhanced greenhouse effect? How can human activity impact the global climate? What are some reasons for increased concentrations of greenhouse gases? What are fossil fuel and how do they transform into greenhouse gases? Who are the biggest emitters of greenhouse gases? Why are canada per capita emissions of greenhouse gases relatively high? (Author)

1995-01-01

123

Power engineering and global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Problem of power industry development in the Russian Federation in connection with global warming is considered. Warming effect on spheres of both power generation and energy consumption in separate regions is discussed. It is shown that all power generating plants are sensitive to change climate factors. This fact showed be taken into account when evaluating prospects of power industry development. Regions with low demand for electric power and heat can widely use minor and industrial power generation and thus decrease by 25-40% the load on power grid of the Russian Federation.

1995-01-01

124

Short- and long-term conditioning of a temperate marine diatom community to acidification and warming.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ocean acidification and greenhouse warming will interactively influence competitive success of key phytoplankton groups such as diatoms, but how long-term responses to global change will affect community structure is unknown. We incubated a mixed natural diatom community from coastal New Zealand waters in a short-term (two-week) incubation experiment using a factorial matrix of warming and/or elevated pCO2 and measured effects on community structure. We then isolated the dominant diatoms in clonal cultures and conditioned them for 1 year under the same temperature and pCO2 conditions from which they were isolated, in order to allow for extended selection or acclimation by these abiotic environmental change factors in the absence of interspecific interactions. These conditioned isolates were then recombined into 'artificial' communities modelled after the original natural assemblage and allowed to compete under conditions identical to those in the short-term natural community experiment. In general, the resulting structure of both the unconditioned natural community and conditioned 'artificial' community experiments was similar, despite differences such as the loss of two species in the latter. pCO2 and temperature had both individual and interactive effects on community structure, but temperature was more influential, as warming significantly reduced species richness. In this case, our short-term manipulative experiment with a mixed natural assemblage spanning weeks served as a reasonable proxy to predict the effects of global change forcing on diatom community structure after the component species were conditioned in isolation over an extended timescale. Future studies will be required to assess whether or not this is also the case for other types of algal communities from other marine regimes.

Tatters AO; Roleda MY; Schnetzer A; Fu F; Hurd CL; Boyd PW; Caron DA; Lie AA; Hoffmann LJ; Hutchins DA

2013-01-01

125

Cosmic Rays and Global Warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some workers have claimed that the observed temporal correlations of (low level) terrestrial cloud cover with the cosmic ray intensity changes, due to solar modulation, are causal. The possibility arises, therefore, of a connection between cosmic rays and Global Warming. If true, the implications would be very great. We have examined this claim in some detail. So far, we have not found any evidence in support and so our conclusions are to doubt it. From the absence of corroborative evidence we estimate that less than 15% at the 95% confidence level, of the 11-year cycle warming variations are due to cosmic rays and less than 2% of the warming over the last 43 years is due to this cause. The origin of the correlation itself is probably the cycle of solar irradiance although there is, as yet, no certainty.

2008-01-24

126

Sustainability Management Based Approach to Global Warming:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The global warming is a kind of sustainability risk. For this reason, Global Warming should be considering in Sustainability Management concept. The global warming risk must be managed effectively since its consequences threats for sustainability of our world. While this is understandable by all of ...

AYSE KUCUK YILMAZ; Hikmet KARAKOC

127

Ocean Acidification’s Potential to Alter Global Marine Ecosystem Services  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ocean acidification lowers the oceanic saturation states of carbonate minerals and decreases the calcification rates of some marine organisms that provide a range of ecosystem services such as wild fishery and aquaculture harvests, coastal protection, tourism, cultural identity, and ecosystem support. Damage to marine ecosystem services by ocean acidification is likely to disproportionately affect developing nations and coastal regions, which often rely more heavily on a variety of marine-related economic and cultural activities. Losses of calcifying organisms or changes in marine food webs could significantly alter global marine harvests that provided 110 million metric tons of food for humans valued at US$160 billion in 2006. Some of the countries most dependent on seafood for dietary protein include developing island nations with few agricultural alternatives. Aquaculture, especially of mollusks, may meet some of the future protein demand of economically developing, growing populations, but ocean acidification may complicate aquaculture of some species. By 2050, both population increases and changes in carbonate mineral saturation state will be greatest in low-latitude regions, multiplying the stresses on tropical marine ecosystems and societies. Identifying cost-effective, adaptive strategies to mitigate the costs associated with ocean acidification requires development of transferrable management strategies that can be tailored to meet the specific needs of regional human and marine communities.

Sarah R. Cooley; Hauke L. Kite-Powell; Scott C. Doney

2009-01-01

128

Media Construction of Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Includes 383-page kit (may be downloaded as a pdf or ordered as a hard copy) with teacher guides for all eight units, including all activities, readings, slide shows, film clips, journal articles, advertisements, and more. Lessons teach core knowledge about the science of climate change, explore conflicting views, and integrate critical thinking skills. Students will apply knowledge of climate change to a rigorous analysis of media messages through asking and answering questions about accuracy, currency, credibility, sourcing, and bias. Lessons address basic climate science, the causes of climate change, scientific debate and disinformation, the consequences of global warming, the precautionary principle, carbon footprints, moral choices, and the history of global warming in media, science, and politics.

Sperry, Chris; Flerlage, Dan; Papouchis, Alexander

129

Cosmic rays and global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The possible effects of cosmic rays on clouds could contribute to global warming. The argument is that the observed increased solar activity during the last century caused a decrease in the ionization due to cosmic rays since the lower energy cosmic particles are deflected by the magnetic field created by the increasing solar wind. This would lead to a decrease in cloud cover allowing more heating of the earth by the sun. Meteorological data combined to solar activity observations and simulations show that any effect of solar activity on clouds and the climate is likely to be through irradiance rather than cosmic rays. Since solar irradiance transfers 8 orders of magnitude more energy to the atmosphere than cosmic rays it is more plausible that this can produce a real effect. The total contribution of variable solar activity to global warming is shown to be less than 14% of the total temperature rise. (A.C.)

Erlykin, A.D. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sloan, T. [Lancaster University (United Kingdom); Wolfendale, A.W. [Durham University (United Kingdom)

2010-07-01

130

Global warming and greenhouse gases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Global warming or Climate change refers to long-term fluctuations in temperature, precipitation, wind, and other elements of the Earth's climate system. Natural processes such as solar-irradiance variations, variations in the Earth's orbital parameters, and volcanic activity can produce variations in climate. The climate system can also be influenced by changes in the concentration of various gases in the atmosphere, which affect the Earth's absorption of radiation.

Beli? Dragoljub S.

2006-01-01

131

Global warming and carbon tax  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The global warming issue is largely an economic phenomenon. The accumulation of CO[sub 2] in the air can be seen as a negative social overhead capital. The negative imputed price of CO[sub 2] is the discounted present value obtained by calculating the social loss that will be caused by a marginal increase in its atmospheric content. A carbon tax based on the imputed price can be imposed on polluting economic activities. 1 ref., 2 tabs.

Uzawa, H. (Niigata University, Niigata (Japan). Faculty of Economics)

1992-05-01

132

Global warming; an alternative perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The document states New Zealand's current position regarding commitments to reduce CO[sub 2] emissions. It presents the main topics of world debate on the global warming theory. Views of the Energy Foundation are then expressed on the economic consequences of environmental policy on abatement of greenhouse gases (particularly CO[sub 2] and methane). Recommendations are made for government directions in energy and environmental policy. 87 refs.

1994-03-01

133

Global warming: Economic policy responses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This volume contains the proceedings of a conference that brought together economic experts from Europe, the US, Latin America, and Japan to evaluate key issues in the policy debate in global warming. The following issues are at the center of debates on alternative policies to address global warming: scientific evidence on the magnitude of global warming and the extent to which it is due to human activities; availability of economic tools to control the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, and how vigorously should they be applied; and political economy considerations which influence the design of an international program for controlling greenhouse gases. Many perspectives are offered on the approaches to remedying environmental problems that are currently being pursued in Europe and the Pacific Rim. Deforestation in the Amazon is discussed, as well as ways to slow it. Public finance assessments are presented of both the domestic and international policy issues raised by plans to levy a tax on the carbon emissions from various fossil fuels. Nine chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

1991-01-01

134

The politics of global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The probable warming of the world over the next few decades due to human activity presents a unique threat. The threat of global warming has been brought about by the activities of the entire human race, and only action by a large part of the human race can slow down the process or halt it. Other unwanted effects of industrial activity are trans-national, and require international agreements to regulate them, most obviously radioactivity from nuclear power accidents, acid rain and river pollution; but climatic change, unlike these, is global. International negotiations are going on now to deal with the problem of global warming, mostly by reducing the emission of gases that contribute to it. These are preliminary, yet already different perceptions and conflicting interests are emerging. The aim of the present negotiations is a convention for the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) to be held in June 1992, the so-called ''Earth Summit''. (author).

Moss, N.

1991-01-01

135

The threat of global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

If the scientific predictions of global warming hold true, there`s trouble ahead for much of the world`s fresh water - and for people living in low-lying areas. The phenomenon, first described in the 1980`s, attributes projected rises in global temperatures to the emission of carbon dioxide and other {open_quotes}greenhouse gases,{close_quotes} so called because they trap the sun`s solar energy close to the Earth`s surface, much as a glass roof helps keep a greenhouse warm. The overwhelming source of these emission is the burning of fossil fuels such as oil, gasoline, coal and natural gas, the principal power sources of modern industry and transportation. In 1988, the United Nations set up the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to study the validity and potential effects of global warming. The panel, composed of an international group of climate scientists, issued a report in June 1990 predicting a nearly two-degree rise in the globe`s average temperature by 2020. At that unprecedented rate of increase, the panel found, humankind would be living in a hotter environment that ever before.

NONE

1995-12-15

136

Global warming: Economic policy responses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This volume contains the proceedings of a conference that brought together economic experts from Europe, the US, Latin America, and Japan to evaluate key issues in the policy debate in global warming. The following issues are at the center of debates on alternative policies to address global warming: scientific evidence on the magnitude of global warming and the extent to which it is due to human activities; availability of economic tools to control the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, and how vigorously should they be applied; and political economy considerations which influence the design of an international program for controlling greenhouse gases. Many perspectives are offered on the approaches to remedying environmental problems that are currently being pursued in Europe and the Pacific Rim. Deforestation in the Amazon is discussed, as well as ways to slow it. Public finance assessments are presented of both the domestic and international policy issues raised by plans to levy a tax on the carbon emissions from various fossil fuels. Nine chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

Dornbusch, R.; Poterba, J.M. (eds.)

1991-01-01

137

Global warming-setting the stages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Most of us have heard or read about global warming. However, the messages we receive are often in conflict, raising more questions than answer. Is global warming a good or a bad thing? has it already started or is it part of our future? Are we, or are we not doing anything about it? Should we be concerned? This primer on Global Warming is designed to clear up some of this confusion by providing basic scientific information on global warming issue. It is clear that there is still much to learn about global warming. However, it is also clear that there is a lot that we already know - and that dose provide cause for concern. We must understand the global warming issue if we are to make wise decisions and take responsible actions in response to the challenges and opportunities posed by global warming. Chapter 1 of 'the primer on global Warming' set the stage with a brief overview of science of global warming within the context of climate change. In addition, it introduces the specific issues that surround the global warming problem. As far as the science of global warming is concerned the following questions are discussed. What is global climate? Is climate change natural? What causes climate to vary on a global scale? How does the composition of the atmosphere relate to climate change. but there are also certain issues discussed here which surround the global warming such as: If climate varies naturally, why is there a concern about 'global warming'? What are the potential consequences of 'global warning'. What human activities contribute to 'global warming'. (Author)

1994-01-01

138

A global warning for global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The problem of global warming is a complex one not only because it is affecting desert areas such as the Sahel leading to famine disasters of poor rural societies, but because it is an even greater threat to modern well established industrial societies. Global warming is a complex problem of geographical, economical and societal factors together which definitely are biased by local environmental parameters. There is an absolute need to increase the knowledge of such parameters, especially to understand their limits of variance. The greenhouse effect is a global mechanism which means that in changing conditions at one point of the Earth, it will affect all other regions of the globe. Industrial pollution and devastation of the forest are quoted as similar polluting anthropogenic activities in far apart regions of the world with totally different societies and industrial compounds. The other important factor is climatic cyclicity which means that droughts are bound to natural cycles. These natural cycles are numerous as is reflected in the study of geo-proxydata from several sequential geological series on land, ice and deepsea. Each of these cycles reveals a drought cycle which occasionally interfere at the same time. It is believed that the present drought might well be a point of interference between the natural cycles of 2,500 and 1,000 years and the man induced cycle of the last century`s warming up. If the latter is the only cycle involved, man will be able to remediate. If not, global warming will become even more disastrous beyond the 21st century.

Paepe, R. [Earth Technology Inst., Brussels (Belgium)

1996-12-31

139

Global warming, bad weather, insurance losses and the global economy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Global warming causes extremely bad weather in the near term. The impact on the insurance industry is described. Why global warming in the near term causes very bad weather is explained. The continuing trend of very bad weather and the future impact on the insurance industry is explored. How very bad weather can affect the global financial market is explained. Taking a historical view of the development of the modern economy, the authors describe in the near term the impact of global warming on the global economy. The long term impact of global warming on the global economy and the human race is explored. Opportunities presented by global warming are described.

Low, N.C. [UOB Life Assurance Ltd., Singapore (Singapore); Shen, S. [Global Warming International Center, Woodridge, IL (United States)

1996-09-01

140

Nitrous oxide and global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The climatic impact of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions is calculated annually for the period 1900-2100, using a globally averaged computer model. Emissions of N2O have been increasing up top an estimated 12.7 Tg N/year in 1990 by human activities and global warming. If the current trends continue, emissions are estimated to be 25.7 Tg N/year by 2100, with fossil-fuel use and human food production as major contributors. The resulting equilibrium temperature increase (0.37 degree C) exceeds the forcing derived from climate goals that may be considered environmentally desirable. Limiting equilibrium warming to 0.1 degree C per decade would require anthropogenic-induced and warming-induced N2O emissions to be reduced by 80% relative to current trends and to be stabilized from 2050, so that 10.7 Tg N/year is emitted by 2100. To stabilize the current concentration or climate forcing of N2, substantially larger cuts are needed. However, even in an optimistic scenario, emissions keep increasing up to 14.4. Tg N/year by 2100. A major reason is the close connection between N2O emissions and human food production. Synthetic fertilizer use, land-use change, and production of manure increase almost inevitably as the human population grows. Thus if global warming is to be limited to 0.1 degree C per decade it may be necessary to set emission reductions for other greenhouse gases relatively high to compensate for growth in climatic forcing by N2O

1994-04-14

 
 
 
 
141

The heated debate. [Global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Heated Debate challenges head on the popular vision' of anthropogenically-caused global warming as characterized by catastrophic sea level rise, drought-desiccated farmlands, and more frequent and intense hurricanes spinning up and out from warmer tropical seas. The message of this book is that apocalyptic devastation of natural ecosystems and human socio-economic systems will not necessarily follow from a mild warming of earth's climate. According to Balling, the specter of apocalypse is clearly the dominant view held by scientists, decisionmakers and the public specter of apocalypse is clearly the dominant view held by scientists, decisionmakers and the public at large, and, in his view, it is just as clearly incorrect based on a careful examination of the historical evidence. The Heated Debate present the other side' of global warming; a kinder, gentler greenhouse debate, the stated purpose of the book is to provide the reader with some background to the greenhouse issue, present an analysis of the certainties and uncertainties for future climate change, and examine the most probably changes in climate that may occur as the greenhouse gases increase in concentration. Ultimately the author hopes the book will more completely inform decisionmakers so that they do not commit money and resources to what may turn out to be a non-problem. Indeed, global warming may have many more benefits than costs, and, in any event, the (climate) penalty for postponing action a few years is potentially small, while our knowledge base will increase tremendously allowing society to make wiser and more informed decisions.

Balling, R.C. Jr.

1992-01-01

142

A Warming World: Global Temperature Update  

Science.gov (United States)

This collection of videos, articles and imagery telling the story of global warming includes: a feature video about global warming; four articles about global warming featuring NASA climate scientists; two videos about how NASA satellites measure the earth's temperature; a gallery of images taken by NASA satellites depicting the effects of a warming world; an interactive graphic of temperature changes since 1880; and a set of NASA surface temperature visualizations.

143

Sponge biomass and bioerosion rates increase under ocean warming and acidification.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The combination of ocean warming and acidification as a result of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is considered to be a significant threat to calcifying organisms and their activities on coral reefs. How these global changes impact the important roles of decalcifying organisms (bioeroders) in the regulation of carbonate budgets, however, is less understood. To address this important question, the effects of a range of past, present and future CO2 emission scenarios (temperature + acidification) on the excavating sponge Cliona orientalis Thiele, 1900 were explored over twelve weeks in early summer on the southern Great Barrier Reef. C. orientalis is a widely distributed bioeroder on many reefs, and hosts symbiotic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. Our results showed that biomass production and bioerosion rates of C. orientalis were similar under a pre-industrial scenario and a present day (control) scenario. Symbiodinium population density in the sponge tissue was the highest under the pre-industrial scenario, and decreased towards the two future scenarios with sponge replicates under the 'business-as-usual' CO2 emission scenario exhibiting strong bleaching. Despite these changes, biomass production rates and the ability of the sponge to erode coral carbonate materials both increased under the future scenarios. Our study suggests that C. orientalis will likely grow faster and have higher bioerosion rates in a high CO2 future than at present, even with significant bleaching. Assuming that our findings hold for excavating sponges in general, increased sponge biomass coupled with accelerated bioerosion may push coral reefs towards net erosion and negative carbonate budgets in the future. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Fang JK; Mello-Athayde MA; Schönberg CH; Kline DI; Hoegh-Guldberg O; Dove S

2013-07-01

144

Motor vehicles and global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy use in transportation is one of the contributors to the concern over global warming. The primary greenhouse gases released by the transportation sector are carbon dioxide and chlorofluorocarbons. When all greenhouse gases are considered, CO{sub 2} emissions from the operation of highway vehicles worldwide represent about 4.7% of global warming enhancement. CO{sub 2} emissions from U.S. highway vehicles along represent about 2 to 2.5% of worldwide greenhouse gases. The use of CFCs in automotive air conditioning, in blowing foams for seats and padding and in the manufacture of electronic circuit boards accounted for 15% of the global usage of CFC-12 in 1985 according to the U.S. EPA. The Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association supports the phase-out of CFC use provided that safe substitutes are available and that adequate lead time is allowed for.They suggest that reduction of greenhouse gases would require planning on a global scope to be effective. One alternative they suggest for further study is a carbon fee for reducing emissions of carbon dioxide. This fee would be levied on each type of fossil fuel, proportional to its carbon content per unit of energy.

Halberstadt, M.L.

1990-03-01

145

The cause of global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three of the four methods of measuring global temperature show no signs of global warming: Proxy measurements (tree rings, sediments etc) for the past 1000 years; Weather balloons (radiosondes) for the past 44 years; Satellites (MSU Units) for the past 21 years. The fourth method, surface measurement at weather stations, gives an averaged mean global rise of a mere 0.6{sup o}C over 140 years, but is intermittent and irregular. Individual records are highly variable, regional, and sometimes, particularly in remote areas, show no change, or even a fall in temperature. It is concluded that temperature measurements carried out away from human influence show no evidence of global warming. The small and irregular rise shown by many surface stations must therefore be caused by changes in their thermal environment over long periods of time, such as better heating, larger buildings, darkening of surfaces, sealing of roads, increases in vehicles and aircraft, increased shielding from the atmosphere and deterioration of painted surfaces. (Author)

Gray, Vincent

2000-07-01

146

Local warming: daily temperature change influences belief in global warming.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although people are quite aware of global warming, their beliefs about it may be malleable; specifically, their beliefs may be constructed in response to questions about global warming. Beliefs may reflect irrelevant but salient information, such as the current day's temperature. This replacement of a more complex, less easily accessed judgment with a simple, more accessible one is known as attribute substitution. In three studies, we asked residents of the United States and Australia to report their opinions about global warming and whether the temperature on the day of the study was warmer or cooler than usual. Respondents who thought that day was warmer than usual believed more in and had greater concern about global warming than did respondents who thought that day was colder than usual. They also donated more money to a global-warming charity if they thought that day seemed warmer than usual. We used instrumental variable regression to rule out some alternative explanations.

Li Y; Johnson EJ; Zaval L

2011-04-01

147

[Medical consequences of global warming].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The global warming of the planet and its anthropogenic origin are no longer debatable. Nevertheless, from a medical point of view, while the epidemiological consequences of the warming are rather well-known, the biological consequences are still poorly documented. This is a good example of evolutionary (or darwinian) medicine. METHODS: The research strategy of this systematic review is based on both PubMed during the period of 2000-2007 and several reviews articles for the period >2000. RESULTS: From a medical point of view, there are four types of consequences. 1-The simple elevation of the average external temperature is accompanied by an increased global mortality and morbidity, the mortality/external temperature is a J curve, with the warm branch more pronounced than the cold one. A recent study on 50 different cities had confirmed that global, and more specifically cardiovascular mortalities were enhanced at the two extreme of the temperatures. 2-The acute heatwaves, such as that which happened in France in August 2003, have been studied in detail by several groups. The mortality which was observed during the recent heatwaves was not compensated by harvesting, strongly suggesting that we were dealing with heat stroke, and that such an increased mortality was more reflecting the limits of our adaptational capacities than aggravation of a previously altered health status. 3-Climate changes have modified the repartition and virulence of pathogenic agents (dengue, malaria...) and above all their vectors. Such modifications were exponential and are likely to reflect the biological properties of parasites. 4-Indirect consequences of global warming include variations in the hydraulic cycle, the new form of tropical hurricanes and many different changes affecting both biodiversity and ecosystems. They will likely result in an increased level of poverty. DISCUSSION: These finding gave rise to several basic biological questions, rarely evoked, and that concern the limits of the adaptational capacities of human genome. Our genome has indeed been shaped in the past by a rather cold environment which has acutely been modified. The immediate physiological regulation includes sweating and skin vasodilatation. The latter may strongly enhance the cardiac output which explains the heat-induced cardiac decompensation. Long term regulation depends upon the numerous mechanisms of uncoupling of the mitochondrial respiration. For the moment, the thermolytic mechanisms and their regulation were rather poorly documented.

Swynghedauw B

2009-04-01

148

The Discovery of Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

This web site provides an overview of the history of scientific research and public policy on climate change, from the nineteenth century to the present. The site is an expanded version of the book "The Discovery of Global Warming" by Spencer Weart, and is presented as a series of essays with hyperlinks connecting related topics from page to page. Topics include climate data, influences on climate, models of climate change, and societal impacts. The essays are searchable by keyword, and the entire site can be downloaded as a zipped file or a series of printable files (PDFs).

Weart, Spencer R.

149

Global warming and biological diversity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book is based on presentations given at the World Wildlife Fund's Conference on Consequences of the Greenhouse Effect for Biological Diverisity in 1988, and includes updated literature citations. The general topics covered in the book include the following: overview; summary of past responses of plants to climatic change; general ecological and physiological responses; ecosystems in 4 specific regions (arctic marine, Alaskan North Slope, NW US forests, and Mediterranean); global warming's implications for conservation. Ideas and data from many ecosystems and information about the relationships between biodiversity and climatic change are brought together with a balance of factual information and defensible scientific prognostication.

Peters, R.L.; Lovejoy, T.E. (eds.)

1992-01-01

150

No limit to global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Atmospheric water vapour and cloud, and hence greenhouse trapping and cloud forcing, tend to be reduced in regions of atmospheric subsidence and enhanced in regions of ascent. It is not obvious that once a region has changed from local descent to ascent, the dynamical effects will continue to increase at the same rate for subsequent global increases in temperature. The mechanism does not provide an absolute limit for climatic warming. Increases in cirrus cloud may produce a negative feedback with increases in tropical sea surface temperature, but it may not be as strong as implied by Ramanathan and Collins. 4 refs.

Mitchell, J.F.B. (Meteorological Office, Bracknell (UK). Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research)

1991-09-19

151

US demilitarization and global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the paper input-output methods are used to generate ballpark empirical estimates of the implications for global warming of the projected demilitarization of the US federal budget. The impact is found to be qualitatively ambiguous, and highly sensitive to the manner in which the funds saved are distributed. The effect is adverse where the budgetary savings are used to fund economy-wide cuts in personal taxation and/or deficit reduction. In other cases the effect may be neutral or beneficial. (author)

1993-01-01

152

The economics of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The global warming threat is challenging the world community to both international cooperation and national policy action. This report focuses on the necessity to alternate between ''global and national climate policies''. The Swiss perspective is at issue. The economic rationales for comparing national climate policy options are analyzed. This report explicitly focusses on the fundamental role of the normative framework and the related environmental-economic requisites for establishing an efficient national climate policy and computing a ''carbon tax''. Finally, the latest results of the energy and greenhouse gas scenarios for Switzerland, elaborated on within the network of the IEA/ETSAP Project, Annex IV, ''Greenhouse Gases and National Energy Options: Technologies and Costs for Reducing Emissions of Greenhouse Gases'', illustrate Switzerland's difficulties in reducing greenhouse gas emissions at ''reasonable cost'' compared with other countries. This should make Switzerland very sensitive to the implementation of efficient environmental-policy instruments and international cooperation. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

1993-01-01

153

How to slow global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author discusses the idea of setting up a 'General Agreement on Climate Change' (GACC) to accommodate the diverse and changing interests of nations seeking to slow down global warming alongside other socioeconomic objectives. Such an agreement could be modelled on the iterative negotiation process of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). Five classes of proposed structures for a climate agreement discussed are: (1) command-and-control, to instruct nations to lower greenhouse gas emissions; (2) Law of the Atmosphere, to control the use of the common resource of the global atmosphere; (3) greenhouse taxes for emissions; (4) tradeable permits for emitters and (5) a climate conventional-protocol system to set targets for the control of greenhouse gas emissions. The GACC, most similar to the conventional-protocol system, is advocated as a structure that could command best acceptance. 46 refs.

Victor, D.G. (Massachusetts Institute of Science and Technology, Cambridge, MA (USA). Dept. of Political Science)

1991-02-07

154

Global warming problems in Asia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In January 1991 a survey was made of energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions in the Philippines, Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and the Republic of Korea. Economic growth and energy consumption are predicted to increase at a rate of over 5%. CO{sub 2} emissions are expected to increase 2.74 times by 2010, with Indonesia and Thailand, registering the highest growth of emissions. Asia is a serious contributor to global CO{sub 2} emissions, partly because of deforestation, particularly in China, Indonesia and Thailand. The forests are mainly being cleared for agriculture. Energy conservation and increased energy efficiency, aided by transfer of technologies would reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Increased use of coal is likely. The poor urban lifestyle is seen as a more immediate problem than global warming. 1 fig., 5 tabs.

Awata, H.; Hattori, T.

1991-09-01

155

85Kr induced global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] It's well known that the trace atmospheric constituent as 85Kr is at present about 106 cm-3 and increasing considerably (twice every 8--10 years) as a result of nuclear fuel utilization. This paper presents the model of influence of 85Kr accumulation in the earth atmosphere on climate perturbation and global warming. The process of increasing the concentrations in the troposphere due to the anthropogenic emission of 85Kr and its radioactive decay is analyzed, based on master kinetic equations. Results indicate that anthropogenic emissions contributing to the total equilibrium concentration of tropospheric ions due to 85Kr is about equal to the natural level of tropospheric ions. The influence of atmospheric electricity on the transformation between water vapor and clouds which result in an increase in the concentration of ions in troposphere is investigated. The paper shows that the process of anthropogenic accumulation of 85Kr in the troposphere at present rate up to 2005--2010 increases the mean of the dew-point temperature several degrees on the global scale. Relevant change of height for the lower level of clouds has been obtained. Positive feedback between the process of warming of the lower atmosphere and the concentration of tropospheric ions has been considered

1996-01-01

156

Global warming potential of pavements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pavements comprise an essential and vast infrastructure system supporting our transportation network, yet their impact on the environment is largely unquantified. Previous life-cycle assessments have only included a limited number of the applicable life-cycle components in their analysis. This research expands the current view to include eight different components: materials extraction and production, transportation, onsite equipment, traffic delay, carbonation, lighting, albedo, and rolling resistance. Using global warming potential as the environmental indicator, ranges of potential impact for each component are calculated and compared based on the information uncovered in the existing research. The relative impacts between components are found to be orders of magnitude different in some cases. Context-related factors, such as traffic level and location, are also important elements affecting the impacts of a given component. A strategic method for lowering the global warming potential of a pavement is developed based on the concept that environmental performance is improved most effectively by focusing on components with high impact potentials. This system takes advantage of the fact that small changes in high-impact components will have more effect than large changes in low-impact components.

2009-01-01

157

Global Warming Control to Mitigate Climate Change  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Paper describes a proposed development of empirical model of global warming fit on the collective determinants in all countries. Aim is to enable establishment and comparison of the collective effects of global determinants on global warming in the prescription of the regulations most fit for the co...

Antipas T. S. Massawe

158

Global Warming in 5 Steps  

Science.gov (United States)

Scientists say the planet is warming because of human activities, namely the greenhouse effect from carbon dioxide released to the atmosphere when burning fossil fuels. But, how do we know? How do scientists know? Students are presented with the following questions: 1) What makes a greenhouse gas a greenhouse gas? 2) Is carbon dioxide a greenhouse gas? [Instructor: How do we know?] 3) Is the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increasing? How do we know? 4) Is carbon dioxide [in the atmosphere] increasing because of human activities? [Instructor: How do we know?] ---- Discussion of results and prediction of what students expect will happen to global average temperature... 5) Is global average temperature increasing? How do we know? Separate groups of students research just one question each on the internet and submit a brief summary to the instructor. The instructor and class go over results for just the first four questions. The instructor addresses "How do we know" for questions 2 and 4. Then, students are asked what they think will happen to global average temperature based on results of the first four questions (i.e. make an hypothesis). Finally, the results from the last group are presented and students are asked to discuss how observed global temperature changes compare with their hypothesis.

Taylor, Stephen

159

Oregon task force on global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Oregon Task Force on Global Warming was created in late 1988. The task force is composed of 12 state agencies. It reviews current scientific knowledge and assess how global warming could affect the state, and reports on how the agencies propose to respond to the threat of global warming. This report summarizes the agencies' findings about potential impacts and the actions they intend to take.

1990-01-01

160

Integrated assessment of global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The anomalies of sea surface temperatures, which show a warming trend since the 1850s through the decade 1960/70 of {Delta}SST {approximately} 0.3 C, are complemented by changes of the ground surface temperature ({Delta}GST). The global surface temperature change, based on these data, allows an integrated assessment of the associated increase in black-body irradiance and a comparison with the enhanced greenhouse-gas back-scattering. Information on the GST history is obtained from unfolding analyses of underground temperature distributions measured in 90 boreholes in Alaskan permafrost and Canadian bedrock. These analyses show GST increases ({Delta}GST) since the 19th century through 1960/70 of 3 C on average, with standard deviations of +1.8 C and {minus}0.9 C on the high and low end respectively. The onset of the warming trend, which is uncertain in the GST data, is timed more accurately by detailed length records of large valley glaciers in the US and the Alps. Evaluation of the heat capacities and heat transfer indicates that the temperature response to an increase in radiative forcing must be much larger on land than on the sea. Conversely, the observed large ratio of {Delta}GST and {Delta}SST can only be explained by increased radiative forcing. From 1960/70 through the warmest decade on record, 1980/90, global {Delta}SST and {Delta}SAT have further increased to 0.6 C and 0.8 C respectively, But, the most recent GST data are not accurate enough to extend the comparison through 1990. Calculation of the increase of radiative forcing from back-scattering of greenhouse gases for 1850 to 1970 yields 1.3 W/cm{sup 2}. The increase in black-body irradiance from 3.6 C warming on land and 0.3 C on sea provides the required balance. The warming on land of 3.6 C is larger than the average value of 3.0 C, but well within the observed range.

Ott, K.O. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Nuclear Engineering

1996-12-31

 
 
 
 
161

Keeping cool on global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A number of scientific groups have concluded that the greenhouse effect caused by the man-made emissions of carbon dioxide and other bases has produced much or all of the rise in global temperatures. They predict that there will be an increase in greenhouse gases equivalent to a doubling of carbon dioxide by the middle of the 21st century, and that this will cause the temperature of the earth to rise by as much as 5C. According to these scientists, a temperature rise of this magnitude would cause major disruptions in the earth's ecosystem, including severe summer drought in the midwestern US and other agricultural regions. The worst-case scenarios predict a major rise in sea level as a result of the greenhouse warming, inundating areas of New York, Miami and other coastal cities as well as low-lying river deltas and islands. The lives of hundreds of millions of people would be disrupted. The available data on climate change, however, do not support these predictions, nor do they support the idea that human activity has caused, or will cause, a dangerous increase in global temperatures. As the authors make this statement, they are aware that it contradicts widespread popular opinion, as well as the technical judgments of some of their colleagues. But it would be imprudent to ignore the facts on global warming that have accumulated over the last two years. These facts indicate that theoretical estimates of the greenhouse problem have greatly exaggerated its seriousness. Enormous economic stakes ride on forthcoming government decisions regarding carbon taxes and other restrictions on CO{sub 2} emissions. Due attention must therefore be given to the scientific evidence, no matter how contrary to popular opinion its implications appear to be. This article discusses the scientific evidence.

Seitz, F. (George C. Marshall Inst., Washington, DC (United States) Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY (United States)); Hawkins, W.; Nierenberg, W.; Salmon, J. (George C. Marshall Inst., Washington, DC (United States)); Jastrow, R. (George C. Marshall Inst., Washington, DC (United States) Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States)); Moore, J.H. (George C. Marshall Inst., Washington, DC (United States) George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States))

1992-07-01

162

Global warming; What needs to be done  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper names global warming as a high-level risk. However, global warming's risk status is a point of debate in some circles, reflecting one of the complexities of using risk-based criteria to establish priorities for action. The position that global warming is a long-term environmental trend that must be halted. In this paper, argument son both sides of the global warming issue are presented to illustrate the difficulties associated with establishing the existence and magnitude of environmental and health risks, an issue that must be faced if the SAB recommendations for EPA policy change are implemented.

1991-04-01

163

Environmental Protection Agency's Global Warming Web Site  

Science.gov (United States)

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Home Page on Global Warming is served by the Waste Policy Institute for the EPA Office of Economy and Environment. This well organized site contains a great deal of information on global warming, climate change, and the greenhouse effect. It contains reports, slide presentations, and a glossary of terms, among other features. It also contains predictions on the impacts of global warming and discusses governmental policies and actions. If you would like to make a difference in the study of global warming, this site can also give you the information you need to get involved.

1997-01-01

164

Forecasting phenology under global warming.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As a consequence of warming temperatures around the world, spring and autumn phenologies have been shifting, with corresponding changes in the length of the growing season. Our understanding of the spatial and interspecific variation of these changes, however, is limited. Not all species are responding similarly, and there is significant spatial variation in responses even within species. This spatial and interspecific variation complicates efforts to predict phenological responses to ongoing climate change, but must be incorporated in order to build reliable forecasts. Here, we use a long-term dataset (1953-2005) of plant phenological events in spring (flowering and leaf out) and autumn (leaf colouring and leaf fall) throughout Japan and South Korea to build forecasts that account for these sources of variability. Specifically, we used hierarchical models to incorporate the spatial variability in phenological responses to temperature to then forecast species' overall and site-specific responses to global warming. We found that for most species, spring phenology is advancing and autumn phenology is getting later, with the timing of events changing more quickly in autumn compared with the spring. Temporal trends and phenological responses to temperature in East Asia contrasted with results from comparable studies in Europe, where spring events are changing more rapidly than are autumn events. Our results emphasize the need to study multiple species at many sites to understand and forecast regional changes in phenology.

Ibáñez I; Primack RB; Miller-Rushing AJ; Ellwood E; Higuchi H; Lee SD; Kobori H; Silander JA

2010-10-01

165

Forecasting phenology under global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

As a consequence of warming temperatures around the world, spring and autumn phenologies have been shifting, with corresponding changes in the length of the growing season. Our understanding of the spatial and interspecific variation of these changes, however, is limited. Not all species are responding similarly, and there is significant spatial variation in responses even within species. This spatial and interspecific variation complicates efforts to predict phenological responses to ongoing climate change, but must be incorporated in order to build reliable forecasts. Here, we use a long-term dataset (1953–2005) of plant phenological events in spring (flowering and leaf out) and autumn (leaf colouring and leaf fall) throughout Japan and South Korea to build forecasts that account for these sources of variability. Specifically, we used hierarchical models to incorporate the spatial variability in phenological responses to temperature to then forecast species' overall and site-specific responses to global warming. We found that for most species, spring phenology is advancing and autumn phenology is getting later, with the timing of events changing more quickly in autumn compared with the spring. Temporal trends and phenological responses to temperature in East Asia contrasted with results from comparable studies in Europe, where spring events are changing more rapidly than are autumn events. Our results emphasize the need to study multiple species at many sites to understand and forecast regional changes in phenology.

Ibanez, Ines; Primack, Richard B.; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.; Ellwood, Elizabeth; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi; Lee, Sang Don; Kobori, Hiromi; Silander, John A.

2010-01-01

166

Automobility: Global Warming as Symptomatology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The argument of this paper is that sustainability requires a new worldview-paradigm. It critically evaluates Gore’s liberal-based environmentalism in order to show how “shallow ecologies” are called into question by deeper ecologies. This analysis leads to the notion that global warming is better understood as a symptom indicative of the worldview that is the source for environmental crises. Heidegger’s ontological hermeneutics and its critique of modern technology show that the modern worldview involves an enframing (a totalizing technological ordering) of the natural. Enframing reveals entities as standing reserve (on demand energy suppliers). My thesis maintains that enframing is geographically expressed as automobility. Because of the energy needs used to maintain automobility, reaching the goal of sustainability requires rethinking the spatial organization of life as a function of stored energy technologies.

Gary Backhaus

2009-01-01

167

How to stop global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports on how to stop global warming. At the Toronto Conference on Climate Change in 1988, the world's industrialized nations agreed on a goal of cutting greenhouse gas emissions 20 percent by the year 2005. This would not stabilize atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases but would at least slow their accumulation. Although difficult to achieve, the Toronto goal is certainly reachable. Newer, more efficient technologies can lower energy consumption without effecting economic output. CFC- substitutes can provide refrigeration. In fact, an international carbon tax of just $1 per barrel of oil, or $6 per ton of coal, would generate more than enough revenue to pay for the necessary fuel-saving measures. This tax could result from an international agreement similar to the 1987 Montreal Protocol, which obliges its signatories to cut down on production of CFCs.

Goldenberg, J. (Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica)

1990-11-01

168

Global warming, insurance losses and financial industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Global warming causes extremely bad weather in the near term. They have already caught the attention of the insurance industry, as they suffered massive losses in the last decade. Twenty-one out of the 25 largest catastrophes in the US, mainly in the form of hurricanes have occurred in the last decade. The insurance industry has reacted by taking the risk of global warming in decisions as to pricing and underwriting decisions. But they have yet to take a more active role in regulating the factors that contributes to global warming. How global warming can impact the financial industry and the modern economy is explored. Insurance and modern financial derivatives are key to the efficient functioning of the modern economy, without which the global economy can still function but will take a giant step backward. Any risk as global warming that causes economic surprises will hamper the efficient working of the financial market and the modern economy.

Low, N.C. [UOB Life Assurance Limited, Singapore (Singapore)

1996-12-31

169

Sustainability Management Based Approach to Global Warming:  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The global warming is a kind of sustainability risk. For this reason, Global Warming should be considering in Sustainability Management concept. The global warming risk must be managed effectively since its consequences threats for sustainability of our world. While this is understandable by all of us, a broader view is necessary to manage this risk in both the short and long-term. Risk management mentality is useful to the best managing of global risks. In this study, the global warming is discussed within risk and sustainability concept. The risk management-based model and risk score formula has been developed to global warming. The model and formula are based on Enterprise Risk Model to Corporate Sustainability and Enterprise Risk Score Formula, 2008. This model is called as Cgw (Sustainability Risk Management Model to Global Warming), introduced as a useable way for a systematic and effective managerial approach of the global warming issue. Risk score formula has been developed for prioritization of identified global warming risks. Prioritization is useful to allocation of limited sources to managing top risks. Every risk has two dimensions as threat and opportunity in the holistic risk management concept that it is considered in the developing process of Cgw model.

AYSE KUCUK YILMAZ; Hikmet KARAKOC

2008-01-01

170

The EPA Global Warming Kids Site  

Science.gov (United States)

This Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) site focuses on the science and impacts of global warming or climate change, and on actions that help address global warming. It features games, events, and links to other relevant sites for kids and educators, including activities on climate and weather and the greenhouse effect.

171

Global Warming: Lessons from Ozone Depletion  

Science.gov (United States)

|My teaching and textbook have always covered many physics-related social issues, including stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. The ozone saga is an inspiring good-news story that's instructive for solving the similar but bigger problem of global warming. Thus, as soon as students in my physics literacy course at the University of…

Hobson, Art

2010-01-01

172

Turkish Students' Ideas about Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

|A questionnaire was used to explore the prevalence of ideas about global warming in Year 10 (age 15-16 years) school students in Turkey. The frequencies of individual scientific ideas and misconceptions about the causes, consequences and "cures" of global warming were identified. In addition, several general findings emerged from this study.…

Kilinc, Ahmet; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

2008-01-01

173

Are philosophers responsible for global warming?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Global warming has come about as a result of rapid population increase plus our whole modern way of life, all made possible by modern science. In order to tackle global warming successfully, we need a new kind of inquiry that gives intellectual priority to tackling problems of living over problems o...

Maxwell, N.

174

Exploring the Sociopolitical Dimensions of Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors present an activity to help high school students conceptualize the sociopolitical complexity of global warming through an exploration of varied perspectives on the issue. They argue that socioscientific issues such as global warming present important contexts for learning science and that the social and political dimensions of these…

Sadler, Troy D.; Klosterman, Michelle L.

2009-01-01

175

Global warming's heated debate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article discusses choices that will have to be made if global warming is prevented. Economists argue that with limited resources choices will need to be made between environmental and social issues. With uncertainties expressed by some scientists as to how serious the global warming problem really is, massive resource allocations are unlikely to occur.

Lochhead, C.

1990-04-16

176

Global Warming: Lessons from Ozone Depletion  

Science.gov (United States)

My teaching and textbook have always covered many physics-related social issues, including stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. The ozone saga is an inspiring good-news story that's instructive for solving the similar but bigger problem of global warming. Thus, as soon as students in my physics literacy course at the University of…

Hobson, Art

2010-01-01

177

Turkish Students' Ideas about Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

A questionnaire was used to explore the prevalence of ideas about global warming in Year 10 (age 15-16 years) school students in Turkey. The frequencies of individual scientific ideas and misconceptions about the causes, consequences and "cures" of global warming were identified. In addition, several general findings emerged from this study.…

Kilinc, Ahmet; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

2008-01-01

178

Power industry research on global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A brief outline and history of the research by the UK electricity generation companies into global warming is presented. Four research fellowships were established in the fields of ocean biology and CO[sub 2] uptake; radiative effects of clouds, water vapour and aerosols; land-atmosphere exchange processes; and oceanic control of the timing of global warming. (UK)

Crane, Andrew (National Power plc (United Kingdom). Environment Unit)

1994-05-01

179

Biomass energy and global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The proposal to use biomass energy to reduce fossil fuel consumption is almost as controversial as the effects of global warming. Nevertheless, forest and industrial wood residues can undoubtedly be used advantageously for energy from both economical and environmental standpoints. Biomass energy has the potential to meet 10 to 90 percent of future global and U.S. energy requirements. Biomass fuel could be as efficient as fossil fuel in applications where solid fuels is most commonly burned but would be less efficient where gaseous and liquid fuels are commonly used. At present, producing wood for energy is usually secondary to producing wood for consumer products. However, tree plantations dedicated to energy production are becoming popular and will become more common in the future. Wood for energy will also become a more significant part of forest production as improved harvesting and processing methods are developed for this purpose. Some side-benefits of producing and using more wood are conservation of energy and sequestration of carbon in wood products. 7 refs., 1 fig.

Zerbe, J.I. (USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (USA). Forest Products Lab.)

1990-01-01

180

Global warming: the continuing debate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The book contains a collection of papers on various aspects of the global warming debate which support the view of the European Science and Environment Forum that scientific evidence and climate models do not conclusively prove the existence of the greenhouse effect. Introductory chapters by Roger Bate and David Murray discuss the politisation of climate science and the subject of media coverage, respectively. Papers in the section headed `method`, applied science and policy include discussions on the state of climate change science (Roy Spencer), the role of remote sensing in climate monitoring (Robin Vaughan), Limited predictability of the greenhouse effect (C. Wiin-Christensen), bias in measured data (A.H. Gordon); the elusive search for a human impact on the climate system (Gerd-Rainer Weber); the spin on greenhouse hurricanes (Robert Balling) and control of CO{sub 2} through ocean fertilisation (S. Fred Singer). Papers in the section `scientific controversies` discuss a climate model pointing to global cooling (Theodor Landscheidt) impacts of solar irradiance variations and greenhouse changes on climate, 1880-1993 (E.S. Posmentier), forecasting temperature, El Nino and cloud coverage by astronomical means (Landscheidt) and carbon cycle modelling and the residence time of CO{sub 2} (Tom Segalstrad).

Bate, R. [ed.] [Cambridge University, Cambridge (United Kingdom). Wolfson College

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

The effect of the global warming on marine ecosystems in the Arctic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The article discusses various results from studies of development in the ecosystems in the Arctic region and the effect the global warming may have. The warming in these areas is larger than in the central Europe and influence the economic and social development of the region. The focus is on the fisheries, exploitation of oil and gas, transport, diversity in species, acidification of the oceans, meteorological phenomena etc.. Some environmental and energy related aspects are mentioned. (tk)

2007-01-01

182

Global Climate Change: The Effects of Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

In this lesson, students conduct an experiment to learn about CO2 levels found in four different gases. Through this experiment and a set of multimedia resources, they will learn how atmospheric levels of CO2 relate to climate change and global warming, explore the effects of global warming on the environment (as indicated by the changes in Earth's glacial ice), and consider human contributions to global warming, particularly from the use of automobiles.

2005-01-01

183

Global warming and reproductive health.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The largest absolute numbers of maternal deaths occur among the 40-50 million women who deliver annually without a skilled birth attendant. Most of these deaths occur in countries with a total fertility rate of greater than 4. The combination of global warming and rapid population growth in the Sahel and parts of the Middle East poses a serious threat to reproductive health and to food security. Poverty, lack of resources, and rapid population growth make it unlikely that most women in these countries will have access to skilled birth attendants or emergency obstetric care in the foreseeable future. Three strategies can be implemented to improve women's health and reproductive rights in high-fertility, low-resource settings: (1) make family planning accessible and remove non-evidenced-based barriers to contraception; (2) scale up community distribution of misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage and, where it is legal, for medical abortion; and (3) eliminate child marriage and invest in girls and young women, thereby reducing early childbearing.

Potts M; Henderson CE

2012-10-01

184

Global warming: The complete briefing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

John Houghton has drawn on the exhaustive efforts of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to produce a notably compact, impeccably complete and authoritative, meticulously balanced, and lucidly presented guide to the complex yet vital issue of global warming. Its subtitle is not mere hyperbole: this truly is a complete briefing. Certainly, one could not ask for a more authoritative brief: Houghton has led an imposing series of national and international efforts relating to climate, including the most recent scientific assessments of the IPCC. Citing many concrete examples, Houghton begins by convincing that climate truly is important to humankind and that climate is far from constant. He then elucidates the mechanisms that maintain the benign climate of our planet, providing in the process, for example, the most accurate explanation of the natural greenhouse effect that has yet appeared in print. He then treats the individual greenhouse gases responsible for maintaining the earth`s warmth and presents projections of their probable future concentrations as influenced by human activities. Further chapters deal with conclusions drawn from climate models, estimates of the impacts on human activities, and possible policies and actions to mitigate or alleviate the changes and their consequences.

Houghton, J.

1994-12-31

185

Global warming: Policies for amelioration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses a number of issues concerning global warming, these include: greenhouse gases; reduction targets for greenhouse gases; fossil fuels and CO{sub 2} production; energy efficiency and conservation; key Canadian energy sectors; energy alternatives; land use management; international policies; and government processes. It suggests the need for both long-term and short-term approaches to the problem. In the short-term, strategies could rely on pricing and regulation. The price of fossil fuels and other greenhouse gas sources should reflect the full social and environmental costs. The revenues thus raised could finance other relevant projects. A variety of regulatory strategies could be employed: performance standards with appropriate enforcement and penalties, emission offsets, or marketable permits. There is also a need for provincial and municipal policies and actions, which, in addition to federal initiatives, could be directed toward utility regulation, building codes, waste management and transportation planning. In the long-term, research and development of new and promising alternative technologies should be increased. As in the short-term, other policies should complement regulatory and pricing programs. For example, government procurement should be directed towards environmentally friendly purchases, and government contracts should be only be awarded after the company has been assessed for its approach to environmental and greenhouse issues in the specific contract negotiation and in more general terms. 19 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Milko, R.

1989-11-01

186

Some economics of global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The greenhouse effect itself is simple enough to understand and is not in any real dispute. What is in dispute is its magnitude over the coming century, its translation into changes in climates around the globe, and the impacts of those climate changes on human welfare and the natural environment. These are beyond the professional understanding of any single person. The sciences involved are too numerous and diverse. Demography, economics, biology, and the technology sciences are needed to project emissions; atmospheric chemistry, oceanography, biology, and meteorology are needed to translate emissions into climates; biology, agronomy, health sciences, economics, sociology, and glaciology are needed to identify and assess impacts on human societies and natural ecosystems. And those are not all. There are expert judgments on large pieces of the subject, but no single person clothed in this panoply of disciplines has shown up or is likely to. This article makes an attempt to forecast the economic and social consequences of global warming due to anthropogenic greenhouse gases, and attempting to prevent it.

Schelling, T.C. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States))

1992-03-01

187

Global warming and nuclear power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is steadily increasing and it is widely believed that this will lead to global warming that will have serious consequences for life on earth. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has estimated that the temperature of the earth will increase by between 1 and 3.5 degrees in the next century. This will melt some of the Antarctic ice cap, raise the sea level and flood many low-lying countries, and also produce unpredictable changes in the earth's climate. The possible ways of reducing carbon dioxide emission are discussed. It is essential to reduce the burning of fossil fuels, but then how are we to obtain the energy we need? We can try to reduce energy use, but we will still need to generate large amounts energy. Some possible ways of doing this are by using wind and solar generators, by hydroelectric and tidal plants, and also by nuclear power. These possibilities will be critically examined. (author)

1999-01-01

188

Global warming and nuclear power  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is steadily increasing and it is widely believed that this will lead to global warming that will have serious consequences for life on earth. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has estimated that the temperature of the earth will increase by between 1 and 3.5 degrees in the next century. This will melt some of the Antarctic ice cap, raise the sea level and flood many low-lying countries, and also produce unpredictable changes in the earth's climate. The possible ways of reducing carbon dioxide emission are discussed. It is essential to reduce the burning of fossil fuels, but then how are we to obtain the energy we need? We can try to reduce energy use, but we will still need to generate large amounts energy. Some possible ways of doing this are by using wind and solar generators, by hydroelectric and tidal plants, and also by nuclear power. These possibilities will be critically examined. (author)

Hodgson, P.E. [Nuclear and Particle Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Oxford Univ., Oxford (United Kingdom)

1999-09-01

189

Global warming and forest fires in Canada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The looming possibility of global warming raises legitimate concerns for the future of the forest resource in Canada. While evidence of a global warming trend is not conclusive at this time, governments would be wise to anticipate, and begin planning for, such an eventuality. The forest fire business is likely to be affected both early and dramatically by any trend toward warmer and drier conditions in Canada, and fire managers should be aware that the future will likely require new and innovative thinking in forest fire management. This paper summarizes research activities currently underway to assess the impact of global warming on forest fires, and speculates on future fire management problems and strategies.

Stocks, B.J. (Forestry Canada, Sault St. Marie, ON (Canada). Forest Fire Research)

1993-06-01

190

Global warming and nuclear power  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nuclear fission power reactors represent a potential solution to many aspects of global change possibly induced by inputting of either particulate or carbon or sulfur oxides into the Earth`s atmosphere. Of proven technological feasibility, they presently produce high-grade heat for large-scale electricity generation, space heating and industrial process-energizing around the world, without emitting greenhouse gases or atmospheric particulates; importantly, electricity production costs from the best nuclear plants presently are closely comparable with those of the best fossil-fired plants. However, a substantial number of issues currently stand between nuclear power and widespread substitution for large stationary fossil fuel-fired systems. These include perceptual ones regarding both long-term and acute operational safety, plant decommissioning, fuel reprocessing, radwaste disposal, fissile materials diversion to military purposes and - perhaps most seriously- readily quantifiable concerns regarding long-term fuel supply and total unit electrical energy cost. We sketch a road-map for proceeding from the present situation toward a nuclear power-intensive world, addressing along the way each of the concerns which presently impede widespread nuclear substitution for fossil fuels, particularly for coal in the most populous and rapidly developing portions of the world, e.g., China and India. This `design to societal specifications` approach to large-scale nuclear fission power systems may lead to energy sources meeting essentially all stationary demands for high-temperature heat. Such advanced options offer a human population of ten billion the electricity supply levels currently enjoyed by Americans for 10,000 years. Nuclear power systems tailored to local needs-and-interests and having a common advanced technology base could reduce present-day world-wide C0{sub 2} emissions by two-fold, if universally employed. By application to small mobile demands, a second two-fold reduction might be attained. Even the first such halving of carbon intensivity of stationary-source energy production world-wide might permit continued slow power-demand growth in the highly developed countries and rapid development of the other 80% of the world, both without active governmental suppression of fossil fuel usage - while also stabilizing carbon input-rates into the Earth`s atmosphere. The second two-fold reduction might obviate most global warming concerns.

Wood, L., LLNL

1998-07-10

191

Is global warming already changing ocean productivity?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Global warming is predicted to alter the ocean's biological productivity. But how will we recognise the impacts of climate change on ocean productivity? The most comprehensive information available on the global distribution of ocean productivity comes from satellite ocean colour data. Now that over ten years of SeaWiFS data have accumulated, can we begin to detect and attribute global warming trends in productivity? Here we compare recent trends in SeaWiFS data to longer-term records from three biogeochemical models (GFDL, IPSL and NCAR). We find that detection of real trends in the satellite data is confounded by the relatively short time series and large interannual and decadal variability in productivity. Thus, recent observed changes in chlorophyll, primary production and the size of the oligotrophic gyres cannot be unequivocally attributed to the impact of global warming. Instead, our analyses suggest that a time series of ~40 yr length is needed to distinguish a global warming trend from natural variability. Analysis of modelled chlorophyll and primary production from 2001–2100 suggests that, on average, the global warming trend will not be unambiguously separable from decadal variability until ~2055. Because the magnitude of natural variability in chlorophyll and primary production is larger than, or similar to, the global warming trend, a consistent, decades-long data record must be established if the impact of climate change on ocean productivity is to be definitively detected.

S. A. Henson; J. L. Sarmiento; J. P. Dunne; L. Bopp; I. Lima; S. C. Doney; J. John; C. Beaulieu

2009-01-01

192

National Security Implications of Global Warming Policy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although numerous historical examples demonstrate how actual climate change has contributed to the rise and fall of powers, global warming, in and of itself, is not our nation's greatest climate threat. Rather, the greatest climate threat to national secu...

S. L. Tucker

2010-01-01

193

Canada and global warming: Meeting the challenge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is now internationally recognized that, as a consequence of growing human population and accelerating development, concentrations of green house gases in the atmosphere are increasing. This document discusses Canada's contribution to the global warming problem; the impacts of global warming on Canada; a national strategy to effect change; and the role of the Government of Canada, Atlantic Canada, Central Canada, Western Canada, and Canada's North in effecting change. It also provides a list of contacts.

1992-01-01

194

Global warming and north-south solidarity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The discussion on climate change is based on 'contradictory certainties'. All sides claim to have found the truth. Much has been written and said about the connection between global warming, biodiversity and over population. The impoverished countries of the South se the insatiable intentions of the North as the major threat to the environment; and global warming as an excuse for stopping the economic development of the south

1998-01-01

195

Global warming and the greenhouse effect  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The empirical evidence for global warming is analyzed as to the onset of a warming trend, its magnitude in terms of an overall temperature rise from its onset through 1992, and for indications of a contribution of a CO{sub 2} induced addition to the natural greenhouse effect. The data investigated include the hemispheric and global surface air temperatures (SAT), permafrost temperatures and data on the retreat and advance of mountain glaciers around the globe. (author)

Ott, K.O. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Nuclear Engineering

1995-09-01

196

Televised news coverage of global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Citizens are expressing increased concern over the number and variety of environmental problems. Global warming in particular is a focus of concern for scientists and environmental groups. Such concern should naturally motivate individuals to seek information about these topics. Many people turn to the media, most usually television, for information on the nature of these problems. Consequently, this paper studied media coverage of environmental issues, specifically global warming. Television coverage was examined for: (1) the general nature of coverage, (2) biases in coverage, (3) visual images used to cover global warming, and (4) the congruity between visual and verbal messages in newscasts. Nightly newscasts from the three major American television networks were analyzed from 1993--1995 to determine the overall nature of global warming coverage since the Earth Summit in 1992. Results indicated that television news suffers from some serious inadequacies in its portrayal of global warming issues. The paper concludes by first discussing how its results intertwine with other work in the global warming and mass media field. Finally, the implications of inadequacies in media coverage for policy-makers when it comes to sound management of critical resources in this area are also discussed.

Nitz, M.; Jarvis, S.; Kenski, H. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)

1996-12-31

197

Television news coverage of global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Citizens are expressing increased concern over the number and variety of environmental problems. Global warming in particular is a focus of concern for scientists and environmental groups. Such concern should naturally motivate individuals to seek information about these topics. Many people turn to the media, most usually television, for information on the nature of these problems. Consequently, this paper studied media coverage of environmental issues, specifically global warming. Television coverage was examined for: (1) the general nature of coverage; (2) biases in coverage; (3) visual images used to cover global warming; and (4) the congruity between visual and verbal messages in newscasts. Nightly newscasts from the three major American television networks were analyzed from 1993--1995 to determine the overall nature of global warming coverage since the Earth Summit in 1992. Results indicated that television news suffers from some serious inadequacies in its portrayal of global warming issues. The paper concludes by first discussing how its results intertwine with other work in the global warming and mass media field. Finally, the implications of inadequacies in media coverage for policy-makers when it comes to sound management of critical resources in this area are also discussed.

Nitz, M. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). School of Communication; Jarvis, S. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Speech Communication; Kenski, H. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Communication

1996-06-01

198

GLOBAL WARMING: IMPLICATIONS AND ANTICIPATORY ADAPTIVE MEASURES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our earth is warming up. There is no denying to this fact that the gradual heating up of our globe has a tremendous effect on the climate. It in turn has affected the biotic factors that make up our biosphere, eventually directing the course of our socio-economic development. Some workers are, however, optimistic about this natural phenomenon. Various ways have been suggested to mitigate the effects of global warming, but the damage already done cannot be revoked. Hence, the thing that we are left with is to go for anticipatory adaptive measures so as to tone down the intensity of future implications of global warming.

AABID RASOOL ZARGAR; MEHRAJ A. SHEIKH; MUNESH KUMAR

2011-01-01

199

What Should We do About Global Warming?  

Science.gov (United States)

This Web site created by Beloit College provides a challenging module devoted to the Global Warming phenomenon. Visitors will first be exposed to a series of QuickTime animations illustrating the Effects of Climate Change. Then, through a series of Sessions, students can learn about the characteristics of greenhouse gases as well as how to interpret their concentrations in the atmosphere through time. Lastly, the users are asked to incorporate their new found knowledge to answer the questions: Is the Earth Warming? and What Should We do About Global Warming?

200

GLOBAL WARMING AND PATTERN OF MAIN ECONOMY IN SUNDARBAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, the phrase “global warming” refers tothe change in the Earth's global average surfacetemperature. Measurements show a global temperatureincrease of 1.4 °F (0.78 °C) between the years 1900 and2005. Global warming is closely associated with a broadspectrum of other climate changes, such as increases inthe frequency of intense rainfall, decreases in snow coverand sea ice, more frequent and intense heat waves, risingsea levels, and widespread ocean acidification. TheIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) hasproduced several reports where the economics literatureon climate change is assessed. In 1995, the IPCCproduced its second set of assessment reports on climatechange. Working Group III of the IPCC produced a reporton the "Economic and Social Dimensions of ClimateChange." In the later third and fourth IPCC assessments,published in 2001 and 2007 respectively, the assessmentof the economics literature is divided across two reportsproduced by IPCC Working Groups II and III. In 2011IPCC Working Group III published a Special Report onRenewable Energy Sources and Climate Change.

Biplab Das

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Global Warming: Is it Real?  

Science.gov (United States)

This short article from the Why Files discusses research that provides new evidence for a century-long warming trend. The research is based on records of lake and river ice melting and freezing dates over a 150-year period in the Northern Hemisphere. Researcher John Magnuson of the University of Wisconsin-Madison published his results in the journal Science.

Tenenbaum, David

2000-09-11

202

Forecasting phenology under global warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As a consequence of warming temperatures around the world, spring and autumn phenologies have been shifting, with corresponding changes in the length of the growing season. Our understanding of the spatial and interspecific variation of these changes, however, is limited. Not all species are respond...

Ibáñez, Inés; Primack, Richard B.; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.; Ellwood, Elizabeth; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi; Lee, Sang Don

203

Global Warming: A Public Health Concern  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over the last 100 years the average temperature on the Earth has risen approximately 1ºFahrenheit (F), increasing at a rate twice as fast as has been noted for any period in the last 1,000 years. The Arctic ice cap is shrinking, glaciers are melting, and the Arctic permafrost is thawing. There is mounting evidence that these global climate changes are already affecting human health. This article provides a brief overview of global warming and climate changes, discusses effects of climate change on health, considers the factors which contribute to climate changes, and reviews individual and collective efforts related to reducing global warming.

Brenda M. Afzal

2007-01-01

204

Warming up, turning sour, losing breath: ocean biogeochemistry under global change.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the coming decades and centuries, the ocean's biogeochemical cycles and ecosystems will become increasingly stressed by at least three independent factors. Rising temperatures, ocean acidification and ocean deoxygenation will cause substantial changes in the physical, chemical and biological environment, which will then affect the ocean's biogeochemical cycles and ecosystems in ways that we are only beginning to fathom. Ocean warming will not only affect organisms and biogeochemical cycles directly, but will also increase upper ocean stratification. The changes in the ocean's carbonate chemistry induced by the uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO(2)) (i.e. ocean acidification) will probably affect many organisms and processes, although in ways that are currently not well understood. Ocean deoxygenation, i.e. the loss of dissolved oxygen (O(2)) from the ocean, is bound to occur in a warming and more stratified ocean, causing stress to macro-organisms that critically depend on sufficient levels of oxygen. These three stressors-warming, acidification and deoxygenation-will tend to operate globally, although with distinct regional differences. The impacts of ocean acidification tend to be strongest in the high latitudes, whereas the low-oxygen regions of the low latitudes are most vulnerable to ocean deoxygenation. Specific regions, such as the eastern boundary upwelling systems, will be strongly affected by all three stressors, making them potential hotspots for change. Of additional concern are synergistic effects, such as ocean acidification-induced changes in the type and magnitude of the organic matter exported to the ocean's interior, which then might cause substantial changes in the oxygen concentration there. Ocean warming, acidification and deoxygenation are essentially irreversible on centennial time scales, i.e. once these changes have occurred, it will take centuries for the ocean to recover. With the emission of CO(2) being the primary driver behind all three stressors, the primary mitigation strategy is to reduce these emissions.

Gruber N

2011-05-01

205

Hydrological consequences of global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 2007 Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change indicates there is strong evidence that the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide far exceeds the natural range over the last 650,000 years, and this recent warming of the climate system is unequivocal, resulting in more frequent extreme precipitation events, earlier snowmelt runoff, increased winter flood likelihoods, increased and widespread melting of snow and ice, longer and more widespread droughts, and rising sea level. The effects of recent warming has been well documented and climate model projections indicate a range of hydrological impacts with likely to very likely probabilities (67 to 99 percent) of occurring with significant to severe consequences in response to a warmer lower atmosphere with an accelerating hydrologic cycle.

Miller, Norman L.

2009-06-01

206

Global metabolic impacts of recent climate warming.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Documented shifts in geographical ranges, seasonal phenology, community interactions, genetics and extinctions have been attributed to recent global warming. Many such biotic shifts have been detected at mid- to high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere-a latitudinal pattern that is expected because warming is fastest in these regions. In contrast, shifts in tropical regions are expected to be less marked because warming is less pronounced there. However, biotic impacts of warming are mediated through physiology, and metabolic rate, which is a fundamental measure of physiological activity and ecological impact, increases exponentially rather than linearly with temperature in ectotherms. Therefore, tropical ectotherms (with warm baseline temperatures) should experience larger absolute shifts in metabolic rate than the magnitude of tropical temperature change itself would suggest, but the impact of climate warming on metabolic rate has never been quantified on a global scale. Here we show that estimated changes in terrestrial metabolic rates in the tropics are large, are equivalent in magnitude to those in the north temperate-zone regions, and are in fact far greater than those in the Arctic, even though tropical temperature change has been relatively small. Because of temperature's nonlinear effects on metabolism, tropical organisms, which constitute much of Earth's biodiversity, should be profoundly affected by recent and projected climate warming.

Dillon ME; Wang G; Huey RB

2010-10-01

207

Military Implications of Global Warming.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 1998 National Security Strategy repeatedly cites global environmental issues as key to the long-term security of the United States. Similarly, U.S. environmental issues also have important global implications. This paper analyzes current U.S. Policy a...

P. E. Greene

1999-01-01

208

The impacts and costs of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is now a scientific consensus that current rates of accumulation of greenhouses gases in the atmosphere will result in significant global warming and climate change. These changes are likely to have important impacts on a wide range of human activities and the natural environment. There has now been a considerable weight of literature published on the impacts of global warming, much of it very recent. This report seeks to summarise the important results, to analyse the uncertainties and to make a preliminary analysis of the feasibility of monetarising these environmental costs. The impacts of global warming are divided into ten major categories: agriculture, forests and forestry, terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity, hydrology and water resources, sea level rise and coastal zones, energy, infrastructure/transport/industry, human health and air quality, oceans, and cryospheric impacts. The results of major summary reports are analysed, notably the report of Working Group II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (the IPCC). (author)

1991-01-01

209

A Paleo Perspective on Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of the National Oceanic & Atmospheric Association (NOAA) Paleoclimatology Program, information is collected from scientists across the globe to study past climate in hopes of achieving a better understanding of the Earth's past, present and future climate. This site was developed to help educate, inform and highlight the importance of paleoclimate research, as well as to show how paleoclimate research relates to global warming and other important issues of climate variability and change. It explains the details of global warming, why it is studied, and how it relates to climate and weather conditions. The image gallery illustrates how specific variables of global warming are studied and what the findings of this research indicate about changes in environmental conditions.

Eakin, Mark

2002-05-09

210

Communicating the Dangers of Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

So far, in my opinion, we scientists have not done a good job of communicating the imminent threat posed by global warming, yet I believe there is still time for that if we work efficiently now to overcome existing obstacles. Several of those obstacles are illustrated by contrasting the roles of scientists, the media, special interests, politicians and the public in the ozone depletion and global warming crises. Scientists in America are further challenged by a decline in public science education, a perceived gap between science and religion, increasing politicization of public affairs offices in the government, and accumulation of power by a unitary executive. First order communication tasks are illustrated by a need for improved exchange and understanding, among scientists as well as with the public, of fundamental climate facts: (1) additional global warming exceeding 1C will yield large climate effects, (2) paleoclimate changes contain quantitatively specific information about climate sensitivity that is not widely appreciated, (3) carbon cycle facts, such as the substantial portion of carbon dioxide emissions that will remain in the air "forever", for practical purposes, (4) fossil fuel facts such as the dominant role of coal and unconventional fuels in all business-as-usual scenarios for future energy sources. The facts graphically illustrate the need for prompt actions to avoid disastrous climate change, yet they also reveal the feasibility of a course that minimizes global warming and yields other benefits. Perhaps the greatest challenge is posed by an inappropriate casting of the topic as a dichotomy between those who deny that there is a global warming problem and those who either are exceedingly pessimistic about the prospects for minimizing climate change or believe that solutions would be very expensive. Sensible evaluation of the situation, in my opinion, suggests a strategy for dealing with global warming that is not costly and has many subsidiary benefits, but it does require leadership. Practical difficulties in communicating this story will be illustrated with some personal experiences.

Hansen, J. E.

2006-12-01

211

The greenhouse effect and global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On present trends increases in the greenhouse gases are likely to approximate to a doubling of the present CO{sub 2} concentration by 2060. The effects of this increase on the global climate are estimated using computer models. However the treatment of feedback mechanisms must be improved to reduce the uncertainties of current predictions and produce firmer scientific guidance for remedial action. The oceans will almost certainly play a very significant role in reducing and delaying any global warming. This may be why it is not yet possible to detect a clear signal that can be confidently ascribed to greenhouse warming rather than to natural climate fluctuations.

Mason, J.

1991-01-01

212

Global warming and sexual plant reproduction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The sexual reproductive phase in plants might be particularly vulnerable to the effects of global warming. The direct effect of temperature changes on the reproductive process has been documented previously, and recent data from other physiological processes that are affected by rising temperatures seem to reinforce the susceptibility of the reproductive process to a changing climate. But the reproductive phase also provides the plant with an opportunity to adapt to environmental changes. Understanding phenotypic plasticity and gametophyte selection for prevailing temperatures, along with possible epigenetic changes during this process, could provide new insights into plant evolution under a global-warming scenario.

Hedhly A; Hormaza JI; Herrero M

2009-01-01

213

Is the enhancement of global warming important?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is no doubt that global warming is important; without it the Earth's surface would have a mean temperature of 33{sup o}C lower than it has currently. The IPCC maintains that human activities are to blame for the observed increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere since pre-industrial times. There are some doubts about whether global warming is being enhanced by the activities of the human race. This article reviews these doubts and the proposed remedies to the alleged enhancement. (author)

Symons, M.C.R.; Barrett, J.

2001-07-01

214

Global warming and the insurance industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The international insurance industry has had to deal with major increases in economic losses caused by natural and/or human-induced catastrophes over the last few decades. This article outlines how global warming is expected to increase such losses even further, and the consequences that this will have on the insurance industry. It examines the options for insuring against such risks and concludes that speedy political decisions are needed to minimize and mitigate the catastrophes that will occur if global warming is not soon brought under control.

Bergz, G.A. (Munich Reinsurance Co. (Germany))

1991-01-01

215

Is the enhancement of global warming important?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] There is no doubt that global warming is important; without it the Earth's surface would have a mean temperature of 33oC lower than it has currently. The IPCC maintains that human activities are to blame for the observed increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere since pre-industrial times. There are some doubts about whether global warming is being enhanced by the activities of the human race. This article reviews these doubts and the proposed remedies to the alleged enhancement. (author)

2001-01-01

216

Global warming -- Science and anti-science  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The global warming debate has sparked many facts activities in almost all sectors of human endeavors. There are the hard facts, the measurements of the greenhouse gases, the statistics of human activities responsible for emissions, the demographic figures. There are the soft facts, the interpretations of the hard facts requiring additional assumptions. There are the media, the press, television, for whom environmental problems make good stories, these can be used to rise emotions, to make heroes and antiheroes. There are politicians, the global warming debate can be used even in electron campaigns. Global warming is a topic within and beyond science. The judgment (and hence use) of scientific facts is overwhelmingly influenced by the ``Weltbild`` (underlying beliefs how the world operates), and consequently opposing positions of well-known scientists arise. There are the attempts to invent futures of man on Earth: policies, regulations, laws on nation, international, and global levels shall facilitate a change in the basic behavior of all men. The global warming issue has many facets and cannot be successfully discussed without including, e.g., the North-South dialogue, world population, etc.

Preining, O. [Univ. of Vienna, Wien (Austria). Inst. for Experimental Physics]|[Austrian Academy of Sciences, Wien (Austria). Clean Air Commission

1995-06-01

217

Global Warming Estimation from MSU.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we have developed time series of global temperature from 1980-97 based on the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) Ch 2 (53.74 GHz) observations taken from polar-orbiting NOAA operational satellites. In order to create these time series, systemati...

C. Prabhakara R. Iacovazzi

1999-01-01

218

Climate change and global warming potentials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Climate change and the global budgets of the two main energy consumption related greenhouse gases, CO2 and CH4, are discussed. The global warming potential (GWP) of the non-CO2 greenhouse gases is defined and the large range of GWPs of CH4 in the literature is discussed. GWPs are expected to play an important role in energy policies and negotiations concerning lowering greenhouse gas emissions. (author). 20 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

1996-01-01

219

Can Global Warming Heat Up Environmental Education?  

Science.gov (United States)

|Bronx Community College (CUNY) launched "Global Warming Campus Awareness and Action Days" in celebration of Earth Day, 2007. The purpose of this program was to raise awareness of environmental issues in the college population, especially students. To let more students have a grasp of what Environmental Education (EE) is all about, the author…

Mazzatenta, Claudio

2008-01-01

220

Global warming and sexual plant reproduction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Available free access at: http://www.cell.com/trends/plant-science/home , The sexual reproductive phase in plants might be particularly vulnerable to the effects of global warming. The direct effect of temperature changes on the reproductive process has been documented previously, and recent data from...

Hedhly, Afif; Hormaza, José Ignacio; Herrero Romero, María

 
 
 
 
221

Global warming and extreme storm surges  

Science.gov (United States)

I will show empirical evidence for how global warming has changed extreme storm surge statistics for different regions in the world. Are there any detectable changes beyond what we expect from sea level rise. What does this suggest about the future of hurricane surges such as from hurricane Katrina and superstorm Sandy?

Grinsted, Aslak

2013-04-01

222

Forecasting effects of global warming on biodiversity.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The demand for accurate forecasting of the effects of global warming on biodiversity is growing, but current methods for forecasting have limitations. In this article, we compare and discuss the different uses of four forecasting methods: (1) models that consider species individually, (2) niche-theo...

Botkin, D.B.; Saxe, H.; Araújo, M.B.; Betts, R.; Bradshaw, R.H.W.; Cedhagen, Tomas; Chesson, P.; Davis, M.B.; Dawson, T.P.

223

Global warming and SF6 molecule  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper the basic SF6 molecule physical characteristics are given concerning its influence on global warming and green house effect. Absorption and relaxation characteristics of this molecule have been investigated within the frame of nonlinear molecule – strong laser field interaction in diff...

Gajevi? Jelena; Stevi? Marija; Nikoli? Jelena; Rabasovi? Mihailo; Markushev Dragan

224

Weather extremes from anthropogenic global warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although sea levels are predicted to rise 1 to 2 meters by 2100, the more immediate effects of global warming are weather extremes. The number of natural disasters since 1996 costing $1 billion or more dou...

225

NASA: Black soot fuels global warming  

CERN Document Server

New research from NASA's Goddard Space Center scientists suggests emissions of black soot have been altering the way sunlight reflects off Earth's snow. The research indicates the soot could be responsible for as much as 25 percent of global warming over the past century (assorted news items, 1 paragraph each).

2003-01-01

226

ASSESSING GLOBAL WARMING WITH SURFACE HEAT CONTENT  

Science.gov (United States)

Although climate change and variability involve all aspects of the climate system, the assessment of anthropogenically-forced climate change has focused on surface temperature as the primary metric. The term "global warming" has been used to describe the observed surface air temperature increase. H...

227

Global warming impacts of chillers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Most discussion of refrigerant impacts on the environment has focused on protection of stratospheric ozone. The now-familiar Montreal Protocol, as revised last November at a meeting in Copenhagen, provides a clear mandate for transition to alternatives that do not deplete the earth's ozone layer. Coupled with reduction in refrigerant emissions, substitution of fluids with low or zero ozone-depletion potential (ODP) minimize or, for the latter, eliminate damage to the ozone layer. With retirement of the chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants that once dominated in chillers for air conditioning systems, including r-11, R-12, R-113, R-114, and R-500 (which contains R-12), questions surface on other environmental concerns for the alternatives. The direct effect (chemical action as a greenhouse gas) alone however, is misleading. The thermodynamic properties of a refrigerant limit the efficiency that can be attained in a heat pump or refrigeration machine. Since the efficiency governs the amount of power required for a specific thermal load, the selection refrigerants also impacts the greenhouse gases, most notably carbon dioxide, released in supplying the required power. The warming stemming from combustion emissions to provide power is referred to as the indirect, or energy-related, effect. Atmospheric scientists use the term indirect effect to refer to the impact of greenhouse gases produced in the atmosphere by chemical reactions with an emission. The effect of this secondary chemistry is of much lesser magnitude and is not further discussed in this article

1993-01-01

228

Global warming impacts of chillers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Most discussion of refrigerant impacts on the environment has focused on protection of stratospheric ozone. The now-familiar Montreal Protocol, as revised last November at a meeting in Copenhagen, provides a clear mandate for transition to alternatives that do not deplete the earth's ozone layer. Coupled with reduction in refrigerant emissions, substitution of fluids with low or zero ozone-depletion potential (ODP) minimize or, for the latter, eliminate damage to the ozone layer. With retirement of the chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants that once dominated in chillers for air conditioning systems, including r-11, R-12, R-113, R-114, and R-500 (which contains R-12), questions surface on other environmental concerns for the alternatives. The direct effect (chemical action as a greenhouse gas) alone however, is misleading. The thermodynamic properties of a refrigerant limit the efficiency that can be attained in a heat pump or refrigeration machine. Since the efficiency governs the amount of power required for a specific thermal load, the selection refrigerants also impacts the greenhouse gases, most notably carbon dioxide, released in supplying the required power. The warming stemming from combustion emissions to provide power is referred to as the indirect, or energy-related, effect. Atmospheric scientists use the term indirect effect to refer to the impact of greenhouse gases produced in the atmosphere by chemical reactions with an emission. The effect of this secondary chemistry is of much lesser magnitude and is not further discussed in this article.

Calm, J.M.

1993-02-01

229

Global warming and clean electricity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possibility of global climate change due to the emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases poses dangers of a magnitude which is imprecisely known but may be very large. The problem can be ameliorated by reducing fossil fuel consumption through conservation and expanded use of nuclear and solar power. In particular, major reductions can be achieved if fossil fuels are replaced in electricity generation and if electricity assumes a larger role in the overall energy economy. (author).

1991-01-01

230

Testing the global warming hypothesis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The temperature record for the global surface air temperature indicates that six of the warmest years occurred in the period 1980-1988. Here the authors address the question on the likelihood that such an arrangement is simply a manifestation of the natural variability of the system. These results indicate that the probability that such an arrangement will arise naturally is between 0.010 and 0.032.

Tsonis, A.A.; Elsner, J.B. (University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (USA))

1989-08-01

231

Global warming and clean electricity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The possibility of global climate change due to the emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases poses dangers of a magnitude which is imprecisely known but may be very large. The problem can be ameliorated by reducing fossil fuel consumption through conservation and expanded use of nuclear and solar power. In particular, major reductions can be achieved if fossil fuels are replaced in electricity generation and if electricity assumes a larger role in the overall energy economy. (author).

Bodansky, D. (Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Physics)

1991-11-01

232

Global warming: Towards a strategy for Ontario  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A discussion paper is provided as background to a proposed public review of a strategy for Ontario's response to global warming. Global warming arises from the generation of greenhouse gases, which come from the use of fossil fuels, the use of chlorofluorocarbons, and deforestation. Energy policy is the backbone of achieving climate stability since the burning of fossil fuels releases most of the greenhouse gases, mainly carbon dioxide. Canada is, by international standards, a very energy-intensive country and is among the world's largest emitters of carbon dioxide on a per capita basis. Ontario is the largest energy-using province in Canada, and fossil fuels represent over 80% of provincial energy use. A proposed goal for Ontario is to provide leadership in stabilizing atmospheric concentrations of the greenhouse gases, while minimizing the social, economic, and environmental costs in Ontario of adapting to global warming. A proposed first step to address global warming is to achieve reductions in expected emissions of the greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide, so that levels by the year 2000 are lower than in 1989. Current policies and regulations helping to reduce the greenhouse effect include some of the current controls on automotive emissions and the adoption by the provincial electric utility of targets to reduce electricity demand. New initiatives include establishment of minimum energy efficiency standards and reduction of peak-day electricity use. Action steps for future consideration are detailed in the categories of greenhouse gas emissions reductions, carbon dioxide absorption, and research and analysis into global warming

1990-01-01

233

Are we seeing global warming?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Despite considerable progress, the question of whether the observed gradual increase in global mean temperature over the last century is indeed caused by human activities or is simply an expression of natural climate variation on a larger spatial and temporal scales remains a controversial issue. To answer this question three things are needed: prediction of the anthropogenic climate change signal; determination of the natural climate variability noise; and computation of the signal-to-noise ratio and test of whether the ratio exceeds some predefined statistical detection threshold. This article discusses all these issues and the uncertainties involved in getting definitive answers. 12 refs., 1 fig.

Hasselmann, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meterologie, Hamburg (Germany)

1997-05-09

234

Geodetic effects of global warming.  

Science.gov (United States)

The anthropogenic increase of greenhouse gas will probably induce significant changes of the atmospheric and oceanic global circulation. We have evaluated the variation of the Earth's gravity field, geocenter motion and rotational variations using the available atmospheric and oceanic outputs from coupled general circulation models participating to Couple Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP 2+) and the corresponding ice sheets (Antarctica and Greenland) changes according to Huybrechts et al. (2003). We discuss on the possible detection of these geodetic effects, especially with new space gravity missions such as GRACE.

Boy, J.; de Viron, O.; Huybrechts, P.

2003-12-01

235

The effect of the global warming on marine ecosystems in the Arctic; Effekten av global oppvarming paa marine oekosystemer i Arktis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article discusses various results from studies of development in the ecosystems in the Arctic region and the effect the global warming may have. The warming in these areas is larger than in the central Europe and influence the economic and social development of the region. The focus is on the fisheries, exploitation of oil and gas, transport, diversity in species, acidification of the oceans, meteorological phenomena etc.. Some environmental and energy related aspects are mentioned. (tk)

Wassmann, Paul

2007-07-01

236

Environmental colonialism Leadership and global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The vast majority of the world's scientific community believes there is global warming and that it is global problem requiring international cooperation. But policy makers in industrialized countries are at a crossroads:Listen to the skeptics, who demand more proof and who fear economic consequences of an anti-greenhouse campaign, or take the more difficult path of commitment to attacking the problem. Meanwhile, poverty and debt keep. The Third world locked out of any active partnership. This issue of ED highlight their results of recently tapping documents and seminar findings on the subject of global warming. This issue also contains the following: (1) ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of the February 9, 1990; and (2) ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Western Hemisphere, February 1990 edition. 6 figs., 5 tabs.

1990-02-16

237

Taking the heat out of global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

According to UK Meteorological Scientists (a meeting in Bonn in November 1999), the increase in global temperatures as a result of the increasing greenhouse effect is likely to be considerably more than the 3''oC predicted earlier for the year 2100. However, the chairman of the International Panel for Climate Change (IPCC), urges researchers to keep cool and look for win-win situations where climate change may have environmental advantages. The achievements and views of Bob Watson (chairman of the IPCC) are discussed. Watson is in no doubt that global warming is increasing and his assessments of its impact are discussed. Even where there are doubts about the deleterious effects of global warming enhancement, we should still take mitigating actions where possible. The UK's actions to tackle climate change and the requirements of the Rio and Kyoto agreements are mentioned. Actions which individuals can take are also discussed. Stratospheric ozone depletion is mentioned briefly. (UK)

O' Driscoll, C.

2000-02-01

238

Global warming: The need for objectivity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An argument for the need for greater objectivity and restraint in interpreting climate warming is presented. These arguments deal with the inadequacy of weather data, the existence of weather records that show climate variations in solar radiation and solar wind, the inherent error in extrapolating the recent 10-years trend to a very long period, the inadequacy of the global circulation models used to predict climate variations, the over-emphasis on the warming effects of carbon dioxide rather than methane and water vapor, the inadequacy of the data about the composition of the different layers of the atmosphere (including the ozone layer), the insufficient understanding of deep oceanic currents, and the error of considering surface currents as a cause, rather than an effect, of atmospheric circulation. A specialists survey made by the National Defense University in 1978 showed that experts, at that time generally predicted a coming ice age, rather than a global warming. Benefits as well as damage could result from global warming. Increased CO{sub 2} would enhance plant growth. Canadaian agriculture would benefit from a warmer climate. The greatest expansion of deserts could take place is the western part of the United States. The author suggests there are more urgent issues to tackle as soil erosion and pollution which are the problems that have undermined most such agriculture-based societies in the past. 4 refs., 1 fig.

Ball, T. (Dept, of Geography, Univ. of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, MB (Canada))

1990-01-01

239

Global warming: Science or politics? Part 2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Supplementing the conclusion that ``there has been a discernible influence of human activity on global climate`` is a set of dire consequences to the globe and human population. One consequence is the spread of tropical diseases. It has not been concluded whether the spread of disease is due to global conditions or to opening of tropical forests to commerce, allowing spread by travelers. Whether these forecasts abet the claimed relation of human activity to global warming, they are not a new phenomenon. In the space of several decades, dire consequences have been forecast in three sectors: natural resource consumption, energy resources and environmental fate. These three areas are reviewed.

Dorweiler, V.P. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

1998-05-01

240

The greenhouse effect and global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The troposphere is warming very slowly in response to the increasing concentration of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases, but the signal is too small to detect above the large natural climate variations. Predictions of the magnitude and timing of the greenhouse warming effect come entirely from physicomathematical models of the global climate system, but the differences between various model prediction are too large to give firm guidance for major policy decisions. Improvement in model resolution and model physics is possibile, but will require several years of development, especially in respect of the oceans. 6 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

Mason, J. (Imperial College of Science and Technology, London (UK). Global Environment Research Centre)

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Interacting effects of ocean acidification and warming on growth and DMS-production in the haptophyte coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The production of the marine trace gas dimethyl sulfide (DMS) provides 90% of the marine biogenic sulfur in the atmosphere where it affects cloud formation and climate. The effects of increasing anthropogenic CO2 and the resulting warming and ocean acidification on trace gas production in the oceans are poorly understood. Here we report the first measurements of DMS-production and data on growth, DMSP and DMS concentrations in pH-stated cultures of the phytoplankton haptophyte Emiliania huxleyi. Four different environmental conditions were tested: ambient, elevated CO2 (+CO2 ), elevated temperature (+T) and elevated temperature and CO2 (+TCO2 ). In comparison to the ambient treatment, average DMS production was about 50% lower in the +CO2 treatment. Importantly, temperature had a strong effect on DMS production and the impacts outweighed the effects of a decrease in pH. As a result, the +T and +TCO2 treatments showed significantly higher DMS production of 36.2 ± 2.58 and 31.5 ± 4.66 ?mol L(-1) cell volume (CV) h(-1) in comparison with the +CO2 treatment (14.9 ± 4.20 ?mol L(-1) CV h(-1) ). As the cultures were aerated with an air/CO2 mixture, DMS was effectively removed from the incubation bottles so that concentration remained relatively low (3.6-6.1 mmol L(-1) CV). Intracellular DMSP has been shown to increase in E. huxleyi as a result of elevated temperature and/or elevated CO2 and our results are in agreement with this finding: the ambient and +CO2 treatments showed 125 ± 20.4 and 162 ± 27.7 mmol L(-1) CV, whereas +T and +TCO2 showed significantly increased intracellular DMSP concentrations of 195 ± 15.8 and 211 ± 28.2 mmol L(-1) CV respectively. Growth was unaffected by the treatments, but cell diameter decreased significantly under elevated temperature. These results indicate that DMS production is sensitive to CO2 and temperature in E. huxleyi. Hence, global environmental change that manifests in ocean acidification and warming may not result in decreased DMS as suggested by earlier studies investigating the effect of elevated CO2 in isolation.

Arnold HE; Kerrison P; Steinke M

2013-04-01

242

Interacting effects of ocean acidification and warming on growth and DMS-production in the haptophyte coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi.  

Science.gov (United States)

The production of the marine trace gas dimethyl sulfide (DMS) provides 90% of the marine biogenic sulfur in the atmosphere where it affects cloud formation and climate. The effects of increasing anthropogenic CO2 and the resulting warming and ocean acidification on trace gas production in the oceans are poorly understood. Here we report the first measurements of DMS-production and data on growth, DMSP and DMS concentrations in pH-stated cultures of the phytoplankton haptophyte Emiliania huxleyi. Four different environmental conditions were tested: ambient, elevated CO2 (+CO2 ), elevated temperature (+T) and elevated temperature and CO2 (+TCO2 ). In comparison to the ambient treatment, average DMS production was about 50% lower in the +CO2 treatment. Importantly, temperature had a strong effect on DMS production and the impacts outweighed the effects of a decrease in pH. As a result, the +T and +TCO2 treatments showed significantly higher DMS production of 36.2 ± 2.58 and 31.5 ± 4.66 ?mol L(-1) cell volume (CV) h(-1) in comparison with the +CO2 treatment (14.9 ± 4.20 ?mol L(-1) CV h(-1) ). As the cultures were aerated with an air/CO2 mixture, DMS was effectively removed from the incubation bottles so that concentration remained relatively low (3.6-6.1 mmol L(-1) CV). Intracellular DMSP has been shown to increase in E. huxleyi as a result of elevated temperature and/or elevated CO2 and our results are in agreement with this finding: the ambient and +CO2 treatments showed 125 ± 20.4 and 162 ± 27.7 mmol L(-1) CV, whereas +T and +TCO2 showed significantly increased intracellular DMSP concentrations of 195 ± 15.8 and 211 ± 28.2 mmol L(-1) CV respectively. Growth was unaffected by the treatments, but cell diameter decreased significantly under elevated temperature. These results indicate that DMS production is sensitive to CO2 and temperature in E. huxleyi. Hence, global environmental change that manifests in ocean acidification and warming may not result in decreased DMS as suggested by earlier studies investigating the effect of elevated CO2 in isolation. PMID:23504879

Arnold, Hayley E; Kerrison, Philip; Steinke, Michael

2013-01-18

243

Forecast cloudy; The limits of global warming models  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports on climate models used to study global warming. It discusses factors which must be included in climate models, shortcomings of existing climate models, and scenarios for global warming.

Stone, P.H.

1992-02-01

244

Nuclear energy and global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear energy emits no greenhouse gases during operations. Its life-cycle carbon emissions compete favorably with the best of renewable energy options. It is a proven, reliable base-load electricity generator with predictable and reasonable cost. Nuclear energy also has the potential to replace greenhouse gas emitting technologies in the manufacturing and transportation fuel sectors. National and international leaders are calling for the expansion of nuclear power to be a significant tool in eliminating 75% or more of global carbon dioxide emissions by 2050. Cuts of this magnitude are believed to be necessary in order to mitigate the effects of anthropogenic climate change. Nevertheless, significant expansion of nuclear energy will face technical, social and political hurdles. Because no combination of other supply technologies is likely to fully replace nuclear's carbon abatement potential, success in overcoming these barriers is vital. A nuclear renaissance born of environmental urgency will attract many capable men and women to challenging, rewarding careers in the application of nuclear science and technology. (author)

2008-01-01

245

Environmental Harm of Hidden Subsidies: Global Warming and Acidification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We investigate environmental impacts of off-budget or indirect subsidies, which, unlike on-budget subsidies, are not visible in government budgets. Such subsidies have received little attention in economic and environmental research, even though they may be at least as important from an environmental perspective as on-budget subsidies. We offer a typology of indirect subsidies. Next, we estimate the magnitude of these subsidies and their impact on greenhouse gas (GHG) and acidifying emissions for the agriculture, energy, and transport sectors in The Netherlands. The calculations are based on a model approach that translates a particular subsidy into price and quantity changes using empirical elasticities, followed by environmental effect estimates using pollution-intensity parameters. The various environmental pollution effects are aggregated into environmental indicators. The results show, among others, that GHG emissions caused by off-budget subsidies contribute to more than 30% of the policy targets specified by the Kyoto Protocol for CO{sub 2} emissions reduction by The Netherlands. Reforming or removing off-budget subsidies may thus be an important strategy of effective climate policy

Beers, Cees van (Dept. of Innovation Economics and Management, Delft Univ. of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)). E-mail: c.p.vanbeers@tudelft.nl; Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den (Inst. for Environmental Science and Technology, and Dept. of Economics and Economic History, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain))

2009-10-15

246

Farmer’s Adaptation to Global Warming in Punjab  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The global warming discourse has mainly focused on how to prevent global warming by trying to pin-point which countries should take most of the responsibility to stop or reduce the possible effects of global warming. We need to make sure that we not only continue to try to prevent further human impa...

Keys, Torill

247

Global Warming at the East Coast Zone of Peninsular Malaysia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Global Warming is not a new phenomenon and it is already been felt by people all around the world. Not only the people affected by the global warming, but also our sea. There are a lot of potential threats that can be caused by global warming on the sea such as rise of sea ...

Hayrol A.M. Shaffril; Bahaman A. Samah; Jeffrey L. D'Silva; Jegak Uli

248

Global warming from an energy perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Global climate change and energy are integrally related. The majority of greenhouse gas emissions are the result of energy production and use; at the same time, warming will affect energy patterns in California through physical increases in energy demand, physical changes in energy supply, and changes in both energy end-use patterns and supplies resulting from climate-change policies. There seems to be a growing political consensus that the world (as well as the state) needs to act soon to minimize further commitment to future warming. While California is not likely to experience the physical changes resulting from a warmer climate for years or perhaps decades, policy responses to the warming issue may cause more immediate impacts. This chapter will discuss how policy response to potential warming may be the most significant early impact of the issue on California's energy system. Makers of energy policy face the dilemma of deciding how to respond to the climate warming issue in the face of scientific uncertainties about its timing and seriousness. The chapter will conclude by presenting a conceptual framework for dealing with this dilemma, along with general recommendations for action

1991-01-01

249

GLOBAL WARMING: IS A NEW THREAT?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the Post Cold War era, the concepts of ''security'', ''national security'', and ''international security'' have changed with regard to their contents and meanings. Such developments made states to renew their national security policies. Security is a special form of politics as well. All security issues are political problems but not all political conflicts are security issues. In the Post Cold War era, differentiating and increasing numbers of elements that constitutes threat changed the concept of threat and widen the capacity of security. In this term, many elements lost its effect of being a threat but also new threatening elements emerged. Environmental problems, human rights, mass migration, micro nationalism, ethnic conflicts, religious fundamentalism, contagious diseases, international terrorism, economic instabilities, drug and weapon smuggling and human trafficking are the new problems emerged in international security agenda. Environmental problems no longer take place in security issues and can be mentioned as a ''low security'' issue. They are threats to the global commons i.e. the oceans, the seas, the ozone layer and the climate system, which are life supports for mankind as a whole. Global warming is one of the most important environmental issues of our day that effects human life in every field and can be defined as a 'serious threat to international security'. Because of global warming, environmental changes will occur and these changes will cause conflicting issues in international relations. Because of global warming dwindling freshwater supplies, food shortages, political instability and other conflicts may take place. Some IR scholars see a need for global cooperation in order to face the threat. At the background of global warming and its effects, states have to get preventive measures and normally, each state form its own measures, therefore as a consequence of this, there will be a new platform in international system. The aim of this paper is to discuss whether global warming is a threat and which countries are most effected from this threat.

Ayca Eminoglu

2008-09-30

250

The present state of global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An update is provided on the current situation of the global warming issue, following earlier reports in Coal Trans. It reports that one piece of evidence based on computer models and another based on a reappraisal of the absorption properties of carbon dioxide in the air, present arguments that deny the global warming theory. It is argued that the reports, prepared by the UN`s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change are in fact selected by the Technical Support Unit (TSU) of its Working Group I. TSU is part of the Hadley Centre of the Meteorological Office which in turn is part of the UK Ministry of Defence. Hence the author argues that the IPCC is acting as an unaccountable agency of the UK government. Since the government is opposed to the coal industry the author suspects that the TSU could be exaggerating risks from CO{sub 2} emissions. 1 photo.

NONE

1994-11-01

251

Global warming and agriculture: meeting the challenge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The nature of global warming, its causes, effects, significance for Canada, and actions to reduce the threat are discussed. Throughout, the emphasis is on what global warming means to agriculture. Among the potential impacts on agriculture are mentioned the need to consider changes in farming practices such as reduced tillage, covercrops, shelterbelt planting, all of which store carbon rather than emit it into the air. Fuel conservation by limiting the number and intensity of field operations, careful fertilizer management techniques, improved range management and manure handling, greater emphasis on biofuels, and the evolving concept of emissions trading, are also described briefly. Future fact sheets are expected to explore the Kyoto Protocol, its significance to agriculture and how agriculture can most effectively help Canada meet its Protocol-related obligations. 6 refs.

NONE

2000-11-01

252

Global warming : a guide to the science  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This guide dispels the popular hypothesis that increases in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere resulting from increased industrial activity have caused global warming. The report suggests that there is no evidence of catastrophic anthropogenic global warming and that temperature changes over the last 100 years has been due mostly to natural phenomena. The global temperature has increased by about 0.5 to 0.6 degrees C in the past 100 years, and this, before most of the greenhouse gases were added to the air by human activities such as burning of fossil fuels. The initial major rise in temperature was in 1940, before the rise in carbon dioxide levels, therefore, it was suggested that this warming must have been natural in origin. Computer based simulations of the climate system forecast disastrous rises in global temperature. But it was argued that current climate models are not accurate in forecasting future climate change because it is not possible to isolate the effect of an increased concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide on climate because about 5 million different variables have to be considered with all their important impacts and interactions. Science indicates that at most, a little warming will occur and certainly better plant grown which should be of great benefit to mankind. It was concluded that the human condition can be improved through unconstrained access to energy, but use of energy may also produce local unwanted pollutants as a by product. The sources of true environmental pollution can be mitigated based on rational considerations of the risks of pollutants and benefits of energy use. refs., figs

2001-01-01

253

Counting the cost of global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report sets out the issues that are raised by global warming in the area of relations between generations, and suggests directions where research is needed. It is intended to prepare the way by mapping the territory. This is an area where the work of philosophers and economists overlaps. Generally, each discipline has simply ignored the other, and when there has been some communication there has also often been some misunderstanding. This report tries to bring together work in the two disciplines. (author).

Broome, J.

1992-01-01

254

When could global warming reach 4°C?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) assessed a range of scenarios of future greenhouse-gas emissions without policies to specifically reduce emissions, and concluded that these would lead to an increase in global mean temperatures of between 1.6°C and 6.9°C by the end of the twenty-first century, relative to pre-industrial. While much political attention is focused on the potential for global warming of 2°C relative to pre-industrial, the AR4 projections clearly suggest that much greater levels of warming are possible by the end of the twenty-first century in the absence of mitigation. The centre of the range of AR4-projected global warming was approximately 4°C. The higher end of the projected warming was associated with the higher emissions scenarios and models, which included stronger carbon-cycle feedbacks. The highest emissions scenario considered in the AR4 (scenario A1FI) was not examined with complex general circulation models (GCMs) in the AR4, and similarly the uncertainties in climate-carbon-cycle feedbacks were not included in the main set of GCMs. Consequently, the projections of warming for A1FI and/or with different strengths of carbon-cycle feedbacks are often not included in a wider discussion of the AR4 conclusions. While it is still too early to say whether any particular scenario is being tracked by current emissions, A1FI is considered to be as plausible as other non-mitigation scenarios and cannot be ruled out. (A1FI is a part of the A1 family of scenarios, with 'FI' standing for 'fossil intensive'. This is sometimes erroneously written as A1F1, with number 1 instead of letter I.) This paper presents simulations of climate change with an ensemble of GCMs driven by the A1FI scenario, and also assesses the implications of carbon-cycle feedbacks for the climate-change projections. Using these GCM projections along with simple climate-model projections, including uncertainties in carbon-cycle feedbacks, and also comparing against other model projections from the IPCC, our best estimate is that the A1FI emissions scenario would lead to a warming of 4°C relative to pre-industrial during the 2070s. If carbon-cycle feedbacks are stronger, which appears less likely but still credible, then 4°C warming could be reached by the early 2060s in projections that are consistent with the IPCC's 'likely range'.

Betts RA; Collins M; Hemming DL; Jones CD; Lowe JA; Sanderson MG

2011-01-01

255

When could global warming reach 4°C?  

Science.gov (United States)

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) assessed a range of scenarios of future greenhouse-gas emissions without policies to specifically reduce emissions, and concluded that these would lead to an increase in global mean temperatures of between 1.6°C and 6.9°C by the end of the twenty-first century, relative to pre-industrial. While much political attention is focused on the potential for global warming of 2°C relative to pre-industrial, the AR4 projections clearly suggest that much greater levels of warming are possible by the end of the twenty-first century in the absence of mitigation. The centre of the range of AR4-projected global warming was approximately 4°C. The higher end of the projected warming was associated with the higher emissions scenarios and models, which included stronger carbon-cycle feedbacks. The highest emissions scenario considered in the AR4 (scenario A1FI) was not examined with complex general circulation models (GCMs) in the AR4, and similarly the uncertainties in climate-carbon-cycle feedbacks were not included in the main set of GCMs. Consequently, the projections of warming for A1FI and/or with different strengths of carbon-cycle feedbacks are often not included in a wider discussion of the AR4 conclusions. While it is still too early to say whether any particular scenario is being tracked by current emissions, A1FI is considered to be as plausible as other non-mitigation scenarios and cannot be ruled out. (A1FI is a part of the A1 family of scenarios, with 'FI' standing for 'fossil intensive'. This is sometimes erroneously written as A1F1, with number 1 instead of letter I.) This paper presents simulations of climate change with an ensemble of GCMs driven by the A1FI scenario, and also assesses the implications of carbon-cycle feedbacks for the climate-change projections. Using these GCM projections along with simple climate-model projections, including uncertainties in carbon-cycle feedbacks, and also comparing against other model projections from the IPCC, our best estimate is that the A1FI emissions scenario would lead to a warming of 4°C relative to pre-industrial during the 2070s. If carbon-cycle feedbacks are stronger, which appears less likely but still credible, then 4°C warming could be reached by the early 2060s in projections that are consistent with the IPCC's 'likely range'. PMID:21115513

Betts, Richard A; Collins, Matthew; Hemming, Deborah L; Jones, Chris D; Lowe, Jason A; Sanderson, Michael G

2011-01-13

256

National action strategy on global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A document prepared by a committee of Canadian environmental ministries proposes a strategic framework for a national action plan concerning global warming. The strategy would be carried out jointly by governments and all other sectors of the economy, taking into account the present state of scientific knowledge on global warming. Within this framework, the governments in cooperation with interested parties would take certain measures in their respective areas of competence. The main recommendations of the document include the following. The action strategy should comprise 3 elements: limiting emissions of greenhouse gases; forecasting climatic changes which Canada could undergo due to global warming and preparing for such changes; and improving scientific knowledge and the capacity to predict climatic changes. Limitations on this strategy should take into account such matters as the interaction of greenhouse gases with other pollutants, the importance of the international context, the need to adapt to new discoveries, and the importance of regional differences. Implementation of the strategy should incorporate widespread consultation of all affected sectors, sustained work on establishing international conventions and protocols on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, objectives and schedules for such reductions, and stepwise actions to control emissions in order to enable an adequate evaluation of the consequences and effectiveness of such measures. 10 figs., 2 tabs

1990-01-01

257

Toward international law on global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Legal precedent in the history of international environmental law is considered. Then, the legal principles, rights and obligations related to transboundary environmental interference are drawn from the precedent. From this legal and historical background, and a brief overview of the principal technical aspects of the emerging global warming problem, the authors suggest a number of possible international protocols. These include outlines of multilateral treaties on energy efficiency, reduction in utilization of coal, increased adoption efficiency, reduction in utilization of coal, increased adoption of renewable and solar energy, and stimulation of several types of forestation, with creation of practical regimes and remedies. Each protocol has its own environmental social and economic merits and urgency, apart from the prevention of global warming. In each suggested protocol, the political obstacles are analyzed. Suggestions are presented for reduction of levels of disagreement standing in the way of obtaining viable treaties likely to be upheld in practice by the signatories. An agenda for study and action is presented, on the assumption that prudence dictates that international environmental law must be expanded as soon as feasible to regulate global warming

1991-01-01

258

Weather extremes from anthropogenic global warming  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although sea levels are predicted to rise 1 to 2 meters by 2100, the more immediate effects of global warming are weather extremes. The number of natural disasters since 1996 costing $1 billion or more doubled compared with the previous 15-year period. Extreme summer heat anomalies now cover about 10% of land area, up from 0.2% in 1950-1980. The human influence on global warming is evident from climate data and physical modeling. Since the beginning of the industrial era, carbon dioxide (CO2) increases correlate with those of temperature. Carbon dating shows that the CO2 increase is from burning ancient fossil fuels. Increasing CO2 and other greenhouse gases blanket and warm the earth’s surface, allowing less heat to reach the stratosphere, which is cooling. This is consistent with satellite measurements showing that solar irradiance is not changing. The present CO2 rate increase of 2 ppm/year is 300 times higher than the rate at which the earth recovered from the ice age 18,000 years ago. Without the radiative forcing of noncondensing persistent CO2, the terrestrial greenhouse would collapse, plunging the global climate into an icebound earth state. Will new technologies lower our carbon emissions in time to prevent more weather extremes? Electric cars now get the equivalent of 100 miles per gallon. The cost of electricity from solar photovoltaic cells has reached grid parity.

Paul H. Carr

2013-01-01

259

Rethinking the economics of global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Most of the debates over the impact of the greenhouse effect have centered around the reliability of computer models and have neglected considerations of the economic effects of attempts to reduce global warming. Economic models have certain limitations but the input of cost benefit analysis is needed for arriving at suitable policies for lowering anthropogenic input into warming of the earth. Care must be used in extrapolating from data of time periods which are inappropriate. Estimates of costs of reducing greenhouse-gas emissions also must include possible benefits; at present this is not being done. Economic models must address differences in the distribution of global warming's consequences over time and geographical space. The costs of delaying or accelerating reduction in greenhouse-gas emissions need to be included in policy considerations. A global agreement must not adversely affect developing countries. Faulty assumptions of the effect of market forces on costs impair economic models. We have to recognize that economic and environmental goals need not be incompatible. If economic models are viewed as possible scenarios and not as predictions, then these scenarios can be useful in determining policies for reducing the greenhouse effect without harming populations and their economies.

Miller, A.; Mintzer, I.; Brown, P.G. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (USA))

1990-01-01

260

Meta-analysis reveals complex marine biological responses to the interactive effects of ocean acidification and warming.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ocean acidification and warming are considered two of the greatest threats to marine biodiversity, yet the combined effect of these stressors on marine organisms remains largely unclear. Using a meta-analytical approach, we assessed the biological responses of marine organisms to the effects of ocean acidification and warming in isolation and combination. As expected biological responses varied across taxonomic groups, life-history stages, and trophic levels, but importantly, combining stressors generally exhibited a stronger biological (either positive or negative) effect. Using a subset of orthogonal studies, we show that four of five of the biological responses measured (calcification, photosynthesis, reproduction, and survival, but not growth) interacted synergistically when warming and acidification were combined. The observed synergisms between interacting stressors suggest that care must be made in making inferences from single-stressor studies. Our findings clearly have implications for the development of adaptive management strategies particularly given that the frequency of stressors interacting in marine systems will be likely to intensify in the future. There is now an urgent need to move toward more robust, holistic, and ecologically realistic climate change experiments that incorporate interactions. Without them accurate predictions about the likely deleterious impacts to marine biodiversity and ecosystem functioning over the next century will not be possible.

Harvey BP; Gwynn-Jones D; Moore PJ

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
261

Statistical aspects of global warming dynamics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This communication aims to identify and utilize persistent features of global atmospheric temperature for predicting underlying fluctuating phenomena. A graphical method, Loess plot is used to show the presence of some degree of non-linearity in global temperature dynamics. Here we propose to split the average global temperature data set into three scale invariant temperature series on the basis of Hurst exponent in order to extract useful features of the physical system responsible for temperature anomalies. Global warming dynamics is revealed as possible Martingale and Markov stochastic processes. Different orders of Markov processes are examined for representative adequate models of the phenomenon. The models considered can be used both for short term and long-term temperature forecasts. (author)

2007-01-01

262

Robust warming of the global upper ocean.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A large ( approximately 10(23) J) multi-decadal globally averaged warming signal in the upper 300 m of the world's oceans was reported roughly a decade ago and is attributed to warming associated with anthropogenic greenhouse gases. The majority of the Earth's total energy uptake during recent decades has occurred in the upper ocean, but the underlying uncertainties in ocean warming are unclear, limiting our ability to assess closure of sea-level budgets, the global radiation imbalance and climate models. For example, several teams have recently produced different multi-year estimates of the annually averaged global integral of upper-ocean heat content anomalies (hereafter OHCA curves) or, equivalently, the thermosteric sea-level rise. Patterns of interannual variability, in particular, differ among methods. Here we examine several sources of uncertainty that contribute to differences among OHCA curves from 1993 to 2008, focusing on the difficulties of correcting biases in expendable bathythermograph (XBT) data. XBT data constitute the majority of the in situ measurements of upper-ocean heat content from 1967 to 2002, and we find that the uncertainty due to choice of XBT bias correction dominates among-method variability in OHCA curves during our 1993-2008 study period. Accounting for multiple sources of uncertainty, a composite of several OHCA curves using different XBT bias corrections still yields a statistically significant linear warming trend for 1993-2008 of 0.64 W m(-2) (calculated for the Earth's entire surface area), with a 90-per-cent confidence interval of 0.53-0.75 W m(-2).

Lyman JM; Good SA; Gouretski VV; Ishii M; Johnson GC; Palmer MD; Smith DM; Willis JK

2010-05-01

263

Mitochondrial acclimation capacities to ocean warming and acidification are limited in the antarctic Nototheniid Fish, Notothenia rossii and Lepidonotothen squamifrons.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Antarctic notothenioid fish are characterized by their evolutionary adaptation to the cold, thermostable Southern Ocean, which is associated with unique physiological adaptations to withstand the cold and reduce energetic requirements but also entails limited compensation capacities to environmental change. This study compares the capacities of mitochondrial acclimation to ocean warming and acidification between the Antarctic nototheniid Notothenia rossii and the sub-Antarctic Lepidonotothen squamifrons, which share a similar ecology, but different habitat temperatures. After acclimation of L. squamifrons to 9°C and N. rossii to 7°C (normocapnic/hypercapnic, 0.2 kPa CO2/2000 ppm CO2) for 4-6 weeks, we compared the capacities of their mitochondrial respiratory complexes I (CI) and II (CII), their P/O ratios (phosphorylation efficiency), proton leak capacities and mitochondrial membrane fatty acid compositions. Our results reveal reduced CII respiration rates in warm-acclimated L. squamifrons and cold hypercapnia-acclimated N. rossii. Generally, L. squamifrons displayed a greater ability to increase CI contribution during acute warming and after warm-acclimation than N. rossii. Membrane unsaturation was not altered by warm or hypercapnia-acclimation in both species, but membrane fatty acids of warm-acclimated L. squamifrons were less saturated than in warm normocapnia-/hypercapnia-acclimated N. rossii. Proton leak capacities were not affected by warm or hypercapnia-acclimation of N. rossii. We conclude that an acclimatory response of mitochondrial capacities may include higher thermal plasticity of CI supported by enhanced utilization of anaplerotic substrates (via oxidative decarboxylation reactions) feeding into the citrate cycle. L. squamifrons possesses higher relative CI plasticities than N. rossii, which may facilitate the usage of energy efficient NADH-related substrates under conditions of elevated energy demand, possibly induced by ocean warming and acidification. The observed adjustments of electron transport system complexes with a higher flux through CI under warming and acidification suggest a metabolic acclimation potential of the sub-Antarctic L. squamifrons, but only limited acclimation capacities for N. rossii.

Strobel A; Graeve M; Poertner HO; Mark FC

2013-01-01

264

Mitochondrial acclimation capacities to ocean warming and acidification are limited in the antarctic Nototheniid Fish, Notothenia rossii and Lepidonotothen squamifrons.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antarctic notothenioid fish are characterized by their evolutionary adaptation to the cold, thermostable Southern Ocean, which is associated with unique physiological adaptations to withstand the cold and reduce energetic requirements but also entails limited compensation capacities to environmental change. This study compares the capacities of mitochondrial acclimation to ocean warming and acidification between the Antarctic nototheniid Notothenia rossii and the sub-Antarctic Lepidonotothen squamifrons, which share a similar ecology, but different habitat temperatures. After acclimation of L. squamifrons to 9°C and N. rossii to 7°C (normocapnic/hypercapnic, 0.2 kPa CO2/2000 ppm CO2) for 4-6 weeks, we compared the capacities of their mitochondrial respiratory complexes I (CI) and II (CII), their P/O ratios (phosphorylation efficiency), proton leak capacities and mitochondrial membrane fatty acid compositions. Our results reveal reduced CII respiration rates in warm-acclimated L. squamifrons and cold hypercapnia-acclimated N. rossii. Generally, L. squamifrons displayed a greater ability to increase CI contribution during acute warming and after warm-acclimation than N. rossii. Membrane unsaturation was not altered by warm or hypercapnia-acclimation in both species, but membrane fatty acids of warm-acclimated L. squamifrons were less saturated than in warm normocapnia-/hypercapnia-acclimated N. rossii. Proton leak capacities were not affected by warm or hypercapnia-acclimation of N. rossii. We conclude that an acclimatory response of mitochondrial capacities may include higher thermal plasticity of CI supported by enhanced utilization of anaplerotic substrates (via oxidative decarboxylation reactions) feeding into the citrate cycle. L. squamifrons possesses higher relative CI plasticities than N. rossii, which may facilitate the usage of energy efficient NADH-related substrates under conditions of elevated energy demand, possibly induced by ocean warming and acidification. The observed adjustments of electron transport system complexes with a higher flux through CI under warming and acidification suggest a metabolic acclimation potential of the sub-Antarctic L. squamifrons, but only limited acclimation capacities for N. rossii. PMID:23874794

Strobel, Anneli; Graeve, Martin; Poertner, Hans O; Mark, Felix C

2013-07-10

265

Modeling and projection of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, the mathematical models used in relation to global warming are reviewed, and the main results of computation are reported. Global environment problems are characterized by the large temporal and spatial scales to be treated, and the large dispersion of the related knowledge. As for the fundamental role of the models, the miscellaneous related informations are put in order and systematized, and as the result, the future image of the global environment is depicted. To this work, much uncertainty follow. The first is that accompanying the development of human activities, the second is that accompanying the lack of scientific knowledge, and the third is that originating in the uncertainty of phenomena itself. For treating the global warming, the forecast using models and the countermeasures and the judgement of the effect are considered to be the indispensable works. The model for forecasting the discharge of greenhouse effect gas, the model for carbon dioxide discharge due to the change of land utilization centering around forests, the model for the circulation of greenhouse effect gas, the model for forecasting weather change and the model for forecasting the effect of the countermeasures on macroeconomy are described. (K.I.).

1992-01-01

266

Modeling and projection of global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, the mathematical models used in relation to global warming are reviewed, and the main results of computation are reported. Global environment problems are characterized by the large temporal and spatial scales to be treated, and the large dispersion of the related knowledge. As for the fundamental role of the models, the miscellaneous related informations are put in order and systematized, and as the result, the future image of the global environment is depicted. To this work, much uncertainty follow. The first is that accompanying the development of human activities, the second is that accompanying the lack of scientific knowledge, and the third is that originating in the uncertainty of phenomena itself. For treating the global warming, the forecast using models and the countermeasures and the judgement of the effect are considered to be the indispensable works. The model for forecasting the discharge of greenhouse effect gas, the model for carbon dioxide discharge due to the change of land utilization centering around forests, the model for the circulation of greenhouse effect gas, the model for forecasting weather change and the model for forecasting the effect of the countermeasures on macroeconomy are described. (K.I.).

Matsuoka, Yuzuru (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Morita, Tsuneyuki

1992-05-01

267

Global warming and allergy in Asia Minor.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The earth is warming, and it is warming quickly. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that global warming is correlated with the frequency of pollen-induced respiratory allergy and allergic diseases. There is a body of evidence suggesting that the prevalence of allergic diseases induced by pollens is increasing in developed countries, a trend that is also evident in the Mediterranean area. Because of its mild winters and sunny days with dry summers, the Mediterranean area is different from the areas of central and northern Europe. Classical examples of allergenic pollen-producing plants of the Mediterranean climate include Parietaria, Olea and Cupressaceae. Asia Minor is a Mediterranean region that connects Asia and Europe, and it includes considerable coastal areas. Gramineae pollens are the major cause of seasonal allergic rhinitis in Asia Minor, affecting 1.3-6.4 % of the population, in accordance with other European regions. This article emphasizes the importance of global climate change and anticipated increases in the prevalence and severity of allergic disease in Asia Minor, mediated through worsening air pollution and altered local and regional pollen production, from an otolaryngologic perspective.

Bajin MD; Cingi C; Oghan F; Gurbuz MK

2013-01-01

268

Does CO2 really drive global warming?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Arctic Ocean Model, which was developed to account for the million year temperature oscillations, is explained in terms of the development and the shrinkage of the Arctic ice cap in the northern polar regions according to whether the Arctic Ocean is unfrozen and can supply moisture for the development of the ice cap which reflects the sun's radiation, or is frozen resulting in the shrinkage of the ice cap and the earth absorbing more of the sun's radiation and warming up (global warming). The changes in the direction of the temperature are discussed along with man's impact through fossil fuel combustion, and the identification of water and not carbon dioxide as the major absorbing gas in the atmosphere. The key evidence to support this theory is presented

2001-01-01

269

Punishments and Prizes for Explaining Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Some few gifted scientists, the late Carl Sagan being an iconic example, are superbly skilled at communicating science clearly and compellingly to non-scientists. Most scientists, however, have serious shortcomings as communicators. The common failings include being verbose, addicted to jargon, caveat- obsessed and focused on details. In addition, it is far easier for a scientist to scoff at the scientific illiteracy of modern society than to work at understanding the viewpoints and concerns of journalists, policymakers and the public. Obstacles await even those scientists with the desire and the talent to communicate science well. Peer pressure and career disincentives can act as powerful deterrents, discouraging especially younger scientists from spending time on non-traditional activities. Scientists often lack mentors and role models to help them develop skills in science communication. Journalists also face real difficulties in getting science stories approved by editors and other gatekeepers. Climate change science brings its own problems in communication. The science itself is unusually wide- ranging and complex. The contentious policies and politics of dealing with global warming are difficult to disentangle from the science. Misinformation and disinformation about climate change are widespread. Intimidation and censorship of scientists by some employers is a serious problem. Polls show that global warming ranks low on the public's list of important issues. Despite all the obstacles, communicating climate change science well is critically important today. It is an art that can be learned and that brings its own rewards and satisfactions. Academic institutions and research funding agencies increasingly value outreach by scientists, and they provide resources to facilitate it. Society needs scientists who can clearly and authoritatively explain the science of global warming and its implications, while remaining objective and policy-neutral. This need will only increase in coming years as climate change makes the transition from a topic of limited public interest to one of great concern to all society.

Somerville, R. C.

2006-12-01

270

The greenhouse effect and global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Atmospheric concentrations of water vapour, carbon dioxide and methane affect the radiative heat balance and surface temperature of the earth. Increases in carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases are likely to approximate to a doubling of the present concentration of CO{sub 2} by 2060. Computer models are described which are designed to simulate future climate changes. The oceans will reduce and delay any global warming because of their capacity to absorb heat and about half of the carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere. 6 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

Mason, J.

1991-02-01

271

Industrial energy efficiency and global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the role of industry as a source of greenhouse gases, the potential effect of these gases on global warming and the growth rate of industrial emissions and atmospheric concentration of CO[sub 2] under alternative energy efficiency scenarios. Technologies whose development would improve industrial energy efficiency and reduce CO[sub 2] emissions from industry are then discussed. The US Climate Change Action Plan initiatives that would stimulate adoption of energy efficient and pollution preventing technologies in industry are outlined.

Streb, A.J.

1994-06-01

272

Global warming and carbon dioxide through sciences.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Increased atmospheric CO(2)-concentration is widely being considered as the main driving factor that causes the phenomenon of global warming. This paper attempts to shed more light on the role of atmospheric CO(2) in relation to temperature-increase and, more generally, in relation to Earth's life through the geological aeons, based on a review-assessment of existing related studies. It is pointed out that there has been a debate on the accuracy of temperature reconstructions as well as on the exact impact that CO(2) has on global warming. Moreover, using three independent sets of data (collected from ice-cores and chemistry) we perform a specific regression analysis which concludes that forecasts about the correlation between CO(2)-concentration and temperature rely heavily on the choice of data used, and one cannot be positive that indeed such a correlation exists (for chemistry data) or even, if existing (for ice-cores data), whether it leads to a "severe" or a "gentle" global warming. A very recent development on the greenhouse phenomenon is a validated adiabatic model, based on laws of physics, forecasting a maximum temperature-increase of 0.01-0.03 degrees C for a value doubling the present concentration of atmospheric CO(2). Through a further review of related studies and facts from disciplines like biology and geology, where CO(2)-change is viewed from a different perspective, it is suggested that CO(2)-change is not necessarily always a negative factor for the environment. In fact it is shown that CO(2)-increase has stimulated the growth of plants, while the CO(2)-change history has altered the physiology of plants. Moreover, data from palaeoclimatology show that the CO(2)-content in the atmosphere is at a minimum in this geological aeon. Finally it is stressed that the understanding of the functioning of Earth's complex climate system (especially for water, solar radiation and so forth) is still poor and, hence, scientific knowledge is not at a level to give definite and precise answers for the causes of global warming.

Florides GA; Christodoulides P

2009-02-01

273

Global Warming and Caspian Sea Level Fluctuations  

CERN Document Server

Coastal regions have a high social, economical and environmental importance. Due to this importance the sea level fluctuations can have many bad consequences. In this research the correlation between the increasing trend of temperature in coastal stations due to Global Warming and the Caspian Sea level has been established. The Caspian Sea level data has been received from the Jason-1 satellite. It was resulted that the monthly correlation between the temperature and sea level is high and also positive and almost the same for all the stations. But the yearly correlation was negative. It means that the sea level has decreased by the increase in temperature.

Ardakanian, Reza

2013-01-01

274

Marine ecosystems in alteration under global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] It is commonly thought among fishermen, researchers and in the fishing industries that the administration and harvesting of the fish resources is more important for the stock of fish than are changes in the climate. However, many scientific investigations now link changes in temperature with changes in the spreading, survival and beginning of life processes. There is solid evidence that there are important changes in progress in the North Atlantic marine ecosystem caused by global warming. If the heating of the water masses continues, it will probably have a large impact on the ocean's productivity and consequently for the fishing industry

2004-01-01

275

Does coral bleaching mean global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article discusses the implications of global warming on the marine ecosystems. In recent hearings of the US Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation, plans were made to introduce legislation for control of greenhouse-gas emissions, conservation of biological diversity, forest conservation, world population planning, sustainable economic development , increased fuel efficiency, and increased research into Earth-system processes. Research is required to ascertain the meaning of coral bleaching, which is the mass expulsion of symbiotic algae, called zooxanthellae, which gives the coral its color. Many scientists think that the death of the algae is an early indicator for massive destruction of the marine ecosystem.

Miller, J.A.

1991-02-01

276

Can global warming save nuclear power?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear powered electricity generation in the United Kingdom has an uncertain future. The relative costs of generating electricity by nuclear fission compared to other means and the need for a desirable mixture or ''portfolio'' of energy sources in the electricity industry are identified as the key to this uncertainty. The author argues that Government commitments to reducing Carbon Monoxide (CO) emissions, and hence global warming, may strengthen arguments in favour of a firm commitment to nuclear power, as even modern fossil-fuelled power plants emit nearly 90 times as much CO as nuclear plants. (UK).

1994-01-01

277

Global warming and carbon dioxide through sciences.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased atmospheric CO(2)-concentration is widely being considered as the main driving factor that causes the phenomenon of global warming. This paper attempts to shed more light on the role of atmospheric CO(2) in relation to temperature-increase and, more generally, in relation to Earth's life through the geological aeons, based on a review-assessment of existing related studies. It is pointed out that there has been a debate on the accuracy of temperature reconstructions as well as on the exact impact that CO(2) has on global warming. Moreover, using three independent sets of data (collected from ice-cores and chemistry) we perform a specific regression analysis which concludes that forecasts about the correlation between CO(2)-concentration and temperature rely heavily on the choice of data used, and one cannot be positive that indeed such a correlation exists (for chemistry data) or even, if existing (for ice-cores data), whether it leads to a "severe" or a "gentle" global warming. A very recent development on the greenhouse phenomenon is a validated adiabatic model, based on laws of physics, forecasting a maximum temperature-increase of 0.01-0.03 degrees C for a value doubling the present concentration of atmospheric CO(2). Through a further review of related studies and facts from disciplines like biology and geology, where CO(2)-change is viewed from a different perspective, it is suggested that CO(2)-change is not necessarily always a negative factor for the environment. In fact it is shown that CO(2)-increase has stimulated the growth of plants, while the CO(2)-change history has altered the physiology of plants. Moreover, data from palaeoclimatology show that the CO(2)-content in the atmosphere is at a minimum in this geological aeon. Finally it is stressed that the understanding of the functioning of Earth's complex climate system (especially for water, solar radiation and so forth) is still poor and, hence, scientific knowledge is not at a level to give definite and precise answers for the causes of global warming. PMID:18760479

Florides, Georgios A; Christodoulides, Paul

2008-08-28

278

Is global warming mostly at night?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The release of greenhouse gases is expected to lead to substantial future warming. The global mean temperature has indeed risen in recent decades. The causes of the observed warming, and its relation to the greenhouse gas buildup are, however, still debated. One important aspect of the observed temperature change relates to its asymmetry during the day and night. The day-night temperature difference over land in North America, most of Eurasia, Oceania, and portions of Africa and Australia shows a decrease since about 1950. The changes of the daily mean temperature in these areas are principally due to the rising night or early morning temperature, and are accompanied by increasing cloudiness. Their results support the notion that the increase of cloud cover, possibly due to industrial sulfur emissions, mitigates the greenhouse warming. The causes of the changing diurnal temperature range and of the increasing cloudiness will have to be clarified and the future SO{sub 2} emissions reliably projected before any trustworthy prediction of future climates can be made. 37 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Kukla, G. [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States); Quayle, R.G.; Karl, T. [National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, NC (United States)

1994-12-31

279

Global Warming and the Microwave Background  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the work, the importance of assigning the microwave background to the Earth is addressed while emphasizing the consequences for global climate change. Climate models can only produce meaningful forecasts when they consider the real magnitude of all radiative processes. The oceans and continents both contribute to terrestrial emissions. However, the extent of oceanic radiation, particularly in the microwave region, raises concerns. This is not only since the globe is covered with water, but because the oceans themselves are likely to be weaker emitters than currently believed. Should the microwave background truly be generated by the oceans of the Earth, our planetwould be a much less efficient emitter of radiation in this region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Furthermore, the oceans would appear unable to increase their emissions in the microwave in response to temperature elevation, as predicted by Stefan’s law. Theresults are significant relative to the modeling of global warming.

Robitaille P.-M.

2009-01-01

280

Methane reductions: implications for global warming and atmospheric global change  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Atmospheric methane (CH{sub 4}) concentrations have more than doubled over the last two centuries. These increases may contribute to global warming, enhance formation of tropospheric ozone, suppress OH and affect stratospheric ozone. Calculations show that stabilization of CH{sub 4} could reduce projected temperature increases and possibly mitigate background tropospheric O{sub 3} increases due to increasing levels of CH{sub 4}. 26 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Thompson, A.M.; Hogan, K.B.; Hoffman, J.S. (NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (USA). Lab. for Atmospheres)

1992-10-01

 
 
 
 
281

Global warming potential impact of bioenergy systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Reducing dependence on fossil fuels and mitigation of GHG emissions is a main focus in the energy strategy of many Countries. In the case of Demark, for instance, the long-term target of the energy policy is to reach 100% renewable energy system. This can be achieved by drastic reduction of the energy demand, optimization of production/distribution and substitution of fossil fuels with biomasses. However, a large increase in biomass consumption will finally induce conversion of arable and currently cultivated land into fields dedicated to energy crops production determining significant environmental consequences related to land use changes. In this study the global warming potential impact associated with six alternative bioenergy systems based on willow and Miscanthus was assessed by means of life-cycle assessment. The results showed that bioenergy production may generate higher global warming impacts than the reference fossil fuel system, when the impacts from indirect land use changes are accounted for. In a life-cycle perspective, only highly-efficient co-firing with fossil fuel achieved a (modest) GHG emission reduction.

Tonini, D.; Hamelin, L.; Wenzel, H.; Astrup, T.

2012-10-01

282

Identifying the molecular origin of global warming.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have investigated the physical characteristics of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to assess which properties are most important in determining the efficiency of a GHG. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), nitrogen fluorides, and various other known atmospheric trace molecules have been included in this study. Compounds containing the halogens F or Cl have in common very polar X-F or X-Cl bonds, particularly the X-F bonds. It is shown that as more F atoms bond to the same central atom the bond dipoles become larger as a result of the central atom becoming more positive. This leads to a linear increase in the total or integrated X-F bond dipole derivatives for the molecule, which leads to a nonlinear (quadratic) increase in infrared (IR) intensity. Moreover, virtually all of the X-F bond stretches occur in the atmospheric IR window as opposed to X-H stretches, which do not occur in the atmospheric window. It is concluded that molecules possessing several F atoms will always have a large radiative forcing parameter in the calculation of their global warming potential. Some of the implications for global warming and climate change are discussed.

Bera PP; Francisco JS; Lee TJ

2009-11-01

283

The carbon cycle and global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Five land-use-based approaches can be used to slow the buildup of CO2 in the atmosphere: slowing or stopping the loss of existing forests, thus preserving current carbon reservoirs; adding to the planet's vegetative cover through reforestation or other means, thus enlarging living terrestrial carbon reservoirs; increasing the carbon stored in nonliving carbon reservoirs such as agricultural soils; increasing the carbon stored in artificial reservoirs, including timber products; and substituting sustainable biomass energy sources for fossil fuel consumption, thus reducing energy-related carbon emissions. These approaches are all based on the same basic premise: adding to the planet's net carbon stores in vegetative cover or soil, or preventing any net loss, will help moderate global warming by keeping atmospheric CO2 levels lower than they would otherwise be. Because biotic policy options appear capable of contributing significantly to the mitigation of global warming while also furthering many other public policy objectives, their role deserves careful consideration on a country-by-country basis

1991-01-01

284

Global warming potential impact of bioenergy systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Reducing dependence on fossil fuels and mitigation of GHG emissions is a main focus in the energy strategy of many Countries. In the case of Demark, for instance, the long-term target of the energy policy is to reach 100% renewable energy system. This can be achieved by drastic reduction of the energy demand, optimization of production/distribution and substitution of fossil fuels with biomasses. However, a large increase in biomass consumption will finally induce conversion of arable and currently cultivated land into fields dedicated to energy crops production determining significant environmental consequences related to land use changes. In this study the global warming potential impact associated with six alternative bioenergy systems based on willow and Miscanthus was assessed by means of life-cycle assessment. The results showed that bioenergy production may generate higher global warming impacts than the reference fossil fuel system, when the impacts from indirect land use changes are accounted for. Ina life-cycle perspective, only highly-efficient co-firing with fossil fuel achieved a (modest) GHG emission reduction.

Tonini, Davide; Hamelin, L.

285

Global warming potential impact of bioenergy systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reducing dependence on fossil fuels and mitigation of GHG emissions is a main focus in the energy strategy of many Countries. In the case of Demark, for instance, the long-term target of the energy policy is to reach 100% renewable energy system. This can be achieved by drastic reduction of the energy demand, optimization of production/distribution and substitution of fossil fuels with biomasses. However, a large increase in biomass consumption will finally induce conversion of arable and currently cultivated land into fields dedicated to energy crops production determining significant environmental consequences related to land use changes. In this study the global warming potential impact associated with six alternative bioenergy systems based on willow and Miscanthus was assessed by means of life-cycle assessment. The results showed that bioenergy production may generate higher global warming impacts than the reference fossil fuel system, when the impacts from indirect land use changes are accounted for. In a life-cycle perspective, only highly-efficient co-firing with fossil fuel achieved a (modest) GHG emission reduction.

Tonini D.; Hamelin L.; Wenzel H.; Astrup T.

2012-01-01

286

Sharp bows out with global warming warning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In testimony prepared for the Energy and Commerce subcommittee subcommittee panel on global warming, Rep. Philip Sharp admonished the US environmental community, warning that environmentalists risk winning the battle but losing the war by pushing for additional greenhouse gas reductions. Even under the best of circumstances, sharp warned, mandatory legislative control takes years for Congress to adopt, often arrive too late to do the real work and force parties to confront each other instead of working together to solve the problem. He encouraged joint implementation as an important factor in speeding the transfer of much-needed, appropriate technologies from the United States and other developed countries to the nations of the developing world. First, he urged the DOE to continue its aggressive voluntary emissions reduction programs, particularly its effort to negotiate greenhouse gas reductions with the electric utility industry. Second, he suggested that the US move to focus the international debate on no more than six major projects. The global warming issue is so broad, he warned, that without such a focus, no progress will be made.

Wamsted, D.

1994-10-07

287

Environmental refugees in a globally warmed world  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examines the complex problem of environmental refugees as among the most serious of all the effects of global warming. Shoreline erosion, coastal flooding, and agricultural disruption from drought, soil erosion and desertification are factors now and in the future in creating a group of environmental refugees. Estimates are that at least 10 million such refugees exist today. A preliminary analysis is presented here as a first attempt to understand the full character and extent of the problem. Countries with large delta and coastal areas and large populations are at particular risk from sea-level rise of as little as .5 - 1 meter, compounded by storm surge and salt water intrusions. Bangladesh, Egypt, China, and India are discussed in detail along with Island states at risk. Other global warming effects such as shifts in monsoon systems and severe and persistent droughts make agriculture particularly vulnerable. Lack of soil moisture is during the growing season will probably be the primary problem. Additional and compounding environmental problems are discussed, and an overview of the economic, sociocultural and political consequences is given. 96 refs., 1 tab.

Myers, N.

1993-12-01

288

Canada and global warming: Meeting the challenge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Canada accounts for ca 2% of total world emissions of greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide emissions are by far the largest greenhouse gas source in Canada, primarily from energy consumption. On a per capita basis, Canada ranks second among industrialized countries in terms of energy related carbon dioxide emissions. Canada's northern geography and climate, its export-oriented economy with energy-intensive resource industries, and its relatively small population dispersed over a wide land mass contribute to this high per-capita value. The effects of global warming induced by greenhouse gases are outlined, including a reduction in water supplies, droughts affecting agriculture and forestry, and large-scale thawing of permafrost. A national strategy to respond to global warming has been developed which includes limiting and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, preparing for potential climatic changes, and improving scientific understanding and predictive capabilities with respect to climate change. Details of this strategy are outlined, including provincial and territorial strategies in partnership with the national strategy. 11 figs., 2 tabs.

1991-01-01

289

Canada and global warming: Meeting the challenge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Canada accounts for ca 2% of total world emissions of greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide emissions are by far the largest greenhouse gas source in Canada, primarily from energy consumption. On a per capita basis, Canada ranks second among industrialized countries in terms of energy related carbon dioxide emissions. Canada's northern geography and climate, its export-oriented economy with energy-intensive resource industries, and its relatively small population dispersed over a wide land mass contribute to this high per-capita value. The effects of global warming induced by greenhouse gases are outlined, including a reduction in water supplies, droughts affecting agriculture and forestry, and large-scale thawing of permafrost. A national strategy to respond to global warming has been developed which includes limiting and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, preparing for potential climatic changes, and improving scientific understanding and predictive capabilities with respect to climate change. Details of this strategy are outlined, including provincial and territorial strategies in partnership with the national strategy. 11 figs., 2 tabs

1991-01-01

290

Forecasting effects of global warming on biodiversity.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The demand for accurate forecasting of the effects of global warming on biodiversity is growing, but current methods for forecasting have limitations. In this article, we compare and discuss the different uses of four forecasting methods: (1) models that consider species individually, (2) niche-theory models that group species by habitat (more specifically, by environmental conditions under which a species can persist or does persist), (3) general circulation models and coupled ocean–atmosphere–biosphere models, and (4) species–area curve models that consider all species or large aggregates of species. After outlining the different uses and limitations of these methods, we make eight primary suggestions for improving forecasts. We find that greater use of the fossil record and of modern genetic studies would improve forecasting methods. We note a Quaternary conundrum: While current empirical and theoretical ecological results suggest that many species could be at risk from global warming, during the recent ice ages surprisingly few species became extinct. The potential resolution of this conundrum gives insights into the requirements for more accurate and reliable forecasting. Our eight suggestions also point to constructive synergies in the solution to the different problems.

Botkin, D.B.; Saxe, H.

2007-01-01

291

Global warming and cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Earth and the oceans have warmed significantly over the past four decades, providing evidence that the Earth is undergoing long-term climate change. Increasing temperatures and changing rainfall patterns have been documented. Cyanobacteria have a long evolutionary history, with their first occurrence dating back at least 2.7 billion years ago. Cyanobacteria often dominated the oceans after past mass extinction events. They evolved under anoxic conditions and are well adapted to environmental stress including exposure to UV, high solar radiation and temperatures, scarce and abundant nutrients. These environmental conditions favor the dominance of cyanobacteria in many aquatic habitats, from freshwater to marine ecosystems. A few studies have examined the ecological consequences of global warming on cyanobacteria and other phytoplankton over the past decades in freshwater, estuarine, and marine environments, with varying results. The responses of cyanobacteria to changing environmental patterns associated with global climate change are important subjects for future research. Results of this research will have ecological and biogeochemical significance as well as management implications.

Paul VJ

2008-01-01

292

Global warming and cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Earth and the oceans have warmed significantly over the past four decades, providing evidence that the Earth is undergoing long-term climate change. Increasing temperatures and changing rainfall patterns have been documented. Cyanobacteria have a long evolutionary history, with their first occurrence dating back at least 2.7 billion years ago. Cyanobacteria often dominated the oceans after past mass extinction events. They evolved under anoxic conditions and are well adapted to environmental stress including exposure to UV, high solar radiation and temperatures, scarce and abundant nutrients. These environmental conditions favor the dominance of cyanobacteria in many aquatic habitats, from freshwater to marine ecosystems. A few studies have examined the ecological consequences of global warming on cyanobacteria and other phytoplankton over the past decades in freshwater, estuarine, and marine environments, with varying results. The responses of cyanobacteria to changing environmental patterns associated with global climate change are important subjects for future research. Results of this research will have ecological and biogeochemical significance as well as management implications. PMID:18461772

Paul, Valerie J

2008-01-01

293

Black carbon contribution to global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Before the onset of industrial revolution the only important source of black carbon in the atmosphere was biomass burning. Today, black carbon production is divided between the biomass and fossil fuel burning. Black carbon is a major agent responsible for absorption of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols. Thus black carbon makes other aerosols less efficient in their role of reflecting solar radiation and cooling the earth-atmosphere system. Black carbon also contributes to the absorption of solar radiation by clouds and snow cover. The authors present the results of black carbon concentrations measurements in the atmosphere, in cloud water, in rain and snow melt water collected during the 1992--1996 time period over the southern Nova Scotia. Their results are put into the global and historical perspective by comparing them with the compilation of past measurements at diverse locations and with their measurements of black carbon concentrations in the Greenland and Antarctic ice cores. Black carbon contribution to the global warming is estimated, and compared to the carbon dioxide warming, using the radiative forcing caused by the black carbon at the top of the atmosphere.

Chylek, P.; Johnson, B.; Kou, L.; Wong, J.

1996-12-31

294

Understanding the challenges of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The evolution of the threat of global warming and the chronology of the last half century of efforts to prevent it from overwhelming humanity is chronicled. It was in the 1970s when it was first realized that the cumulative total of atmospheric carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning had been steadily rising from the pre-industrial 280 ppmv (parts per million by volume) to 325 ppmv, approximately parallel with the rise of industrialization. Nevertheless, the first attempt at a global accord to reduce emissions was not made until 1992, when the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit tried, but miserably failed to reach agreement, having been prevented from achieving anything of substance by a loose-knit group of nations and commercial interests. Binding agreements were finally reached at the next scheduled international meeting in Kyoto, Japan, in 1997. There is a detailed discussion of the Kyoto Protocols, the measures that Annex One nations such as Canada have to do to achieve the six per cent reductions targets below 1990 levels of emissions by 2010, and estimates of the costs involved. These discussions of proposed actions are balanced by a display of examples of the the growing volume of arguments advanced by opponents who not only disagree about what can be done to reduce emissions, but that there is anything that needs to be done at all. Central to their arguments is the denial that human activities are responsible for global warming, disregarding the overwhelming evidence by 3000+ leading scientists of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change that most of the global warming over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities. The rest of the article details what can and needs to be done to reverse the cumulative impact of greenhouse gas emissions, how we can produce the energy we need at the lowest environmental cost, and the types of energy (solar, wind, biomass, natural gas) that result in the smallest GHG emissions. Familiar arguments are recited to demonstrate the urgent need to move away from fossil fuels towards low emission and renewable sources, accompanied by examples of the Scandinavian experience to show that it is possible to enjoy a lifestyle similar to North American standards while reducing total average emissions to about six tonnes per person per year compared to the Canadian average of 16 tonnes per person per year. 2 tabs

2003-01-01

295

Long-term effects of warming and ocean acidification are modified by seasonal variation in species responses and environmental conditions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Warming of sea surface temperatures and alteration of ocean chemistry associated with anthropogenic increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide will have profound consequences for a broad range of species, but the potential for seasonal variation to modify species and ecosystem responses to these stressors has received little attention. Here, using the longest experiment to date (542 days), we investigate how the interactive effects of warming and ocean acidification affect the growth, behaviour and associated levels of ecosystem functioning (nutrient release) for a functionally important non-calcifying intertidal polychaete (Alitta virens) under seasonally changing conditions. We find that the effects of warming, ocean acidification and their interactions are not detectable in the short term, but manifest over time through changes in growth, bioturbation and bioirrigation behaviour that, in turn, affect nutrient generation. These changes are intimately linked to species responses to seasonal variations in environmental conditions (temperature and photoperiod) that, depending upon timing, can either exacerbate or buffer the long-term directional effects of climatic forcing. Taken together, our observations caution against over emphasizing the conclusions from short-term experiments and highlight the necessity to consider the temporal expression of complex system dynamics established over appropriate timescales when forecasting the likely ecological consequences of climatic forcing.

Godbold JA; Solan M

2013-01-01

296

Long-term effects of warming and ocean acidification are modified by seasonal variation in species responses and environmental conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Warming of sea surface temperatures and alteration of ocean chemistry associated with anthropogenic increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide will have profound consequences for a broad range of species, but the potential for seasonal variation to modify species and ecosystem responses to these stressors has received little attention. Here, using the longest experiment to date (542 days), we investigate how the interactive effects of warming and ocean acidification affect the growth, behaviour and associated levels of ecosystem functioning (nutrient release) for a functionally important non-calcifying intertidal polychaete (Alitta virens) under seasonally changing conditions. We find that the effects of warming, ocean acidification and their interactions are not detectable in the short term, but manifest over time through changes in growth, bioturbation and bioirrigation behaviour that, in turn, affect nutrient generation. These changes are intimately linked to species responses to seasonal variations in environmental conditions (temperature and photoperiod) that, depending upon timing, can either exacerbate or buffer the long-term directional effects of climatic forcing. Taken together, our observations caution against over emphasizing the conclusions from short-term experiments and highlight the necessity to consider the temporal expression of complex system dynamics established over appropriate timescales when forecasting the likely ecological consequences of climatic forcing. PMID:23980249

Godbold, Jasmin A; Solan, Martin

2013-08-26

297

Global warming and changes in ocean circulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This final report provides an overview of the goals and accomplishments of this project. Modeling and observational work has raised the possibility that global warming may cause changes in the circulation of the ocean. If such changes would occur they could have important climatic consequences. The first technical goal of this project was to investigate some of these possible changes in ocean circulation in a quantitative way, using a state-of -the-art numerical model of the ocean. Another goal was to develop our ocean model, a detailed three-dimensional numerical model of the ocean circulation and ocean carbon cycles. A major non-technical goal was to establish LLNL as a center of excellence in modelling the ocean circulation and carbon cycle

1998-01-01

298

Global warming and SF6 molecule  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper the basic SF6 molecule physical characteristics are given concerning its influence on global warming and green house effect. Absorption and relaxation characteristics of this molecule have been investigated within the frame of nonlinear molecule – strong laser field interaction in different gas mixtures. All experiments have been performed on a different gas mixture pressures to analyze and investigate relaxation and energy transfer characteristics of absorbing molecules and non-absorbing collision partners. To show the SF6 absorption and relaxation and energy transfer capability comparison between SF6 and C2H4 was given using the same experimental conditions and argon as a buffer gas. All measurement points and their calculated values presented in this paper have been obtained using the infrared-pulsed photoacoustics technique adopted for atmospheric and subatmospheric pressures.

Gajevi? Jelena; Stevi? Marija; Nikoli? Jelena; Rabasovi? Mihailo; Markushev Dragan

2006-01-01

299

Electricity generating renewables and global warming emissions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] It is sometimes assumed that renewable technologies which emit carbon dioxide (CO2) in their operation do not offset CO2 emissions as much as technologies such as wind energy, PV or hydro. Firstly this paper examines the CO2 savings achieved by electricity generated from renewables as a result of their being substituted for fossil fuel-fired generation. These savings are then balanced against the CO2 emissions arising from the manufacture of the power plant and, in the case of some technologies, the CO2 produced in operation. The end result for all technologies is a net CO2 saving. Some renewable energy technologies also reduce methane emissions. These methane emission savings are converted into CO2 equivalents to give a measure of the net global warming reduction effect of generating electricity from these sources. (Author)

1999-01-01

300

Decarbonization and sequestration for mitigating global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Mitigating the global warming greenhouse effect while maintaining a fossil fuel economy, requires improving efficiency of utilization of fossil fuels, use of high hydrogen content fossil fuels, decarbonization of fossil fuels, and sequestering of carbon and CO2 applied to all the sectors of the economy, electric power generation, transportation, and industrial, and domestic power and heat generation. Decarbonization means removal of carbon as C or CO2 either before or after fossil fuel combustion and sequestration means disposal of the recovered C or CO2 including its utilization. Removal and recovery of CO2 from power generation plants and sequestration in the ocean represents one possibility of making a major impact on reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. This paper will briefly review the progress made in ocean disposal and present some alternative schemes. (author)

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Global warming and changes in ocean circulation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This final report provides an overview of the goals and accomplishments of this project. Modeling and observational work has raised the possibility that global warming may cause changes in the circulation of the ocean. If such changes would occur they could have important climatic consequences. The first technical goal of this project was to investigate some of these possible changes in ocean circulation in a quantitative way, using a state-of -the-art numerical model of the ocean. Another goal was to develop our ocean model, a detailed three-dimensional numerical model of the ocean circulation and ocean carbon cycles. A major non-technical goal was to establish LLNL as a center of excellence in modelling the ocean circulation and carbon cycle.

Duffy, P.B.; Caldeira, K.C.

1998-02-01

302

Global warming potentials of CFC-alternatives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have carried out ab initio calculations to study molecular properties of those halomethanes and haloethanes that are being proposed as CFC-alternatives. The calculated values obtained with Gaussian-92 software, at the MP2/6-31G level, are in good agreement with the corresponding experimental values. The molecular structural parameters are found to be within 1% error, the vibrational frequencies deviate up to 10%, and the sum of those absolute infrared intensities that fall inside the atmospheric window (600-1500 cm{sup -1}) deviate by no more than 30%. This suggests that our methodology s a valid tool for predicting the Global Warming Potential (GWP) of the CFC-substitutes. We also report trends in the individual band intensities for the series C{sub 2}H{sub n}F{sub 6-n}, of fluorinated ethanes, and their corresponding isomers.

Papasavva, S.; Illinger, K.H.; Kenny, J.E. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

1995-12-31

303

Global warming implications of replacing CFCs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The late 1980s were a challenging time for the HVAC and R industries because of the demands being made for increased energy efficiency, the development of alternative refrigerants that do not destroy stratospheric ozone, and the intense pressures of international competition. The 1990s will not be any less demanding, with further requirements to improve efficiency and changing understandings of environmental acceptability. Dealing with the global warming issue creates further difficulties in adapting the refrigeration and insulation technologies for future needs as chlorofluorocarbons are phased out of production and use in accordance with the Montreal Protocol. The study reported in this article was conducted to help industry, government and international policymakers reach sound decisions during the change-over from the CFCs to alternative compounds and technologies. Information developed in this effort complements ongoing studies to assess safety, toxicology, cost and other factors influencing these decisions.

Fischer, S.K.; Fairchild, P.D.; Hughes, P.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (US))

1992-04-01

304

Global warming implications of replacing CFCs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The late 1980s were a challenging time for the HVAC and R industries because of the demands being made for increased energy efficiency, the development of alternative refrigerants that do not destroy stratospheric ozone, and the intense pressures of international competition. The 1990s will not be any less demanding, with further requirements to improve efficiency and changing understandings of environmental acceptability. Dealing with the global warming issue creates further difficulties in adapting the refrigeration and insulation technologies for future needs as chlorofluorocarbons are phased out of production and use in accordance with the Montreal Protocol. The study reported in this article was conducted to help industry, government and international policymakers reach sound decisions during the change-over from the CFCs to alternative compounds and technologies. Information developed in this effort complements ongoing studies to assess safety, toxicology, cost and other factors influencing these decisions.

1992-01-01

305

Natural gas industry and global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Natural gas has a very good potential compared to other fossil fuels as regard to global warming because of its high content of hydrogen, and its versatility in uses. To take full advantage of this potential, further development of gas designed boilers and furnaces, gas catalytic combustion, fuel cells are needed, but progresses in the recent years have been very promising. The natural gas industry' environmental potential is discussed. Regarding methane emission, progresses have been done is Western Europe on the distribution network, and some improvement are underway. It is however important to rationalize the effort by acting on the most emitting subsystem: this can be achieved by cooperation along the whole gas chain. (R.P.)

1997-01-01

306

Status of the `global warming` hypothesis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The lecture summarises the science of climate change and is based largely on the conclusions of the assessments of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and thus, indirectly, on the results of the many research activities undertaken under the World Climate Programme. Conclusions drawn are: the results of scientific research continue to support, with a high degree of confidence, the `global warming` hypothesis first raised by Tyndall more than 130 years ago; the continued unmitigated human interference with the climate system will likely reach dangerous levels in less than one century; many key aspects of science with respect to the details of future climate change and related impacts remain unresolved; the scientific community, must be more proactive in making this information relevant to decision makers. 8 refs.

McBean, G.A. [Environment Canada, PQ (Canada). Atmospheric Environment Service

1997-12-31

307

A global warming forum: Scientific, economic, and legal overview  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Global Warming Forum covers in detail five general subject areas aimed at providing first, the scientific background and technical information available on global warming and second, a study and evaluation of the role of economic, legal, and political considerations in global warming. The five general topic areas discussed are the following: (1) The role of geophysical and geoengineering methods to solve problems related to global climatic change; (2) the role of oceanographic and geochemical methods to provide evidence for global climatic change; (3) the global assessment of greenhouse gas production including the need for additional information; (4) natural resource management needed to provide long-term global energy and agricultural uses; (5) legal, policy, and educational considerations required to properly evaluate global warming proposals.

Geyer, R.A. (ed.)

1993-01-01

308

A global warming forum: Scientific, economic, and legal overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A Global Warming Forum covers in detail five general subject areas aimed at providing first, the scientific background and technical information available on global warming and second, a study and evaluation of the role of economic, legal, and political considerations in global warming. The five general topic areas discussed are the following: (1) The role of geophysical and geoengineering methods to solve problems related to global climatic change; (2) the role of oceanographic and geochemical methods to provide evidence for global climatic change; (3) the global assessment of greenhouse gas production including the need for additional information; (4) natural resource management needed to provide long-term global energy and agricultural uses; (5) legal, policy, and educational considerations required to properly evaluate global warming proposals

1993-01-01

309

Global warming: sorting the facts from the myths  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The reasons why anthropogenic global warming is a myth are presented. Global warming itself is a natural process, but the idea that the combustion of fossil fuels, particularly coal, can have any effect upon it can be discounted. The amount of the various greenhouse gases produced naturally far outweighs any anthropogenic production. More, even if an increase in carbon dioxide did cause the climate to warm up, this would be a help to agriculture rather than a disaster. The theories of global warming are asserted by interests who have every reason to constrain the US`s economic growth.

NONE

1996-01-01

310

Global warming: the origin and nature of alleged scientific consensus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author contends that there is no substantive basis for predictions of global warming. The science associated with the prediction of global warming is reviewed in order to substantiate this claim. Issues discussed include: increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations; over simplification of the greenhouse mechanisms; inaccurate modeling of the greenhouse effect; popular misconceptions; political aspects; and the alleged scientific consensus.

Lindzen, R. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (USA))

1992-01-01

311

Situational Influences upon Children's Beliefs about Global Warming and Energy  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores children's beliefs about global warming and energy sources from a psychological perspective, focusing upon situational influences upon subjective beliefs, including perceived self-efficacy. The context of the research is one of growing concern at the potential impacts of global warming, yet demonstrably low levels of…

Devine-Wright, Patrick; Devine-Wright, Hannah; Fleming, Paul

2004-01-01

312

Hot stuff. Global warming as a giant trend  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article presents various aspects of global warming with focus on meteorological data, global discharges, estimated surface temperature increments, ocean level elevations and net warming effects of various human activities. The consequences for the economic and social developments are discussed. Some action possibilities are mentioned. (tk)

2007-01-01

313

Biomass energy, forests and global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Biomass in all its forms currently provides about 14% of the world's energy, equivalent to 25 million bbl oil/day; in developing countries where it is the major energy source, biomass supplies 35% of total energy use. Although biomass energy use affects the flux of carbon to the atmosphere, the main carbon emission problem is caused by fossil fuels and land clearance for agriculture. Biomass fuels make no net contribution to atmospheric CO2 if used sustainably. A major global revegetation and reforestation effort is a possible strategy to reduce CO2 emissions and to slow the pace of climatic change. However, a more attractive alternative strategy might be to substitute fossil fuels, especially coal, with biomass grown specifically for this purpose producing modern fuels such as electricity, liquids and gases. This paper examines biomass energy use, devegetation, biomass burning, the implications for global warming and the ability of biomass to sequester CO2 and substitute for fossil fuels. It also discusses some socioeconomic and political issues. (author)

1992-01-01

314

Biomass energy, forests and global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biomass in all its forms currently provides about 14% of the world's energy, equivalent to 25 million bbl oil/day; in developing countries where it is the major energy source, biomass supplies 35% of total energy use. Although biomass energy use affects the flux of carbon to the atmosphere, the main carbon emission problem is caused by fossil fuels and land clearance for agriculture. Biomass fuels make no net contribution to atmospheric CO{sub 2} if used sustainably. A major global revegetation and reforestation effort is a possible strategy to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and to slow the pace of climatic change. However, a more attractive alternative strategy might be to substitute fossil fuels, especially coal, with biomass grown specifically for this purpose producing modern fuels such as electricity, liquids and gases. This paper examines biomass energy use, devegetation, biomass burning, the implications for global warming and the ability of biomass to sequester CO{sub 2} and substitute for fossil fuels. It also discusses some socioeconomic and political issues. (author).

Rosillo-Calle, Frank; Hall, D.O. (King' s Coll., London (United Kingdom))

1992-02-01

315

Natural resource management: implications for global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The opportunities offered by the global warming alert for global natural resource management are reviewed. The author systematically introduced a new discipline of managing risks involved in local large scale climatic swings which is based on international and interdisciplinary transfer of knowledge, benefiting citizens of industrialized nations, the industrializing nations, as well as the developing nations. Several programs to utilize the opportunities are outlined, including (A) the monitoring of increased availability of forest land in the circumpolar subarctic area, (B) the deployment of biologically engineered reforestation methods and (C) the production of grain-based and wood based liquid fuel and plastic feedstock to tackle the new energy crisis. Policies must represent collective wisdom in the socio-economic as well as scientific contexts. Newly industralized countries must take into account the existing energy politics which affects energy economics and energy and material security. The paramount importance of the ability to use thermodynamically sound technologies and technologies that are based on renewable resources is to be recognized. The choice of technology must be based on the technology's material and energy efficiency. The basic philosophy of cooperation between nations and coordination of activities to improve resource management in the long term must be based on a responsibility system applicable internationally, and an understanding of resource management that can be translated into policy action. Transboundary environmental and economic development problems are best solved regionally by a regional band of nations. 30 refs.

Shen, S. (Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (USA))

1990-01-01

316

Climate projection: Refining global warming projections  

Science.gov (United States)

Accurately determining the warming associated with scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions remains an overarching aim of climate modelling. Research now shows that contemporary measurements significantly reduce uncertainty bounds and indicate that some more extreme warming predictions may be less likely.

Huntingford, Chris

2013-08-01

317

Global crop yield losses from recent warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Global yields of the world-s six most widely grown crops--wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, sorghum--have increased since 1961. Year-to-year variations in growing season minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and precipitation explain 30% or more of the variations in yield. Since 1991, climate trends have significantly decreased yield trends in all crops but rice, leading to foregone production since 1981 of about 12 million tons per year of wheat or maize, representing an annual economic loss of $1.2 to $1.7 billion. At the global scale, negative impacts of climate trends on crop yields are already apparent. Annual global temperatures have increased by {approx}0.4 C since 1980, with even larger changes observed in several regions (1). While many studies have considered the impacts of future climate changes on food production (2-5), the effects of these past changes on agriculture remain unclear. It is likely that warming has improved yields in some areas, reduced them in others, and had negligible impacts in still others; the relative balance of these effects at the global scale is unknown. An understanding of this balance would help to anticipate impacts of future climate changes, as well as to more accurately assess recent (and thereby project future) technologically driven yield progress. Separating the contribution of climate from concurrent changes in other factors--such as crop cultivars, management practices, soil quality, and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels--requires models that describe the response of yields to climate. Studies of future global impacts of climate change have typically relied on a bottom-up approach, whereby field scale, process-based models are applied to hundreds of representative sites and then averaged (e.g., ref 2). Such approaches require input data on soil and management conditions, which are often difficult to obtain. Limitations on data quality or quantity can thus limit the utility of this approach, especially at the local scale (6-8). At the global scale, however, many of the processes and impacts captured by field scale models will tend to cancel out, and therefore simpler empirical/statistical models with fewer input requirements may be as accurate (8, 9). Empirical/statistical models also allow the effects of poorly modeled processes (e.g., pest dynamics) to be captured and uncertainties to be readily quantified (10). Here we develop new, empirical/statistical models of global yield responses to climate using datasets on broad-scale yields, crop locations, and climate variability. We focus on global average yields for the six most widely grown crops in the world: wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, and sorghum. Production of these crops accounts for over 40% of global cropland area (11). 55% of non-meat calories, and over 70% of animal feed (12).

Lobell, D; Field, C

2006-06-02

318

Policy regarding responses to global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Earlier this year, 52 Nobel laureates and over 700 members of the National Academy of Sciences appealed to President Bush to take action now to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. Despite the need for further research, and the uncertainty over the timing and extent of the global warming threat, the President and Congress, as well as state and local governments, should immediately adopt measures that, in addition to curbing greenhouse gases, will have independent benefits. The US needs a new energy policy that promotes energy efficiency and renewable resources to reduce the burning of fossil fuels. Specifically, the federal government should raise motor vehicle fuel economy requirements to 45 miles per gallon by the year 2000 and increase funding for the research, development and commercialization of efficiency and renewable technologies. State and local governments should give utilities incentives to pursue aggressive energy efficiency programs, should incorporate environmental and health considerations into the costs of energy, and should adopt solid waste recycling instead of incineration or landfilling.

1990-01-01

319

'Global-warming factories'  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A report is given of two recent Greenpeace studies. In the first, 'The EC's next global warming factories', Greenpeace claims that if existing plans for construction of new power plants in the European Union are carried out, member states will be unable to meet any of the commitments they have made to curb emissions of carbon dioxide. They calculate that the 145 proposed power plants in the EU will have potential yearly CO[sub 2] emissions of 377 million tons. Greenpeace advocate construction of new plants be halted until the possibilities for energy saving at the customer level has been exhausted. In a second study, 'Integrated resource planning: making electricity efficiency work in Europe', Greenpeace proposes a rapid introduction of new power-planning legislation at national and Union levels, which would effectively allow utilities to earn profits from helping consumers save energy instead of from maximising power sales with corresponding pollution. The method of 'integrated resource planning' has been successfully applied in the USA and Canada, as explained in the report. 1 tab., 1 photo.

Aagren, C.

1994-04-01

320

A guide to global warming potentials (GWPs)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to quantitatively compare the greenhouse effect of different greenhouse gases a global warming potential (GWP) index has been used which is based on the ratio of the radiative forcing of an equal emission of two different gases, integrated either over all time or up to an arbitrarily determined time horizon. The GWP index is analogous to the ozone depleting potential (ODP) index. However, the GWP index is subject to major conceptual difficulties arising from the fact that the atmospheric lifespan for part of the emitted CO[sub 2] is, for all practical purposes, infinite. In addition, there are major uncertainties in the atmospheric lifespans and indirect heating effects of the important greenhouse gases, which are reviewed here. An alternative GWP index is proposed which explicitly takes into account the duration of capital investments in the energy sector and is less sensitive to uncertainties in atmospheric lifespans and radiative heating than the usual GWP index for time horizons longer than the lifespan of the capital investment. The effect of the GWP index proposed here, compared with previous indices, is to shift attention away from short lived gases such as methane and toward CO[sub 2]. 45 refs., 4 tabs.

Harvey, L.D.D. (Toronto University, Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Geography)

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

A policy synthesis approach for slowing global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Global warming is a burning environmental issue today but confronting with subjective as well as policy conflicts. The findings of various studies indicate that developed countries that are capable of affording effective measures towards the global warming mitigation have fewer incentives for doing so because they will have a minimal damage from global warming. The developing countries, although they will have greater damage, are unlikely to divert their development budget for taking preventive actions towards global warming. The only solution in this situation is to design a policy that encourages all the nation in the world to participate in the programs for slowing global warming. Without active participation of all nations, it seems unlikely to reduce the global warming problem in an effective way. This study presents a qualitative policy recommendation extracted from a comprehensive analysis of the findings of several studies conducted so far in this field. This study has categorized the policy approaches for mitigating the global warming in three groups: Engineering approach, forestry approach and economic approach

1996-01-01

322

Promotion of scientific literacy on global warming by process drama  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This project aims to investigate how process drama promotes scientific literacy in the context of global warming. Thirty-one lower (n = 24) and upper (n = 7) secondary students of one secondary school in Bangkok, Thailand participated in a seven-day workshop which process drama strategy was implemented. In the workshop, the students were actively engaged in a series of lab exercises, critically reviewed global warming issue presented in selected printed media, and watched a documentary film to understand the science, conflict, and solutions of the global warming. In addition, the students were trained on acting, elements of drama, and storytelling. They made and selected a story, developed a script, formed casts and production crews and performed the drama to the public. Data were collected by using a questionnaire, participant observation, informal interviews, student daily journals, and drama scripts. Results showed that the students developed scientific perception of the keywords related to global warming and conceptual understanding of the causes, processes, and consequences of global warming after the workshop. Students’ views on the solution of global warming were integrated, creative and critical. The students increases intensity in engagement in solving global warming.

Pongprapan PONGSOPHON; Naruemon YUTAKOM; Saouma B. BOUJAOUDE

2010-01-01

323

A policy synthesis approach for slowing global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Global warming is a burning environmental issue today but confronting with subjective as well as policy conflicts. The findings of various studies indicate that developed countries that are capable of affording effective measures towards the global warming mitigation have fewer incentives for doing so because they will have a minimal damage from global warming. The developing countries, although they will have greater damage, are unlikely to divert their development budget for taking preventive actions towards global warming. The only solution in this situation is to design a policy that encourages all the nation in the world to participate in the programs for slowing global warming. Without active participation of all nations, it seems unlikely to reduce the global warming problem in an effective way. This study presents a qualitative policy recommendation extracted from a comprehensive analysis of the findings of several studies conducted so far in this field. This study has categorized the policy approaches for mitigating the global warming in three groups: Engineering approach, forestry approach and economic approach.

Timilsina, G.R. [Asian Inst. of Tech., Bangkok (Thailand). Energy Program

1996-12-31

324

Effect of global warming in Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The earth absorbs much radiation from the sun to warm the atmosphere, the land, and the oceans. This energy is reradiatedback into space. In the past, the thermal budget of the earth is more or less balanced, with radiation from the sun onpar with thermal radiation from the earth. With increasing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, some of the thermal radiationis absorbed by these gases resulting in an increase of global mean surface temperature, melting of polar ices and thuscontributing to a rising of sea level. However, sea-level changes depend upon four main processes: 1) Glacio-eustasy, 2)Emergence/subsidence of land, 3) Man-made activities, and 4) Ocean-atmosphere effects. The assessment report of the IntergovernmentalPanel on Climate Change (IPCC, 1990), which was based on past data in Europe and the USA, including theNorth Atlantic Ocean, published a mean temperature of 14°C and an actual increase of 1°C in the last century, plus an increaseof CO2 from 370 ppmv to 550 ppmv, and a three-fold temperature increase of 3°C in this century. All these changes are projectinga sea level rise (SLR) of 31-110 cm per century on global scale, which was in fact applicable to the North Atlantic. Theassessment report of the IPCC Working Group I (1996) has realized that differential SLR occurs due to different geographicalconditions. It identified ten regions on earth and compared the actual climate change to what it was postulated to be, andcame up with SLR of 15-95 cm per century. The assessment report of the IPCC Working Group II (2001) employed improveddata obtained from tide gauges and satellite images as well as mathematical model results with the most convincing evidencein the North Atlantic, and it concluded an SLR of 9-88 cm per century. But it had, however, noted a lack of data in the Pacificand Indian Ocean. The assessment report of the IPCC Summary for Policy Makers (SPM, 2007) that included six differentarctic and antarctic climate science scenarios reported relatively lower value of 18-59 cm per century. The North Atlantic thatis surrounded by glaciers might see a SLR due to ice melting related to an increase of the temperature in the Atlantic Ocean.Nevertheless, the lack of data on global warming in the tropics especially in the Pacific and the Indian Oceans, which haveno glaciers, might put a different view on the conclusions derived from temperature and arctic data. Six decades of comprehensiveinformation from the Gulf of Thailand regarding oceanographical and meteorological data is revealing a much lowerSLR. The mean monthly sea levels in six decades at Sattahip and Ko Lak showed no increasing trend, while those rises atSamut Prakan and Samut Sakhon are due to land subsidence from excessive groundwater pumping.

Suphat Vongvisessomjai

2010-01-01

325

Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rai SM. 2013. Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 101-104. The present article is focused on global warming, which is an important global problem being faced by the humankind. The article discusses about the causes of the global warming, such as green house gases. The earth receives energy from the Sun in the form of solar radiations with small amount of infra red and ultraviolet rays. A part of these radiations is absorbed by green house gases which results into warming of the earth. These radiations increase temperature on the universe and are one of the most important global problems. The efforts from all the countries of the world are required for reduction of emissions of green house gases.

SHIVANI M. RAI

2013-01-01

326

Population risk perceptions of global warming in Australia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), global warming has the potential to dramatically disrupt some of life's essential requirements for health, water, air and food. Understanding how Australians perceive the risk of global warming is essential for climate change policy and planning. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of, and socio-demographic factors associated with, high levels of perceived likelihood that global warming would worsen, concern for self and family and reported behaviour changes. METHODS: A module of questions on global warming was incorporated into the New South Wales Population Health Survey in the second quarter of 2007. This Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI) was completed by a representative sample of 2004 adults. The weighted sample was comparable to the Australian population. Bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted to examine the socio-demographic and general health factors. RESULTS: Overall 62.1% perceived that global warming was likely to worsen; 56.3% were very or extremely concerned that they or their family would be directly affected by global warming; and 77.6% stated that they had made some level of change to the way they lived their lives, because of the possibility of global warming. After controlling for confounding factors, multivariate analyses revealed that those with high levels of psychological distress were 2.17 (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)=2.17; CI: 1.16-4.03; P=0.015) times more likely to be concerned about global warming than those with low psychological distress levels. Those with a University degree or equivalent and those who lived in urban areas were significantly more likely to think that global warming would worsen compared to those without a University degree or equivalent and those who lived in the rural areas. Females were significantly (AOR=1.69; CI: 1.23-2.33; P=0.001) more likely to report they had made changes to the way they lived their lives due to the risk of global warming. CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of respondents reported that they perceived that global warming would worsen, were concerned that it would affect them and their families and had already made changes in their lives because of it. These findings support a readiness in the population to deal with global warming. Future research and programs are needed to investigate population-level strategies for future action.

Agho K; Stevens G; Taylor M; Barr M; Raphael B

2010-11-01

327

The economic costs of global warming damage: a survey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper provides an overview on literature dealing with an economic assessment of expected global warming damage. While a relatively large body of literature exists on other economic aspects of global warming, in particular the costs of carbon abatement, the question of greenhouse damage valuation has gained little attention so far. The first part of the paper surveys the results of existing analyses on the costs of global warming. The second part discusses the main shortcomings of these studies and the main problems faced by researchers in this area. (Author)

Fankhauser, S. (Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment, London (United Kingdom))

1994-01-01

328

Effects of ocean warming and acidification on fertilization in the Antarctic echinoid Sterechinus neumayeri across a range of sperm concentrations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The gametes of marine invertebrates are being spawned into an ocean that is simultaneously warming and decreasing in pH. Predicting the potential for interactive effects of these stressors on fertilization is difficult, especially for stenothermal polar invertebrates adapted to fertilization in cold, viscous water and, when decreased sperm availability may be an additional stressor. The impact of increased temperature (2-4 °C above ambient) and decreased pH (0.2-0.4 pH units below ambient) on fertilization in the Antarctic echinoid Sterechinus neumayeri across a range of sperm concentrations was investigated in cross-factorial experiments in context with near future ocean change projections. The high temperature treatment (+4 °C) was also used to assess thermal tolerance. Gametes from multiple males and females in replicate experiments were used to reflect the multiple spawner scenario in nature. For fertilization at low sperm density we tested three hypotheses, 1) increased temperature enhances fertilization success, 2) low pH reduces fertilization and, 3) due to the cold stenothermal physiology of S. neumayeri, temperature would be the more significant stressor. Temperature and sperm levels had a significant effect on fertilization, but decreased pH did not affect fertilization. Warming enhanced fertilization at the lowest sperm concentration tested likely through stimulation of sperm motility and reduced water viscosity. Our results indicate that fertilization in S. neumayeri, even at low sperm levels potentially found in nature, is resilient to near-future ocean warming and acidification.

Ho MA; Price C; King CK; Virtue P; Byrne M

2013-09-01

329

Effects of ocean warming and acidification on fertilization in the Antarctic echinoid Sterechinus neumayeri across a range of sperm concentrations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The gametes of marine invertebrates are being spawned into an ocean that is simultaneously warming and decreasing in pH. Predicting the potential for interactive effects of these stressors on fertilization is difficult, especially for stenothermal polar invertebrates adapted to fertilization in cold, viscous water and, when decreased sperm availability may be an additional stressor. The impact of increased temperature (2-4 °C above ambient) and decreased pH (0.2-0.4 pH units below ambient) on fertilization in the Antarctic echinoid Sterechinus neumayeri across a range of sperm concentrations was investigated in cross-factorial experiments in context with near future ocean change projections. The high temperature treatment (+4 °C) was also used to assess thermal tolerance. Gametes from multiple males and females in replicate experiments were used to reflect the multiple spawner scenario in nature. For fertilization at low sperm density we tested three hypotheses, 1) increased temperature enhances fertilization success, 2) low pH reduces fertilization and, 3) due to the cold stenothermal physiology of S. neumayeri, temperature would be the more significant stressor. Temperature and sperm levels had a significant effect on fertilization, but decreased pH did not affect fertilization. Warming enhanced fertilization at the lowest sperm concentration tested likely through stimulation of sperm motility and reduced water viscosity. Our results indicate that fertilization in S. neumayeri, even at low sperm levels potentially found in nature, is resilient to near-future ocean warming and acidification. PMID:23948149

Ho, M A; Price, C; King, C K; Virtue, P; Byrne, M

2013-07-31

330

Global warming 2007. An update to global warming: the balance of evidence and its policy implications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the four years since my original review (Keller[25]; hereafter referred to as CFK03), research has clarified and strengthened our understanding of how humans are warming the planet. So many of the details highlighted in the IPCC's Third Assessment Report[21] and in CFK03 have been resolved that I expect many to be a bit overwhelmed, and I hope that, by treating just the most significant aspects of the research, this update may provide a road map through the expected maze of new information. In particular, while most of CFK03 remains current, there are important items that have changed: Most notable is the resolution of the conundrum that mid-tropospheric warming did not seem to match surface warming. Both satellite and radiosonde (balloon-borne sensors) data reduction showed little warming in the middle troposphere (4-8 km altitude). In the CFK03 I discussed potential solutions to this problem, but at that time there was no clear resolution. This problem has now been solved, and the middle troposphere is seen to be warming apace with the surface. There have also been advances in determinations of temperatures over the past 1,000 years showing a cooler Little Ice Age (LIA) but essentially the same warming during medieval times (not as large as recent warming). The recent uproar over the so-called "hockey stick" temperature determination is much overblown since at least seven other groups have made relatively independent determinations of northern hemisphere temperatures over the same time period and derived essentially the same results. They differ on how cold the LIA was but essentially agree with the Mann's hockey stick result that the Medieval Warm Period was not as warm as the last 25 years. The question of the sun's influence on climate continues to generate controversy. It appears there is a growing consensus that, while the sun was a major factor in earlier temperature variations, it is incapable of having caused observed warming in the past quarter century or so. However, this conclusion is being challenged by differing interpretations of satellite observations of Total Solar Insolation (TSI). Different satellites give different estimates of TSI during the 1996-7 solar activity minimum. A recent study using the larger TSI satellite interpretation indicates a stronger role for the sun, and until there is agreement on TSI at solar minimum, we caution completely disregarding the sun as a significant factor in recent warming. Computer models continue to improve and, while they still do not do a satisfactory job of predicting regional changes, their simulations of global aspects of climate change and of individual forcings are increasingly reliable. In addition to these four areas, the past five years have seen advances in our understanding of many other aspects of climate change--from albedo changes due to land use to the dynamics of glacier movement. However, these more are of second order importance and will only be treated very briefly. The big news since CFK03 is the first of these, the collapse of the climate critics' last real bastion, namely that satellites and radiosondes show no significant warming in the past quarter century. Figuratively speaking, this was the center pole that held up the critics' entire "tent." Their argument was that, if there had been little warming in the past 25 years or so, then what warming was observed would have been within the range of natural variations with solar forcing as the major player. Further, the models would have been shown to be unreliable since they were predicting warming that was not happening. But now both satellite and in-situ radiosonde observations have been shown to corroborate both the surface observations of warming and the model predictions. Thus, while uncertainties still remain, we are now seeing a coherent picture in which past climate variations, solar and other forcings, model predictions and other indicators such as glacier recession all point to a human-induced warming that needs to be considered carefully. A final topic touched

Keller CF

2007-01-01

331

Global warming: the significance of methane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

the concept of Global Warming Potential (GWP) indicates the relative contribution to global warming over a given period (for example 100 years) of a pulse emission at the start of the period of 1 kg of a specific greenhouse gas (GHG) in comparison to the contribution, over the same period, of an emission of 1 kg of CO2. The GWPs calculated for different time intervals take into account the differences in atmospheric lifetimes of the different GHGs. Using the '100-year GWP' to measure non CO2 GHG emissions is not well suited to the case of permanent or long lifetime measures whose effectiveness is to be assessed at a given time horizon. In this context, it contributes to significantly playing down the importance of reducing emissions of GHGs with short atmospheric lifetimes. Thus, for example, methane which is not emitted over the period 2020- 2100 as a result of a landfill site being closed in 2020 will have an impact (as opposed to if the site remained in operation) that would be far greater towards 2100 compared to a CO2 emission source that has also been stopped permanently and whose climate impact is measured in an equivalent manner. Using the GWP is only appropriate if applied year after year to time horizons considered to be of concern or decisive by climate studies, thus in particular 2050, 2100 and 2150. This is all the more significant as climate experts' current concerns lead them not only to advocate long-term stabilisation of GHG concentrations but also to avoid as far as possible intermediate excess of these concentrations over the coming century. Finally, it is noted that CH4 prevention policies implemented in the short term may continue to have a long-term impact greater than merely taking into account the current GWP would imply. To more or less ignore the impact of CH4 as it is unsuitable for accounting purposes affects the exclusive character of the link that may exist between the issue of GHGs and that of energy. Furthermore, if the increase in atmospheric concentrations of CH4 which was significant following the onset of the industrial revolution, has slowed down in the last few years for reasons that are still being debated, a renewed sharp increase in the event of the Arctic region melting, for example, remains quite possible. It is thus important, now that the most recent IPCC report points to the consequences of climate change in the medium term, that GHG emission reduction policies be defined individually for each GHG: both CH4 and N2O, on the basis of their real emissions, consistent with the scenarios used by climate experts and depending on the concentration levels they recommend be achieved at given time horizons. Purely economic and financial considerations linked to the emissions trading markets must not mask the importance of robust policies aimed at non CO2 GHGs. Specifically, in addition to the vital CO2 emissions reduction effort, greater attention must be paid to short-term reductions of CH4 emissions whose impacts are significant at a time horizon of a few decades. Climate experts and policy-makers should make the most of the two-year negotiating period on the post 2012 regime, officially launched at the recent Bali Climate Conference, to give thought to this issue

2008-01-01

332

Negatep: A Scenario for Combating Global Warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There have been an increasing number of foresight exercises in the field of energy and global warming in recent years, as we have seen from the articles devoted to these questions by Futuribles in 2011 (both in this special issue and in the April number). It is certainly the case that the goals for greenhouse-gas emission reduction are rather ambitious, particularly in France, it being the aim of the 2005 French framework law on energy to reduce carbon gas discharges by a factor of four. Among these scenarios, the Negatep scenario developed by Claude Acket and Pierre Bacher from the 'Sauvons le climat' [Let's save the climate] Association proposes to achieve this ('factor 4') goal in France by 2050 by reducing fossil fuel use by 75% and replacing this as quickly as possible with electricity produced from non-carbon-gas-emitting sources - chiefly, nuclear power and renewables. The authors lay out their goals here, backed up by figures, comparing these with the reference scenario. They also show the path that must be followed to arrive at these goals, particularly in the residential and tertiary sectors, and in transport and industry (through control of needs and recourse to alternative energy sources). They close by comparing the Negatep scenario with two other more recent scenarios aimed also at reducing greenhouse gas emissions, on the one hand in Europe, and on the other in Germany. The comparison confirms that they were right to rely on electricity as a substitute for oil, but gives them cause for concern in respect of the consequences (formidable in their view) that the replacement of nuclear power and coal energy by intermittent renewable energies might have in Europe, both with regard to costs and to the effects on the power network. (authors)

2011-01-01

333

20th century acidification and warming as recorded in two alpine lakes in the Tatra Mountains (South Poland, Europe).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sediment profiles of two alpine lakes located in the Tatra Mountains, the Toporowy Staw Nizni (TSN) and the Zielony Staw Gasienicowy (ZSG), were studied for their chronology, lithology, diatom and cladoceran remains. The sediment sequences, 50cm long from TSN and 30cm long from ZSG, were deposited during the last 1000 and 300 years, respectively. Vertical changes in lithology, diatom and Cladocera allow the reconstruction of three periods in the lakes' evolution: mild climatic conditions during Medieval Warm Period (MWP, only in TSN), severe conditions between the end of 14th and 19th centuries, identified as the Little Ice Age (LIA), and 20th century warming. The LIA was recorded in the sediments of both lakes in the form of intensified erosion and lower lake ecosystem productivity, as indicated by organic matter lower content, changes in diatom species composition, and decline in Daphnia. The 20th century was a time of acidification in both lakes. The scale of acidification was assessed based on the decline in diatom-inferred pH (DI-pH). DI-pH dropped by 1.2 pH units during the last century in TSN and by 0.4 pH unit in ZSG. The decline of DI-pH was noted in both lakes, but its intensity was clearly higher in TSN due to the lower acid neutralisation capacity (ANC) of this lake. The lower pH during the final decades of the 20th century was lethal to some water organisms while attracting others, such as Daphnia. The Daphnia population increased after the pH drop, probably due to the high food flexibility of this genus. A similar increase was not observed in ZSG, where planktonivorous fishes were introduced in the 1940s, which effectively limited the crustacean plankton density.

Gasiorowski M; Sienkiewicz E

2010-02-01

334

Anesthesia and global warming: the real hazards of theoretic science  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Recent speculative articles in the medical literature have indicted certain inhalational anesthetics as contributing to global warming. This unfounded speculation may have deleterious patient impact

Mychaskiw II George

2012-01-01

335

A matter of degrees: A primer on global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A primer on global warming is presented in order to provide information to Canadians on making environmentally responsible decisions. The fundamentals of natural climate change, the atmospheric environment, factors that influence climate, and the greenhouse effect are explained. Global warming is then discussed with reference to paleoclimatic research, the influence of human activity on increased concentrations of greenhouse gases, and predictions of future climates. The possible impacts of global warming on Canada are described for such sectors as forests, fisheries, agriculture, sea levels, health, energy supply and demand, and the Arctic regions. The actions that citizens and governments can take in order to mitigate or adapt to global warming are then presented. A glossary and index are included. 55 refs., 17 figs

1993-01-01

336

Overestimated global warming over the past 20 years  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent observed global warming is significantly less than that simulated by climate models. This difference might be explained by some combination of errors in external forcing, model response and internal climate variability.

Fyfe, John C.; Gillett, Nathan P.; Zwiers, Francis W.

2013-09-01

337

Matter of degrees: A primer on global warming. Environmental citizenship  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Provides basic scientific information on the global warming issue, including a brief overview of the science of global warming within the context of climate change and an examination of the Earth's atmosphere and the dynamics of the Earth's climate system including the greenhouse effect; draws on the concepts presented and relates them to the global warming problem; provides a definition of greenhouse gases, introduces the concept of enhanced greenhouse effects, and outlines how human activities are believed to be contributing to the problem; forecasts the future, indicating where more research needs to be done and where strong scientific agreement exists; details the potential impact of global warming on all aspects of Canada's environment and economy; and examines the actions individuals, organizations, and governments can take.

1993-01-01

338

Understanding the future impacts of rapid ocean warming and acidification on the carbonate balance of coral reefs. ecosystems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Marine organisms and ecosystems are undergoing fundamental changes as a consequence of ocean warming and acidification, which must be understood if we are to anticipate and respond to the resulting changes to ecosystem services and functions. We have been investigating potential changes to the calcification and bioerosion rates of coral reefs using flow-through mesocosms at Heron Island on the southern Great Barrier Reef. In these experiments, we have been manipulating the temperature and pCO2 in order to simulate future ocean conditions described by IPCC scenarios (specifically B2, A1FI). We have also created pre-industrial conditions for comparison. Importantly, our system not only provides fine control over experimental conditions but also allows temperature and pCO2 to fluctuate with daily and seasonal changes measured (integrated over 3 h) at specific locations of interest on the Heron Island Reef, which allows a more 'realistic' analysis of the combined influences of ocean warming and acidification. In our first set of experiments, we have examined the impact of IPCC scenarios (year 2100) for a range of ecosystem phenomena relating to the carbonate balance of coral reefs including (1) phototrophic microborers within the dead skeletons of two coral species; (2) calcareous coralline algae, (3) turf algal communities in the presence and absence of grazing damselfish; (4) the calcification, growth, mortality and recruitment of the reef-building corals, and (5) microbial communities associated with corals. The overall conclusion of the studies conducted to date strongly suggests rapid movement to a negative carbonate balance for shallow water tropical coral reefs even under medium (B2) climate scenarios that involve SST increases of approximately +1.5oC and +250 ppm pCO2. Our conclusion is based on observations regarding key organisms that are involved in establishing the carbonate balance of coral reef organisms, and on the observed impacts of these conditions on the key processes of calcification and bioerosion. In the next few years, we will continue to accumulate data for a greater range of species, in different seasons, different reef communities and possible impacts of other factors (e.g. water quality) on key processes as sea temperatures and ocean acidification increases in prominence. The implications of these studies will be discussed in the context of future changes to the temperature and chemistry of the world's tropical oceans.

Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Dove, S. G.

2011-12-01

339

Policy on global warming: fiddling while the globe burns?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the extent that the health consequences of global warming and the responses to it take due account of its impact on poverty and inequality. METHOD: Reviewing the relevant literature on global warming, proposed solutions and the impact. RESULTS: To date, too little attention has been paid to the health consequences arising from the increased poverty and inequality that global warming will bring. When these are combined with issues arising from the economic melt-down, food shortages, peak oil, etc. we are heading for a global public health crisis of immeasurable magnitude. CONCLUSION: Solutions lie in rethinking the global economic system that we have relied upon over the past several decades and the global institutions that have led and fed off that global system - the IMF, the World Bank and so on. IMPLICATIONS: Public health practitioners need to look and act globally more often. They need to better recognise the links between global warming and the global financial crisis. How the latter is dealt with will determine whether the former can be resolved. It is in this global political economy arena that future action in public health lies.

Weston D

2009-08-01

340

Critical Literacy in Action: Multimodal Texts on Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson provides a way to combine scientific topics into an English lesson. Students apply specific comprehension strategies to multimodal texts as they investigate and interrogate the effects and possible causes of global warming. Students explore global warming through a variety of photographs, diagrams, and websites. As they look at each type of media, students catalog the strengths and weaknesses of these representations before identifying comprehension strategies that can be applied across various media.

Wilson, Amy A.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Clean Air Kids: Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

This resource for younger students about the greenhouse effect and global warming is part of a series of information sheets about the atmosphere, climate, and the environment. It begins with an explanation of the natural greenhouse effect of our atmosphere and the enhancement of the effect by the addition of greenhouse gases. The effects of this global warming on the weather, sea level, farming, and water usage along with the dangers to living organisms are also discussed.

342

Global warming and climate change: perspectives from developing countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The conference was divided into nine sessions as follows: a scientific overview of global warming; the evidence of climatic change; the effects of climatic change; placing the problem in a policy context; forests, wastelands and wetlands; energy issues; national policy options; and international policy options. India and Bangladesh received particular attention. The role of forestry and alternative energy sources in mitigating global warming were considered.

Gupta, S.; Pachauri, R.K. (eds.)

1992-01-01

343

IMPACT OF Global Warming on Trees  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Trees store CO{sub 2}, drive food chain, produce oxygen and cause cooling effects through the transpiration process. However, increasing forests to cool the planet needs a lot of care regarding locations and types of trees. Initially it was thought that the city trees fight climate change but later it was found that only tropical trees do the best. Ozone absorption in soil affects its natural carbon sequestration capability. Interaction of plants and soil with changing atmosphere and climate is very complex and not yet understood. Some crops like cotton, wheat and rice are more productive in elevated CO{sub 2} but their response at high temperatures needs further studies (GWDTR, 1997-2007; ITGW, 1990-2008). Use of CO{sub 2} as input raw material in fuel cells might be a revolutionary innovation but there is a long way to go ahead. At this moment we can only start energy education to cope up the time to come. On average CO{sub 2} concentration has been increasing at rate of 2.25ppm/yr from 2004 to 2008 but later from 2007 to 2008 it has been found increasing exponentially at rate of 4ppm/yr. It continues to increase at this rate even after oil peaking then it might exceed 500ppm by 2040-2050. CO{sub 2} concentration in atmosphere was 280 ppm before industrial revolution and in last few centuries it has increased to 385 ppm at an average annual rate of 2 ppm. Weeds normally show poor response to high CO{sub 2} concentrations but crops, fruits and vegetables flourish well. Previous draught cycle was only three years long but recent draught cycle is much longer than earlier (IGWT, 1997-2008). However, few trees in the same constellation are still quite healthy and alive. Some trees were seen dead even close to water canals. Based on literature review and observations recorded in this study it is concluded that high CO{sub 2} induced heat wave (global warming) is responsible for helping beetles and wood ants to eat trees roots and stem to kill them by starvation. The trees have been found to dry from top to bottom in all the known cases in Pakistan. As the water stops reaching top branches due to insect attack at tree-ground interface or reduced water table or both the tree leaves start drying from the top.

Nasrullah Khan [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Naeem Abas [2Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Gujrat, Gujrat (Pakistan); Norman Mariun [University Putra Malaysia, Faculty of Engineering, UPM Serdang, Serdang (Malaysia)

2008-09-30

344

Global Warming and Neotropical Rainforests: A Historical Perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

There is concern over the future of the tropical rainforest (TRF) in the face of global warming. Will TRFs collapse? The fossil record can inform us about that. Our compilation of 5,998 empirical estimates of temperature over the past 120 Ma indicates that tropics have warmed as much as 7°C during both the mid-Cretaceous and the Paleogene. We analyzed the paleobotanical record of South America during the Paleogene and found that the TRF did not expand toward temperate latitudes during global warm events, even though temperatures were appropriate for doing so, suggesting that solar insolation can be a constraint on the distribution of the tropical biome. Rather, a novel biome, adapted to temperate latitudes with warm winters, developed south of the tropical zone. The TRF did not collapse during past warmings; on the contrary, its diversity increased. The increase in temperature seems to be a major driver in promoting diversity.

Jaramillo, Carlos; Cárdenas, Andrés

2013-05-01

345

How does ocean ventilation change under global warming?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the upper ocean takes up much of the heat added to the earth system by anthropogenic global warming, one would expect that global warming would lead to an increase in stratification and a decrease in the ventilation of the ocean interior. However, multiple simulations in global coupled climate models using an ideal age tracer which is set to zero in the mixed layer and ages at 1 yr/yr outside this layer show that the intermediate depths in the low latitudes, Northwest Atlantic, and parts of the Arctic Ocean become younger under global warming. This paper reconciles these apparently contradictory trends, showing that the decreases result from changes in the relative contributions of old deep waters and younger surface waters. Implications for the tropical oxygen minimum zones, which play a critical role in global biogeochemical cycling are considered in detail.

A. Gnanadesikan; J. L. Russell; Fanrong Zeng

2007-01-01

346

How does ocean ventilation change under global warming?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the upper ocean takes up much of the heat added to the earth system by anthropogenic global warming, one would expect that global warming would lead to an increase in stratification and a decrease in the ventilation of the ocean interior. However, multiple simulations in global coupled climate models using an ideal age tracer which is set to zero in the mixed layer and ages at 1 yr/yr outside this layer show that the intermediate depths in the low latitudes become younger under global warming. This paper reconciles these apparently contradictory trends, showing that a decrease in upwelling of old water from below is responsible for the change. Implications for global biological cycling are considered.

A. Gnanadesikan; J. L. Russell; F. Zeng

2006-01-01

347

Priority setting of strategies and mechanisms for limiting global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Scientific communities have reached a consensus that increases of greenhouse gas emission will result in climatic warming and sea level rises despite existing uncertainties. Major uncertainties include the sensitivities of climate changes in terms of timing, magnitude, and scales of regional changes. Socioeconomic uncertainties encompass population and economic growth, changes in technology, future reliance on fossil fuel, and policies compiled to stabilize the global warming. Moreover, increase in world population coupled with limited resources will increase the vulnerability of ecosystems and social systems. Global warming has become an international concern since the destinies of all nations are closely interwoven by this issue and how nations deal with it. Appropriate strategies and mechanisms are need to slow down the buildup of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. Questionnaires were sent to 150 experts in 30 countries to evaluate such strategies and mechanisms for dealing with global warming, from both the domestic and international perspectives. This paper will focus primarily on strategy selection

1994-01-01

348

Priority setting of strategies and mechanisms for limiting global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Scientific communities have reached a consensus that increases of greenhouse gas emission will result in climatic warming and sea level rises despite existing uncertainties. Major uncertainties include the sensitivities of climate changes in terms of timing, magnitude, and scales of regional changes. Socioeconomic uncertainties encompass population and economic growth, changes in technology, future reliance on fossil fuel, and policies compiled to stabilize the global warming. Moreover, increase in world population coupled with limited resources will increase the vulnerability of ecosystems and social systems. Global warming has become an international concern since the destinies of all nations are closely interwoven by this issue and how nations deal with it. Appropriate strategies and mechanisms are need to slow down the buildup of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases. Questionnaires were sent to 150 experts in 30 countries to evaluate such strategies and mechanisms for dealing with global warming, from both the domestic and international perspectives. This paper will focus primarily on strategy selection.

Lewis, S.J.L. [National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China)

1994-12-31

349

Global declines in oceanic nitrification rates as a consequence of ocean acidification.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ocean acidification produced by dissolution of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emissions in seawater has profound consequences for marine ecology and biogeochemistry. The oceans have absorbed one-third of CO(2) emissions over the past two centuries, altering ocean chemistry, reducing seawater pH, and affecting marine animals and phytoplankton in multiple ways. Microbially mediated ocean biogeochemical processes will be pivotal in determining how the earth system responds to global environmental change; however, how they may be altered by ocean acidification is largely unknown. We show here that microbial nitrification rates decreased in every instance when pH was experimentally reduced (by 0.05-0.14) at multiple locations in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Nitrification is a central process in the nitrogen cycle that produces both the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide and oxidized forms of nitrogen used by phytoplankton and other microorganisms in the sea; at the Bermuda Atlantic Time Series and Hawaii Ocean Time-series sites, experimental acidification decreased ammonia oxidation rates by 38% and 36%. Ammonia oxidation rates were also strongly and inversely correlated with pH along a gradient produced in the oligotrophic Sargasso Sea (r(2) = 0.87, P < 0.05). Across all experiments, rates declined by 8-38% in low pH treatments, and the greatest absolute decrease occurred where rates were highest off the California coast. Collectively our results suggest that ocean acidification could reduce nitrification rates by 3-44% within the next few decades, affecting oceanic nitrous oxide production, reducing supplies of oxidized nitrogen in the upper layers of the ocean, and fundamentally altering nitrogen cycling in the sea.

Beman JM; Chow CE; King AL; Feng Y; Fuhrman JA; Andersson A; Bates NR; Popp BN; Hutchins DA

2011-01-01

350

Impacts of Ocean Acidification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is growing scientific evidence that, as a result of increasing anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions, absorption of CO{sub 2} by the oceans has already noticeably increased the average oceanic acidity from pre-industrial levels. This global threat requires a global response. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), continuing CO{sub 2} emissions in line with current trends could make the oceans up to 150% more acidic by 2100 than they were at the beginning of the Anthropocene. Acidification decreases the ability of the ocean to absorb additional atmospheric CO{sub 2}, which implies that future CO{sub 2} emissions are likely to lead to more rapid global warming. Ocean acidification is also problematic because of its negative effects on marine ecosystems, especially marine calcifying organisms, and marine resources and services upon which human societies largely depend such as energy, water, and fisheries. For example, it is predicted that by 2100 around 70% of all cold-water corals, especially those in the higher latitudes, will live in waters undersaturated in carbonate due to ocean acidification. Recent research indicates that ocean acidification might also result in increasing levels of jellyfish in some marine ecosystems. Aside from direct effects, ocean acidification together with other global change-induced impacts such as marine and coastal pollution and the introduction of invasive alien species are likely to result in more fragile marine ecosystems, making them more vulnerable to other environmental impacts resulting from, for example, coastal deforestation and widescale fisheries. The Marine Board-ESF Position Paper on the Impacts of Climate Change on the European Marine and Coastal Environment - Ecosystems indicated that presenting ocean acidification issues to policy makers is a key issue and challenge. Indeed, as the consequences of ocean acidification are expected to emerge rapidly and drastically, but are often not well known or are completely unknown, a strategic workshop was organised by the ESF Standing Committee for Life, Earth and Environmental Sciences (LESC) in cooperation with the ESF EUROCORES Programme EuroCLIMATE. The aim was to address the issue of the impacts of ocean acidification on both the natural and socioeconomic systems, and to identify the gaps of knowledge in this field. The present Science Policy Briefing resulting from this strategic workshop has undergone external international peer review and has been approved by both the Marine Board-ESF and LESC. The ESF considers this Science Policy Briefing on the Impacts of Ocean Acidification an important step towards raising awareness amongst a wide range of research actors, policy makers and funding agencies. Taking into account the range of priorities and key areas of research requiring action at the pan-European level, a series of recommendations for European actions have been drawn up under the following five headings: (i) increase understanding and improve quantification of the organismal and ecosystem responses to ocean acidification; (ii) include the human dimension by increasing collaboration and integration efforts between natural and social sciences; (iii) rationalise, improve and focus monitoring and data gathering, management, processing and accessibility efforts; (iv) increase dissemination, outreach and capacity-building efforts, in particular related to communicating ocean acidification to stakeholders (policy makers, research founders, public, media, etc.); and (v) improve coordination of ocean acidification research and collaboration both at the national and international levels

Bijma, Jelle (Alfred Wegener Inst., D-27570 Bremerhaven (Germany)) (and others)

2009-08-15

351

Thai Youths and Global Warming: Media Information, Awareness, and Lifestyle Activities  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the exposure of Thai youths to media information on global warming, the relationship between exposure to global warming information and awareness of global warming, and the relationship between that awareness and lifestyle activities that contribute to global warming. A focus group of eight Thai youths provided information that…

Chokriensukchai, Kanchana; Tamang, Ritendra

2010-01-01

352

The challenge to keep global warming below 2 °C  

Science.gov (United States)

The latest carbon dioxide emissions continue to track the high end of emission scenarios, making it even less likely global warming will stay below 2 °C. A shift to a 2 °C pathway requires immediate significant and sustained global mitigation, with a probable reliance on net negative emissions in the longer term.

Peters, Glen P.; Andrew, Robbie M.; Boden, Tom; Canadell, Josep G.; Ciais, Philippe; Le Quéré, Corinne; Marland, Gregg; Raupach, Michael R.; Wilson, Charlie

2013-01-01

353

Focus: Assessing the regional impacts of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Five studies are presented which assess the impacts of global warming on physical, economic, and social systems in Canada. A study on the use of climatic change scenarios to estimate ecoclimatic impacts was carried out. These scenarios may include synthetic scenarios produced from historical data, global climate model (GCM) simulations, and hybrid scenarios. The advantages and drawbacks of various scenarios are discussed along with the criteria for selecting impact assessment models. An examination of water resources in the Great Lakes and the Saskatchewan River subbasin uses case studies of two areas that have experienced wide hydrological variations due to climatic variability in order to determine the impacts of global warming scenarios on net basin supply. Problems of developing regional models are discussed and results of projected changes in net basin supply are presented for GCM-based simulations and hypothetical warming scenarios. A study of the impacts of climate warming on transportation and the regional economy in northern Canada uses stochastic models to provide examples of how Mackenzie River barge traffic will be affected. The economic impacts of the resultant lengthened shipping season are outlined under three scenarios. The implications of climatic change on Ontario agriculture are assessed according to GCM scenarios. Results are presented for crop yields and production as well as land resource suitability. Finally, sociocultural implications of global warming on the Arctic and the Inuit are summarized, with reference to a past warming episode occurring around the year 1000. 45 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

1992-01-01

354

Fade of global dimming reveals full magnitude of greenhouse warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text: Speculations on the impact of variations in surface solar radiation on global warming range from concerns that solar dimming has largely masked the full magnitude of greenhouse warming, to claims that the recent reversal from solar dimming to brightening rather than the greenhouse effect was responsible for the observed warming. To disentangle surface solar and greenhouse influences on global warming, trends in diurnal temperature range are analyzed. The diurnal temperature ranges averaged over global land surfaces show, after decades of decline, a distinct tendency to level off since the mid 1980s. They suggest that solar dimming, possibly caused by increasing air pollution, was effective in masking greenhouse warming, but only up to the 1980s, when dimming gradually transformed into brightening. The reversal from dimming to brightening may be related to more effective air pollution measures and the breakdown of the economy in the former communist countries, leading to cleaner and more transparent atmospheres. With this transition, the uncovered greenhouse effect started to reveal its full dimension, as manifested in a rapid temperature rise (+0.38 /decade over land since mid-1980s). Recent solar brightening cannot supersede the greenhouse effect as main cause of global warming, since land temperatures increased by 0.8 from 1960 to 2000, even though solar brightening did not fully outweigh solar dimming within this period. (author)

2008-01-01

355

Global warming is no longer making debate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Earth's climate is warming up, and the human activity is responsible for at least a part of this warming up. This is the scientifical consensus about which more than 500 specialists of the GIEC (intergovernmental group for climate evolution) have worked on at the Unesco, in Paris, from January 29, 2006 to February 1, 2007. This press kit seizes the opportunity of this meeting to present a status of the last theories and initiatives in the domain of climate change: the scientists' warning, the international mobilization, the initiatives of companies, the analyses made by the journalists of Les Echos, and the series of scientific files about the greenhouse effect, the computerized simulations, the example of past analogues (fast decay of Maya's civilization), and the consumers behaviour in front of the climate change threat. (J.S.)

2007-01-01

356

Polynomial cointegration tests of anthropogenic impact on global warming  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We use statistical methods for nonstationary time series to test the anthropogenic interpretation of global warming (AGW), according to which an increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations raised global temperature in the 20th century. Specifically, the methodology of polynomial cointegration is used to test AGW since during the observation period (1880–2007) global temperature and solar irradiance are stationary in 1st differences whereas greenhouse gases and aerosol forcings are stationary in 2nd differences. We show that although these anthropogenic forcings share a common stochastic trend, this trend is empirically independent of the stochastic trend in temperature and solar irradiance. Therefore, greenhouse gas forcing, aerosols, solar irradiance and global temperature are not polynomially cointegrated. This implies that recent global warming is not statistically significantly related to anthropogenic forcing. On the other hand, we find that greenhouse gas forcing might have had a temporary effect on global temperature.

M. Beenstock; Y. Reingewertz; N. Paldor

2012-01-01

357

Future global warming: resolving the climatologist and economist conflict  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At geologic timescales carbon dioxide is the most important of the greenhouse gases, since other gases break down in a much shorter period of time. Many estimates of carbon dioxide warming underestimate or discount, the longer term effects of CO{sub 2} on global warming. Speed of temperatures rise is also significant. The usual definition of global warming potentials (GWPs) take little account of the speed of temperature change, but this is crucial to the chances of natural and man-made ecosystems to adapt. From reconstructions of post-Ice Age climatic changes, the ecosystem takes a long time to `catch up` with climate changes. Thus, early rapid projected warming by methane should be treated more seriously than at present. Future adaptation should not be taken for granted either, since economic growth may fall, and compensation measures may not be appropriate. Much more stringent measures should be taken to limit fossil fuel consumption. 26 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Wallis, M. [University of Wales at Cardiff, Cardiff (United Kingdom). School of Mathematics

1996-12-31

358

Hot stuff. Global warming as a giant trend; Hot stuff. Global oppvarming som megatrend  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article presents various aspects of global warming with focus on meteorological data, global discharges, estimated surface temperature increments, ocean level elevations and net warming effects of various human activities. The consequences for the economic and social developments are discussed. Some action possibilities are mentioned. (tk)

Brunstad, Bjoern

2007-07-01

359

PBS Online NewsHour: The Global Warming Debate  

Science.gov (United States)

In-depth coverage of global warming, including related research and policy decisions, together with instructional materials. Includes interactives on rises in temperature and sea level and on comparing vehicles in terms of emissions and fuel costs; a lesson plan on Arctic warming; archived news stories; and links to related PBS features. Some of the archived news stories are available as streaming video, RealAudio as well as text.

360

Geographical features of global water cycle during warm geological epochs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The impact of global warming on the water cycle can be extremely complex and diverse. The goal of the investigation was to estimate the geographic features of the mean annual water budget of the world during climatic optimums of the Holocene and the Eemian interglacial periods. These geological epochs could be used as analogs of climatic warming on 1 degree, centigrade and 2 degrees, centigrade. The author used the results of climatic reconstructions based on a simplified version of a GCM.

Georgiadi, A.G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Geography

1996-12-31

 
 
 
 
361

Seven steps to curb global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on best current estimates that the world needs to reduce global carbon dioxide emissions by 70% by 2050, and that there is at best a 10-year window of opportunity available to initiate the enormous changes needed, this paper proposes a set of seven self-contained steps that can be taken at a global level to tackle the problem with some prospect of success. The steps are self-financing and practicable, in that they are based on existing technologies. They involve agreement to create a new international agency charged with formulating and policing a global carbon pricing regime; a complementary step involving global monitoring of greenhouse gas emissions utilizing satellite resources; taking steps to compensate developing countries for preserving rainforest as carbon sinks; the dismantling of newly created trade barriers holding back global trade in biofuels; global promotion of a transition to renewable sources of electricity through facilitation of grid interconnections with independent power producers; a global moratorium on the building of new coal-fired power stations; and recycling of carbon revenues to promote uptake of renewable energy sources in developing countries, particularly Brazil, India and China. Taken as a group, it is argued that these steps are both necessary and sufficient. They call for institutional innovations at a global level that are politically difficult but feasible, given the magnitude of the problems addressed.

2007-01-01

362

Seven steps to curb global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on best current estimates that the world needs to reduce global carbon dioxide emissions by 70% by 2050, and that there is at best a 10-year window of opportunity available to initiate the enormous changes needed, this paper proposes a set of seven self-contained steps that can be taken at a global level to tackle the problem with some prospect of success. The steps are self-financing and practicable, in that they are based on existing technologies. They involve agreement to create a new international agency charged with formulating and policing a global carbon pricing regime; a complementary step involving global monitoring of greenhouse gas emissions utilizing satellite resources; taking steps to compensate developing countries for preserving rainforest as carbon sinks; the dismantling of newly created trade barriers holding back global trade in biofuels; global promotion of a transition to renewable sources of electricity through facilitation of grid interconnections with independent power producers; a global moratorium on the building of new coal-fired power stations; and recycling of carbon revenues to promote uptake of renewable energy sources in developing countries, particularly Brazil, India and China. Taken as a group, it is argued that these steps are both necessary and sufficient. They call for institutional innovations at a global level that are politically difficult but feasible, given the magnitude of the problems addressed.

Mathews, John [Macquarie Graduate School of Management, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia)]. E-mail: john.Mathews@mq.edu.au

2007-08-15

363

Global warming combat policies in energy sector of Iran  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Among the efforts to slow the potential for climate change are measures to reduce emissions of CO2 from energy use, and promote long-term storage of carbon in forests and soils. Important environmental changes due to climate change and global warming pose potentially significant risks to humans, social systems, and natural world. Many uncertainties remain regarding precise timing,magnitude, and regional patterns of climate change and the extent to which mankind and nature can adapt to any changes. Estimating technical / economical / environmental potentials for reducing CO2 emission in energy sector and preventing of global warming is one of the main activities, which have been performed for the first time in Iran. By use of 26 factors, model on global warming combat policies in energy sector of Iran in long-medium and short term determine decreasing amount of CO2 emission. The results and also method of providing this model will be described in this paper

2002-01-01

364

The impacts and costs of global warming. A review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is now a scientific consensus that current rates of accumulation of greenhouses gases in the atmosphere will result in significant global warming and climate change. These changes are likely to have important impacts on a wide range of human activities and the natural environment. There has now been a considerable weight of literature published on the impacts of global warming, much of it very recent. This report seeks to summarise the important results, to analyse the uncertainties and to make a preliminary analysis of the feasibility of monetarising these environmental costs. The impacts of global warming are divided into ten major categories: agriculture, forests and forestry, terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity, hydrology and water resources, sea level rise and coastal zones, energy, infrastructure/transport/industry, human health and air quality, oceans, and cryospheric impacts. The results of major summary reports are analysed, notably the report of Working Group II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (the IPCC). (author).

Eyre, N.J.

1991-09-01

365

Large-scale dynamics and global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Predictions of future climate change raise a variety of issues in large-scale atmospheric and oceanic dynamics. Several of these are reviewed in this essay, including the sensitivity of the circulation of the Atlantic Ocean to increasing freshwater input at high latitudes; the possibility of greenhouse cooling in the southern oceans; the sensitivity of monsoonal circulations to differential warming of the two hemispheres; the response of midlatitude storms to changing temperature gradients and increasing water vapor in the atmosphere; and the possible importance of positive feedback between the mean winds and eddy-induced heating in the polar stratosphere.

Held, I.M. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States))

1993-02-01

366

Global Warming: Knowledge and Views of Iranian Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Study of students’ knowledge about global warming can help authorities to have better imagination of this critical environmental problem. This research examines high school students' ideas about greenhouse effect and the results may be useful for the respective authorities to improve cultural and educational aspects of next generation. In this cross-sectional study, a 42 question questionnaire with mix of open and closed questions was used to evaluate high school students' view about the mechanism, consequences, causes and cures of global warming. To assess students’ knowledge, cognitive score was also calculated. 1035 students were randomly selected from 19 educational districts of Tehran. Sampling method was multi stage. Only 5.1% of the students could explain greenhouse effect correctly and completely. 88.8% and 71.2% respectively believed “if the greenhouse effect gets bigger the Earth will get hotter” and “incidence of more skin cancers is a consequence of global warming”. 69.6% and 68.8% respectively thought “the greenhouse effect is made worse by too much carbon dioxide” and “presence of ozone holes is a cause of greenhouse effect”. 68.4% believed “not using cars so much is a cure for global warming”. While a student’s ‘cognitive score’ could range from -36 to +36, Students' mean cognitive score was equal to +1.64. Mean cognitive score of male students and grade 2 & 3 students was respectively higher than female ones (P0.05). In general, students' knowledge about global warming was not acceptable and there were some misconceptions in the students’ mind, such as supposing ozone holes as a cause and more skin cancer as a consequence of global warming. The Findings of this survey indicate that, this important stratum of society have been received no sufficient and efficient education and sensitization on this matter.

Taraneh Yazdanparast, Sousan Salehpour, Mohammad Reza Masjedi, Seyed Mohammad Seyedmehdi, Eddie Boyes, Martin Stanisstreet, Mirsaeed Attarchi

2013-01-01

367

Global Warming at the East Coast Zone of Peninsular Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Global Warming is not a new phenomenon and it is already been felt by people all around the world. Not only the people affected by the global warming, but also our sea. There are a lot of potential threats that can be caused by global warming on the sea such as rise of sea level, changes in waves action, water current and wind velocity, but do one of the main users of the sea which are the fishermen have already felt these impacts? Approach: This is a quantitative study where a developed questionnaire was used to gain the data needed. Through a stratified random sampling a total of 300 registered fishermen from four states in the east coast zone of Peninsular Malaysia namely Kelantan, Terengganu, Pahang and East Johor have been selected. Results: This study provided a greater understanding of the fishermen views on the changes that happened to the sea due to the global warming impact. They stressed that the temperature, the rainfall season and the coastal areas have changed. Furthermore, according to them, the sea nowadays are no longer easy to predict as the water current, wind velocity and waves actions can easily change their pattern and endanger them while they are at the sea. Conclusion/Recommendation: Effective actions can be taken to assist the fishermen to adapt to impacts of global warming. One of it is to provide them with more information on global warming. Besides, fishermen in Malaysia also can be provided with trainings in order to provide them with other skills besides fishing.

Hayrol A.M. Shaffril; Bahaman A. Samah; Jeffrey L. D'Silva; Jegak Uli

2011-01-01

368

Global warming: knowledge and views of Iranian students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Study of students' knowledge about global warming can help authorities to have better imagination of this critical environmental problem. This research examines high school students' ideas about greenhouse effect and the results may be useful for the respective authorities to improve cultural and educational aspects of next generation. In this cross-sectional study, a 42 question questionnaire with mix of open and closed questions was used to evaluate high school students' view about the mechanism, consequences, causes and cures of global warming. To assess students' knowledge, cognitive score was also calculated. 1035 students were randomly selected from 19 educational districts of Tehran. Sampling method was multi stage. Only 5.1% of the students could explain greenhouse effect correctly and completely. 88.8% and 71.2% respectively believed "if the greenhouse effect gets bigger the Earth will get hotter" and "incidence of more skin cancers is a consequence of global warming". 69.6% and 68.8% respectively thought "the greenhouse effect is made worse by too much carbon dioxide" and "presence of ozone holes is a cause of greenhouse effect". 68.4% believed "not using cars so much is a cure for global warming". While a student's 'cognitive score' could range from -36 to +36, Students' mean cognitive score was equal to +1.64. Mean cognitive score of male students and grade 2 & 3 students was respectively higher than female ones (P<0.01) and grade 1 students (P<0.001) but there was no statistically significant difference between students of different regions (P>0.05). In general, students' knowledge about global warming was not acceptable and there were some misconceptions in the students' mind, such as supposing ozone holes as a cause and more skin cancer as a consequence of global warming. The Findings of this survey indicate that, this important stratum of society have been received no sufficient and efficient education and sensitization on this matter.

Yazdanparast T; Salehpour S; Masjedi MR; Seyedmehdi SM; Boyes E; Stanisstreet M; Attarchi M

2013-01-01

369

Global warming: knowledge and views of Iranian students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Study of students' knowledge about global warming can help authorities to have better imagination of this critical environmental problem. This research examines high school students' ideas about greenhouse effect and the results may be useful for the respective authorities to improve cultural and educational aspects of next generation. In this cross-sectional study, a 42 question questionnaire with mix of open and closed questions was used to evaluate high school students' view about the mechanism, consequences, causes and cures of global warming. To assess students' knowledge, cognitive score was also calculated. 1035 students were randomly selected from 19 educational districts of Tehran. Sampling method was multi stage. Only 5.1% of the students could explain greenhouse effect correctly and completely. 88.8% and 71.2% respectively believed "if the greenhouse effect gets bigger the Earth will get hotter" and "incidence of more skin cancers is a consequence of global warming". 69.6% and 68.8% respectively thought "the greenhouse effect is made worse by too much carbon dioxide" and "presence of ozone holes is a cause of greenhouse effect". 68.4% believed "not using cars so much is a cure for global warming". While a student's 'cognitive score' could range from -36 to +36, Students' mean cognitive score was equal to +1.64. Mean cognitive score of male students and grade 2 & 3 students was respectively higher than female ones (P0.05). In general, students' knowledge about global warming was not acceptable and there were some misconceptions in the students' mind, such as supposing ozone holes as a cause and more skin cancer as a consequence of global warming. The Findings of this survey indicate that, this important stratum of society have been received no sufficient and efficient education and sensitization on this matter. PMID:23605603

Yazdanparast, Taraneh; Salehpour, Sousan; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza; Seyedmehdi, Seyed Mohammad; Boyes, Eddie; Stanisstreet, Martin; Attarchi, Mirsaeed

2013-04-06

370

Halocarbon Ozone Depletion and Global Warming Potentials.  

Science.gov (United States)

Concern over the global environmental consequences of fully halogenated chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) has created a need to determine the potential impacts of other halogenated organic compounds on stratospheric ozone and climate. The CFCs, which do not cont...

R. A. Cox D. Wuebbles R. Atkinson P. S. Connell H. P. Dorn

1990-01-01

371

Reducing the problem of global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article proposes an international strategy for dealing with the warming of the earth's atmosphere by carbon dioxide injected into it by the burning of fossil fuels. The strategy is based on increasing the efficiency of using energy and adopting CO/sub 2/-benign energy policies. Topics considered include the causes and effects of the warming, energy models and modeling, assessing the options, and different scenarios for energy use and CO/sub 2/ emissions. The greenhouse effect stems from the different reactions of atmospheric carbon dioxide with different forms of radiant energy. The most CO/sub 2/-benign scenario combines all possible nonfossil trends, including the successful development of solar power, lower costs for nuclear power, a 1% annual improvement in end-use efficiency, the greater availability of unconventional energy resources, and higher coal prices. All analyses show that conclusive evidence of a human-induced greenhouse effect will not emerge until some time between 1990 and the early 2000s. The discussed modeling shows that the rate of increase of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ from burning fossil-fuels can be significantly reduced through CO/sub 2/-benign energy strategies. Includes a map.

Rose, D.J.; Agnew, C.; Miller, M.M.

1984-05-01

372

Slowing global warming biotically - Options for the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Each of the five biotic approaches introduced in Chapter 2 is applicable to some extent in the US. Taking US land-use characteristics into account, a menu of policy options tailored to US carbon storage opportunities is presented. Several of the options are capable of significantly reducing net US carbon emissions; several offer corollary benefits in areas other than global warming mitigation. The time frame and costs of the different options vary widely, although in most cases some level of implementation appears economically justified even without considering global warming. The approach, projected costs, and advantages of seven different policy options are profiled

1991-01-01

373

Global warming: Kyoto Protocol meeting is `business as usual`  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Representatives of 168 countries met in Buenos Aires to plan the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol intended to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. The meeting achieved little but demonstrated that the global warming issue remains a threat to coal. Topics of discussion at the meeting are described, including the gases to be reduced, the position of the US, the economic impacts of greenhouse gas emission reduction, the reaction of the G77 group of developing countries to the adoption of emission limits, the lack of scientific proof for global warming from carbon dioxide, and the greenhouse gas reduction policy of the United Kingdom. 3 photos.

NONE

1998-12-01

374

Global warming tugs at trophic interactions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Climate change impacts are becoming increasingly evident as 1 degree C warming above pre-industrial temperatures is approached. One of the signature biological effects is a shift towards earlier-timed reproduction. If individual species lack sufficient adaptive plasticity to alter phenology, they will have reduced fitness in a hotter world. Yet, a long-term study of an oak-caterpillar-songbird-sparrowhawk food web reveals that what could matter as much is if trophic interactions are disrupted. Multiple selective pressures may be triggered by climate change, leading to a tug-of-war between the need to stay in synchrony with the timing of maximum food, and the benefits of minimizing predation.

Brook BW

2009-01-01

375

REDUCING GLOBAL WARMING - THE ROLE OF RICE  

Science.gov (United States)

Activities to provide energy for an expanding population are increasingly disrupting and changing the concentration of atmospheric gases that increase global temperature. ncreased CO2 and temperature have a clear effect on growth and production of rice as they are key factors in ...

376

Diseases caused by global warming; Krankheiten durch Treibhauseffekt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Computer simulations suggest that global warming will cause many diseases to flare up again. There are regions with increasing average temperatures, where this can already be observed. [German] Computersimulationen zufolge wird der Treibhauseffekt zahlreiche Krankheiten wieder aufflammen lassen. In einigen Gebieten mit steigenden Durchschnittstemperaturen gibt es bereits erste Indizien dafuer. (orig.)

Epstein, P.R. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge (United Kingdom). Faculty of Medicine

2000-12-01

377

THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE NIGERIAN CEMENT INDUSTRY TO GLOBAL WARMING.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The issues of global warming have taken the centre stage all over the world and its effects are manifesting every where especially in the sub-Saharan Africa. Industrialisation is the main cause of global warming. The highly developed countries that are highly industrialised are regarded as the main culprits in this menace. Thedeveloped countries have been at the receiving end of the negative effects of the global warming. With the modest development in industrialisation in the developing countries they are now gradually joining the league of green house gas emitters. In Nigeria the cement industry has made a considerable improvement in production capacity and development. This has resulted to an increase in cement production in Nigeria with its attendant increase in carbon dioxide generation into the atmosphere. Nigeria will be producing over 25million metric tonnes of cement annually and at the rate of one tonne of cement to one tonne of carbon dioxide, the country will likely be producing 25 million metric tonnes of carbon dioxide from cement production annually. The paper x-rayed this and showed the potential of the Nigeria cement industry in the contribution to global warming.

DR. NDEFO OKIGBO

2012-01-01

378

Genetic shift in photoperiodic response correlated with global warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To date, all altered patterns of seasonal interactions observed in insects, birds, amphibians, and plants associated with global warming during the latter half of the 20th century are explicable as variable expressions of plastic phenotypes. Over the last 30 years, the genetically controlled pho...

Bradshaw, William E.; Holzapfel, Christina M.

379

Global warming benefits the small in aquatic ecosystems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Understanding the ecological impacts of climate change is a crucial challenge of the twenty-first century. There is a clear lack of general rules regarding the impacts of global warming on biota. Here, we present a metaanalysis of the effect of climate change on body size of ectothermic aquatic orga...

Daufresne, Martin; Lengfellner, Kathrin; Sommer, Ulrich

380

Tropical drying trends in global warming models and observations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Anthropogenic changes in tropical rainfall are evaluated in a multimodel ensemble of global warming simulations. Major discrepancies on the spatial distribution of these precipitation changes remain in the latest-generation models analyzed here. Despite this uncertainty, we find a number of measures...

Neelin, J. D.; Münnich, M.; Su, H.; Meyerson, J. E.; Holloway, C. E.

 
 
 
 
381

The impact of global warming on health and mortality.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Initial concern about the possible effects of global warming on infections has declined with the realization that the spread of tropical diseases is likely to be limited and controllable. However, the direct effects of heat already cause substantial numbers of deaths among vulnerable people in the s...

Keatinge, WR; Donaldson, GC

382

A Noted Physicist's Contrarian View of Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

According to Freeman Dyson, an emeritus professor of physics at the Institute for Advanced Study, the debate about global warming has become too narrow and opinions have become too entrenched. Relying on a computer model designed by the Yale University economist William D. Nordhaus, Dyson compared the effectiveness and economic feasibility of…

Goldstein, Evan R., Comp.

2008-01-01

383

8th Global warming international conference and exposition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Abstracts are presented from The 8th Annual Global Warming international conference and expo. Topics centered around greenhouse gas emission and disposal methods, policy and economics, carbon budget, and resource management. Individual reports have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

NONE

1997-12-31

384

Global Warming and the Power-Laws of Ecology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A model based on Watson’s power law for the species-area relationship predicts that full global warming, projected up to the year 2050, could provoke the disappearance of roughly one-quarter of existing species. Here, an alternative approach is worked out, based on the combination of two ecology law...

João D. T. Arruda-Neto; Maria C. Bittencourt-Oliveira; Alrenice C. Castro; Tulio E. Rodrigues; Joseph Harari

385

Study on Global Warming and Fuel Conservation in Surat City  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study reveals that though middle and upper middle class of people in Surat city are aware of global warming, contributory reasons and containment measures, yet remain insensitive in terms of practices. The paper points to the need to increase their collective consciousness and responsiveness to ...

Neha Bansal, Hormaz Garda, Ghanshyam Padmani

386

Turkish Prospective Teachers' Understanding and Misunderstanding on Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

The key objective of this study is to determine the Turkish elementary prospective teachers' opinions on global warming. It is also aimed to establish prospective teachers' views about the environmental education in Turkish universities. A true-false type scale was administered to 564 prospective teachers from science education, social studies…

Ocal, A.; Kisoglu, M.; Alas, A.; Gurbuz, H.

2011-01-01

387

Automotive air conditioning impact of refrigerant on global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The direct impact of refrigerants in automotive air conditioning systems on global warming is investigated with a view at the potential for further improvements also regarding the indirect effect, which is determined by the energy demand to run the system. 4 refs.

Preisegger, E. [Solvay Fluor und Derivate GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

1999-07-01

388

Compilation of Ozone Depletion Potentials and Global Warming Potentials  

Science.gov (United States)

Five databases are available for free online from the Syracuse Research Corporation (SRC) a not-for-profit research and development firm. The ozone depletion potentials database (1) contains experimental Global Warming Potentials (GWPs) and Ozone Depletion Potentials (ODPs) compiled from the open literature. It is searchable by CAS Registry number, and a lookup table for CAS numbers is provided.

389

On the global warming problem due to carbon dioxide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The subject of global warming due to the increased use of fossil fuels is analyzed using a modification of the predator prey equations. The results of the calculation indicate that both the fossil fuels and civilization will both become extinct as time increases. (author)

Lonngren, Karl E.; Bai, Er-Wei [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

2008-04-15

390

Promotion of Scientific Literacy on Global Warming by Process Drama  

Science.gov (United States)

This project aims to investigate how process drama promotes scientific literacy in the context of global warming. Thirty-one lower (n = 24) and upper (n = 7) secondary students of one secondary school in Bangkok, Thailand participated in a seven-day workshop which process drama strategy was implemented. In the workshop, the students were actively…

Pongsophon, Pongprapan; Yutakom, Naruemon; Boujaoude, Saouma B.

2010-01-01

391

Seventh Grade Students' Conceptions of Global Warming and Climate Change  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate seventh grade students' conceptions of global warming and climate change. The study was descriptive in nature and involved the collection of qualitative data from 91 seventh grade students from three different schools in the Midwest, USA. An open response and draw and explain assessment instrument was…

Shepardson, Daniel P.; Niyogi, Dev; Choi, Soyoung; Charusombat, Umarporn

2009-01-01

392

Health effects of global warming: Problems in assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Global warming is likely to result in a variety of environmental effects ranging from impacts on species diversity, changes in population size in flora and fauna, increases in sea level and possible impacts on the primary productivity of the sea. Potentia...

J. Longstreth

1993-01-01

393

Potential Effects of Global Warming on Calving Caribou.  

Science.gov (United States)

Calving grounds of barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are often in the portion of their range that remains covered by snow late into spring. We propose that global warming would alter the duration of snow cover on the calving grounds and the rate o...

W. G. Eastland R. G. White

1992-01-01

394

Global warming and the running average sunspot number.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been reported in your pages that the Bush administration's views and actions regarding how or whether to react to possible global warming due to greenhouse gases have been influenced by the so-called Marshall report. This unrefereed report, release...

M. E. Fernau

1994-01-01

395

US steps on the gas to slow global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article discusses the use of carbon sequestration as a radical new solution to global warming. Details of the forthcoming public workshop on carbon sequestration to be held by the US Department of Energy are given, and carbon sequestration technologies, carbon dioxide recovery and storage, and the need to develop technologies that can convert carbon dioxide into inert or useful products are considered.

Lawton, G.

1999-07-05

396

Global Warming: Carbon Dioxide and the Greenhouse Effect  

Science.gov (United States)

This video segment demonstrates carbon dioxide's role in the greenhouse effect and explains how increasing concentrations of C02 in the atmosphere may be contributing to global warming. Video includes an unusual demonstration of C02's heat-absorbing properties, using infrared film, a researcher's face, and a stream of C02 between them.

Frontline/nova; Foundation, Wgbh E.; Domain, Teachers'

397

UNEP/GRID and global warming mitigation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Global Resource Information Database (GRID) is a system of cooperating Centres within the United Nations Environment Programme that is dedicated to making environmental information more readily accessible to environmental analysts as well as international and national decision makers. Its mission is to provide timely and reliable geo-referenced environmental information and access to a unique international data service to help address environmental issues at global, regional, and national levels in order to bridge the gap between scientific understanding of earth processes and sound management of the environment. The paper, briefly, describes the role of various GRID centers, some of the data set development activities in which GRID is involved, as well as projects and studies carried out within the GRID system as related to climate change impact assessments.

Singh, A. (UNEP/GRID, Sioux Falls, SD (United States). EROS Data Center)

1994-09-01

398

Global warming, energy and travel by air  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A popular song said that 'freedom must be boundless above the clouds'. Airplanes have revolutionized travelling and have certainly made it more convenient. However, the impact involved is massive. Airplanes travel in a particularly sensitive layer of the atmosphere where pollutants remain 500 times longer than in layers close to the surface. Air travel causes noise, which is a health hazard which affects millions of people. Even now, air transport accounts for 6% of global oil consumption and for 3% of anthropogenic carbon-dioxide pollution of the atmosphere. Currently passenger and freight transport is doubling every ten years and the world wide increase in air travel is a serious threat to the global climate. This paper contains facts and figures about air transport, its impacts on the environment and emission of greenhouse gases in Iran with regards to air travel as well as suggestions for an environmentally sound use of air travel.

Abbasspour, M.; Karbassi, A.R.; Rahimi, N.

2001-08-01

399

Global warming considerations in northern Boreal forest ecosystems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The northern boreal forests of circumpolar lands are of special significance to questions of global climate change. Throughout its range, these forests are characterized by a relatively few tree species, although they may exhibit great spatial heterogeneity. Their ecosystems are simpler than temperate systems, and ecosystem processes are strongly affected by interactions between water, the landscape, and the biota. Northern boreal forest vegetation patterns are strongly influenced by forest fires, and distribution of forest generally coincides with occurrence of permafrost. Boreal forest landscapes are extremely sensitive to thermal disruption; global warming may result in lasting thermal and physical degradation of soils, altered rates and patterns of vegetation succession, and damage to engineered structures. A change in fire severity and frequency is also a significant concern. The total carbon pool of boreal forests and their associated peatlands is significant on a global scale; this carbon may amount to 10-20% of the global carbon pool. A change in latitudinal or elevational treeline has been suggested as a probable consequence of global warming. More subtle aspects of boreal forest ecosystems which may be affected by global warming include the depth of the active soil layer, the hydrologic cycle, and biological attributes of boreal stream systems. 48 refs., 2 figs

1993-01-01

400

Global warming and local dimming. The statistical evidence  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two effects largely determine global warming: the well-known greenhouse effect and the less well-known solar radiation effect. An increase in concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases contributes to global warming: the greenhouse effect. In addition, small particles, called aerosols, reflect and absorb sunlight in the atmosphere. More pollution causes an increase in aerosols, so that less sunlight reaches the Earth (global dimming). Despite its name, global dimming is primarily a local (or regional) effect. Because of the dimming the Earth becomes cooler: the solar radiation effect. Global warming thus consists of two components: the (global) greenhouse effect and the (local) solar radiation effect, which work in opposite directions. Only the sum of the greenhouse effect and the solar radiation effect is observed, not the two effects separately. Our purpose is to identify the two effects. This is important, because the existence of the solar radiation effect obscures the magnitude of the greenhouse effect. We propose a simple climate model with a small number of parameters. We gather data from a large number of weather stations around the world for the period 1959-2002. We then estimate the parameters using dynamic panel data methods, and quantify the parameter uncertainty. Next, we decompose the estimated temperature change of 0.73C (averaged over the weather stations) into a greenhouse effect of 1.87C, a solar radiation effect of -1.09C, and a small remainder term. Finally, we subject our findings to extensive sensitivity analyses.

Magnus, J.R.; Melenberg, B. [Department of Econometrics and Operations Research, Tilburg University, Tilburg (Netherlands); Muris, C. [CentER, Tilburg University, Tilburg (Netherlands)

2011-01-15

 
 
 
 
401

Global warming and local dimming. The statistical evidence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Two effects largely determine global warming: the well-known greenhouse effect and the less well-known solar radiation effect. An increase in concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases contributes to global warming: the greenhouse effect. In addition, small particles, called aerosols, reflect and absorb sunlight in the atmosphere. More pollution causes an increase in aerosols, so that less sunlight reaches the Earth (global dimming). Despite its name, global dimming is primarily a local (or regional) effect. Because of the dimming the Earth becomes cooler: the solar radiation effect. Global warming thus consists of two components: the (global) greenhouse effect and the (local) solar radiation effect, which work in opposite directions. Only the sum of the greenhouse effect and the solar radiation effect is observed, not the two effects separately. Our purpose is to identify the two effects. This is important, because the existence of the solar radiation effect obscures the magnitude of the greenhouse effect. We propose a simple climate model with a small number of parameters. We gather data from a large number of weather stations around the world for the period 1959-2002. We then estimate the parameters using dynamic panel data methods, and quantify the parameter uncertainty. Next, we decompose the estimated temperature change of 0.73C (averaged over the weather stations) into a greenhouse effect of 1.87C, a solar radiation effect of -1.09C, and a small remainder term. Finally, we subject our findings to extensive sensitivity analyses.

2011-01-01

402

GLOBAL WARMING, DECISIVE FACTOR OF UNIFORMITY SEASONS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Climate variability refers to variations in the mean state and other measures (such as standard deviations, the occurrence of extremes, etc.) of the climate on all temporal and spatial scales beyond that of individual weather events. Variability may be due to natural internal processes within the climate system (internal variability), or to variations in natural or anthropogenic external forcing (external variability). The majority of the global scientific community agrees that climate change resulting from the anthropogenic activities emitting greenhouses gases (GHGs provided by the Kyoto Protocol are CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}) can already be recognized. Effects are visible in the average temperature of the Earth, which has risen by around 0.6 {+-}0.2 C since the beginning of monitoring (the year 1860). Other indicators are the increased melting of the ice during summers and a 10-20 cm rise of the sea level during the 20th century. Although these occurrences might seem insignificant at first sight, the effects on everyday life can become very large. Climate change is believed to lead to a further sea level rise endangering coastal areas with erosion and floods. It will also result in more extreme weather and changes of precipitation patterns on global scale, causing floods and droughts. Furthermore, local ecosystems might change because of changed circumstances, and even global water cycles might be disturbed. In Romania, the impacts of climate change on agriculture, forestry, water management and human settlements are a growing concern. The National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) will further elaborate the individual policies and concrete measures to be developed and implemented under the NCCC. Romania ratified the UNFCCC by Law 24/1994 thus manifested clearly its concern for the global climate change and the political will to fulfill the commitments under the convention.

Mariana Ciobanu; Mirela Mazilu [University of Craiova, Faculty of Engineering and Management of the Technological Systems, Drobeta Turnu Severin (Romania); Marius Ciobanu [Inspectorate District of Frontier Police, Mehedinti (Romania)

2008-09-30

403

Global warming: is weight loss a solution?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The current climate change has been most likely caused by the increased greenhouse gas emissions. We have looked at the major greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO(2)), and estimated the reduction in the CO(2) emissions that would occur with the theoretical global weight loss. The calculations were based on our previous weight loss study, investigating the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on body weight, body composition and resting metabolic rate of obese volunteers with type 2 diabetes. At 6 months, we observed decreases in weight, fat mass, fat free mass and CO(2) production. We estimated that a 10 kg weight loss of all obese and overweight people would result in a decrease of 49.560 Mt of CO(2) per year, which would equal to 0.2% of the CO(2) emitted globally in 2007. This reduction could help meet the CO(2) emission reduction targets and unquestionably would be of a great benefit to the global health.

Gryka A; Broom J; Rolland C

2012-03-01

404

Global warming: is weight loss a solution?  

Science.gov (United States)

The current climate change has been most likely caused by the increased greenhouse gas emissions. We have looked at the major greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO(2)), and estimated the reduction in the CO(2) emissions that would occur with the theoretical global weight loss. The calculations were based on our previous weight loss study, investigating the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on body weight, body composition and resting metabolic rate of obese volunteers with type 2 diabetes. At 6 months, we observed decreases in weight, fat mass, fat free mass and CO(2) production. We estimated that a 10 kg weight loss of all obese and overweight people would result in a decrease of 49.560 Mt of CO(2) per year, which would equal to 0.2% of the CO(2) emitted globally in 2007. This reduction could help meet the CO(2) emission reduction targets and unquestionably would be of a great benefit to the global health. PMID:21792168

Gryka, A; Broom, J; Rolland, C

2011-07-26

405

On the many facets of global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The idea that man might change the climate of Earth has sparked a lot of thoughts. Large fractions of the science community believe that if greenhouse gas concentrations double, there will be a climate change of the order of 2 to 5 centigrades of Earth's average surface temperature. Such a change is believed to have negative impacts on many regions of the world. First: hard facts; greenhouse gas concentrations grow constantly, up to now equivalent CO[sub 2] concentration has increased about 1.5 times half of which is a real CO[sub 2] concentration rise, the other half comprises all other greenhouse gases. Second: scenarios of global climate development show uncertainties and ambiguities. Third: fears of the public at large and political pressure to act. Fourth: economic consequences like carbon taxes etc., even very crude estimates indicate serious effects. Fifth: political consequences and the ensuing profound interests of states, governments, industries, interest groups with all their interactions and feedbacks. Fears of the public could be manipulated by interest groups. Sixth: the psychology of global change; experts as well as laypersons have due to their specific background--influenced by their set of values--contradicting ideas how to act; there is a philosophical component of global change: Survival of Man'' must become the prime value for everybody. Seventh: all facts must be made know to everyone on earth; this is the great challenge for education at all levels.

Preining, O. (Univ. of Vienna (Austria). Inst. for Experimental Physics)

1993-06-01

406

Direct and indirect effects of ocean acidification and warming on a marine plant-herbivore interaction.  

Science.gov (United States)

The impacts of climatic change on organisms depend on the interaction of multiple stressors and how these may affect the interactions among species. Consumer-prey relationships may be altered by changes to the abundance of either species, or by changes to the per capita interaction strength among species. To examine the effects of multiple stressors on a species interaction, we test the direct, interactive effects of ocean warming and lowered pH on an abundant marine herbivore (the amphipod Peramphithoe parmerong), and whether this herbivore is affected indirectly by these stressors altering the palatability of its algal food (Sargassum linearifolium). Both increased temperature and lowered pH independently reduced amphipod survival and growth, with the impacts of temperature outweighing those associated with reduced pH. Amphipods were further affected indirectly by changes to the palatability of their food source. The temperature and pH conditions in which algae were grown interacted to affect algal palatability, with acidified conditions only affecting feeding rates when algae were also grown at elevated temperatures. Feeding rates were largely unaffected by the conditions faced by the herbivore while feeding. These results indicate that, in addition to the direct effects on herbivore abundance, climatic stressors will affect the strength of plant-herbivore interactions by changes to the susceptibility of plant tissues to herbivory. PMID:23673470

Poore, Alistair G B; Graba-Landry, Alexia; Favret, Margaux; Sheppard Brennand, Hannah; Byrne, Maria; Dworjanyn, Symon A

2013-05-15

407

Direct and indirect effects of ocean acidification and warming on a marine plant-herbivore interaction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The impacts of climatic change on organisms depend on the interaction of multiple stressors and how these may affect the interactions among species. Consumer-prey relationships may be altered by changes to the abundance of either species, or by changes to the per capita interaction strength among species. To examine the effects of multiple stressors on a species interaction, we test the direct, interactive effects of ocean warming and lowered pH on an abundant marine herbivore (the amphipod Peramphithoe parmerong), and whether this herbivore is affected indirectly by these stressors altering the palatability of its algal food (Sargassum linearifolium). Both increased temperature and lowered pH independently reduced amphipod survival and growth, with the impacts of temperature outweighing those associated with reduced pH. Amphipods were further affected indirectly by changes to the palatability of their food source. The temperature and pH conditions in which algae were grown interacted to affect algal palatability, with acidified conditions only affecting feeding rates when algae were also grown at elevated temperatures. Feeding rates were largely unaffected by the conditions faced by the herbivore while feeding. These results indicate that, in addition to the direct effects on herbivore abundance, climatic stressors will affect the strength of plant-herbivore interactions by changes to the susceptibility of plant tissues to herbivory.

Poore AG; Graba-Landry A; Favret M; Sheppard Brennand H; Byrne M; Dworjanyn SA

2013-05-01

408

Life cycle impact assessment of terrestrial acidification: modeling spatially explicit soil sensitivity at the global scale.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a novel life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) approach to derive spatially explicit soil sensitivity indicators for terrestrial acidification. This global approach is compatible with a subsequent damage assessment, making it possible to consistently link the developed midpoint indicators with a later endpoint assessment along the cause-effect chain-a prerequisite in LCIA. Four different soil chemical indicators were preselected to evaluate sensitivity factors (SFs) for regional receiving environments at the global scale, namely the base cations to aluminum ratio, aluminum to calcium ratio, pH, and aluminum concentration. These chemical indicators were assessed using the PROFILE geochemical steady-state soil model and a global data set of regional soil parameters developed specifically for this study. Results showed that the most sensitive regions (i.e., where SF is maximized) are in Canada, northern Europe, the Amazon, central Africa, and East and Southeast Asia. However, the approach is not bereft of uncertainty. Indeed, a Monte Carlo analysis showed that input parameter variability may induce SF variations of up to over 6 orders of magnitude for certain chemical indicators. These findings improve current practices and enable the development of regional characterization models to assess regional life cycle inventories in a global economy. PMID:22780226

Roy, Pierre-Olivier; Deschênes, Louise; Margni, Manuele

2012-07-18

409

Life cycle impact assessment of terrestrial acidification: modeling spatially explicit soil sensitivity at the global scale.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper presents a novel life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) approach to derive spatially explicit soil sensitivity indicators for terrestrial acidification. This global approach is compatible with a subsequent damage assessment, making it possible to consistently link the developed midpoint indicators with a later endpoint assessment along the cause-effect chain-a prerequisite in LCIA. Four different soil chemical indicators were preselected to evaluate sensitivity factors (SFs) for regional receiving environments at the global scale, namely the base cations to aluminum ratio, aluminum to calcium ratio, pH, and aluminum concentration. These chemical indicators were assessed using the PROFILE geochemical steady-state soil model and a global data set of regional soil parameters developed specifically for this study. Results showed that the most sensitive regions (i.e., where SF is maximized) are in Canada, northern Europe, the Amazon, central Africa, and East and Southeast Asia. However, the approach is not bereft of uncertainty. Indeed, a Monte Carlo analysis showed that input parameter variability may induce SF variations of up to over 6 orders of magnitude for certain chemical indicators. These findings improve current practices and enable the development of regional characterization models to assess regional life cycle inventories in a global economy.

Roy PO; Deschênes L; Margni M

2012-08-01

410

Biotic prognostications: Global warming and biological diversity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book focuses on the impacts of the greenhouse effect on biological diversity and on natural ecosystems. Included are chapters which include the following topics: government attitudes to climate change problems; general conclusions and deficiencies of general circulation models; impacts of past climate changes on global biota; effects of climate on vegetation, soils, wildlife diversity, animal physiology, ecology, behavior, migration, and parasites and diseases; arctic mariene ecosystems and coasta marine zones; tropical forests; arctic tundra; western North American forests, etc.; indirect linkages and snyergisms among climate change, biodiversity, geosphere, and anthropogenic stresses.

Peters, R.L.; Lovejoy, T.E. [eds.

1992-12-31

411

Global warming - greenhouse gases versus aerosols  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Man's activities have led to an increase in the atmospheric concentration of aerosols and the aerosol precursors as well as to an increase of greenhouse gases. A crude measure of man's global activities, which cause these increases, is the annual emission of carbon in the form of CO[sub 2] from the burning of fossil fuels. Hence as a first approximation, the additional releases of greenhouse gases and the additional production of aerosols are assumed to be proportional to the annual carbon emissions. A simple OD-model provides an estimate of the responses of the global annual average surface temperature to the increase of greenhouse gases of aerosols. The albedo increase is estimated under the assumption that the additional aerosol production leads to a proportional increase in available cloud condensation nuclei and that the increase of greenhouse gases leads to a proportional decrease in the infrared transmittance of the atmosphere. Both effects are of the same magnitude but of opposite sign; hence, climate modelling requires the full inclusion of aerosols.

Preining, O. (Vienna University, Vienna (Austria). Institute of Experimental Physics)

1992-09-11

412

Bioenergy, global warming, and environmental impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Bioenergy is one of the forms of renewable energy. Bioenergy, the energy from biomass, has been used for thousands of years, ever since people started burning wood to cook food, and today wood is still our largest biomass resource for bioenergy. The use of bioenergy has the potential to greatly reduce our greenhouse gas emissions. Replacing fossil fuels with energy from biomass has several distinct environmental implications. If biomass is harvested at a rate that is sustainable, using it for energy purposes does not result in any net increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. States have played a leading role in protecting the environment by reducing emissions of greenhouse gasses (GHGs), and state emissions are significant on a global scale. CO2 and CO are the main greenhouse gases associated with global warning. At the present time, coal is responsible for 30-40% of world CO2 emissions from fossil fuels. SO2 and NOx contribute to acid rain. Carbon assessments can play an important role in a strategy to control carbon dioxide emissions while raising revenue. (author)

2004-01-01

413

Simulation of future global warming scenarios in rice paddies with an open-field warming facility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract To simulate expected future global warming, hexagonal arrays of infrared heaters have previously been used to warm open-field canopies of upland crops such as wheat. Through the use of concrete-anchored posts, improved software, overhead wires, extensive grounding, an