WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Adaptation of a globally important coccolithophore to ocean warming and acidification  

Science.gov (United States)

Although ocean warming and acidification are recognized as two major anthropogenic perturbations of today's oceans we know very little about how marine phytoplankton may respond via evolutionary change. We tested for adaptation to ocean warming in combination with ocean acidification in the globally important phytoplankton species Emiliania huxleyi. Temperature adaptation occurred independently of ocean acidification levels. Growth rates were up to 16% higher in populations adapted for one year to warming when assayed at their upper thermal tolerance limit. Particulate inorganic (PIC) and organic (POC) carbon production was restored to values under present-day ocean conditions, owing to adaptive evolution, and were 101% and 55% higher under combined warming and acidification, respectively, than in non-adapted controls. Cells also evolved to a smaller size while they recovered their initial PIC:POC ratio even under elevated CO2. The observed changes in coccolithophore growth, calcite and biomass production, cell size and elemental composition demonstrate the importance of evolutionary processes for phytoplankton performance in a future ocean.

Schlüter, Lothar; Lohbeck, Kai T.; Gutowska, Magdalena A.; Gröger, Joachim P.; Riebesell, Ulf; Reusch, Thorsten B. H.

2014-11-01

2

Future habitat suitability for coral reef ecosystems under global warming and ocean acidification.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations are placing spatially divergent stresses on the world's tropical coral reefs through increasing ocean surface temperatures and ocean acidification. We show how these two stressors combine to alter the global habitat suitability for shallow coral reef ecosystems, using statistical Bioclimatic Envelope Models rather than basing projections on any a priori assumptions of physiological tolerances or fixed thresholds. We apply two different modeling approaches (Maximum Entropy and Boosted Regression Trees) with two levels of complexity (one a simplified and reduced environmental variable version of the other). Our models project a marked temperature-driven decline in habitat suitability for many of the most significant and bio-diverse tropical coral regions, particularly in the central Indo-Pacific. This is accompanied by a temperature-driven poleward range expansion of favorable conditions accelerating up to 40-70 km per decade by 2070. We find that ocean acidification is less influential for determining future habitat suitability than warming, and its deleterious effects are centered evenly in both hemispheres between 5° and 20° latitude. Contrary to expectations, the combined impact of ocean surface temperature rise and acidification leads to little, if any, degradation in future habitat suitability across much of the Atlantic and areas currently considered 'marginal' for tropical corals, such as the eastern Equatorial Pacific. These results are consistent with fossil evidence of range expansions during past warm periods. In addition, the simplified models are particularly sensitive to short-term temperature variations and their projections correlate well with reported locations of bleaching events. Our approach offers new insights into the relative impact of two global environmental pressures associated with rising atmospheric CO2 on potential future habitats, but greater understanding of past and current controls on coral reef ecosystems is essential to their conservation and management under a changing climate. PMID:23893550

Couce, Elena; Ridgwell, Andy; Hendy, Erica J

2013-12-01

3

Future habitat suitability for coral reef ecosystems under global warming and ocean acidification  

Science.gov (United States)

Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations are placing spatially divergent stresses on the world's tropical coral reefs through increasing ocean surface temperatures and ocean acidification. We show how these two stressors combine to alter the global habitat suitability for shallow coral reef ecosystems, using statistical Bioclimatic Envelope Models rather than basing projections on any a priori assumptions of physiological tolerances or fixed thresholds. We apply two different modeling approaches (Maximum Entropy and Boosted Regression Trees) with two levels of complexity (one a simplified and reduced environmental variable version of the other). Our models project a marked temperature-driven decline in habitat suitability for many of the most significant and bio-diverse tropical coral regions, particularly in the central Indo-Pacific. This is accompanied by a temperature-driven poleward range expansion of favorable conditions accelerating up to 40–70 km per decade by 2070. We find that ocean acidification is less influential for determining future habitat suitability than warming, and its deleterious effects are centered evenly in both hemispheres between 5° and 20° latitude. Contrary to expectations, the combined impact of ocean surface temperature rise and acidification leads to little, if any, degradation in future habitat suitability across much of the Atlantic and areas currently considered ‘marginal’ for tropical corals, such as the eastern Equatorial Pacific. These results are consistent with fossil evidence of range expansions during past warm periods. In addition, the simplified models are particularly sensitive to short-term temperature variations and their projections correlate well with reported locations of bleaching events. Our approach offers new insights into the relative impact of two global environmental pressures associated with rising atmospheric CO2 on potential future habitats, but greater understanding of past and current controls on coral reef ecosystems is essential to their conservation and management under a changing climate. PMID:23893550

Couce, Elena; Ridgwell, Andy; Hendy, Erica J

2013-01-01

4

Acoustics Meets Global Warming: The impact of ocean acidification on underwater sound  

Science.gov (United States)

The principal cause of the absorption of low frequency sound in seawater is a chemical relaxation that is pH dependent. The predicted increases in ocean acidification could reduce low frequency absorption by a factor of 2 or more. Increased acidification would start at the surface and, over a significant duration, evolve down the water column, the sound channel axis depth being 1,000 meters or more in many ocean locations. However, when a surface duct propagation mode exists, and all the ``players'' (ship and wind generated noise, transiting marine mammals, etc.) are located in it, the impact would become noticable much sooner. Acoustically it should be a mixed bag; reducing propagation loss and thus raising vocalization levels while at the same time increasing the background noise.

Browning, David

2008-10-01

5

Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Use the links below to complete your research. The Heat Over Global Warming God and Global Warming Robert Redford: Business Warming Up to Environment Emission Impossible? Senator Stepping Up on Climate Control Interview: Bill McKibben Climate Change and the Media Senate Hearings Five Questions with Environmental Writer Tom Philpott Home Grown Oil, Politics Bribes E2: Energy The Greens Online NewsHour: The Global Warming Debate NewsHour Extra: Global Warming Linked to Humans NewsHour Extra: Global Warming Fears Lead to Ratification of the Kyoto Protocol Frontline: Doubters of Global Warming Journey to Planet Earth: The State of the Planet: Global Warming What s Up With the Weather? Some of the below resources were found in the book Global Warming : Opposing Viewpoints (available in the MRC) The Heritage Foundation - Global Warming Rainforest Alliance Doing a global warming search in this website will result in a list of various articles Sierra Club - homepage eLibrary (Proquest) is now available through the

Schultz, Ms.

2007-12-03

6

Benthic Foraminiferal Response to Reduced Oceanic Acidification and Global Warming During the Miocene Monterey Excursion, Congo Fan, Southeastern Atlantic  

Science.gov (United States)

The Early-Middle Miocene was a period of global warming and increased carbon burial as evidenced by the Monterey global positive carbon isotope shift from 18 - 14 Ma (Vincent and Berger 1985), which culminated in the deposition of massive carbonates and has been linked to recorded atmospheric CO2 lows at this time. We have collected the first ever record of benthic ?18O and ?13C from the Miocene of the Congo Fan, and report on the benthic foraminiferal response to these isotopic shifts from BP wells spanning the Early-Middle Miocene (21 - 14 Ma). Oligocene sediments from the Congo Fan consist almost entirely of agglutinated foraminifera due to deposition below a locally raised CCD. During the Early Miocene a gradual and persistent increase in the percentage of calcareous foraminifera is mirrored by our record of increasing benthic ?13C (from Cibicidoides spp.) at this site, suggesting reduced bottom-water acidification and a lowering of the CCD. Faunas record well- oxygenated bottom waters (~1000 m paleodepth) from 21 - 16 Ma. A dramatic shift in the shallow infaunal morphogroup at ~16 Ma (high abundances in Bulimina elongata, Brizalina aff. barbata, Uvigerina aff. carapitana) records lower oxygen and a probable expansion and strengthening of the oxygen minimum zone lasting for at least 1 my. This is coincident with cooling in this location, adding evidence for raised colder bottom-waters. We postulate that global cooling at this time (e.g. Zachos et al. 2001) was responsible for increasing the strength of the polar front, and in turn strengthening offshore winds at this location affecting an increase in upwelling and surface water productivity.

Kender, S.; Kaminski, M. A.; Jones, R. W.

2007-12-01

7

Coral resilience to ocean acidification and global warming through pH up-regulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rapidly rising levels of atmospheric CO2 are not only causing ocean warming, but also lowering seawater pH hence the carbonate saturation state of the oceans, on which many marine organisms depend to calcify their skeletons(1,2). Using boron isotope systematics(3), we show how scleractinian corals up-regulate pH at their site of calcification such that internal changes are approximately one-half of those in ambient seawater. This species-dependent pH-buffering capacity enables aragonitic cora...

Mcculloch, Malcolm; Falter, Jim; Trotter, Julie; Montagna, Paolo

2012-01-01

8

Global warming  

CERN Document Server

Global warming-like deforestation, the ozone hole and the loss of species- has become one of the late 20the century icons of global environmental damage. The threat, is not the reality, of such a global climate change has motivated governments. businesses and environmental organisations, to take serious action ot try and achieve serious control of the future climate. This culminated last December in Kyoto in the agreement for legally-binding climate protocol. In this series of three lectures I will provide a perspective on the phenomenon of global warming that accepts the scientific basis for our concern, but one that also recognises the dynamic interaction between climate and society that has always exited The future will be no different. The challenge of global warning is not to pretend it is not happening (as with some pressure groups), nor to pretend it threatens global civilisation (as with other pressure groups), and it is not even a challenge to try and stop it from happening-we are too far down the ro...

Hulme, M

1998-01-01

9

Global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Global warming' is a phrase that refers to the effect on the climate of human activities, in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) and large-scale deforestation, which cause emissions to the atmosphere of large amounts of 'greenhouse gases', of which the most important is carbon dioxide. Such gases absorb infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface and act as blankets over the surface keeping it warmer than it would otherwise be. Associated with this warming are changes of climate. The basic science of the 'greenhouse effect' that leads to the warming is well understood. More detailed understanding relies on numerical models of the climate that integrate the basic dynamical and physical equations describing the complete climate system. Many of the likely characteristics of the resulting changes in climate (such as more frequent heat waves, increases in rainfall, increase in frequency and intensity of many extreme climate events) can be identified. Substantial uncertainties remain in knowledge of some of the feedbacks within the climate system (that affect the overall magnitude of change) and in much of the detail of likely regional change. Because of its negative impacts on human communities (including for instance substantial sea-level rise) and on ecosystems, global warming is the most important environmental problem the world faces. Adaptation to the inevitable impacts and mitigation to reduce their magnitude are both necessary. Internateir magnitude are both necessary. International action is being taken by the world's scientific and political communities. Because of the need for urgent action, the greatest challenge is to move rapidly to much increased energy efficiency and to non-fossil-fuel energy sources

10

Global warning, global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book provides insights into the formidable array of issues which, in a warmer world, could impinge upon every facet of readers lives. It examines climatic change and long-term implications of global warming for the ecosystem. Topics include the ozone layer and how it works; the greenhouse effect; the dangers of imbalance and its effects on human and animal life; disruptions to the basic ecology of the planet; and the real scientific evidence for and against aberrant climatic shifts. The author also examines workable social and political programs and changes that must be instituted to avoid ecological disaster

11

Global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The GEF was set up as a pilot programme in 1991 to provide grant and concessional funds to developing countries for projects and activities that aim to protect the global environment. In March 1994, participating governments successfully concluded negotiations to restructure the Facility. The Core Fund of the GEF was also replenished with over $2 billion to be committed over a three-year period. GEF resources are available for projects that address climate change, biological diversity, international waters and depletion of the ozone layer. Activities addressing land degradation, primarily desertification and deforestation, as they relate to the four areas, are also eligible for funding. The GEF is jointly implemented by the United Nations Development Programme, the United Nations Environment Programme and the World Bank

12

The reef-building coral Siderastrea siderea exhibits parabolic responses to ocean acidification and warming.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anthropogenic increases in atmospheric CO2 over this century are predicted to cause global average surface ocean pH to decline by 0.1-0.3 pH units and sea surface temperature to increase by 1-4°C. We conducted controlled laboratory experiments to investigate the impacts of CO2-induced ocean acidification (pCO2 = 324, 477, 604, 2553 µatm) and warming (25, 28, 32°C) on the calcification rate of the zooxanthellate scleractinian coral Siderastrea siderea, a widespread, abundant and keystone reef-builder in the Caribbean Sea. We show that both acidification and warming cause a parabolic response in the calcification rate within this coral species. Moderate increases in pCO2 and warming, relative to near-present-day values, enhanced coral calcification, with calcification rates declining under the highest pCO2 and thermal conditions. Equivalent responses to acidification and warming were exhibited by colonies across reef zones and the parabolic nature of the corals' response to these stressors was evident across all three of the experiment's 30-day observational intervals. Furthermore, the warming projected by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change for the end of the twenty-first century caused a fivefold decrease in the rate of coral calcification, while the acidification projected for the same interval had no statistically significant impact on the calcification rate-suggesting that ocean warming poses a more immediate threat than acidification for this important coral species. PMID:25377455

Castillo, Karl D; Ries, Justin B; Bruno, John F; Westfield, Isaac T

2014-12-22

13

Calcium carbonate production response to future ocean warming and acidification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions are acidifying the ocean, affecting calcification rates in pelagic organisms and thereby modifying the oceanic alkalinity cycle. However, the responses of pelagic calcifying organisms to acidification vary widely between species, contributing uncertainty to predictions of atmospheric CO2 and the resulting climate change. Meanwhile, ocean warming caused by rising CO2 is expected to drive increased growth rates of all pelagic organisms, including calcifiers. It thus remains unclear whether anthropogenic CO2 will ultimately increase or decrease the globally-integrated pelagic calcification rate. Here, we assess the importance of this uncertainty by introducing a variable dependence of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 production on calcite saturation state (?CaCO3 in the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model, an intermediate complexity coupled carbon-climate model. In a series of model simulations, we examine the impact of this parameterization on global ocean carbon cycling under two CO2 emissions scenarios, both integrated to the year 3500. The simulations show a significant sensitivity of the vertical and surface horizontal alkalinity gradients to the parameterization, as well as the removal of alkalinity from the ocean through CaCO3 burial. These sensitivities result in an additional oceanic uptake of carbon when calcification depends on ?CaCO3 (of up to 13 % of total carbon emissions, compared to the case where calcification is insensitive to acidification. In turn, this response causes a reduction of global surface air temperature of up to 0.4 °C in year 3500, a 13 % reduction in the amplitude of warming. Narrowing these uncertainties will require better understanding of both temperature and acidification effects on pelagic calcifiers. Preliminary examination suggests that alkalinity observations can be used to constrain the range of uncertainties and may exclude large sensitivities of CaCO3 production on ?CaCO3.

A. J. Pinsonneault

2011-12-01

14

Influence of ocean warming and acidification on trace metal biogeochemistry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations will have profound effects on atmospheric and hydrographic processes, which will ultimately modify the supply and chemistry of trace metals in the ocean. In addition to an increase in sea surface temperatures, higher CO2 also results in a decrease of seawater pH, known as ocean acidification, with implications for inorganic trace metal chemistry. Furthermore, direct or indirect effects of ocean acidification and ocean warming on marine biota will also aff...

Hoffmann, Linn; Breitbarth, Eike; Boyd, P. W.; Hunter, K. A.

2012-01-01

15

LETSNet Global Warming Unit  

Science.gov (United States)

This unit includes classroom activities to help students understand global warming and its possible effects on human beings. Lessons in the unit provide students with opportunities to study global climate changes, discuss and debate the current arguments for and against global warming and the Greenhouse Effect, investigate the possibility of global warming and the Greenhouse Effect, and present their findings in the form of research reports.

2011-04-26

16

Warming influences Mg2+ content, while warming and acidification influence calcification and test strength of a sea urchin.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the long-term effects of near-future changes in temperature and acidification on skeletal mineralogy, thickness, and strength in the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla reared in all combinations of three pH (pH 8.1, 7.8, 7.6) and three temperatures (22 °C, 25 °C, 28 °C) from the early juvenile to adult, over 146 days. As the high-magnesium calcite of the echinoderm skeleton is a biomineral form highly sensitive to acidification, and influenced by temperature, we documented the MgCO3 content of the spines, test plates, and teeth. The percentage of MgCO3 varied systematically, with more Mg2+ in the test and spines. The percentage of MgCO3 in the test and teeth, but not the spines increased with temperature. Acidification did not change the percentage MgCO3. Test thickness increased with warming and decreased at pH 7.6, with no interaction between these factors. In crushing tests live urchins mostly ruptured at sutures between the plates. The force required to crush a live urchin was reduced in animals reared in low pH conditions but increased in those reared in warm conditions, a result driven by differences in urchin size. It appears that the interactive effects of warming and acidification on the Mg2+ content and protective function of the sea urchin skeleton will play out in a complex way as global climatic change unfolds. PMID:25252045

Byrne, Maria; Smith, Abigail M; West, Samantha; Collard, Marie; Dubois, Philippe; Graba-landry, Alexia; Dworjanyn, Symon A

2014-11-01

17

Global warming yearbook: 1998  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report brings together a year`s worth of global warming stories - over 280 in all - in one convenient volume. It provides a one-stop report on the scientific, political and industrial implications of global warming. The report includes: detailed coverage of negotiations on the Kyoto Protocol; scientific findings on carbon sources and sinks, coral bleaching, Antarctic ice shelves, plankton, wildlife and tree growth; new developments on fuel economy, wind power, fuel cells, cogeneration, energy labelling and emissions trading.

Arris, L. [ed.

1999-02-01

18

Rolling stones. Fast weathering of olivine in shallow seas for cost-effective CO2 capture and mitigation of global warming and ocean acidification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Human CO2 emissions may drive the Earth into a next greenhouse state. They can be mitigated by accelerating weathering of natural rock under the uptake of CO2. We disprove the paradigm that olivine weathering in nature would be a slow process, and show that it is not needed to mill olivine to very fine, 10 {mu}m-size grains in order to arrive at a complete dissolution within 1-2 year. In high-energy shallow marine environments olivine grains and reaction products on the grain surfaces, that otherwise would greatly retard the reaction, are abraded so that the chemical reaction is much accelerated. When kept in motion even large olivine grains rubbing and bumping against each other quickly produce fine clay- and silt-sized olivine particles that show a fast chemical reaction. Spreading of olivine in the world's 2% most energetic shelf seas can compensate a year's global CO2 emissions and counteract ocean acidification against a price well below that of carbon credits.

Schuiling, R.D.; De Boer, P.L. [Department of Earth Sciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.021, 3508TA Utrecht (Netherlands)

2011-07-01

19

Managing Local Coastal Stressors to Reduce the Ecological Effects of Ocean Acidification and Warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Anthropogenic activities have increased the number of stressors acting on ecosystems. When multiple stressors act simultaneously, there is a greater probability of additive, synergistic and antagonistic effects occurring among them. Where additive and synergistic effects occur, managers may yield disproportionately large benefits where they first act upon synergies. Stressors act, however, at different spatial and temporal scales. Global stressors (e.g., ocean acidification and warming) tend ...

Connell, Sean D.; Russell, Bayden D.; Giulia Ghedini

2013-01-01

20

What is Global Warming?  

Science.gov (United States)

This textbook chapter presents evidence of a warming climate and outlines how a clear picture of global warming has emerged since the 1980s. Students learn about sampling error sources in climate data, and compare graphical data collected by climate scientists Jim Hansen, Philip Jones and Tom Wigley, as they follow the global warming hypothesis move through the process of science. This is the fourth chapter in the unit, Climate Change, which addresses the question of how human activities are changing Earth's climate. The resource includes three classroom investigations, links to current news articles, and a suite of pre- and post-unit assessments. A teacher's guide supports classroom use. This is chapter 4 of Climate Change, part of Global Systems Science (GSS), an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

 
 
 
 
21

The global warming problem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this chapter, a discussion is presented of the global warming problem and activities contributing to the formation of acid rain, urban smog and to the depletion of the ozone layer. Globally, about two-thirds of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions arise from fossil-fuel burning; the rest arise primarily from deforestation. Chlorofluorocarbons are the second largest contributor to global warming, accounting for about 20% of the total. The third largest contributor is methane, followed by ozone and nitrous oxide. A study of current activities in the US that contribute to global warming shows the following: electric power plants account for about 33% of carbon dioxide emissions; motor vehicles, planes and ships (31%); industrial plants (24%); commercial and residential buildings (11%)

22

Long range global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper explores one of the causes of global warming that is often overlooked, the direct heating of the environment by engineering systems. Most research and studies of global warming concentrate on the modification that is occurring to atmospheric air as a result of pollution gases being added by various systems; i.e., refrigerants, nitrogen oxides, ozone, hydrocarbons, halon, and others. This modification affects the thermal radiation balance between earth, sun and space, resulting in a decrease of radiation outflow and a slow rise in the earth's steady state temperature. For this reason the solution to the problem is perceived as one of cleaning up the processes and effluents that are discharged into the environment. In this paper arguments are presented that suggest, that there is a far more serious cause for global warming that will manifest itself in the next two or three centuries; direct heating from the exponential growth of energy usage by humankind. Because this is a minor contributor to the global warming problem at present, it is overlooked or ignored. Energy use from the combustion of fuels and from the output of nuclear reactions eventually is manifest as warming of the surroundings. Thus, as energy is used at an ever increasing rate the consequent global warming also increases at an ever increasing rate. Eventually this rate will become equal to a few percent of solar radiation. When this happens the earth's temperature will have risen by several ds temperature will have risen by several degrees with catastrophic results. The trends in world energy use are reviewed and some mathematical models are presented to suggest future scenarios. These models can be used to predict when the global warming problem will become undeniably apparent, when it will become critical, and when it will become catastrophic

23

GLOBAL WARMING AND PATTERN OF MAIN ECONOMY IN SUNDARBAN  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article, the phrase “global warming” refers tothe change in the Earth's global average surfacetemperature. Measurements show a global temperatureincrease of 1.4 °F (0.78 °C) between the years 1900 and2005. Global warming is closely associated with a broadspectrum of other climate changes, such as increases inthe frequency of intense rainfall, decreases in snow coverand sea ice, more frequent and intense heat waves, risingsea levels, and widespread ocean acidification. TheIntergo...

Biplab Das

2013-01-01

24

Global Warming: Undo It  

Science.gov (United States)

Global Warming: Undo It is a national campaign developed by Environmental Defense "to ramp up the fight against global warming, the most critical environmental issue we face." The Web site contains a multimedia tutorial of sorts, where users can learn more about global warming and lifestyle changes they can make cut down on their carbon dioxide production. The site also includes a multimedia gallery, with video clips of the campaign's television commercials, an interview with Environmental Defense president Fred Drupp and another with Senator John McCain, and more. Users may also choose to sign an e-petition to help get the McCain-Lieberman bipartisan Climate Stewardship Act passed in Congress.

25

Global Warming Art  

Science.gov (United States)

Global Warming Art is an effort to collect and produce compelling graphs, figures and photos that accurately display scientific information relevant to the climate change debate. Emphasis is given to the consensus views held by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and other major research organizations. One of the guiding principles of Global Warming Art is that this information should be freely available to others for use in their discussions, presentations, and teaching, and hence nearly all of the information on the site is licensed in a way that allows for generous third party use.

Rohde, Robert

2006-01-01

26

Refrigeration and global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some aspects of global warming in general, and the implications for refrigerants and refrigerator efficiency in particular, are briefly considered in a question and answer format. The concepts of Global Warming Potential (GWP) and Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) are explained. GWP is an index which allows a simple comparison to be make between the warming effects of different gases on a kg to kg basis relative to carbon. The GWP depends both on the lifetime of a substance in the atmosphere and its infra-red absorption capacity. The overall warming effect of operating a refrigeration system for its entire life is measured by its TEWI. Chloroflourocarbons (CFCs) which have been widely used as refrigerants are powerful greenhouse gases with high GWPs. Because of the bank of CFCs in refrigerating systems, their levels in the atmosphere are still increasing and it will be some time before refrigerant changes will be effective in reducing the warming effects of refrigerant releases. Hydrocarbons, hydroflourocarbons and ammonia all have a part to play as substitute refrigerants. Refrigerator efficiency is very important in terms of reducing CO2 emissions. (UK)

27

Global Warming and Our Future  

Science.gov (United States)

What is the Evidence for Global Warming? What is causing it? Should we care? Could it affect our future? What can we do about it? What is Global Warming? Watch the movie on Global Warming EPA Kid pages on global warming Includes FLASH animations from the US Environmental Protection Agency. Its on the Kids Site under \\"Climate Animations\\" Take the Quiz on Global Warming at the end of the movie What is the Evidence for Global Warming? Introduction to Graphing: Watch this Graph of projected Cllimate change flash ...

Bahr, M.

2006-11-04

28

Climate change - global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An explanation about climate, weather, climate changes. What is a greenhouse effect, i.e. global warming and reasons which contribute to this effect. Greenhouse gases (GHG) and GWP (Global Warming Potential) as a factor for estimating their influence on the greenhouse effect. Indicators of the climate changes in the previous period by known international institutions, higher concentrations of global average temperature. Projecting of likely scenarios for the future climate changes and consequences of them on the environment and human activities: industry, energy, agriculture, water resources. The main points of the Kyoto Protocol and problems in its realization. The need of preparing a country strategy concerning the acts of the Kyoto Protocol, suggestions which could contribute in the preparation of the strategy. A special attention is pointed to the energy, its resources, the structure of energy consumption and the energy efficiency. (Author)

29

Is Global Warming Accelerating?  

Science.gov (United States)

A global pattern that fluctuates naturally on decadal time scales is identified in climate simulations and observations. This newly discovered component, called the Global Multidecadal Oscillation (GMO), is related to the Atlantic Meridional Oscillation and shown to account for a substantial fraction of decadal fluctuations in the observed global average sea surface temperature. IPCC-class climate models generally underestimate the variance of the GMO, and hence underestimate the decadal fluctuations due to this component of natural variability. Decomposing observed sea surface temperature into a component due to anthropogenic and natural radiative forcing plus the GMO, reveals that most multidecadal fluctuations in the observed global average sea surface temperature can be accounted for by these two components alone. The fact that the GMO varies naturally on multidecadal time scales implies that it can be predicted with some skill on decadal time scales, which provides a scientific rationale for decadal predictions. Furthermore, the GMO is shown to account for about half of the warming in the last 25 years and hence a substantial fraction of the recent acceleration in the rate of increase in global average sea surface temperature. Nevertheless, in terms of the global average “well-observed” sea surface temperature, the GMO can account for only about 0.1° C in transient, decadal-scale fluctuations, not the century-long 1° C warming that has been observed during the twentieth century.

Shukla, J.; Delsole, T. M.; Tippett, M. K.

2009-12-01

30

Thinking About Global Warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Attitudes toward global warming are influenced by various heuristics, which may distort policy away from what is optimal for the well-being of people. These possible distortions, or biases, include: a focus on harms that we cause, as opposed to those that we can remedy more easily; a feeling that those who cause a problem should fix it; a desire to undo a problem rather than compensate for its presence; parochial concern with one's own group (nation); and neglect of risks that are not available. Although most of these biases tend to make us attend relatively too much to global warming, other biases, such as wishful thinking, cause us to attend too little. I discuss these possible effects and illustrate some of them with an experiment conducted on the World Wide Web

31

Global Warming Kid's Site  

Science.gov (United States)

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set up this site to teach kids about global warming, climate change, and climatology, as well as environmentally friendly habits that benefit the earth. The site allows students and educators to approach ecological issues from various perspectives. Global Warming (What it is) is an introduction to current climatological change. Other resources such as Climate and Weather and What is the Climate System? provide overviews of such climatological phenomena as the water cycle, greenhouse gasses, and climatological change over the world's history. Finally, socially and environmentally conscious resources such as So What's the BIG DEAL? and We CAN Make a Difference discuss how changes in our daily lives can affect our impact on the earth's climate. The site also has games, animations modeling climatological activity, and recommendations for educators interested in using the site.

32

Virtual Courseware: Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

This interactive feature uses two activities to illustrate principles of global warming and climate change due to natural and human caused factors. Students investigate the energy budget model of climate change using Mono Lake, California, as an example, by estimating the temperature for a particular time period using surface energy data for the area. The second activity incorporates data from the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) on fossil fuel emissions, population, gross domestic product, energy type, land use type, and other gas emissions. Students analyze and compare the data using a set of online tools to examine impacts of coastal flooding. Other materials include a set of tutorials on global warming (Milankovitch cycles, Earth's seasons, the carbon cycle, and others), assessment materials for instructors, and information on resource creators and technical requirements.

33

Global Warming Wheel Card  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, students construct a Global Warming Wheel Card, a hand-held tool that they can use to estimate their household's emissions of carbon dioxide and learn how they can reduce them. One side of the wheel illustrates how much carbon dioxide a household contributes to the atmosphere per year through activities such as driving a car, using energy in the home, and disposing of waste. The other side shows how changes in behavior can reduce personal emissions.

US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

34

Global warming forecasts unreliability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports the opinions of a series of experts who have recently commented on the reliability of predictions of global warning in relation to observed and forecasted increases in carbon dioxide emissions. One of the more difficult to explain observations, evidenced through the analysis of past meteorological data, was the rapid increase in global temperature that took place during the period preceding 1940 and which was followed by a gradual decrease, during a thirty year period of heightened industrialization and consumption of fossil fuels, up to 1970 when global temperatures began again to rise rapidly. Variations in solar activity was suggested to explain this apparently anomalous trend in global temperatures. This question as to the existence of a strict correlation between global warming and rises in carbon dioxide emissions, as well as, forecasted increases in concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide due to the expected population growth in China are putting a strain on attempts by OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) environmental policy makers to gain support for energy tax proposals

35

Global Warming Central  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pace Energy Project is aimed at an academic audience and features links to key reports, treaties, and speeches, including President Clinton's October, 1997 speech outlining the US position on global warming. Recently, delegates from 160 countries commenced a ten day conference in Kyoto, Japan to agree on a strategy to cut the world's emissions of greenhouse gases, which are thought to cause global warming. Any agreement, however, will be difficult, as large divisions between nations were apparent even before the conference began. The two most important disagreements concern the amount of greenhouse gas cuts and the standards for developing nations. The European Union seeks a 15% cut in gases while the US government, lobbied hard by business groups, wants no reduction at all for at least ten years. The other major sticking point is whether developing countries should have to reach the same targets as the developed world, which is responsible for the vast majority of the emissions. Little progress is projected until the last phase of the conference, when senior representatives, including Vice-President Al Gore, arrive in Kyoto.

Studies., Pace U.

1997-01-01

36

Global Warming: the Sacrificial Temptation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The claimed unanimity of the scientific community about the human culpability for global warming is questioned. Up today there exists no scientific proof of human culpability. It is not the number of authors of a paper, which validates its scientific content. The use of probability to assert the degree of certainty with respect the global warming problem is shown to be misleading. The debate about global warming has taken on emotional tones driven by passion and irrationalit...

Galam, Serge

2008-01-01

37

Global Warming on Triton  

Science.gov (United States)

Triton, Neptune's largest moon, has been predicted to undergo significant seasonal changes that would reveal themselves as changes in its mean frost temperature. But whether this temperature should at the present time be increasing, decreasing or constant depends on a number of parameters (such as the thermal properties of the surface, and frost migration patterns) that are unknown. Here we report observations of a recent stellar occultation by Triton which, when combined with earlier results, show that Triton has undergone a period of global warming since 1989. Our most conservative estimates of the rate of temperature and surface-pressure increase during this period imply that the atmosphere is doubling in bulk every 10 years, significantly faster than predicted by any published frost model for Triton. Our result suggests that permanent polar caps on Triton play a c dominant role in regulating seasonal atmospheric changes. Similar processes should also be active on Pluto.

Elliot, J. L.; Hammel, H. B.; Wasserman, L. H.; Franz, O. G.; McDonald, S. W.; Person, M. J.; Olkin, C. B.; Dunham, E. J.; Spencer, J. R.; Stansberry, J. A.; Buie, M. W.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; McConnochie, T. H.

1998-01-01

38

Global Warming: Frequently Asked Questions  

Science.gov (United States)

This global warming site contains questions commonly addressed to climate scientists and brief replies (based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports and other research). The questions concern the greenhouse effect and its impact on our climate, whether greenhouse gases are increasing and the climate warming, the relation of El Nino to global warming, change in the hydrological cycle (evaporation and precipitation) and atmospheric/oceanic circulation, climate becoming more variable and extreme, the importance of these changes in a longer-term context, the rise of sea levels, whether the observed changes can be explained by natural variability, and the future of global warming.

Easterling, David; Karl, Tom

39

Bioenergy - global advantage and local acidification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bioenergy is usually considered an environmentally friendly source of energy, mainly because of the international focus on carbon dioxide emission. The article questions this point of view. Less emission of global climate gases comes from bioenergy than from the combustion of natural gas and fuel oil, but much more particulate and acidifying matter. According to a Swedish investigation, bioenergy, waste combustion and fuel oil are worse than natural gas if particles, SOx, NOx and CO2 are weighted equally. Biofuel and fuel oil emit almost twice as much nitrogen oxides as do natural gas and waste combustion. Bioenergy and waste emit on the average 160-210 times as much sulphur as do natural gas and 40-170 times as much particles. To what extent bioenergy is environmentally sound is very technology-dependent. Bioenergy is advantageous with respect to emission of climate gases and by definition does not emit carbon dioxide since this is compensated by photosynthetic absorption. As for hydrocarbons, NOx and SOx, which cause local acidification, bioenergy comes in about halfway between the best and the worst energy sources. The pollution from large bioenergy plants can be effectively reduced, but cleaning systems on small plants are not economical. Small bioenergy plants should not be localised in areas with high particle emission

40

Global warming and prairie wetlands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this article, the authors discuss current understanding and projections of global warming; review wetland vegetation dynamics to establish the strong relationship among climate, wetland hydrology, vegetation patterns and waterfowl habitat; discuss the potential effects of a greenhouse warming on these relationships; and illustrate the potential effects of climate change on wetland habitat by using a simulation model

 
 
 
 
41

Scaling up experimental ocean acidification and warming research: from individuals to the ecosystem.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding long-term, ecosystem-level impacts of climate change is challenging because experimental research frequently focuses on short-term, individual-level impacts in isolation. We address this shortcoming first through an interdisciplinary ensemble of novel experimental techniques to investigate the impacts of 14-month exposure to ocean acidification and warming (OAW) on the physiology, activity, predatory behaviour and susceptibility to predation of an important marine gastropod (Nucella lapillus). We simultaneously estimated the potential impacts of these global drivers on N. lapillus population dynamics and dispersal parameters. We then used these data to parameterize a dynamic bioclimatic envelope model, to investigate the consequences of OAW on the distribution of the species in the wider NE Atlantic region by 2100. The model accounts also for changes in the distribution of resources, suitable habitat and environment simulated by finely resolved biogeochemical models, under three IPCC global emissions scenarios. The experiments showed that temperature had the greatest impact on individual-level responses, while acidification had a similarly important role in the mediation of predatory behaviour and susceptibility to predators. Changes in Nucella predatory behaviour appeared to serve as a strategy to mitigate individual-level impacts of acidification, but the development of this response may be limited in the presence of predators. The model projected significant large-scale changes in the distribution of Nucella by the year 2100 that were exacerbated by rising greenhouse gas emissions. These changes were spatially heterogeneous, as the degree of impact of OAW on the combination of responses considered by the model varied depending on local-environmental conditions and resource availability. Such changes in macro-scale distributions cannot be predicted by investigating individual-level impacts in isolation, or by considering climate stressors separately. Scaling up the results of experimental climate change research requires approaches that account for long-term, multiscale responses to multiple stressors, in an ecosystem context. PMID:25044416

Queirós, Ana M; Fernandes, José A; Faulwetter, Sarah; Nunes, Joana; Rastrick, Samuel P S; Mieszkowska, Nova; Artioli, Yuri; Yool, Andrew; Calosi, Piero; Arvanitidis, Christos; Findlay, Helen S; Barange, Manuel; Cheung, William W L; Widdicombe, Stephen

2015-01-01

42

Global Warming Kids.net  

Science.gov (United States)

Global Warming Kids .Net is a project of ClimateChangeEducation.Org: science museum docents; students, staff and scientists at the University of California. Plus elementary, middle and high school student volunteers & interns.

43

Acidification and warming affect both a calcifying predator and prey, but not their interaction : Feature article  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Both ocean warming and acidification have been demonstrated to affect the growth, performance and reproductive success of calcifying invertebrates. However, relatively little is known regarding how such environmental change may affect interspecific interactions. We separately treated green crabs Carcinus maenas and periwinkles Littorina littorea under conditions that mimicked either ambient conditions (control) or warming and acidification, both separately and in combination, for 5 mo. After 5 mo, the predators, prey and predator-prey interactions were screened for changes in response to environmental change. Acidification negatively affected the closer-muscle length of the crusher chela and correspondingly the claw-strength increment in C. maenas. The effects of warming and/or acidification on L. littorea were less consistent but indicated weaker shells in response to acidification. On the community level, however, we found no evidence that predator-prey interactions will change in the future. Further experiments exploring the impacts of warming and acidification on key ecological interactions are needed instead of basing predictions of ecosystem change solely on species-specific responses to environmental change.

Landes, Anja; Zimmer, Martin

2012-01-01

44

Global warming: A vicious circle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases the planet is already committed to regional droughts, storms, disruption of fisheries and the extinction of many plant and animal species. But current predictions of global warming do not take into account the reactions and interactions of the planet's land, ocean and ice masses to the rise in temperatures. It seems likely that the greenhouse effect will give rise to positive feedback reactions, leading to greater global warming than predicted

45

Global temperatures and the global warming ``debate''  

Science.gov (United States)

Many ordinary citizens listen to pronouncements on talk radio casting doubt on anthropogenic global warming. Some op-ed columnists likewise cast doubts, and are read by credulous citizens. For example, on 8 March 2009, the Boston Globe published a column by Jeff Jacoby, ``Where's global warming?'' According to Jacoby, ``But it isn't such hints of a planetary warming trend that have been piling up in profusion lately. Just the opposite.'' He goes on to write, ``the science of climate change is not nearly as important as the religion of climate change,'' and blamed Al Gore for getting his mistaken views accepted. George Will at the Washington Post also expressed denial. As a result, 44% of U.S. voters, according to the January 19 2009 Rasmussen Report, blame long-term planetary trends for global warming, not human beings. Is there global cooling, as skeptics claim? We examine the temperature record.

Aubrecht, Gordon

2009-04-01

46

Economic Theory and Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Hirofumi Uzawa's theoretical framework addresses three major problems concerning global warming and other environmental hazards. First, it considers all phenomena involved with global environmental issues that exhibit externalities of one kind or another. Secondly, it covers global environmental issues involving international and intergenerational equity and justice. Lastly, it deals with global environmental issues concerning the management of the atmosphere, the oceans, water, soil, and other natural resources having to be decided by a consensus of affected countries.

Uzawa, Hirofumi

2003-08-01

47

Global warming 'confirmed'  

Science.gov (United States)

In October, the Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature project, funded in part by climate sceptics, concluded that the Earth is warming based on the most comprehensive review of the data yet. Nature Climate Change talks to the project's director, physicist Richard Muller.

2011-12-01

48

Managing Local Coastal Stressors to Reduce the Ecological Effects of Ocean Acidification and Warming  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anthropogenic activities have increased the number of stressors acting on ecosystems. When multiple stressors act simultaneously, there is a greater probability of additive, synergistic and antagonistic effects occurring among them. Where additive and synergistic effects occur, managers may yield disproportionately large benefits where they first act upon synergies. Stressors act, however, at different spatial and temporal scales. Global stressors (e.g., ocean acidification and warming tend to change slowly over long periods of time, although their intensity and effects are contingent on local conditions. On the other hand, local stressors tend to change rapidly over shorter, more defined spatial and temporal scales. Hence, local stressors can be subject to a greater degree of control through local management (e.g., eutrophication and overfishing while global stressors are characterized by an intrinsic inertia whose effects last for decades, if not centuries. Although the reduction of carbon emissions is an international priority for managing global stressors, it requires international agreements and management applications that take considerable time to develop. Managers, however, may ‘buy time’ by acting on stressors whose governance is local (e.g., reducing nutrient input and are known to synergize with global stressors (e.g., enriched CO2. Such local actions may potentially disrupt synergies with the more slowly changing global stressors that can only be reduced over longer time scales.

Sean D. Connell

2013-10-01

49

Global Warming: Physics and Facts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report contains papers on: A tutorial on global atmospheric energetics and the greenhouse effect; global climate models: what and how; comparison of general circulation models; climate and the earth's radiation budget; temperature and sea level change; short-term climate variability and predictions; the great ocean conveyor; trace gases in the atmosphere: temporal and spatial trends; the geochemical carbon cycle and the uptake of fossil fuel CO2; forestry and global warming; the physical and policy linkages; policy implications of greenhouse warming; options for lowering US carbon dioxide emissions; options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions; and science and diplomacy: a new partnership to protect the environment

50

The problem of global warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The issue of global warming can seem overwhelming and complex, but the scientific explanation for the phenomenon is relatively simple. Earth has a built-in system for temperature control made up of gasses in the planet's atmosphere. When the sun's rays strike and warm the Earth, these gasses operate like a blanket, trapping some of the sun's warmth inside and allowing some of the heat to be released into space. This process warms the Earth enough to make it hospitable for living organisms....

??????????, ????? ???????????; ??????????, ??????? ??????????; Kostiuchenko, Nadiia Mykolaivna; Lano, Kwaku Gordon

2008-01-01

51

Enviropedia: Introduction to Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

This resource provides an overview of the concept of global warming, which is thought to be due to man-made emissions of greenhouse gases, which are largely a result of the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation. It explores the possibility that the impacts of global warming may include desertification and the destruction of other ecosystems, extreme weather conditions, and a danger to agriculture. Information on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, (IPCC), the Kyoto Protocol, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, (FCCC), and the United Kingdom Programme on Climate Change is also provided.

52

Local cooling, global warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The growing use of refrigeration and air conditioning systems and the shift in refrigerant types due to the Montreal Protocol lead to rapidly increasing HFC refrigerant emissions globally, especially in developing countries. Reducing the emission of these potent greenhouse gases globally seems to be indispensable in a successful long term climate strategy. The thesis uses quantitative vintage models as well as qualitative policy analysis to assess how various policy options to reduce refri...

Hekkenberg, M.

2009-01-01

53

GLOBAL WARMING: A NEW PERSPECTIVE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A lot has been said about global warming, various models projected and debated to show its importance in the present day. All these have actually made the issue more complex and confusing. Present paper is based on the observations made by the author during the drilling operations for providing sustainable water solutions based on developing groundwater resources in the various hydrostraigraphic zones identified by Arya,(1996) for the last 15 years in Himachal Pradesh and the high altitude, cold mountain, deserts of Ladakh in NW Indian Himalayas. The author tends to redefine global warming as phenomenon for transporting the weathered and eroded material which had been accumulated during the global cooling phase in the past. The agents can be biotic (man and living organisms) and abiotic (geological, geomorphologic, climatologic, planetary). The author also tends to introduce a biogeologic cycle which will explain in a very simple way the relevance of global warming in shaping the earth now and in future. The paper also discuses the fact that no phenomenon can be understood in isolation and the history and its cycle has to be understood to enjoy the concept in totality. Present paper will focus on these issues and try to touch the genesis of the problem in a very simple but scientific manner. Last but not the least the paper will end with an optimistic note ''Global warming is natural, Enjoy it''.

Ritesh Arya [Arya Drillers, 405, GH7A, Sector 20, Panchkula, Haryana (India)

2008-09-30

54

Global Warming: Early Warning Signs  

Science.gov (United States)

Created by a host of organizations (Environmental Defense Fund, Natural Resources Defense Council, Sierra Club, Union of Concerned Scientists, US Public Interest Research Group, World Resources Institute, and World Wildlife Fund), this site seeks to provide evidence of the "fingerprints" and "harbingers" of global warming. A clickable map of the world enables users to take a closer look at geographic regions, at specific examples of "fingerprints" (e.g., heat waves, sea level rise, melting glaciers, and Arctic and Antarctic warming) and "harbingers" (spreading disease, earlier arrival of spring, range shifts and population declines in plants and animals, bleaching of coral reefs, extreme weather events, and fires). While it is unclear that any specific event may be explained by global warming, the combination of events highlighted at this page provides powerful fodder for further thought.

1999-01-01

55

Global warming and climate change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A panel discussion was held to discuss climate change. Six panelists made presentations that summarized ozone depletion and climate change, discussed global responses, argued against the conventional scientific and policy dogmas concerning climate change, examined the effects of ultraviolet radiation on phytoplankton, examined the effects of carbon taxes on Canadian industry and its emissions, and examined the political and strategic aspects of global warming. A question session followed the presentations. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the six presentations

56

Global warming on Capitol Hill  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article reports on hearings in both congressional houses on ozone depletion and global warming. Topics covered include the drought in California, effect on electric rates, administration policy relating to international efforts to cut greenhouse gas, freons phaseout, methane emission phaseout, and energy efficiency provisions for buildings and vehicles

57

World View of Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

This page contains information and photographs related to climate change and its impact. The World View of Global Warming project is documenting this change through science photography from the Arctic to Antarctica, from glaciers to the oceans, across all climate zones.

58

Sustainability Management Based Approach to Global Warming:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The global warming is a kind of sustainability risk. For this reason, Global Warming should be considering in Sustainability Management concept. The global warming risk must be managed effectively since its consequences threats for sustainability of our world. While this is understandable by all of us, a broader view is necessary to manage this risk in both the short and long-term. Risk management mentality is useful to the best managing of global risks. In this study, the global warming is ...

AYSE KUCUK YILMAZ; Karakoc, Hikmet

2008-01-01

59

Greenhouse gases and global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From previous articles we have learned about the complexities of our environment, its atmosphere and its climate system. we have also learned that climate change and, therefore global warm and cool periods are naturally occurring phenomena. Moreover, all scientific evidence suggests that global warming, are likely to occur again naturally in the future. However, we have not yet considered the role of the rates of climate change in affecting the biosphere. It appears that how quickly the climate changes may be more important than the change itself. In light of this concern, let us now consider the possibility that, is due to human activity. We may over the next century experience global warming at rates and magnitudes unparalleled in recent geologic history. The following questions are answered; What can we learn from past climates? What do we know about global climates over the past 100 years? What causes temperature change? What are the greenhouse gases? How much have concentration of greenhouse gases increased in recent years? Why are increases in concentrations of greenhouse of concern? What is the enhanced greenhouse effect? How can human activity impact the global climate? What are some reasons for increased concentrations of greenhouse gases? What are fossil fuel and how do they transform into greenhouse gases? Who are the biggest emitters of greenhouse gases? Why are canada per capita emissions of greenhouse gases relatively high? (Author)greenhouse gases relatively high? (Author)

60

Impact and prevention on global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book deals with impact and prevention on global warming with eight chapters, which introduce the change after the earth was born and natural environment, how is global atmospheric environment under the control of radiant energy? What does global warming look with the earth history like? What's the status of global warming so far? How does climate change happen? What is the impact by global warming and climate change and for preservation of global environment of 21 century with consumption of energy, measure and prospect on global warming. It has reference, index and three appendixes.

 
 
 
 
61

Power engineering and global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Problem of power industry development in the Russian Federation in connection with global warming is considered. Warming effect on spheres of both power generation and energy consumption in separate regions is discussed. It is shown that all power generating plants are sensitive to change climate factors. This fact showed be taken into account when evaluating prospects of power industry development. Regions with low demand for electric power and heat can widely use minor and industrial power generation and thus decrease by 25-40% the load on power grid of the Russian Federation

62

Cosmic Rays and Global Warming  

CERN Document Server

It has been claimed by others that observed temporal correlations of terrestrial cloud cover with `the cosmic ray intensity' are causal. The possibility arises, therefore, of a connection between cosmic rays and Global Warming. If true, the implications would be very great. We have examined this claim to look for evidence to corroborate it. So far we have not found any and so our tentative conclusions are to doubt it. Such correlations as appear are more likely to be due to the small variations in solar irradiance, which, of course, correlate with cosmic rays. We estimate that less than 15% of the 11-year cycle warming variations are due to cosmic rays and less than 2% of the warming over the last 35 years is due to this cause.

Sloan, T

2007-01-01

63

Global warming-setting the stages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most of us have heard or read about global warming. However, the messages we receive are often in conflict, raising more questions than answer. Is global warming a good or a bad thing? has it already started or is it part of our future? Are we, or are we not doing anything about it? Should we be concerned? This primer on Global Warming is designed to clear up some of this confusion by providing basic scientific information on global warming issue. It is clear that there is still much to learn about global warming. However, it is also clear that there is a lot that we already know - and that dose provide cause for concern. We must understand the global warming issue if we are to make wise decisions and take responsible actions in response to the challenges and opportunities posed by global warming. Chapter 1 of 'the primer on global Warming' set the stage with a brief overview of science of global warming within the context of climate change. In addition, it introduces the specific issues that surround the global warming problem. As far as the science of global warming is concerned the following questions are discussed. What is global climate? Is climate change natural? What causes climate to vary on a global scale? How does the composition of the atmosphere relate to climate change. but there are also certain issues discussed here which surround the global warming such as: If climate varies naturally, why is there a concern about 'global warming'? What are the potentiout 'global warming'? What are the potential consequences of 'global warning'. What human activities contribute to 'global warming'. (Author)

64

Cosmic rays and global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The possible effects of cosmic rays on clouds could contribute to global warming. The argument is that the observed increased solar activity during the last century caused a decrease in the ionization due to cosmic rays since the lower energy cosmic particles are deflected by the magnetic field created by the increasing solar wind. This would lead to a decrease in cloud cover allowing more heating of the earth by the sun. Meteorological data combined to solar activity observations and simulations show that any effect of solar activity on clouds and the climate is likely to be through irradiance rather than cosmic rays. Since solar irradiance transfers 8 orders of magnitude more energy to the atmosphere than cosmic rays it is more plausible that this can produce a real effect. The total contribution of variable solar activity to global warming is shown to be less than 14% of the total temperature rise. (A.C.)

Erlykin, A.D. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sloan, T. [Lancaster University (United Kingdom); Wolfendale, A.W. [Durham University (United Kingdom)

2010-07-01

65

Cosmic rays and global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possible effects of cosmic rays on clouds could contribute to global warming. The argument is that the observed increased solar activity during the last century caused a decrease in the ionization due to cosmic rays since the lower energy cosmic particles are deflected by the magnetic field created by the increasing solar wind. This would lead to a decrease in cloud cover allowing more heating of the earth by the sun. Meteorological data combined to solar activity observations and simulations show that any effect of solar activity on clouds and the climate is likely to be through irradiance rather than cosmic rays. Since solar irradiance transfers 8 orders of magnitude more energy to the atmosphere than cosmic rays it is more plausible that this can produce a real effect. The total contribution of variable solar activity to global warming is shown to be less than 14% of the total temperature rise. (A.C.)

66

Media Construction of Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Includes 383-page kit (may be downloaded as a pdf or ordered as a hard copy) with teacher guides for all eight units, including all activities, readings, slide shows, film clips, journal articles, advertisements, and more. Lessons teach core knowledge about the science of climate change, explore conflicting views, and integrate critical thinking skills. Students will apply knowledge of climate change to a rigorous analysis of media messages through asking and answering questions about accuracy, currency, credibility, sourcing, and bias. Lessons address basic climate science, the causes of climate change, scientific debate and disinformation, the consequences of global warming, the precautionary principle, carbon footprints, moral choices, and the history of global warming in media, science, and politics.

Sperry, Chris; Flerlage, Dan; Papouchis, Alexander

67

Global Warming and Financial Umbrellas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new instrument for hedging weather risks has made its appearance in the financial arena. Trade in 'weather derivatives' has taken off in the US, and interest is growing elsewhere. Whilst such contracts may be simply interpreted as a new tool for solving a historical problem, the question addressed in this paper is if, besides other factors, the appearance of weather derivatives is somehow related to anthropogenic climate change. Our tentative answer is positive. Since 'global warming' does not simply mean an increase in averaged temperatures, but increased climate variability, and increased frequency and magnitude of weather extremes, derivative contracts may potentially become a useful tool for hedging some weather risks, insofar as they may provide coverage at a lower cost than standard insurance schemes. Keywords: Global warming, climate variability, insurance coverage, weather derivatives

68

Global warming and greenhouse gases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Global warming or Climate change refers to long-term fluctuations in temperature, precipitation, wind, and other elements of the Earth's climate system. Natural processes such as solar-irradiance variations, variations in the Earth's orbital parameters, and volcanic activity can produce variations in climate. The climate system can also be influenced by changes in the concentration of various gases in the atmosphere, which affect the Earth's absorption of radiation.

Beli? Dragoljub S.

2006-01-01

69

Cosmic rays and global warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It has been claimed by others that observed temporal correlations of terrestrial cloud cover with `the cosmic ray intensity' are causal. The possibility arises, therefore, of a connection between cosmic rays and Global Warming. If true, the implications would be very great. We have examined this claim to look for evidence to corroborate it. So far we have not found any and so our tentative conclusions are to doubt it. Such correlations as appear are more likely to be due to ...

Sloan T.; Erlykin A.D.; Wolfendale A.W.

2010-01-01

70

Automobility: Global Warming as Symptomatology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The argument of this paper is that sustainability requires a new worldview-paradigm. It critically evaluates Gore’s liberal-based environmentalism in order to show how “shallow ecologies” are called into question by deeper ecologies. This analysis leads to the notion that global warming is better understood as a symptom indicative of the worldview that is the source for environmental crises. Heidegger’s ontological hermeneutics and its critique of modern technology show that the moder...

Gary Backhaus

2009-01-01

71

Global Warming and Economic Externalities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite worldwide policy efforts such as the Kyoto Protocol, the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) remains a negative externality. Economic equilibrium paths in the presence of such an uncorrected externality are inefficient; as a consequence there is no real economic opportunity cost to correcting this externality by mitigating global warming. Mitigation investment using resources diverted from conventional investments can raise the economic well-being of both current and future generati...

Rezai, Armon; Foley, Duncan K.; Taylor, Lance

2012-01-01

72

Global warming and greenhouse gases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Global warming or Climate change refers to long-term fluctuations in temperature, precipitation, wind, and other elements of the Earth's climate system. Natural processes such as solar-irradiance variations, variations in the Earth's orbital parameters, and volcanic activity can produce variations in climate. The climate system can also be influenced by changes in the concentration of various gases in the atmosphere, which affect the Earth's absorption of radiation.

Beli? Dragoljub S.

2006-01-01

73

Global Warming: the Sacrificial Temptation  

CERN Document Server

The claimed unanimity of the scientific community about the human culpability for global warming is questioned. Up today there exists no scientific proof of human culpability. It is not the number of authors of a paper, which validates its scientific content. The use of probability to assert the degree of certainty with respect the global warming problem is shown to be misleading. The debate about global warming has taken on emotional tones driven by passion and irrationality while it should be a scientific debate. The degree of hostility used to mull any dissonance voice demonstrates that the current debate has acquired a quasi-religious nature. Scientists are behaving as priests in their will "to save the planet". We are facing a dangerous social phenomenon, which must be addressed from the social point of view. The current unanimity of citizens, scientists, journalists, intellectuals and politicians is intrinsically worrying. The calls to sacrifice our way of life to calm down the upset nature is an emotio...

Galam, Serge

2008-01-01

74

Local warming: daily temperature change influences belief in global warming.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although people are quite aware of global warming, their beliefs about it may be malleable; specifically, their beliefs may be constructed in response to questions about global warming. Beliefs may reflect irrelevant but salient information, such as the current day's temperature. This replacement of a more complex, less easily accessed judgment with a simple, more accessible one is known as attribute substitution. In three studies, we asked residents of the United States and Australia to report their opinions about global warming and whether the temperature on the day of the study was warmer or cooler than usual. Respondents who thought that day was warmer than usual believed more in and had greater concern about global warming than did respondents who thought that day was colder than usual. They also donated more money to a global-warming charity if they thought that day seemed warmer than usual. We used instrumental variable regression to rule out some alternative explanations. PMID:21372325

Li, Ye; Johnson, Eric J; Zaval, Lisa

2011-04-01

75

Global Warming Blame the Sun  

CERN Document Server

Concern about climate change reaches a political peak at a UN conference in Kyoto, 1-10 December, but behind the scenes the science is in turmoil. A challenge to the hypothesis that greenhouse gases are responsible for global warming comes from the discovery that cosmic rays from the Galaxy are involved in making clouds (Svensmark and Friis-Christensen, 1997). During the 20th Century the wind from the Sun has grown stronger and the count of cosmic rays has diminished. With fewer clouds, the EarthÕs surface has warmed up. This surprising mechanism explains the link between the Sun and climate change that astronomers and geophysicists have suspected for 200 years.

Calder, N

1997-01-01

76

Galápagos coral reef persistence after ENSO warming across an acidification gradient  

Science.gov (United States)

CO2 is causing warming and ocean acidification. Coral reefs are being severely impacted, yet confusion lingers regarding how reefs will respond to these stressors over this century. Since the 1982-1983 El Niño-Southern Oscillation warming event, the persistence of reefs around the Galápagos Islands has differed across an acidification gradient. Reefs disappeared where pH pH > 8.0 and ?arag > 3. Where upwelling is greatest, calcification by massive Porites is higher than predicted by a published relationship with temperature despite high CO2, possibly due to elevated nutrients. However, skeletal P/Ca, a proxy for phosphate exposure, negatively correlates with density (R = -0.822, p increasing bioerosion already accelerated by low pH.

Manzello, Derek P.; Enochs, Ian C.; Bruckner, Andrew; Renaud, Philip G.; Kolodziej, Graham; Budd, David A.; Carlton, Renée.; Glynn, Peter W.

2014-12-01

77

Global Warming Control to Mitigate Climate Change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Paper describes a proposed development of empirical model of global warming fit on the collective determinants in all countries. Aim is to enable establishment and comparison of the collective effects of global determinants on global warming in the prescription of the regulations most fit for the collective deployment in each of the determinant countries to enable mitigation of the greenhouse gases build-up caused global warming.

Antipas T. S. Massawe

2012-05-01

78

Global Warming Control to Mitigate Climate Change  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Paper describes a proposed development of empirical model of global warming fit on the collective determinants in all countries. Aim is to enable establishment and comparison of the collective effects of global determinants on global warming in the prescription of the regulations most fit for the collective deployment in each of the determinant countries to enable mitigation of the greenhouse gases build-up caused global warming.

Massawe, Antipas T. S.

2012-01-01

79

Global warming and fluvial geomorphology  

Science.gov (United States)

Future global warming has a number of implications for fluvial geomorphology because of changes in such phenomena as rates of evapotranspiration, precipitation characteristics, plant distributions, plant stomatal closure, sea levels, glacier and permafrost melting, and human responses. Potential changes in rivers are outlined in this review in the context of changes in the intensity of rainfall, the activity of tropical cyclones, runoff response (including that of Europe, dry lands and high latitude environments), and geomorphological reactions, including rates of soil erosion. In general, however, much work remains to be done to establish the full range of geomorphological responses that may take place in fluvial systems.

Goudie, Andrew S.

2006-09-01

80

Nuclear efficiency against global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nuclear power is capable of contributing in important proportions for the fight against the global warming. With regard to fossil fuels power plants, nuclear power pants allow to avoid every year the release of 2 milliards tons of carbon dioxide that is about 10 % of the world emissions. Energy savings and development of the renewable energies are only a part of the solution, their contribution will be precious but insufficient. It is the nuclear addition with renewable energies that appears as the key solution to slow down the escalation of the greenhouse effect. (N.C.)

 
 
 
 
81

Public perceptions of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examines the way public opinion responds to the prospect of global warming. In particular, it focuses on the public's 'willingness to pay' in order to prevent various hypothetical climate scenarios from transpiring. To this end, fractional factorial survey methods are employed with a sample of over 600 residents of Southern California. By and large, the public is able to understand and evaluate rather complicated hypothetical climate scenarios, but the public appreciates some features of climate far better than others. In this context, the contingent valuation estimates provided, while promising, are clearly not ready of consideration by policy makers. 36 refs., 17 figs

82

The Discovery of Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

This web site provides an overview of the history of scientific research and public policy on climate change, from the nineteenth century to the present. The site is an expanded version of the book "The Discovery of Global Warming" by Spencer Weart, and is presented as a series of essays with hyperlinks connecting related topics from page to page. Topics include climate data, influences on climate, models of climate change, and societal impacts. The essays are searchable by keyword, and the entire site can be downloaded as a zipped file or a series of printable files (PDFs).

Weart, Spencer R.

83

Global Warming and Energy Transition: A Public Policy Imperative  

Science.gov (United States)

The historic transition from fossil fuels to alternative energy resources has begun. This development is commonly attributed to increasing energy costs and the need for energy security. Looming ever larger, however, is the issue that will soon drive the third energy revolution: global warming. A preponderance of evidence documents accelerating warming, enlarging impacts, and human causes -- principally combustion of fossil fuels. The carbon dioxide (C02) content of Earth's atmosphere has increased more than 35 percent since the beginning of the industrial revolution and is the highest in 650,000 years. This dramatic rise of C02 and attendant positive feedbacks are already forcing significant impacts worldwide. These include atmospheric warming with shifting climatic and habitat zones, spreading tropical disease, and more extreme weather events; rapid ice loss at high latitude and high altitude; ocean warming and acidification with coral reef bleaching and intensifying tropical storms; rising sea level; and accelerating extinction rates. The 2007 draft report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts greater warming than in previous models. A tipping point to abrupt climate change may be imminent. It is incumbent upon geoscientists and geoscience educators to assume leadership in addressing this challenge through public outreach and general education. The following topics should be integrated into all appropriate courses: the evidence of global warming and its causes; observed present and predicted future impacts of global warming; mitigation and adaptation strategies; and implications for energy policies and economic opportunities. New entry-level science and general education courses -- such as Climate Change Fundamentals and Energy in Nature, Technology, and Society -- are proving to be effective should be widely developed In addition, by workshops and presentations to civic and business organizations and by demonstrated examples of institutional commitment to energy conservation, energy efficiency, and renewable energy resources, colleges and universities must focus public and professional attention on the imperative for action and the means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and countering global warming.

Stone, G. T.

2006-12-01

84

Population growth and global warming.  

Science.gov (United States)

When I was born in 1930, the human population of the world was a mere 2 billion. Today, it has already reached 6.8?billion, and is projected to reach 9.1 billion by 2050. That is unsustainable. It is slowly beginning to dawn on us that Global Warming is the result of increasing human CO2 emissions, and the more people there are in the world, the worse it will become. Ultimately, it is the sky that will prove to be the limit to our numbers. The developed countries of the world are the most affluent, and also the most effluent, so we must lead by example and contain our own population growth and per capita emissions. We also have a big debt to repay to former colonial territories in Africa, Asia and South America, who desperately need our help to contain their excessive rates of population growth. Belgian and Dutch obstetricians and gynaecologists can play a critical role in this endeavour. After all, we already have a pill that will stop global warming - the oral contraceptive pill. PMID:25478068

Short, R V

2009-01-01

85

Population growth and global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

When I was born in 1930, the human population of the world was a mere 2 billion. Today, it has already reached 6.8?billion, and is projected to reach 9.1 billion by 2050. That is unsustainable. It is slowly beginning to dawn on us that Global Warming is the result of increasing human CO2 emissions, and the more people there are in the world, the worse it will become. Ultimately, it is the sky that will prove to be the limit to our numbers. The developed countries of the world are the most affluent, and also the most effluent, so we must lead by example and contain our own population growth and per capita emissions. We also have a big debt to repay to former colonial territories in Africa, Asia and South America, who desperately need our help to contain their excessive rates of population growth. Belgian and Dutch obstetricians and gynaecologists can play a critical role in this endeavour. After all, we already have a pill that will stop global warming – the oral contraceptive pill. PMID:25478068

Short, R. V.

2009-01-01

86

Global warming potential of pavements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pavements comprise an essential and vast infrastructure system supporting our transportation network, yet their impact on the environment is largely unquantified. Previous life-cycle assessments have only included a limited number of the applicable life-cycle components in their analysis. This research expands the current view to include eight different components: materials extraction and production, transportation, onsite equipment, traffic delay, carbonation, lighting, albedo, and rolling resistance. Using global warming potential as the environmental indicator, ranges of potential impact for each component are calculated and compared based on the information uncovered in the existing research. The relative impacts between components are found to be orders of magnitude different in some cases. Context-related factors, such as traffic level and location, are also important elements affecting the impacts of a given component. A strategic method for lowering the global warming potential of a pavement is developed based on the concept that environmental performance is improved most effectively by focusing on components with high impact potentials. This system takes advantage of the fact that small changes in high-impact components will have more effect than large changes in low-impact components.

Santero, Nicholas J [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 407 McLaughlin Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1712 (United States); Horvath, Arpad, E-mail: njsantero@cal.berkeley.ed, E-mail: horvath@ce.berkeley.ed [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 215B McLaughlin Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1712 (United States)

2009-09-15

87

Global warming potential of pavements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pavements comprise an essential and vast infrastructure system supporting our transportation network, yet their impact on the environment is largely unquantified. Previous life-cycle assessments have only included a limited number of the applicable life-cycle components in their analysis. This research expands the current view to include eight different components: materials extraction and production, transportation, onsite equipment, traffic delay, carbonation, lighting, albedo, and rolling resistance. Using global warming potential as the environmental indicator, ranges of potential impact for each component are calculated and compared based on the information uncovered in the existing research. The relative impacts between components are found to be orders of magnitude different in some cases. Context-related factors, such as traffic level and location, are also important elements affecting the impacts of a given component. A strategic method for lowering the global warming potential of a pavement is developed based on the concept that environmental performance is improved most effectively by focusing on components with high impact potentials. This system takes advantage of the fact that small changes in high-impact components will have more effect than large changes in low-impact components.

88

Global Warming in 5 Steps  

Science.gov (United States)

Scientists say the planet is warming because of human activities, namely the greenhouse effect from carbon dioxide released to the atmosphere when burning fossil fuels. But, how do we know? How do scientists know? Students are presented with the following questions: 1) What makes a greenhouse gas a greenhouse gas? 2) Is carbon dioxide a greenhouse gas? [Instructor: How do we know?] 3) Is the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increasing? How do we know? 4) Is carbon dioxide [in the atmosphere] increasing because of human activities? [Instructor: How do we know?] ---- Discussion of results and prediction of what students expect will happen to global average temperature... 5) Is global average temperature increasing? How do we know? Separate groups of students research just one question each on the internet and submit a brief summary to the instructor. The instructor and class go over results for just the first four questions. The instructor addresses "How do we know" for questions 2 and 4. Then, students are asked what they think will happen to global average temperature based on results of the first four questions (i.e. make an hypothesis). Finally, the results from the last group are presented and students are asked to discuss how observed global temperature changes compare with their hypothesis.

Taylor, Stephen

89

Keeping cool on global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A number of scientific groups have concluded that the greenhouse effect caused by the man-made emissions of carbon dioxide and other bases has produced much or all of the rise in global temperatures. They predict that there will be an increase in greenhouse gases equivalent to a doubling of carbon dioxide by the middle of the 21st century, and that this will cause the temperature of the earth to rise by as much as 5C. According to these scientists, a temperature rise of this magnitude would cause major disruptions in the earth's ecosystem, including severe summer drought in the midwestern US and other agricultural regions. The worst-case scenarios predict a major rise in sea level as a result of the greenhouse warming, inundating areas of New York, Miami and other coastal cities as well as low-lying river deltas and islands. The lives of hundreds of millions of people would be disrupted. The available data on climate change, however, do not support these predictions, nor do they support the idea that human activity has caused, or will cause, a dangerous increase in global temperatures. As the authors make this statement, they are aware that it contradicts widespread popular opinion, as well as the technical judgments of some of their colleagues. But it would be imprudent to ignore the facts on global warming that have accumulated over the last two years. These facts indicate that theoretical estimates of the greenhouse problem have greatly exaggerated its seriousness. have greatly exaggerated its seriousness. Enormous economic stakes ride on forthcoming government decisions regarding carbon taxes and other restrictions on CO2 emissions. Due attention must therefore be given to the scientific evidence, no matter how contrary to popular opinion its implications appear to be. This article discusses the scientific evidence

90

The physics and history of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Global warming is not only a hot research area in atmospheric sciences and even all Earth sciences but is also a controversial topic in the international community. The purpose of this paper is not to clarify these controversies, but instead, to address the physical basis on which our understanding of global warming is founded, and to briefly review the nearly 200-year history of global warming sciences. We hope the paper will help readers, who have no background in the atmospheric and climate sciences, understand scientific issues of global warming. (author)

91

Environmental Protection Agency's Global Warming Web Site  

Science.gov (United States)

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Home Page on Global Warming is served by the Waste Policy Institute for the EPA Office of Economy and Environment. This well organized site contains a great deal of information on global warming, climate change, and the greenhouse effect. It contains reports, slide presentations, and a glossary of terms, among other features. It also contains predictions on the impacts of global warming and discusses governmental policies and actions. If you would like to make a difference in the study of global warming, this site can also give you the information you need to get involved.

1997-01-01

92

Forecasting phenology under global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

As a consequence of warming temperatures around the world, spring and autumn phenologies have been shifting, with corresponding changes in the length of the growing season. Our understanding of the spatial and interspecific variation of these changes, however, is limited. Not all species are responding similarly, and there is significant spatial variation in responses even within species. This spatial and interspecific variation complicates efforts to predict phenological responses to ongoing climate change, but must be incorporated in order to build reliable forecasts. Here, we use a long-term dataset (1953–2005) of plant phenological events in spring (flowering and leaf out) and autumn (leaf colouring and leaf fall) throughout Japan and South Korea to build forecasts that account for these sources of variability. Specifically, we used hierarchical models to incorporate the spatial variability in phenological responses to temperature to then forecast species' overall and site-specific responses to global warming. We found that for most species, spring phenology is advancing and autumn phenology is getting later, with the timing of events changing more quickly in autumn compared with the spring. Temporal trends and phenological responses to temperature in East Asia contrasted with results from comparable studies in Europe, where spring events are changing more rapidly than are autumn events. Our results emphasize the need to study multiple species at many sites to understand and forecast regional changes in phenology. PMID:20819816

Ibáñez, Inés; Primack, Richard B.; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.; Ellwood, Elizabeth; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi; Lee, Sang Don; Kobori, Hiromi; Silander, John A.

2010-01-01

93

The effect of the global warming on marine ecosystems in the Arctic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article discusses various results from studies of development in the ecosystems in the Arctic region and the effect the global warming may have. The warming in these areas is larger than in the central Europe and influence the economic and social development of the region. The focus is on the fisheries, exploitation of oil and gas, transport, diversity in species, acidification of the oceans, meteorological phenomena etc.. Some environmental and energy related aspects are mentioned. (tk)

94

How to stop global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on how to stop global warming. At the Toronto Conference on Climate Change in 1988, the world's industrialized nations agreed on a goal of cutting greenhouse gas emissions 20 percent by the year 2005. This would not stabilize atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases but would at least slow their accumulation. Although difficult to achieve, the Toronto goal is certainly reachable. Newer, more efficient technologies can lower energy consumption without effecting economic output. CFC- substitutes can provide refrigeration. In fact, an international carbon tax of just $1 per barrel of oil, or $6 per ton of coal, would generate more than enough revenue to pay for the necessary fuel-saving measures. This tax could result from an international agreement similar to the 1987 Montreal Protocol, which obliges its signatories to cut down on production of CFCs

95

The tragedy of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author first evokes the consequences of global warming: ocean acidity, ice melt, sea level rise, repeated and always more intense extreme climatic events (a list of the main meteorological and climatic events which occurred in 2013 is given). He outlines that these phenomena happen more quickly than foreseen. He notices that these facts confirm the content of the different IPCC reports. The author outlines the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. He discusses the evolutions of these emissions between 1970 and 2010 in the different countries with respect to their level of economic development. It clearly appears that developed countries produce more emissions, and have only stabilized their emission level whereas emerging countries have notably increased their emissions. Developed and emerging countries should therefore act as quickly as possible

96

Sustainability Management Based Approach to Global Warming:  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The global warming is a kind of sustainability risk. For this reason, Global Warming should be considering in Sustainability Management concept. The global warming risk must be managed effectively since its consequences threats for sustainability of our world. While this is understandable by all of us, a broader view is necessary to manage this risk in both the short and long-term. Risk management mentality is useful to the best managing of global risks. In this study, the global warming is discussed within risk and sustainability concept. The risk management-based model and risk score formula has been developed to global warming. The model and formula are based on Enterprise Risk Model to Corporate Sustainability and Enterprise Risk Score Formula, 2008. This model is called as Cgw (Sustainability Risk Management Model to Global Warming, introduced as a useable way for a systematic and effective managerial approach of the global warming issue. Risk score formula has been developed for prioritization of identified global warming risks. Prioritization is useful to allocation of limited sources to managing top risks. Every risk has two dimensions as threat and opportunity in the holistic risk management concept that it is considered in the developing process of Cgw model.

AYSE KUCUK YILMAZ

2008-12-01

97

Atmospheric hypotheses' of Earth's global warming  

CERN Document Server

Two hypotheses are presented, outlining a new cause for global warming. We propose that the crucial factor in global warming is the amount and position of water vapour through the atmosphere. The purpose of this report is to open the debate and to encourage discussion among scientists.

Shaidurov, V

2005-01-01

98

Using isotopes for global warming observation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper, based on a literature review, discusses the main aspects of using isotopic techniques to obtain information about global warming. The rapid increase concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in the atmosphere will result in global warming by the greenhouse effect, and the isotopic techniques constitute an efficient tool to explain this complex environmental phenomenon. (author)

99

Turkish Students' Ideas about Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

A questionnaire was used to explore the prevalence of ideas about global warming in Year 10 (age 15-16 years) school students in Turkey. The frequencies of individual scientific ideas and misconceptions about the causes, consequences and "cures" of global warming were identified. In addition, several general findings emerged from this study.…

Kilinc, Ahmet; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

2008-01-01

100

Exploring the Sociopolitical Dimensions of Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors present an activity to help high school students conceptualize the sociopolitical complexity of global warming through an exploration of varied perspectives on the issue. They argue that socioscientific issues such as global warming present important contexts for learning science and that the social and political dimensions of these…

Sadler, Troy D.; Klosterman, Michelle L.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Global Warming: How Much and Why?  

Science.gov (United States)

Summarizes the history of the study of global warming and includes a discussion of the role of gases, like carbon dioxide, methane, and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC). Discusses modern research on the global warming, including computer modelling and the super-greenhouse effect. (YP)

Lanouette, William

1990-01-01

102

Global Warming: Lessons from Ozone Depletion  

Science.gov (United States)

My teaching and textbook have always covered many physics-related social issues, including stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. The ozone saga is an inspiring good-news story that's instructive for solving the similar but bigger problem of global warming. Thus, as soon as students in my physics literacy course at the University of…

Hobson, Art

2010-01-01

103

Is global warming already changing ocean productivity?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Global warming is predicted to alter the ocean's biological productivity. But how will we recognise the impacts of climate change on ocean productivity? The most comprehensive information available on the global distribution of ocean productivity comes from satellite ocean colour data. Now that over ten years of SeaWiFS data have accumulated, can we begin to detect and attribute global warming trends in productivity? Here we compare recent trends in SeaWiFS data to longer-term records...

Henson, S. A.; Sarmiento, J. L.; Dunne, J. P.; Bopp, L.; Lima, I.; Doney, S. C.; John, J.; Beaulieu, C.

2009-01-01

104

Global warming and nuclear power  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is steadily increasing and it is widely believed that this will lead to global warming that will have serious consequences for life on earth. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has estimated that the temperature of the earth will increase by between 1 and 3.5 degrees in the next century. This will melt some of the Antarctic ice cap, raise the sea level and flood many low-lying countries, and also produce unpredictable changes in the earth's climate. The possible ways of reducing carbon dioxide emission are discussed. It is essential to reduce the burning of fossil fuels, but then how are we to obtain the energy we need? We can try to reduce energy use, but we will still need to generate large amounts energy. Some possible ways of doing this are by using wind and solar generators, by hydroelectric and tidal plants, and also by nuclear power. These possibilities will be critically examined. (author)

Hodgson, P.E. [Nuclear and Particle Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Oxford Univ., Oxford (United Kingdom)

1999-09-01

105

Global Warming and the Iraq War - Climate &  

...Global Warming and the Iraq War - Climate & Capitalism Climate & Capitalism An ecosocialist journal Home About Ecosocialist Notebook Book Reviews ...MRzine Economist’s Travelogue You are here: Home / 2008 / March / 19 / Global Warming and the Iraq War Posted on March 19, 2008 Global Warming and the ... Iraq War In 2006. the US spent more on the war in Iraq than the whole world spent on investment in renewable energy.... On the fifth anniversary of the Iraq war, an advance edition of a new report from Oil Change International, entitled A ...

106

Are philosophers responsible for global warming?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Global warming has come about as a result of rapid population increase plus our whole modern way of life, all made possible by modern science. In order to tackle global warming successfully, we need a new kind of inquiry that gives intellectual priority to tackling problems of living over problems of knowledge. If we had had this new kind of inquiry fifty years ago, we might have begun to do something about global warming long ago, in the early 1960s, when Keeling first discovered that carbon...

Maxwell, N.

2008-01-01

107

Is global warming already changing ocean productivity?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Global warming is predicted to alter the ocean's biological productivity. But how will we recognise the impacts of climate change on ocean productivity? The most comprehensive information available on the global distribution of ocean productivity comes from satellite ocean colour data. Now that over ten years of SeaWiFS data have accumulated, can we begin to detect and attribute global warming trends in productivity? Here we compare recent trends in SeaWiFS data to longer-term records from three biogeochemical models (GFDL, IPSL and NCAR. We find that detection of real trends in the satellite data is confounded by the relatively short time series and large interannual and decadal variability in productivity. Thus, recent observed changes in chlorophyll, primary production and the size of the oligotrophic gyres cannot be unequivocally attributed to the impact of global warming. Instead, our analyses suggest that a time series of ~40 yr length is needed to distinguish a global warming trend from natural variability. Analysis of modelled chlorophyll and primary production from 2001–2100 suggests that, on average, the global warming trend will not be unambiguously separable from decadal variability until ~2055. Because the magnitude of natural variability in chlorophyll and primary production is larger than, or similar to, the global warming trend, a consistent, decades-long data record must be established if the impact of climate change on ocean productivity is to be definitively detected.

S. A. Henson

2009-11-01

108

Earth’s Albedo and Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

In this interactive activity adapted from NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey, learn about Earth's albedo (the ratio of reflected vs. incident solar radiation), how pollution alters albedo, and how ice-albedo feedback may accelerate global warming.

2008-01-17

109

A Scientific Look at Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Scientists like we should ask ``Where's the Beef?'' when a global warming discussion comes up. Current issues like melting glaciers, rising sea levels, disappearing polar bears and increasing tornado activity (among many) are put to the WTB test.

Glanz, Peter

2007-10-01

110

Global warming and north-south solidarity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The discussion on climate change is based on 'contradictory certainties'. All sides claim to have found the truth. Much has been written and said about the connection between global warming, biodiversity and over population. The impoverished countries of the South se the insatiable intentions of the North as the major threat to the environment; and global warming as an excuse for stopping the economic development of the south

111

Can Global Warming be Stopped?  

Science.gov (United States)

Earlier this year, the CO2 levels exceeded the 400 ppm level and there is no sign that the 1-2 ppm annual increase is going to slow down. Concerns regarding the danger of global warming have been reported in numerous occasions for more than a generation, ever since CO2 levels reached the 350 ppm range in the mid 1980's. Nevertheless, all efforts to slow down the increase have showed little if any effect. Mobile sources, including surface and marine transportation and aviation, consist of 20% of the global CO2 emission. The only realistic way to reduce the mobile sources' CO2 signature is by improved fuel efficiency. However, any progress in this direction is more than compensated by continuous increased demand. Stationary sources, mostly electric power generation, are responsible for the bulk of the global CO2 emission. The measurements have shown, that the effect of an increase in renewable sources, like solar wind and geothermal, combined with conversion from coal to natural gas where possible, conservation and efficiency improvement, did not compensate the increased demand mostly in developing countries. Increased usage of nuclear energy can provide some relief in carbon emission but has the potential of even greater environmental hazard. A major decrease in carbon emission can be obtained by either significant reduction in the cost of non-carbon based energy sources or by of carbon sequestration. The most economical way to make a significant decrease in carbon emission is to apply carbon sequestration technology at large point sources that use coal. Worldwide there are about 10,000 major sources that burn >7 billion metric tons of coal which generate the equivalent of 30 trillion kwh. There is a limited experience in CO2 sequestration of such huge quantities of CO2, however, it is estimated that the cost would be US$ 0.01-0.1 per kwh. The cost of eliminating this quantity can be estimated at an average of 1.5 trillion dollars annually. The major emitters, US, China and India are expected pay the bulk of it. While the larger nations spend this kind of money on defense, it is highly unlikely that they will do so for an environmental cause. Controlling the rest of CO2 emissions such as agricultural waste and medium to small sources is either much more expensive or even technologically impossible. The discussion so far did not include other green house gases (GHG) such as methane, ozone, nitrous oxide and hydro-chloro-fluoro-carbons that are much more difficult to control. In conclusion, it will take trillions of US dollars to significantly decrease GHG emissions and the effect will only be seen tens of years in the future. It is more reasonable to invest a fraction of these resources in preparation for the inevitable effects of the forthcoming climate change. Investments in coastal line protection, better flood control in low elevation water basins and in water desalination in arid areas may are some of the actions that may give a much better return.

Luria, M.

2013-12-01

112

GLOBAL WARMING AND PATTERN OF MAIN ECONOMY IN SUNDARBAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, the phrase “global warming” refers tothe change in the Earth's global average surfacetemperature. Measurements show a global temperatureincrease of 1.4 °F (0.78 °C between the years 1900 and2005. Global warming is closely associated with a broadspectrum of other climate changes, such as increases inthe frequency of intense rainfall, decreases in snow coverand sea ice, more frequent and intense heat waves, risingsea levels, and widespread ocean acidification. TheIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC hasproduced several reports where the economics literatureon climate change is assessed. In 1995, the IPCCproduced its second set of assessment reports on climatechange. Working Group III of the IPCC produced a reporton the "Economic and Social Dimensions of ClimateChange." In the later third and fourth IPCC assessments,published in 2001 and 2007 respectively, the assessmentof the economics literature is divided across two reportsproduced by IPCC Working Groups II and III. In 2011IPCC Working Group III published a Special Report onRenewable Energy Sources and Climate Change.

Biplab Das

2013-02-01

113

GLOBAL WARMING: IMPLICATIONS AND ANTICIPATORY ADAPTIVE MEASURES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our earth is warming up. There is no denying to this fact that the gradual heating up of our globe has a tremendous effect on the climate. It in turn has affected the biotic factors that make up our biosphere, eventually directing the course of our socio-economic development. Some workers are, however, optimistic about this natural phenomenon. Various ways have been suggested to mitigate the effects of global warming, but the damage already done cannot be revoked. Hence, the thing that we are left with is to go for anticipatory adaptive measures so as to tone down the intensity of future implications of global warming.

MUNESH KUMAR

2011-12-01

114

What Should We do About Global Warming?  

Science.gov (United States)

This Web site created by Beloit College provides a challenging module devoted to the Global Warming phenomenon. Visitors will first be exposed to a series of QuickTime animations illustrating the Effects of Climate Change. Then, through a series of Sessions, students can learn about the characteristics of greenhouse gases as well as how to interpret their concentrations in the atmosphere through time. Lastly, the users are asked to incorporate their new found knowledge to answer the questions: Is the Earth Warming? and What Should We do About Global Warming?

115

Impact of global dimming and brightening on global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Speculations on the impact of variations in surface solar radiation on global warming range from concerns that solar dimming has largely masked the full magnitude of greenhouse warming, to claims that the recent reversal from solar dimming to brightening rather than the greenhouse effect was responsible for the observed warming. To disentangle surface solar and greenhouse influences on global warming, trends in diurnal temperature range are analyzed. They suggest that solar dimming was effective in masking greenhouse warming, but only up to the 1980s, when dimming gradually transformed into brightening. Since then, the uncovered greenhouse effect has revealed its full dimension, as manifested in a rapid temperature rise (+0.38°C/decade over land since mid-1980s). Recent solar brightening cannot supersede the greenhouse effect as main cause of global warming, since land temperatures increased by 0.8°C from 1960 to 2000, even though solar brightening did not fully outweigh solar dimming within this period.

Wild, Martin; Ohmura, Atsumu; Makowski, Knut

2007-02-01

116

Greenhouse gas emissions increase global warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper discusses the greenhouse gas emissions which cause the global warming in the atmosphere. In the 20th century global climate change becomes more sever which is due to greenhouse gas emissions. According to International Energy Agency data, the USA and China are approximately tied and leading global emitters of greenhouse gas emissions. Together they emit approximately 40% of global CO2 emissions, and about 35% of total greenhouse gases. The developed and developing industrialized co...

Mohajan, Haradhan

2011-01-01

117

A set of experiments to understand global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed a set of experiments addressed to pupils from the age of 14 to teach the basic causes and effects of global warming. Through ten experiments conducted in turns by the pupils themselves, they will understand the physics, biology and chemistry of the main issues linked to the increase in greenhouse gases in our atmosphere. More specifically, the hand-made, low-cost material, allow the students to discover and experiment the science of the greenhouse effect, sea level rise, ocean circulation, ocean acidification, species relocation and extinction, differential heating according to the albedo, carbon cycle, and photosynthesis. Technical notes give background theory input. All the experiments can easily be reproduced.

Bouquelle, Veronique; Bauwens, Anne; De Bont, Adele; Kivits, Sandrine; Marbaix, Philippe

2014-05-01

118

Global Warming: A Public Health Concern  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over the last 100 years the average temperature on the Earth has risen approximately 1ºFahrenheit (F, increasing at a rate twice as fast as has been noted for any period in the last 1,000 years. The Arctic ice cap is shrinking, glaciers are melting, and the Arctic permafrost is thawing. There is mounting evidence that these global climate changes are already affecting human health. This article provides a brief overview of global warming and climate changes, discusses effects of climate change on health, considers the factors which contribute to climate changes, and reviews individual and collective efforts related to reducing global warming.

Brenda M. Afzal

2007-05-01

119

Forecasting phenology under global warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As a consequence of warming temperatures around the world, spring and autumn phenologies have been shifting, with corresponding changes in the length of the growing season. Our understanding of the spatial and interspecific variation of these changes, however, is limited. Not all species are responding similarly, and there is significant spatial variation in responses even within species. This spatial and interspecific variation complicates efforts to predict phenological responses to ongoing...

Iba?n?ez, Ine?s; Primack, Richard B.; Miller-rushing, Abraham J.; Ellwood, Elizabeth; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi; Lee, Sang Don; Kobori, Hiromi; Silander, John A.

2010-01-01

120

Researchers Find Genetic Response to Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

University of Alberta biologist Stan Boutin and his research team have recently published findings that North American red squirrels exhibit genetic changes in response to a warming climate. This Web site contains a University of Alberta press release detailing this first-ever demonstration of genetic adaptation to global warming. With implications that extend far beyond the immediate research concerns of geneticists and environmental scientists, Boutin's work as presented in this Web site should be interesting to wide audience.

Dey, Phoebe.

 
 
 
 
121

Sharing the Cost of Global Warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Due to meteorological factors, the distribution of the environmental damage due to climate change bears no relationship to that of global emissions. We argue in favor of offsetting this discrepancy, and propose a "global insurance scheme" to be fincanced according to countries responsibility for climate change. Because GHG decay very slowly, we argue that the actual burden of global warming should be shared on the basis of cumulated emissions, raher than sharing the expected costs of actual e...

Leroux, Justin; Villemeur, E?tienne

2010-01-01

122

Tropical atmospheric circulation changes under global warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This PhD thesis consists of three scientific articles. In the first one the tropical sea level pressure (SLP) response under global warming is investigated in a multi-model ensemble (MMEns) of climate models from the 3rd phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3) and in ERA Interim reanalysis data. In this article we follow the idea to split up the tropical warming into a spatial homogeneous part and a spatial inhomogeneous part. Even though the inhomogeneous warming is roughl...

Bayr, Tobias

2013-01-01

123

The impacts and costs of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is now a scientific consensus that current rates of accumulation of greenhouses gases in the atmosphere will result in significant global warming and climate change. These changes are likely to have important impacts on a wide range of human activities and the natural environment. There has now been a considerable weight of literature published on the impacts of global warming, much of it very recent. This report seeks to summarise the important results, to analyse the uncertainties and to make a preliminary analysis of the feasibility of monetarising these environmental costs. The impacts of global warming are divided into ten major categories: agriculture, forests and forestry, terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity, hydrology and water resources, sea level rise and coastal zones, energy, infrastructure/transport/industry, human health and air quality, oceans, and cryospheric impacts. The results of major summary reports are analysed, notably the report of Working Group II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (the IPCC). (author)

124

Communicating the Dangers of Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

So far, in my opinion, we scientists have not done a good job of communicating the imminent threat posed by global warming, yet I believe there is still time for that if we work efficiently now to overcome existing obstacles. Several of those obstacles are illustrated by contrasting the roles of scientists, the media, special interests, politicians and the public in the ozone depletion and global warming crises. Scientists in America are further challenged by a decline in public science education, a perceived gap between science and religion, increasing politicization of public affairs offices in the government, and accumulation of power by a unitary executive. First order communication tasks are illustrated by a need for improved exchange and understanding, among scientists as well as with the public, of fundamental climate facts: (1) additional global warming exceeding 1C will yield large climate effects, (2) paleoclimate changes contain quantitatively specific information about climate sensitivity that is not widely appreciated, (3) carbon cycle facts, such as the substantial portion of carbon dioxide emissions that will remain in the air "forever", for practical purposes, (4) fossil fuel facts such as the dominant role of coal and unconventional fuels in all business-as-usual scenarios for future energy sources. The facts graphically illustrate the need for prompt actions to avoid disastrous climate change, yet they also reveal the feasibility of a course that minimizes global warming and yields other benefits. Perhaps the greatest challenge is posed by an inappropriate casting of the topic as a dichotomy between those who deny that there is a global warming problem and those who either are exceedingly pessimistic about the prospects for minimizing climate change or believe that solutions would be very expensive. Sensible evaluation of the situation, in my opinion, suggests a strategy for dealing with global warming that is not costly and has many subsidiary benefits, but it does require leadership. Practical difficulties in communicating this story will be illustrated with some personal experiences.

Hansen, J. E.

2006-12-01

125

Some coolness concerning global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

The greenhouse effect hypothesis is discussed. The effects of increasing CO2 levels in the atmosphere on global temperature changes are analyzed. The problems with models currently used to predict climatic changes are examined.

Lindzen, Richard S.

1990-01-01

126

The Petition: A Global Warming Case Study  

Science.gov (United States)

These are the teaching notes for a case study in which students consider the political, economic, and ethical issues surrounding the debate over global warming. This case was designed to strengthen their understanding of the greenhouse effect; global warming and its possible causes; how past changes in temperature and carbon dioxide concentration can be estimated; what controls weather patterns; geochemical cycles; and how to read graphs and interpret data. In addition, they will acquire a better understanding of how humans may impact the earth's environment; the politics and economics of scientific issues; how and why experts may differ; and their responsibility in dealing with ethical and political issues.

Allen, Bruce; Herreid, Clyde

127

Resource Letter GW-2: Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on human-induced climate change, also known as global warming [Resource Letter GW-1: Global Warming, John W. Firor, Am. J. Phys. 62, 490-495 (1994)]. After an introductory overview, journal articles, books, and websites are cited for the following topics: the greenhouse effect and radiative forcing, detection and attribution of human-induced climate change, carbon cycle feedbacks, paleoclimate, climate models and modeling uncertainties, projections of future climate change and climate impacts, and mitigation and adaptation policy options.

Mastrandrea, Michael D.; Schneider, Stephen H.

2008-07-01

128

Global warming and terrestrial biodiversity decline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study was conducted in which global terrestrial biodiversity decline resulting from climatic change was examined. Global climate and vegetation models were used to examine the following three possible threats to global biodiversity: (1) warming that exceeds the migrational capabilities of species, (2) losses of habitat during progressive shifts of climatic conditions, and (3) reductions in species diversity through reductions in habitat patch size. The effects that oceans, lakes and anthropogenic impediments to migration might have on the ability of species to move in response to global warming was also examined. A total of fourteen impact scenarios were created using seven climate models and two biogeographic models. The models were used to: (1) measure the rates of migration that global warming might impose of species, (2) measure the potential loss of existing habitat, and (3) study the potential for species loss resulting from reduced habitat size after warming. It was concluded that some plants will be able to keep up with the required migration rates, but others will not, resulting in extinction of both plant and animal species. Invasive species and those with high dispersal capabilities will suffer the least and therefore pests and weedy species probably dominate many terrains. It was also determined that seven Canadian provinces and territories have more than half their territory at risk. 32 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs., 5 maps.

Malcolm, J.R. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Faculty of Forestry; Markham, A. [Clean Air-Cool Planet, Portsmouth, NH (United States)

2000-09-01

129

Responses of the Metabolism of the Larvae of Pocillopora damicornis to Ocean Acidification and Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Ocean acidification and warming are expected to threaten the persistence of tropical coral reef ecosystems. As coral reefs face multiple stressors, the distribution and abundance of corals will depend on the successful dispersal and settlement of coral larvae under changing environmental conditions. To explore this scenario, we used metabolic rate, at holobiont and molecular levels, as an index for assessing the physiological plasticity of Pocillopora damicornis larvae from this site to conditions of ocean acidity and warming. Larvae were incubated for 6 hours in seawater containing combinations of CO2 concentration (450 and 950 µatm) and temperature (28 and 30°C). Rates of larval oxygen consumption were higher at elevated temperatures. In contrast, high CO2 levels elicited depressed metabolic rates, especially for larvae released later in the spawning period. Rates of citrate synthase, a rate-limiting enzyme in aerobic metabolism, suggested a biochemical limit for increasing oxidative capacity in coral larvae in a warming, acidifying ocean. Biological responses were also compared between larvae released from adult colonies on the same day (cohorts). The metabolic physiology of Pocillopora damicornis larvae varied significantly by day of release. Additionally, we used environmental data collected on a reef in Moorea, French Polynesia to provide information about what adult corals and larvae may currently experience in the field. An autonomous pH sensor provided a continuous time series of pH on the natal fringing reef. In February/March, 2011, pH values averaged 8.075±0.023. Our results suggest that without adaptation or acclimatization, only a portion of naïve Pocillopora damicornis larvae may have suitable metabolic phenotypes for maintaining function and fitness in an end-of-the century ocean. PMID:24769774

Rivest, Emily B.; Hofmann, Gretchen E.

2014-01-01

130

Global warming: A Northwest perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Northwest Power Planning Council convened a symposium in Olympia, Washington, on the subject of global climate change ( the greenhouse effect'') and its potential for affecting the Pacific Northwest. The symposium was organized in response to a need by the Power Council to understand global climate change and its potential impacts on resource planning and fish and wildlife planning for the region, as well as a need to understand national policy developing toward climate change and the Pacific Northwest's role in it. 40 figs., 15 tabs.

Scott, M.J.; Counts, C.A. (eds.)

1990-02-01

131

Global Warming Estimation from MSU  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we have developed time series of global temperature from 1980-97 based on the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) Ch 2 (53.74 GHz) observations taken from polar-orbiting NOAA operational satellites. In order to create these time series, systematic errors (approx. 0.1 K) in the Ch 2 data arising from inter-satellite differences are removed objectively. On the other hand, smaller systematic errors (approx. 0.03 K) in the data due to orbital drift of each satellite cannot be removed objectively. Such errors are expected to remain in the time series and leave an uncertainty in the inferred global temperature trend. With the help of a statistical method, the error in the MSU inferred global temperature trend resulting from orbital drifts and residual inter-satellite differences of all satellites is estimated to be 0.06 K decade. Incorporating this error, our analysis shows that the global temperature increased at a rate of 0.13 +/- 0.06 K decade during 1980-97.

Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, Robert, Jr.

1999-01-01

132

Climate change and global warming potentials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Climate change and the global budgets of the two main energy consumption related greenhouse gases, CO2 and CH4, are discussed. The global warming potential (GWP) of the non-CO2 greenhouse gases is defined and the large range of GWPs of CH4 in the literature is discussed. GWPs are expected to play an important role in energy policies and negotiations concerning lowering greenhouse gas emissions. (author). 20 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

133

Dynamical Analysis of the Global Warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Global warming is a major concern nowadays. Weather conditions are changing, and it seems that human activity is one of the main causes. In fact, since the beginning of the industrial revolution, the burning of fossil fuels has increased the nonnatural emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas that absorbs the infrared radiation produced by the reflection of the sunlight on the Earth’s surface, trapping the heat in the atmosphere. Global ...

Tenreiro Machado, J. A.; Lopes, Ant Amp Xf Nio M.

2012-01-01

134

Global Warming Effects on Us Hurricane Damage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

While many studies of the effects of global warming on hurricanes predict an increase in various metrics of Atlantic basin-wide activity, it is less clear that this signal will emerge from background noise in measures of hurricane damage, which depend largely on rare, high-intensity landfalling events and are thus highly volatile compared to basin-wide storm metrics. Using a recently developed hurricane synthesizer driven by large-scale meteorological variables derived from global climate mod...

Emanuel, Kerry Andrew

2011-01-01

135

Frequency of Deep Convective Clouds and Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

This slide presentation reviews the effect of global warming on the formation of Deep Convective Clouds (DCC). It concludes that nature responds to global warming with an increase in strong convective activity. The frequency of DCC increases with global warming at the rate of 6%/decade. The increased frequency of DCC with global warming alone increases precipitation by 1.7%/decade. It compares the state of the art climate models' response to global warming, and concludes that the parametrization of climate models need to be tuned to more closely emulate the way nature responds to global warming.

Aumann, Hartmut H.; Teixeira, Joao

2008-01-01

136

NASA: Black soot fuels global warming  

CERN Multimedia

New research from NASA's Goddard Space Center scientists suggests emissions of black soot have been altering the way sunlight reflects off Earth's snow. The research indicates the soot could be responsible for as much as 25 percent of global warming over the past century (assorted news items, 1 paragraph each).

2003-01-01

137

CERN plans global-warming experiment  

CERN Document Server

A controversial theory that proposes that cosmic rays are responsible for global warming, is going to be tested at CERN. Experimentalists will use a cloud chamber to mimic the Earth's atmosphere in order to try and find out if cloud formation is influenced by solar activity (1 page).

De Laine, M

1998-01-01

138

Can Global Warming Heat Up Environmental Education?  

Science.gov (United States)

Bronx Community College (CUNY) launched "Global Warming Campus Awareness and Action Days" in celebration of Earth Day, 2007. The purpose of this program was to raise awareness of environmental issues in the college population, especially students. To let more students have a grasp of what Environmental Education (EE) is all about, the author…

Mazzatenta, Claudio

2008-01-01

139

Weather extremes from anthropogenic global warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although sea levels are predicted to rise 1 to 2 meters by 2100, the more immediate effects of global warming are weather extremes. The number of natural disasters since 1996 costing $1 billion or more doubled compared with the previous 15-year period. Extreme summer heat anomalies now cover about 10% of land area, up from 0.2% in 1950-...

Carr, Paul H.

2013-01-01

140

Global warming: Towards a strategy for Ontario  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A discussion paper is provided as background to a proposed public review of a strategy for Ontario's response to global warming. Global warming arises from the generation of greenhouse gases, which come from the use of fossil fuels, the use of chlorofluorocarbons, and deforestation. Energy policy is the backbone of achieving climate stability since the burning of fossil fuels releases most of the greenhouse gases, mainly carbon dioxide. Canada is, by international standards, a very energy-intensive country and is among the world's largest emitters of carbon dioxide on a per capita basis. Ontario is the largest energy-using province in Canada, and fossil fuels represent over 80% of provincial energy use. A proposed goal for Ontario is to provide leadership in stabilizing atmospheric concentrations of the greenhouse gases, while minimizing the social, economic, and environmental costs in Ontario of adapting to global warming. A proposed first step to address global warming is to achieve reductions in expected emissions of the greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide, so that levels by the year 2000 are lower than in 1989. Current policies and regulations helping to reduce the greenhouse effect include some of the current controls on automotive emissions and the adoption by the provincial electric utility of targets to reduce electricity demand. New initiatives include establishment of minimum energy efficiency standards and reduction of peak-day electricity use. Actieduction of peak-day electricity use. Action steps for future consideration are detailed in the categories of greenhouse gas emissions reductions, carbon dioxide absorption, and research and analysis into global warming

 
 
 
 
141

On Global Warming (Softening Global Constraints)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We describe soft versions of the global cardinality constraint and the regular constraint, with efficient filtering algorithms maintaining domain consistency. For both constraints, the softening is achieved by augmenting the underlying graph. The softened constraints can be used to extend the meta-constraint framework for over-constrained problems proposed by Petit, Regin and Bessiere.

Hoeve, Willem Jan; Pesant, Gilles; Rousseau, Louis-martin

2004-01-01

142

Global Warming Facts and Our Future  

Science.gov (United States)

This virtual museum website provides easily understood scientific information that helps both policy makers and the public answer important questions about the changing global climate in order to promote informed decisions. The site examines the Earth's natural carbon balance and the ways that humans are affecting this balance, then goes on to explore possible responses to global warming both at a personal and national level. It explains some of the methods for measuring past change and modeling future changes, as well as discussing the impacts of and responses to global warming. There are several teaching activities listed as "pre- and post-visit," though they may also be used as stand-alone exercises, and four more teaching activities in the 'Responses to Change' section of the site, including a carbon dioxide calculator that examines personal and national actions that could be taken to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.

Marian Koshland Science Museum of the National Academy of the Sciences

143

Environmental colonialism Leadership and global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The vast majority of the world's scientific community believes there is global warming and that it is global problem requiring international cooperation. But policy makers in industrialized countries are at a crossroads:Listen to the skeptics, who demand more proof and who fear economic consequences of an anti-greenhouse campaign, or take the more difficult path of commitment to attacking the problem. Meanwhile, poverty and debt keep. The Third world locked out of any active partnership. This issue of ED highlight their results of recently tapping documents and seminar findings on the subject of global warming. This issue also contains the following: (1) ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of the February 9, 1990; and (2) ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Western Hemisphere, February 1990 edition. 6 figs., 5 tabs.

1990-02-16

144

GLOBAL WARMING: IMPLICATIONS AND ANTICIPATORY ADAPTIVE MEASURES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Our earth is warming up. There is no denying to this fact that the gradual heating up of our globe has a tremendous effect on the climate. It in turn has affected the biotic factors that make up our biosphere, eventually directing the course of our socio-economic development. Some workers are, however, optimistic about this natural phenomenon. Various ways have been suggested to mitigate the effects of global warming, but the damage already done cannot be revoked. Hence, the thing that we are...

MUNESH KUMAR; Sheikh, Mehraj A.; AABID RASOOL ZARGAR

2011-01-01

145

Going Local with Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

This self-paced tutorial investigates evidence for contemporary climate change by examining multi-year weather, statistical and anecdotal records obtained from several U.S. localities. Learners plot and identify trends in regional weather data, learn the difference between weather and climate, and explore the pedagogic advantages associated with learning about global climate change by examining regional data. Videos describing local phenological data of changing seasonality, data portals, an interview with NASA scientist, Dr. Eric Fetzer, and activities to adapt for middle and high school classrooms are included. Vocabulary are linked to a glossary. This is the third of ten professional development modules providing opportunities for teachers to learn about climate change through first-hand data exploration.

146

Global warming and sea level rise  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tide gauge records suggest a rise in sea level rise of ~1.8 mm/yr over the 20st century. More recently, satellite altimetry data reveal a global mean sea level rise of 3.3 mm/yr over 1993-2010. This rise is attributed to Earth's global warming observed since several decades. In this thesis, we analyze observed global mean sea level and its causes over the entire altimetry era (since 1993). Over the recent years (2002-2009), we estimate the effects of ocean thermal expansion and salinity (call...

Llovel, William

2010-01-01

147

Environmental Harm of Hidden Subsidies: Global Warming and Acidification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We investigate environmental impacts of off-budget or indirect subsidies, which, unlike on-budget subsidies, are not visible in government budgets. Such subsidies have received little attention in economic and environmental research, even though they may be at least as important from an environmental perspective as on-budget subsidies. We offer a typology of indirect subsidies. Next, we estimate the magnitude of these subsidies and their impact on greenhouse gas (GHG) and acidifying emissions for the agriculture, energy, and transport sectors in The Netherlands. The calculations are based on a model approach that translates a particular subsidy into price and quantity changes using empirical elasticities, followed by environmental effect estimates using pollution-intensity parameters. The various environmental pollution effects are aggregated into environmental indicators. The results show, among others, that GHG emissions caused by off-budget subsidies contribute to more than 30% of the policy targets specified by the Kyoto Protocol for CO{sub 2} emissions reduction by The Netherlands. Reforming or removing off-budget subsidies may thus be an important strategy of effective climate policy

Beers, Cees van (Dept. of Innovation Economics and Management, Delft Univ. of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)). E-mail: c.p.vanbeers@tudelft.nl; Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den (Inst. for Environmental Science and Technology, and Dept. of Economics and Economic History, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain))

2009-10-15

148

Nuclear energy and global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear energy emits no greenhouse gases during operations. Its life-cycle carbon emissions compete favorably with the best of renewable energy options. It is a proven, reliable base-load electricity generator with predictable and reasonable cost. Nuclear energy also has the potential to replace greenhouse gas emitting technologies in the manufacturing and transportation fuel sectors. National and international leaders are calling for the expansion of nuclear power to be a significant tool in eliminating 75% or more of global carbon dioxide emissions by 2050. Cuts of this magnitude are believed to be necessary in order to mitigate the effects of anthropogenic climate change. Nevertheless, significant expansion of nuclear energy will face technical, social and political hurdles. Because no combination of other supply technologies is likely to fully replace nuclear's carbon abatement potential, success in overcoming these barriers is vital. A nuclear renaissance born of environmental urgency will attract many capable men and women to challenging, rewarding careers in the application of nuclear science and technology. (author)

149

Response to Skeptics of Global Warming.  

Science.gov (United States)

The majority of the scientific community involved in climate research is convinced of the reality of a current and future global warming due to the greenhouse effect, a change that must be largely caused by human activities. However, a minority of scientists is still skeptical of the notion that mankind is significantly influencing the climate of the earth, and it therefore argues against taking certain measures to avert this alleged global warming. In recent years the media have given considerable coverage to the statements of these skeptics. Reasons for their statements range from a simple argument that we do not understand the earth's climate system well enough to predict the future, to more complex arguments involving negative feed-backs and changes of solar activity. They question whether the global temperature increase in this century of up to 0.6 K is primarily a result of worldwide burning of fossil fuels. The purpose of this article is to show that the statements of this skeptical school of thought need to be critically analyzed (and in some cases refuted) in the light of current understanding of the planetary system that determines our climate. There is also another school of thought that agrees about the reality of present and future global warming, and claims that this will be beneficial for most of mankind and that it should be encouraged. The policy implications of the latter view are in many respects similar to those of the group that are not convinced that a significant global warming will occur. Both schools of thought argue against taking immediate steps to slow the climate change.

Kellogg, William W.

1991-04-01

150

Ocean warming and acidification: Unifying physiological principles linking organism response to ecosystem change?  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of ocean warming and acidification on individual species of marine ectothermic animals may be based on some common denominators, i.e. physiological responses that can be assumed to reflect unifying principles, common to all marine animal phyla. Identification of these principles requires studies, which reach beyond the species-specific response, and consider multiple stressors, for example temperature, CO2 or extreme hypoxia. Analyses of response and acclimation include functional traits of physiological performance on various levels of biological organisation, from changes in the transcriptome to patterns of acid-base regulation and whole animal thermal tolerance. Conclusions are substantiated by comparisons of species and phyla from temperate, Arctic and Antarctic ecosystems and also benefit from the interpretation of paleo-patterns based on the use of a unifying physiological concept, suitable to integrate relevant environmental factors into a more comprehensive picture. Studying the differential specialization of animals on climate regimes and their sensitivity to climate leads to improved understanding of ongoing and past ecosystem change and should then support more reliable projections of future scenarios. For example, accumulating CO2 causes disturbances in acid-base status. Resilience to ocean acidification may be reflected in the capacity to compensate for these disturbances or their secondary effects. Ion and pH regulation comprise thermally sensitive active and passive transfer processes across membranes. Specific responses of ion transporter genes and their products to temperature and CO2 were found in fish, crustaceans and bivalves. However, compensation may cause unfavourable shifts in energy budget and beyond that hamper cellular and mitochondrial metabolism, which are directly linked to the animal's aerobic performance window. In crabs, oysters and, possibly, fishes, a narrowing of the thermal window is caused by moderate increases in CO2 levels. Furthermore, a decrease in the efficiency of energy production may occur and affect growth and fitness as well as larval development. Different sensitivities of life history stages indicate physiologically sensitive bottlenecks during the life cycle of marine organisms. Available evidence suggests that the concept of oxygen and capacity limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) provides access to the physiological mechanisms closely defining the sensitivities and responses of species to various stressors. It provides causality and quantifies the levels and changes of performance and resistance, and supports more realistic estimates of species and ecosystem sensitivities to environmental change. The emerging picture of differential sensitivities across animal phyla is in line with existing categorizations of sensitivities from palaeo-observations during the Permian-Triassic mass extinctions (A.H. Knoll et al., Earth and Planetary Science Letters 256, 295-313, 2007).

Pörtner, H. O.; Bock, C.; Lannig, G.; Lucassen, M.; Mark, F. C.; Stark, A.; Walther, K.; Wittmann, A.

2011-12-01

151

Global warming from an energy perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Global climate change and energy are integrally related. The majority of greenhouse gas emissions are the result of energy production and use; at the same time, warming will affect energy patterns in California through physical increases in energy demand, physical changes in energy supply, and changes in both energy end-use patterns and supplies resulting from climate-change policies. There seems to be a growing political consensus that the world (as well as the state) needs to act soon to minimize further commitment to future warming. While California is not likely to experience the physical changes resulting from a warmer climate for years or perhaps decades, policy responses to the warming issue may cause more immediate impacts. This chapter will discuss how policy response to potential warming may be the most significant early impact of the issue on California's energy system. Makers of energy policy face the dilemma of deciding how to respond to the climate warming issue in the face of scientific uncertainties about its timing and seriousness. The chapter will conclude by presenting a conceptual framework for dealing with this dilemma, along with general recommendations for action

152

A Paleo Perspective on Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Paleoclimatology Program has made available the Paleo Perspective on Global Warming Website. Sections included at the site are the Beginning, the Story, the Data, Final Word, and Image Gallery, among others. The Story provides the user with a background on climate and climate variability. The Data section gives an in-depth look at the "instrumental and paleoclimatic data that tells us how the Earth's temperature has changed over the past years to the millennia." A highlight of the site is the Image Gallery section, with images from the following NOAA slide sets: Coral Paleoclimatology, Tree Ring, Lake Sediments, Pollen, and Low-Latitude Ice Cores and Polar Ice Cores. The site helps to highlight the importance of paleoclimatic research and shows how paleoclimatic research relates to global warming and other issues regarding climate change and variability.

Program., National G.

153

Global warming : a guide to the science  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This guide dispels the popular hypothesis that increases in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere resulting from increased industrial activity have caused global warming. The report suggests that there is no evidence of catastrophic anthropogenic global warming and that temperature changes over the last 100 years has been due mostly to natural phenomena. The global temperature has increased by about 0.5 to 0.6 degrees C in the past 100 years, and this, before most of the greenhouse gases were added to the air by human activities such as burning of fossil fuels. The initial major rise in temperature was in 1940, before the rise in carbon dioxide levels, therefore, it was suggested that this warming must have been natural in origin. Computer based simulations of the climate system forecast disastrous rises in global temperature. But it was argued that current climate models are not accurate in forecasting future climate change because it is not possible to isolate the effect of an increased concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide on climate because about 5 million different variables have to be considered with all their important impacts and interactions. Science indicates that at most, a little warming will occur and certainly better plant grown which should be of great benefit to mankind. It was concluded that the human condition can be improved through unconstrained access to energy, but use of energy may also produce local unwanted pollutants as a by product. The souwanted pollutants as a by product. The sources of true environmental pollution can be mitigated based on rational considerations of the risks of pollutants and benefits of energy use. refs., figs

154

Counting the cost of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report sets out the issues that are raised by global warming in the area of relations between generations, and suggests directions where research is needed. It is intended to prepare the way by mapping the territory. This is an area where the work of philosophers and economists overlaps. Generally, each discipline has simply ignored the other, and when there has been some communication there has also often been some misunderstanding. This report tries to bring together work in the two disciplines. (author)

155

Global warming and SF6 molecule  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper the basic SF6 molecule physical characteristics are given concerning its influence on global warming and green house effect. Absorption and relaxation characteristics of this molecule have been investigated within the frame of nonlinear molecule – strong laser field interaction in different gas mixtures. All experiments have been performed on a different gas mixture pressures to analyze and investigate relaxation and energy transfer characteristics of absorbing molecules and n...

Gajevi? Jelena; Stevi? Marija; Nikoli? Jelena; Rabasovi? Mihailo; Markushev Dragan

2006-01-01

156

Effect of global warming in Thailand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The earth absorbs much radiation from the sun to warm the atmosphere, the land, and the oceans. This energy is reradiatedback into space. In the past, the thermal budget of the earth is more or less balanced, with radiation from the sun onpar with thermal radiation from the earth. With increasing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, some of the thermal radiationis absorbed by these gases resulting in an increase of global mean surface temperature, melting of polar ices and thuscontributing to ...

Suphat Vongvisessomjai

2010-01-01

157

Implications of global warming for African climate  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A 2°C increase in global mean temperature (?Tg) has been widely adopted as a benchmark for dangerous climate change. However, there has been a lack of research into the implications of 2°C, or any other degree of warming, for Africa. In this thesis changes in African temperature and precipitation associated with 1°C, 2°C, 3°C, 4°C, and beyond are investigated for the first time, using output from 350 climate model experiments: a collection of simulations from international ...

James, Rachel Anne; Washington, Richard

2014-01-01

158

The Effects of Global Warming on Fisheries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper develops two fisheries models in order to estimate the effect of global warming (GW) on firm value. GW is defined as an increase in the average temperature of the earth's surface because of CO? emissions. It is assumed that (i) GW exists, and (ii) higher temperatures negatively affect biomass. The literature on biology and GW supporting these two crucial assumptions is reviewed. The main argument presented is that temperature increase has two effects on biomass, both of which hav...

Medel, Carlos A.

2011-01-01

159

Weather extremes from anthropogenic global warming  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although sea levels are predicted to rise 1 to 2 meters by 2100, the more immediate effects of global warming are weather extremes. The number of natural disasters since 1996 costing $1 billion or more doubled compared with the previous 15-year period. Extreme summer heat anomalies now cover about 10% of land area, up from 0.2% in 1950-1980. The human influence on global warming is evident from climate data and physical modeling. Since the beginning of the industrial era, carbon dioxide (CO2 increases correlate with those of temperature. Carbon dating shows that the CO2 increase is from burning ancient fossil fuels. Increasing CO2 and other greenhouse gases blanket and warm the earth’s surface, allowing less heat to reach the stratosphere, which is cooling. This is consistent with satellite measurements showing that solar irradiance is not changing. The present CO2 rate increase of 2 ppm/year is 300 times higher than the rate at which the earth recovered from the ice age 18,000 years ago. Without the radiative forcing of noncondensing persistent CO2, the terrestrial greenhouse would collapse, plunging the global climate into an icebound earth state. Will new technologies lower our carbon emissions in time to prevent more weather extremes? Electric cars now get the equivalent of 100 miles per gallon. The cost of electricity from solar photovoltaic cells has reached grid parity.

Paul H. Carr

2013-01-01

160

Combined effects of warming and ocean acidification on coral reef Foraminifera Marginopora vertebralis and Heterostegina depressa  

Science.gov (United States)

Warming and changes in ocean carbonate chemistry alter marine coastal ecosystems at an accelerating pace. The interaction between these stressors has been the subject of recent studies on reef organisms such as corals, bryozoa, molluscs, and crustose coralline algae. Here we investigated the combined effects of elevated sea surface temperatures and pCO2 on two species of photosymbiont-bearing coral reef Foraminifera: Heterostegina depressa (hosting diatoms) and Marginopora vertebralis (hosting dinoflagellates). The effects of single and combined stressors were studied by monitoring survivorship, growth, and physiological parameters, such as respiration, photochemistry (pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry and oxygen production), and chl a content. Specimens were exposed in flow-through aquaria for up to seven weeks to combinations of two pCO2 (~790 and ~490 µatm) and two temperature (28 and 31 °C) regimes. Elevated temperature had negative effects on the physiology of both species. Elevated pCO2 had negative effects on growth and apparent photosynthetic rate in H.depressa but a positive effect on effective quantum yield. With increasing pCO2, chl a content decreased in H. depressa and increased in M. vertebralis. The strongest stress responses were observed when the two stressors acted in combination. An interaction term was statistically significant in half of the measured parameters. Further exploration revealed that 75 % of these cases showed a synergistic (= larger than additive) interaction between the two stressors. These results indicate that negative physiological effects on photosymbiont-bearing coral reef Foraminifera are likely to be stronger under simultaneous acidification and temperature rise than what would be expected from the effect of each of the stressors individually.

Schmidt, Christiane; Kucera, Michal; Uthicke, Sven

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
161

Global Warming: Evidence from Satellite Observations  

Science.gov (United States)

Observations made in Channel 2 (53.74 GHz) of the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) radiometer, flown on-board sequential, sun-synchronous, polar orbiting NOAA operational satellites, indicate that the mean temperature of the atmosphere over the globe increased during the period 1980 to 1999. In this study we have minimized systematic errors in the time series introduced by the satellite orbital drift in an objective manner. This is done with the help the onboard warm black body temperature, which is used in the calibration of the MSU radiometer. The corrected MSU Channel 2 observations of the NOAA satellite series reveal that the vertically weighted global mean temperature of the atmosphere, with a peak weight near the mid-troposphere, warmed at the rate of 0.13 K per decade (with an uncertainty of 0.05 K per decade) during 1980 to 1999. The global warming deduced from conventional meteorological data that have been corrected for urbanization effects agrees reasonably with this satellite deuced result.

Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R., Jr.; Yoo, J.-M.

2001-01-01

162

Global warming and allergy in Asia Minor.  

Science.gov (United States)

The earth is warming, and it is warming quickly. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that global warming is correlated with the frequency of pollen-induced respiratory allergy and allergic diseases. There is a body of evidence suggesting that the prevalence of allergic diseases induced by pollens is increasing in developed countries, a trend that is also evident in the Mediterranean area. Because of its mild winters and sunny days with dry summers, the Mediterranean area is different from the areas of central and northern Europe. Classical examples of allergenic pollen-producing plants of the Mediterranean climate include Parietaria, Olea and Cupressaceae. Asia Minor is a Mediterranean region that connects Asia and Europe, and it includes considerable coastal areas. Gramineae pollens are the major cause of seasonal allergic rhinitis in Asia Minor, affecting 1.3-6.4 % of the population, in accordance with other European regions. This article emphasizes the importance of global climate change and anticipated increases in the prevalence and severity of allergic disease in Asia Minor, mediated through worsening air pollution and altered local and regional pollen production, from an otolaryngologic perspective. PMID:22695877

Bajin, Munir Demir; Cingi, Cemal; Oghan, Fatih; Gurbuz, Melek Kezban

2013-01-01

163

Global warming: Sea ice and snow cover  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In spite of differences among global climate simulations under scenarios where atmospheric CO2 is doubled, all models indicate at least some amplification of greenouse warming at the polar regions. Several decades of recent data on air temperature, sea ice, and snow cover of the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere are summarized to illustrate the general compatibility of recent variations in those parameters. Despite a data void over the Arctic Ocean, some noteworthy patterns emerge. Warming dominates in winter and spring, as projected by global climate models, with the warming strongest over subpolar land areas of Alaska, northwestern Canada, and northern Eurasia. A time-longitude summary of Arctic sea ice variations indicates that timescales of most anomalies range from several months to several years. Wintertime maxima of total sea ice extent contain no apparent secular trends. The statistical significance of trends in recent sea ice variations was evaluated by a Monte Carlo procedure, showing a statistically significant negative trend in the summer. Snow cover data over the 20-y period of record show a noticeable decrease of Arctic snow cover in the late 1980s. This is of potential climatic significance since the accompanying decrease of surface albedo leads to a rapid increase of solar heating. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

164

Fossil-fuel constraints on global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2008 and 2009 two papers by Kharecha and Hansen and by Nel and Cooper examined possible fossil energy availability and energy consumption scenarios and consequences for future climate. The papers yield somewhat similar results regarding atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels, but they reach substantially different conclusions regarding future climate change. Here, we compare their methods and results. Our work shows that Nel and Cooper's paper significantly underestimates future warming. Nel and Cooper conclude that even if all the available fossil fuels would be burned at the maximum possible rate during this century, the consequent warming would cap at less than 1 C above the 2000 level. We find that - under Nel and Cooper's assumption of an intensive exploitation of fossil fuels - the global temperature in 2100 will likely reach levels which would lead to severely damaging long-term impacts. (author)

Zecca, Antonio; Chiari, Luca [Physics Department, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, I-38050 Povo TN (Italy)

2010-01-15

165

Does CO2 really drive global warming?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Arctic Ocean Model, which was developed to account for the million year temperature oscillations, is explained in terms of the development and the shrinkage of the Arctic ice cap in the northern polar regions according to whether the Arctic Ocean is unfrozen and can supply moisture for the development of the ice cap which reflects the sun's radiation, or is frozen resulting in the shrinkage of the ice cap and the earth absorbing more of the sun's radiation and warming up (global warming). The changes in the direction of the temperature are discussed along with man's impact through fossil fuel combustion, and the identification of water and not carbon dioxide as the major absorbing gas in the atmosphere. The key evidence to support this theory is presented

166

Fossil-fuel constraints on global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2008 and 2009 two papers by Kharecha and Hansen and by Nel and Cooper examined possible fossil energy availability and energy consumption scenarios and consequences for future climate. The papers yield somewhat similar results regarding atmospheric CO2 levels, but they reach substantially different conclusions regarding future climate change. Here, we compare their methods and results. Our work shows that Nel and Cooper's paper significantly underestimates future warming. Nel and Cooper conclude that even if all the available fossil fuels would be burned at the maximum possible rate during this century, the consequent warming would cap at less than 1 deg. C above the 2000 level. We find that - under Nel and Cooper's assumption of an intensive exploitation of fossil fuels - the global temperature in 2100 will likely reach levels which would lead to severely damaging long-term impacts.

167

Microwave sounding units and global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

A recent work of Spencer and Christy (1990) on precise monitoring of global temperature trends from satellites is critically examined. It is tentatively concluded in the present comment that remote sensing using satellite microwave radiometers can in fact provide a means for the monitoring of troposphere-averaged air temperature. However, for this to be successful more than one decade of data will be required to overcome the apparent inherent variability of global average air temperature. It is argued that the data set reported by Spencer and Christy should be subjected to careful review before it is interpreted as evidence of the presence or absence of global warming. In a reply, Christy provides specific responses to the commenters' objections.

Gary, Bruce L.; Keihm, Stephen J.

1991-01-01

168

Will Melting Ice Caps Increase Global Warming?  

Science.gov (United States)

In this hands-on activity, students will test one aspect of a theory that reduction in the polar caps will speed global warming. They simulate a polar region with pans of water, one painted white to represent a glacier, and one painted black or blue to represent the same area after the ice has melted. They place the covered pans in the sun with water in the bottom, and measure and compare the temperature of the water in the two pans over time. A thermometer is needed in the investigation. The investigation is supported by the textbook, Climate Change, part of Global System Science, an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

169

Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rai SM. 2013. Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 101-104. The present article is focused on global warming, which is an important global problem being faced by the humankind. The article discusses about the causes of the global warming, such as green house gases. The earth receives energy from the Sun in the form of solar radiations with small amount of infra red and ultraviolet rays. A part of these radiations is...

Rai, Shivani M.

2013-01-01

170

Global warming and carbon dioxide through sciences.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased atmospheric CO(2)-concentration is widely being considered as the main driving factor that causes the phenomenon of global warming. This paper attempts to shed more light on the role of atmospheric CO(2) in relation to temperature-increase and, more generally, in relation to Earth's life through the geological aeons, based on a review-assessment of existing related studies. It is pointed out that there has been a debate on the accuracy of temperature reconstructions as well as on the exact impact that CO(2) has on global warming. Moreover, using three independent sets of data (collected from ice-cores and chemistry) we perform a specific regression analysis which concludes that forecasts about the correlation between CO(2)-concentration and temperature rely heavily on the choice of data used, and one cannot be positive that indeed such a correlation exists (for chemistry data) or even, if existing (for ice-cores data), whether it leads to a "severe" or a "gentle" global warming. A very recent development on the greenhouse phenomenon is a validated adiabatic model, based on laws of physics, forecasting a maximum temperature-increase of 0.01-0.03 degrees C for a value doubling the present concentration of atmospheric CO(2). Through a further review of related studies and facts from disciplines like biology and geology, where CO(2)-change is viewed from a different perspective, it is suggested that CO(2)-change is not necessarily always a negative factor for the environment. In fact it is shown that CO(2)-increase has stimulated the growth of plants, while the CO(2)-change history has altered the physiology of plants. Moreover, data from palaeoclimatology show that the CO(2)-content in the atmosphere is at a minimum in this geological aeon. Finally it is stressed that the understanding of the functioning of Earth's complex climate system (especially for water, solar radiation and so forth) is still poor and, hence, scientific knowledge is not at a level to give definite and precise answers for the causes of global warming. PMID:18760479

Florides, Georgios A; Christodoulides, Paul

2009-02-01

171

Global Warming and Caspian Sea Level Fluctuations  

CERN Document Server

Coastal regions have a high social, economical and environmental importance. Due to this importance the sea level fluctuations can have many bad consequences. In this research the correlation between the increasing trend of temperature in coastal stations due to Global Warming and the Caspian Sea level has been established. The Caspian Sea level data has been received from the Jason-1 satellite. It was resulted that the monthly correlation between the temperature and sea level is high and also positive and almost the same for all the stations. But the yearly correlation was negative. It means that the sea level has decreased by the increase in temperature.

Ardakanian, Reza

2013-01-01

172

Resource Letter: GW-1: Global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the possibility of a human-induced climate change—a global warming. Journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: the Greenhouse Effect, sources of infrared-trapping gases, climate models and their uncertainties, verification of climate models, past climate changes, and economics, ethics, and politics of policy responses to climate change. [The letter E after an item indicates elementary level or material of general interest to persons becoming informed in the field. The letter I, for intermediate level, indicates material of somewhat more specialized nature, and the letter A indicates rather specialized or advanced material.

Firor, John W.

1994-06-01

173

Identifying the Molecular Origin of Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Atmospheric measurements show that concentrations of several radiatively important gases, greenhouse gases, are changing and growing. Concern about the effects of these changes on climate has centered on carbon dioxide (CO2), because it is an important greenhouse gas, and because its atmospheric concentration is rapidly increasing. However, other gases have contributed to the greenhouse effect in the atmosphere. The most important of these greenhouse gases are methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons, and halons. In this talk we will discuss the orgins of what molecular properties determine that a specific molecule will have a potentially large contribution to global warming.

Lee, Timothy; Francisco, Joseph

2004-03-01

174

Differential impacts of ocean acidification and warming on winter and summer progeny of a coastal squid (Loligo vulgaris).  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known about the capacity of early life stages to undergo hypercapnic and thermal acclimation under the future scenarios of ocean acidification and warming. Here, we investigated a comprehensive set of biological responses to these climate change-related variables (2°C above winter and summer average spawning temperatures and ?pH=0.5 units) during the early ontogeny of the squid Loligo vulgaris. Embryo survival rates ranged from 92% to 96% under present-day temperature (13-17°C) and pH (8.0) scenarios. Yet, ocean acidification (pH 7.5) and summer warming (19°C) led to a significant drop in the survival rates of summer embryos (47%, P<0.05). The embryonic period was shortened by increasing temperature in both pH treatments (P<0.05). Embryo growth rates increased significantly with temperature under present-day scenarios, but there was a significant trend reversal under future summer warming conditions (P<0.05). Besides pronounced premature hatching, a higher percentage of abnormalities was found in summer embryos exposed to future warming and lower pH (P<0.05). Under the hypercapnic scenario, oxygen consumption rates decreased significantly in late embryos and newly hatched paralarvae, especially in the summer period (P<0.05). Concomitantly, there was a significant enhancement of the heat shock response (HSP70/HSC70) with warming in both pH treatments and developmental stages. Upper thermal tolerance limits were positively influenced by acclimation temperature, and such thresholds were significantly higher in late embryos than in hatchlings under present-day conditions (P<0.05). In contrast, the upper thermal tolerance limits under hypercapnia were higher in hatchlings than in embryos. Thus, we show that the stressful abiotic conditions inside the embryo's capsules will be exacerbated under near-future ocean acidification and summer warming scenarios. The occurrence of prolonged embryogenesis along with lowered thermal tolerance limits under such conditions is expected to negatively affect the survival success of squid early life stages during the summer spawning period, but not winter spawning. PMID:24523499

Rosa, Rui; Trübenbach, Katja; Pimentel, Marta S; Boavida-Portugal, Joana; Faleiro, Filipa; Baptista, Miguel; Dionísio, Gisela; Calado, Ricardo; Pörtner, Hans O; Repolho, Tiago

2014-02-15

175

Is global warming mostly at night?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The release of greenhouse gases is expected to lead to substantial future warming. The global mean temperature has indeed risen in recent decades. The causes of the observed warming, and its relation to the greenhouse gas buildup are, however, still debated. One important aspect of the observed temperature change relates to its asymmetry during the day and night. The day-night temperature difference over land in North America, most of Eurasia, Oceania, and portions of Africa and Australia shows a decrease since about 1950. The changes of the daily mean temperature in these areas are principally due to the rising night or early morning temperature, and are accompanied by increasing cloudiness. Their results support the notion that the increase of cloud cover, possibly due to industrial sulfur emissions, mitigates the greenhouse warming. The causes of the changing diurnal temperature range and of the increasing cloudiness will have to be clarified and the future SO2 emissions reliably projected before any trustworthy prediction of future climates can be made. 37 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

176

IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON GLOBAL WARMING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Climate change has become an issue which touches upon all sphere of influence of life. To struggle the problem understanding the perceptions of all that have a stake in it provides with stronger ground for decision making. India is the country that is or going to be severely affected by climate change. India is faced with the challenge of sustaining its rapid economic growth while dealing with the global threat of climate change. This threat arises from collected greenhouse gas productions in the atmosphere, anthropogenically generated through long-term and intensive industrial growth and high consumption lifestyles in developed countries. The solution of which comparatively depends on how its key decision makers perceive the problem. The paper deals with the impact of climate change on global warming. The results of data analysis reveal that most identified rainfall variability, declining hydrology and increasing temperature as manifestations of climate change, and emissions reduction and forest protection as its key solutions.

Jalpa Rohit Patel

2014-04-01

177

Global Warming and the Microwave Background  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the work, the importance of assigning the microwave background to the Earth is addressed while emphasizing the consequences for global climate change. Climate models can only produce meaningful forecasts when they consider the real magnitude of all radiative processes. The oceans and continents both contribute to terrestrial emissions. However, the extent of oceanic radiation, particularly in the microwave region, raises concerns. This is not only since the globe is covered with water, but because the oceans themselves are likely to be weaker emitters than currently believed. Should the microwave background truly be generated by the oceans of the Earth, our planetwould be a much less efficient emitter of radiation in this region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Furthermore, the oceans would appear unable to increase their emissions in the microwave in response to temperature elevation, as predicted by Stefan’s law. Theresults are significant relative to the modeling of global warming.

Robitaille P.-M.

2009-04-01

178

The carbon cycle and global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five land-use-based approaches can be used to slow the buildup of CO2 in the atmosphere: slowing or stopping the loss of existing forests, thus preserving current carbon reservoirs; adding to the planet's vegetative cover through reforestation or other means, thus enlarging living terrestrial carbon reservoirs; increasing the carbon stored in nonliving carbon reservoirs such as agricultural soils; increasing the carbon stored in artificial reservoirs, including timber products; and substituting sustainable biomass energy sources for fossil fuel consumption, thus reducing energy-related carbon emissions. These approaches are all based on the same basic premise: adding to the planet's net carbon stores in vegetative cover or soil, or preventing any net loss, will help moderate global warming by keeping atmospheric CO2 levels lower than they would otherwise be. Because biotic policy options appear capable of contributing significantly to the mitigation of global warming while also furthering many other public policy objectives, their role deserves careful consideration on a country-by-country basis

179

Global warming potential impact of bioenergy systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Reducing dependence on fossil fuels and mitigation of GHG emissions is a main focus in the energy strategy of many Countries. In the case of Demark, for instance, the long-term target of the energy policy is to reach 100% renewable energy system. This can be achieved by drastic reduction of the energy demand, optimization of production/distribution and substitution of fossil fuels with biomasses. However, a large increase in biomass consumption will finally induce conversion of arable and currently cultivated land into fields dedicated to energy crops production determining significant environmental consequences related to land use changes. In this study the global warming potential impact associated with six alternative bioenergy systems based on willow and Miscanthus was assessed by means of life-cycle assessment. The results showed that bioenergy production may generate higher global warming impacts than the reference fossil fuel system, when the impacts from indirect land use changes are accounted for. In a life-cycle perspective, only highly-efficient co-firing with fossil fuel achieved a (modest) GHG emission reduction.

Tonini, D.; Hamelin, L.; Wenzel, H.; Astrup, T.

2012-10-01

180

Forecasting effects of global warming on biodiversity.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The demand for accurate forecasting of the effects of global warming on biodiversity is growing, but current methods for forecasting have limitations. In this article, we compare and discuss the different uses of four forecasting methods: (1) models that consider species individually, (2) niche-theory models that group species by habitat (more specifically, by environmental conditions under which a species can persist or does persist), (3) general circulation models and coupled ocean–atmosphere–biosphere models, and (4) species–area curve models that consider all species or large aggregates of species. After outlining the different uses and limitations of these methods, we make eight primary suggestions for improving forecasts. We find that greater use of the fossil record and of modern genetic studies would improve forecasting methods. We note a Quaternary conundrum: While current empirical and theoretical ecological results suggest that many species could be at risk from global warming, during the recent ice ages surprisingly few species became extinct. The potential resolution of this conundrum gives insights into the requirements for more accurate and reliable forecasting. Our eight suggestions also point to constructive synergies in the solution to the different problems.

Botkin, D.B.; Saxe, H.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Global warming potential impact of bioenergy systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reducing dependence on fossil fuels and mitigation of GHG emissions is a main focus in the energy strategy of many Countries. In the case of Demark, for instance, the long-term target of the energy policy is to reach 100% renewable energy system. This can be achieved by drastic reduction of the energy demand, optimization of production/distribution and substitution of fossil fuels with biomasses. However, a large increase in biomass consumption will finally induce conversion of arable and currently cultivated land into fields dedicated to energy crops production determining significant environmental consequences related to land use changes. In this study the global warming potential impact associated with six alternative bioenergy systems based on willow and Miscanthus was assessed by means of life-cycle assessment. The results showed that bioenergy production may generate higher global warming impacts than the reference fossil fuel system, when the impacts from indirect land use changes are accounted for. In a life-cycle perspective, only highly-efficient co-firing with fossil fuel achieved a (modest GHG emission reduction.

Wenzel H.

2012-10-01

182

Identifying the Molecular Origin of Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

We have investigated the physical characteristics of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to assess which properties are most important in determining the efficiency of a GHG. Chlorofluorcarbons (CFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), nitrogen fluorides, and various other known atmospheric trace molecules have been included in this study. Compounds containing the halogens F or Cl have in common very polar X-F or X-Cl bonds, particularly the X-F bonds. It is shown that as more F atoms bond to the same central atom, the bond dipoles become larger as a result of the central atom becoming more positive. This leads to a linear increase in the total or integrated XF bond dipole derivatives for the molecule, which leads to a non-linear (quadratic) increase in infrared (IR) intensity. Moreover, virtually all of the X-F bond stretches occur in the atmospheric IR window as opposed to X-H stretches, which do not occur in the atmospheric window. It is concluded that molecules possessing several F atoms will always have a large radiative forcing parameter in the calculation of their global warming potential. Some of the implications for global warming and climate change are discussed.

Bera, Partha P.; Francisco, Joseph S.; Lee, Timothy J.

2009-01-01

183

Ethical choices and global climate warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ethical implications of global warming are discussed, and a summary is presented of a study on ethics and climate change. Deciding the 'best' approaches depends on point of view, whether this be of a Canadian, a Somali, great grandchildren, the Amazon rain forest or a kangaroo. The spectrum of possible actions runs from avoidance to adaptation. Avoidance focuses on strategies to reduce the greenhouse effect by curtailing greenhouse gas emissions or preventing these emissions from reaching the atmosphere. Adaptation strategies help to cope with the negative consequences of allowing emissions to continue. Philosophers and ethicists have expressed a wide range of opinions on the consequences, responsibilities, limitations, and legal mechanisms involved in determining global warming action. A profound shift in corporate thinking is called for, with less emphasis on short-term bottom line. The role of governments and other institutions is debated, and questions are raised about the economic strategies that will best protect the interests of future generations. Energy efficiency and conservation must be reflected in the economic equation. Public cynicism with regard to political leaders is such that they are unlikely to credited with any degree of ethical motivation, a view that may be unwarranted. Ethical principles must become more central in the formulation of policies.

Dotto, L

1994-01-01

184

Global Warming Estimation From Microwave Sounding Unit  

Science.gov (United States)

Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) Ch 2 data sets, collected from sequential, polar-orbiting, Sun-synchronous National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration operational satellites, contain systematic calibration errors that are coupled to the diurnal temperature cycle over the globe. Since these coupled errors in MSU data differ between successive satellites, it is necessary to make compensatory adjustments to these multisatellite data sets in order to determine long-term global temperature change. With the aid of the observations during overlapping periods of successive satellites, we can determine such adjustments and use them to account for the coupled errors in the long-term time series of MSU Ch 2 global temperature. In turn, these adjusted MSU Ch 2 data sets can be used to yield global temperature trend. In a pioneering study, Spencer and Christy (SC) (1990) developed a procedure to derive the global temperature trend from MSU Ch 2 data. Such a procedure can leave unaccounted residual errors in the time series of the temperature anomalies deduced by SC, which could lead to a spurious long-term temperature trend derived from their analysis. In the present study, we have developed a method that avoids the shortcomings of the SC procedure, the magnitude of the coupled errors is not determined explicitly. Furthermore, based on some assumptions, these coupled errors are eliminated in three separate steps. Such a procedure can leave unaccounted residual errors in the time series of the temperature anomalies deduced by SC, which could lead to a spurious long-term temperature trend derived from their analysis. In the present study, we have developed a method that avoids the shortcomings of the SC procedures. Based on our analysis, we find there is a global warming of 0.23+/-0.12 K between 1980 and 1991. Also, in this study, the time series of global temperature anomalies constructed by removing the global mean annual temperature cycle compares favorably with a similar time series obtained from conventional observations of temperature.

Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R., Jr.; Yoo, J.-M.; Dalu, G.

1998-01-01

185

THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE NIGERIAN CEMENT INDUSTRY TO GLOBAL WARMING.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The issues of global warming have taken the centre stage all over the world and its effects are manifesting every where especially in the sub-Saharan Africa. Industrialisation is the main cause of global warming. The highly developed countries that are highly industrialised are regarded as the main culprits in this menace. Thedeveloped countries have been at the receiving end of the negative effects of the global warming. With the modest development in industrialisation in the developing coun...

DR. NDEFO OKIGBO

2012-01-01

186

Modification of cirrus clouds to reduce global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Since both greenhouse gases and cirrus clouds strongly affect outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) with no affect or less affect on solar radiation, respectively, an attempt to delay global warming to buy time for emission reduction strategies to work might naturally target cirrus clouds. Cirrus having optical depths effect on climate, with the coldest cirrus having the strongest warming effect. Roughly 2/3 of predicted global warming is due to the feedback effect of water vapor and clouds from an initial greenhouse gas forcing, and a recent study indicates water vapor and clouds in the upper troposphere (UT) have the greatest impact on climate sensitivity (the equilibrium response of global-mean surface temperature to a CO2 doubling). Thus altering UT water vapor and cirrus may be a good strategy for climate engineering. Cirrus cloud coverage is predicted to be sensitive to the ice fall speed which depends on ice crystal size. The higher the cirrus, the greater their impact is on OLR. Thus by changing ice crystal size in the coldest cirrus, OLR and climate might be modified. Fortunately the coldest cirrus have the highest ice supersaturation due to the dominance of homogeneous freezing nucleation. Seeding such cirrus with very efficient heterogeneous ice nuclei should produce larger ice crystals due to vapor competition effects, thus increasing OLR and surface cooling. Preliminary estimates of this global net cloud forcing via GCM simulations are more negative than -2.8 W m-2 and could neutralize the radiative forcing due to a CO2 doubling (3.7 W m-2). This cirrus engineered net forcing is due to (1) reduced cirrus coverage and (2) reduced upper tropospheric water vapor, due to enhanced ice sedimentation. The implementation of this climate engineering could use the airline industry to disperse the seeding material. Commercial airliners typically fly at temperatures between -40 and -60 deg. C (where homogeneous freezing nucleation dominates). Weather modification research has developed ice nucleating substances that are extremely effective at these cold temperatures, are non-toxic and are relatively inexpensive. The seeding material could be released in both clear and cloudy conditions to build up a background concentration of efficient ice nuclei so that non-contrail cirrus will experience these nuclei and grow larger ice crystals. Flight corridors are denser in the high- and mid-latitudes where global warming is more severe. A risk with any geoengineering experiment is that it could affect climate in unforeseen ways, causing more harm than good. Since seeding aerosol residence times in the troposphere are 1-2 weeks, the climate might return back to its normal state within a few months after stopping the geoengineering. A drawback to this approach is that it would not stop ocean acidification. It may not have many of the draw-backs that stratospheric injection of sulfur species has, such as ozone destruction, decreased solar radiation possibly altering the hydrological cycle with more frequent droughts, greater expense, the creation of a white sky and less solar energy. In addition, modeling studies indicate it would take at least 3 years for the climate system to return to “normal” upon termination of stratospheric geoengineering.

Mitchell, D. L.

2009-12-01

187

Anesthesia and global warming: the real hazards of theoretic science  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent speculative articles in the medical literature have indicted certain inhalational anesthetics as contributing to global warming. This unfounded speculation may have deleterious patient impact PMID:22444758

2012-01-01

188

Anesthesia and global warming: the real hazards of theoretic science  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Recent speculative articles in the medical literature have indicted certain inhalational anesthetics as contributing to global warming. This unfounded speculation may have deleterious patient impact

Ii, Mychaskiw George

2012-01-01

189

Farmer’s Adaptation to Global Warming in Punjab  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The global warming discourse has mainly focused on how to prevent global warming by trying to pin-point which countries should take most of the responsibility to stop or reduce the possible effects of global warming. We need to make sure that we not only continue to try to prevent further human impacts on the environmental system, but that we also focus on our ability to cope with the possible future impacts of global warming. To do this we will need to be flexible in order to be able to adap...

Keys, Torill

2011-01-01

190

Global Warming and Terrestrial Biodiversity Decline  

Science.gov (United States)

Released on August 30 2000, this 34-page report from the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) warns that "global warming could fundamentally alter one third of plant and animal habitats by the end of this century, and cause the eventual extinction of certain plant and animal species." According to the report, the danger is greatest in the northern latitudes of Canada, Russia, and Scandinavia, where warming is predicted to be the most rapid, destroying up to 70 percent of habitat. In many other areas it predicts local species loss of up to 20 percent. These predictions are based on "a moderate estimate that concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere will double from pre-industrial levels during this century." However, as the press release notes, some have projected a three-fold increase in concentrations by 2010 unless corrective action is taken. The full text of the report is available in .pdf or Word format at the site, along with an executive summary, conclusions, and discussion of the methods used to create the report.

Malcolm, Jay R.; Markham, Adam, 1948-.

2000-01-01

191

Halocarbon ozone depletion and global warming potentials  

Science.gov (United States)

Concern over the global environmental consequences of fully halogenated chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) has created a need to determine the potential impacts of other halogenated organic compounds on stratospheric ozone and climate. The CFCs, which do not contain an H atom, are not oxidized or photolyzed in the troposphere. These compounds are transported into the stratosphere where they decompose and can lead to chlorine catalyzed ozone depletion. The hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs or HFCs), in particular those proposed as substitutes for CFCs, contain at least one hydrogen atom in the molecule, which confers on these compounds a much greater sensitivity toward oxidation by hydroxyl radicals in the troposphere, resulting in much shorter atmospheric lifetimes than CFCs, and consequently lower potential for depleting ozone. The available information is reviewed which relates to the lifetime of these compounds (HCFCs and HFCs) in the troposphere, and up-to-date assessments are reported of the potential relative effects of CFCs, HCFCs, HFCs, and halons on stratospheric ozone and global climate (through 'greenhouse' global warming).

Cox, Richard A.; Wuebbles, D.; Atkinson, R.; Connell, Peter S.; Dorn, H. P.; Derudder, A.; Derwent, Richard G.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Fisher, D.; Isaksen, Ivar S. A.

1990-01-01

192

Electricity generating renewables and global warming emissions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is sometimes assumed that renewable technologies which emit carbon dioxide (CO2) in their operation do not offset CO2 emissions as much as technologies such as wind energy, PV or hydro. Firstly this paper examines the CO2 savings achieved by electricity generated from renewables as a result of their being substituted for fossil fuel-fired generation. These savings are then balanced against the CO2 emissions arising from the manufacture of the power plant and, in the case of some technologies, the CO2 produced in operation. The end result for all technologies is a net CO2 saving. Some renewable energy technologies also reduce methane emissions. These methane emission savings are converted into CO2 equivalents to give a measure of the net global warming reduction effect of generating electricity from these sources. (Author)

193

Natural gas industry and global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Natural gas has a very good potential compared to other fossil fuels as regard to global warming because of its high content of hydrogen, and its versatility in uses. To take full advantage of this potential, further development of gas designed boilers and furnaces, gas catalytic combustion, fuel cells are needed, but progresses in the recent years have been very promising. The natural gas industry' environmental potential is discussed. Regarding methane emission, progresses have been done is Western Europe on the distribution network, and some improvement are underway. It is however important to rationalize the effort by acting on the most emitting subsystem: this can be achieved by cooperation along the whole gas chain. (R.P.)

194

Climate changes instead of global warming  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Air temperature changes on Earth in recent years are the subject of numerous and increasingly interdisciplinary research. In contrast to, conditionally speaking, generally accepted views that these changes are conditioned primarily by anthropogenic activity, more results appear to suggest that it is dominant natural processes about. Whether because of the proven existence of areas in which downtrends are registered or the stagnation of air temperature, as opposed to areas where the increase is determined, in scientific papers, as well as the media, the increasingly present is the use of the term climate changes instead of the global warming. In this paper, we shall try to present arguments for the debate relating to the official view of the IPCC, as well as research indicating the opposite view.

Radovanovi? Milan M.

2014-01-01

195

Global Warming Education for Astro 101 Classes  

Science.gov (United States)

The AAS Sustainability Committee (SC) aims to reduce the ecological footprint of the AAS. The SC has identified three major areas of concern on which to focus for the coming year: (1) AAS Meetings, which are energy-intensive because of their associated travel, lodging, and conference center needs; (2) other travel, including to observing runs, team meetings, and conferences -- some of that travel could reasonably be replaced with teleconferencing options, which we are exploring; and (3) education. There will be a special session at this meeting devoted to helping astronomy professors include global warming in their Astro 101 classes. Several seasoned educators will share their tips and provide online resources such as PowerPoint slides and figures on climate change.

Lowenthal, James D.; Guinan, E. F.; Knezek, P.; Lacy, J. H.; Marshall, P. J.; Rodgers, B.; Rykoff, E.; Sheth, K.

2012-01-01

196

Decarbonization and sequestration for mitigating global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mitigating the global warming greenhouse effect while maintaining a fossil fuel economy, requires improving efficiency of utilization of fossil fuels, use of high hydrogen content fossil fuels, decarbonization of fossil fuels, and sequestering of carbon and CO2 applied to all the sectors of the economy, electric power generation, transportation, and industrial, and domestic power and heat generation. Decarbonization means removal of carbon as C or CO2 either before or after fossil fuel combustion and sequestration means disposal of the recovered C or CO2 including its utilization. Removal and recovery of CO2 from power generation plants and sequestration in the ocean represents one possibility of making a major impact on reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. This paper will briefly review the progress made in ocean disposal and present some alternative schemes. (author)

197

Global warming and SF6 molecule  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper the basic SF6 molecule physical characteristics are given concerning its influence on global warming and green house effect. Absorption and relaxation characteristics of this molecule have been investigated within the frame of nonlinear molecule – strong laser field interaction in different gas mixtures. All experiments have been performed on a different gas mixture pressures to analyze and investigate relaxation and energy transfer characteristics of absorbing molecules and non-absorbing collision partners. To show the SF6 absorption and relaxation and energy transfer capability comparison between SF6 and C2H4 was given using the same experimental conditions and argon as a buffer gas. All measurement points and their calculated values presented in this paper have been obtained using the infrared-pulsed photoacoustics technique adopted for atmospheric and subatmospheric pressures.

Gajevi? Jelena

2006-01-01

198

Global Warming: The Complete Briefing (Third Edition)  

Science.gov (United States)

"What kind of world will our grandchildren inherit?” prods the large, yellow bullet point jumping out from the black background on the back cover of John Houghton's already classic textbook, Global Warming: The Complete Briefing. Students in an undergraduate or first year graduate seminar course—the clear target audience for this book—will come away with little doubt about the answer to this question: a warmer one.Essentially, this is the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) process distilled into a textbook. The first seven chapters, about two thirds of the book's 350 pages, provide a compelling account of the consensus IPCC view of the greenhouse effect, climate variability, climate modeling, climate projections, and the impacts of climate change. These chapters are without doubt the core strength of this excellent textbook, synthesizing an unprecedented two decades of community effort, scientific cooperation, and consensus building into a coherent view.

Alverson, Keith

199

The EC's next global warming factories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Greenpeace suggests that, because they waste far more of the fuel's energy than they transform into electricity, fossil fuel power plants would more accurately be called global warming factories. Electricity is effectively only a by-product. Although the European Community's Energy and Environment ministers three years ago agreed to stabilise rising CO2 emissions, the strategy proposed by the European Commission would have virtually no impact on the electricity sector, the largest source of CO2. Emissions threaten to be 17% higher in 2000 than in 1990 yet power companies are building more plants. Greenpeace has compiled a list of the next 145 global warming factories in the EC amounting to 90,000 MW with the potential to emit around 375 million tonnes CO2 per year. More strenuous efforts must be made to curb CO2 emissions. A UN panel of the world's leading climate scientists has confirmed its earlier findings justifying deep cuts in CO2 emissions. Part of the solution lies in severing the link between electricity sales and power companies' profits. Even the best efforts to save energy will be undermined by the power sector unless its profitability is coupled to improving customer energy efficiency. A planning framework along these lines known as Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) has performed successfully in North America for over a decade. Greenpeace is calling for a moratorium on power plant construction until atorium on power plant construction until options for saving energy are exhausted and a shake-up of the power sector in Europe to put energy efficiency first with the rapid introduction of new power planning legislation at national and Community levels concerning IRP. 2 refs., 3 tabs

200

A global warming forum: Scientific, economic, and legal overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Global Warming Forum covers in detail five general subject areas aimed at providing first, the scientific background and technical information available on global warming and second, a study and evaluation of the role of economic, legal, and political considerations in global warming. The five general topic areas discussed are the following: (1) The role of geophysical and geoengineering methods to solve problems related to global climatic change; (2) the role of oceanographic and geochemical methods to provide evidence for global climatic change; (3) the global assessment of greenhouse gas production including the need for additional information; (4) natural resource management needed to provide long-term global energy and agricultural uses; (5) legal, policy, and educational considerations required to properly evaluate global warming proposals

 
 
 
 
201

Hot stuff. Global warming as a giant trend  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article presents various aspects of global warming with focus on meteorological data, global discharges, estimated surface temperature increments, ocean level elevations and net warming effects of various human activities. The consequences for the economic and social developments are discussed. Some action possibilities are mentioned. (tk)

202

Biomass energy, forests and global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biomass in all its forms currently provides about 14% of the world's energy, equivalent to 25 million bbl oil/day; in developing countries where it is the major energy source, biomass supplies 35% of total energy use. Although biomass energy use affects the flux of carbon to the atmosphere, the main carbon emission problem is caused by fossil fuels and land clearance for agriculture. Biomass fuels make no net contribution to atmospheric CO2 if used sustainably. A major global revegetation and reforestation effort is a possible strategy to reduce CO2 emissions and to slow the pace of climatic change. However, a more attractive alternative strategy might be to substitute fossil fuels, especially coal, with biomass grown specifically for this purpose producing modern fuels such as electricity, liquids and gases. This paper examines biomass energy use, devegetation, biomass burning, the implications for global warming and the ability of biomass to sequester CO2 and substitute for fossil fuels. It also discusses some socioeconomic and political issues. (author)

203

Global Warming and 21st Century Drying  

Science.gov (United States)

Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twentyfirst century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman- Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both precipitation and PET changes increase the percentage of global land area projected to experience at least moderate drying (PDSI standard deviation of or = -1; 11 to 44 %), although this is likely less meaningful because much of the PET induced drying in the SPEI occurs in the aforementioned arid regions. Integrated accounting of both the supply and demand sides of the surface moisture balance is therefore critical for characterizing the full range of projected drought risks tied to increasing greenhouse gases and associated warming of the climate system.

Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdun, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

2014-01-01

204

Global Warming and 21st Century Drying  

Science.gov (United States)

Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twentyfirst century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman- Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both precipitation and PET changes increase the percentage of global land area projected to experience at least moderate drying (PDSI standard deviation of SPEI projections (SPEI standard deviation of > or = -1; 11 to 44 %), although this is likely less meaningful because much of the PET induced drying in the SPEI occurs in the aforementioned arid regions. Integrated accounting of both the supply and demand sides of the surface moisture balance is therefore critical for characterizing the full range of projected drought risks tied to increasing greenhouse gases and associated warming of the climate system.

Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdun, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

2014-01-01

205

Phenology and global warming research in Brazil  

Science.gov (United States)

A recent review on South American phenology research has shown an increase in phenology papers over the last two decades, especially in this new 21st century. Nevertheless, there is a lack of long term data sets or monitoring systems, or of papers addressing plant phenology and global warming. The IPCC AR4 report from 2007 has offered indisputable evidence of regional to global-scale change in seasonality, but it is supported by plant and animal phenological data from North Hemisphere and temperate species. Information from tropical regions in general and South America in particular are sparse or lacking. Here I summarize the recent outcomes of our ongoing tropical phenology research in Brazil and its potential contribution to integrate fields and understand the effects of global warming within the tropics. The Phenology Laboratory (UNESP) is located at Rio Claro, São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil. We are looking for trends and shifts on tropical vegetation phenology, and are exploring different methods for collecting and analyzing phenology data. The phenological studies are developed in collaboration with graduate and undergraduate students, post-docs and researchers from Brazil and around the world. We established three long term monitoring programs on Southeastern Brazil from 2000 onwards: trees from an urban garden, semideciduous forest trees, and savanna cerrado woody vegetation, all based on direct weekly to monthly observation of marked plants. We have collected some discontinuous data from Atlantic rain forest trees ranging from 5 to 8 years long. I collaborate with the longest tropical wet forest phenology monitoring system in Central Amazon, and with another long term monitoring system on semi deciduous forest from South Brazil. All research programs aim, in the long run, to monitor and detect shifts on tropical plant phenology related to climatic changes. Our first preliminary findings suggest that: (i) flowering and leafing are more affected by changes on dry season length and severity, shifting on time and synchrony; (ii) shifts on fruiting are more subtle and related to seed dispersal mechanisms (animal, wind or others); (iii) forest edges and gaps, and distance from urban centers may influence tree phenology, stressing the synergic effect of fragmentation (among others) to global warming on tropical phenology; (iv) ground and satellite generated phenology patterns may not agree, deserving further and detailed research; (v) in situ environmental monitoring systems help to track changes on climate and correlate to ground phenology. Some important steps forward are: (i) to build a Brazilian Phenology Network, first based on a selection of national wide distributed species; (ii) to recover historical phenology data series from our herbarium collections and other sources; (iii) to integrate phenology to remote sensing; (iv) to stimulate more phenology long term monitoring programs and the integration across disciplines, advancing our knowledge of seasonal responses within tropics to long-term climate change.

Morellato, L. P. C.

2009-04-01

206

Global declines in oceanic nitrification rates as a consequence of ocean acidification  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ocean acidification produced by dissolution of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in seawater has profound consequences for marine ecology and biogeochemistry. The oceans have absorbed one-third of CO2 emissions over the past two centuries, altering ocean chemistry, reducing seawater pH, and affecting marine animals and phytoplankton in multiple ways. Microbially mediated ocean biogeochemical processes will be pivotal in determining how the earth system responds to global environmen...

Beman, J. Michael; Chow, Cheryl-emiliane; King, Andrew L.; Feng, Yuanyuan; Fuhrman, Jed A.; Andersson, Andreas; Bates, Nicholas R.; Popp, Brian N.; Hutchins, David A.

2010-01-01

207

Responses of terrestrial aridity to global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

dryness of terrestrial climate can be measured by the ratio of annual precipitation (P) to potential evapotranspiration (PET), where the latter represents the evaporative demand of the atmosphere, which depends on the surface air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and available energy. This study examines how the terrestrial mean aridity responds to global warming in terms of P/PET using the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 transient CO2 increase to 2 × CO2 simulations. We show that the (percentage) increase (rate) in P averaged over land is ~1.7%/°C ocean mean surface air temperature increase, while the increase in PET is 5.3%/°C, leading to a decrease in P/PET (i.e., a drier terrestrial climate) by ~3.4%/°C. Noting a similar rate of percentage increase in P over land to that in evaporation (E) over ocean, we propose a framework for examining the change in P/PET, in which we compare the change in PET over land and E over ocean, both expressed using the Penman-Monteith formula. We show that a drier terrestrial climate is caused by (i) enhanced land warming relative to the ocean, (ii) a decrease in relative humidity over land but an increase over ocean, (iii) part of increase in net downward surface radiation going into the deep ocean, and (iv) different responses of PET over land and E over ocean for given changes in atmospheric conditions (largely associated with changes in temperatures). The relative contributions to the change in terrestrial mean aridity from these four factors are about 35%, 35%, 15%, and 15%, respectively. The slight slowdown of the surface wind over both land and ocean has little impact on the terrestrial mean aridity.

Fu, Qiang; Feng, Song

2014-07-01

208

Global warming and neurodegenerative disorders: speculations on their linkage  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change is having considerable impact on biological systems. Eras of ice ages and warming shaped the contemporary earth and origin of creatures including humans. Warming forces stress conditions on cells. Therefore, cells evolved elaborate defense mechanisms, such as creation of heat shock proteins, to combat heat stress. Global warming is becoming a crisis and this process would yield an undefined increasing rate of neurodegenerative disorders in future decades. Since heat stress is known to have a degenerative effects on neurons and, conversely, cold conditions have protective effect on these cells, we hypothesize that persistent heat stress forced by global warming might play a crucial role in increasing neurodegenerative disorders.

Habibi, Laleh; Perry, George; Mahmoudi, Morteza

2014-01-01

209

Policy regarding responses to global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Earlier this year, 52 Nobel laureates and over 700 members of the National Academy of Sciences appealed to President Bush to take action now to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. Despite the need for further research, and the uncertainty over the timing and extent of the global warming threat, the President and Congress, as well as state and local governments, should immediately adopt measures that, in addition to curbing greenhouse gases, will have independent benefits. The US needs a new energy policy that promotes energy efficiency and renewable resources to reduce the burning of fossil fuels. Specifically, the federal government should raise motor vehicle fuel economy requirements to 45 miles per gallon by the year 2000 and increase funding for the research, development and commercialization of efficiency and renewable technologies. State and local governments should give utilities incentives to pursue aggressive energy efficiency programs, should incorporate environmental and health considerations into the costs of energy, and should adopt solid waste recycling instead of incineration or landfilling

210

40 CFR Table A-1 to Subpart A of... - Global Warming Potentials  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Global Warming Potentials A Table A-1...A-1 to Subpart A of Part 98—Global Warming Potentials [100-Year Time... CAS No. Chemical formula Global warming potential(100 yr.)...

2010-07-01

211

Promotion of scientific literacy on global warming by process drama  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This project aims to investigate how process drama promotes scientific literacy in the context of global warming. Thirty-one lower (n = 24 and upper (n = 7 secondary students of one secondary school in Bangkok, Thailand participated in a seven-day workshop which process drama strategy was implemented. In the workshop, the students were actively engaged in a series of lab exercises, critically reviewed global warming issue presented in selected printed media, and watched a documentary film to understand the science, conflict, and solutions of the global warming. In addition, the students were trained on acting, elements of drama, and storytelling. They made and selected a story, developed a script, formed casts and production crews and performed the drama to the public. Data were collected by using a questionnaire, participant observation, informal interviews, student daily journals, and drama scripts. Results showed that the students developed scientific perception of the keywords related to global warming and conceptual understanding of the causes, processes, and consequences of global warming after the workshop. Students’ views on the solution of global warming were integrated, creative and critical. The students increases intensity in engagement in solving global warming.

Pongprapan PONGSOPHON

2010-06-01

212

Effect of global warming in Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The earth absorbs much radiation from the sun to warm the atmosphere, the land, and the oceans. This energy is reradiatedback into space. In the past, the thermal budget of the earth is more or less balanced, with radiation from the sun onpar with thermal radiation from the earth. With increasing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, some of the thermal radiationis absorbed by these gases resulting in an increase of global mean surface temperature, melting of polar ices and thuscontributing to a rising of sea level. However, sea-level changes depend upon four main processes: 1 Glacio-eustasy, 2Emergence/subsidence of land, 3 Man-made activities, and 4 Ocean-atmosphere effects. The assessment report of the IntergovernmentalPanel on Climate Change (IPCC, 1990, which was based on past data in Europe and the USA, including theNorth Atlantic Ocean, published a mean temperature of 14°C and an actual increase of 1°C in the last century, plus an increaseof CO2 from 370 ppmv to 550 ppmv, and a three-fold temperature increase of 3°C in this century. All these changes are projectinga sea level rise (SLR of 31-110 cm per century on global scale, which was in fact applicable to the North Atlantic. Theassessment report of the IPCC Working Group I (1996 has realized that differential SLR occurs due to different geographicalconditions. It identified ten regions on earth and compared the actual climate change to what it was postulated to be, andcame up with SLR of 15-95 cm per century. The assessment report of the IPCC Working Group II (2001 employed improveddata obtained from tide gauges and satellite images as well as mathematical model results with the most convincing evidencein the North Atlantic, and it concluded an SLR of 9-88 cm per century. But it had, however, noted a lack of data in the Pacificand Indian Ocean. The assessment report of the IPCC Summary for Policy Makers (SPM, 2007 that included six differentarctic and antarctic climate science scenarios reported relatively lower value of 18-59 cm per century. The North Atlantic thatis surrounded by glaciers might see a SLR due to ice melting related to an increase of the temperature in the Atlantic Ocean.Nevertheless, the lack of data on global warming in the tropics especially in the Pacific and the Indian Oceans, which haveno glaciers, might put a different view on the conclusions derived from temperature and arctic data. Six decades of comprehensiveinformation from the Gulf of Thailand regarding oceanographical and meteorological data is revealing a much lowerSLR. The mean monthly sea levels in six decades at Sattahip and Ko Lak showed no increasing trend, while those rises atSamut Prakan and Samut Sakhon are due to land subsidence from excessive groundwater pumping.

Suphat Vongvisessomjai

2010-08-01

213

Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rai SM. 2013. Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 101-104. The present article is focused on global warming, which is an important global problem being faced by the humankind. The article discusses about the causes of the global warming, such as green house gases. The earth receives energy from the Sun in the form of solar radiations with small amount of infra red and ultraviolet rays. A part of these radiations is absorbed by green house gases which results into warming of the earth. These radiations increase temperature on the universe and are one of the most important global problems. The efforts from all the countries of the world are required for reduction of emissions of green house gases.

SHIVANI M. RAI

2013-11-01

214

Global warming 2007. An update to global warming: the balance of evidence and its policy implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the four years since my original review (Keller[25]; hereafter referred to as CFK03), research has clarified and strengthened our understanding of how humans are warming the planet. So many of the details highlighted in the IPCC's Third Assessment Report[21] and in CFK03 have been resolved that I expect many to be a bit overwhelmed, and I hope that, by treating just the most significant aspects of the research, this update may provide a road map through the expected maze of new information. In particular, while most of CFK03 remains current, there are important items that have changed: Most notable is the resolution of the conundrum that mid-tropospheric warming did not seem to match surface warming. Both satellite and radiosonde (balloon-borne sensors) data reduction showed little warming in the middle troposphere (4-8 km altitude). In the CFK03 I discussed potential solutions to this problem, but at that time there was no clear resolution. This problem has now been solved, and the middle troposphere is seen to be warming apace with the surface. There have also been advances in determinations of temperatures over the past 1,000 years showing a cooler Little Ice Age (LIA) but essentially the same warming during medieval times (not as large as recent warming). The recent uproar over the so-called "hockey stick" temperature determination is much overblown since at least seven other groups have made relatively independent determinations of northern hemisphere temperatures over the same time period and derived essentially the same results. They differ on how cold the LIA was but essentially agree with the Mann's hockey stick result that the Medieval Warm Period was not as warm as the last 25 years. The question of the sun's influence on climate continues to generate controversy. It appears there is a growing consensus that, while the sun was a major factor in earlier temperature variations, it is incapable of having caused observed warming in the past quarter century or so. However, this conclusion is being challenged by differing interpretations of satellite observations of Total Solar Insolation (TSI). Different satellites give different estimates of TSI during the 1996-7 solar activity minimum. A recent study using the larger TSI satellite interpretation indicates a stronger role for the sun, and until there is agreement on TSI at solar minimum, we caution completely disregarding the sun as a significant factor in recent warming. Computer models continue to improve and, while they still do not do a satisfactory job of predicting regional changes, their simulations of global aspects of climate change and of individual forcings are increasingly reliable. In addition to these four areas, the past five years have seen advances in our understanding of many other aspects of climate change--from albedo changes due to land use to the dynamics of glacier movement. However, these more are of second order importance and will only be treated very briefly. The big news since CFK03 is the first of these, the collapse of the climate critics' last real bastion, namely that satellites and radiosondes show no significant warming in the past quarter century. Figuratively speaking, this was the center pole that held up the critics' entire "tent." Their argument was that, if there had been little warming in the past 25 years or so, then what warming was observed would have been within the range of natural variations with solar forcing as the major player. Further, the models would have been shown to be unreliable since they were predicting warming that was not happening. But now both satellite and in-situ radiosonde observations have been shown to corroborate both the surface observations of warming and the model predictions. Thus, while uncertainties still remain, we are now seeing a coherent picture in which past climate variations, solar and other forcings, model predictions and other indicators such as glacier recession all point to a human-induced warming that needs to be considered carefully. A final topic touched

Keller, Charles F

2007-01-01

215

Impacts of Ocean Acidification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is growing scientific evidence that, as a result of increasing anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions, absorption of CO{sub 2} by the oceans has already noticeably increased the average oceanic acidity from pre-industrial levels. This global threat requires a global response. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), continuing CO{sub 2} emissions in line with current trends could make the oceans up to 150% more acidic by 2100 than they were at the beginning of the Anthropocene. Acidification decreases the ability of the ocean to absorb additional atmospheric CO{sub 2}, which implies that future CO{sub 2} emissions are likely to lead to more rapid global warming. Ocean acidification is also problematic because of its negative effects on marine ecosystems, especially marine calcifying organisms, and marine resources and services upon which human societies largely depend such as energy, water, and fisheries. For example, it is predicted that by 2100 around 70% of all cold-water corals, especially those in the higher latitudes, will live in waters undersaturated in carbonate due to ocean acidification. Recent research indicates that ocean acidification might also result in increasing levels of jellyfish in some marine ecosystems. Aside from direct effects, ocean acidification together with other global change-induced impacts such as marine and coastal pollution and the introduction of invasive alien species are likely to result in more fragile marine ecosystems, making them more vulnerable to other environmental impacts resulting from, for example, coastal deforestation and widescale fisheries. The Marine Board-ESF Position Paper on the Impacts of Climate Change on the European Marine and Coastal Environment - Ecosystems indicated that presenting ocean acidification issues to policy makers is a key issue and challenge. Indeed, as the consequences of ocean acidification are expected to emerge rapidly and drastically, but are often not well known or are completely unknown, a strategic workshop was organised by the ESF Standing Committee for Life, Earth and Environmental Sciences (LESC) in cooperation with the ESF EUROCORES Programme EuroCLIMATE. The aim was to address the issue of the impacts of ocean acidification on both the natural and socioeconomic systems, and to identify the gaps of knowledge in this field. The present Science Policy Briefing resulting from this strategic workshop has undergone external international peer review and has been approved by both the Marine Board-ESF and LESC. The ESF considers this Science Policy Briefing on the Impacts of Ocean Acidification an important step towards raising awareness amongst a wide range of research actors, policy makers and funding agencies. Taking into account the range of priorities and key areas of research requiring action at the pan-European level, a series of recommendations for European actions have been drawn up under the following five headings: (i) increase understanding and improve quantification of the organismal and ecosystem responses to ocean acidification; (ii) include the human dimension by increasing collaboration and integration efforts between natural and social sciences; (iii) rationalise, improve and focus monitoring and data gathering, management, processing and accessibility efforts; (iv) increase dissemination, outreach and capacity-building efforts, in particular related to communicating ocean acidification to stakeholders (policy makers, research founders, public, media, etc.); and (v) improve coordination of ocean acidification research and collaboration both at the national and international levels

Bijma, Jelle (Alfred Wegener Inst., D-27570 Bremerhaven (Germany)) (and others)

2009-08-15

216

Global warming and body mass decline in Israeli passerine birds.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Global warming may affect the physiology, distributions, phenology and adaptations of plants and animals. In Israel, minimum summer temperatures increased by an average of 0.26 degrees C per decade during the second half of the 20th century. Bergmann's rule predicts that, in warm-blooded animals, races from warm regions are smaller than races from cold regions. Numerous studies have reported general correlations between body mass in fossil animals and independently established palaeoclimatic ...

Yom-tov, Y.

2001-01-01

217

Global warming: the significance of methane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

the concept of Global Warming Potential (GWP) indicates the relative contribution to global warming over a given period (for example 100 years) of a pulse emission at the start of the period of 1 kg of a specific greenhouse gas (GHG) in comparison to the contribution, over the same period, of an emission of 1 kg of CO2. The GWPs calculated for different time intervals take into account the differences in atmospheric lifetimes of the different GHGs. Using the '100-year GWP' to measure non CO2 GHG emissions is not well suited to the case of permanent or long lifetime measures whose effectiveness is to be assessed at a given time horizon. In this context, it contributes to significantly playing down the importance of reducing emissions of GHGs with short atmospheric lifetimes. Thus, for example, methane which is not emitted over the period 2020- 2100 as a result of a landfill site being closed in 2020 will have an impact (as opposed to if the site remained in operation) that would be far greater towards 2100 compared to a CO2 emission source that has also been stopped permanently and whose climate impact is measured in an equivalent manner. Using the GWP is only appropriate if applied year after year to time horizons considered to be of concern or decisive by climate studies, thus in particular 2050, 2100 and 2150. This is all the more significant as climate experts' current concerns lead them not only to advocate long-term stabilisation of GHG concentrations but also to avoid as far as possible intermediate excess of these concentrations over the coming century. Finally, it is noted that CH4 prevention policies implemented in the short term may continue to have a long-term impact greater than merely taking into account the current GWP would imply. To more or less ignore the impact of CH4 as it is unsuitable for accounting purposes affects the exclusive character of the link that may exist between the issue of GHGs and that of energy. Furthermore, if the increase in atmospheric concentrations of CH4 which was significant following the onset of the industrial revolution, has slowed down in the last few years for reasons that are still being debated, a renewed sharp increase in the event of the Arctic region melting, for example, remains quite possible. It is thus important, now that the most recent IPCC report points to the consequences of climate change in the medium term, that GHG emission reduction policies be defined individually for each GHG: both CH4 and N2O, on the basis of their real emissions, consistent with the scenarios used by climate experts and depending on the concentration levels they recommend be achieved at given time horizons. Purely economic and financial considerations linked to the emissions trading markets must not mask the importance of robust policies aimed at non CO2 GHGs. Specifically, in addition to the vital CO2 emissions reduction effort, greater attention must be paid to short-term reductions of CH4 emissions whose impacts are significant at a time horizon of a few decades. Climate experts and policy-makers should make the most of the two-year negotiating period on the post 2012 regime, officially launched at the recent Bali Climate Conference, to give thought to this issue

218

Negatep: A Scenario for Combating Global Warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There have been an increasing number of foresight exercises in the field of energy and global warming in recent years, as we have seen from the articles devoted to these questions by Futuribles in 2011 (both in this special issue and in the April number). It is certainly the case that the goals for greenhouse-gas emission reduction are rather ambitious, particularly in France, it being the aim of the 2005 French framework law on energy to reduce carbon gas discharges by a factor of four. Among these scenarios, the Negatep scenario developed by Claude Acket and Pierre Bacher from the 'Sauvons le climat' [Let's save the climate] Association proposes to achieve this ('factor 4') goal in France by 2050 by reducing fossil fuel use by 75% and replacing this as quickly as possible with electricity produced from non-carbon-gas-emitting sources - chiefly, nuclear power and renewables. The authors lay out their goals here, backed up by figures, comparing these with the reference scenario. They also show the path that must be followed to arrive at these goals, particularly in the residential and tertiary sectors, and in transport and industry (through control of needs and recourse to alternative energy sources). They close by comparing the Negatep scenario with two other more recent scenarios aimed also at reducing greenhouse gas emissions, on the one hand in Europe, and on the other in Germany. The comparison confirms that they were right to rely on electricity as a substitute ht to rely on electricity as a substitute for oil, but gives them cause for concern in respect of the consequences (formidable in their view) that the replacement of nuclear power and coal energy by intermittent renewable energies might have in Europe, both with regard to costs and to the effects on the power network. (authors)

219

Global warming, energy use, and economic growth  

Science.gov (United States)

The dissertation comprises four papers that explore the interactions between global warming, energy use, and economic growth. While the papers are separate entities, they share the underlying theme of highlighting national differences in the growth experience and their implications for long-term energy use and climate change. The first paper provides an overview of some key economic issues in the climate change literature. In doing so, the paper critically appraises the 1995 draft report of Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The focus is the choice of a pure rate of time preference in the economic modeling of climate change, abatement costs differentials between developed and developing countries, and contrasting implications of standard discount rates and value of life estimates for these two country groups. The second paper develops a global model that takes account of the depletion of oil resources in the context of a geo-economic model for climate change. It is found that in the presence of non-decreasing carbon and energy intensities and declining petroleum availability, the carbon emissions trajectory is much higher than that typically projected by other models of this genre. Furthermore, by introducing price and income sensitive demand functions for fossil fuels, the model provides a framework to assess the effectiveness of fuel specific carbon taxes in reducing the COsb2 emissions trajectory. Cross-price substitution effects necessitate unrealistically high tax rates in order to lower the projected emissions trajectory to the optimal level. The economic structure of five integrated assessment models for climate change is reviewed in the third paper, with a special focus on the macroeconomic and damage assessment modules. The final paper undertakes an econometric estimation of the changing shares of capital, labour, energy, and technical change in explaining the growth patterns of 38 countries. Production elasticities vary by country group and also in response to the levels of factor use. It is found that classifying countries according to the GDP growth rate yields statistically different slope coefficients. Using the estimated translog production function, the capital and labour requirements of reductions in energy use are approximated. Analytical expressions for the elasticity of energy intensity with respect to factor inputs and also autonomous energy efficiency improvements are provided.

Khanna, Neha

220

Global assessment of the effects of terrestrial acidification on plant species richness  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study estimates the potential losses of vascular plant species richness due to terrestrial acidification for different world's biomes. We used empirical occurrence data of 2409 species from 140 studies and estimated the relative species richness – pH response curves using logistic regressions. The regressions were then used to quantify the fraction of species that are potentially lost due to soil pH changes. Although we found considerable variability within biomes, out results show that the pH at which species richness was maximized was found to be the lowest in (sub)tropical forests (pH = 4.1) and the highest in deserts (pH = 7.4). We also found that (sub)tropical moist forests are highly sensitive to decreases of in soil pH below 4.1. This study can be coupled with existing atmospheric deposition models to quantify the risk of species richness loss following soil acidification. Highlights: ? We compare the sensitivity of four biomes to soil acidification. ? We develop logistic regressions using observational field data. ? Sub(tropical) moist forests are highly affected by pH decreases. ? Logistic regressions can be linked to global scale atmospheric and soil fate models. -- Relationships of potential species richness loss along a soil pH gradient are proposed

 
 
 
 
221

A matter of degrees: A primer on global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A primer on global warming is presented in order to provide information to Canadians on making environmentally responsible decisions. The fundamentals of natural climate change, the atmospheric environment, factors that influence climate, and the greenhouse effect are explained. Global warming is then discussed with reference to paleoclimatic research, the influence of human activity on increased concentrations of greenhouse gases, and predictions of future climates. The possible impacts of global warming on Canada are described for such sectors as forests, fisheries, agriculture, sea levels, health, energy supply and demand, and the Arctic regions. The actions that citizens and governments can take in order to mitigate or adapt to global warming are then presented. A glossary and index are included. 55 refs., 17 figs

222

Teaching “Global Warming” through Socioscientific issues-based Instruction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aims to investigate effective teaching criterion through socioscientific issues-based instruction “Global warming” at 80/80, to find out effectiveness index of socioscientific issues-based instruction, to compare analytical ...

Prasart Nuangchalerm; Boonpeng Kwuanthong

2010-01-01

223

Anesthesia and global warming: the real hazards of theoretic science  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Recent speculative articles in the medical literature have indicted certain inhalational anesthetics as contributing to global warming. This unfounded speculation may have deleterious patient impact

Mychaskiw II George

2012-03-01

224

Promotion of scientific literacy on global warming by process drama  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This project aims to investigate how process drama promotes scientific literacy in the context of global warming. Thirty-one lower (n = 24) and upper (n = 7) secondary students of one secondary school in Bangkok, Thailand participated in a seven-day workshop which process drama strategy was implemented. In the workshop, the students were actively engaged in a series of lab exercises, critically reviewed global warming issue presented in selected printed media, and watched a documentary film ...

Pongsophon, Pongprapan; Yutakom, Naruemon; Boujaoude, Saouma B.

2010-01-01

225

Critical Literacy in Action: Multimodal Texts on Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson provides a way to combine scientific topics into an English lesson. Students apply specific comprehension strategies to multimodal texts as they investigate and interrogate the effects and possible causes of global warming. Students explore global warming through a variety of photographs, diagrams, and websites. As they look at each type of media, students catalog the strengths and weaknesses of these representations before identifying comprehension strategies that can be applied across various media.

Wilson, Amy A.

2012-01-01

226

The Effect of Global Warming on Infectious Diseases  

Science.gov (United States)

Global warming has various effects on human health. The main indirect effects are on infectious diseases. Although the effects on infectious diseases will be detected worldwide, the degree and types of the effect are different, depending on the location of the respective countries and socioeconomical situations. Among infectious diseases, water- and foodborne infectious diseases and vector-borne infectious diseases are two main categories that are forecasted to be most affected. The effect on vector-borne infectious diseases such as malaria and dengue fever is mainly because of the expansion of the infested areas of vector mosquitoes and increase in the number and feeding activity of infected mosquitoes. There will be increase in the number of cases with water- and foodborne diarrhoeal diseases. Even with the strongest mitigation procedures, global warming cannot be avoided for decades. Therefore, implementation of adaptation measures to the effect of global warming is the most practical action we can take. It is generally accepted that the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases have not been apparent at this point yet in East Asia. However, these impacts will appear in one form or another if global warming continues to progress in future. Further research on the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases and on future prospects should be conducted. PMID:24159433

Kurane, Ichiro

2010-01-01

227

Global warming description using Daisyworld model with greenhouse gases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Daisyworld is an archetypal model of the earth that is able to describe the global regulation that can emerge from the interaction between life and environment. This article proposes a model based on the original Daisyworld considering greenhouse gases emission and absorption, allowing the description of the global warming phenomenon. Global and local analyses are discussed evaluating the influence of greenhouse gases in the planet dynamics. Numerical simulations are carried out showing the general qualitative behavior of the Daisyworld for different scenarios that includes solar luminosity variations and greenhouse gases effect. Nonlinear dynamics perspective is of concern discussing a way that helps the comprehension of the global warming phenomenon. PMID:25236841

Paiva, Susana L D; Savi, Marcelo A; Viola, Flavio M; Leiroz, Albino J K

2014-11-01

228

Global Warming and Neotropical Rainforests: A Historical Perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

There is concern over the future of the tropical rainforest (TRF) in the face of global warming. Will TRFs collapse? The fossil record can inform us about that. Our compilation of 5,998 empirical estimates of temperature over the past 120 Ma indicates that tropics have warmed as much as 7°C during both the mid-Cretaceous and the Paleogene. We analyzed the paleobotanical record of South America during the Paleogene and found that the TRF did not expand toward temperate latitudes during global warm events, even though temperatures were appropriate for doing so, suggesting that solar insolation can be a constraint on the distribution of the tropical biome. Rather, a novel biome, adapted to temperate latitudes with warm winters, developed south of the tropical zone. The TRF did not collapse during past warmings; on the contrary, its diversity increased. The increase in temperature seems to be a major driver in promoting diversity.

Jaramillo, Carlos; Cárdenas, Andrés

2013-05-01

229

Is a global warming signature emerging in the tropical Pacific?  

Science.gov (United States)

The tropical pacific experienced a hitherto-unseen anomalous basinwide warming from May 2009 through April 2010 with the maximum warming to the east of the dateline, but for a weak anomalous cooling west of 140°E after early boreal fall. Our observed analysis and model experiments isolate the potential teleconnections from TP during the summer of 2009. Further, we show through an empirical orthogonal function analysis of the tropical Pacific SSTA that the anomalous conditions in TP during this period could have manifested as a canonical El Niño, but for a slowly intensifying background west-east gradient. This zonal SST gradient is subject to an increasing trend associated with global warming. A possible implication is that any further increase in global warming may result in more basinwide warm events in place of canonical El Niños, along with the occurrence of more intense La Niñas and El Niño Modokis.

Ashok, K.; Sabin, T. P.; Swapna, P.; Murtugudde, R. G.

2012-01-01

230

How does ocean ventilation change under global warming?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the upper ocean takes up much of the heat added to the earth system by anthropogenic global warming, one would expect that global warming would lead to an increase in stratification and a decrease in the ventilation of the ocean interior. However, multiple simulations in global coupled climate models using an ideal age tracer which is set to zero in the mixed layer and ages at 1 yr/yr outside this layer show that the intermediate depths in the low latitudes become younger under global warming. This paper reconciles these apparently contradictory trends, showing that a decrease in upwelling of old water from below is responsible for the change. Implications for global biological cycling are considered.

A. Gnanadesikan

2006-07-01

231

How does ocean ventilation change under global warming?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the upper ocean takes up much of the heat added to the earth system by anthropogenic global warming, one would expect that global warming would lead to an increase in stratification and a decrease in the ventilation of the ocean interior. However, multiple simulations in global coupled climate models using an ideal age tracer which is set to zero in the mixed layer and ages at 1 yr/yr outside this layer show that the intermediate depths in the low latitudes, Northwest Atlantic, and parts of the Arctic Ocean become younger under global warming. This paper reconciles these apparently contradictory trends, showing that the decreases result from changes in the relative contributions of old deep waters and younger surface waters. Implications for the tropical oxygen minimum zones, which play a critical role in global biogeochemical cycling are considered in detail.

A. Gnanadesikan

2007-01-01

232

Physical aspects of the greenhouse effect and global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

According to the simplest model of the earth's radiative balance, global warming will occur with certainty as humankind increases its production and consumption of nonsolar energy. This prediction is revisited, using a broader model that allows the greenhouse effect to be considered. The new model predicts a global warming of ?TE=(114 K)?, where ? is the rate of surface energy release in units of the average incident solar radiation, 342 W m-2, and ?TE is the average temperature rise at the earth's surface. Present values of these quantities, excluding geothermal sources, are ?=0.69×10-4 and ?TE=7.9 mK. The model assigns a small number of optical parameters to the atmosphere and surface and qualifies the simple warming prediction: It is rigorous only if parameters other than ? are unchanged. The model is not complex and should serve as an aid to an elementary understanding of global warming.

Knox, Robert S.

1999-12-01

233

Focus: Assessing the regional impacts of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five studies are presented which assess the impacts of global warming on physical, economic, and social systems in Canada. A study on the use of climatic change scenarios to estimate ecoclimatic impacts was carried out. These scenarios may include synthetic scenarios produced from historical data, global climate model (GCM) simulations, and hybrid scenarios. The advantages and drawbacks of various scenarios are discussed along with the criteria for selecting impact assessment models. An examination of water resources in the Great Lakes and the Saskatchewan River subbasin uses case studies of two areas that have experienced wide hydrological variations due to climatic variability in order to determine the impacts of global warming scenarios on net basin supply. Problems of developing regional models are discussed and results of projected changes in net basin supply are presented for GCM-based simulations and hypothetical warming scenarios. A study of the impacts of climate warming on transportation and the regional economy in northern Canada uses stochastic models to provide examples of how Mackenzie River barge traffic will be affected. The economic impacts of the resultant lengthened shipping season are outlined under three scenarios. The implications of climatic change on Ontario agriculture are assessed according to GCM scenarios. Results are presented for crop yields and production as well as land resource suitability. Finally, sociocultural implications of globalally, sociocultural implications of global warming on the Arctic and the Inuit are summarized, with reference to a past warming episode occurring around the year 1000. 45 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

234

Thai Youths and Global Warming: Media Information, Awareness, and Lifestyle Activities  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the exposure of Thai youths to media information on global warming, the relationship between exposure to global warming information and awareness of global warming, and the relationship between that awareness and lifestyle activities that contribute to global warming. A focus group of eight Thai youths provided information that…

Chokriensukchai, Kanchana; Tamang, Ritendra

2010-01-01

235

How does ocean ventilation change under global warming?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since the upper ocean takes up much of the heat added to the earth system by anthropogenic global warming, one would expect that global warming would lead to an increase in stratification and a decrease in the ventilation of the ocean interior. However, multiple simulations in global coupled climate models using an ideal age tracer which is set to zero in the mixed layer and ages at 1 yr/yr outside this layer show that the intermediate depths in the low latitudes, Northwest Atlantic, and part...

Gnanadesikan, A.; Russell, J. L.; Zeng, F.

2007-01-01

236

Future oceanic warming and acidification alter immune response and disease status in a commercial shellfish species, Mytilus edulis L.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide are leading to physical changes in marine environments including parallel decreases in ocean pH and increases in seawater temperature. This study examined the impacts of a six month exposure to combined decreased pH and increased temperature on the immune response and disease status in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis L. Results provide the first confirmation that exposure to future acidification and warming conditions via aquarium-based simulation may have parallel implications for bivalve health. Collectively, the data suggests that temperature more than pH may be the key driver affecting immune response in M. edulis. Data also suggests that both increases in temperature and/or lowered pH conditions may lead to changes in parasite abundance and diversity, pathological conditions, and bacterial incidence in M. edulis. These results have implications for future management of shellfish under a predicted climate change scenario and future sustainability of shellfisheries. Examination of the combined effects of two stressors over an extended exposure period provides key preliminary data and thus, this work represents a unique and vital contribution to current research efforts towards a collective understanding of expected near-future impacts of climate change on marine environments. PMID:24927423

Mackenzie, Clara L; Lynch, Sharon A; Culloty, Sarah C; Malham, Shelagh K

2014-01-01

237

Future Oceanic Warming and Acidification Alter Immune Response and Disease Status in a Commercial Shellfish Species, Mytilus edulis L.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide are leading to physical changes in marine environments including parallel decreases in ocean pH and increases in seawater temperature. This study examined the impacts of a six month exposure to combined decreased pH and increased temperature on the immune response and disease status in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis L. Results provide the first confirmation that exposure to future acidification and warming conditions via aquarium-based simulation may have parallel implications for bivalve health. Collectively, the data suggests that temperature more than pH may be the key driver affecting immune response in M. edulis. Data also suggests that both increases in temperature and/or lowered pH conditions may lead to changes in parasite abundance and diversity, pathological conditions, and bacterial incidence in M. edulis. These results have implications for future management of shellfish under a predicted climate change scenario and future sustainability of shellfisheries. Examination of the combined effects of two stressors over an extended exposure period provides key preliminary data and thus, this work represents a unique and vital contribution to current research efforts towards a collective understanding of expected near-future impacts of climate change on marine environments. PMID:24927423

Mackenzie, Clara L.; Lynch, Sharon A.; Culloty, Sarah C.; Malham, Shelagh K.

2014-01-01

238

Fade of global dimming reveals full magnitude of greenhouse warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Speculations on the impact of variations in surface solar radiation on global warming range from concerns that solar dimming has largely masked the full magnitude of greenhouse warming, to claims that the recent reversal from solar dimming to brightening rather than the greenhouse effect was responsible for the observed warming. To disentangle surface solar and greenhouse influences on global warming, trends in diurnal temperature range are analyzed. The diurnal temperature ranges averaged over global land surfaces show, after decades of decline, a distinct tendency to level off since the mid 1980s. They suggest that solar dimming, possibly caused by increasing air pollution, was effective in masking greenhouse warming, but only up to the 1980s, when dimming gradually transformed into brightening. The reversal from dimming to brightening may be related to more effective air pollution measures and the breakdown of the economy in the former communist countries, leading to cleaner and more transparent atmospheres. With this transition, the uncovered greenhouse effect started to reveal its full dimension, as manifested in a rapid temperature rise (+0.38 /decade over land since mid-1980s). Recent solar brightening cannot supersede the greenhouse effect as main cause of global warming, since land temperatures increased by 0.8 from 1960 to 2000, even though solar brightening did not fully outweigh solar dimming within this period. (author) period. (author)

239

Simulation of future global warming scenarios in rice paddies with an open-field warming facility  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract To simulate expected future global warming, hexagonal arrays of infrared heaters have previously been used to warm open-field canopies of upland crops such as wheat. Through the use of concrete-anchored posts, improved software, overhead wires, extensive grounding, and monitoring with a thermal camera, the technology was safely and reliably extended to paddy rice fields. The system maintained canopy temperature increases within 0.5°C of daytime and nighttime set-point diff...

Rehmani Muhammad; Zhang Jingqi; Li Ganghua; Ata-Ul-Karim Syed; Wang Shaohua; Kimball Bruce A; Yan Chuan; Liu Zhenghui; Ding Yanfeng

2011-01-01

240

Global warming is no longer making debate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Earth's climate is warming up, and the human activity is responsible for at least a part of this warming up. This is the scientifical consensus about which more than 500 specialists of the GIEC (intergovernmental group for climate evolution) have worked on at the Unesco, in Paris, from January 29, 2006 to February 1, 2007. This press kit seizes the opportunity of this meeting to present a status of the last theories and initiatives in the domain of climate change: the scientists' warning, the international mobilization, the initiatives of companies, the analyses made by the journalists of Les Echos, and the series of scientific files about the greenhouse effect, the computerized simulations, the example of past analogues (fast decay of Maya's civilization), and the consumers behaviour in front of the climate change threat. (J.S.)

 
 
 
 
241

Global warming, convective threshold and false thermostats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We demonstrate a theoretically expected behavior of the tropical sea surface temperature probability density function (PDF) in future and past (Eocene) greenhouse climate simulations. To first order this consists of a shift to warmer temperatures as climate warms, without change of shape of the PDF. The behavior is tied to a shift of the temperature for deep convection onset. Consequently, the threshold for appearance of high clouds and associated radiative forcing shifts along with temperatu...

Williams, Ian N.; Pierrehumbert, Raymond T.; Huber, Matthew

2009-01-01

242

PBS Online NewsHour: The Global Warming Debate  

Science.gov (United States)

In-depth coverage of global warming, including related research and policy decisions, together with instructional materials. Includes interactives on rises in temperature and sea level and on comparing vehicles in terms of emissions and fuel costs; a lesson plan on Arctic warming; archived news stories; and links to related PBS features. Some of the archived news stories are available as streaming video, RealAudio as well as text.

243

Future harm and current obligations: the case of global warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is a time during which aggregate benefits from greenhouse gas emissions dominate costs, but less comfort should be drawn from this situation than current emphasis on double CO2 scenarios suggests. The intertemporal asymmetry of impacts means initial benefits to most regions, from slight global warming, turn into very large economic costs, as warming continues. Economic decisions over what action, if any, to take concerning the greenhouse effect are essentially controlled by the social...

Spash, Clive L.

1993-01-01

244

El Niño/Southern Oscillation response to global warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon, originating in the Tropical Pacific, is the strongest natural interannual climate signal and has widespread effects on the global climate system and the ecology of the Tropical Pacific. Any strong change in ENSO statistics will therefore have serious climatic and ecological consequences. Most global climate models do simulate ENSO, although large biases exist with respect to its characteristics. The ENSO response to global warming differs s...

Latif, Mojib; Keenlyside, Noel

2009-01-01

245

Polynomial cointegration tests of anthropogenic impact on global warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We use statistical methods for nonstationary time series to test the anthropogenic interpretation of global warming (AGW), according to which an increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations raised global temperature in the 20th century. Specifically, the methodology of polynomial cointegration is used to test AGW since during the observation period (1880–2007) global temperature and solar irradiance are stationary in 1st differences whereas greenhouse gases and aerosol forci...

Beenstock, M.; Reingewertz, Y.; Paldor, N.

2012-01-01

246

Interpretation of High Projections for Global-Mean Warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has recently released its Third Assessment Report (TAR), in which new projections are given for global-mean warming in the absence of policies to limit climate change. The full warming range over 1990 to 2100, 1.4o to 5.8oC, is substantially higher than the range given previously in the IPCC Second Assessment Report. Here we interpret the new warming range in probabilistic terms, accounting for uncertainties in emissions, the climate sensit...

Wigley, T. M. L.; Raper, S. C. B.

2001-01-01

247

Enhanced Warming over the Global Subtropical Western Boundary Currents  

Science.gov (United States)

The subtropical western boundary currents carry warm tropical water to the midlatitudes, vent large amount of heat and moisture to the atmosphere along their path, and thus profoundly affecting jet streams, midlatitude storms, as well as carbon uptake. The potential changes of these highly energetic and nonlinear currents under a greenhouse gas forcing have drawn significant concerns, yet detecting such changes remain largely hindered due to very limited observations. Here, based on different reconstructed sea surface temperature datasets and newly developed century-long ocean and atmosphere reanalysis products, we estimate the linear trends and find that the post-1900 surface ocean warming rate over the path of these currents is two to three times faster than the global mean surface ocean warming rate. The accelerated warming may be attributed to a synchronous poleward shift and/or intensification of global subtropical western boundary currents associated with a systematic change of winds over both hemispheres. Such an enhanced warming may reduce thermodynamic drive for the ocean to absorb anthropogenic carbon dioxide over these regions. However, uncertainties in detection and attribution of these warming trends remain, pointing to a timely need of a long-term monitoring network of the global western boundary currents and their extensions.

Wu, L.

2012-12-01

248

Seven steps to curb global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on best current estimates that the world needs to reduce global carbon dioxide emissions by 70% by 2050, and that there is at best a 10-year window of opportunity available to initiate the enormous changes needed, this paper proposes a set of seven self-contained steps that can be taken at a global level to tackle the problem with some prospect of success. The steps are self-financing and practicable, in that they are based on existing technologies. They involve agreement to create a new international agency charged with formulating and policing a global carbon pricing regime; a complementary step involving global monitoring of greenhouse gas emissions utilizing satellite resources; taking steps to compensate developing countries for preserving rainforest as carbon sinks; the dismantling of newly created trade barriers holding back global trade in biofuels; global promotion of a transition to renewable sources of electricity through facilitation of grid interconnections with independent power producers; a global moratorium on the building of new coal-fired power stations; and recycling of carbon revenues to promote uptake of renewable energy sources in developing countries, particularly Brazil, India and China. Taken as a group, it is argued that these steps are both necessary and sufficient. They call for institutional innovations at a global level that are politically difficult but feasible, given the magnitude of the problems addressedproblems addressed

249

Global warming combat policies in energy sector of Iran  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among the efforts to slow the potential for climate change are measures to reduce emissions of CO2 from energy use, and promote long-term storage of carbon in forests and soils. Important environmental changes due to climate change and global warming pose potentially significant risks to humans, social systems, and natural world. Many uncertainties remain regarding precise timing,magnitude, and regional patterns of climate change and the extent to which mankind and nature can adapt to any changes. Estimating technical / economical / environmental potentials for reducing CO2 emission in energy sector and preventing of global warming is one of the main activities, which have been performed for the first time in Iran. By use of 26 factors, model on global warming combat policies in energy sector of Iran in long-medium and short term determine decreasing amount of CO2 emission. The results and also method of providing this model will be described in this paper

250

Global Warming at the East Coast Zone of Peninsular Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Global Warming is not a new phenomenon and it is already been felt by people all around the world. Not only the people affected by the global warming, but also our sea. There are a lot of potential threats that can be caused by global warming on the sea such as rise of sea level, changes in waves action, water current and wind velocity, but do one of the main users of the sea which are the fishermen have already felt these impacts? Approach: This is a quantitative study where a developed questionnaire was used to gain the data needed. Through a stratified random sampling a total of 300 registered fishermen from four states in the east coast zone of Peninsular Malaysia namely Kelantan, Terengganu, Pahang and East Johor have been selected. Results: This study provided a greater understanding of the fishermen views on the changes that happened to the sea due to the global warming impact. They stressed that the temperature, the rainfall season and the coastal areas have changed. Furthermore, according to them, the sea nowadays are no longer easy to predict as the water current, wind velocity and waves actions can easily change their pattern and endanger them while they are at the sea. Conclusion/Recommendation: Effective actions can be taken to assist the fishermen to adapt to impacts of global warming. One of it is to provide them with more information on global warming. Besides, fishermen in Malaysia also can be provided with trainings in order to provide them with other skills besides fishing.

Hayrol A.M. Shaffril

2011-01-01

251

Global Warming: Knowledge and Views of Iranian Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Study of students’ knowledge about global warming can help authorities to have better imagination of this critical environmental problem. This research examines high school students' ideas about greenhouse effect and the results may be useful for the respective authorities to improve cultural and educational aspects of next generation. In this cross-sectional study, a 42 question questionnaire with mix of open and closed questions was used to evaluate high school students' view about the mechanism, consequences, causes and cures of global warming. To assess students’ knowledge, cognitive score was also calculated. 1035 students were randomly selected from 19 educational districts of Tehran. Sampling method was multi stage. Only 5.1% of the students could explain greenhouse effect correctly and completely. 88.8% and 71.2% respectively believed “if the greenhouse effect gets bigger the Earth will get hotter” and “incidence of more skin cancers is a consequence of global warming”. 69.6% and 68.8% respectively thought “the greenhouse effect is made worse by too much carbon dioxide” and “presence of ozone holes is a cause of greenhouse effect”. 68.4% believed “not using cars so much is a cure for global warming”. While a student’s ‘cognitive score’ could range from -36 to +36, Students' mean cognitive score was equal to +1.64. Mean cognitive score of male students and grade 2 & 3 students was respectively higher than female ones (P0.05. In general, students' knowledge about global warming was not acceptable and there were some misconceptions in the students’ mind, such as supposing ozone holes as a cause and more skin cancer as a consequence of global warming. The Findings of this survey indicate that, this important stratum of society have been received no sufficient and efficient education and sensitization on this matter.

Taraneh Yazdanparast, Sousan Salehpour, Mohammad Reza Masjedi, Seyed Mohammad Seyedmehdi, Eddie Boyes, Martin Stanisstreet, Mirsaeed Attarchi

2013-03-01

252

Global warming: knowledge and views of Iranian students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Study of students' knowledge about global warming can help authorities to have better imagination of this critical environmental problem. This research examines high school students' ideas about greenhouse effect and the results may be useful for the respective authorities to improve cultural and educational aspects of next generation. In this cross-sectional study, a 42 question questionnaire with mix of open and closed questions was used to evaluate high school students' view about the mechanism, consequences, causes and cures of global warming. To assess students' knowledge, cognitive score was also calculated. 1035 students were randomly selected from 19 educational districts of Tehran. Sampling method was multi stage. Only 5.1% of the students could explain greenhouse effect correctly and completely. 88.8% and 71.2% respectively believed "if the greenhouse effect gets bigger the Earth will get hotter" and "incidence of more skin cancers is a consequence of global warming". 69.6% and 68.8% respectively thought "the greenhouse effect is made worse by too much carbon dioxide" and "presence of ozone holes is a cause of greenhouse effect". 68.4% believed "not using cars so much is a cure for global warming". While a student's 'cognitive score' could range from -36 to +36, Students' mean cognitive score was equal to +1.64. Mean cognitive score of male students and grade 2 & 3 students was respectively higher than female ones (P0.05). In general, students' knowledge about global warming was not acceptable and there were some misconceptions in the students' mind, such as supposing ozone holes as a cause and more skin cancer as a consequence of global warming. The Findings of this survey indicate that, this important stratum of society have been received no sufficient and efficient education and sensitization on this matter. PMID:23605603

Yazdanparast, Taraneh; Salehpour, Sousan; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza; Seyedmehdi, Seyed Mohammad; Boyes, Eddie; Stanisstreet, Martin; Attarchi, Mirsaeed

2013-01-01

253

Critical impacts of global warming on land ecosystems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Globally increasing temperatures are likely to have impacts on terrestrial, aquatic and marine ecosystems that are difficult to manage. Quantifying impacts worldwide and systematically as a function of global warming is fundamental to substantiating the discussion on climate mitigation targets and adaptation planning. Here we present a macro-scale analysis of climate change impacts on terrestrial ecosystems based on newly developed sets of climate scenarios featuring a step-...

Ostberg, S.; Lucht, W.; Schaphoff, S.; Gerten, D.

2013-01-01

254

A Noted Physicist's Contrarian View of Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

According to Freeman Dyson, an emeritus professor of physics at the Institute for Advanced Study, the debate about global warming has become too narrow and opinions have become too entrenched. Relying on a computer model designed by the Yale University economist William D. Nordhaus, Dyson compared the effectiveness and economic feasibility of…

Goldstein, Evan R., Comp.

2008-01-01

255

Carbon Dioxide and Global Warming: A Failed Experiment  

Science.gov (United States)

Global warming is a current environmental issue that has been linked to an increase in anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. To raise awareness of the problem, various simple experiments have been proposed to demonstrate the effect of carbon dioxide on the planet's temperature. This article describes a similar experiment, which…

Ribeiro, Carla

2014-01-01

256

Global Warming: Discussion for EOS Science Writers Workshop  

Science.gov (United States)

The existence of global warming this century is no longer an issue of scientific debate. But there are many important questions about the nature and causes of long-term climate change, th roles of nature and human-made climate forcings and unforced (chaotic) climate variability, the practical impacts of climate change, and what, if anything, should be done to reduce global warming, Global warming is not a uniform increase of temperature, but rather involves at complex geographically varying climate change. Understanding of global warming will require improved observations of climate change itself and the forcing factors that can lead to climate change. The NASA Terra mission and other NASA Earth Science missions will provide key measurement of climate change and climate forcings. The strategy to develop an understanding of the causes and predictability of long-term climate change must be based on combination of observations with models and analysis. The upcoming NASA missions will make important contributions to the required observations.

Hansen, James E

1999-01-01

257

Global Warming: Carbon Dioxide and the Greenhouse Effect  

Science.gov (United States)

This video segment demonstrates carbon dioxide's role in the greenhouse effect and explains how increasing concentrations of C02 in the atmosphere may be contributing to global warming. Video includes an unusual demonstration of C02's heat-absorbing properties, using infrared film, a researcher's face, and a stream of C02 between them.

Frontline/nova; Foundation, Wgbh E.; Domain, Teachers'

258

Global warming and mycoflora in the Baltic Region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The author discusses possible effects of global warming on distribution and ecology of larger fungi, and presents examples of suggested indicator species which apparently are spreading from south to north. Only Basidiomycetes are corncerned, while actually no case of non-lichenized Ascomycetes is known. A continued monitoring of the mentioned species is recommended.

Hanns Kreisel

2006-06-01

259

The Effect of Global Warming on Infectious Diseases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Global warming has various effects on human health. The main indirect effects are on infectious diseases. Although the effects on infectious diseases will be detected worldwide, the degree and types of the effect are different, depending on the location of the respective countries and socioeconomical situations.

Kurane, Ichiro

2010-01-01

260

Turkish Prospective Teachers' Understanding and Misunderstanding on Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

The key objective of this study is to determine the Turkish elementary prospective teachers' opinions on global warming. It is also aimed to establish prospective teachers' views about the environmental education in Turkish universities. A true-false type scale was administered to 564 prospective teachers from science education, social studies…

Ocal, A.; Kisoglu, M.; Alas, A.; Gurbuz, H.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Seventh Grade Students' Conceptions of Global Warming and Climate Change  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate seventh grade students' conceptions of global warming and climate change. The study was descriptive in nature and involved the collection of qualitative data from 91 seventh grade students from three different schools in the Midwest, USA. An open response and draw and explain assessment instrument was…

Shepardson, Daniel P.; Niyogi, Dev; Choi, Soyoung; Charusombat, Umarporn

2009-01-01

262

Promotion of Scientific Literacy on Global Warming by Process Drama  

Science.gov (United States)

This project aims to investigate how process drama promotes scientific literacy in the context of global warming. Thirty-one lower (n = 24) and upper (n = 7) secondary students of one secondary school in Bangkok, Thailand participated in a seven-day workshop which process drama strategy was implemented. In the workshop, the students were actively…

Pongsophon, Pongprapan; Yutakom, Naruemon; Boujaoude, Saouma B.

2010-01-01

263

The core of the global warming problem: energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From the thermodynamic point of view, the global warming problem is an 'energy balance' problem. The heat (energy) accumulation in the earth and its atmosphere is the cause of global warming. This accumulation is mainly due to the imbalance of (solar) energy reaching and the energy leaving the earth, caused by 'greenhouse effect' in which the CO2 and other greenhouse gases play a critical role; so that balance of the energy entering and leaving the earth should be the key to solve the problem. Currently in the battle of tackling the global warming, we mainly focus on the development of CO2-related measures, i.e., emission reduction, CO2 sequestration, and CO2 recycle technologies. It is right in technical aspect, because they are attempting to thin the CO2 'blanket' around the earth. However, 'Energy' that is the core of the problem has been overlooked, at least in management/policy aspect. This paper is proposing an 'Energy Credit' i.e., the energy measure concept as an alternative to the 'CO2 credit' that is currently in place in the proposed emission trading scheme. The proposed energy credit concept has the advantages such as covering broad activities related to the global warming and not just direct emissions. Three examples are given in the paper to demonstrate the concept of the energy measure and its advantages over the CO2 credit concept. (Author)thor)

264

College Students' Misconceptions of Environmental Issues Related to Global Warming.  

Science.gov (United States)

Students are currently exposed to world environmental problems--including global warming and the greenhouse effect--in science classes at various points during their K-12 and college experience. However, the amount and depth of explosure to these issues can be quite variable. Students are also exposed to sources of misinformation leading to…

Groves, Fred H.; Pugh, Ava F.

265

THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE NIGERIAN CEMENT INDUSTRY TO GLOBAL WARMING.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The issues of global warming have taken the centre stage all over the world and its effects are manifesting every where especially in the sub-Saharan Africa. Industrialisation is the main cause of global warming. The highly developed countries that are highly industrialised are regarded as the main culprits in this menace. Thedeveloped countries have been at the receiving end of the negative effects of the global warming. With the modest development in industrialisation in the developing countries they are now gradually joining the league of green house gas emitters. In Nigeria the cement industry has made a considerable improvement in production capacity and development. This has resulted to an increase in cement production in Nigeria with its attendant increase in carbon dioxide generation into the atmosphere. Nigeria will be producing over 25million metric tonnes of cement annually and at the rate of one tonne of cement to one tonne of carbon dioxide, the country will likely be producing 25 million metric tonnes of carbon dioxide from cement production annually. The paper x-rayed this and showed the potential of the Nigeria cement industry in the contribution to global warming.

DR. NDEFO OKIGBO

2012-11-01

266

Compilation of Ozone Depletion Potentials and Global Warming Potentials  

Science.gov (United States)

Five databases are available for free online from the Syracuse Research Corporation (SRC) a not-for-profit research and development firm. The ozone depletion potentials database (1) contains experimental Global Warming Potentials (GWPs) and Ozone Depletion Potentials (ODPs) compiled from the open literature. It is searchable by CAS Registry number, and a lookup table for CAS numbers is provided.

267

Global warming considerations in northern Boreal forest ecosystems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The northern boreal forests of circumpolar lands are of special significance to questions of global climate change. Throughout its range, these forests are characterized by a relatively few tree species, although they may exhibit great spatial heterogeneity. Their ecosystems are simpler than temperate systems, and ecosystem processes are strongly affected by interactions between water, the landscape, and the biota. Northern boreal forest vegetation patterns are strongly influenced by forest fires, and distribution of forest generally coincides with occurrence of permafrost. Boreal forest landscapes are extremely sensitive to thermal disruption; global warming may result in lasting thermal and physical degradation of soils, altered rates and patterns of vegetation succession, and damage to engineered structures. A change in fire severity and frequency is also a significant concern. The total carbon pool of boreal forests and their associated peatlands is significant on a global scale; this carbon may amount to 10-20% of the global carbon pool. A change in latitudinal or elevational treeline has been suggested as a probable consequence of global warming. More subtle aspects of boreal forest ecosystems which may be affected by global warming include the depth of the active soil layer, the hydrologic cycle, and biological attributes of boreal stream systems. 48 refs., 2 figs

268

Global warming and local dimming. The statistical evidence  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two effects largely determine global warming: the well-known greenhouse effect and the less well-known solar radiation effect. An increase in concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases contributes to global warming: the greenhouse effect. In addition, small particles, called aerosols, reflect and absorb sunlight in the atmosphere. More pollution causes an increase in aerosols, so that less sunlight reaches the Earth (global dimming). Despite its name, global dimming is primarily a local (or regional) effect. Because of the dimming the Earth becomes cooler: the solar radiation effect. Global warming thus consists of two components: the (global) greenhouse effect and the (local) solar radiation effect, which work in opposite directions. Only the sum of the greenhouse effect and the solar radiation effect is observed, not the two effects separately. Our purpose is to identify the two effects. This is important, because the existence of the solar radiation effect obscures the magnitude of the greenhouse effect. We propose a simple climate model with a small number of parameters. We gather data from a large number of weather stations around the world for the period 1959-2002. We then estimate the parameters using dynamic panel data methods, and quantify the parameter uncertainty. Next, we decompose the estimated temperature change of 0.73C (averaged over the weather stations) into a greenhouse effect of 1.87C, a solar radiation effect of -1.09C, and a small remainder term. Finally, we subject our findings to extensive sensitivity analyses.

Magnus, J.R.; Melenberg, B. [Department of Econometrics and Operations Research, Tilburg University, Tilburg (Netherlands); Muris, C. [CentER, Tilburg University, Tilburg (Netherlands)

2011-01-15

269

Externality costs by pollutant. A. Global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The earth's atmosphere is a global commons into which the worlds population emits the gaseous by-products of its activities on the erroneous assumption that the atmosphere has limitless capacity to absorb invisible gaseous wastes without changing its characteristics, and that air pollution is cost-free waste disposal. However, all of these emissions effect changes in the worlds ecosystems, and some of the emissions, in particular emissions from electric power production, may radically alter the worlds climate. If one could determine the cost of the global climatic environmental impacts resulting from electricity production using fossil fuel, then the institutional structures of the electric power industry could be modified to incorporate that cost into the price of electricity and into decisions concerning how to provide electric power services. It is that cost that this chapter attempts to determine

270

GLOBAL WARMING, DECISIVE FACTOR OF UNIFORMITY SEASONS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Climate variability refers to variations in the mean state and other measures (such as standard deviations, the occurrence of extremes, etc.) of the climate on all temporal and spatial scales beyond that of individual weather events. Variability may be due to natural internal processes within the climate system (internal variability), or to variations in natural or anthropogenic external forcing (external variability). The majority of the global scientific community agrees that climate change resulting from the anthropogenic activities emitting greenhouses gases (GHGs provided by the Kyoto Protocol are CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}) can already be recognized. Effects are visible in the average temperature of the Earth, which has risen by around 0.6 {+-}0.2 C since the beginning of monitoring (the year 1860). Other indicators are the increased melting of the ice during summers and a 10-20 cm rise of the sea level during the 20th century. Although these occurrences might seem insignificant at first sight, the effects on everyday life can become very large. Climate change is believed to lead to a further sea level rise endangering coastal areas with erosion and floods. It will also result in more extreme weather and changes of precipitation patterns on global scale, causing floods and droughts. Furthermore, local ecosystems might change because of changed circumstances, and even global water cycles might be disturbed. In Romania, the impacts of climate change on agriculture, forestry, water management and human settlements are a growing concern. The National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) will further elaborate the individual policies and concrete measures to be developed and implemented under the NCCC. Romania ratified the UNFCCC by Law 24/1994 thus manifested clearly its concern for the global climate change and the political will to fulfill the commitments under the convention.

Mariana Ciobanu; Mirela Mazilu [University of Craiova, Faculty of Engineering and Management of the Technological Systems, Drobeta Turnu Severin (Romania); Marius Ciobanu [Inspectorate District of Frontier Police, Mehedinti (Romania)

2008-09-30

271

Global Warming and the Microwave Background  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the work, the importance of assigning the microwave background to the Earth is addressed while emphasizing the consequences for global climate change. Climate models can only produce meaningful forecasts when they consider the real magnitude of all radiative processes. The oceans and continents both contribute to terrestrial emissions. However, the extent of oceanic radiation, particularly in the microwave region, raises concerns. This is not only since the globe is covered with water, but...

-m, Robitaille P.

2009-01-01

272

IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON GLOBAL WARMING  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Climate change has become an issue which touches upon all sphere of influence of life. To struggle the problem understanding the perceptions of all that have a stake in it provides with stronger ground for decision making. India is the country that is or going to be severely affected by climate change. India is faced with the challenge of sustaining its rapid economic growth while dealing with the global threat of climate change. This threat arises from collected greenhouse ga...

Jalpa Rohit Patel

2014-01-01

273

Separating Contributions from Anthropogenic Warming and from Natural Oscillations to Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

During the past five decades, global air temperatures have been warming at a rather high rate (IPCC-2013) resulting in scientific and social concern. This warming trend is observed in field data sampling and model simulations and affects both air temperatures over land and over the ocean. However, the warming rate changes with time and this has led to question the causes underlying the observed trends. Here, we analyze recent measured and modeled data on global mean surface air temperature anomalies (GMTA) covering the last 160 years using spectral techniques. The spectral analysis of the measured data does show a strong secular trend (ST) and a clear multidecadal sinusoidal oscillation (MDV) that resembles the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The observed acceleration of the warming during the period from 1970 to 2000 therefore appears to be caused by a superimposition of anthropogenic-induced warming (~60%) with the positive phase of a multidecadal oscillation (~40%), while the recent slowdown (hiatus) of this tendency is likely due to a shift in the MDV phase. It has been proposed that this change in the MDV phase could mask the effect of global warming in the forthcoming decades and our analysis indicates that this is quite likely, the current hiatus being already a manifestation of this phenomenon. Most current generation global circulation models (CMIP5) do not reproduce this MDV and are missing the actual temperature hiatus. Therefore, it is less likely that such models could correctly forecast the temperature evolution during the coming decades. We propose here to use the climate dynamics that is inherent in the GMTA data to forecast temperatures until 2100. These forecasts, based on the analyzed secular trend and the multidecadal oscillations are indeed capable of reproducing the actual hiatus and generally result, in comparison to CMIP5 forecasts, in much lower temperature increases for 2100 of only about 1oC. Global mean air temperatures could be even decreasing for the next 2-3 decades. Henceforth, for a correct assessment of the anthropogenic-induced warming of the global air temperatures in the future natural multidecadal temperature oscillations should be taken into account.

Konrad Stips, Adolf; Macias, Diego; Garcia-Gorriz, Elisa

2014-05-01

274

The geological record of ocean acidification.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ocean acidification may have severe consequences for marine ecosystems; however, assessing its future impact is difficult because laboratory experiments and field observations are limited by their reduced ecologic complexity and sample period, respectively. In contrast, the geological record contains long-term evidence for a variety of global environmental perturbations, including ocean acidification plus their associated biotic responses. We review events exhibiting evidence for elevated atmospheric CO(2), global warming, and ocean acidification over the past ~300 million years of Earth's history, some with contemporaneous extinction or evolutionary turnover among marine calcifiers. Although similarities exist, no past event perfectly parallels future projections in terms of disrupting the balance of ocean carbonate chemistry-a consequence of the unprecedented rapidity of CO(2) release currently taking place. PMID:22383840

Hönisch, Bärbel; Ridgwell, Andy; Schmidt, Daniela N; Thomas, Ellen; Gibbs, Samantha J; Sluijs, Appy; Zeebe, Richard; Kump, Lee; Martindale, Rowan C; Greene, Sarah E; Kiessling, Wolfgang; Ries, Justin; Zachos, James C; Royer, Dana L; Barker, Stephen; Marchitto, Thomas M; Moyer, Ryan; Pelejero, Carles; Ziveri, Patrizia; Foster, Gavin L; Williams, Branwen

2012-03-01

275

Our Changing Oceans: All about Ocean Acidification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The consequences of ocean acidification are global in scale. More research into ocean acidification and its consequences is needed. It is already known, for example, that there are regional differences in the vulnerability of fisheries to acidification. The combination of other factors, such as global warming, the destruction of habitats, overfishing and pollution, need to be taken into account when developing strategies to increase the marine environment’s resilience. Among steps that can be taken to reduce the impact is better protection of marine coastal ecosystems, such as mangrove swamps and seagrass meadows, which will help protect fisheries. This recommendation was one of the conclusions of a three-day workshop attended by economists and scientists and organized by the IAEA and the Centre Scientifique de Monaco in November 2012. In their recommendations the workshop also stressed that the impact of increasing ocean acidity must be taken into account in the management of fisheries, particularly where seafood is a main dietary source

276

On the Present Halting of Global Warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The rise in global average temperature over the last century has halted since roughly the year 2000, despite the fact that the release of CO2 into the atmosphere is still increasing. It is suggested here that this interruption has been caused by the suspension of the near linear (+ 0.5 °C/100 years or 0.05 °C/10 years) temperature increase over the last two centuries, due to recovery from the Little Ice Age, by a superposed multi-decadal oscillation of a 0.2 °C amplitude and a 50~60 year p...

Syun-Ichi Akasofu

2013-01-01

277

Simulation of future global warming scenarios in rice paddies with an open-field warming facility  

Science.gov (United States)

To simulate expected future global warming, hexagonal arrays of infrared heaters have previously been used to warm open-field canopies of upland crops such as wheat. Through the use of concrete-anchored posts, improved software, overhead wires, extensive grounding, and monitoring with a thermal camera, the technology was safely and reliably extended to paddy rice fields. The system maintained canopy temperature increases within 0.5°C of daytime and nighttime set-point differences of 1.3 and 2.7°C 67% of the time. PMID:22145582

2011-01-01

278

Simulation of future global warming scenarios in rice paddies with an open-field warming facility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract To simulate expected future global warming, hexagonal arrays of infrared heaters have previously been used to warm open-field canopies of upland crops such as wheat. Through the use of concrete-anchored posts, improved software, overhead wires, extensive grounding, and monitoring with a thermal camera, the technology was safely and reliably extended to paddy rice fields. The system maintained canopy temperature increases within 0.5°C of daytime and nighttime set-point differences of 1.3 and 2.7°C 67% of the time.

Rehmani Muhammad

2011-12-01

279

Bioenergy, global warming, and environmental impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bioenergy is one of the forms of renewable energy. Bioenergy, the energy from biomass, has been used for thousands of years, ever since people started burning wood to cook food, and today wood is still our largest biomass resource for bioenergy. The use of bioenergy has the potential to greatly reduce our greenhouse gas emissions. Replacing fossil fuels with energy from biomass has several distinct environmental implications. If biomass is harvested at a rate that is sustainable, using it for energy purposes does not result in any net increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. States have played a leading role in protecting the environment by reducing emissions of greenhouse gasses (GHGs), and state emissions are significant on a global scale. CO2 and CO are the main greenhouse gases associated with global warning. At the present time, coal is responsible for 30-40% of world CO2 emissions from fossil fuels. SO2 and NOx contribute to acid rain. Carbon assessments can play an important role in a strategy to control carbon dioxide emissions while raising revenue. (author)

280

I'll Save the World from Global Warming--Tomorrow: Using Procrastination Management to Combat Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

In the provocatively titled "I'll Save the World from Global Warming--Tomorrow," Dick Malott says that although we all want to do the right thing to help the environment, whether it's buying and installing compact fluorescent light bulbs (CFLs) or replacing an energy-guzzling appliance with a more efficient one, we put it off because there's no…

Malott, Richard W.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Global warming What does the data tell us?  

CERN Document Server

We analyze global surface temperature data obtained at 13472 weather stations from the year 1702 to 1990. The mean annual temperature of a station fluctuates from year to year by typically +-0.6oC (one standard deviation). Superimposed on this fluctuation is a linear increase of the temperature by typically 0.40oC per century ever since reliable data is available, i.e. since 1702. The world population has doubled from 1952 to 1990, yet we see no statistically significant acceleration of global warming in this period. We conclude that the effect of humankind on global warming up to 1990 is 0.0 +- 0.1oC.

Alban, E X

2002-01-01

282

An Investigation of Student Engagement in a Global Warming Debate  

Science.gov (United States)

NOTE: This is a large file, 77 mb in size! This article describes an investigation into how using debate as a pedagogical tool for addressing earth system science concepts can promote active student learning, present a realistic and dynamic view of science, and provide a mechanism for integrating the scientific, political and social dimensions of global environmental change. Using global warming as an example of earth system science, the authors consider how participation in debate provides an avenue for engaging students in science. The investigation draws from studies of school science that focus on the use of argument as a pedagogical tool and examines how students make use of observationally-based climatic data sets when debating the cause of global warming.

Schweizer, Diane; Kelly, Gregory

2005-01-01

283

ASM Lecture Series: Global Warming and Climate Change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The melting of ice and permafrost in the north polar region and the shrinking of the tropical glaciers are signals that global warming is no longer solely a warning about the future, but changes which have already arrived. The initial effects of this warming are noticeably present, and the concerns are now of substantial climate change in the near future. Modeling of the consequences on the future atmosphere from increased release of greenhouse gases and some of the possible consequences of climate change, such as rising sea levels and melting of the north polar ice, are discussed. (author)

284

El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO and global warming  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is widely accepted by the international scientific community that human activities have increased atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG and aerosols since the pre-industrial era. This increase has contributed to most of the warming (0.6±0.2°C observed over the 20th century, land areas warming more than the oceans, with the 1990s very likely to be the warmest decade of the 20th century (IPCC, 2001. How this warming influences the occurrence, severity and frequency of ENSO episodes remains highly uncertain. The IPCC (2001 assessment of the scientific literature found insufficient evidence to suggest any direct attribution between increase in ENSO events that occurred in the last 20 to 30 years of the 20th century and global warming (IPCC, 2001. However, assessments carried out since then (e.g. IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4, in preparations suggest El Niño events have become more frequent, persistent and intense during the last 20 to 30 years compared to the previous 100 years. Attribution to global warming, however, remains highly uncertain. Efforts to simulate and model past, present and future behaviour of ENSO under a warming world due to enhanced GHG concentrations produce conflicting results. Since substantial internally-generated variability of ENSO behaviour on multi-decadal to century timescales occurs in long, unforced atmospheric-oceanic general circulation model (AOGCM simulations, the attribution of past and future changes in ENSO amplitude and frequency to external forcing like GHG concentrations cannot be made with certainty. Such attribution would require extensive use of ensemble climate experiments or long experiments with stabilised GHG forcing. Although there are now better ENSO simulations in AOGCM, further model improvements are needed to simulate a more realistic Pacific climatology and seasonal cycle of the key modes influencing the climate of the region, as well as more realistic ENSO variability. More research is needed to further enhance scientific understanding of possible teleconnections between ENSO and global warming. It is worth noting the IPCC AR4 due to be release in September 2007, would provide a more detailed assessment of ENSO and global warming than what is being covered in this paper.

B. Nyenzi

2006-01-01

285

The contribution of cosmic rays to global warming  

CERN Document Server

A search has been made for a contribution of the changing cosmic ray intensity to the global warming observed in the last century. The cosmic ray intensity shows a strong 11 year cycle due to solar modulation and the overall rate has decreased since 1900. These changes in cosmic ray intensity are compared to those of the mean global surface temperature to attempt to quantify any link between the two. It is shown that, if such a link exists, the changing cosmic ray intensity contributes less than 8% to the increase in the mean global surface temperature observed since 1900.

Sloan, Terry

2011-01-01

286

The contribution of cosmic rays to global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

A search has been made for a contribution of the changing cosmic ray intensity to the global warming observed in the last century. The cosmic ray intensity shows a strong 11 year cycle due to solar modulation and the overall rate has decreased since 1900. These changes in cosmic ray intensity are compared to those of the mean global surface temperature to attempt to quantify any link between the two. It is shown that, if such a link exists, the changing cosmic ray intensity contributes less than 8% to the increase in the mean global surface temperature observed since 1900.

Sloan, T.; Wolfendale, A. W.

2011-10-01

287

Global warming: What should we do to stop or slow?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Earth is warming much faster than had been predicted. 2005 was the warmest year on record, surpassing 1998. The multinational Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) report recently concluded that in Alaska, western Canada, and eastern Russia, average temperatures have increased 3 to 4 degrees Celsius in the past 50 years. Rising temperatures have a dramatic impact on Arctic ice. Since 1978 Arctic sea ice area has shrunk by some 9 percent per decade, and thinned as well. There are three specific events especially worrisome and potentially imminent, although the time frames are a matter of dispute: dramatic sea level rise by the end of the century that would take tens of thousand years to reverse; widespread coral bleaching that could be damage the world's fisheries within three decades; and, within 200 years, a shutdown of the ocean current that moderates temperatures in northern Europe. Global warming is caused by human activities such as burning nature's vast store of coal, oil and nature gas which releases billions of tones carbon dioxide (CO2) every year. If current trends continue, we will raise atmospheric CO2 concentrations to double pre-industrial levels during this century. That will probably be enough to raise global temperatures by around 2 degree C to 5 degree C. Even if humans stop burning oil and coal tomorrow we have already spewed enough greenhouse gases into the atmosphere to cause temperatures to warm and sea levels to rise for at least another century. So what should we do? We can not continue drawing energy from fossil fuels and there is no chance that the renewable, wind, tide, and water power can provide enough energy and in time. Nuclear energy is the only one immediately available source does not cause global warming. In this presentation consequences and risks of global warming, as well as nuclear power comparisons will be discussed comprehensively

288

No Such Luck: Nitrogen from Air Pollution Unlikely to Moderate Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

... from Air Pollution Unlikely to Moderate Global Warming December 5, 1996 This material is available ... dioxide in the atmosphere to moderate global warming. That scenario now seems unlikely, say ...

289

On the Present Halting of Global Warming  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The rise in global average temperature over the last century has halted since roughly the year 2000, despite the fact that the release of CO2 into the atmosphere is still increasing. It is suggested here that this interruption has been caused by the suspension of the near linear (+ 0.5 °C/100 years or 0.05 °C/10 years temperature increase over the last two centuries, due to recovery from the Little Ice Age, by a superposed multi-decadal oscillation of a 0.2 °C amplitude and a 50~60 year period, which reached its positive peak in about the year 2000—a halting similar to those that occurred around 1880 and 1940. Because both the near linear change and the multi-decadal oscillation are likely to be natural changes (the recovery from the Little Ice Age (LIA and an oscillation related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO, respectively, they must be carefully subtracted from temperature data before estimating the effects of CO2.

Syun-Ichi Akasofu

2013-05-01

290

Revisiting social and deep ecology in the light of global warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this article is largely theoretical. It asks what type of perspective is needed in order for left libertarians and anarchists to develop a deeper understanding of global warming. This way of framing the question builds on a set of premises which I will spell out. First, global warming is real. Second, the reality of global warming exists independently of our discourse about it. Third, global warming will have real and dangerous consequences for humans and human society. Fourth,...

Krøvel, Roy

2013-01-01

291

78 FR 20632 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Notice of Data Availability Regarding Global Warming...  

Science.gov (United States)

The EPA is announcing to the public the availability of estimated global warming potentials, as well as data and analysis submitted in support of them, for eight fluorinated heat transfer fluids. We are requesting comments on the estimated global warming potentials and the data and analysis supporting them. We are also requesting comment on the cited global warming potentials for 35 other......

2013-04-05

292

Writing about Warming : A Content Analysis on Global Warming in Dagens Nyheter & Aftonbladet  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The issue of climate change is of great importance in our contemporary world and has been given more media coverage during the last decades. Therefore, this thesis analyzes articles on global warming in the Swedish newspapers Dagens Nyheter and Aftonbladet (2010-2013), and explores how the issue is made understandable to the readers. The applied methodology is a content analysis. The result shows that the studied newspapers, with few exceptions, either write about problems caused by; or solut...

Reuter, Oliver

2013-01-01

293

Observational constraints on past attributable warming and predictions of future global warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper investigates the impact of aerosol forcing uncertainty on the robustness of estimates of the twentieth-century warming attributable to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Attribution analyses on three coupled climate models with very different sensitivities and aerosol forcing are carried out. The Third Hadley Centre Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere GCM (HadCM3), Parallel Climate Model (PCM), and GFDL R30 models all provide good simulations of twentieth-century global mean temperature ...

Stott, Pa; Mitchell, Jfb; Allen, MR; Delworth, Tl; Gregory, Jm; Meehl, Ga; Santer, Bd

2006-01-01

294

Global warming triggers the loss of a key Arctic refugium  

Science.gov (United States)

We document the rapid transformation of one of the Earth's last remaining Arctic refugia, a change that is being driven by global warming. In stark contrast to the amplified warming observed throughout much of the Arctic, the Hudson Bay Lowlands (HBL) of subarctic Canada has maintained cool temperatures, largely due to the counteracting effects of persistent sea ice. However, since the mid-1990s, climate of the HBL has passed a tipping point, the pace and magnitude of which is exceptional even by Arctic standards, exceeding the range of regional long-term variability. Using high-resolution, palaeolimnological records of algal remains in dated lake sediment cores, we report that, within this short period of intense warming, striking biological changes have occurred in the region's freshwater ecosystems. The delayed and intense warming in this remote region provides a natural observatory for testing ecosystem resilience under a rapidly changing climate, in the absence of direct anthropogenic influences. The environmental repercussions of this climate change are of global significance, influencing the huge store of carbon in the region's extensive peatlands, the world's southern-most polar bear population that depends upon Hudson Bay sea ice and permafrost for survival, and native communities who rely on this landscape for sustenance. PMID:24107529

Rühland, K. M.; Paterson, A. M.; Keller, W.; Michelutti, N.; Smol, J. P.

2013-01-01

295

Floods, Droughts and Global Warming: Rolling the Climate Dice  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we find from analyses of projections of 14 CMIP5 models a robust, canonical global response in rainfall characteristics to CO2 greenhouse warming. Under a scenario of 1% increase per year of CO2 emission, the model ensemble projects globally more heavy precipitation (+7×2.4%K-1), less moderate precipitation (-2.5×0.6%K-1), more light precipitation (+1.8×1.3%K-1), and increased length of dry (no-rain) periods (+4.7×2.1%K-1). Regionally, a majority of the models project a consistent response with more heavy precipitation over climatologically wet regions of the deep tropics especially the equatorial Pacific Ocean and the Asian monsoon regions, and more dry periods over the land areas of the subtropics and the tropical marginal convective zones. Changes in the global circulation associated with the precipitation changes include a narrowing and deepening of convective zone, a rise of the center of gravity and acceleration of the upper branch of the Hadley circulation, an expansion of the subtropics and a poleward shift of the jetstream. Our results suggest that increased risks of severe floods and droughts worldwide induced by increased CO2 emission is the manifestation of a canonical response of the global rainfall system in association with a re-adjustment of the global circulation system, in a competition for increased availability of atmospheric moisture from global warming.

Lau, W. K.; Wu, H.; Kim, K.

2013-12-01

296

Health effects of global warming: Problems in assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Global warming is likely to result in a variety of environmental effects ranging from impacts on species diversity, changes in population size in flora and fauna, increases in sea level and possible impacts on the primary productivity of the sea. Potential impacts on human health and welfare have included possible increases in heat related mortality, changes in the distribution of disease vectors, and possible impacts on respiratory diseases including hayfever and asthma. Most of the focus thus far is on effects which are directly related to increases in temperature, e.g., heat stress or perhaps one step removed, e.g., changes in vector distribution. Some of the more severe impacts are likely to be much less direct, e.g., increases in migration due to agricultural failure following prolonged droughts. This paper discusses two possible approaches to the study of these less-direct impacts of global warming and presents information from on-going research using each of these approaches

297

On using natural gas to reduce global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In estimating the potential reduction in global warming that would result from the replacement of coal or oil by natural gas as a primary energy fuel, allowance has to be made not only for the net reduction in carbon dioxide emissions, but also of the likely increase in methane release through inadvertent leakage to the atmosphere. The assessment depends not only on the relative infrared absorptive capacities of these two gases, that determine their greenhouse effects, but also on their relative atmospheric lifetimes. The paper develops a model for determining the level of natural gas leakage rate that negates the benefit of the reduction of net carbon dioxide release in an enhanced gas use policy for mitigation of global warming. The most important general conclusion derivable from this analysis is that desirability of such a policy depends critically on the time frame of concern, and hence on the importance placed on avoidance of near term versus distant climatic change impacts

298

The role of clouds and oceans in global greenhouse warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the past three years we have conducted several studies using models and a combination of satellite data, in situ meteorological and oceanic data, and paleoclimate reconstructions, under the DoE program, ''Quantifying the Link Between Change in Radiative Balance and Atmospheric Temperature''. Our goals were to investigate effects of global cloudiness variations on global climate and their implications for cloud feedback and continue development and application of NYU transient climate/ocean models, with emphasis on coupled effects of greenhouse warming and feedbacks by both the clouds and oceans. Our original research plan emphasized the use of cloud, surface temperature and ocean data sets interpreted by focused climate/ocean models to develop a cloud radiative forcing scenario for the past 100 years and to assess the transient climate response; to narrow key uncertainties in the system; and to identify those aspects of the climate system most likely to be affected by greenhouse warming over short, medium and long time scales

299

Pre-Service Elementary Teachers’ Opinions about Global Warming  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Through this research, it has been aimed to determine the perceptions, opinions and ideas of pre-service elementary teachers about global warming which is an environmental problem that threatens the world. This research was applied to 10 pre-service elementary teachers. The data in the research were collected through face-to-face oral interviews. Collected qualitative data were analyzed with descriptive analysis technique. According to the results of the research, it was observed that pre-service teachers worried about the possible outcomesof global warming and were not equipped with sufficient information about environmental problems. It was concluded that preservice teachers established the false cause-effect relationship between the environmental problems such as greenhouse effect, ozone layer problem, acid rain.

Zeynep AKSAN

2013-06-01

300

Global Warming and the Power-Laws of Ecology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A model based on Watson’s power law for the species-area relationship predicts that full global warming, projected up to the year 2050, could provoke the disappearance of roughly one-quarter of existing species. Here, an alternative approach is worked out, based on the combination of two ecology laws: Taylor and Watson’s power laws, where the former relates species variability with their mean abundance. Just how severely global warming would affect not only the number but the diversity of the surviving species is addressed by this approach, while at the same time giving indications for the post-disaster fate of the remaining species (extinction or recovery.

Joseph Harari

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Barriers to using nuclear power for mitigation of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has lately been suggested that nuclear power technologies could be used to mitigate potential global warming. Doing this would give nuclear power technology a new role, and would lead to its widespread deployment worldwide. When examined carefully several barriers to accomplishing this goal are evident, even should the uncertainties of global warming become reduced enough that it could be treated as an established fact. These barriers involve the need for alternative forms of nuclear energy, uranium resource limitations, technology development requirements and difficulties in widespread deployment of nuclear power plants. Overcoming the barriers may prove to be much more difficult than has been appreciated to date, and could strongly influence the future research and development agenda for nuclear and associated technologies. (author)

302

Latest Developments of Low Global Warming Refrigerants for Chillers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper will focus on the developments of new molecules that have low global warming potential, high thermal performance, and favorable safety characteristics, to name only a few required characteristics. Several new molecules that have very short atmospheric lifetimes, as well as refrigerant blends utilizing these molecules, have been developed and will be evaluated for use in various types of water chillers ranging from smaller capacity systems that currently use R-410A or R-407C refrige...

Spatz, Mark W.; Sethi, Ankit; Yana Motta, Samuel F.

2012-01-01

303

Global warming factor of municipal solid waste management in Europe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The global warming factor (GWF; CO2-eq. tonne—1 waste) performance of municipal waste management has been investigated for six representative European Member States: Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Poland and the United Kingdom. The study integrated European waste statistical data for 2007 in a life-cycle assessment modelling perspective. It is shown that significant GWF benefit was achieved due to the high level of energy and material recovery substituting fossil energy and raw materials...

Gentil, Emmanuel; Clavreul, Julie; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

2009-01-01

304

Upper Temperature Limits of Tropical Marine Ectotherms: Global Warming Implications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Animal physiology, ecology and evolution are affected by temperature and it is expected that community structure will be strongly influenced by global warming. This is particularly relevant in the tropics, where organisms are already living close to their upper temperature limits and hence are highly vulnerable to rising temperature. Here we present data on upper temperature limits of 34 tropical marine ectotherm species from seven phyla living in intertidal and subtidal habitats. Short term ...

Nguyen, Khanh Dung T.; Morley, Simon A.; Lai, Chien-houng; Clark, Melody S.; Tan, Koh Siang; Bates, Amanda E.

2011-01-01

305

Predicting the global warming potential of agro-ecosystems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane are the main biogenic greenhouse gases (GHG) contributing to the global warming potential (GWP) of agro-ecosystems. Evaluating the impact of agriculture on climate thus requires a capacity to predict the net exchanges of these gases in an integrated manner, as related to environmental conditions and crop management. Here, we used two year-round data sets from two intensively-monitored cropping systems in northern France to test the ability of the biop...

Lehuger, S.; Gabrielle, B.; Larmanou, E.; Laville, P.; Cellier, P.; Loubet, B.

2007-01-01

306

Genetic shift in photoperiodic response correlated with global warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To date, all altered patterns of seasonal interactions observed in insects, birds, amphibians, and plants associated with global warming during the latter half of the 20th century are explicable as variable expressions of plastic phenotypes. Over the last 30 years, the genetically controlled photoperiodic response of the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii, has shifted toward shorter, more southern daylengths as growing seasons have become longer. This shift i...

Bradshaw, William E.; Holzapfel, Christina M.

2001-01-01

307

The IEA is worried about inability to limit global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Energy Agency (IEA) is launching a strong appeal to mobilise public authorities: the world is definitely not in a position to respect its commitments on reducing carbon emissions and thus of putting a brake on global warming. Carbon intensity has hardly budged since 1990, the IEA estimates. The reason? Increased energy output has relied more on fossil fuel expansion than on recourse to renewable sources. (author)

308

Global Warming was not Proved at Showa Base in Antarctica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The changes in temperatures at Showa base in Antarctica were evaluated. Various parameters of temperatures at Showa base in Antarctica were obtained from Japan Metrological Agency. Parameters of temperatures were not correlated with years at Showa base (mean temperature in a year: r = 0.056, p = 0.7267. In addition, the number of days over 4?C was negatively correlated with years. Global warming was not proved at Showa base in Antarctica in this study.

Tomohiro Hirao

2011-05-01

309

Global warming, sea-level rise, and coastal marsh survival  

Science.gov (United States)

Coastal wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems in the world. These wetlands at the land-ocean margin provide many direct benefits to humans, including habitat for commercially important fisheries and wildlife; storm protection; improved water quality through sediment, nutrient, and pollution removal; recreation; and aesthetic values. These valuable ecosystems will be highly vulnerable to the effects of the rapid rise in sea level predicted to occur during the next century as a result of global warming.

Cahoon, Donald R.

1997-01-01

310

Solar Panels reduce both global warming and Urban Heat Island  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The production of solar energy in cities is clearly a way to diminish our dependency to fossil fuels, and is a good way to mitigate global warming by lowering the emission of greenhouse gases. However, what are the impacts of solar panels locally ? To evaluate their influence on urban weather, it is necessary to parameterize their effects within the surface schemes that are coupled to atmospheric models. The present paper presents a way to implement solar panels in the Town Energy Balance sch...

ValéryMasson; MarionBonhomme; Jean-LucSalagnac; XavierBriottet

2014-01-01

311

Is There a Global Warming Toward Women in Academia?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

While global warming toward women in academia (in this case a desirable trend) may be occurring in some academic departments or institutions—most notably in community colleges—the same cannot be said for many colleges of Science, Engineering, and Technology (SET colleges). There, the climate for women is very chilly indeed. As Cathy Ann Trower reports in Science magazine (2001), 42 percent of full professors in two-year colleges are women; however, women comprise only 17 percent of the fu...

Hult, Christine; Callister, Ronda Roberts; Sullivan, Kim

2005-01-01

312

Permafrost carbon-climate feedbacks accelerate global warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Permafrost soils contain enormous amounts of organic carbon, which could act as a positive feedback to global climate change due to enhanced respiration rates with warming. We have used a terrestrial ecosystem model that includes permafrost carbon dynamics, inhibition of respiration in frozen soil layers, vertical mixing of soil carbon from surface to permafrost layers, and CH4 emissions from flooded areas, and which better matches new circumpolar inventories of soil carbon stocks, to explore...

Koven C, D.; Ringeval, B.; Friedlingstein, P.; Ciais, P.; Cadule, P.; Khvorostyanov, D.; Krinner, G.; Tarnocai, C.

2011-01-01

313

Global warming benefits the small in aquatic ecosystems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Understanding the ecological impacts of climate change is a crucial challenge of the twenty-first century. There is a clear lack of general rules regarding the impacts of global warming on biota. Here, we present a metaanalysis of the effect of climate change on body size of ectothermic aquatic organisms (bacteria, phyto- and zooplankton, and fish) from the community to the individual level. Using long-term surveys, experimental data and published results, we show a significant increase in th...

Daufresne, Martin; Lengfellner, Kathrin; Sommer, Ulrich

2009-01-01

314

Pre-Service Elementary Teachers’ Opinions about Global Warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Through this research, it has been aimed to determine the perceptions, opinions and ideas of pre-service elementary teachers about global warming which is an environmental problem that threatens the world. This research was applied to 10 pre-service elementary teachers. The data in the research were collected through face-to-face oral interviews. Collected qualitative data were analyzed with descriptive analysis technique. According to the results of the research, it was observed that pre-ser...

Aksan, Zeynep; C?eli?kler, Dilek

2013-01-01

315

Global Warming: Knowledge and Views of Iranian Students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Study of students’ knowledge about global warming can help authorities to have better imagination of this critical environmental problem. This research examines high school students' ideas about greenhouse effect and the results may be useful for the respective authorities to improve cultural and educational aspects of next generation. In this cross-sectional study, a 42 question questionnaire with mix of open and closed questions was used to evaluate high school students' view about the me...

Taraneh Yazdanparast, Sousan Salehpour

2013-01-01

316

Global warming and local dimming. The statistical evidence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two effects largely determine global warming: the well-known greenhouse effect and the less well-known solar radiation effect. An increase in concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases contributes to global warming: the greenhouse effect. In addition, small particles, called aerosols, reflect and absorb sunlight in the atmosphere. More pollution causes an increase in aerosols, so that less sunlight reaches the Earth (global dimming). Despite its name, global dimming is primarily a local (or regional) effect. Because of the dimming the Earth becomes cooler: the solar radiation effect. Global warming thus consists of two components: the (global) greenhouse effect and the (local) solar radiation effect, which work in opposite directions. Only the sum of the greenhouse effect and the solar radiation effect is observed, not the two effects separately. Our purpose is to identify the two effects. This is important, because the existence of the solar radiation effect obscures the magnitude of the greenhouse effect. We propose a simple climate model with a small number of parameters. We gather data from a large number of weather stations around the world for the period 1959-2002. We then estimate the parameters using dynamic panel data methods, and quantify the parameter uncertainty. Next, we decompose the estimated temperature change of 0.73C (averaged over the weather stations) into a greenhouse effect of 1.87C, a solar radiation effect of -1.09C, and a smallar radiation effect of -1.09C, and a small remainder term. Finally, we subject our findings to extensive sensitivity analyses.

317

Marine methane cycle simulations for the period of early global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Geochemical environments, fates, and effects are modeled for methane released into seawater by the decomposition of climate-sensitive clathrates. A contemporary global background cycle is first constructed, within the framework of the Parallel Ocean Program. Input from organics in the upper thermocline is related to oxygen levels, and microbial consumption is parameterized from available rate measurements. Seepage into bottom layers is then superimposed, representing typical seabed fluid flow. The resulting CH{sub 4} distribution is validated against surface saturation ratios, vertical sections, and slope plume studies. Injections of clathrate-derived methane are explored by distributing a small number of point sources around the Arctic continental shelf, where stocks are extensive and susceptible to instability during the first few decades of global warming. Isolated bottom cells are assigned dissolved gas fluxes from porous-media simulation. Given the present bulk removal pattern, methane does not penetrate far from emission sites. Accumulated effects, however, spread to the regional scale following the modeled current system. Both hypoxification and acidification are documented. Sensitivity studies illustrate a potential for material restrictions to broaden the perturbations, since methanotrophic consumers require nutrients and trace metals. When such factors are considered, methane buildup within the Arctic basin is enhanced. However, freshened polar surface waters act as a barrier to atmospheric transfer, diverting products into the deep return flow. Uncertainties in the logic and calculations are enumerated including those inherent in high-latitude clathrate abundance, buoyant effluent rise through the column, representation of the general circulation, and bacterial growth kinetics.

Elliott, S.; Maltrud, M.; Reagan, M.T.; Moridis, G.J.; Cameron-Smith, P.J.

2011-01-02

318

The impact of possible climate catastrophes on global warming policy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent studies on global warming have introduced the inherent uncertainties associated with the costs and benefits of climate policies and have often shown that abatement policies are likely to be less aggressive or postponed in comparison to those resulting from traditional cost-benefit analyses (CBA). Yet, those studies have failed to include the possibility of sudden climate catastrophes. The aim of this paper is to account simultaneously for possible continuous and discrete damages resulting from global warming, and to analyse their implications on the optimal path of abatement policies. Our approach is related to the new literature on investment under uncertainty, and relies on some recent developments of the real option in which we incorporated negative jumps (climate catastrophes) in the stochastic process corresponding to the net benefits associated with the abatement policies. The impacts of continuous and discrete climatic risks can therefore be considered separately. Our numerical applications lead to two main conclusions: (i) gradual, continuous uncertainty in the global warming process is likely to delay the adoption of abatement policies as found in previous studies, with respect to the standard CBA; however (ii) the possibility of climate catastrophes accelerates the implementation of these policies as their net discounted benefits increase significantly

319

Global Warming: some back-of-the-envelope calculations  

CERN Document Server

We do several simple calculations and measurements in an effort to gain understanding of global warming and the carbon cycle. Some conclusions are interesting: (i) There has been global warming since the end of the "little ice age" around 1700. There is no statistically significant evidence of acceleration of global warming since 1940. (ii) The increase of CO_2 in the atmosphere, beginning around 1940, accurately tracks the burning of fossil fuels. Burning all of the remaining economically viable reserves of oil, gas and coal over the next 150 years or so will approximately double the pre-industrial atmospheric concentration of CO_2. The corresponding increase in the average temperature, due to the greenhouse effect, is quite uncertain: between 1.3 and 4.8K. This increase of temperature is (partially?) offset by the increase of aerosols and deforestation. (iii) Ice core samples indicate that the pre-historic CO_2 concentration and temperature are well correlated. We conclude that changes in the temperatures o...

Fabara, C

2005-01-01

320

Global Warming in the 21st Century: An Alternate Scenario  

Science.gov (United States)

A common view is that the current global warming rate will continue or accelerate. But we argue that rapid warming in recent decades has been driven by non-CO2 greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as CFCs, CH4 and N2O, not by the products of fossil fuel burning, CO2 and aerosols, whose positive and negative climate forcings are partially offsetting. The growth rate of non-CO2 GHGs has declined in the past decade. If sources of CH4 and O3 precursors were reduced in the future, the change of climate forcing by non-CO2 GHGs In the next 50 years could be near zero. Combined with a reduction of black carbon emissions and plausible success in slowing CO2 emissions, this could lead to a decline in the rate of global warming, reducing the danger of dramatic climate change. Such a focus on air pollution has practical benefits that unite the interests of developed and developing countries. However, assessment of ongoing and future climate change requires composition-specific longterm global monitoring of aerosol properties.

Hansen, James E.; Sato, Makiko; Ruedy, Reto; Lacis, Andrew; Oinas, Valdar

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Physics for future Presidents - nuclear power, terrorism, global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book explains the science behind the concerns that our nation faces in the immediate future. It outlines the tools of terrorists, the dangers of nuclear power, and the reality of global warming. As citizens who will elect future presidents of the most powerful and influential countries in the world, we need to know-truly understand if Iran's nascent nuclear capability is a genuine threat to the West, if biochemical weapons are likely to be developed by terrorists, if there are viable alternatives to fossil fuels that should be nurtured and supported by the government, if nuclear power should be encouraged, and if global warming is actually happening. This book is written in everyday, nontechnical language on the science behind the concerns that our nations faces in the immediate future. This book is translated from 'Physics for Future Presidents: The Science Behind the Headlines', published by W. W. Norton and Company in August 2008. Contents: 1 - Terrorism: Nine-eleven, Terrorist nukes, The next terrorist attack, Biological terrorism; 2 - Energy: Key energy surprises, Solar Power, The end of oil; 3 - Nukes: Radioactivity and death, Radioactive decay, Nuclear weapons, Nuclear madness, Nuclear power, Nuclear waste, Controlled fusion; 4 - Space: Space and satellites, Gravity applications, Humans in space, Spying with invisible light; 5 - Global Warming: A brief history of climate, The greenhouse effect, A very likely cause, Evidence, Non-solutions, The fruit on the Evidence, Non-solutions, The fruit on the ground, New technologies

322

An innovative nuclear reactor as a solution to global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problem of global warming is no longer a philosophical discussion, but it is a fact seriously threatening the future of humanity. In this paper a practical solution to the problem of global warming resulting from the fossil fuelled energy suppliers is presented. The energy conservation and alternative forms of energy such as solar, wind, and bio even though having important roles, do not satisfy the energy demand generated by an increasing world population that desires to increase its standard of living. The fission process in the nuclear reactors does not produce greenhouse gases that cause global warming. The new paradigm in nuclear energy is the future innovative reactors that meet the new standards set by the INPRO Program of the IAEA. One such a reactor is presented in this paper, namely the Fixed Bed Nuclear Reactor (FBNR) that is supported by the International Atomic Energy (IAEA) in its program of Small Reactors Without On-Site Refuelling (SRWOSR), being one of the four water cooled reactors in this program. The other three reactor concepts are PFPWR50 of Japan, BWRPB of Russia and AFPR-100 of USA. It is shown that the nuclear energy of the future is totally different than what is today in respect to safety, economics, environmental impact and proliferation. In this manner, the public perception of nuclear energy will change and its acceptability is promoted. (author)

323

Man made global warming explained - closing the blinds  

CERN Document Server

One of the big problems of the age concerns 'Global Warming', and whether it is 'man-made' or 'natural'. Most climatologists believe that it is very likely to be the former but some scientists (mostly non-climatologists) subscribe to the latter. Unsurprisingly, the population at large is often confused and and is not convinced either way. Here we try to explain the principles of man-made global warming in a simple way. Our purpose is to try to understand the story which the climatologists are telling us through their rather complicated general circulation models. Although the effects in detail are best left to the climatologists' models, we show that for the Globe as a whole the effects of man-made global warming can be demonstrated in a simple way. The simple model of only the direct heating from the absorption of infrared radiation, illustrates the main principles of the science involved. The predicted temperature increase due to the increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere over the last century descr...

Sloan, T

2010-01-01

324

Nuclear power in the context of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper examines the extent to which nuclear power could help ameliorate the greenhouse problem. Topics discussed include: (1) How serious is the environmental threat posed by the greenhouse effect? (2) How large a part do fossil fuels play in producing greenhouse gases? (3) Is it possible to prevent or abate the anticipated global warming? (4) Can nuclear power play a significant role? (5) What overall approached might best reduce greenhouse emissions? Global cooperativeness in addressing the problem will be essential. 14 refs., 5 tabs

325

Signal and noise in global warming detection. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The specific objectives of this study were the following: (1) What is the expected sampling error and bias incurred in estimation of the global average temperature from a finite number of point gauges? (2) What is the best one can do by optimally arranging N point gauges, how can one make best use of existing data at N point gauges by optimally weighting them? (3) What is a good estimation of the signal of global warming based upon simple models of the climate system? (4) How does one develop an optimal signal detection technique from the knowledge of signal and noise?

North, G.R.

1998-11-01

326

The contribution of cosmic rays to global warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A search has been made for a contribution of the changing cosmic ray intensity to the global warming observed in the last century. The cosmic ray intensity shows a strong 11 year cycle due to solar modulation and the overall rate has decreased since 1900. These changes in cosmic ray intensity are compared to those of the mean global surface temperature to attempt to quantify any link between the two. It is shown that, if such a link exists, the changing cosmic ray intensity ...

Sloan, Terry; Wolfendale, Arnold

2011-01-01

327

Global warming trend of mean tropospheric temperature observed by satellites.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have analyzed the global tropospheric temperature for 1978 to 2002 with the use of passive microwave sounding data from the NOAA series of polar orbiters and the Earth Observing System Aqua satellite. To accurately retrieve the climatic trend, we combined the satellite data with an analytic model of temperature that contains three different time scales: a linear trend and functions that define the seasonal and diurnal cycles. Our analysis shows a trend of +0.22 degrees to 0.26 degrees C per 10 years, consistent with the global warming trend derived from surface meteorological stations. PMID:12970572

Vinnikov, Konstantin Y; Grody, Norman C

2003-10-10

328

Implications of global warming for the climate of African rainforests  

Science.gov (United States)

African rainforests are likely to be vulnerable to changes in temperature and precipitation, yet there has been relatively little research to suggest how the regional climate might respond to global warming. This study presents projections of temperature and precipitation indices of relevance to African rainforests, using global climate model experiments to identify local change as a function of global temperature increase. A multi-model ensemble and two perturbed physics ensembles are used, one with over 100 members. In the east of the Congo Basin, most models (92%) show a wet signal, whereas in west equatorial Africa, the majority (73%) project an increase in dry season water deficits. This drying is amplified as global temperature increases, and in over half of coupled models by greater than 3% per °C of global warming. Analysis of atmospheric dynamics in a subset of models suggests that this could be partly because of a rearrangement of zonal circulation, with enhanced convection in the Indian Ocean and anomalous subsidence over west equatorial Africa, the Atlantic Ocean and, in some seasons, the Amazon Basin. Further research to assess the plausibility of this and other mechanisms is important, given the potential implications of drying in these rainforest regions. PMID:23878329

James, Rachel; Washington, Richard; Rowell, David P.

2013-01-01

329

The regions and global warming: Impacts and response strategies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To date, much of the attention given to global warming in scientific research as well as in policy development has focused on the global picture. International negotiations and agreements to stabilize, and eventually reduce, greenhouse gas emissions are very important. By themselves, however, they are not sufficient to address global warming. Regional strategies are also needed. They can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and they will be the most effective way to mitigate the consequences of global warming. Adaptive strategies must respond to local and regional conditions. In many countries, subnational jurisdictions such as states and provinces or community organizations can already take effective actions without direction from their national government or waiting for international agreements. An important factor in defining regional approaches is the disparate consequences of climate change for developed and developing areas. Different strategies will also be needed for industrial and agricultural regions. Wealthy industrial regions may be better able to develop capital-intensive, adaptive infrastructure than regions with fewer discretionary resources where people are more vulnerable to the vagaries of weather patterns. On the other hand, regions that rely on indigenous knowledge and local resources may be better equipped to make incremental adaptations and more willing to modify life-styles. Ultimately, all climate change effects are experienced in specific places and effective response depends upon local action. We recognize that individual localities cannot solve a problem of global proportions by acting alone. However, a regional strategy can supplement international and national action and be the focal point for addressing risks in the unique social and economic context of a particular area. These meetings discussions dealt with the impacts and implications of climate change on such things as agriculture, forestry, and policy

330

Projected impacts of climate change and ocean acidification on the global biogeography of planktonic foraminifera  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Planktonic foraminifera are a major contributor to the deep carbonate-flux and the planktonic biomass of the global ocean. Their microfossil deposits form one of the richest databases for reconstructing paleoenvironments, particularly through changes in their taxonomic and shell composition. Using an empirically-based foraminifer model that incorporates three known major physiological drivers of foraminifer biogeography – temperature, food and light – we investigate (i the global redistribution of planktonic foraminifera under anthropogenic climate change, and (ii the alteration of the carbonate chemistry of foraminifer habitat with ocean acidification. The present-day and future (2090–2100 3-D distributions of foraminifera are simulated using temperature, plankton biomass, and light from an Earth system model forced with historical and a future (IPCC A2 high CO2 emission scenario. The broadscale patterns of present day foraminifer biogeography are well reproduced. Foraminifer abundance and diversity are projected to decrease in the tropics and subpolar regions and increase in the subtropics and around the poles. In the tropics, the geographical shifts are driven by temperature, while the vertical shifts are driven by both temperature and food availability. In the high-latitudes, vertical shifts are driven by food availability, while geographical shifts are driven by both food availability and temperature. Changes in the marine carbon cycle would be expected in response to (i the large-scale rearrangements in foraminifer abundance, and (ii the reduction of the carbonate concentration in the habitat range of planktonic foraminifers: from 10–30 ?mol kg?1 in the polar/subpolar regions to 30–70 ?mol kg?1 in the subtropical/tropical regions. High-latitude species are most vulnerable to anthropogenic change: their abundance and available habitat decrease and up to 10% of their habitat drops below the calcite saturation horizon.

T. Roy

2014-06-01

331

Imminent ocean acidification projected with the NCAR global coupled carbon cycle-climate model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ocean acidification from the uptake of anthropogenic carbon is simulated for the industrial period and IPCC SRES emission scenarios A2 and B1 with a global coupled carbon cycle-climate model. Earlier studies identified seawater saturation state with respect to aragonite, a mineral phase of calcium carbonate, as a key variable governing impacts on corals and other shell-forming organisms. Globally in the A2 scenario, water saturated by more than 300%, considered suitable for coral growth, vanishes by 2070 AD (CO2?630 ppm, and the ocean volume fraction occupied by saturated water decreases from 42% to 25% over this century. The largest simulated pH changes worldwide occur in Arctic surface waters, where hydrogen ion concentration increases by up to 185%. Projected climate change amplifies the decrease in Arctic surface mean saturation and pH by more than 20%, mainly due to freshening and increased carbon uptake in response to sea ice retreat. Modeled saturation compares well with observation-based estimates along an Arctic transect and simulated changes have been corrected for remaining model-data differences in this region. Aragonite undersaturation in Arctic surface waters is projected to occur locally soon and to become more widespread as atmospheric CO2 continues to grow. The results imply that surface waters in the Arctic Ocean will become corrosive to aragonite, with potentially large implications for the marine ecosystem, if anthropogenic carbon emissions are not reduced and atmospheric CO2 not kept below 450 ppm.

M. Steinacher

2008-11-01

332

Projected impacts of climate change and ocean acidification on the global biogeography of planktonic foraminifera  

Science.gov (United States)

Planktonic foraminifera are a major contributor to the deep carbonate-flux and the planktonic biomass of the global ocean. Their microfossil deposits form one of the richest databases for reconstructing paleoenvironments, particularly through changes in their taxonomic and shell composition. Using an empirically-based foraminifer model that incorporates three known major physiological drivers of foraminifer biogeography - temperature, food and light - we investigate (i) the global redistribution of planktonic foraminifera under anthropogenic climate change, and (ii) the alteration of the carbonate chemistry of foraminifer habitat with ocean acidification. The present-day and future (2090-2100) 3-D distributions of foraminifera are simulated using temperature, plankton biomass, and light from an Earth system model forced with historical and a future (IPCC A2) high CO2 emission scenario. The broadscale patterns of present day foraminifer biogeography are well reproduced. Foraminifer abundance and diversity are projected to decrease in the tropics and subpolar regions and increase in the subtropics and around the poles. In the tropics, the geographical shifts are driven by temperature, while the vertical shifts are driven by both temperature and food availability. In the high-latitudes, vertical shifts are driven by food availability, while geographical shifts are driven by both food availability and temperature. Changes in the marine carbon cycle would be expected in response to (i) the large-scale rearrangements in foraminifer abundance, and (ii) the reduction of the carbonate concentration in the habitat range of planktonic foraminifers: from 10-30 ?mol kg-1 in the polar/subpolar regions to 30-70 ?mol kg-1 in the subtropical/tropical regions. High-latitude species are most vulnerable to anthropogenic change: their abundance and available habitat decrease and up to 10% of their habitat drops below the calcite saturation horizon.

Roy, T.; Lombard, F.; Bopp, L.; Gehlen, M.

2014-06-01

333

Gas hydrate contribution to Late Permian global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Rapid gas hydrate release (the “clathrate gun” hypothesis) has been invoked as a cause for the rapid global warming and associated negative carbon isotope excursion observed during the Latest Permian Extinction (LPE). We modeled the stability of gas hydrates through a warming Middle to Late Permian world, considering three settings for methane reservoirs: 1) terrestrial hydrates, 2) hydrates on exposed continental shelves during glacial sea level drop, and 3) hydrates in deep marine settings. Model results show that terrestrial hydrates would rapidly destabilize over ?400 ky after deglaciation for moderate heatflow (40 mW/m2), and more rapidly for higher heat flow values. Exposed continental shelves would lose hydrates even more rapidly, after being flooded due to loss of ice storage on land. These two major hydrate reservoirs would thus have destabilized during the Middle to Late Permian climate warming, well prior to the LPE event. However, they may have contributed to the >2‰ negative C-isotopic shift during the late Middle Permian. Deep marine hydrates would have remained stable until LPE time. Rapid warming of deep marine waters during this time could have triggered destabilization of this reservoir, however given the configuration of one super continent, Pangea, hydrate bearing continental slopes would have been less extensive than modern day. This suggests that any potential gas hydrate release would have had only a minor contributing impact to the runaway greenhouse during the Latest Permian extinction.

Majorowicz, J.; Grasby, S. E.; Safanda, J.; Beauchamp, B.

2014-05-01

334

A new international environmental order? An assessment of the impact of the global warming epistemic community  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Global warming is a problem which ignores national boundaries, making international cooperation essential. The role of epistemic communities, or those composed of professionals who share a commitment to a common causal model and a set of political values, in affecting the international response to the global warming problem is examined. It is claimed that the epistemic global warming community can affect the policy process, both domestically and internationally, and facilitate cooperation in an era of ecological interdependence. This claim is explored and eventually supported through the examination of two case studies: the responses of Canada and Britain to the issue of global warming between 1988 and November 1990. The case studies are supplemented with a more general discussion of the issues surrounding the international politics of global warming through the same period. Through these studies, it is found that a global warming community can be identified and that its efforts have played a significant role in framing the global warming issue. 121 refs

335

El Niño/Southern Oscillation response to global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon, originating in the Tropical Pacific, is the strongest natural interannual climate signal and has widespread effects on the global climate system and the ecology of the Tropical Pacific. Any strong change in ENSO statistics will therefore have serious climatic and ecological consequences. Most global climate models do simulate ENSO, although large biases exist with respect to its characteristics. The ENSO response to global warming differs strongly from model to model and is thus highly uncertain. Some models simulate an increase in ENSO amplitude, others a decrease, and others virtually no change. Extremely strong changes constituting tipping point behavior are not simulated by any of the models. Nevertheless, some interesting changes in ENSO dynamics can be inferred from observations and model integrations. Although no tipping point behavior is envisaged in the physical climate system, smooth transitions in it may give rise to tipping point behavior in the biological, chemical, and even socioeconomic systems. For example, the simulated weakening of the Pacific zonal sea surface temperature gradient in the Hadley Centre model (with dynamic vegetation included) caused rapid Amazon forest die-back in the mid-twenty-first century, which in turn drove a nonlinear increase in atmospheric CO2, accelerating global warming. PMID:19060210

Latif, M.; Keenlyside, N. S.

2009-01-01

336

A Contribution by Ice Nuclei to Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Ice nuclei (IN) significantly affect clouds via supercooled droplets, that in turn modulate atmospheric radiation and thus climate change. Since the IN effect is relatively strong in stratiform clouds but weak in convective ones, the overall effect depends on the ratio of stratiform to convective cloud amount. In this paper, 10 years of TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) satellite data are analyzed to confirm that stratiform precipitation fraction increases with increasing latitude, which implies that the IN effect is stronger at higher latitudes. To quantitatively evaluate the IN effect versus latitude, large-scale forcing data from ten field campaigns are used to drive a CRM (cloud-resolving model) to generate longterm cloud simulations. As revealed in the simulations, the increase in the net downward radiative flux at the TOA (top of the atmosphere) from doubling the current IN concentrations is larger at higher latitude, which is attributed to the meridional tendency in the stratiform precipitation fraction. Surface warming from doubling the IN concentrations, based on the radiative balance of the globe, is compared with that from anthropogenic COZ . It is found that the former effect is stronger than the latter in middle and high latitudes but not in the Tropics. With regard to the impact of IN on global warming, there are two factors to consider: the radiative effect from increasing the IN concentration and the increase in IN concentration itself. The former relies on cloud ensembles and thus varies mainly with latitude. In contrast, the latter relies on IN sources (e.g., the land surface distribution) and thus varies not only with latitude but also longitude. Global desertification and industrialization provide clues on the geographic variation of the increase in IN concentration since pre-industrial times. Thus, their effect on global warming can be inferred and then be compared with observations. A general match in geographic and seasonal variations between the inferred and observed warming suggests that IN may have contributed positively to global warming over the past decades, especially in middle and high latitudes.

Zeng, Xiping; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Zhang, Minghua; Hou, Arthur Y.; Xie, Shaocheng; Lang, Stephen; Li, Xiaowen; Starr, David O.; Li, Xiaofan

2009-01-01

337

Energy and global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The primary objective of this study is to develop representative indications of the relative energy use, associated CO2 emissions, and total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of viable option to replace CFCs in their major energy-related application areas. It was motivated, in part, by a concern that most attention to data has focused on the DIRECT global warming effect of CFCs and their alternatives, with inadequate attention being paid to the INDIRECT effect of the CO2 emissions arising from the differences in energy consumption by systems using different alternatives. The DIRECT and INDIRECT contributions are combined in this analysis to determine the TEWI of the various technical options. The study is international in scope and takes into account significant differences in present CFC end-use practices, sources of energy, and other societal factors between Europe, Japan, and North America

338

Climate Change and Global Warming: Signs, Impact and Solutions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is no gain saying our Planet has changed fundamentally. Our World is undergoing a catastrophic climatic drift and is hotter today than it has been in two thousand years. Global temperatures are believed to be on an ever increasing high, with its attendant consequences and it is feared that the trend will continued if not controlled. Some of the causative agents/ indicators of this menace are human propelled and induced and can be curtailed to the barest minimum. The consequences of not attending to these variables are dire, affecting global temperatures, weather patterns, sea acidity and aquatic life, prevalence of pests and diseases, poor agricultural yield, to mention but a few. This paper is an expose on the imperativeness of, inter-relationship between, and negative impacts of climate change and global warming, on the entire ecosystem. Comparative excerpts are highlighted and solutions proffered.

D. S. Matawal

2013-02-01

339

Global scale energy budget contrast between warm and cold years  

Science.gov (United States)

This contribution analyses changes to the energy budget of the troposphere associated to global warm anomalies of the Earth surface temperature. This is important for understanding the dynamics of climate change. A phenomenological approach is adopted, comparing coldest and warmest years over the last century. Data are provided by the results of 10 simulations carried out within the ERA-20CM experiment and covering the period 1900-2010. This ensemble is forced by 10 perturbed realizations of SST fields and greenhouse gases concentration time series. Analysis considers the annual mean meridional distribution of zonal mean tropospheric and surface temperature, net downward solar radiation at top of atmosphere and Earth surface, surface heat flux (SHF), consisting of net longwave upward radiation, latent heat and sensible heat vertical fluxes, and outgoing longwave radiation at top of atmosphere (OLR). Differences of these variables between the warmest and coldest years are computed, in order to analyze how the energy budget of the atmosphere is associated to the warming the Earth surface. During warm years, it is observed that tropospheric warming occurs at all latitudes, decreasing at its top, being rather uniform but larger/smaller around the North/South Pole than at the tropics. This is consistent with the overall increase of OLR at all latitudes. Shortwave absorption in the troposphere increases, with a peak around 30 degrees north, as a result of increased net downward solar radiation at the top. The warming of the surface is associated with reduced SHF almost everywhere, particularly at higher latitudes. This combined effect might be interpreted as a reduction of solar reflection by cloud cover and an increased moisture in the lower troposphere, inhibiting evaporation and heat fluxes from the surface, and increasing downward flow of longwave radiation to the surface. Finally, the meridional distribution of residual net energy budget in the troposphere suggests an increased meridional transport toward high latitudes, as well as a more intense energy loss to the surface and to outer space

Lembo, Valerio; Lionello, Piero

2014-05-01

340

Fingerprints of global warming on wild animals and plants  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past 100 years, the global average temperature has increased by approximately 0.6°C and is projected to continue to rise at a rapid rate. Although species have responded to climatic changes throughout their evolutionary history, a primary concern for wild species and their ecosystems is this rapid rate of change. We gathered information on species and global warming from 143 studies for our meta-analyses. These analyses reveal a consistent temperature-related shift, or `fingerprint', in species ranging from molluscs to mammals and from grasses to trees. Indeed, more than 80% of the species that show changes are shifting in the direction expected on the basis of known physiological constraints of species. Consequently, the balance of evidence from these studies strongly suggests that a significant impact of global warming is already discernible in animal and plant populations. The synergism of rapid temperature rise and other stresses, in particular habitat destruction, could easily disrupt the connectedness among species and lead to a reformulation of species communities, reflecting differential changes in species, and to numerous extirpations and possibly extinctions.

Root, Terry L.; Price, Jeff T.; Hall, Kimberly R.; Schneider, Stephen H.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Pounds, J. Alan

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Fingerprints of global warming on wild animals and plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over the past 100 years, the global average temperature has increased by approximately 0.6 {sup o}C and is projected to continue to rise at a rapid rate. Although species have responded to climatic changes throughout their evolutionary history, a primary concern for wild species and their ecosystems is this rapid rate of change. We gathered information on species and global warming from 143 studies for our meta-analyses. These analyses reveal a consistent temperature-related shift, or 'fingerprint', in species ranging from molluscs to mammals and from grasses to trees. Indeed, more than 80% of the species that show changes are shifting in the direction expected on the basis of known physiological constraints of species. Consequently, the balance of evidence from these studies strongly suggests that a significant impact of global warming is already discernible in animal and plant populations. The synergism of rapid temperature rise and other stresses, in particular habitat destruction, could easily disrupt the connectedness among species and lead to a reformulation of species communities, reflecting differential changes in species, and to numerous extirpations and possibly extinctions. (author)

Root, T.L. [Stanford University, CA (United States). Institute for International Studies; Price, J.T. [American Bird Conservancy, Boulder, CO (United States); Hall, K.R. [Michigan State University, East Lansing (United States). Department of Fisheries and Wildlife; Schneider, S.H. [Stanford University, CA (United States). Department of Biological Sciences and Institute for International Studies; Rosenzweig, C. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York (United States); Pounds, A. [Golden Toad Laboratory for Conservation, Puntarenas (Costa Rica)

2003-01-02

342

Fingerprints of global warming on wild animals and plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past 100 years, the global average temperature has increased by approximately 0.6 degrees C and is projected to continue to rise at a rapid rate. Although species have responded to climatic changes throughout their evolutionary history, a primary concern for wild species and their ecosystems is this rapid rate of change. We gathered information on species and global warming from 143 studies for our meta-analyses. These analyses reveal a consistent temperature-related shift, or 'fingerprint', in species ranging from molluscs to mammals and from grasses to trees. Indeed, more than 80% of the species that show changes are shifting in the direction expected on the basis of known physiological constraints of species. Consequently, the balance of evidence from these studies strongly suggests that a significant impact of global warming is already discernible in animal and plant populations. The synergism of rapid temperature rise and other stresses, in particular habitat destruction, could easily disrupt the connectedness among species and lead to a reformulation of species communities, reflecting differential changes in species, and to numerous extirpations and possibly extinctions. PMID:12511952

Root, Terry L; Price, Jeff T; Hall, Kimberly R; Schneider, Stephen H; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Pounds, J Alan

2003-01-01

343

Global warming and its impact: a story of adaptations, extinctions and diseases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Global warming and its impact were severely underestimated. Recent research has shown that the effects of global warming on biological systems are more far reaching than were assumed previously. It has been proved that global warming can influence animal evolution, which includes influence on adaptive evolution both on genetic as well as behavioral levels. The phenomenon of increased disease prevalence and progression with increase in global temperatures, has also received acknowledgment acro...

Garg, Abhishek D.; Hippargi, Rajshekhar V.; Gadegone, M. M.

2007-01-01

344

Northern Hemisphere Glaciation during the Globally Warm Early Late Pliocene  

Science.gov (United States)

The early Late Pliocene (3.6 to ?3.0 million years ago) is the last extended interval in Earth's history when atmospheric CO2 concentrations were comparable to today's and global climate was warmer. Yet a severe global glaciation during marine isotope stage (MIS) M2 interrupted this phase of global warmth ?3.30 million years ago, and is seen as a premature attempt of the climate system to establish an ice-age world. Here we propose a conceptual model for the glaciation and deglaciation of MIS M2 based on geochemical and palynological records from five marine sediment cores along a Caribbean to eastern North Atlantic transect. Our records show that increased Pacific-to-Atlantic flow via the Central American Seaway weakened the North Atlantic Current and attendant northward heat transport prior to MIS M2. The consequent cooling of the northern high latitude oceans permitted expansion of the continental ice sheets during MIS M2, despite near-modern atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Sea level drop during this glaciation halted the inflow of Pacific water to the Atlantic via the Central American Seaway, allowing the build-up of a Caribbean Warm Pool. Once this warm pool was large enough, the Gulf Stream–North Atlantic Current system was reinvigorated, leading to significant northward heat transport that terminated the glaciation. Before and after MIS M2, heat transport via the North Atlantic Current was crucial in maintaining warm climates comparable to those predicted for the end of this century. PMID:24349081

De Schepper, Stijn; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Naafs, B. David A; Van Renterghem, Cédéric; Hennissen, Jan; Head, Martin J.; Louwye, Stephen; Fabian, Karl

2013-01-01

345

Northern hemisphere glaciation during the globally warm early Late Pliocene.  

Science.gov (United States)

The early Late Pliocene (3.6 to ?3.0 million years ago) is the last extended interval in Earth's history when atmospheric CO2 concentrations were comparable to today's and global climate was warmer. Yet a severe global glaciation during marine isotope stage (MIS) M2 interrupted this phase of global warmth ?3.30 million years ago, and is seen as a premature attempt of the climate system to establish an ice-age world. Here we propose a conceptual model for the glaciation and deglaciation of MIS M2 based on geochemical and palynological records from five marine sediment cores along a Caribbean to eastern North Atlantic transect. Our records show that increased Pacific-to-Atlantic flow via the Central American Seaway weakened the North Atlantic Current and attendant northward heat transport prior to MIS M2. The consequent cooling of the northern high latitude oceans permitted expansion of the continental ice sheets during MIS M2, despite near-modern atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Sea level drop during this glaciation halted the inflow of Pacific water to the Atlantic via the Central American Seaway, allowing the build-up of a Caribbean Warm Pool. Once this warm pool was large enough, the Gulf Stream-North Atlantic Current system was reinvigorated, leading to significant northward heat transport that terminated the glaciation. Before and after MIS M2, heat transport via the North Atlantic Current was crucial in maintaining warm climates comparable to those predicted for the end of this century. PMID:24349081

De Schepper, Stijn; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Naafs, B David A; Van Renterghem, Cédéric; Hennissen, Jan; Head, Martin J; Louwye, Stephen; Fabian, Karl

2013-01-01

346

Greenhouse Effect/Climate Change/Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

The terms greenhouse effect, climate change, and global warming are often used interchangeably, yet they really refer to three separate and distinct processes. This activity examines all three and assesses whether Earth's atmosphere is getting warmer. Students will read two articles from the journal of Science that discuss the findings of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and investigate the bias of both groups of authors. This activity requires the use of two articles from the July 20, 2001 issue of the journal Science.

Fox, Chris

347

Global warming potentials. The case of emissions from dams  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The global warming potential index (GWP) has been proposed to quantitatively compare the integrated greenhouse effect of different gases. However, the use of the GWP index is still subject to major conceptual difficulties. Here we revise and generalize this index and then apply our alternative index to the case of emissions from some hydroelectric reservoirs in Brazil. Our results suggest that, though the cumulative heating effects of emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs may be far from negligible, for the cases studied, hydroelectricity in general contributes less to the greenhouse effect over a long time horizon than fossil fuelled electricity generation. (Author)

348

Study on Global Warming and Fuel Conservation in Surat City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study reveals that though middle and upper middle class of people in Surat city are aware of global warming, contributory reasons and containment measures, yet remain insensitive in terms of practices. The paper points to the need to increase their collective consciousness and responsiveness to this issue through intense awareness campaigns and rallies to promote measures as pooling of vehicles, cycling, hybrid cars and efficient rapid public transport systems through institution of measures at individual, community and government levels to ameliorate hindrances to the adoption of environment friendly practices as reported in the observations.

Neha Bansal, Hormaz Garda, Ghanshyam Padmani

2010-06-01

349

Methane production by ruminants: its contribution to global warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this paper is to review the role of methane in the global warming scenario and to examine the contribution to atmospheric methane made by enteric fermentation, mainly by ruminants. Agricultural emissions of methane in the EU-15 have recently been estimated at 10.2 million tonnes per year and represent the greatest source. Of these, approximately two-thirds come from enteric fermentation and one-third from livestock manure. Fermentation of feeds in the rumen is the largest source of...

Moss, Angela; Jouany, Jean-pierre; Newbold, John

2000-01-01

350

The influence of global warming in Earth rotation speed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The tendency of the atmospheric angular momentum (AAM is investigated using a 49-year set of monthly AAM data for the period January 1949-December 1997. This data set is constructed with zonal wind values from the reanalyses of NCEP/NCAR, used in conjunction with a variety of operationally produced AAM time series with different independent sources and lengths over 1976-1997. In all the analyzed AAM series the linear trend is found to be positive. Since the angular momentum of the atmosphere-earth system is conserved this corresponds to a net loss of angular momentum by the solid earth, therefore decreasing the Earth rotation speed and increasing the length of day (LOD. The AAM rise is significant to the budget of angular momentum of the global atmosphere-earth system; its value in milliseconds/century (ms/cy is +0.56 ms/cy, corresponding to one-third of the estimated increase in LOD (+1.7 ms/cy. The major contribution to this secular trend in AAM comes from the equatorial Tropopause. This is consistent with results from a previous study using a simplified aqua-planet model to investigate the AAM variations due to near equatorial warming conditions. During the same time interval, 1949-1997, the global marine + land-surface temperature increases by about 0.79 °C/cy, showing a linear correspondence between surface temperature increase and global AAM of about 0.07 ms per 0.1 °C. These results imply that atmospheric angular momentum may be used as an independent index of the global atmosphere's dynamical response to the greenhouse forcing, and as such, the length of day may be used as an indirect indicator of global warming.

Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (general circulation · Geodesy

R. Abarca del Rio

351

The multimillennial sea-level commitment of global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Global mean sea level has been steadily rising over the last century, is projected to increase by the end of this century, and will continue to rise beyond the year 2100 unless the current global mean temperature trend is reversed. Inertia in the climate and global carbon system, however, causes the global mean temperature to decline slowly even after greenhouse gas emissions have ceased, raising the question of how much sea-level commitment is expected for different levels of global mean temperature increase above preindustrial levels. Although sea-level rise over the last century has been dominated by ocean warming and loss of glaciers, the sensitivity suggested from records of past sea levels indicates important contributions should also be expected from the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets. Uncertainties in the paleo-reconstructions, however, necessitate additional strategies to better constrain the sea-level commitment. Here we combine paleo-evidence with simulations from physical models to estimate the future sea-level commitment on a multimillennial time scale and compute associated regional sea-level patterns. Oceanic thermal expansion and the Antarctic Ice Sheet contribute quasi-linearly, with 0.4 m °C?1 and 1.2 m °C?1 of warming, respectively. The saturation of the contribution from glaciers is overcompensated by the nonlinear response of the Greenland Ice Sheet. As a consequence we are committed to a sea-level rise of approximately 2.3 m °C?1 within the next 2,000 y. Considering the lifetime of anthropogenic greenhouse gases, this imposes the need for fundamental adaptation strategies on multicentennial time scales. PMID:23858443

Levermann, Anders; Clark, Peter U.; Marzeion, Ben; Milne, Glenn A.; Pollard, David; Radic, Valentina; Robinson, Alexander

2013-01-01

352

The multimillennial sea-level commitment of global warming.  

Science.gov (United States)

Global mean sea level has been steadily rising over the last century, is projected to increase by the end of this century, and will continue to rise beyond the year 2100 unless the current global mean temperature trend is reversed. Inertia in the climate and global carbon system, however, causes the global mean temperature to decline slowly even after greenhouse gas emissions have ceased, raising the question of how much sea-level commitment is expected for different levels of global mean temperature increase above preindustrial levels. Although sea-level rise over the last century has been dominated by ocean warming and loss of glaciers, the sensitivity suggested from records of past sea levels indicates important contributions should also be expected from the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets. Uncertainties in the paleo-reconstructions, however, necessitate additional strategies to better constrain the sea-level commitment. Here we combine paleo-evidence with simulations from physical models to estimate the future sea-level commitment on a multimillennial time scale and compute associated regional sea-level patterns. Oceanic thermal expansion and the Antarctic Ice Sheet contribute quasi-linearly, with 0.4 m °C(-1) and 1.2 m °C(-1) of warming, respectively. The saturation of the contribution from glaciers is overcompensated by the nonlinear response of the Greenland Ice Sheet. As a consequence we are committed to a sea-level rise of approximately 2.3 m °C(-1) within the next 2,000 y. Considering the lifetime of anthropogenic greenhouse gases, this imposes the need for fundamental adaptation strategies on multicentennial time scales. PMID:23858443

Levermann, Anders; Clark, Peter U; Marzeion, Ben; Milne, Glenn A; Pollard, David; Radic, Valentina; Robinson, Alexander

2013-08-20

353

Global Warming, Climate Change and Glacier Retreat of Nepal Himalayas  

Science.gov (United States)

Global average air temperature near the earth surface rose 0.74¡¾0.18¨¬C during the twentieth century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concludes that observed increased globally averaged temperatures since mid-twentieth century is very likely due to the observed increment in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations, which leads to warming of the surface and lower atmosphere by increasing the greenhouse effect. Climate models referred by IPCC project that global surface temperature are likely to be increase by 1.1 to 6.4¨¬C between 1990 and 2100. An increase in global temperature is expected to cause other changes including glacier retreat, sea level rise, increase intensity of extreme weather events and change in the pattern of precipitation, etc. The Nepal Himalaya revealed 3,252 glaciers and 2,323 lakes, which are 3,500 m above the sea level. They cover an area of 5,323 km2 with an estimated ice reserve of 481 km3. The average temperature in Nepal is rising by 0.5¨¬C per decade, and because of this reason, big glacial lakes in the country are at high risk of flooding from glacial lake bursts, which would have an adverse effect, such as huge loss of life and property. Nepal is facing a disturbance in mountain climate, flash floods, cloudbursts, erratic weather patterns and so on. The death of number of people due to floods and landslides is increasing annually. It is reported that more than 164 people already died because of floods and landslides during the current year, 2007 rainy season. Nepal does emit negligible greenhouse gases compare to developed and industrialized countries, however, country and people are facing the consequences of actions of other developed and industrialized countries. Study shows the¡¡disasters in current years and possible hazards in future due to the probable causes of global warming and recommends some suggestions for controlling of green house gases emission.

Shrestha, S.; Hisaki, Y.

2007-12-01

354

Modification of cirrus clouds to reduce global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Greenhouse gases and cirrus clouds regulate outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and cirrus cloud coverage is predicted to be sensitive to the ice fall speed which depends on ice crystal size. The higher the cirrus, the greater their impact is on OLR. Thus by changing ice crystal size in the coldest cirrus, OLR and climate might be modified. Fortunately the coldest cirrus have the highest ice supersaturation due to the dominance of homogeneous freezing nucleation. Seeding such cirrus with very efficient heterogeneous ice nuclei should produce larger ice crystals due to vapor competition effects, thus increasing OLR and surface cooling. Preliminary estimates of this global net cloud forcing are more negative than -2.8 W m{sup -2} and could neutralize the radiative forcing due to a CO{sub 2} doubling (3.7 W m{sup -2}). A potential delivery mechanism for the seeding material is already in place: the airline industry. Since seeding aerosol residence times in the troposphere are relatively short, the climate might return to its normal state within months after stopping the geoengineering experiment. The main known drawback to this approach is that it would not stop ocean acidification. It does not have many of the drawbacks that stratospheric injection of sulfur species has.

Mitchell, David L; Finnegan, William, E-mail: david.mitchell@dri.ed [Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV 89512-1095 (United States)

2009-10-15

355

Modification of cirrus clouds to reduce global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Greenhouse gases and cirrus clouds regulate outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and cirrus cloud coverage is predicted to be sensitive to the ice fall speed which depends on ice crystal size. The higher the cirrus, the greater their impact is on OLR. Thus by changing ice crystal size in the coldest cirrus, OLR and climate might be modified. Fortunately the coldest cirrus have the highest ice supersaturation due to the dominance of homogeneous freezing nucleation. Seeding such cirrus with very efficient heterogeneous ice nuclei should produce larger ice crystals due to vapor competition effects, thus increasing OLR and surface cooling. Preliminary estimates of this global net cloud forcing are more negative than -2.8 W m-2 and could neutralize the radiative forcing due to a CO2 doubling (3.7 W m-2). A potential delivery mechanism for the seeding material is already in place: the airline industry. Since seeding aerosol residence times in the troposphere are relatively short, the climate might return to its normal state within months after stopping the geoengineering experiment. The main known drawback to this approach is that it would not stop ocean acidification. It does not have many of the drawbacks that stratospheric injection of sulfur species has.

356

Energy and global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are used in a number of applications, and volumes of CFCs used grew at a tremendous pace during the 1960s and 1970s. However, in the mid-1980s, it was confirmed that these extremely useful chemicals contribute to the destruction of stratospheric ozone. These chemicals are being phased out of use rapidly to protect the ozone layer and it is very important that the replacements for CFSs do not result in a net increase in global warming by introducing less efficient processes that lead to higher energy use and increased carbon dioxide emissions. A study was conducted to identify those alternative chemicals and technologies that could replace CFCs in energy related applications before the year 2000, and to assess the total potential impact of these alternatives on global warming. The analysis for this project included an estimate of the direct effects from the release of blowing agents, refrigerants, and solvents into the atmosphere and the indirect effects in the form of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from energy use for commercial and residential heating and cooling, household and commercial refrigeration, building and automobile air-conditioning, and general metal and electronics solvent cleaning. The discussion in this paper focuses on those aspects of the study relevant to refrigeration and air-conditioning. In general the use of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) alternatives for CFCs lead to large and sometimestives for CFCs lead to large and sometimes dramatic reduction in total equivalent warming impact (TEWI), lifetime equivalent CO2 emission. Most of the reductions result from decreased direct effects without significant changes in energy use. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

357

Global warming benefits the small in aquatic ecosystems  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the ecological impacts of climate change is a crucial challenge of the twenty-first century. There is a clear lack of general rules regarding the impacts of global warming on biota. Here, we present a metaanalysis of the effect of climate change on body size of ectothermic aquatic organisms (bacteria, phyto- and zooplankton, and fish) from the community to the individual level. Using long-term surveys, experimental data and published results, we show a significant increase in the proportion of small-sized species and young age classes and a decrease in size-at-age. These results are in accordance with the ecological rules dealing with the temperature–size relationships (i.e., Bergmann's rule, James' rule and Temperature–Size Rule). Our study provides evidence that reduced body size is the third universal ecological response to global warming in aquatic systems besides the shift of species ranges toward higher altitudes and latitudes and the seasonal shifts in life cycle events. PMID:19620720

Daufresne, Martin; Lengfellner, Kathrin; Sommer, Ulrich

2009-01-01

358

Tropical drying trends in global warming models and observations  

Science.gov (United States)

Anthropogenic changes in tropical rainfall are evaluated in a multimodel ensemble of global warming simulations. Major discrepancies on the spatial distribution of these precipitation changes remain in the latest-generation models analyzed here. Despite this uncertainty, we find a number of measures, both global and local, on which reasonable agreement is obtained, notably for the regions of drying trend (negative precipitation anomalies). Models agree on the overall amplitude of the precipitation decreases that occur at the margins of the convective zones, with percent error bars of magnitude similar to those for the tropical warming. Similar agreement is found on a precipitation climate sensitivity defined here and on differential moisture increase inside and outside convection zones, a step in a hypothesized causal path leading to precipitation changes. A measure of local intermodel agreement on significant trends indicates consistent predictions for particular regions. Observed rainfall trends in several data sets show a significant summer drying trend in a main region of intermodel agreement: the Caribbean/Central-American region. PMID:16606851

Neelin, J. D.; Münnich, M.; Su, H.; Meyerson, J. E.; Holloway, C. E.

2006-01-01

359

Possible human health impacts of a global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Some ways in which a global warming may affect human health are discussed. Research is presented which explores the hypothesis that heat stress-induced mortality may increase substantially in the event of a worldwide temperature increase. Two procedures are applied to four disparate nations: the US, Canada, China and Egypt. Results indicate that significant increases in heat-related mortality are likely to occur, particularly in developing nations. Factors which might help to mitigate these increases, such as acclimatization and air conditioning, are also examined. Another human health impact of a global warming is the likely spread of certain vector-borne diseases into areas of the world where they do not currently exist. Two of these, onchocerciasis and malaria, have been chosen for a detailed international study. The initial steps in this effort are discussed. Policy options are proposed which may prepare international organizations and public officials for difficulties which may arise. Implementation of these procedures, which include continuation of internationally sponsored research, could help to ameliorate many of the problems outlined in this paper.

Nichols, M.C.; Kalkstein, L.S.; Cheng, S. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Dept. of Geography

1995-03-01

360

Contribution of the Energy Sector towards Global Warming in Malawi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the energy demand projection for Malawi considering implementation of two energy development strategies. The strategies are Malawi Biomass Energy Strategy (BEST and Malawi electricity investment plan. Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP software was used as the simulation tool. Environmental effects of the energy sector towards global warming by the energy sector as a result of implementing the strategies have been investigated. Three scenarios were developed, the first one to reflect on business as usual, the second one depicting implementation of Malawi BEST and the third one depicting implementation of the Malawi Electricity Investment Plan. A fourth scenario was developed to depict implementation of both strategies. 2008 was used as the base year with energy mix of consisting of biomass consumption decrease in all the scenarios due to better efficiency in the utilization of biomass and change in life style by people as a direct response to available energy alternatives. Implementing both the Malawi BEST and Malawi Electricity Investment Plan for energy sector development would be better in terms of both energy supply and global warming effects.

Wuyuan Peng

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
361

Subarctic warming: Results from the global treeline project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors reported last year at the 6th Global Warming Science and Policy Conference (GW6), April 3--6, 1995, San Francisco USA, the Global Treeline Project (BLECSCO) has definitively established the northward movement in the 20th century of the northernmost limit for pine trees in Finland. this movement is due to climate warming. The Finnish Forest Research Institute has been working on this problem between 1951 and 1996. The authors have observed over half a century the movements of the coniferous treeline. The subarctic pine tree line is used as a permanent bioindicator of climate change. The dynamic pine tree line in the subarctic of Finland serves as a reliable indicator of expected climate change in the future as well as of climatic fluctuations in the past. The FFRI has tracked comprehensively seed year frequencies, performed dendrochronological studies, fire studies, and ecological studies since the abundant seed year of 1948--50 to the present, and discovered that climate change has favored the northward movement of the pine limit. The authors report the detailed scientific methodology, data, and conclusions.

Siren, G.; Shen, S.

1996-12-31

362

Infrared detection based monitoring of global warming gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monitoring of air-born organic and organic pollutants have always been a subject of concern to the environmentalists. Gases in particular Co/sub 2/, N/sub 2/O ad C/sub 4/ are responsible for global warming and have indirect impact on the environment. These gases are generally analyzed by gas chromatography. However on-site monitoring using this technique in rather difficult and it requires reasonable instrumental handling experience. The infrared-based technique is not only simple rather it also offers on advantage of on-site monitoring of a pollutant and eliminates the tedious job of sampling and its preservation. In the present work experimental conditions have been optimize for the selective detection of major global warming agents. Independent gas mixtures of Co/sub 2/, N/sub 2/O and C/sub 4/ have been prepared in pure helium gas by partial pressure method. The measured response of varied amount of each gas is found to be linear. The interference of these gases in presence of each other is also investigated. In this reference, gas mixtures of the gases are prepared considering the relevant concentration of each gas in the ambient air. The monitoring was found almost interference free at ambient concentration of these gases. The reliability can further be improved by incorporating the concentration trend of these gases. The reliability can further be improved by incorporating calibrated gas standard mixtures. (author)

363

Global warming: discounting is not the issue, but substitutability is  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cost-benefit study of Nordhaus (1994) is representative for the neoclassical approach towards global warming. Nordhaus found that no substantial emission cuts are warranted. Most of his critics have concentrated on the issue of discounting and demanded that a lower discount rate should be applied. These criticisms first miss the point and second lead to ethically dubious, inconsistent conclusions and inefficient policy choices. They miss the point because the real problem of Nordhaus's methodology is his implicit underlying assumption of perfect substitutability between natural and other forms of capital. Given the validity of this assumption, lowering the rate of discount is inconsistent with current savings behaviour, is ethically dubious because future generations will be much richer than the current one anyway, and is inefficient because scarce financial resources are channelled into emissions abatement that exhibits rates of return far inferior to alternative public investments. Any call for aggressive emission abatement must therefore directly attack the perfect substitutability assumption of neoclassical economics. The real disagreement is about whether consumption growth can compensate for environmental degradation caused by global warming. Discounting is not the issue, but substitutability is. (author)

364

Global Deliberative Democracy and Climate Change: Insights from World Wide Views on Global Warming in Australia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

On 26 September 2009, approximately 4,000 citizens in 38 countries participated in World Wide Views on Global Warming (WWViews). WWViews was an ambitious first attempt to convene a deliberative mini-public at a global scale, giving people from around the world an opportunity to deliberate on international climate policy and to make recommendations to the decision-makers meeting at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen (COP-15) in December 2009. In this paper, we examine t...

Chris Riedy; Jade Herriman

2011-01-01

365

Entropy Shows that Global Warming Should Cause Increased Variability in the Weather  

CERN Document Server

Elementary physical reasoning seems to leave it inevitable that global warming would increase the variability of the weather. The first two terms in an approximation to the global entropy may be used to show that global warming has increased the free energy available to drive the weather, and that the variance of the weather has increased correspondingly.

Williams, J M

2000-01-01

366

Global Warming: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast. Part A The Greenhouse Effect.  

Science.gov (United States)

Provides information necessary for an interdisciplinary analysis of the greenhouse effect, enhanced greenhouse effect, global warming, global climate change, greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, and scientific study of global warming for students grades 4-12. Several activity ideas accompany the information. (LZ)

Andrews, Bill

1993-01-01

367

Feedback attribution of the land-sea warming contrast in a global warming simulation of the NCAR CCSM4  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the salient features in both observations and climate simulations is a stronger land warming than sea. This paper provides a quantitative understanding of the main processes that contribute to the land-sea warming asymmetry in a global warming simulation of the NCAR CCSM4. The CO2 forcing alone warms the surface nearly the same for both land and sea, suggesting that feedbacks are responsible for the warming contrast. Our analysis on one hand confirms that the principal contributor to the above-unity land-to-sea warming ratio is the evaporation feedback; on the other hand the results indicate that the sensible heat flux feedback has the largest land-sea warming difference that favors a greater ocean than land warming. Therefore, the results uniquely highlight the importance of other feedbacks in establishing the above-unity land-to-sea warming ratio. Particularly, the SW cloud feedback and the ocean heat storage in the transient response are key contributors to the greater warming over land than sea.

Sejas, Sergio A.; Albert, Oriene S.; Cai, Ming; Deng, Yi

2014-12-01

368

Effects of Ocean Acidification and Warming on Sperm Activity and Early Life Stages of the Mediterranean Mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Larval stages are among those most vulnerable to ocean acidification (OA). Projected atmospheric CO> levels for the end of this century may lead to negative impacts on communities dominated by calcifying taxa with planktonic life stages. We exposed Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) sperm and early life stages to pHT levels of 8.0 (current pH) and 7.6 (2100 level) by manipulating pCO2 level (380 and 1000 ppm). Sperm activity was examined at ambient temperatures (16-17 °C) u...

Mikko Vihtakari; Hendriks, Iris E.; Johnna Holding; Renaud, Paul E.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Havenhand, Jon N.

2013-01-01

369

An electric utility program to address global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation believes that despite the incomplete and uncertain state of scientific knowledge concerning global atmospheric change, the plausible negative effects of accelerated global warming, known as open-quotes the Greenhouse Effect,close quotes are so large that purdent actions can and should be taken now to reduce so-called greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, the corporation has adopted a Greenhouse Warming Action Program based on strategies recommended by the National Academy of Sciences and the corporation's Integrated Electric Resource Plan. The program is a logical outgrowth of the company's policy statement on protection of the environment and is designed to surpass the Rio Earth Summit's goal of stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions. Central to the Action Program are increased use of natural gas, aggressive expansion of energy efficiency programs, and maximized generation from hydroelectric and nuclear energy sources. Additional elements include preventing releases of CFC's through customer incentive recycling programs; a forest conservation program of managing lands on a sustainable yield basis, environmentally-conscious use of paper products, and waste paper and cardboard recycling; promoting commercialization of low emitting vehicles; and developing and demonstrating low-CO2 technologies such as wind turbines and photo-voltaic cells. Niagara Mohawk believes that acting now to implement such a policy is a responsible step that msuch a policy is a responsible step that makes sense from both scientific and business perspectives. Moreover, voluntary action now by utilities and other segments of the private sector is the best way to avoid the need for future regulation by government designed to achieve the same end. We intend to do our part to stabilize and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, while recognizing that our contribution is only a small fraction of total global greenhouse gas emissions

370

Transportation in El Salvador: a commitment to global warming management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

San Salvador City, El Salvador, is a city plagued with air pollution caused by traffic and congestion. Forecasts indicate the problem is likely to worsen in the coming years. Delcan International Corporation was commissioned by the Ministry of Public Works of El Salvador to study and evaluate the design and alternatives to a Ring Road circling San Salvador. The project, financed by the Inter-American Development Bank, is discussed in this paper, along with a summary of aspects of an Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) and the environmental impacts assessment conducted. Human-induced changes in climate, increasing levels of greenhouse gases are referred to as global warming of climate change. Water vapour, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone are the main greenhouse gases, with carbon dioxide representing the biggest threat. Approximately 14 per cent of global carbon dioxide emissions are caused by fumes emanating from motor-vehicle gasoline-fuels, and 50 per cent of those are produced in developing countries. Motor vehicles produce 60 to 90 per cent of carbon dioxide emissions in Latin America urban centres. Some ways of reducing carbon dioxide emissions are: reduce travel, use more efficient vehicles, improving existing vehicle technologies and fuels, improving traveller behaviour, reducing congestion. ITS could be a valuable tool for measuring the effectiveness of measures designed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The Intelligent Transportation System assists with tigent Transportation System assists with the evaluation of the optimization and enlargement of existing roads, especially downtown, the construction of a highway around the city. This evaluation includes an environmental impact assessment, a traffic study and the highway final design. The Government of El Salvador has shown its commitment to sustainable practices toward global warming

371

The zonal mean circulation response to global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the robust changes in the global circulation due to global warming is the poleward shift of the midlatitude jet stream. The mechanisms for the circulation response have been a topic of interest with previous studies using barotropic models attributing these changes to extratropical causes (e.g. Chen et al 2007, Kidston et al 2011). Recent studies considering the diffusive nature of the eddies attributes the shift to the resultant down-gradient eddy PV flux (Butler et al 2011), however Chen et al (2012) and Lu et al (2013) argue that the change in the effective diffusivity is more essential than the change in PV gradient itself. To understand the dynamical mechanisms for the shift, we perform large-ensemble transient simulations using NCAR's Community Atmosphere Model version 4 (CAM4) with a sudden switchon of the climate forcings of interest, in particular, a uniform 4K SST perturbation. The finite-amplitude wave activity budget in baroclinic flow developed by Nakamura and collaborators (Nakamura and Zhu, 2010; Nakamura and Solomon, 2010) is used in our diagnostic study to look into how the different dynamical processes constrain the eddy PV flux, which controls the eddy-driven circulation. Similar to the idealized studies of Chen et al (2012) we identified the source for the sudden onset of the momentum forcing for the poleward shift as an anomalous divergence of EP flux resulting from a reduction of effective diffusivity and associated dissipation of wave activities. This study enhance our confidence in the earlier proposition that the changing statistics of wave breakings and the associated mixing of PV are crucial to the shift of the zonal mean circulation patterns. This result may have important bearings on the changing statistics of the precipitation extreme in the subtropics and mid-latitudes under global warming.

Palipane, E.; Lu, J.; Solomon, A. L.

2013-12-01

372

Public perception of global warming and related environmental issues in Kano city, Nigeria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sub-Saharan African countries are at an increased risk of the effects of global warming. Unfortunately they have the least capacity to adapt to its untoward effects. We studied public awareness of global warming, its perceived causes, effects and prevention in Kano city, northern Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were administered on a cross section of 181 adults in Kano eliciting their awareness of global warming, as well as perceived causes, effects and ways of prevention. Of the 181 respondents, 132 (72.9%) were aware of global warming mainly from electronic media (44.4%), the Internet (20.5%) and schools (18.7%). They mostly attributed it to air pollution (99.2%), use of fossil fuels (97.7%), toxic waste (78.0%) and chlorofluorocarbons (73.5%). Perceived effects of global warming include extremes of ambient temperature (97.7%), increased disease outbreaks (92.4%), floods (68.2%), droughts (51.5%) and loss of species (50.0%). Respondents opined that global warming could be prevented by using renewable sources of energy such as the sun (53.8%), massive tree planting (44.7%) and phasing out of old automobiles (43.2%). A significantly higher proportion of males, younger and educated respondents were aware of global warming. The high awareness about global warming needs to be reinforced through use of media to encourage advocacy and community action towards preventing global warming and ensuring environmental sustainability.

Iliyasu, Z.; Abubakar, I.; Gajida, A.U.

2010-07-01

373

Is Global Warming significantly affecting atmospheric circulation extremes?  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the anthropogenic influence on 20th century global warming is well established, the influence on the atmospheric circulation, especially on regional scales at which natural variability is relatively large, has proved harder to ascertain. And yet assertions are often made to this effect, especially in the media whenever an extreme warm or cold or dry or wet spell occurs and is tied to an apparent trend in the large-scale atmospheric circulation pattern. We are addressing this important issue using the longest currently available global atmospheric circulation dataset, an ensemble of 56 equally likely estimates of the atmospheric state within observational error bounds generated for every 6 hours from 1871 to the present in the 20th Century Reanalysis Project (20CR; Compo et al, QJRMS 2011). We previously presented evidence that long-term trends in the indices of several major modes of atmospheric circulation variability, including the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the tropical Pacific Walker Circulation (PWC), were weak or non-existent over the full period of record in the 20CR dataset. We have since investigated the possibility of a change in the probability density functions (PDFs) of the daily values of these indices, including changes in their tails, from the first to the second halves of the 20th century and found no statistically significant change. This was done taking into account the generally skewed and heavy-tailed character of these PDFs, and using both raw histograms and fitted "SGS" probability distributions (whose relevance in describing large-scale atmospheric variability was demonstrated in Sardeshmukh and Sura, J. Climate 2009) to assess the significance of any changes through extensive Monte Carlo simulations. We stress that without such an explicit accounting of departures from normal distributions, detection and attribution studies of changes in climate extremes may be seriously compromised and lead to wrong conclusions. Our finding of no significant change in the PDFs of the NAO and the PWC has important implications for how global warming is influencing atmospheric circulation variability and extreme anomaly statistics, and to what extent the CMIP5 models are correctly representing those influences.

Sardeshmukh, P. D.; Compo, G. P.; Penland, M. C.

2012-12-01

374

Voluminous Icelandic Basaltic Eruptions Appear To Cause Abrupt Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Beginning on June 21, 1783, Laki volcano in southern Iceland erupted 14.7 km3 basalt, ejecting 24 Mt SO_{2} into the stratosphere where it was blown eastward and northward and 98 Mt into the troposphere where the jet stream transported it southeastward to Europe. The "dry fog" observed in Europe with an estimated mean concentration of 60 ppbv SO2, raised daytime temperatures as much as 3.3^{o}C, causing the warmest July in England from 1659 when measurements began until 1983. SO2, tropospheric O_{3}, NO2, and fine ash absorb ultraviolet energy from the sun that causes the bonds between and within their atoms to oscillate at 47 times higher frequency than the bonds in CO_{2} absorbing infrared radiation. Temperature is proportional to the kinetic energy of these oscillations, i.e. the frequency squared. Thus these gases are raised to much higher temperatures than greenhouse gases. The Stefan-Boltzmann law says that radiation from these molecules is a constant times temperature raised to the fourth power. As a result, SO2 and ash radiate far more energy back to earth than CO_{2}, causing warming. Another way to look at the energy involved shows that 15 ppbv SO2 in the 0.3-0.42 ?m wavelength band absorbs as much solar energy per unit volume as 388,000 ppbv CO_{2} absorbs infrared energy in the 12.7-17.5 ?m band. Basaltic volcanoes such as Laki emit 10 to 100 times more SO2 than more evolved magmas and are less explosive, leaving most of the SO_{2} in the troposphere. All 14 Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) sudden warmings between 46 and 11 ka are contemporaneous with the highest levels of sulfate in the GISP2 drill hole near Summit Greenland. These DO events typically warmed the northern hemisphere out of the ice age within decades, but as volcanism waned, ocean temperatures cooled the world back into an ice age within centuries. The world finally exited the ice age when voluminous volcanism continued from 11.6 to 9.6 ka. Basaltic table mountains or tuyas in Iceland document major sub-glacial eruptions that occurred during DO 0, A, and 1 (11.6, 13.1, and 14.6 ka) and similar but less well dated activity at least over the past million years. Massive melting of a thick ice sheet by volcanoes would decrease overburden pressure on the magma chambers, potentially increasing volcanism. Continued basaltic eruptions over decades enhanced by such a feedback c8ould explain why the intervals between DO events (1300 to 8800 years) are more random than cyclic and the evidence for sudden influxes of fresh water into the North Atlantic documented during DO events. Concentrations of sulfate in Greenland were as high from 1928 to 1985 as during the largest DO event. Trace element analysis shows this sulfate came from smoke stacks in northern Russia, Europe, and central North America. Observed levels of SO2, NO_{x}, tropospheric O$_{3} and black carbon are more than sufficient to have been the primary cause of 20th century global warming. Efforts to reduce acid rain by reducing emissions of these pollutants "accidentally" slowed global warming by 1998. Mean global surface temperatures have remained high but have not increased since then.

Ward, P. L.

2011-12-01

375

Global Deliberative Democracy and Climate Change: Insights from World Wide Views on Global Warming in Australia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available On 26 September 2009, approximately 4,000 citizens in 38 countries participated in World Wide Views on Global Warming (WWViews. WWViews was an ambitious first attempt to convene a deliberative mini-public at a global scale, giving people from around the world an opportunity to deliberate on international climate policy and to make recommendations to the decision-makers meeting at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen (COP-15 in December 2009. In this paper, we examine the role that deliberative mini-publics can play in facilitating the emergence of a global deliberative system for climate change response. We pursue this intent through a reflective evaluation of the Australian component of the World Wide Views on Global Warming project (WWViews. Our evaluation of WWViews is mixed. The Australian event was delivered with integrity and feedback from Australian participants was almost universally positive. Globally, WWViews demonstrated that it is feasible to convene a global mini-public to deliberate on issues of global relevance, such as climate change. On the other hand, the contribution of WWViews towards the emergence of a global deliberative system for climate change response was limited and it achieved little influence on global climate change policy. We identify lessons for future global mini-publics, including the need to prioritise the quality of deliberation and provide flexibility to respond to cultural and political contexts in different parts of the world. Future global mini-publics may be more influential if they seek to represent discourse diversity in addition to demographic profiles, use designs that maximise the potential for transmission from public to empowered space, run over longer time periods to build momentum for change and experiment with ways of bringing global citizens together in a single process instead of discrete national events.

Chris Riedy

2011-12-01

376

Global Deliberative Democracy and Climate Change: Insights from World Wide Views on Global Warming in Australia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available On 26 September 2009, approximately 4,000 citizens in 38 countries participated in World Wide Views on Global Warming (WWViews. WWViews was an ambitious first attempt to convene a deliberative mini-public at a global scale, giving people from around the world an opportunity to deliberate on international climate policy and to make recommendations to the decision-makers meeting at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen (COP-15 in December 2009. In this paper, we examine the role that deliberative mini-publics can play in facilitating the emergence of a global deliberative system for climate change response. We pursue this intent through a reflective evaluation of the Australian component of the World Wide Views on Global Warming project (WWViews. Our evaluation of WWViews is mixed. The Australian event was delivered with integrity and feedback from Australian participants was almost universally positive. Globally, WWViews demonstrated that it is feasible to convene a global mini-public to deliberate on issues of global relevance, such as climate change. On the other hand, the contribution of WWViews towards the emergence of a global deliberative system for climate change response was limited and it achieved little influence on global climate change policy. We identify lessons for future global mini-publics, including the need to prioritise the quality of deliberation and provide flexibility to respond to cultural and political contexts in different parts of the world. Future global mini-publics may be more influential if they seek to represent discourse diversity in addition to demographic profiles, use designs that maximise the potential for transmission from public to empowered space, run over longer time periods to build momentum for change and experiment with ways of bringing global citizens together in a single process instead of discrete national events.

Chris Riedy

2011-08-01

377

Energy and global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The primary objective of this study is to develop representative indications of the relative energy use, associated CO2 emissions, and total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of viable options to replace CFCs in their major energy-related application areas. It was motivated, in part, by a concern that most attention to date has focused on the DIRECT global warming effect of CFC's and their alternatives, with adequate attention being paid to the INDIRECT effect of the CO2 emissions arising from the differences in energy consumption by systems using different alternatives. The DIRECT and INDIRECT contributions are combined in this analysis to determine the TEWI of the various technical options. The study is international in scope and takes into account significant differences in present CFC end-use practices, sources of energy, and other societal factors between Europe, Japan, and North America. This study should be considered an overview of key issues. The analysis addressed CFCs as well as alternative chemicals and technology alternatives in uses such as refrigeration, foam insulation, and metal and electronic cleaning and drying processes

378

More and more weather records - Is global warming to blame?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

If one believes in current media coverage it seems very simple: Due to the significant, largely anthropogenic, warming of the world's average temperature, more and more weather extremes occur. Every time we have a record breaking daily maximum temperature, or an immense amount of precipitation in a certain timespan, this is intuitively blamed on global warming. However mathematically the relation between an increasing mean value and the occurrence of records is far from trivial and not completely understood. This relation and its relevance to the analysis of weather data is the subject of this talk. Given an underlying distribution, we consider the probability that an event in a succession of events is a record, when the distribution itself is shifting, or altering its form. We found some approximations that are useful for the comparison with historical climate recordings. We obtained data for the daily maximum and daily minimum temperature and the daily precipitation amount from thousands of weather stations in Europe and the United States and analyzed them with regard to record events. The results are largely in accordance with what we predict from our calculations, but also reveal some interesting deviations.

Wergen, Gregor; Krug, Joachim [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Koeln (Germany)

2009-07-01

379

Global Warming as a Manifestation of a Random Walk.  

Science.gov (United States)

Global and hemispheric series of surface temperature anomalies are examined in an attempt to isolate any specific features of the structure of the series that might contribute to the global warming of about 0.5°C which has been observed over the past 100 years. It is found that there are no significant differences between the means of the positive and negative values of the changes in temperature from one year to the next; neither do the relative frequencies of the positive and negative values differ from the frequencies that would be expected by chance with a probability near 0.5. If the interannual changes are regarded as changes of unit magnitude and plotted in a Cartesian frame of reference with time measured along the x axis and yearly temperature differences along the y axis, the resulting path closely resembles the kind of random walk that occurs during a coin-tossing game.We hypothesize that the global and hemispheric temperature series are the result of a Markov process. The climate system is subjected to various forms of random impulses. It is argued that the system fails to return to its former state after reacting to an impulse but tends to adjust to a new state of equilibrium as prescribed by the shock. This happens because a net positive feedback accompanies each shock and slightly alters the environmental state.

Gordon, A. H.

1991-06-01

380

Global warming calls for changes in public climate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As an environmental management problem, the greenhouse issue will require fundamentally different approaches if the US is to do its part to limit global warming. Preventive measures must be used to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, and reforestation and vegetative processes must help capture future carbon-dioxide emissions. In turn, these approaches will require changes in environmental and institutional management. There must be a close integration of energy and environmental policy with coordinated efforts among environmental agencies, energy agencies, and public service commissions to promote and evaluate energy conservation and energy efficiency. A creative policy mix of regulation, economic incentives, and penalties will be required, with specific policies targeted towards specific segments of the economy. Finally, energy R and D priorities must be broadened to promote utilization of existing and new energy-conservation and alternate-energy technologies that have not reached their market potential due to economic, institutional, and behavioral barriers

 
 
 
 
381

'Carbon-Money Exchange' to contain global warming and deforestation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper builds a basic theory of 'Carbon-Money Exchange' in which carbon as currency in nature's household (ecosystems) and money as currency in humankind's household (economy) are exchanged just like in a foreign exchange. The simple chemical equation below makes it possible (CO2?C+O2=C+O2?CO2). The left-hand side represents the work of plants to remove atmospheric CO2. The right-hand side represents the work of humans as fossil fuel consumers to produce it. The exchange of the two currencies is possible by copying the fossil fuel market. The paper concludes that this new exchange can automatically contain global warming and deforestation, replacing onerous emissions trading. Moreover, it could revolutionize the conventional economy, creating counter-capitalism, or 'carbonism'

382

Global Warming Will Bring New Fungal Diseases for Mammals  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT Fungi are major pathogens of plants, other fungi, rotifers, insects, and amphibians, but relatively few cause disease in mammals. Fungi became important human pathogens only in the late 20th century, primarily in hosts with impaired immunity as a consequence of medical interventions or HIV infection. The relatively high resistance of mammals has been attributed to a combination of a complex immune system and endothermy. Mammals maintain high body temperatures relative to environmental temperatures, creating a thermally restrictive ambient for the majority of fungi. According to this view, protection given by endothermy requires a temperature gradient between those of mammals and the environment. We hypothesize that global warming will increase the prevalence of fungal diseases in mammals by two mechanisms: (i) increasing the geographic range of currently pathogenic species and (ii) selecting for adaptive thermotolerance for species with significant pathogenic potential but currently not pathogenic by virtue of being restricted by mammalian temperatures. PMID:20689745

Garcia-Solache, Monica A.; Casadevall, Arturo

2010-01-01

383

Gas emissions from landfills and their contributions to global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contribution of methane from UK landfills is described in relation to total gas emissions to the atmosphere and how these have been shown to contribute to global warming. The known effects that methane has on the atmosphere are reviewed and the relationship to those effects caused by other greenhouse gases is described. A methodology utilized in assessing the quantity of landfill gas emitted from landfill sites is described, as are the main principles used in a gas generation model. Results of a survey, field trials and categorisation of the many types of site condition and waste mixtures are explained, including the techniques incorporated into the model to allow a potential gas yield to be predicted. The factors that limit this potential yield of methane such as the oxidizing capacity of soil are identified and assessed. (author)

384

Energy conversion of biomass in coping with global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main purpose of the present paper is to propose energy conversion technologies of biomass in coping with global warming. Among thermochemical conversion, liquid fuel production by high pressure process is mainly introduced. Biomass is a term used to describe materials of biological origin, either purpose-grown or arising as by-products, residues or wastes from forestry, agriculture and food processing. Such biomass is a renewable energy sources dependent on solar energy. Through photosynthesis, plants converts carbon dioxide into organic materials used in their growth. Energy can be recovered from the plant materials by several processes, the simplest way is burning in air. As far as biomass is used in this way, there is no atmospheric accumulation of carbon dioxide making no effect on the Greenhouse Effect, provided that the cycle of regrowth and burning is sustained.

Yokoyama, Shin-ya; Ogi, Tomoko; Minowa, Tomoaki [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

1993-12-31

385

More hurricanes to hit western Europe due to global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

We use a very high resolution global climate model (~25 km grid size) with prescribed sea surface temperatures to show that greenhouse warming enhances the occurrence of hurricane-force (> 32.6 m s-1) storms over western Europe during early autumn (August-October), the majority of which originate as a tropical cyclone. The rise in Atlantic tropical sea surface temperatures extends eastward the breeding ground of tropical cyclones, yielding more frequent and intense hurricanes following pathways directed toward Europe. En route they transform into extratropical depressions and reintensify after merging with the midlatitude baroclinic unstable flow. Our model simulations clearly show that future tropical cyclones are more prone to hit western Europe, and do so earlier in the season, thereby increasing the frequency and impact of hurricane force winds.

Haarsma, Reindert J.; Hazeleger, Wilco; Severijns, Camiel; Vries, Hylke; Sterl, Andreas; Bintanja, Richard; Oldenborgh, Geert Jan; Brink, Henk W.

2013-05-01

386

The impact of global warming on the Southern Oscillation Index  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) - a measure of air pressure difference across the Pacific Ocean, from Tahiti in the south-east to Darwin in the west - is one of the world's most important climatic indices. The SOI is used to track and predict changes in both the El Nino-Southern Oscillation phenomenon, and the Walker Circulation (WC). During El Nino, for example, the WC weakens and the SOI tends to be negative. Climatic variations linked to changes in the WC have a profound influence on climate, ecosystems, agriculture, and societies in many parts of the world. Previous research has shown that (1) the WC and the SOI weakened in recent decades and that (2) the WC in climate models tends to weaken in response to elevated atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Here we examine changes in the SOI and air pressure across the Pacific in the observations and in numerous WCRP/CMIP3 climate model integrations for both the 20th and 21st centuries. The difference in mean-sea level air pressure (MSLP) between the eastern and western equatorial Pacific tends to weaken during the 21st century, consistent with previous research. Here we show that this primarily arises because of an increase in MSLP in the west Pacific and not a decline in the east. We also show, in stark contrast to expectations, that the SOI actually tends to increase during the 21st century, not decrease. Under global warming MSLP tends to increase at both Darwin and Tahiti, but tends to rise more at Tahiti than at Darwin. Tahiti lies in an extensive region where MSLP tends to rise in response to global warming. So while the SOI is an excellent indicator of interannual variability in both the equatorial MSLP gradient and the WC, it is a highly misleading indicator of long-term equatorial changes linked to global warming. Our results also indicate that the observed decline in the SOI in recent decades has been driven by natural, internally generated variability. The externally forced signal in the June-December SOI during 2010 is estimated to be approximately 5% of the standard deviation of variability in the SOI during the 20th century. This figure is projected to increase to 40% by the end of the 21st century under the A2 SRES scenario. The 2010 global warming signal is already a major contributor to interdecadal variability in the SOI, equal to 45% of the standard deviation of 30-year running averages of the SOI. This figure is projected to increase to nearly 340% by the end of the 21st century. Implications that these discoveries have for understanding recent climatic change and for seasonal prediction are discussed. (orig.)

Power, Scott B.; Kociuba, Greg [Bureau of Meteorology, Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, Melbourne (Australia)

2011-11-15

387

Global warming potentials; Part 7 of 7 supporting documents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document provides methods to account for the different effects of different gases on the atmosphere. It discusses the rationale and uses for simplified measures to represent human-related effects on climate and provides a brief introduction to a major index, the global warming potential (GWP) index. Appendix 7.A analyzes the science underlying the development of indices for concerns about climate, which is still evolving, evaluates the usefulness of currently available indices, and presents the state of the art for numerical indices and their uncertainties. For concerns about climate, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has been instrumental in examining relative indices for comparing the radiative influences of greenhouse gases. The IPCC developed the concept of GWPs to provide a simple representation of the relative effects on climate resulting from a unit mass emission of a greenhouse gas. Alternative measures and variations on the definition of GWPs have also been considered and reported

388

A Robust Response of the Hadley Circulation to Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Tropical rainfall is expected to increase in a warmer climate. Yet, recent studies have inferred that the Hadley Circulation (HC), which is primarily driven by latent heating from tropical rainfall, is weakened under global warming. Here, we show evidence of a robust intensification of the HC from analyses of 33 CMIP5 model projections under a scenario of 1 per year CO2 emission increase. The intensification is manifested in a deep-tropics squeeze, characterized by a pronounced increase in the zonal mean ascending motion in the mid and upper troposphere, a deepening and narrowing of the convective zone and enhanced rainfall in the deep tropics. These changes occur in conjunction with a rise in the region of maximum outflow of the HC, with accelerated meridional mass outflow in the uppermost branch of the HC away from the equator, coupled to a weakened inflow in the return branches of the HC in the lower troposphere.

Lau, William K M.; Kim, Kyu-Myong

2014-01-01

389

The Early Rice Project: From Domestication to Global Warming  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Early Rice Project, at the UCL Institute of Archaeology, is clarifying the origins of Asian rice agriculture. In the Lower Yangtze region of China, we have found the tipping point when domesticated forms first outnumber wild types c.4600 BC. Investigations of assorted weed flora are also revealing how the cultivation of rice changed over time, with early cultivation in small, irregular, dug-out paddy fields in the Lower Yangtze from c.4000 BC, providing a means for the careful control of water conditions. We also work on early rice cultivation in Thailand and India. By better characterising how rice was cultivated across its entire range, we aim to model the ancient output of atmospheric methane from wet rice fields, as this was a potential contributor to the long story of human-caused global warming.

Dorian Q. Fuller

2011-10-01

390

New electric technologies to reduce global warming impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Advanced electric technologies hold significant potential to reduce global warming impact through reduction of primary fuel needed to power end-use applications. These reductions can occur in two forms: (1) reduced kilowatt-hour usage and power plant emissions through efficiency improvements and technological enhancements of existing electrically-driven applications; (2) the development of new electric technologies to replace traditional fossil-fuel driven applications which can result in less overall primary energy consumption and lower overall emissions. Numerous new electric technologies are presently being developed by the Electric Power Research Institute. The technologies reviewed in this paper include: Microwave Fabric Dryer, Advanced Heat Pumps, Heat Pump Water Heater, Infrared Sand Reclaimer, Freeze Concentration, Membrane Water Recovery, Microwave Petrochemical Production, Infrared Drying, and Electric Vehicles. Full commercialization of these technologies can result in significant energy savings and CO2 reductions, in addition to improving the competitiveness of businesses using these technologies

391

Global warming due to increasing absorbed solar radiation  

Science.gov (United States)

Global climate models used in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) are examined for the top-of-atmosphere radiation changes as carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases build up from 1950 to 2100. There is an increase in net radiation absorbed, but not in ways commonly assumed. While there is a large increase in the greenhouse effect from increasing greenhouse gases and water vapor (as a feedback), this is offset to a large degree by a decreasing greenhouse effect from reducing cloud cover and increasing radiative emissions from higher temperatures. Instead the main warming from an energy budget standpoint comes from increases in absorbed solar radiation that stem directly from the decreasing cloud amounts. These findings underscore the need to ascertain the credibility of the model changes, especially insofar as changes in clouds are concerned.

Trenberth, Kevin E.; Fasullo, John T.

2009-04-01

392

Geoengineering the Climate: Approaches to Counterbalancing Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

For the past two hundred years, the inadvertent release of carbon dioxide and other radiatively active gases and aerosols, particularly as a result of combustion of fossil fuels and changes in land cover, have been contributing to global climate change. Global warming to date is approaching 1°C, and this is being accompanied by reduced sea ice, rising sea level, shifting ecosystems and more. Rather than sharply curtailing use of fossil fuels in order to reduce CO2 emissions and eventually eliminate the net human influence on global climate, a number of approaches have been suggested that are intended to advertently modify the climate in a manner to counter-balance the warming influence of greenhouse gas emissions. One general type of approach is carbon sequestration, which focuses on capturing the CO2 and then sequestering it underground or in the ocean. This can be done at the source of emission, by pulling the CO2 out of the atmosphere through some chemical process, or by enhancing the natural processes that remove CO2 from the atmosphere, for example by fertilizing the oceans with iron. A second general approach to geoengineering the climate is to lower the warming influence of the incoming solar radiation by an amount equivalent to the energy captured by the CO2-induced enhancement of the greenhouse effect. Proposals have been made to do this by locating a deflector at the Earth-Sun Lagrange point, lofting many thousands of near-Earth mirrors, injecting aerosols into the stratosphere, or by increasing the surface albedo. A third general approach is to alter natural Earth system processes in ways that would counterbalance the effects of the warming. Among suggested approaches are constructing dams to block various ocean passages, oceanic films to limit evaporation and water vapor feedback, and even, at small scale, to insulate mountain glaciers to prevent melting. Each of these approaches has its advantages, ranging from simplicity to reversibility, and disadvantages, ranging from costs for implementation to associated inadvertent negative environmental consequences. Unless implemented as only a bridging effort, geoengineering would require diversion of substantial, and even growing, resources from the effort to move away from reliance on fossil fuels. Because the lifetime of the excess CO2 in the atmosphere is so long, such efforts would generally need to be maintained for centuries by future generations to avoid a relatively rapid increase in global average temperature, even after emissions of CO2 had eventually been halted. In that such approaches are also fraught with uncertainties, there has been very little study of the details of how such approaches might be pursued and of their overall advertent and inadvertent consequences, leaving the area open to ongoing consideration of sometimes rather speculative possibilities.

MacCracken, M. C.

2005-12-01

393

Predicting the global warming potential of agro-ecosystems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane are the main biogenic greenhouse gases (GHG contributing to the global warming potential (GWP of agro-ecosystems. Evaluating the impact of agriculture on climate thus requires a capacity to predict the net exchanges of these gases in an integrated manner, as related to environmental conditions and crop management. Here, we used two year-round data sets from two intensively-monitored cropping systems in northern France to test the ability of the biophysical crop model CERES-EGC to simulate GHG exchanges at the plot-scale. The experiments involved maize and rapeseed crops on a loam and rendzina soils, respectively. The model was subsequently extrapolated to predict CO2 and N2O fluxes over an entire crop rotation. Indirect emissions (IE arising from the production of agricultural inputs and from cropping operations were also added to the final GWP. One experimental site (involving a wheat-maize-barley rotation on a loamy soil was a net source of GHG with a GWP of 350 kg CO2-C eq ha?1 yr?1, of which 75% were due to IE and 25% to direct N2O emissions. The other site (involving an oilseed rape-wheat-barley rotation on a rendzina was a net sink of GHG for –250 kg CO2-C eq ha?1 yr?1, mainly due to a higher predicted C sequestration potential and C return from crops. Such modelling approach makes it possible to test various agronomic management scenarios, in order to design productive agro-ecosystems with low global warming impact.

S. Lehuger

2007-04-01

394

Sensitivity of direct global warming potentials to key uncertainties  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concept of global warming potential was developed as a relative measure of the potential effects on climate of a greenhouse gas. In this paper a series of sensitivity studies examines several uncertainties in determination of Global Warming Potentials (GWPs). The original evaluation of GWPs did not attempt to account for the possible sinks of carbon dioxide (CO2) that could balance the carbon cycle and produce atmospheric concentrations of CO2 that match observations. In this study, a balanced carbon cycle model is applied in calculation of the radiative forcing from CO2. Use of the balanced model produces up to 21% enhancement of the GWPs for most trace gases compared with the IPCC (1990) values for time horizons up to 100 years, but a decreasing enhancement with longer time horizons. Uncertainty limits of the fertilization feedback parameter contribute a 20% range in GWP values. Another systematic uncertainty in GWPs is the assumption of an equilibrium atmosphere (one in which the concentration of trace gases remains constant) versus a disequilibrium atmosphere (one in which the concentration of trace gases varies with time). The latter gives GWPs that are 19 to 32% greater than the former for a 100 year time horizons, depending upon the carbon dioxide emission scenario chosen. Five scenarios are employed: constant-concentration, constant-emission past 1990 and the three IPCC (1992) emission scenarios. For the analysis of uncertaion scenarios. For the analysis of uncertainties in atmospheric lifetime (tor) of the GWP changes in direct proportion to (tor) for short-lived gases, but to a lesser extent for gases with (tor) greater than the time horizontal for the GWP calculation. 40 refs., 7 figs., 13 tabs

395

Solar Panels reduce both global warming and Urban Heat Island  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The production of solar energy in cities is clearly a way to diminish our dependency to fossil fuels, and is a good way to mitigate global warming by lowering the emission of greenhouse gases. However, what are the impacts of solar panels locally ? To evaluate their influence on urban weather, it is necessary to parameterize their effects within the surface schemes that are coupled to atmospheric models. The present paper presents a way to implement solar panels in the Town Energy Balance scheme, taking account of the energy production (for thermal and photovoltaic panels, the impact on the building below and feedback towards the urban micro-climate through radiative and convective fluxes. A scenario of large but realistic deployment of solar panels on the Paris metropolitan area is then simulated. It is shown that solar panels, by shading the roofs, slightly increases the need for domestic heating (3%. In summer however, the solar panels reduce the energy needed for air-conditioning (by 12% and also the Urban Heat Island (UHI: 0.2K by day and up to 0.3K at night. These impacts are larger than those found in previous works, because of the use of thermal panels (that are more efficient than photovoltaic panels and the geographical position of Paris, which is relatively far from the sea. This means that it is not influenced by sea breezes, and hence that its UHI is stronger than for a coastal city of the same size. But this also means that local adaptation strategies aiming to decrease the UHI will have more potent effects. In summary, the deployment of solar panels is good both globally, to produce renewable energy (and hence to limit the warming of the climate and locally, to decrease the UHI, especially in summer, when it can constitute a health threat.

ValéryMasson

2014-06-01

396

The use of biofuels to mitigate global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This planet is habitable because of the warming effect because trace gases in the atmosphere that absorb and trap longer IR wavelengths reradiated from the Earth's surface. These trace greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor, methane (CH4) halocarbons, nitrogen oxides (N2O), and ozone (O3). CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere are rising at the rate of about 0.5%/year (Smith, 1988). As the levels of greenhouse gases increase, more solar radiation is trapped and the Earth's temperature increases. Measurements show that the average global temperature has risen only about 1 degrees F, but the problem appears to be accelerating. The 5 warmest years have occurred in the last decade, with 1987 the warmest. Although the consequences are not yet clear, many scientists predict radial climatic changes, with melting of the polar ice caps and the creation of vast deserts. It is recognized that the increase in greenhouse gases is largely due to fossil fuel use, as well as changing land use. While deforestation and land exploitation have been responsible for high CO2 emissions in the past, these sources will be comparatively small in the future, since the rate of deforestation will decline. Hence, future trends in the atmospheric CO2 concentration will depend primarily upon fossil energy usage. Except for a short period following the 1973 oil embargo, world CO2 emissions from argo, world CO2 emissions from combustion of fossil fuels have increased about 3%/year during the last 40 years, to about 24 billion ton in 1988. The US consumes one third of the world's energy, and contributes about one fourth of the CO2 emissions, or 6 billion ton/year. Clearly the energy policies of the US will have a significant influence on potential global warming

397

Model of Psychological State Affecting to Global Warming Alleviation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

The intention of psychologists tried to understand on human behavior, and then they had developed a large number of theories and models but they had the main focus on explanation how individual perceived and evaluated the stimulant before making decision to express his behavior. However, study on human behavior, it can’t be ignored the psychological state. Psychological state is a mental condition in which the qualities of a state are relatively constant even though the state itself may be dynamic but it contains certain characteristics that might be permanent for period of life. Especially, people is inspired for value of self-living, value of family living, attitude of sufficiency, religion belief, and Environmental Physical. The populations was 35, 010 undergraduate students of the first semester of academic year 2011 of Mahasarakham University. The simple random sampling was used to collect the sample for 450 undergraduate students with equivalent proportion according to fields of study. The questionnaire was employed as instrument for data collecting. LISREL was used for model verification. Results illustrated that the structural model, confirmatory factors of Psychological State (STATE were able to explain the variation of confirmatory factors of Inspiration of Public Consciousness to caused Environmental Behaviors for Global Warming Alleviation with 63.4 percents. Therefore, the equation can be written as following.

BEH =  0.38 MIND  + 0.29 STATE                                (1

(R2 =0.57

Key words: Model; Psychological State; Affecting;  Global Warming Alleviation

Nongnapas Thiengkamol

2011-12-01

398

Changes in the Tsushima Warm Current and the Impact under a Global Warming Scenario in Coupled Climate Models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study we investigated changes in the Tsushima Warm Current (TWC under the global warming scenario RCP 4.5 by analysing the results from the World Climate Research Program’s (WCRP Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5. Among the four models that had been employed to analyse the Tsushima Warm Current during the 20th Century, in the CSIRO-Mk3.6.0 and HadGEM2-CC models the transports of the Tsushima Warm Current were 2.8 Sv and 2.1 Sv, respectively, and comparable to observed transport, which is between 2.4 and 2.77 Sv. In the other two models the transports were much greater or smaller than the observed estimates. Using the two models that properly reproduced the transport of the Tsushima Warm Current we investigated the response of the current under the global warming scenario. In both models the volume transports and the temperature were greater in the future climate scenario. Warm advection into the East Sea was intensified to raise the temperature and consequently the heat loss to the air.

A-Ra Choi

2013-06-01

399

Constraints of fossil fuels depletion on global warming projections  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A scientific debate is in progress about the intersection of climate change with the new field of fossil fuels depletion geology. Here, new projections of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration and global-mean temperature change are presented, should fossil fuels be exploited at a rate limited by geological availability only. The present work starts from the projections of fossil energy use, as obtained from ten independent sources. From such projections an upper bound, a lower bound and an ensemble mean profile for fossil CO{sub 2} emissions until 2200 are derived. Using the coupled gas-cycle/climate model MAGICC, the corresponding climatic projections out to 2200 are obtained. We find that CO{sub 2} concentration might increase up to about 480 ppm (445-540 ppm), while the global-mean temperature increase w.r.t. 2000 might reach 1.2 deg. C (0.9-1.6 deg. C). However, future improvements of fossil fuels recovery and discoveries of new resources might lead to higher emissions; hence our climatic projections are likely to be underestimated. In the absence of actions of emissions reduction, a level of dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system might be already experienced toward the middle of the 21st century, despite the constraints imposed by the exhaustion of fossil fuels. - Highlights: > CO{sub 2} and global temperature are projected under fossil fuels exhaustion scenarios. > Temperature is projected to reach a minimum of 2 deg. C above pre-industrial. > Temperature projections are possibly lower than the IPCC ones. > Fossil fuels exhaustion will not avoid dangerous global warming.

Chiari, Luca, E-mail: chiari@science.unitn.it [Department of Physics, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Povo (Italy); Zecca, Antonio, E-mail: zecca@science.unitn.it [Department of Physics, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Povo (Italy)

2011-09-15

400

Constraints of fossil fuels depletion on global warming projections  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A scientific debate is in progress about the intersection of climate change with the new field of fossil fuels depletion geology. Here, new projections of atmospheric CO2 concentration and global-mean temperature change are presented, should fossil fuels be exploited at a rate limited by geological availability only. The present work starts from the projections of fossil energy use, as obtained from ten independent sources. From such projections an upper bound, a lower bound and an ensemble mean profile for fossil CO2 emissions until 2200 are derived. Using the coupled gas-cycle/climate model MAGICC, the corresponding climatic projections out to 2200 are obtained. We find that CO2 concentration might increase up to about 480 ppm (445-540 ppm), while the global-mean temperature increase w.r.t. 2000 might reach 1.2 deg. C (0.9-1.6 deg. C). However, future improvements of fossil fuels recovery and discoveries of new resources might lead to higher emissions; hence our climatic projections are likely to be underestimated. In the absence of actions of emissions reduction, a level of dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system might be already experienced toward the middle of the 21st century, despite the constraints imposed by the exhaustion of fossil fuels. - Highlights: ? CO2 and global temperature are projected under fossil fuels exhaustion scenarios. ? Temperature is projected to reach a minimum of 2 deg. rojected to reach a minimum of 2 deg. C above pre-industrial. ? Temperature projections are possibly lower than the IPCC ones. ? Fossil fuels exhaustion will not avoid dangerous global warming.

 
 
 
 
401

Someone like it hot? Effects of global warming on insect immunity and microbiota  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Global warming represents a substantial challenge on a broad range of organisms with diverse life-history traits and geographical distributions. Up till now several studies correlated global warming to changes in body mass, growth rate or fat content, whereas the effects on immune function and microbiota composition remained almost unexplored. On the contrary, some pioneering studies are showing that increased temperature may influence the insect immune function and the microbiota composition, making global warming in a pivotal position influencing insect survival and adaptation to a warming planet.

M Mandrioli

2012-03-01

402

Using Interactive Technology to Support Students' Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, we examine middle school students' understanding of the greenhouse effect and global warming. We designed and refined a technology-enhanced curriculum module called "Global Warming: Virtual Earth". In the module activities, students conduct virtual experiments with a visualization of the greenhouse effect. They analyze data and draw…

Varma, Keisha; Linn, Marcia C.

2012-01-01

403

A New Type of Debate for Global Warming and Scientific Literacy  

Science.gov (United States)

Expanding on some ideas introduced in the paper by Albe and Gombert (2012) "Students' communication, argumentation and knowledge in a citizen' conference on global warming", I explore two issues relevant to their work: global warming (GW) as a socioscientific controversy and scientific literacy in regards to climate change science. For the first…

Gautier, Catherine

2012-01-01

404

Wheat production in Bangladesh: its future in the light of global warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Global warming has already seen a radical change in temperature regimes in Bangladesh. This review provides the first up-to-date perspective and detailed analysis of wheat research in Bangladesh and the impact that global warming will have on its agriculture, especially wheat farming.

Hossain, Akbar; Teixeira Da Silva, Jaime A.

2013-01-01

405

Senior Secondary Indian Students' Views about Global Warming, and Their Implications for Education  

Science.gov (United States)

For individuals to make informed lifestyle choices that may help to reduce global warming, they need some understanding of this phenomenon and the factors that contribute to it. However, there is a "gap" between knowledge about global warming and willingness to take personal action. So, although education may be effective in enhancing student…

Chhokar, Kiran; Dua, Shweta; Taylor, Neil; Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin

2012-01-01

406

Metaphors of Primary School Students Relating to the Concept of Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to reveal the metaphors of primary school students (n = 362) relating to the concept of global warming. Data collected by completing the expression of "global warming is like..., because..." of the students were analysed by use of qualitative and quantitative data analysis techniques. According to findings of…

Dogru, Mustafa; Sarac, Esra

2013-01-01

407

Presenting Global Warming and Evolution as Public Health Issues to Encourage Acceptance of Scientific Evidence  

Science.gov (United States)

Although evidence supporting anthropogenic global warming and evolution by natural selection is considerable, the public does not embrace these concepts. The current study explores the hypothesis that individuals will become more receptive to scientific viewpoints if evidence for evolution and implications of global warming are presented as issues…

Stover, Shawn K.; McArthur, Laurence B.; Mabry, Michelle L.

2013-01-01

408

Global Warming Responses at the Primary Secondary Interface: 2. Potential Effectiveness of Education  

Science.gov (United States)

In an earlier paper (Skamp, Boyes, & Stanisstreet, 2009b), students' beliefs and willingness to act in relation to 16 specific actions related to global warming were compared across the primary secondary interface. More primary students believed in the effectiveness of most actions to reduce global warming and were willing to take those actions.…

Skamp, Keith; Boyes, Eddie; Stannistreet, Martin

2009-01-01

409

Global Warming Responses at the Primary Secondary Interface: 1. Students' Beliefs and Willingness to Act  

Science.gov (United States)

Using survey methodology, students' beliefs, and willingness to act, about 16 specific actions related to global warming are compared across the primary secondary interface. More primary students believed in the effectiveness of most actions to reduce global warming and were willing to take those actions. In general there was a disparity between…

Skamp, Keith; Boyes, Eddie; Stannistreet, Martin

2009-01-01

410

The Understandings of Global Warming and Learning Styles: A Phenomenographic Analysis of Prospective Primary School Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, statements by prospective primary school teachers such as "I think the word global warming ..." or "I think the term global warming means ..." were analyzed by using qualitative phenomenographic research methods. 142 female (48.3%) and 152 male (51.7%) primary school teacher candidates (n = 294) participated in the study. Moreover,…

Demirkaya, Hilmi

2008-01-01

411

Literature review on the greenhouse effect and global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A literature review of recent (1988-1990) publications on global warming and climate change was carried out by the Alberta Research Council. The objectives of the project were to develop a listing of relevant citations, review the publications, prepare a short summary of the contents of each, and develop statistics with respect to the degree to which scientific consensus exists on the various topics of interest. The bibliography contains 1,557 citations, and a total of 501 publications were reviewed. Topics of interest include computer modelling of world climate, potential impacts of climate change, potential strategies for responding to climate change, and technological solutions. Statistical results are presented of numbers of papers reviewed addressing types of emission, time of effective doubling of greenhouse gases, global temperature increase predicted for effective doubling of greenhouse gases, temperature increase in northern lattitudes for an effective doubling of greenhouse gases, components of atmosphere that are changing, potential impacts on agriculture, forestry, and health, suggested emission limitations, and suggested technological solutions. 4 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

412

Projected range contractions of montane biodiversity under global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Mountains, especially in the tropics, harbour a unique and large portion of the world's biodiversity. Their geographical isolation, limited range size and unique environmental adaptations make montane species potentially the most threatened under impeding climate change. Here, we provide a global baseline assessment of geographical range contractions and extinction risk of high-elevation specialists in a future warmer world. We consider three dispersal scenarios for simulated species and for the world's 1009 montane bird species. Under constrained vertical dispersal (VD), species with narrow vertical distributions are strongly impacted; at least a third of montane bird diversity is severely threatened. In a scenario of unconstrained VD, the location and structure of mountain systems emerge as a strong driver of extinction risk. Even unconstrained lateral movements offer little improvement to the fate of montane species in the Afrotropics, Australasia and Nearctic. Our results demonstrate the particular roles that the geography of species richness, the spatial structure of lateral and particularly vertical range extents and the specific geography of mountain systems have in determining the vulnerability of montane biodiversity to climate change. Our findings confirm the outstanding levels of biotic perturbation and extinction risk that mountain systems are likely to experience under global warming and highlight the need for additional knowledge on species' vertical distributions, dispersal and adaptive capacities. PMID:20534610

La Sorte, Frank A.; Jetz, Walter

2010-01-01

413

Asynchronous exposure to global warming: freshwater resources and terrestrial ecosystems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This modelling study demonstrates at what level of global mean temperature rise (?Tg) regions will be exposed to significant decreases of freshwater availability and changes to terrestrial ecosystems. Projections are based on a new, consistent set of 152 climate scenarios (eight ?Tg trajectories reaching 1.5–5?° C above pre-industrial levels by 2100, each scaled with spatial patterns from 19 general circulation models). The results suggest that already at a ?Tg of 2?° C and mainly in the subtropics, higher water scarcity would occur in >50% out of the 19 climate scenarios. Substantial biogeochemical and vegetation structural changes would also occur at 2?° C, but mainly in subpolar and semiarid ecosystems. Other regions would be affected at higher ?Tg levels, with lower intensity or with lower confidence. In total, mean global warming levels of 2?° C, 3.5?° C and 5?° C are simulated to expose an additional 8%, 11% and 13% of the world population to new or aggravated water scarcity, respectively, with >50% confidence (while ?1.3 billion people already live in water-scarce regions). Concurrently, substantial habitat transformations would occur in biogeographic regions that contain 1% (in zones affected at 2?° C), 10% (3.5?° C) and 74% (5?° C) of present endemism-weighted vascular plant species, respectively. The results suggest nonlinear growth of impacts along with ?Tg and highlihighlight regional disparities in impact magnitudes and critical ?Tg levels. (letter)

414

Global Warming Impact Towards The Indonesian Archipelagic Baselines (Dampak Pemanasan Global Terhadap Garis Pangkal Kepulauan Indonesia)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Global warming is a natural phenomenon that has already been emerging since some recent decades due to something we call glass house effect produced through the activities of economic development especially in the industrialization and transportation sector Emission of the glass house gas which for a greater part consists of the emission of CO2 gas (carbon oxidized gas) damaged the ozone layer in fact, whereas such the layer is functional to protect earth surface from dangerous ultraviolet ...

Hendrapati, Marcel

2011-01-01

415

The myths of global warming and nuclear power. Evidence from public opinion survey in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this research, it was investigated why people think that nuclear power generation is a cause of global warming. Factor analysis method was applied to data obtained from survey in Japanese Kansai area. As a result, the misunderstanding, the thermal discharge and radioactive material etc. produced from a nuclear power plant promotes global warming, has influenced on this issue. It has become evident that behind such misunderstanding is a negative image of nuclear power. This negative image is a factor to decrease the evaluation that nuclear power is useful for preventing global warming regardless of the presence of the misunderstanding. It is believed that the negative image of nuclear power does not lead to direct association of nuclear power generation and global warming, but by the fear that the accident of the nuclear plant brings the environmental destruction, people evaluate that nuclear power generation is not effective for preventing global warming without grounds. Especially, the tendency is very strong in young people. (author)

416

What's Up With the Weather? : NOVA and Frontline Examine the Truth About Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

This site corresponds with the April 18, 2000 episode of Nova's "What's up with the Weather: the Truth About Global Warming." and is an in-depth look at the issue of global warming by NOVA and FRONTLINE. Numerous subjects are addressed, including the burning of fossil fuels, alternative energy sources including biomass energy, wind and solar power, alternative vehicles, and space-based solar power systems, the evidence for global warming in ice cores, and the threat of rising sea level. The differing views on global warming are presented, as is an interactive exercise meant to help the user determine the amount of CO2 produced from their daily activities. A section discussing frequently asked questions can be accessed, as well as a teachers guide for creating a class lesson discussing global warming.

417

Upper Temperature Limits of Tropical Marine Ectotherms: Global Warming Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Animal physiology, ecology and evolution are affected by temperature and it is expected that community structure will be strongly influenced by global warming. This is particularly relevant in the tropics, where organisms are already living close to their upper temperature limits and hence are highly vulnerable to rising temperature. Here we present data on upper temperature limits of 34 tropical marine ectotherm species from seven phyla living in intertidal and subtidal habitats. Short term thermal tolerances and vertical distributions were correlated, i.e., upper shore animals have higher thermal tolerance than lower shore and subtidal animals; however, animals, despite their respective tidal height, were susceptible to the same temperature in the long term. When temperatures were raised by 1°C hour?1, the upper lethal temperature range of intertidal ectotherms was 41–52°C, but this range was narrower and reduced to 37–41°C in subtidal animals. The rate of temperature change, however, affected intertidal and subtidal animals differently. In chronic heating experiments when temperature was raised weekly or monthly instead of every hour, upper temperature limits of subtidal species decreased from 40°C to 35.4°C, while the decrease was more than 10°C in high shore organisms. Hence in the long term, activity and survival of tropical marine organisms could be compromised just 2–3°C above present seawater temperatures. Differences between animals from environments that experience different levels of temperature variability suggest that the physiological mechanisms underlying thermal sensitivity may vary at different rates of warming. PMID:22242115

Nguyen, Khanh Dung T.; Morley, Simon A.; Lai, Chien-Houng; Clark, Melody S.; Tan, Koh Siang; Bates, Amanda E.; Peck, Lloyd S.

2011-01-01

418

Permafrost carbon-climate feedbacks accelerate global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Permafrost soils contain enormous amounts of organic carbon, which could act as a positive feedback to global climate change due to enhanced respiration rates with warming. We have used a terrestrial ecosystem model that includes permafrost carbon dynamics, inhibition of respiration in frozen soil layers, vertical mixing of soil carbon from surface to permafrost layers, and CH4 emissions from flooded areas, and which better matches new circumpolar inventories of soil carbon stocks, to explore the potential for carbon-climate feedbacks at high latitudes. Contrary to model results for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC AR4), when permafrost processes are included, terrestrial ecosystems north of 60°N could shift from being a sink to a source of CO2 by the end of the 21st century when forced by a Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A2 climate change scenario. Between 1860 and 2100, the model response to combined CO2 fertilization and climate change changes from a sink of 68 Pg to a 27 + -7 Pg sink to 4 + -18 Pg source, depending on the processes and parameter values used. The integrated change in carbon due to climate change shifts from near zero, which is within the range of previous model estimates, to a climate-induced loss of carbon by ecosystems in the range of 25 + -3 to 85 + -16 Pg C, depending on processes included in the model, with a best estimate of a 62 + -7 Pg C loss. Methane emissions from high-latitude regions are calculated to increase from 34 Tg CH4/y to 41–70 Tg CH4/y, with increases due to CO2 fertilization, permafrost thaw, and warming-induced increased CH4 flux densities partially offset by a reduction in wetland extent. PMID:21852573

Koven, Charles D.; Ringeval, Bruno; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Ciais, Philippe; Cadule, Patricia; Khvorostyanov, Dmitry; Krinner, Gerhard; Tarnocai, Charles

2011-01-01

419

Upper temperature limits of tropical marine ectotherms: global warming implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Animal physiology, ecology and evolution are affected by temperature and it is expected that community structure will be strongly influenced by global warming. This is particularly relevant in the tropics, where organisms are already living close to their upper temperature limits and hence are highly vulnerable to rising temperature. Here we present data on upper temperature limits of 34 tropical marine ectotherm species from seven phyla living in intertidal and subtidal habitats. Short term thermal tolerances and vertical distributions were correlated, i.e., upper shore animals have higher thermal tolerance than lower shore and subtidal animals; however, animals, despite their respective tidal height, were susceptible to the same temperature in the long term. When temperatures were raised by 1°C hour(-1), the upper lethal temperature range of intertidal ectotherms was 41-52°C, but this range was narrower and reduced to 37-41°C in subtidal animals. The rate of temperature change, however, affected intertidal and subtidal animals differently. In chronic heating experiments when temperature was raised weekly or monthly instead of every hour, upper temperature limits of subtidal species decreased from 40°C to 35.4°C, while the decrease was more than 10°C in high shore organisms. Hence in the long term, activity and survival of tropical marine organisms could be compromised just 2-3°C above present seawater temperatures. Differences between animals from environments that experience different levels of temperature variability suggest that the physiological mechanisms underlying thermal sensitivity may vary at different rates of warming. PMID:22242115

Nguyen, Khanh Dung T; Morley, Simon A; Lai, Chien-Houng; Clark, Melody S; Tan, Koh Siang; Bates, Amanda E; Peck, Lloyd S

2011-01-01

420

Cool Roofs to Save Money and Delay Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

White roofs, and now cool-colored roofs, with a high reflectivity or `albedo' have a long history (best known around the Mediterranean) of keeping buildings and cities cool. In modern times, cool roofs have been shown to reduce air conditioning (a-c) demand and slow the formation of ozone (smog). Studies establishing a typical 10% reduction in a-c demand and electricity savings due to white roofs in California (CA) resulted in the 2005 CA new building energy efficiency standard prescribing that low-slope roofs be white, but exempting sloping roofs for aesthetic reasons. The advent (thanks to physicists' efforts) of inexpensive colored pigments with high albedo has led to 2008 CA standards requiring that even sloping roofs be cool. Here, I show that cooling the planet by reducing urban albedo through white and other cool roofs is a direct effect, much larger and immediate than the 2nd-order cooling from reduced CO2 from reduced a-c use. I then investigate widespread deployment of cool roof in major tropical and temperate cities, which cover 2% of global land area and have a proportionately higher albedo impact due to lower latitude. Here, cool roofs and cooler pavements can raise urban albedo by 10%. This directly drops the global average temperature by ˜0.05 /deg C. Though small compared to a likely 3 /deg C rise by 2060, an immediate drop of 0.05 /deg C represents a reprieve in global warming of 1 year, and represents avoiding a year's current annual world emissions of CO2, i.e. 25 GT(CO2). At a trading price of 25/tCO2, this is worth ˜625B. Cooling the planet also could save annually hundreds of billions on a-c electric bills. Finally I suggest policies to increase cool roof deployment, for example, developed world Kyoto signatories could use its CDM (Clean Development Mechanism) for cool roof programs in developing countries.

Rosenfeld, Arthur

2006-04-01