WorldWideScience

Sample records for global warming acidification

  1. Adaptation of a globally important coccolithophore to ocean warming and acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter, Lothar; Lohbeck, Kai T.; Gutowska, Magdalena A.; Gröger, Joachim P.; Riebesell, Ulf; Reusch, Thorsten B. H.

    2014-11-01

    Although ocean warming and acidification are recognized as two major anthropogenic perturbations of today's oceans we know very little about how marine phytoplankton may respond via evolutionary change. We tested for adaptation to ocean warming in combination with ocean acidification in the globally important phytoplankton species Emiliania huxleyi. Temperature adaptation occurred independently of ocean acidification levels. Growth rates were up to 16% higher in populations adapted for one year to warming when assayed at their upper thermal tolerance limit. Particulate inorganic (PIC) and organic (POC) carbon production was restored to values under present-day ocean conditions, owing to adaptive evolution, and were 101% and 55% higher under combined warming and acidification, respectively, than in non-adapted controls. Cells also evolved to a smaller size while they recovered their initial PIC:POC ratio even under elevated CO2. The observed changes in coccolithophore growth, calcite and biomass production, cell size and elemental composition demonstrate the importance of evolutionary processes for phytoplankton performance in a future ocean.

  2. Future habitat suitability for coral reef ecosystems under global warming and ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couce, Elena; Ridgwell, Andy; Hendy, Erica J

    2013-12-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations are placing spatially divergent stresses on the world's tropical coral reefs through increasing ocean surface temperatures and ocean acidification. We show how these two stressors combine to alter the global habitat suitability for shallow coral reef ecosystems, using statistical Bioclimatic Envelope Models rather than basing projections on any a priori assumptions of physiological tolerances or fixed thresholds. We apply two different modeling approaches (Maximum Entropy and Boosted Regression Trees) with two levels of complexity (one a simplified and reduced environmental variable version of the other). Our models project a marked temperature-driven decline in habitat suitability for many of the most significant and bio-diverse tropical coral regions, particularly in the central Indo-Pacific. This is accompanied by a temperature-driven poleward range expansion of favorable conditions accelerating up to 40-70 km per decade by 2070. We find that ocean acidification is less influential for determining future habitat suitability than warming, and its deleterious effects are centered evenly in both hemispheres between 5° and 20° latitude. Contrary to expectations, the combined impact of ocean surface temperature rise and acidification leads to little, if any, degradation in future habitat suitability across much of the Atlantic and areas currently considered 'marginal' for tropical corals, such as the eastern Equatorial Pacific. These results are consistent with fossil evidence of range expansions during past warm periods. In addition, the simplified models are particularly sensitive to short-term temperature variations and their projections correlate well with reported locations of bleaching events. Our approach offers new insights into the relative impact of two global environmental pressures associated with rising atmospheric CO2 on potential future habitats, but greater understanding of past and current controls on coral reef ecosystems is essential to their conservation and management under a changing climate. PMID:23893550

  3. Ocean acidification and global warming impair shark hunting behaviour and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistevos, Jennifer C A; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Rossi, Tullio; Olmos, Maxime; Connell, Sean D

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in predation pressure can have large effects on trophically-structured systems. Modification of predator behaviour via ocean warming has been assessed by laboratory experimentation and metabolic theory. However, the influence of ocean acidification with ocean warming remains largely unexplored for mesopredators, including experimental assessments that incorporate key components of the assemblages in which animals naturally live. We employ a combination of long-term laboratory and mesocosm experiments containing natural prey and habitat to assess how warming and acidification affect the development, growth, and hunting behaviour in sharks. Although embryonic development was faster due to temperature, elevated temperature and CO2 had detrimental effects on sharks by not only increasing energetic demands, but also by decreasing metabolic efficiency and reducing their ability to locate food through olfaction. The combination of these effects led to considerable reductions in growth rates of sharks held in natural mesocosms with elevated CO2, either alone or in combination with higher temperature. Our results suggest a more complex reality for predators, where ocean acidification reduces their ability to effectively hunt and exert strong top-down control over food webs. PMID:26559327

  4. Future habitat suitability for coral reef ecosystems under global warming and ocean acidification

    OpenAIRE

    Couce, Elena; Ridgwell, Andy; Hendy, Erica J.

    2013-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations are placing spatially divergent stresses on the world's tropical coral reefs through increasing ocean surface temperatures and ocean acidification. We show how these two stressors combine to alter the global habitat suitability for shallow coral reef ecosystems, using statistical Bioclimatic Envelope Models rather than basing projections on any a priori assumptions of physiological tolerances or fixed thresholds. We apply two different modeling approaches...

  5. Effects of cattle-slurry treatment by acidification and separation on nitrogen dynamics and global warming potential after surface application to an acidic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fangueiro, David; Pereira, José; Bichana, André; Surgy, Sónia; Cabral, Fernanda; Coutinho, João

    2015-10-01

    Cattle-slurry (liquid manure) application to soil is a common practice to provide nutrients and organic matter for crop growth but it also strongly impacts the environment. The objective of the present study was to assess the efficiency of cattle-slurry treatment by solid-liquid separation and/or acidification on nitrogen dynamics and global warming potential (GWP) following application to an acidic soil. An aerobic laboratory incubation was performed over 92 days with a Dystric Cambisol amended with raw cattle-slurry or separated liquid fraction (LF) treated or not by acidification to pH 5.5 by addition of sulphuric acid. Soil mineral N contents and NH3, N2O, CH4 and CO2 emissions were measured. Results obtained suggest that the acidification of raw cattle-slurry reduced significantly NH3 emissions (-88%) but also the GWP (-28%) while increased the N availability relative to raw cattle-slurry (15% of organic N applied mineralised against negative mineralisation in raw slurry). However, similar NH3 emissions and GWP were observed in acidified LF and non-acidified LF treatments. On the other hand, soil application of acidified cattle-slurry rather than non-acidified LF should be preferred attending the lower costs associated to acidification compared to solid-liquid separation. It can then be concluded that cattle-slurry acidification is a solution to minimise NH3 emissions from amended soil and an efficient strategy to decrease the GWP associated with slurry application to soil. Furthermore, the more intense N mineralisation observed with acidified slurry should lead to a higher amount of plant available N and consequently to higher crop yields. PMID:26217884

  6. Ocean acidification and warming will lower coral reef resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony, Kenneth R.N.; Maynard, Jeffrey A; Diaz-Pulido, Guillermo; Mumby, Peter J.; Marshall, Paul A; Cao, Long; Hoegh-guldberg, Ove

    2011-01-01

    Ocean warming and acidification from increasing levels of atmospheric CO2 represent major global threats to coral reefs, and are in many regions exacerbated by local-scale disturbances such as overfishing and nutrient enrichment. Our understanding of global threats and local-scale disturbances on reefs is growing, but their relative contribution to reef resilience and vulnerability in the future is unclear. Here, we analyse quantitatively how different combinations of CO2 and fishing pressure...

  7. Global warming

    CERN Document Server

    Hulme, M

    1998-01-01

    Global warming-like deforestation, the ozone hole and the loss of species- has become one of the late 20the century icons of global environmental damage. The threat, is not the reality, of such a global climate change has motivated governments. businesses and environmental organisations, to take serious action ot try and achieve serious control of the future climate. This culminated last December in Kyoto in the agreement for legally-binding climate protocol. In this series of three lectures I will provide a perspective on the phenomenon of global warming that accepts the scientific basis for our concern, but one that also recognises the dynamic interaction between climate and society that has always exited The future will be no different. The challenge of global warning is not to pretend it is not happening (as with some pressure groups), nor to pretend it threatens global civilisation (as with other pressure groups), and it is not even a challenge to try and stop it from happening-we are too far down the ro...

  8. Bryozoans as indicators of global change: predictable shifts in morphology and carbonate mineralogy in response to warming and ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, D. S.; Bean, J. R.; Ninokawa, A. T.; Sanford, E.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have documented variation in skeletal structure and carbonate mineralogy across a broad range of marine invertebrate taxa. Intraspecific changes in growth, morphology, and carbonate composition may occur in response to local and global changes in temperature, carbonate saturation state, and nutrient availability. Recurring upwelling along the west coast of the United States creates an alongshore mosaic of Ocean Acidification (OA), which may induce plastic responses and/or select for adaptive skeletal construction that can withstand pCO2 and temperature changes. Calcifying bryozoans provide a unique study system for investigating carbonate precipitation under variable conditions. Using a newly constructed flow-through CO2 control apparatus, we tested whether three laboratory-reared populations of the bryozoans Membranipora serrilamella, M. tuberculata and Celleporella cornuta showed differences in growth, calcification, and skeletal composition in response to simulated future OA conditions. Under elevated pCO2 (1200 ?atm), bryozoans showed no significant differences in growth rate (new zooids added) compared to clones reared under current atmospheric values. However, C. cornuta colonies raised under high CO2 were significantly lighter, with less carbonate per zooid compared to colonies grown in present-day conditions (400 ?atm). Scanning electron microscopy revealed that elevated pCO2 led to dissolution of bryozoan skeletons, which did not occur at 400 ?atm. Structural changes in M. tuberculata and C. cornuta colonies may be related to the dissolution of high magnesium calcite skeletal components. Analyses of bryozoan morphological responses along with environmental proxies (?13C, ?18O, and Mg/Ca ratios) could yield high resolution records of temperature and pH, which could be used to help reconstruct environmental variation along the California coast.

  9. Global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Global warming' is a phrase that refers to the effect on the climate of human activities, in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) and large-scale deforestation, which cause emissions to the atmosphere of large amounts of 'greenhouse gases', of which the most important is carbon dioxide. Such gases absorb infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface and act as blankets over the surface keeping it warmer than it would otherwise be. Associated with this warming are changes of climate. The basic science of the 'greenhouse effect' that leads to the warming is well understood. More detailed understanding relies on numerical models of the climate that integrate the basic dynamical and physical equations describing the complete climate system. Many of the likely characteristics of the resulting changes in climate (such as more frequent heat waves, increases in rainfall, increase in frequency and intensity of many extreme climate events) can be identified. Substantial uncertainties remain in knowledge of some of the feedbacks within the climate system (that affect the overall magnitude of change) and in much of the detail of likely regional change. Because of its negative impacts on human communities (including for instance substantial sea-level rise) and on ecosystems, global warming is the most important environmental problem the world faces. Adaptation to the inevitable impacts and mitigation to reduce their magnitude are both necessary. International action is being taken by the world's scientific and political communities. Because of the need for urgent action, the greatest challenge is to move rapidly to much increased energy efficiency and to non-fossil-fuel energy sources

  10. Calcium carbonate production response to future ocean warming and acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Pinsonneault

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions are acidifying the ocean, affecting calcification rates in pelagic organisms and thereby modifying the oceanic alkalinity cycle. However, the responses of pelagic calcifying organisms to acidification vary widely between species, contributing uncertainty to predictions of atmospheric CO2 and the resulting climate change. Meanwhile, ocean warming caused by rising CO2 is expected to drive increased growth rates of all pelagic organisms, including calcifiers. It thus remains unclear whether anthropogenic CO2 will ultimately increase or decrease the globally-integrated pelagic calcification rate. Here, we assess the importance of this uncertainty by introducing a variable dependence of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 production on calcite saturation state (?CaCO3 in the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model, an intermediate complexity coupled carbon-climate model. In a series of model simulations, we examine the impact of this parameterization on global ocean carbon cycling under two CO2 emissions scenarios, both integrated to the year 3500. The simulations show a significant sensitivity of the vertical and surface horizontal alkalinity gradients to the parameterization, as well as the removal of alkalinity from the ocean through CaCO3 burial. These sensitivities result in an additional oceanic uptake of carbon when calcification depends on ?CaCO3 (of up to 13 % of total carbon emissions, compared to the case where calcification is insensitive to acidification. In turn, this response causes a reduction of global surface air temperature of up to 0.4 °C in year 3500, a 13 % reduction in the amplitude of warming. Narrowing these uncertainties will require better understanding of both temperature and acidification effects on pelagic calcifiers. Preliminary examination suggests that alkalinity observations can be used to constrain the range of uncertainties and may exclude large sensitivities of CaCO3 production on ?CaCO3.

  11. Global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GEF was set up as a pilot programme in 1991 to provide grant and concessional funds to developing countries for projects and activities that aim to protect the global environment. In March 1994, participating governments successfully concluded negotiations to restructure the Facility. The Core Fund of the GEF was also replenished with over $2 billion to be committed over a three-year period. GEF resources are available for projects that address climate change, biological diversity, international waters and depletion of the ozone layer. Activities addressing land degradation, primarily desertification and deforestation, as they relate to the four areas, are also eligible for funding. The GEF is jointly implemented by the United Nations Development Programme, the United Nations Environment Programme and the World Bank

  12. Calcium carbonate production response to future ocean warming and acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Pinsonneault

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions are acidifying the ocean, affecting calcification rates in pelagic organisms, and thereby modifying the oceanic carbon and alkalinity cycles. However, the responses of pelagic calcifying organisms to acidification vary widely between species, contributing uncertainty to predictions of atmospheric CO2 and the resulting climate change. At the same time, ocean warming caused by rising CO2 is expected to drive increased growth rates of all pelagic organisms, including calcifiers. It thus remains unclear whether anthropogenic CO2 emissions will ultimately increase or decrease pelagic calcification rates. Here, we assess the importance of this uncertainty by introducing a dependence of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 production on calcite saturation state (?CaCO3 in an intermediate complexity coupled carbon-climate model. In a series of model simulations, we examine the impact of several variants of this dependence on global ocean carbon cycling between 1800 and 3500 under two different CO2 emissions scenarios. Introducing a calcification-saturation state dependence has a significant effect on the vertical and surface horizontal alkalinity gradients, as well as on the removal of alkalinity from the ocean through CaCO3 burial. These changes result in an additional oceanic uptake of carbon when calcification depends on ?CaCO3 (of up to 270 Pg C, compared to the case where calcification does not depend on acidification. In turn, this response causes a reduction of global surface air temperature of up to 0.4 °C in year 3500. Different versions of the model produced varying results, and narrowing this range of uncertainty will require better understanding of both temperature and acidification effects on pelagic calcifiers. Nevertheless, our results suggest that alkalinity observations can be used to constrain model results, and may not be consistent with the model versions that simulated stronger responses of CaCO3 production to changing saturation state.

  13. Calcium carbonate production response to future ocean warming and acidification

    OpenAIRE

    A. J. Pinsonneault; Matthews, H. D.; Galbraith, E.D.; Schmittner, A.

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are acidifying the ocean, affecting calcification rates in pelagic organisms and thereby modifying the oceanic alkalinity cycle. However, the responses of pelagic calcifying organisms to acidification vary widely between species, contributing uncertainty to predictions of atmospheric CO2 and the resulting climate change. Meanwhile, ocean warming caused by rising CO2 is expe...

  14. Ocean warming and acidification have complex interactive effects on the dynamics of a marine fungal disease

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Gareth J.; Price, Nichole N.; Ushijima, Blake; Aeby, Greta S.; Callahan, Sean; Davy, Simon K.; Jamison M. Gove; Johnson, Maggie D.; Knapp, Ingrid S.; Shore-Maggio, Amanda; Jennifer E. Smith; Videau, Patrick; Work, Thierry M

    2014-01-01

    Diseases threaten the structure and function of marine ecosystems and are contributing to the global decline of coral reefs. We currently lack an understanding of how climate change stressors, such as ocean acidification (OA) and warming, may simultaneously affect coral reef disease dynamics, particularly diseases threatening key reef-building organisms, for example crustose coralline algae (CCA). Here, we use coralline fungal disease (CFD), a previously described CCA disease from the Pacific...

  15. Managing Local Coastal Stressors to Reduce the Ecological Effects of Ocean Acidification and Warming

    OpenAIRE

    Sean D. Connell; Russell, Bayden D.; Giulia Ghedini

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities have increased the number of stressors acting on ecosystems. When multiple stressors act simultaneously, there is a greater probability of additive, synergistic and antagonistic effects occurring among them. Where additive and synergistic effects occur, managers may yield disproportionately large benefits where they first act upon synergies. Stressors act, however, at different spatial and temporal scales. Global stressors (e.g., ocean acidification and warming) tend ...

  16. Global warming yearbook: 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arris, L. [ed.

    1999-02-01

    The report brings together a year`s worth of global warming stories - over 280 in all - in one convenient volume. It provides a one-stop report on the scientific, political and industrial implications of global warming. The report includes: detailed coverage of negotiations on the Kyoto Protocol; scientific findings on carbon sources and sinks, coral bleaching, Antarctic ice shelves, plankton, wildlife and tree growth; new developments on fuel economy, wind power, fuel cells, cogeneration, energy labelling and emissions trading.

  17. Long range global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explores one of the causes of global warming that is often overlooked, the direct heating of the environment by engineering systems. Most research and studies of global warming concentrate on the modification that is occurring to atmospheric air as a result of pollution gases being added by various systems; i.e., refrigerants, nitrogen oxides, ozone, hydrocarbons, halon, and others. This modification affects the thermal radiation balance between earth, sun and space, resulting in a decrease of radiation outflow and a slow rise in the earth's steady state temperature. For this reason the solution to the problem is perceived as one of cleaning up the processes and effluents that are discharged into the environment. In this paper arguments are presented that suggest, that there is a far more serious cause for global warming that will manifest itself in the next two or three centuries; direct heating from the exponential growth of energy usage by humankind. Because this is a minor contributor to the global warming problem at present, it is overlooked or ignored. Energy use from the combustion of fuels and from the output of nuclear reactions eventually is manifest as warming of the surroundings. Thus, as energy is used at an ever increasing rate the consequent global warming also increases at an ever increasing rate. Eventually this rate will become equal to a few percent of solar radiation. When this happens the earth's temperature will have risen by several degrees with catastrophic results. The trends in world energy use are reviewed and some mathematical models are presented to suggest future scenarios. These models can be used to predict when the global warming problem will become undeniably apparent, when it will become critical, and when it will become catastrophic

  18. Global warming on trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jim Hansen, a climatologist at NASA's Goddard Space Institute, is convinced that the earth's temperature is rising and places the blame on the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Unconvinced, John Sununu, former White House chief of staff, doubts that the warming will be great enough to produce serious threat and fears that measures to reduce the emissions would throw a wrench into the gears that drive the Unites States' troubled economy. During his three years at the White House, Sununu's view prevailed, and although his role in the debate has diminished, others continue to cast doubt on the reality of global warming. A new lobbying group called the Climate Council has been created to do just this. Burning fossil fuels is not the only problem; a fifth of emissions of carbon dioxide now come from clearing and burning forests. Scientists are also tracking a host of other greenhouse gases that emanate from a variety of human activities; the warming effect of methane, chlorofluorocarbons and nitrous oxide combined equals that of carbon dioxide. Although the current warming from these gases may be difficult to detect against the background noise of natural climate variation, most climatologists are certain that as the gases continue to accumulate, increases in the earth's temperature will become evident even to skeptics. If the reality of global warming were put on trial, each side would have trouble making its case. Jim Hansen's side could not prove beyond a reasonable doubt that carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases have warmed the planet. But neither could John Sununu's side prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the warming expected from greenhouse gases has not occurred. To see why each side would have difficulty proving its case, this article reviews the arguments that might be presented in such a hearing

  19. Climate change - global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An explanation about climate, weather, climate changes. What is a greenhouse effect, i.e. global warming and reasons which contribute to this effect. Greenhouse gases (GHG) and GWP (Global Warming Potential) as a factor for estimating their influence on the greenhouse effect. Indicators of the climate changes in the previous period by known international institutions, higher concentrations of global average temperature. Projecting of likely scenarios for the future climate changes and consequences of them on the environment and human activities: industry, energy, agriculture, water resources. The main points of the Kyoto Protocol and problems in its realization. The need of preparing a country strategy concerning the acts of the Kyoto Protocol, suggestions which could contribute in the preparation of the strategy. A special attention is pointed to the energy, its resources, the structure of energy consumption and the energy efficiency. (Author)

  20. Is Global Warming Accelerating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, J.; Delsole, T. M.; Tippett, M. K.

    2009-12-01

    A global pattern that fluctuates naturally on decadal time scales is identified in climate simulations and observations. This newly discovered component, called the Global Multidecadal Oscillation (GMO), is related to the Atlantic Meridional Oscillation and shown to account for a substantial fraction of decadal fluctuations in the observed global average sea surface temperature. IPCC-class climate models generally underestimate the variance of the GMO, and hence underestimate the decadal fluctuations due to this component of natural variability. Decomposing observed sea surface temperature into a component due to anthropogenic and natural radiative forcing plus the GMO, reveals that most multidecadal fluctuations in the observed global average sea surface temperature can be accounted for by these two components alone. The fact that the GMO varies naturally on multidecadal time scales implies that it can be predicted with some skill on decadal time scales, which provides a scientific rationale for decadal predictions. Furthermore, the GMO is shown to account for about half of the warming in the last 25 years and hence a substantial fraction of the recent acceleration in the rate of increase in global average sea surface temperature. Nevertheless, in terms of the global average “well-observed” sea surface temperature, the GMO can account for only about 0.1° C in transient, decadal-scale fluctuations, not the century-long 1° C warming that has been observed during the twentieth century.

  1. Thinking About Global Warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attitudes toward global warming are influenced by various heuristics, which may distort policy away from what is optimal for the well-being of people. These possible distortions, or biases, include: a focus on harms that we cause, as opposed to those that we can remedy more easily; a feeling that those who cause a problem should fix it; a desire to undo a problem rather than compensate for its presence; parochial concern with one's own group (nation); and neglect of risks that are not available. Although most of these biases tend to make us attend relatively too much to global warming, other biases, such as wishful thinking, cause us to attend too little. I discuss these possible effects and illustrate some of them with an experiment conducted on the World Wide Web

  2. Teaching Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Art

    2004-05-01

    Every citizen's education should include socially relevant science courses because, as the American Association for the Advancement of Science puts it, "Without a scientifically literate population, the outlook for a better world is not promising." I have developed a conceptual liberal-arts physics course that covers the major principles of classical physics, emphasizes modern/contemporary physics, and includes societal topics such as global warming, ozone depletion, transportation, exponential growth, scientific methodology, risk assessment, nuclear weapons, nuclear power, and the energy future. The societal topics, occupying only about 15% of the class time, appear to be the main cause of the surprising popularity of this course among non-scientists. I will outline some ideas for incorporating global warming into such a course or into any other introductory physics course. For further details, see my textbook Physics: Concepts and Connections (Prentice Hall, 3rd edition 2003).

  3. Global Warming And Meltwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratu, S.

    2012-04-01

    In order to find new approaches and new ideas for my students to appreciate the importance of science in their daily life, I proposed a theme for them to debate. They had to search for global warming information and illustrations in the media, and discuss the articles they found in the classroom. This task inspired them to search for new information about this important and timely theme in science. I informed my students that all the best information about global warming and meltwater they found would be used in a poster that would help us to update the knowledge base of the Physics laboratory. I guided them to choose the most eloquent images and significant information. Searching and working to create this poster, the students arrived to better appreciate the importance of science in their daily life and to critically evaluate scientific information transmitted via the media. In the poster we created, one can find images, photos and diagrams and some interesting information: Global warming refers to the rising average temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans and its projected evolution. In the last 100 years, the Earth's average surface temperature increased by about 0.8 °C with about two thirds of the increase occurring over just the last three decades. Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and scientists are more than 90% certain most of it is caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases produced by human activities such as deforestation and burning fossil fuel. They indicate that during the 21st century the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 1.1 to 2.9 °C for the lowest emissions scenario and 2.4 to 6.4 °C for the highest predictions. An increase in global temperature will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount and pattern of precipitation, and potentially result in expansion of subtropical deserts. Warming is expected to be strongest in the Arctic and would be associated with continuing decrease of glaciers, permafrost and sea ice. Other likely effects of the warming include more frequent occurrences of extreme weather events including heat waves, droughts and heavy rainfall events, species extinctions due to shifting temperature regimes, and changes in agricultural yields. Meltwater is the water released by the melting of snow or ice, including glacial ice and ice shelves in the oceans. Meltwater is often found in the ablation zone of glaciers, where the rate of snow cover is reduced. In a report published in June 2007, the United Nations Environment Program estimated that global warming could lead to 40% of the world's population being affected by the loss of glaciers, snow and the associated meltwater in Asia. This is one of many activities of the physics laboratory that the students of our high school are involved in.

  4. Arrhenius and global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uppenbrink, J.

    1996-05-24

    Although concern about global atmospheric warming has intensified in recent decades, research into the greenhouse effect actually began in the 19th century. Fourier and other scientists appreciated that without heat-absorbing gases in the atmosphere, the temperature on the ground would be considerably lower, making life as we know it impossible. In 1896, the Swedish scientist Svante Arrhenius was the first to make a quantitative link between changes in carbon dioxide concentration and climate. Publication of his paper was celebrated at a recent Swedish workshop. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Global warming forecasts unreliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the opinions of a series of experts who have recently commented on the reliability of predictions of global warning in relation to observed and forecasted increases in carbon dioxide emissions. One of the more difficult to explain observations, evidenced through the analysis of past meteorological data, was the rapid increase in global temperature that took place during the period preceding 1940 and which was followed by a gradual decrease, during a thirty year period of heightened industrialization and consumption of fossil fuels, up to 1970 when global temperatures began again to rise rapidly. Variations in solar activity was suggested to explain this apparently anomalous trend in global temperatures. This question as to the existence of a strict correlation between global warming and rises in carbon dioxide emissions, as well as, forecasted increases in concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide due to the expected population growth in China are putting a strain on attempts by OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) environmental policy makers to gain support for energy tax proposals

  6. The metabolic response of marine copepods to environmental warming and ocean acidification in the absence of food

    OpenAIRE

    Mayor, Daniel J; Sommer, Ulf; Cook, Kathryn B.; Viant, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Marine copepods are central to the productivity and biogeochemistry of marine ecosystems. Nevertheless, the direct and indirect effects of climate change on their metabolic functioning remain poorly understood. Here, we use metabolomics, the unbiased study of multiple low molecular weight organic metabolites, to examine how the physiology of Calanus spp. is affected by end-of-century global warming and ocean acidification scenarios. We report that the physiological stresses associated with in...

  7. Acute survivorship of the deep-sea coral Lophelia pertusa from the Gulf of Mexico under acidification, warming, and deoxygenation

    OpenAIRE

    Lunden, Jay J.; McNicholl, Conall G.; Sears, Christopher R.; Morrison, Cheryl L.; Cordes, Erik E.

    2014-01-01

    Changing global climate due to anthropogenic emissions of CO2 are driving rapid changes in the physical and chemical environment of the oceans via warming, deoxygenation, and acidification. These changes may threaten the persistence of species and populations across a range of latitudes and depths, including species that support diverse biological communities that in turn provide ecological stability and support commercial interests. Worldwide, but particularly in the North Atlantic and deep ...

  8. Warming and Ocean Acidification Effects on Phytoplankton—From Species Shifts to Size Shifts within Species in a Mesocosm Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer, Ulrich; Paul, Carolin; Moustaka-Gouni, Maria

    2015-01-01

    While the isolated responses of marine phytoplankton to climate warming and to ocean acidification have been studied intensively, studies on the combined effect of both aspects of Global Change are still scarce. Therefore, we performed a mesocosm experiment with a factorial combination of temperature (9 and 15°C) and pCO2 (means: 439 ppm and 1040 ppm) with a natural autumn plankton community from the western Baltic Sea. Temporal trajectories of total biomass and of the biomass of the most imp...

  9. Global Warming on Triton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, J. L.; Hammel, H. B.; Wasserman, L. H.; Franz, O. G.; McDonald, S. W.; Person, M. J.; Olkin, C. B.; Dunham, E. J.; Spencer, J. R.; Stansberry, J. A.; Buie, M. W.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; McConnochie, T. H.

    1998-01-01

    Triton, Neptune's largest moon, has been predicted to undergo significant seasonal changes that would reveal themselves as changes in its mean frost temperature. But whether this temperature should at the present time be increasing, decreasing or constant depends on a number of parameters (such as the thermal properties of the surface, and frost migration patterns) that are unknown. Here we report observations of a recent stellar occultation by Triton which, when combined with earlier results, show that Triton has undergone a period of global warming since 1989. Our most conservative estimates of the rate of temperature and surface-pressure increase during this period imply that the atmosphere is doubling in bulk every 10 years, significantly faster than predicted by any published frost model for Triton. Our result suggests that permanent polar caps on Triton play a c dominant role in regulating seasonal atmospheric changes. Similar processes should also be active on Pluto.

  10. EFFECT OF GLOBAL WARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhimashankar R. Pirgonde

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An overall temperature change is the extraordinarily quick addition in Earth's typical surface temperature over the earlier century mainly in light of the nursery gasses released as people duplicate fossil stimulates. In like manner there is a grave risk of an entire human progression getting the opportunity to be wiped out in a watery grave. Disease like dengue fever, yellow fever and encephalitis are circuitous delayed consequences of Global Warming. 6° F some place around 1906 and 2005, and the rate of temperature addition has about reproduced in the latest 50 years. Until we all quit dawdling and resolve to enhance our planet a spot to live in, humankind stays amidst grave danger of passing on and being pounded due to the compelling and manufacture issue of pollution.

  11. Acidification and warming affect both a calcifying predator and prey, but not their interaction : Feature article

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Anja; Zimmer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Both ocean warming and acidification have been demonstrated to affect the growth, performance and reproductive success of calcifying invertebrates. However, relatively little is known regarding how such environmental change may affect interspecific interactions. We separately treated green crabs Carcinus maenas and periwinkles Littorina littorea under conditions that mimicked either ambient conditions (control) or warming and acidification, both separately and in combination, for 5 mo. After 5 mo, the predators, prey and predator-prey interactions were screened for changes in response to environmental change. Acidification negatively affected the closer-muscle length of the crusher chela and correspondingly the claw-strength increment in C. maenas. The effects of warming and/or acidification on L. littorea were less consistent but indicated weaker shells in response to acidification. On the community level, however, we found no evidence that predator-prey interactions will change in the future. Further experiments exploring the impacts of warming and acidification on key ecological interactions are needed instead of basing predictions of ecosystem change solely on species-specific responses to environmental change.

  12. Global warming: understanding the forecast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archer, D.

    2003-07-01

    Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast is a comprehensive introduction to all aspects of global warming. Written in an accessible way, this important book examines the processes of climate change and climate stability, from the distant past to the distant future. Assumes no specialist scientific knowledge. Gives a detailed examination of the greenhouse effect, the carbon cycle and discussion of what the future holds for the global climate. A companion web site provides on-line interactive computer models of the physics and chemistry behind the global warming forecast, which can be used to support suggested student projects included at the end of each chapter. (author)

  13. Global warming: the complete briefing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houghton, J.

    1994-01-01

    The science of global warming, its impacts, and what action might be taken, are described in this book, in a way which the intelligent non-scientist can understand. It also examines ethical and moral issues of concern about global warming, considering mankind as stewards of the earth. Chapter headings of the book are: global warming and climate change; the greenhouse effect; the greenhouse gases; climates of the past; modelling the climate; climate change and business-as-usual; the impacts of climate change; why should we be concerned ; weighing the uncertainty; action to slow and stabilize climate change; energy and transport for the future; and the global village.

  14. Managing Local Coastal Stressors to Reduce the Ecological Effects of Ocean Acidification and Warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean D. Connell

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic activities have increased the number of stressors acting on ecosystems. When multiple stressors act simultaneously, there is a greater probability of additive, synergistic and antagonistic effects occurring among them. Where additive and synergistic effects occur, managers may yield disproportionately large benefits where they first act upon synergies. Stressors act, however, at different spatial and temporal scales. Global stressors (e.g., ocean acidification and warming tend to change slowly over long periods of time, although their intensity and effects are contingent on local conditions. On the other hand, local stressors tend to change rapidly over shorter, more defined spatial and temporal scales. Hence, local stressors can be subject to a greater degree of control through local management (e.g., eutrophication and overfishing while global stressors are characterized by an intrinsic inertia whose effects last for decades, if not centuries. Although the reduction of carbon emissions is an international priority for managing global stressors, it requires international agreements and management applications that take considerable time to develop. Managers, however, may ‘buy time’ by acting on stressors whose governance is local (e.g., reducing nutrient input and are known to synergize with global stressors (e.g., enriched CO2. Such local actions may potentially disrupt synergies with the more slowly changing global stressors that can only be reduced over longer time scales.

  15. Warming and Ocean Acidification Effects on Phytoplankton--From Species Shifts to Size Shifts within Species in a Mesocosm Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Ulrich; Paul, Carolin; Moustaka-Gouni, Maria

    2015-01-01

    While the isolated responses of marine phytoplankton to climate warming and to ocean acidification have been studied intensively, studies on the combined effect of both aspects of Global Change are still scarce. Therefore, we performed a mesocosm experiment with a factorial combination of temperature (9 and 15 °C) and pCO2 (means: 439 ppm and 1040 ppm) with a natural autumn plankton community from the western Baltic Sea. Temporal trajectories of total biomass and of the biomass of the most important higher taxa followed similar patterns in all treatments. When averaging over the entire time course, phytoplankton biomass decreased with warming and increased with CO2 under warm conditions. The contribution of the two dominant higher phytoplankton taxa (diatoms and cryptophytes) and of the 4 most important species (3 diatoms, 1 cryptophyte) did not respond to the experimental treatments. Taxonomic composition of phytoplankton showed only responses at the level of subdominant and rare species. Phytoplankton cell sizes increased with CO2 addition and decreased with warming. Both effects were stronger for larger species. Warming effects were stronger than CO2 effects and tended to counteract each other. Phytoplankton communities without calcifying species and exposed to short-term variation of CO2 seem to be rather resistant to ocean acidification. PMID:25993440

  16. Global warming and prairie wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, the authors discuss current understanding and projections of global warming; review wetland vegetation dynamics to establish the strong relationship among climate, wetland hydrology, vegetation patterns and waterfowl habitat; discuss the potential effects of a greenhouse warming on these relationships; and illustrate the potential effects of climate change on wetland habitat by using a simulation model

  17. Global warming and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of pollution, global warming and renewable energy sources are not going to go away. Governments need to act with urgency if they are to produce a long-term energy policy. This paper looks at the current energy situation, and how this would project into the future without the instigation of radical changes. It concludes that nuclear is the best option available for averting a growing energy, pollution and global warming crisis. (author)

  18. Ocean Warming and CO2-Induced Acidification Impact the Lipid Content of a Marine Predatory Gastropod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselyn Valles-Regino

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ocean warming and acidification are current global environmental challenges impacting aquatic organisms. A shift in conditions outside the optimal environmental range for marine species is likely to generate stress that could impact metabolic activity, with consequences for the biosynthesis of marine lipids. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in the lipid content of Dicathais orbita exposed to current and predicted future climate change scenarios. The whelks were exposed to a combination of temperature and CO2-induced acidification treatments in controlled flowthrough seawater mesocosms for 35 days. Under current conditions, D. orbita foot tissue has an average of 6 mg lipid/g tissue, but at predicted future ocean temperatures, the total lipid content dropped significantly, to almost half. The fatty acid composition is dominated by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA 52% with an n-3:6 fatty acid ratio of almost 2, which remains unchanged under future ocean conditions. However, we detected an interactive effect of temperature and pCO2 on the % PUFAs and n-3 and n-6 fatty acids were significantly reduced by elevated water temperature, while both the saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids were significantly reduced under increased pCO2 acidifying conditions. The present study indicates the potential for relatively small predicted changes in ocean conditions to reduce lipid reserves and alter the fatty acid composition of a predatory marine mollusc. This has potential implications for the growth and survivorship of whelks under future conditions, but only minimal implications for human consumption of D. orbita as nutritional seafood are predicted.

  19. Sponge biomass and bioerosion rates increase under ocean warming and acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, James K H; Mello-Athayde, Matheus A; Schönberg, Christine H L; Kline, David I; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Dove, Sophie

    2013-12-01

    The combination of ocean warming and acidification as a result of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is considered to be a significant threat to calcifying organisms and their activities on coral reefs. How these global changes impact the important roles of decalcifying organisms (bioeroders) in the regulation of carbonate budgets, however, is less understood. To address this important question, the effects of a range of past, present and future CO2 emission scenarios (temperature + acidification) on the excavating sponge Cliona orientalis Thiele, 1900 were explored over 12 weeks in early summer on the southern Great Barrier Reef. C. orientalis is a widely distributed bioeroder on many reefs, and hosts symbiotic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. Our results showed that biomass production and bioerosion rates of C. orientalis were similar under a pre-industrial scenario and a present day (control) scenario. Symbiodinium population density in the sponge tissue was the highest under the pre-industrial scenario, and decreased towards the two future scenarios with sponge replicates under the 'business-as-usual' CO2 emission scenario exhibiting strong bleaching. Despite these changes, biomass production and the ability of the sponge to erode coral carbonate materials both increased under the future scenarios. Our study suggests that C. orientalis will likely grow faster and have higher bioerosion rates in a high CO2 future than at present, even with significant bleaching. Assuming that our findings hold for excavating sponges in general, increased sponge biomass coupled with accelerated bioerosion may push coral reefs towards net erosion and negative carbonate budgets in the future. PMID:23893528

  20. Ocean Warming and CO?-Induced Acidification Impact the Lipid Content of a Marine Predatory Gastropod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles-Regino, Roselyn; Tate, Rick; Kelaher, Brendan; Savins, Dale; Dowell, Ashley; Benkendorff, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Ocean warming and acidification are current global environmental challenges impacting aquatic organisms. A shift in conditions outside the optimal environmental range for marine species is likely to generate stress that could impact metabolic activity, with consequences for the biosynthesis of marine lipids. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in the lipid content of Dicathais orbita exposed to current and predicted future climate change scenarios. The whelks were exposed to a combination of temperature and CO?-induced acidification treatments in controlled flowthrough seawater mesocosms for 35 days. Under current conditions, D. orbita foot tissue has an average of 6 mg lipid/g tissue, but at predicted future ocean temperatures, the total lipid content dropped significantly, to almost half. The fatty acid composition is dominated by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA 52%) with an n-3:6 fatty acid ratio of almost 2, which remains unchanged under future ocean conditions. However, we detected an interactive effect of temperature and pCO? on the % PUFAs and n-3 and n-6 fatty acids were significantly reduced by elevated water temperature, while both the saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids were significantly reduced under increased pCO? acidifying conditions. The present study indicates the potential for relatively small predicted changes in ocean conditions to reduce lipid reserves and alter the fatty acid composition of a predatory marine mollusc. This has potential implications for the growth and survivorship of whelks under future conditions, but only minimal implications for human consumption of D. orbita as nutritional seafood are predicted. PMID:26404318

  1. Local cooling, global warming

    OpenAIRE

    Hekkenberg, M,

    2009-01-01

    The growing use of refrigeration and air conditioning systems and the shift in refrigerant types due to the Montreal Protocol lead to rapidly increasing HFC refrigerant emissions globally, especially in developing countries. Reducing the emission of these potent greenhouse gases globally seems to be indispensable in a successful long term climate strategy. The thesis uses quantitative vintage models as well as qualitative policy analysis to assess how various policy options to reduce refri...

  2. Efficiency, sustainability and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic analyses of global warming have typically been grounded in the theory of economic efficiency. Such analyses may be inappropriate because many of the underlying concerns about climate change are rooted not in efficiency, but in the intergenerational allocation of economic endowments. A simple economic model is developed which demonstrates that an efficient economy is not necessarily a sustainable economy. This result leads directly to questions about the policy relevance of several economic studies of the issue. We then consider policy alternatives to address global warming in the context of economies with the dual objectives of efficiency and sustainability, with particular attention to carbon-based taxes

  3. Global warming and economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The macro-economic impacts of climate change and of policies to reduce carbon content should be moderate on a global basis for the planet - a few hundredths of a % of world GDP on an annual basis, but significant for some regions (Asia-Pacific notably). The probability of extreme climatic events justifies with effect from today the implementation of measures that will carry a cost in order to limit global warming. (author)

  4. Sustainability Management Based Approach to Global Warming:

    OpenAIRE

    AYSE KUCUK YILMAZ; Hikmet KARAKOC

    2008-01-01

    The global warming is a kind of sustainability risk. For this reason, Global Warming should be considering in Sustainability Management concept. The global warming risk must be managed effectively since its consequences threats for sustainability of our world. While this is understandable by all of us, a broader view is necessary to manage this risk in both the short and long-term. Risk management mentality is useful to the best managing of global risks. In this study, the global warming is ...

  5. Greenhouse gases and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From previous articles we have learned about the complexities of our environment, its atmosphere and its climate system. we have also learned that climate change and, therefore global warm and cool periods are naturally occurring phenomena. Moreover, all scientific evidence suggests that global warming, are likely to occur again naturally in the future. However, we have not yet considered the role of the rates of climate change in affecting the biosphere. It appears that how quickly the climate changes may be more important than the change itself. In light of this concern, let us now consider the possibility that, is due to human activity. We may over the next century experience global warming at rates and magnitudes unparalleled in recent geologic history. The following questions are answered; What can we learn from past climates? What do we know about global climates over the past 100 years? What causes temperature change? What are the greenhouse gases? How much have concentration of greenhouse gases increased in recent years? Why are increases in concentrations of greenhouse of concern? What is the enhanced greenhouse effect? How can human activity impact the global climate? What are some reasons for increased concentrations of greenhouse gases? What are fossil fuel and how do they transform into greenhouse gases? Who are the biggest emitters of greenhouse gases? Why are canada per capita emissions of greenhouse gases relatively high? (Author)

  6. Global warming at the summit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    During the recent summit meeting between Russian President Vladimir Putin and U.S. President Bill Clinton, the two leaders reaffirmed their concerns about global warming and the need to continue to take actions to try to reduce the threat.In a June 4 joint statement, they stressed the need to develop flexibility mechanisms, including international emissions trading, under the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. They also noted that initiatives to reduce the risk of greenhouse warming, including specific mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol, could potentially promote economic growth.

  7. Impact and prevention on global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with impact and prevention on global warming with eight chapters, which introduce the change after the earth was born and natural environment, how is global atmospheric environment under the control of radiant energy? What does global warming look with the earth history like? What's the status of global warming so far? How does climate change happen? What is the impact by global warming and climate change and for preservation of global environment of 21 century with consumption of energy, measure and prospect on global warming. It has reference, index and three appendixes.

  8. Ocean Warming, More than Acidification, Reduces Shell Strength in a Commercial Shellfish Species during Food Limitation

    OpenAIRE

    Mackenzie, Clara L.; Ormondroyd, Graham A.; Curling, Simon F.; Richard J. Ball; Whiteley, Nia M.; Malham, Shelagh K.

    2014-01-01

    Ocean surface pH levels are predicted to fall by 0.3–0.4 pH units by the end of the century and are likely to coincide with an increase in sea surface temperature of 2–4°C. The combined effect of ocean acidification and warming on the functional properties of bivalve shells is largely unknown and of growing concern as the shell provides protection from mechanical and environmental challenges. We examined the effects of near-future pH (ambient pH –0.4 pH units) and warming (ambient temperature...

  9. Cosmic rays and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible effects of cosmic rays on clouds could contribute to global warming. The argument is that the observed increased solar activity during the last century caused a decrease in the ionization due to cosmic rays since the lower energy cosmic particles are deflected by the magnetic field created by the increasing solar wind. This would lead to a decrease in cloud cover allowing more heating of the earth by the sun. Meteorological data combined to solar activity observations and simulations show that any effect of solar activity on clouds and the climate is likely to be through irradiance rather than cosmic rays. Since solar irradiance transfers 8 orders of magnitude more energy to the atmosphere than cosmic rays it is more plausible that this can produce a real effect. The total contribution of variable solar activity to global warming is shown to be less than 14% of the total temperature rise. (A.C.)

  10. Automobility: Global Warming as Symptomatology

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Backhaus

    2009-01-01

    The argument of this paper is that sustainability requires a new worldview-paradigm. It critically evaluates Gore’s liberal-based environmentalism in order to show how “shallow ecologies” are called into question by deeper ecologies. This analysis leads to the notion that global warming is better understood as a symptom indicative of the worldview that is the source for environmental crises. Heidegger’s ontological hermeneutics and its critique of modern technology show that the modern worldv...

  11. Global Warming: the Sacrificial Temptation

    CERN Document Server

    Galam, Serge

    2008-01-01

    The claimed unanimity of the scientific community about the human culpability for global warming is questioned. Up today there exists no scientific proof of human culpability. It is not the number of authors of a paper, which validates its scientific content. The use of probability to assert the degree of certainty with respect the global warming problem is shown to be misleading. The debate about global warming has taken on emotional tones driven by passion and irrationality while it should be a scientific debate. The degree of hostility used to mull any dissonance voice demonstrates that the current debate has acquired a quasi-religious nature. Scientists are behaving as priests in their will "to save the planet". We are facing a dangerous social phenomenon, which must be addressed from the social point of view. The current unanimity of citizens, scientists, journalists, intellectuals and politicians is intrinsically worrying. The calls to sacrifice our way of life to calm down the upset nature is an emotio...

  12. Global warming: Economic policy responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the proceedings of a conference that brought together economic experts from Europe, the US, Latin America, and Japan to evaluate key issues in the policy debate in global warming. The following issues are at the center of debates on alternative policies to address global warming: scientific evidence on the magnitude of global warming and the extent to which it is due to human activities; availability of economic tools to control the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, and how vigorously should they be applied; and political economy considerations which influence the design of an international program for controlling greenhouse gases. Many perspectives are offered on the approaches to remedying environmental problems that are currently being pursued in Europe and the Pacific Rim. Deforestation in the Amazon is discussed, as well as ways to slow it. Public finance assessments are presented of both the domestic and international policy issues raised by plans to levy a tax on the carbon emissions from various fossil fuels. Nine chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  13. Nitrous oxide and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The climatic impact of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions is calculated annually for the period 1900-2100, using a globally averaged computer model. Emissions of N2O have been increasing up top an estimated 12.7 Tg N/year in 1990 by human activities and global warming. If the current trends continue, emissions are estimated to be 25.7 Tg N/year by 2100, with fossil-fuel use and human food production as major contributors. The resulting equilibrium temperature increase (0.37 degree C) exceeds the forcing derived from climate goals that may be considered environmentally desirable. Limiting equilibrium warming to 0.1 degree C per decade would require anthropogenic-induced and warming-induced N2O emissions to be reduced by 80% relative to current trends and to be stabilized from 2050, so that 10.7 Tg N/year is emitted by 2100. To stabilize the current concentration or climate forcing of N2, substantially larger cuts are needed. However, even in an optimistic scenario, emissions keep increasing up to 14.4. Tg N/year by 2100. A major reason is the close connection between N2O emissions and human food production. Synthetic fertilizer use, land-use change, and production of manure increase almost inevitably as the human population grows. Thus if global warming is to be limited to 0.1 degree C per decade it may be necessary to set emission reductions for other greenhouse gases relatively high to compensate for growth in climatic forcing by N2O

  14. Combined effects of warming, acidification and changing ocean circulation on the marine carbon cycle during the PETM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, M.; Ilyina, T.

    2014-12-01

    We are studying the ocean biogeochemistry during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; 55 million years ago) with an Earth System Model (ESM). During this period of abrupt environmental change the climate underwent a significant transformation within short geological timescales (~10 ky). The PETM is globally recorded in proxy-data by a negative ?13C carbon isotope excursion and carbonate dissolution in the ocean, suggesting that the occurred warming was caused by massive carbon release. To investigate the marine biogeochemistry before and during the onset of the PETM we use the ESM of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology to simulate scenarios with different rates of carbon release over several thousand years. Starting from an already warmer background climate than present, the atmospheric CO2 increase and concomitant warming lead to acidification and deoxygenation of mid and deep ocean waters. Our results indicate that a weakening of deep water formation, caused by global warming, plays a major role in producing inhospitable conditions for benthic organisms during the PETM. We show how the interaction between biological and physical responses to the carbon perturbation lead to the observed calcite sediment dissolution in the deep ocean. At the surface a weakening of the physical and biological carbon pump restricts the oceanic uptake capacity of atmospheric CO2 which helps to maintain elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations and temperatures throughout the event.

  15. Thermodynamic model of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thermodynamic model of global warming (greenhouse effect) has been developed to calculate the rise in global temperature and sea level due to increasing concentration of atmospheric greenhouse gases relative to the pre -industrial era (? 1800 A D). The growth rate of various greenhouse gases in future decades has been taken as per IPCC-1996 technical data. Accordingly, the mean global temperature is projected to rise by about 1.9 K during 1800-2100 A D out of which 1.3 K will be in the next 100 years (i.e. twenty first century). Also, the mean sea level is projected to rise by about 86 cm during 1800 to 2100 AD out of which 60 cm will be in the next 100 years. It is the thermal expansion of oceans which accounts for about 95% of the rise in sea level and the rest comes from the melting of ice in greenland, glaciers and mountain caps. (author)

  16. Global Warming Blame the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, N

    1997-01-01

    Concern about climate change reaches a political peak at a UN conference in Kyoto, 1-10 December, but behind the scenes the science is in turmoil. A challenge to the hypothesis that greenhouse gases are responsible for global warming comes from the discovery that cosmic rays from the Galaxy are involved in making clouds (Svensmark and Friis-Christensen, 1997). During the 20th Century the wind from the Sun has grown stronger and the count of cosmic rays has diminished. With fewer clouds, the EarthÕs surface has warmed up. This surprising mechanism explains the link between the Sun and climate change that astronomers and geophysicists have suspected for 200 years.

  17. Global Warming Control to Mitigate Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Antipas T. S. Massawe

    2012-01-01

    Paper describes a proposed development of empirical model of global warming fit on the collective determinants in all countries. Aim is to enable establishment and comparison of the collective effects of global determinants on global warming in the prescription of the regulations most fit for the collective deployment in each of the determinant countries to enable mitigation of the greenhouse gases build-up caused global warming.

  18. An Integrated Assessment Model for Helping the United States Sea Scallop (Placopecten magellanicus) Fishery Plan Ahead for Ocean Acidification and Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Sarah R; Rheuban, Jennie E; Hart, Deborah R; Luu, Victoria; Glover, David M; Hare, Jonathan A; Doney, Scott C

    2015-01-01

    Ocean acidification, the progressive change in ocean chemistry caused by uptake of atmospheric CO2, is likely to affect some marine resources negatively, including shellfish. The Atlantic sea scallop (Placopecten magellanicus) supports one of the most economically important single-species commercial fisheries in the United States. Careful management appears to be the most powerful short-term factor affecting scallop populations, but in the coming decades scallops will be increasingly influenced by global environmental changes such as ocean warming and ocean acidification. In this paper, we describe an integrated assessment model (IAM) that numerically simulates oceanographic, population dynamic, and socioeconomic relationships for the U.S. commercial sea scallop fishery. Our primary goal is to enrich resource management deliberations by offering both short- and long-term insight into the system and generating detailed policy-relevant information about the relative effects of ocean acidification, temperature rise, fishing pressure, and socioeconomic factors on the fishery using a simplified model system. Starting with relationships and data used now for sea scallop fishery management, the model adds socioeconomic decision making based on static economic theory and includes ocean biogeochemical change resulting from CO2 emissions. The model skillfully reproduces scallop population dynamics, market dynamics, and seawater carbonate chemistry since 2000. It indicates sea scallop harvests could decline substantially by 2050 under RCP 8.5 CO2 emissions and current harvest rules, assuming that ocean acidification affects P. magellanicus by decreasing recruitment and slowing growth, and that ocean warming increases growth. Future work will explore different economic and management scenarios and test how potential impacts of ocean acidification on other scallop biological parameters may influence the social-ecological system. Future empirical work on the effect of ocean acidification on sea scallops is also needed. PMID:25945497

  19. Public perceptions of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the way public opinion responds to the prospect of global warming. In particular, it focuses on the public's 'willingness to pay' in order to prevent various hypothetical climate scenarios from transpiring. To this end, fractional factorial survey methods are employed with a sample of over 600 residents of Southern California. By and large, the public is able to understand and evaluate rather complicated hypothetical climate scenarios, but the public appreciates some features of climate far better than others. In this context, the contingent valuation estimates provided, while promising, are clearly not ready of consideration by policy makers. 36 refs., 17 figs

  20. Nuclear efficiency against global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear power is capable of contributing in important proportions for the fight against the global warming. With regard to fossil fuels power plants, nuclear power pants allow to avoid every year the release of 2 milliards tons of carbon dioxide that is about 10 % of the world emissions. Energy savings and development of the renewable energies are only a part of the solution, their contribution will be precious but insufficient. It is the nuclear addition with renewable energies that appears as the key solution to slow down the escalation of the greenhouse effect. (N.C.)

  1. US demilitarization and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper input-output methods are used to generate ballpark empirical estimates of the implications for global warming of the projected demilitarization of the US federal budget. The impact is found to be qualitatively ambiguous, and highly sensitive to the manner in which the funds saved are distributed. The effect is adverse where the budgetary savings are used to fund economy-wide cuts in personal taxation and/or deficit reduction. In other cases the effect may be neutral or beneficial. (author)

  2. Thermal pollution causes global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordell, Bo

    2003-09-01

    Over longer time-scales there is no net heat inflow to Earth since incoming solar energy is re-emitted at exactly the same rate. To maintain Earth's thermal equilibrium, however, there must be a net outflow equal to the geothermal heat flow. Performed calculations show that the net heat outflow in 1880 was equal to the geothermal heat flow, which is the only natural net heat source on Earth. Since then, heat dissipation from the global use of nonrenewable energy sources has resulted in additional net heating. In, e.g. Sweden, which is a sparsely populated country, this net heating is about three times greater than the geothermal heat flow. Such thermal pollution contributes to global warming until the global temperature has reached a level where this heat is also emitted to space. Heat dissipation from the global use of fossil fuels and nuclear power is the main source of thermal pollution. Here, it was found that one third of current thermal pollution is emitted to space and that a further global temperature increase of 1.8 °C is required until Earth is again in thermal equilibrium.

  3. The economics of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global warming threat is challenging the world community to both international cooperation and national policy action. This report focuses on the necessity to alternate between ''global and national climate policies''. The Swiss perspective is at issue. The economic rationales for comparing national climate policy options are analyzed. This report explicitly focusses on the fundamental role of the normative framework and the related environmental-economic requisites for establishing an efficient national climate policy and computing a ''carbon tax''. Finally, the latest results of the energy and greenhouse gas scenarios for Switzerland, elaborated on within the network of the IEA/ETSAP Project, Annex IV, ''Greenhouse Gases and National Energy Options: Technologies and Costs for Reducing Emissions of Greenhouse Gases'', illustrate Switzerland's difficulties in reducing greenhouse gas emissions at ''reasonable cost'' compared with other countries. This should make Switzerland very sensitive to the implementation of efficient environmental-policy instruments and international cooperation. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  4. Global warming potential of pavements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santero, Nicholas J [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 407 McLaughlin Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1712 (United States); Horvath, Arpad, E-mail: njsantero@cal.berkeley.ed, E-mail: horvath@ce.berkeley.ed [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 215B McLaughlin Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1712 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    Pavements comprise an essential and vast infrastructure system supporting our transportation network, yet their impact on the environment is largely unquantified. Previous life-cycle assessments have only included a limited number of the applicable life-cycle components in their analysis. This research expands the current view to include eight different components: materials extraction and production, transportation, onsite equipment, traffic delay, carbonation, lighting, albedo, and rolling resistance. Using global warming potential as the environmental indicator, ranges of potential impact for each component are calculated and compared based on the information uncovered in the existing research. The relative impacts between components are found to be orders of magnitude different in some cases. Context-related factors, such as traffic level and location, are also important elements affecting the impacts of a given component. A strategic method for lowering the global warming potential of a pavement is developed based on the concept that environmental performance is improved most effectively by focusing on components with high impact potentials. This system takes advantage of the fact that small changes in high-impact components will have more effect than large changes in low-impact components.

  5. Coral bleaching under unconventional scenarios of climate warming and ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Lester; Cox, Peter; Halloran, Paul R.; Mumby, Peter J.; Wiltshire, Andy J.

    2015-08-01

    Elevated sea surface temperatures have been shown to cause mass coral bleaching. Widespread bleaching, affecting >90% of global coral reefs and causing coral degradation, has been projected to occur by 2050 under all climate forcing pathways adopted by the IPCC for use within the Fifth Assessment Report. These pathways include an extremely ambitious pathway aimed to limit global mean temperature rise to 2 °C (ref. ; Representative Concentration Pathway 2.6--RCP2.6), which assumes full participation in emissions reductions by all countries, and even the possibility of negative emissions. The conclusions drawn from this body of work, which applied widely used algorithms to estimate coral bleaching, are that we must either accept that the loss of a large percentage of the world’s coral reefs is inevitable, or consider technological solutions to buy those reefs time until atmospheric CO2 concentrations can be reduced. Here we analyse the potential for geoengineering, through stratospheric aerosol-based solar radiation management (SRM), to reduce the extent of global coral bleaching relative to ambitious climate mitigation. Exploring the common criticism of geoengineering--that ocean acidification and its impacts will continue unabated--we focus on the sensitivity of results to the aragonite saturation state dependence of bleaching. We do not, however, address the additional detrimental impacts of ocean acidification on processes such as coral calcification that will further determine the benefit to corals of any SRM-based scenario. Despite the sensitivity of thermal bleaching thresholds to ocean acidification being uncertain, stabilizing radiative forcing at 2020 levels through SRM reduces the risk of global bleaching relative to RCP2.6 under all acidification-bleaching relationships analysed.

  6. The effect of the global warming on marine ecosystems in the Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article discusses various results from studies of development in the ecosystems in the Arctic region and the effect the global warming may have. The warming in these areas is larger than in the central Europe and influence the economic and social development of the region. The focus is on the fisheries, exploitation of oil and gas, transport, diversity in species, acidification of the oceans, meteorological phenomena etc.. Some environmental and energy related aspects are mentioned. (tk)

  7. Keeping cool on global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of scientific groups have concluded that the greenhouse effect caused by the man-made emissions of carbon dioxide and other bases has produced much or all of the rise in global temperatures. They predict that there will be an increase in greenhouse gases equivalent to a doubling of carbon dioxide by the middle of the 21st century, and that this will cause the temperature of the earth to rise by as much as 5C. According to these scientists, a temperature rise of this magnitude would cause major disruptions in the earth's ecosystem, including severe summer drought in the midwestern US and other agricultural regions. The worst-case scenarios predict a major rise in sea level as a result of the greenhouse warming, inundating areas of New York, Miami and other coastal cities as well as low-lying river deltas and islands. The lives of hundreds of millions of people would be disrupted. The available data on climate change, however, do not support these predictions, nor do they support the idea that human activity has caused, or will cause, a dangerous increase in global temperatures. As the authors make this statement, they are aware that it contradicts widespread popular opinion, as well as the technical judgments of some of their colleagues. But it would be imprudent to ignore the facts on global warming that have accumulated over the last two years. These facts indicate that theoretical estimates of the greenhouse problem have greatly exaggerated its seriousness. Enormous economic stakes ride on forthcoming government decisions regarding carbon taxes and other restrictions on CO2 emissions. Due attention must therefore be given to the scientific evidence, no matter how contrary to popular opinion its implications appear to be. This article discusses the scientific evidence

  8. The physics and history of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global warming is not only a hot research area in atmospheric sciences and even all Earth sciences but is also a controversial topic in the international community. The purpose of this paper is not to clarify these controversies, but instead, to address the physical basis on which our understanding of global warming is founded, and to briefly review the nearly 200-year history of global warming sciences. We hope the paper will help readers, who have no background in the atmospheric and climate sciences, understand scientific issues of global warming. (author)

  9. The metabolic response of marine copepods to environmental warming and ocean acidification in the absence of food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Daniel J.; Sommer, Ulf; Cook, Kathryn B.; Viant, Mark R.

    2015-09-01

    Marine copepods are central to the productivity and biogeochemistry of marine ecosystems. Nevertheless, the direct and indirect effects of climate change on their metabolic functioning remain poorly understood. Here, we use metabolomics, the unbiased study of multiple low molecular weight organic metabolites, to examine how the physiology of Calanus spp. is affected by end-of-century global warming and ocean acidification scenarios. We report that the physiological stresses associated with incubation without food over a 5-day period greatly exceed those caused directly by seawater temperature or pH perturbations. This highlights the need to contextualise the results of climate change experiments by comparison to other, naturally occurring stressors such as food deprivation, which is being exacerbated by global warming. Protein and lipid metabolism were up-regulated in the food-deprived animals, with a novel class of taurine-containing lipids and the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, changing significantly over the duration of our experiment. Copepods derive these PUFAs by ingesting diatoms and flagellated microplankton respectively. Climate-driven changes in the productivity, phenology and composition of microplankton communities, and hence the availability of these fatty acids, therefore have the potential to influence the ability of copepods to survive starvation and other environmental stressors.

  10. The metabolic response of marine copepods to environmental warming and ocean acidification in the absence of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Daniel J; Sommer, Ulf; Cook, Kathryn B; Viant, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    Marine copepods are central to the productivity and biogeochemistry of marine ecosystems. Nevertheless, the direct and indirect effects of climate change on their metabolic functioning remain poorly understood. Here, we use metabolomics, the unbiased study of multiple low molecular weight organic metabolites, to examine how the physiology of Calanus spp. is affected by end-of-century global warming and ocean acidification scenarios. We report that the physiological stresses associated with incubation without food over a 5-day period greatly exceed those caused directly by seawater temperature or pH perturbations. This highlights the need to contextualise the results of climate change experiments by comparison to other, naturally occurring stressors such as food deprivation, which is being exacerbated by global warming. Protein and lipid metabolism were up-regulated in the food-deprived animals, with a novel class of taurine-containing lipids and the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, changing significantly over the duration of our experiment. Copepods derive these PUFAs by ingesting diatoms and flagellated microplankton respectively. Climate-driven changes in the productivity, phenology and composition of microplankton communities, and hence the availability of these fatty acids, therefore have the potential to influence the ability of copepods to survive starvation and other environmental stressors. PMID:26364855

  11. Mitigation of global warming through renewable biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rising level of atmospheric CO2 and consequent global warming is evident. Global surface temperature have already increased by 0.8 °C over the 20th century and is projected to increase by 1.4–5.8 °C during the twenty-first century. The global warming will continue till atmospheric concentrations of the major greenhouse gases are stabilized. Among them, CO2 is mainly responsible and is expected to account for about 60% of the warming over the next century. This study reviews advances on causes and consequences of global climate change and its impact on nature and society. Renewable biomass has tremendous potential to mitigate the global warming. Renewable biomass is expected to play a multifunctional role including food production, source of energy and fodder, biodiversity conservation, yield of goods and services to the society as well as mitigation of the impact of climate change. The review highlights the different management and research strategies in forestry, agriculture, agroforestry and grasslands to mitigate the global warming. -- Highlights: ? Rising level of atmospheric CO2 and consequent global warming is evident. ? CO2 is mainly responsible for global warming. ? Global temperature is predicted to increase by 1.4–5.8 °C during 21st century. ? Renewable biomass has great potential to mitigate the global warming

  12. The tragedy of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author first evokes the consequences of global warming: ocean acidity, ice melt, sea level rise, repeated and always more intense extreme climatic events (a list of the main meteorological and climatic events which occurred in 2013 is given). He outlines that these phenomena happen more quickly than foreseen. He notices that these facts confirm the content of the different IPCC reports. The author outlines the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. He discusses the evolutions of these emissions between 1970 and 2010 in the different countries with respect to their level of economic development. It clearly appears that developed countries produce more emissions, and have only stabilized their emission level whereas emerging countries have notably increased their emissions. Developed and emerging countries should therefore act as quickly as possible

  13. Automobility: Global Warming as Symptomatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Backhaus

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The argument of this paper is that sustainability requires a new worldview-paradigm. It critically evaluates Gore’s liberal-based environmentalism in order to show how “shallow ecologies” are called into question by deeper ecologies. This analysis leads to the notion that global warming is better understood as a symptom indicative of the worldview that is the source for environmental crises. Heidegger’s ontological hermeneutics and its critique of modern technology show that the modern worldview involves an enframing (a totalizing technological ordering of the natural. Enframing reveals entities as standing reserve (on demand energy suppliers. My thesis maintains that enframing is geographically expressed as automobility. Because of the energy needs used to maintain automobility, reaching the goal of sustainability requires rethinking the spatial organization of life as a function of stored energy technologies.

  14. Ocean Acidification’s Potential to Alter Global Marine Ecosystem Services

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah R. Cooley; Kite-Powell, Hauke L; Doney, Scott C.

    2009-01-01

    Ocean acidification lowers the oceanic saturation states of carbonate minerals and decreases the calcification rates of some marine organisms that provide a range of ecosystem services such as wild fishery and aquaculture harvests, coastal protection, tourism, cultural identity, and ecosystem support. Damage to marine ecosystem services by ocean acidification is likely to disproportionately affect developing nations and coastal regions, which often rely more heavily on a variety of marine-rel...

  15. Global Warming: How Much and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanouette, William

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes the history of the study of global warming and includes a discussion of the role of gases, like carbon dioxide, methane, and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC). Discusses modern research on the global warming, including computer modelling and the super-greenhouse effect. (YP)

  16. Turkish Students' Ideas about Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, Ahmet; Stanisstreet, Martin; Boyes, Edward

    2008-01-01

    A questionnaire was used to explore the prevalence of ideas about global warming in Year 10 (age 15-16 years) school students in Turkey. The frequencies of individual scientific ideas and misconceptions about the causes, consequences and "cures" of global warming were identified. In addition, several general findings emerged from this study.…

  17. Global Warming: Lessons from Ozone Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Art

    2010-01-01

    My teaching and textbook have always covered many physics-related social issues, including stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming. The ozone saga is an inspiring good-news story that's instructive for solving the similar but bigger problem of global warming. Thus, as soon as students in my physics literacy course at the University of…

  18. Exploring the Sociopolitical Dimensions of Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Troy D.; Klosterman, Michelle L.

    2009-01-01

    The authors present an activity to help high school students conceptualize the sociopolitical complexity of global warming through an exploration of varied perspectives on the issue. They argue that socioscientific issues such as global warming present important contexts for learning science and that the social and political dimensions of these…

  19. Sponge erosion under acidification and warming scenarios: differential impacts on living and dead coral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubler, Amber D; Furman, Bradley T; Peterson, Bradley J

    2015-11-01

    Ocean acidification will disproportionately impact the growth of calcifying organisms in coral reef ecosystems. Simultaneously, sponge bioerosion rates have been shown to increase as seawater pH decreases. We conducted a 20-week experiment that included a 4-week acclimation period with a high number of replicate tanks and a fully orthogonal design with two levels of temperature (ambient and +1 °C), three levels of pH (8.1, 7.8, and 7.6), and two levels of boring sponge (Cliona varians, present and absent) to account for differences in sponge attachment and carbonate change for both living and dead coral substrate (Porites furcata). Net coral calcification, net dissolution/bioerosion, coral and sponge survival, sponge attachment, and sponge symbiont health were evaluated. Additionally, we used the empirical data from the experiment to develop a stochastic simulation of carbonate change for small coral clusters (i.e., simulated reefs). Our findings suggest differential impacts of temperature, pH and sponge presence for living and dead corals. Net coral calcification (mg CaCO3  cm(-2)  day(-1) ) was significantly reduced in treatments with increased temperature (+1 °C) and when sponges were present; acidification had no significant effect on coral calcification. Net dissolution of dead coral was primarily driven by pH, regardless of sponge presence or seawater temperature. A reevaluation of the current paradigm of coral carbonate change under future acidification and warming scenarios should include ecologically relevant timescales, species interactions, and community organization to more accurately predict ecosystem-level response to future conditions. PMID:26087148

  20. Acidification of musts in warm regions with tartaric acid and calcium sulfate at industrial scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Juan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acidification of musts is necessary in warm areas where high temperatures during ripening accelerate breathing com- bustion of tartaric acid and, in particular, malic acid in the berries. L(+ tartaric acid, L(- or D,L malic acid and lactic acids are the only chemical acidifiers authorized by the OIV and European Community regulations. The use of calcium sulfate (gypsum: CaSO4·2H2O is also authorized in the European Community as a complementary acidifier in generous and generous liquor 42 wines from Spain (a practice known as plastering, provided that the residual sulfate content in the wine does not exceed 2.5?g/L expressed as potassium sulfate. However, this practice is not yet approved by OIV. To predict the effect on pH of different acidi- fiers, several chemical modeling approaches have been described in the literature, in particular a simplified model where the acidity of wine is considered to be due to a monoprotic acid. The aim of this work is to verify this model at pilot and industrial scale in the acidification of musts with tartaric and calcium sulfate, added either individually and in combination, using doses up to 3?g/L and to study the modifications that these practices produce on the compositions of the resulting wines. This work sup- plies useful information to study this practice in OIV in order to consider its approval.

  1. Global warming and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is steadily increasing and it is widely believed that this will lead to global warming that will have serious consequences for life on earth. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has estimated that the temperature of the earth will increase by between 1 and 3.5 degrees in the next century. This will melt some of the Antarctic ice cap, raise the sea level and flood many low-lying countries, and also produce unpredictable changes in the earth's climate. The possible ways of reducing carbon dioxide emission are discussed. It is essential to reduce the burning of fossil fuels, but then how are we to obtain the energy we need? We can try to reduce energy use, but we will still need to generate large amounts energy. Some possible ways of doing this are by using wind and solar generators, by hydroelectric and tidal plants, and also by nuclear power. These possibilities will be critically examined. (author)

  2. How warm days increase belief in global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaval, Lisa; Keenan, Elizabeth A.; Johnson, Eric J.; Weber, Elke U.

    2014-02-01

    Climate change judgements can depend on whether today seems warmer or colder than usual, termed the local warming effect. Although previous research has demonstrated that this effect occurs, studies have yet to explain why or how temperature abnormalities influence global warming attitudes. A better understanding of the underlying psychology of this effect can help explain the public's reaction to climate change and inform approaches used to communicate the phenomenon. Across five studies, we find evidence of attribute substitution, whereby individuals use less relevant but available information (for example, today's temperature) in place of more diagnostic but less accessible information (for example, global climate change patterns) when making judgements. Moreover, we rule out alternative hypotheses involving climate change labelling and lay mental models. Ultimately, we show that present temperature abnormalities are given undue weight and lead to an overestimation of the frequency of similar past events, thereby increasing belief in and concern for global warming.

  3. Are philosophers responsible for global warming?

    OpenAIRE

    Maxwell, N.

    2008-01-01

    Global warming has come about as a result of rapid population increase plus our whole modern way of life, all made possible by modern science. In order to tackle global warming successfully, we need a new kind of inquiry that gives intellectual priority to tackling problems of living over problems of knowledge. If we had had this new kind of inquiry fifty years ago, we might have begun to do something about global warming long ago, in the early 1960s, when Keeling first discovered that carbon...

  4. Global warming and climate change: control methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aimed at finding causes of global warming and ways to bring it under control. Data based on scientific opinion as given by synthesis reports of news, articles, web sites, and books. global warming is the observed and projected increases in average temperature of Earth's atmosphere and oceans. Carbon dioxide and other air pollution that is collecting in the atmosphere like a thickening blanket, trapping the sun's heat and causing the planet to warm up. Pollution is one of the biggest man-made problems. Burning fossil fuels is the main factor of pollution. As average temperature increases, habitats, species and people are threatened by drought, changes in rainfall, altered seasons, and more violent storms and floods. Indeed the life cycle of nuclear power results in relatively little pollution. Energy efficiency, solar, wind and other renewable fuels are other weapons against global warming . Human activity, primarily burning fossil fuels, is the major driving factor in global warming . Curtailing the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere by reducing use of oil, gasoline, coal and employment of alternate energy, sources are the tools for keeping global warming under control. global warming can be slowed and stopped, with practical actions thal yield a cleaner, healthier atmosphere

  5. Warming up, turning sour, losing breath: ocean biogeochemistry under global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Nicolas

    2011-05-28

    In the coming decades and centuries, the ocean's biogeochemical cycles and ecosystems will become increasingly stressed by at least three independent factors. Rising temperatures, ocean acidification and ocean deoxygenation will cause substantial changes in the physical, chemical and biological environment, which will then affect the ocean's biogeochemical cycles and ecosystems in ways that we are only beginning to fathom. Ocean warming will not only affect organisms and biogeochemical cycles directly, but will also increase upper ocean stratification. The changes in the ocean's carbonate chemistry induced by the uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO(2)) (i.e. ocean acidification) will probably affect many organisms and processes, although in ways that are currently not well understood. Ocean deoxygenation, i.e. the loss of dissolved oxygen (O(2)) from the ocean, is bound to occur in a warming and more stratified ocean, causing stress to macro-organisms that critically depend on sufficient levels of oxygen. These three stressors-warming, acidification and deoxygenation-will tend to operate globally, although with distinct regional differences. The impacts of ocean acidification tend to be strongest in the high latitudes, whereas the low-oxygen regions of the low latitudes are most vulnerable to ocean deoxygenation. Specific regions, such as the eastern boundary upwelling systems, will be strongly affected by all three stressors, making them potential hotspots for change. Of additional concern are synergistic effects, such as ocean acidification-induced changes in the type and magnitude of the organic matter exported to the ocean's interior, which then might cause substantial changes in the oxygen concentration there. Ocean warming, acidification and deoxygenation are essentially irreversible on centennial time scales, i.e. once these changes have occurred, it will take centuries for the ocean to recover. With the emission of CO(2) being the primary driver behind all three stressors, the primary mitigation strategy is to reduce these emissions. PMID:21502171

  6. Global warming and nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, L., LLNL

    1998-07-10

    Nuclear fission power reactors represent a potential solution to many aspects of global change possibly induced by inputting of either particulate or carbon or sulfur oxides into the Earth`s atmosphere. Of proven technological feasibility, they presently produce high-grade heat for large-scale electricity generation, space heating and industrial process-energizing around the world, without emitting greenhouse gases or atmospheric particulates; importantly, electricity production costs from the best nuclear plants presently are closely comparable with those of the best fossil-fired plants. However, a substantial number of issues currently stand between nuclear power and widespread substitution for large stationary fossil fuel-fired systems. These include perceptual ones regarding both long-term and acute operational safety, plant decommissioning, fuel reprocessing, radwaste disposal, fissile materials diversion to military purposes and - perhaps most seriously- readily quantifiable concerns regarding long-term fuel supply and total unit electrical energy cost. We sketch a road-map for proceeding from the present situation toward a nuclear power-intensive world, addressing along the way each of the concerns which presently impede widespread nuclear substitution for fossil fuels, particularly for coal in the most populous and rapidly developing portions of the world, e.g., China and India. This `design to societal specifications` approach to large-scale nuclear fission power systems may lead to energy sources meeting essentially all stationary demands for high-temperature heat. Such advanced options offer a human population of ten billion the electricity supply levels currently enjoyed by Americans for 10,000 years. Nuclear power systems tailored to local needs-and-interests and having a common advanced technology base could reduce present-day world-wide C0{sub 2} emissions by two-fold, if universally employed. By application to small mobile demands, a second two-fold reduction might be attained. Even the first such halving of carbon intensivity of stationary-source energy production world-wide might permit continued slow power-demand growth in the highly developed countries and rapid development of the other 80% of the world, both without active governmental suppression of fossil fuel usage - while also stabilizing carbon input-rates into the Earth`s atmosphere. The second two-fold reduction might obviate most global warming concerns.

  7. Global warming and north-south solidarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discussion on climate change is based on 'contradictory certainties'. All sides claim to have found the truth. Much has been written and said about the connection between global warming, biodiversity and over population. The impoverished countries of the South se the insatiable intentions of the North as the major threat to the environment; and global warming as an excuse for stopping the economic development of the south

  8. Can Global Warming be Stopped?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, M.

    2013-12-01

    Earlier this year, the CO2 levels exceeded the 400 ppm level and there is no sign that the 1-2 ppm annual increase is going to slow down. Concerns regarding the danger of global warming have been reported in numerous occasions for more than a generation, ever since CO2 levels reached the 350 ppm range in the mid 1980's. Nevertheless, all efforts to slow down the increase have showed little if any effect. Mobile sources, including surface and marine transportation and aviation, consist of 20% of the global CO2 emission. The only realistic way to reduce the mobile sources' CO2 signature is by improved fuel efficiency. However, any progress in this direction is more than compensated by continuous increased demand. Stationary sources, mostly electric power generation, are responsible for the bulk of the global CO2 emission. The measurements have shown, that the effect of an increase in renewable sources, like solar wind and geothermal, combined with conversion from coal to natural gas where possible, conservation and efficiency improvement, did not compensate the increased demand mostly in developing countries. Increased usage of nuclear energy can provide some relief in carbon emission but has the potential of even greater environmental hazard. A major decrease in carbon emission can be obtained by either significant reduction in the cost of non-carbon based energy sources or by of carbon sequestration. The most economical way to make a significant decrease in carbon emission is to apply carbon sequestration technology at large point sources that use coal. Worldwide there are about 10,000 major sources that burn >7 billion metric tons of coal which generate the equivalent of 30 trillion kwh. There is a limited experience in CO2 sequestration of such huge quantities of CO2, however, it is estimated that the cost would be US$ 0.01-0.1 per kwh. The cost of eliminating this quantity can be estimated at an average of 1.5 trillion dollars annually. The major emitters, US, China and India are expected pay the bulk of it. While the larger nations spend this kind of money on defense, it is highly unlikely that they will do so for an environmental cause. Controlling the rest of CO2 emissions such as agricultural waste and medium to small sources is either much more expensive or even technologically impossible. The discussion so far did not include other green house gases (GHG) such as methane, ozone, nitrous oxide and hydro-chloro-fluoro-carbons that are much more difficult to control. In conclusion, it will take trillions of US dollars to significantly decrease GHG emissions and the effect will only be seen tens of years in the future. It is more reasonable to invest a fraction of these resources in preparation for the inevitable effects of the forthcoming climate change. Investments in coastal line protection, better flood control in low elevation water basins and in water desalination in arid areas may are some of the actions that may give a much better return.

  9. Is global warming harmful to health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, P R

    2000-08-01

    Projections from computer models predict that global warming will expand the incidence and distribution of many serious medical disorders. Global warming, aside from indirectly causing death by drowning or starvation, promotes by various means the emergence, resurgence, and spread of infectious diseases. This article addresses the health effects of global warming and disrupted climate patterns in detail. Among the greatest health concerns are diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, such as malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, and several kinds of encephalitis. Such disorders are projected to become increasingly prevalent because their insect carriers are very sensitive to meteorological conditions. In addition, floods and droughts resulting from global warming can each help trigger outbreaks by creating breeding grounds for insects whose desiccated eggs remain viable and hatch in still water. Other effects of global warming on health include the growth of opportunist populations and the increase of the incidence of waterborne diseases because of lack of clean water. In view of this, several steps are cited in order to facilitate the successful management of the dangers of global warming. PMID:10914399

  10. GLOBAL WARMING: IMPLICATIONS AND ANTICIPATORY ADAPTIVE MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNESH KUMAR

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Our earth is warming up. There is no denying to this fact that the gradual heating up of our globe has a tremendous effect on the climate. It in turn has affected the biotic factors that make up our biosphere, eventually directing the course of our socio-economic development. Some workers are, however, optimistic about this natural phenomenon. Various ways have been suggested to mitigate the effects of global warming, but the damage already done cannot be revoked. Hence, the thing that we are left with is to go for anticipatory adaptive measures so as to tone down the intensity of future implications of global warming.

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions increase global warming

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the greenhouse gas emissions which cause the global warming in the atmosphere. In the 20th century global climate change becomes more sever which is due to greenhouse gas emissions. According to International Energy Agency data, the USA and China are approximately tied and leading global emitters of greenhouse gas emissions. Together they emit approximately 40% of global CO2 emissions, and about 35% of total greenhouse gases. The developed and developing industrialized co...

  12. Global Warming: A Public Health Concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda M. Afzal

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 100 years the average temperature on the Earth has risen approximately 1ºFahrenheit (F, increasing at a rate twice as fast as has been noted for any period in the last 1,000 years. The Arctic ice cap is shrinking, glaciers are melting, and the Arctic permafrost is thawing. There is mounting evidence that these global climate changes are already affecting human health. This article provides a brief overview of global warming and climate changes, discusses effects of climate change on health, considers the factors which contribute to climate changes, and reviews individual and collective efforts related to reducing global warming.

  13. The Oceans 2015 Initiative, Part II - An updated understanding of the observed and projected impacts of ocean warming and acidification on marine and coastal socioeconomic activities/sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 1971 and 2010, the oceans have absorbed approximately 93% of the excess heat caused by global warming, leading to several major changes such as the increase in stratification, limitation in the circulation of nutrients from deep waters to the surface, and sea level rise. In addition, the oceans absorbed 26% of anthropogenic CO2 emitted since the start of the Industrial Revolution, which resulted in ocean acidification. Together, these processes strongly affect marine and coastal species' geographic distribution, abundance, migration patterns and phenology. As a consequence of these complex environmental changes, marine and coastal human sectors (i.e., fisheries, aquaculture, coastal tourism and health) are in turn at risk. This report provides an updated synthesis of what the science tells us about such a risk, based upon IPCC AR5 (2013- 2014) and published scientific articles and grey literature that have been published between July 2013 and April 2015. Although uncertainty remains strong, there is growing scientific evidence that ocean warming and acidification will affect key resources for societies through ecosystems services. For example, while AR5 indicated that coral reefs had little scope for adaptation, recent research has suggested that there may be some capacity for some coral species to recover from climatic hocks and bleaching events, and to acquire heat resistance through acclimatization. This will have huge implications on many coastal economies in the developing and developed countries. More generally, key sectors will be affected. For example, while the fish catch potential is expected to decrease at the global scale, it will show diversified trends at the regional scale as fish stocks have started shifting in latitudes or by depth. This will impact regional to local fisheries systems. Also, climate and acidification-related impacts to existing aquaculture are expected to be generally negative, with impacts varying by location, species, and aquaculture method. Such fore-sights however do not consider the potential for adaptation, which aims precisely to limit the impacts of changes in environmental conditions. (authors)

  14. Future Oceanic Warming and Acidification Alter Immune Response and Disease Status in a Commercial Shellfish Species, Mytilus edulis L.

    OpenAIRE

    Mackenzie, Clara L.; Lynch, Sharon A.; Culloty, Sarah C.; Malham, Shelagh K.

    2014-01-01

    Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide are leading to physical changes in marine environments including parallel decreases in ocean pH and increases in seawater temperature. This study examined the impacts of a six month exposure to combined decreased pH and increased temperature on the immune response and disease status in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis L. Results provide the first confirmation that exposure to future acidification and warming conditions via aquarium-based simulation may h...

  15. Hydrological consequences of global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Norman L.

    2009-06-01

    The 2007 Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change indicates there is strong evidence that the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide far exceeds the natural range over the last 650,000 years, and this recent warming of the climate system is unequivocal, resulting in more frequent extreme precipitation events, earlier snowmelt runoff, increased winter flood likelihoods, increased and widespread melting of snow and ice, longer and more widespread droughts, and rising sea level. The effects of recent warming has been well documented and climate model projections indicate a range of hydrological impacts with likely to very likely probabilities (67 to 99 percent) of occurring with significant to severe consequences in response to a warmer lower atmosphere with an accelerating hydrologic cycle.

  16. Global warming: Towards a strategy for Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A discussion paper is provided as background to a proposed public review of a strategy for Ontario's response to global warming. Global warming arises from the generation of greenhouse gases, which come from the use of fossil fuels, the use of chlorofluorocarbons, and deforestation. Energy policy is the backbone of achieving climate stability since the burning of fossil fuels releases most of the greenhouse gases, mainly carbon dioxide. Canada is, by international standards, a very energy-intensive country and is among the world's largest emitters of carbon dioxide on a per capita basis. Ontario is the largest energy-using province in Canada, and fossil fuels represent over 80% of provincial energy use. A proposed goal for Ontario is to provide leadership in stabilizing atmospheric concentrations of the greenhouse gases, while minimizing the social, economic, and environmental costs in Ontario of adapting to global warming. A proposed first step to address global warming is to achieve reductions in expected emissions of the greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide, so that levels by the year 2000 are lower than in 1989. Current policies and regulations helping to reduce the greenhouse effect include some of the current controls on automotive emissions and the adoption by the provincial electric utility of targets to reduce electricity demand. New initiatives include establishment of minimum energy efficiency standards and reduction of peak-day electricity use. Action steps for future consideration are detailed in the categories of greenhouse gas emissions reductions, carbon dioxide absorption, and research and analysis into global warming

  17. Modification of cirrus clouds to reduce global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, D. L.

    2009-12-01

    Since both greenhouse gases and cirrus clouds strongly affect outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) with no affect or less affect on solar radiation, respectively, an attempt to delay global warming to buy time for emission reduction strategies to work might naturally target cirrus clouds. Cirrus having optical depths Flight corridors are denser in the high- and mid-latitudes where global warming is more severe. A risk with any geoengineering experiment is that it could affect climate in unforeseen ways, causing more harm than good. Since seeding aerosol residence times in the troposphere are 1-2 weeks, the climate might return back to its normal state within a few months after stopping the geoengineering. A drawback to this approach is that it would not stop ocean acidification. It may not have many of the draw-backs that stratospheric injection of sulfur species has, such as ozone destruction, decreased solar radiation possibly altering the hydrological cycle with more frequent droughts, greater expense, the creation of a white sky and less solar energy. In addition, modeling studies indicate it would take at least 3 years for the climate system to return to “normal” upon termination of stratospheric geoengineering.

  18. The impacts and costs of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is now a scientific consensus that current rates of accumulation of greenhouses gases in the atmosphere will result in significant global warming and climate change. These changes are likely to have important impacts on a wide range of human activities and the natural environment. There has now been a considerable weight of literature published on the impacts of global warming, much of it very recent. This report seeks to summarise the important results, to analyse the uncertainties and to make a preliminary analysis of the feasibility of monetarising these environmental costs. The impacts of global warming are divided into ten major categories: agriculture, forests and forestry, terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity, hydrology and water resources, sea level rise and coastal zones, energy, infrastructure/transport/industry, human health and air quality, oceans, and cryospheric impacts. The results of major summary reports are analysed, notably the report of Working Group II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (the IPCC). (author)

  19. Some coolness concerning global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindzen, Richard S.

    1990-01-01

    The greenhouse effect hypothesis is discussed. The effects of increasing CO2 levels in the atmosphere on global temperature changes are analyzed. The problems with models currently used to predict climatic changes are examined.

  20. The state of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article surveys recent research on climate and climatic models incorporating greenhouse gas contributions. The uncertainty in the models have been reduced considerably. The temperature predictions made 12 years ago are in good agreement with the global observations

  1. Ocean warming and acidification: Unifying physiological principles linking organism response to ecosystem change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pörtner, H. O.; Bock, C.; Lannig, G.; Lucassen, M.; Mark, F. C.; Stark, A.; Walther, K.; Wittmann, A.

    2011-12-01

    The effects of ocean warming and acidification on individual species of marine ectothermic animals may be based on some common denominators, i.e. physiological responses that can be assumed to reflect unifying principles, common to all marine animal phyla. Identification of these principles requires studies, which reach beyond the species-specific response, and consider multiple stressors, for example temperature, CO2 or extreme hypoxia. Analyses of response and acclimation include functional traits of physiological performance on various levels of biological organisation, from changes in the transcriptome to patterns of acid-base regulation and whole animal thermal tolerance. Conclusions are substantiated by comparisons of species and phyla from temperate, Arctic and Antarctic ecosystems and also benefit from the interpretation of paleo-patterns based on the use of a unifying physiological concept, suitable to integrate relevant environmental factors into a more comprehensive picture. Studying the differential specialization of animals on climate regimes and their sensitivity to climate leads to improved understanding of ongoing and past ecosystem change and should then support more reliable projections of future scenarios. For example, accumulating CO2 causes disturbances in acid-base status. Resilience to ocean acidification may be reflected in the capacity to compensate for these disturbances or their secondary effects. Ion and pH regulation comprise thermally sensitive active and passive transfer processes across membranes. Specific responses of ion transporter genes and their products to temperature and CO2 were found in fish, crustaceans and bivalves. However, compensation may cause unfavourable shifts in energy budget and beyond that hamper cellular and mitochondrial metabolism, which are directly linked to the animal's aerobic performance window. In crabs, oysters and, possibly, fishes, a narrowing of the thermal window is caused by moderate increases in CO2 levels. Furthermore, a decrease in the efficiency of energy production may occur and affect growth and fitness as well as larval development. Different sensitivities of life history stages indicate physiologically sensitive bottlenecks during the life cycle of marine organisms. Available evidence suggests that the concept of oxygen and capacity limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) provides access to the physiological mechanisms closely defining the sensitivities and responses of species to various stressors. It provides causality and quantifies the levels and changes of performance and resistance, and supports more realistic estimates of species and ecosystem sensitivities to environmental change. The emerging picture of differential sensitivities across animal phyla is in line with existing categorizations of sensitivities from palaeo-observations during the Permian-Triassic mass extinctions (A.H. Knoll et al., Earth and Planetary Science Letters 256, 295-313, 2007).

  2. Global warming: A Northwest perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.; Counts, C.A. (eds.)

    1990-02-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council convened a symposium in Olympia, Washington, on the subject of global climate change ( the greenhouse effect'') and its potential for affecting the Pacific Northwest. The symposium was organized in response to a need by the Power Council to understand global climate change and its potential impacts on resource planning and fish and wildlife planning for the region, as well as a need to understand national policy developing toward climate change and the Pacific Northwest's role in it. 40 figs., 15 tabs.

  3. Global Warming Estimation from MSU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, Robert, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we have developed time series of global temperature from 1980-97 based on the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) Ch 2 (53.74 GHz) observations taken from polar-orbiting NOAA operational satellites. In order to create these time series, systematic errors (approx. 0.1 K) in the Ch 2 data arising from inter-satellite differences are removed objectively. On the other hand, smaller systematic errors (approx. 0.03 K) in the data due to orbital drift of each satellite cannot be removed objectively. Such errors are expected to remain in the time series and leave an uncertainty in the inferred global temperature trend. With the help of a statistical method, the error in the MSU inferred global temperature trend resulting from orbital drifts and residual inter-satellite differences of all satellites is estimated to be 0.06 K decade. Incorporating this error, our analysis shows that the global temperature increased at a rate of 0.13 +/- 0.06 K decade during 1980-97.

  4. Dynamical analysis of the global warming

    OpenAIRE

    Tenreiro Machado, J. A.; António M. Lopes

    2012-01-01

    Global warming is a major concern nowadays. Weather conditions are changing, and it seems that human activity is one of the main causes. In fact, since the beginning of the industrial revolution, the burning of fossil fuels has increased the nonnatural emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas that absorbs the infrared radiation produced by the reflection of the sunlight on the Earth’s surface, trapping the heat in the atmosphere. Global ...

  5. Climate change and global warming potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change and the global budgets of the two main energy consumption related greenhouse gases, CO2 and CH4, are discussed. The global warming potential (GWP) of the non-CO2 greenhouse gases is defined and the large range of GWPs of CH4 in the literature is discussed. GWPs are expected to play an important role in energy policies and negotiations concerning lowering greenhouse gas emissions. (author). 20 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  6. Global Warming Effects on Us Hurricane Damage

    OpenAIRE

    Emanuel, Kerry Andrew

    2011-01-01

    While many studies of the effects of global warming on hurricanes predict an increase in various metrics of Atlantic basin-wide activity, it is less clear that this signal will emerge from background noise in measures of hurricane damage, which depend largely on rare, high-intensity landfalling events and are thus highly volatile compared to basin-wide storm metrics. Using a recently developed hurricane synthesizer driven by large-scale meteorological variables derived from global climate mod...

  7. CERN plans global-warming experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    De Laine, M

    1998-01-01

    A controversial theory that proposes that cosmic rays are responsible for global warming, is going to be tested at CERN. Experimentalists will use a cloud chamber to mimic the Earth's atmosphere in order to try and find out if cloud formation is influenced by solar activity (1 page).

  8. NASA: Black soot fuels global warming

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    New research from NASA's Goddard Space Center scientists suggests emissions of black soot have been altering the way sunlight reflects off Earth's snow. The research indicates the soot could be responsible for as much as 25 percent of global warming over the past century (assorted news items, 1 paragraph each).

  9. Can Global Warming Heat Up Environmental Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzatenta, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    Bronx Community College (CUNY) launched "Global Warming Campus Awareness and Action Days" in celebration of Earth Day, 2007. The purpose of this program was to raise awareness of environmental issues in the college population, especially students. To let more students have a grasp of what Environmental Education (EE) is all about, the author…

  10. Can warming particles enter global climate discussions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Soot' or 'black carbon', which comes from incomplete combustion, absorbs light and warms the atmosphere. Although there have been repeated suggestions that reduction of black carbon could be a viable part of decreasing global warming, it has not yet been considered when choosing actions to reduce climatic impact. In this paper, I examine four conceptual barriers to the consideration of aerosols in global agreements. I conclude that some of the major objections to considering aerosols under hemispheric or global agreements are illusory because: (1) a few major sources will be addressed by local regulations, but the remainder may not be addressed by traditional air quality management; (2) climate forcing by carbon particles is not limited to 'hot spots'-about 90% of it occurs at relatively low concentrations; (3) while aerosol science is complex, the most salient characteristics of aerosol behavior can be condensed into tractable metrics including, but not limited to, the global warming potential; (4) despite scientific uncertainties, reducing all aerosols from major sources of black carbon will reduce direct climate warming with a very high probability. This change in climate forcing accounts for at least 25% of the accompanying CO2 forcing with significant probability (25% for modern diesel engines, 90% for superemitting diesels, and 55% for cooking with biofuels). Thus, this fraction of radiative forcing should not be ignored

  11. Technologies for fighting global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In January 1990, the Japanese government published an action programme against the greenhouse effect which reflected the country's future priorities as regards this issue. At the same time, the Minister of International Trade and Industry started the initiative 'the New Earth 21'. The present situation in Japan is reviewed with regard to the measures taken to prevent global heating and to the intended future technological developments. (orig.)

  12. Frequency of Deep Convective Clouds and Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Teixeira, Joao

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the effect of global warming on the formation of Deep Convective Clouds (DCC). It concludes that nature responds to global warming with an increase in strong convective activity. The frequency of DCC increases with global warming at the rate of 6%/decade. The increased frequency of DCC with global warming alone increases precipitation by 1.7%/decade. It compares the state of the art climate models' response to global warming, and concludes that the parametrization of climate models need to be tuned to more closely emulate the way nature responds to global warming.

  13. Microenvironmental changes support evidence of photosynthesis and calcification inhibition in Halimeda under ocean acidification and warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinutok, S.; Hill, R.; Doblin, M. A.; Kühl, M.; Ralph, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    The effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on photosynthesis and calcification of two important calcifying reef algae ( Halimeda macroloba and Halimeda cylindracea) were investigated with O2 microsensors and chlorophyll a fluorometry through a combination of two pCO2 (400 and 1,200 ?atm) and two temperature treatments (28 and 32 °C) equivalent to the present and predicted conditions during the 2100 austral summer. Combined exposure to pCO2 and elevated temperature impaired calcification and photosynthesis in the two Halimeda species due to changes in the microenvironment around the algal segments and a reduction in physiological performance. There were no significant changes in controls over the 5-week experiment, but there was a 50-70 % decrease in photochemical efficiency (maximum quantum yield), a 70-80 % decrease in O2 production and a threefold reduction in calcification rate in the elevated CO2 and high temperature treatment. Calcification in these species is closely coupled with photosynthesis, such that a decrease in photosynthetic efficiency leads to a decrease in calcification. Although pH seems to be the main factor affecting Halimeda species, heat stress also has an impact on their photosystem II photochemical efficiency. There was a strong combined effect of elevated CO2 and temperature in both species, where exposure to elevated CO2 or temperature alone decreased photosynthesis and calcification, but exposure to both elevated CO2 and temperature caused a greater decline in photosynthesis and calcification than in each stress individually. Our study shows that ocean acidification and ocean warming are drivers of calcification and photosynthesis inhibition in Halimeda. Predicted climate change scenarios for 2100 would therefore severely affect the fitness of Halimeda, which can result in a strongly reduced production of carbonate sediments on coral reefs under such changed climate conditions.

  14. Global Warming or Global Cooling in the Holocene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Zhu, J.; Rosenthal, Y.; Zhang, X.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Timmermann, A.; Smith, R. S.; Lohmann, G.; Zheng, W.; Elison Timm, O.

    2014-12-01

    A recent temperature reconstruction of global annual temperature shows early Holocene warmth followed by a cooling trend through the middle to late Holocene. This global cooling is puzzling because it is opposite to the expected and simulated global warming trend due to the retreating ice sheets and rising atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs). Our critical re-examination of this contradiction between the reconstructed cooling and the simulated warming points to potentially significant biases in both the seasonality of the proxy reconstruction and the climate sensitivity of current climate models.

  15. Environmental colonialism Leadership and global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-02-16

    The vast majority of the world's scientific community believes there is global warming and that it is global problem requiring international cooperation. But policy makers in industrialized countries are at a crossroads:Listen to the skeptics, who demand more proof and who fear economic consequences of an anti-greenhouse campaign, or take the more difficult path of commitment to attacking the problem. Meanwhile, poverty and debt keep. The Third world locked out of any active partnership. This issue of ED highlight their results of recently tapping documents and seminar findings on the subject of global warming. This issue also contains the following: (1) ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of the February 9, 1990; and (2) ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Western Hemisphere, February 1990 edition. 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. GLOBAL WARMING: IMPLICATIONS AND ANTICIPATORY ADAPTIVE MEASURES

    OpenAIRE

    MUNESH KUMAR; MEHRAJ A. SHEIKH; AABID RASOOL ZARGAR

    2011-01-01

    Our earth is warming up. There is no denying to this fact that the gradual heating up of our globe has a tremendous effect on the climate. It in turn has affected the biotic factors that make up our biosphere, eventually directing the course of our socio-economic development. Some workers are, however, optimistic about this natural phenomenon. Various ways have been suggested to mitigate the effects of global warming, but the damage already done cannot be revoked. Hence, the thing that we are...

  17. Nuclear energy and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear energy emits no greenhouse gases during operations. Its life-cycle carbon emissions compete favorably with the best of renewable energy options. It is a proven, reliable base-load electricity generator with predictable and reasonable cost. Nuclear energy also has the potential to replace greenhouse gas emitting technologies in the manufacturing and transportation fuel sectors. National and international leaders are calling for the expansion of nuclear power to be a significant tool in eliminating 75% or more of global carbon dioxide emissions by 2050. Cuts of this magnitude are believed to be necessary in order to mitigate the effects of anthropogenic climate change. Nevertheless, significant expansion of nuclear energy will face technical, social and political hurdles. Because no combination of other supply technologies is likely to fully replace nuclear's carbon abatement potential, success in overcoming these barriers is vital. A nuclear renaissance born of environmental urgency will attract many capable men and women to challenging, rewarding careers in the application of nuclear science and technology. (author)

  18. Global warming from an energy perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global climate change and energy are integrally related. The majority of greenhouse gas emissions are the result of energy production and use; at the same time, warming will affect energy patterns in California through physical increases in energy demand, physical changes in energy supply, and changes in both energy end-use patterns and supplies resulting from climate-change policies. There seems to be a growing political consensus that the world (as well as the state) needs to act soon to minimize further commitment to future warming. While California is not likely to experience the physical changes resulting from a warmer climate for years or perhaps decades, policy responses to the warming issue may cause more immediate impacts. This chapter will discuss how policy response to potential warming may be the most significant early impact of the issue on California's energy system. Makers of energy policy face the dilemma of deciding how to respond to the climate warming issue in the face of scientific uncertainties about its timing and seriousness. The chapter will conclude by presenting a conceptual framework for dealing with this dilemma, along with general recommendations for action

  19. GLOBAL WARMING: IS A NEW THREAT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayca Eminoglu

    2008-09-30

    In the Post Cold War era, the concepts of ''security'', ''national security'', and ''international security'' have changed with regard to their contents and meanings. Such developments made states to renew their national security policies. Security is a special form of politics as well. All security issues are political problems but not all political conflicts are security issues. In the Post Cold War era, differentiating and increasing numbers of elements that constitutes threat changed the concept of threat and widen the capacity of security. In this term, many elements lost its effect of being a threat but also new threatening elements emerged. Environmental problems, human rights, mass migration, micro nationalism, ethnic conflicts, religious fundamentalism, contagious diseases, international terrorism, economic instabilities, drug and weapon smuggling and human trafficking are the new problems emerged in international security agenda. Environmental problems no longer take place in security issues and can be mentioned as a ''low security'' issue. They are threats to the global commons i.e. the oceans, the seas, the ozone layer and the climate system, which are life supports for mankind as a whole. Global warming is one of the most important environmental issues of our day that effects human life in every field and can be defined as a 'serious threat to international security'. Because of global warming, environmental changes will occur and these changes will cause conflicting issues in international relations. Because of global warming dwindling freshwater supplies, food shortages, political instability and other conflicts may take place. Some IR scholars see a need for global cooperation in order to face the threat. At the background of global warming and its effects, states have to get preventive measures and normally, each state form its own measures, therefore as a consequence of this, there will be a new platform in international system. The aim of this paper is to discuss whether global warming is a threat and which countries are most effected from this threat.

  20. Is man responsible for global warming?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to politicians, ecologists and mass media, it is now certain that with our CO2 emissions, we are all responsible for a major global warming to come with dramatic consequences. But, is this affirmation indisputable? Are we all responsible for the rise of sea level and the summer thawing of the arctic ice shelf? Is this expected global warming without precedent? And is CO2, necessary for life, the cause of our misfortune? The answers commonly claimed are maybe more complex in reality and the climate question more subtle than it looks like. This book tries to decode the wheels of the climate machine and the share of human responsibility in climate change. (J.S.)

  1. Implications of global warming on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the build up of green house gases in atmosphere, less heat escapes through the atmosphere promoting global warming. This may result in world wide droughts, sea-level rise inundating islands and coastal countries, cataclysmic hurricanes etc. Human health as a result of these changes, will be affected both physiologically and psychologically. Physiological effects may be more pronounced in cases occurring due to changes in rainfall and temperature patterns, food production amounts, water availability, etc. Psychological impact may be more in cases of catastrophes like floods, hurricanes or famine. In this paper, an attempt has been made to highlight the implications of global warming on human health due to temperature change. Food production changes and ultra-violet radiation effects and cataclysmic disaster effects. (author)

  2. Forecasting effects of global warming on biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Botkin, D.B.; Saxe, H.; Araújo, M.B.; Betts, R.; Bradshaw, R.H.W.; Cedhagen, Tomas; Chesson, P.; Davis, M.B.; Dawson, T.P.; Etterson, J.; Faith, D.P.; Ferrier, S.; Guisan, A.; Skjordborg Hansen, A.; Hilbert, D.W.; Loehle, C.; Margules, C.; New, M.; Sobel, M.J.; Stockwell, D.R.B.

    2007-01-01

    The demand for accurate forecasting of the effects of global warming on biodiversity is growing, but current methods for forecasting have limitations. In this article, we compare and discuss the different uses of four forecasting methods: (1) models that consider species individually, (2) niche-theory models that group species by habitat (more specifically, by environmental conditions under which a species can persist or does persist), (3) general circulation models and coupled ocean–atmosphere–...

  3. Global warming : a guide to the science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide dispels the popular hypothesis that increases in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere resulting from increased industrial activity have caused global warming. The report suggests that there is no evidence of catastrophic anthropogenic global warming and that temperature changes over the last 100 years has been due mostly to natural phenomena. The global temperature has increased by about 0.5 to 0.6 degrees C in the past 100 years, and this, before most of the greenhouse gases were added to the air by human activities such as burning of fossil fuels. The initial major rise in temperature was in 1940, before the rise in carbon dioxide levels, therefore, it was suggested that this warming must have been natural in origin. Computer based simulations of the climate system forecast disastrous rises in global temperature. But it was argued that current climate models are not accurate in forecasting future climate change because it is not possible to isolate the effect of an increased concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide on climate because about 5 million different variables have to be considered with all their important impacts and interactions. Science indicates that at most, a little warming will occur and certainly better plant grown which should be of great benefit to mankind. It was concluded that the human condition can be improved through unconstrained access to energy, but use of energy may also produce local unwanted pollutants as a by product. The sources of true environmental pollution can be mitigated based on rational considerations of the risks of pollutants and benefits of energy use. refs., figs

  4. Global Warming and Caspian Sea Level Fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Ardakanian, Reza; Alemohammad, Seyed Hamed

    2013-01-01

    Coastal regions have a high social, economical and environmental importance. Due to this importance the sea level fluctuations can have many bad consequences. In this research the correlation between the increasing trend of temperature in coastal stations due to Global Warming and the Caspian Sea level has been established. The Caspian Sea level data has been received from the Jason-1 satellite. It was resulted that the monthly correlation between the temperature and sea lev...

  5. The Effects of Global Warming on Fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Medel, Carlos A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops two fisheries models in order to estimate the effect of global warming (GW) on firm value. GW is defined as an increase in the average temperature of the earth's surface because of CO? emissions. It is assumed that (i) GW exists, and (ii) higher temperatures negatively affect biomass. The literature on biology and GW supporting these two crucial assumptions is reviewed. The main argument presented is that temperature increase has two effects on biomass, both of which have ...

  6. National action strategy on global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A document prepared by a committee of Canadian environmental ministries proposes a strategic framework for a national action plan concerning global warming. The strategy would be carried out jointly by governments and all other sectors of the economy, taking into account the present state of scientific knowledge on global warming. Within this framework, the governments in cooperation with interested parties would take certain measures in their respective areas of competence. The main recommendations of the document include the following. The action strategy should comprise 3 elements: limiting emissions of greenhouse gases; forecasting climatic changes which Canada could undergo due to global warming and preparing for such changes; and improving scientific knowledge and the capacity to predict climatic changes. Limitations on this strategy should take into account such matters as the interaction of greenhouse gases with other pollutants, the importance of the international context, the need to adapt to new discoveries, and the importance of regional differences. Implementation of the strategy should incorporate widespread consultation of all affected sectors, sustained work on establishing international conventions and protocols on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, objectives and schedules for such reductions, and stepwise actions to control emissions in order to enable an adequate evaluation of the consequences and effectiveness of such measures. 10 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Toward international law on global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legal precedent in the history of international environmental law is considered. Then, the legal principles, rights and obligations related to transboundary environmental interference are drawn from the precedent. From this legal and historical background, and a brief overview of the principal technical aspects of the emerging global warming problem, the authors suggest a number of possible international protocols. These include outlines of multilateral treaties on energy efficiency, reduction in utilization of coal, increased adoption efficiency, reduction in utilization of coal, increased adoption of renewable and solar energy, and stimulation of several types of forestation, with creation of practical regimes and remedies. Each protocol has its own environmental social and economic merits and urgency, apart from the prevention of global warming. In each suggested protocol, the political obstacles are analyzed. Suggestions are presented for reduction of levels of disagreement standing in the way of obtaining viable treaties likely to be upheld in practice by the signatories. An agenda for study and action is presented, on the assumption that prudence dictates that international environmental law must be expanded as soon as feasible to regulate global warming

  8. Statistical aspects of global warming dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This communication aims to identify and utilize persistent features of global atmospheric temperature for predicting underlying fluctuating phenomena. A graphical method, Loess plot is used to show the presence of some degree of non-linearity in global temperature dynamics. Here we propose to split the average global temperature data set into three scale invariant temperature series on the basis of Hurst exponent in order to extract useful features of the physical system responsible for temperature anomalies. Global warming dynamics is revealed as possible Martingale and Markov stochastic processes. Different orders of Markov processes are examined for representative adequate models of the phenomenon. The models considered can be used both for short term and long-term temperature forecasts. (author)

  9. Global Warming: Evidence from Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R., Jr.; Yoo, J.-M.

    2001-01-01

    Observations made in Channel 2 (53.74 GHz) of the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) radiometer, flown on-board sequential, sun-synchronous, polar orbiting NOAA operational satellites, indicate that the mean temperature of the atmosphere over the globe increased during the period 1980 to 1999. In this study we have minimized systematic errors in the time series introduced by the satellite orbital drift in an objective manner. This is done with the help the onboard warm black body temperature, which is used in the calibration of the MSU radiometer. The corrected MSU Channel 2 observations of the NOAA satellite series reveal that the vertically weighted global mean temperature of the atmosphere, with a peak weight near the mid-troposphere, warmed at the rate of 0.13 K per decade (with an uncertainty of 0.05 K per decade) during 1980 to 1999. The global warming deduced from conventional meteorological data that have been corrected for urbanization effects agrees reasonably with this satellite deuced result.

  10. Effects of Global Warming on Vibrio Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzulli, Luigi; Pezzati, Elisabetta; Brettar, Ingrid; Höfle, Manfred; Pruzzo, Carla

    2015-06-01

    Vibrio-related infections are increasing worldwide both in humans and aquatic animals. Rise in global sea surface temperature (SST), which is approximately 1 °C higher now than 140 years ago and is one of the primary physical impacts of global warming, has been linked to such increases. In this chapter, major known effects of increasing SST on the biology and ecology of vibrios are described. They include the effects on bacterial growth rate, both in the field and in laboratory, culturability, expression of pathogenicity traits, and interactions with aquatic organisms and abiotic surfaces. Special emphasis is given to the effect of ocean warming on Vibrio interactions with zooplankters, which represent one of the most important aquatic reservoirs for these bacteria. The reported findings highlight the biocomplexity of the interactions between vibrios and their natural environment in a climate change scenario, posing the need for interdisciplinary studies to properly understand the connection between ocean warming and persistence and spread of vibrios in sea waters and the epidemiology of the diseases they cause. PMID:26185070

  11. Microwave sounding units and global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Bruce L.; Keihm, Stephen J.

    1991-01-01

    A recent work of Spencer and Christy (1990) on precise monitoring of global temperature trends from satellites is critically examined. It is tentatively concluded in the present comment that remote sensing using satellite microwave radiometers can in fact provide a means for the monitoring of troposphere-averaged air temperature. However, for this to be successful more than one decade of data will be required to overcome the apparent inherent variability of global average air temperature. It is argued that the data set reported by Spencer and Christy should be subjected to careful review before it is interpreted as evidence of the presence or absence of global warming. In a reply, Christy provides specific responses to the commenters' objections.

  12. Does CO2 really drive global warming?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Arctic Ocean Model, which was developed to account for the million year temperature oscillations, is explained in terms of the development and the shrinkage of the Arctic ice cap in the northern polar regions according to whether the Arctic Ocean is unfrozen and can supply moisture for the development of the ice cap which reflects the sun's radiation, or is frozen resulting in the shrinkage of the ice cap and the earth absorbing more of the sun's radiation and warming up (global warming). The changes in the direction of the temperature are discussed along with man's impact through fossil fuel combustion, and the identification of water and not carbon dioxide as the major absorbing gas in the atmosphere. The key evidence to support this theory is presented

  13. Compositional impact of acidification and warming on Fucus vesiculosus: First biogeochemical and stable isotope results from coastal benthocosm experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winde, Vera; Al-Janabi, Balsam; Sokol, Steffani; Buchholz, Björn; Escher, Peter; Voss, Maren; Schneider, Bernd; Wahl, Martin; Böttcher, Michael E.

    2014-05-01

    In the frame of the German BIOACID II project, the separate and combined effects of warming and acidification on the elemental and stable isotope composition of Fucus vesiculosus are investigated by means of benthic mesocosm experiments in brackish waters of the Baltic Sea. We aim for a calibration of the composition of Fucus in response to single and combined temperature and pCO2 elevation. Benthocosm experiments are carried out in the Kiel Fjord with a fully crossed array of 2 globally importnant stressors: an increase in temperature and an increase in atmospheric CO2 partial pressure. The experiments run for almost 3 months per season (winter, spring, summer, autumn). There are analyses from the experiments of the aquatic chemistry (TA, pH, salinity, carbon isotope composition of DIC, main and trace elements and nutrients) as well as the composition of the Fucus vesiculosus organic tissues (C-N-S-P contents, and C and N stable isotope composition, as well as major and trace elements). The composition of the aqueous solution in the mesocosms was recovered two times a week and for the Fucus tissue at the start and the end of the experiments. In addition several 24h cycles were followed in high temporal resolution to characterize the community response to diurnal light cycles. It was found, that seasonal variations in the composition of the input solutions (brackish water from the Kiel Fjord) were reflected by changes in the experiments with short time delay. The changes in the aquatic chemistry of the mesocosms, however, were strongly superimposed for most parameters during daytime by biological activity. The response of the communities to light conditions was clearly observed during the 24h-campaigns, when alternating phases of net respiration and photosynthesis were creating strong variations in the dissolved carbonate system. These variations were accompanied by significant changes in the carbon isotope composition of DIC. The atmosphere of some experimental set-ups was enriched with isotopically light gaseous carbon dioxide. This caused fast corresponding changes in the isotopic composition of DIC, thereby acting as a tracer for newly formed organic tissue and carbonates. The chemical and isotopic parameters of the dissolved carbonate system showed differences between the set ups. Fucus vesiculosus shows seasonal variability in the C, N, S contents and the isotopic composition.

  14. Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts

    OpenAIRE

    SHIVANI M. RAI

    2013-01-01

    Rai SM. 2013. Short Communication: Global warming – Problem with environmental and economical impacts. Nusantara Bioscience 5: 101-104. The present article is focused on global warming, which is an important global problem being faced by the humankind. The article discusses about the causes of the global warming, such as green house gases. The earth receives energy from the Sun in the form of solar radiations with small amount of infra red and ultraviolet rays. A part of these radiations is a...

  15. Anthropogenic global warming threatens world cultural heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, Anny

    2014-05-01

    Numerous cultural sites of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) world cultural Heritage are located in low-lying coastal regions. Because of anthropogenic global warming and induced sea level rise, many of these sites will be partially or totally flooded in the coming centuries/millennia. This is shown in a recent study by Marzeion and Levermann (2014 Environ. Res. Lett. 9 034001). Projecting future sea level rise and associated regional variability, these authors investigate which sites will be at risk. Because UNESCO cultural sites represent the common heritage of human beings and reflect the Earth and humanity history, they need to be protected for future generations.

  16. Global warming and carbon dioxide through sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florides, Georgios A; Christodoulides, Paul

    2009-02-01

    Increased atmospheric CO(2)-concentration is widely being considered as the main driving factor that causes the phenomenon of global warming. This paper attempts to shed more light on the role of atmospheric CO(2) in relation to temperature-increase and, more generally, in relation to Earth's life through the geological aeons, based on a review-assessment of existing related studies. It is pointed out that there has been a debate on the accuracy of temperature reconstructions as well as on the exact impact that CO(2) has on global warming. Moreover, using three independent sets of data (collected from ice-cores and chemistry) we perform a specific regression analysis which concludes that forecasts about the correlation between CO(2)-concentration and temperature rely heavily on the choice of data used, and one cannot be positive that indeed such a correlation exists (for chemistry data) or even, if existing (for ice-cores data), whether it leads to a "severe" or a "gentle" global warming. A very recent development on the greenhouse phenomenon is a validated adiabatic model, based on laws of physics, forecasting a maximum temperature-increase of 0.01-0.03 degrees C for a value doubling the present concentration of atmospheric CO(2). Through a further review of related studies and facts from disciplines like biology and geology, where CO(2)-change is viewed from a different perspective, it is suggested that CO(2)-change is not necessarily always a negative factor for the environment. In fact it is shown that CO(2)-increase has stimulated the growth of plants, while the CO(2)-change history has altered the physiology of plants. Moreover, data from palaeoclimatology show that the CO(2)-content in the atmosphere is at a minimum in this geological aeon. Finally it is stressed that the understanding of the functioning of Earth's complex climate system (especially for water, solar radiation and so forth) is still poor and, hence, scientific knowledge is not at a level to give definite and precise answers for the causes of global warming. PMID:18760479

  17. Can global warming save nuclear power?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear powered electricity generation in the United Kingdom has an uncertain future. The relative costs of generating electricity by nuclear fission compared to other means and the need for a desirable mixture or ''portfolio'' of energy sources in the electricity industry are identified as the key to this uncertainty. The author argues that Government commitments to reducing Carbon Monoxide (CO) emissions, and hence global warming, may strengthen arguments in favour of a firm commitment to nuclear power, as even modern fossil-fuelled power plants emit nearly 90 times as much CO as nuclear plants. (UK)

  18. Global Warming and Caspian Sea Level Fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Ardakanian, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Coastal regions have a high social, economical and environmental importance. Due to this importance the sea level fluctuations can have many bad consequences. In this research the correlation between the increasing trend of temperature in coastal stations due to Global Warming and the Caspian Sea level has been established. The Caspian Sea level data has been received from the Jason-1 satellite. It was resulted that the monthly correlation between the temperature and sea level is high and also positive and almost the same for all the stations. But the yearly correlation was negative. It means that the sea level has decreased by the increase in temperature.

  19. Global declines in oceanic nitrification rates as a consequence of ocean acidification

    OpenAIRE

    Beman, J.Michael; Chow, Cheryl-Emiliane; King, Andrew L; Feng, Yuanyuan; Fuhrman, Jed A; Andersson, Andreas; Bates, Nicholas R.; Popp, Brian N.; Hutchins, David A

    2010-01-01

    Ocean acidification produced by dissolution of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in seawater has profound consequences for marine ecology and biogeochemistry. The oceans have absorbed one-third of CO2 emissions over the past two centuries, altering ocean chemistry, reducing seawater pH, and affecting marine animals and phytoplankton in multiple ways. Microbially mediated ocean biogeochemical processes will be pivotal in determining how the earth system responds to global environmen...

  20. Is global warming mostly at night?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The release of greenhouse gases is expected to lead to substantial future warming. The global mean temperature has indeed risen in recent decades. The causes of the observed warming, and its relation to the greenhouse gas buildup are, however, still debated. One important aspect of the observed temperature change relates to its asymmetry during the day and night. The day-night temperature difference over land in North America, most of Eurasia, Oceania, and portions of Africa and Australia shows a decrease since about 1950. The changes of the daily mean temperature in these areas are principally due to the rising night or early morning temperature, and are accompanied by increasing cloudiness. Their results support the notion that the increase of cloud cover, possibly due to industrial sulfur emissions, mitigates the greenhouse warming. The causes of the changing diurnal temperature range and of the increasing cloudiness will have to be clarified and the future SO2 emissions reliably projected before any trustworthy prediction of future climates can be made. 37 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Global warming update: Recent scientific findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study, from the George C. Marshall Institute, considers recent scientific findings on the extent of human-induced global warming. The earth's temperature has risen by approximately half a degree Celsius in the last 100 years, coinciding with a substantial increase in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, apparently the result of human activity. Several scientific groups have concluded that manmade emissions of greenhouse gases has produced much or all of the recent rise in global temperatures. They predict a doubling of carbon dioxide by the mid-21st century resulting in a global temperature rise of 5 degrees C and causing severe disruptions in the earth's ecosystem. The available data on climatic change, however, do not support these predictions, nor do they support the idea that human activity has caused, or will cause, a dangerous increase in global temperatures. Enormous economic stakes ride on government decisions about carbon taxes and other CO2 emission restrictions. Attention must be paid to the scientific evidence, no matter how contrary to popular opinion its implications appear to be. The discussion is divided into five parts: introduction; Are the Greenhouse Forecasts Reliable?; The Cause of Recent Climate Changes; New Results on Global Flooding; Conclusions; Policy Implications. 27 refs., 9 figs

  2. American lay conceptions of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethnographic interviews were conducted with Americans from all walks of life in order to understand how ordinary citizens conceptualize global climate change and make value judgments about it. Most informants had heard of the greenhouse effect, but they held fundamental misconceptions that were shared across individuals. Many of these misconceptions derive from the process of fitting a new concept, global warming, into four preexisting categories: stratospheric ozone depletion, plant photosynthesis, tropospheric pollution, and personally-experienced seasonal and geographic temperature variation. Informants readily accepted that human activities could change climate and weather patterns. Indeed, most reported they had already observed changes in weather patterns, some citing space shots or atomic bomb testing as causes. Few informants connected the greenhouse effect to energy or fuel consumption, although the connection was easily understood when explained by the interviewers

  3. Global Warming and the Microwave Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In the work, the importance of assigning the microwave background to the Earth is addressed while emphasizing the consequences for global climate change. Climate models can only produce meaningful forecasts when they consider the real magnitude of all radiative processes. The oceans and continents both contribute to terrestrial emissions. However, the extent of oceanic radiation, particularly in the microwave region, raises concerns. This is not only since the globe is covered with water, but because the oceans themselves are likely to be weaker emitters than currently believed. Should the microwave background truly be generated by the oceans of the Earth, our planetwould be a much less efficient emitter of radiation in this region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Furthermore, the oceans would appear unable to increase their emissions in the microwave in response to temperature elevation, as predicted by Stefan’s law. Theresults are significant relative to the modeling of global warming.

  4. IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON GLOBAL WARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalpa Rohit Patel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change has become an issue which touches upon all sphere of influence of life. To struggle the problem understanding the perceptions of all that have a stake in it provides with stronger ground for decision making. India is the country that is or going to be severely affected by climate change. India is faced with the challenge of sustaining its rapid economic growth while dealing with the global threat of climate change. This threat arises from collected greenhouse gas productions in the atmosphere, anthropogenically generated through long-term and intensive industrial growth and high consumption lifestyles in developed countries. The solution of which comparatively depends on how its key decision makers perceive the problem. The paper deals with the impact of climate change on global warming. The results of data analysis reveal that most identified rainfall variability, declining hydrology and increasing temperature as manifestations of climate change, and emissions reduction and forest protection as its key solutions.

  5. The carbon cycle and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five land-use-based approaches can be used to slow the buildup of CO2 in the atmosphere: slowing or stopping the loss of existing forests, thus preserving current carbon reservoirs; adding to the planet's vegetative cover through reforestation or other means, thus enlarging living terrestrial carbon reservoirs; increasing the carbon stored in nonliving carbon reservoirs such as agricultural soils; increasing the carbon stored in artificial reservoirs, including timber products; and substituting sustainable biomass energy sources for fossil fuel consumption, thus reducing energy-related carbon emissions. These approaches are all based on the same basic premise: adding to the planet's net carbon stores in vegetative cover or soil, or preventing any net loss, will help moderate global warming by keeping atmospheric CO2 levels lower than they would otherwise be. Because biotic policy options appear capable of contributing significantly to the mitigation of global warming while also furthering many other public policy objectives, their role deserves careful consideration on a country-by-country basis

  6. Global warming potential impact of bioenergy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Hamelin, L.

    Reducing dependence on fossil fuels and mitigation of GHG emissions is a main focus in the energy strategy of many Countries. In the case of Demark, for instance, the long-term target of the energy policy is to reach 100% renewable energy system. This can be achieved by drastic reduction of the energy demand, optimization of production/distribution and substitution of fossil fuels with biomasses. However, a large increase in biomass consumption will finally induce conversion of arable and currently cultivated land into fields dedicated to energy crops production determining significant environmental consequences related to land use changes. In this study the global warming potential impact associated with six alternative bioenergy systems based on willow and Miscanthus was assessed by means of life-cycle assessment. The results showed that bioenergy production may generate higher global warming impacts than the reference fossil fuel system, when the impacts from indirect land use changes are accounted for. Ina life-cycle perspective, only highly-efficient co-firing with fossil fuel achieved a (modest) GHG emission reduction.

  7. Global warming potential impact of bioenergy systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzel H.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Reducing dependence on fossil fuels and mitigation of GHG emissions is a main focus in the energy strategy of many Countries. In the case of Demark, for instance, the long-term target of the energy policy is to reach 100% renewable energy system. This can be achieved by drastic reduction of the energy demand, optimization of production/distribution and substitution of fossil fuels with biomasses. However, a large increase in biomass consumption will finally induce conversion of arable and currently cultivated land into fields dedicated to energy crops production determining significant environmental consequences related to land use changes. In this study the global warming potential impact associated with six alternative bioenergy systems based on willow and Miscanthus was assessed by means of life-cycle assessment. The results showed that bioenergy production may generate higher global warming impacts than the reference fossil fuel system, when the impacts from indirect land use changes are accounted for. In a life-cycle perspective, only highly-efficient co-firing with fossil fuel achieved a (modest GHG emission reduction.

  8. Identifying the Molecular Origin of Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Partha P.; Francisco, Joseph S.; Lee, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the physical characteristics of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to assess which properties are most important in determining the efficiency of a GHG. Chlorofluorcarbons (CFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), nitrogen fluorides, and various other known atmospheric trace molecules have been included in this study. Compounds containing the halogens F or Cl have in common very polar X-F or X-Cl bonds, particularly the X-F bonds. It is shown that as more F atoms bond to the same central atom, the bond dipoles become larger as a result of the central atom becoming more positive. This leads to a linear increase in the total or integrated XF bond dipole derivatives for the molecule, which leads to a non-linear (quadratic) increase in infrared (IR) intensity. Moreover, virtually all of the X-F bond stretches occur in the atmospheric IR window as opposed to X-H stretches, which do not occur in the atmospheric window. It is concluded that molecules possessing several F atoms will always have a large radiative forcing parameter in the calculation of their global warming potential. Some of the implications for global warming and climate change are discussed.

  9. Global Warming Estimation From Microwave Sounding Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R., Jr.; Yoo, J.-M.; Dalu, G.

    1998-01-01

    Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) Ch 2 data sets, collected from sequential, polar-orbiting, Sun-synchronous National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration operational satellites, contain systematic calibration errors that are coupled to the diurnal temperature cycle over the globe. Since these coupled errors in MSU data differ between successive satellites, it is necessary to make compensatory adjustments to these multisatellite data sets in order to determine long-term global temperature change. With the aid of the observations during overlapping periods of successive satellites, we can determine such adjustments and use them to account for the coupled errors in the long-term time series of MSU Ch 2 global temperature. In turn, these adjusted MSU Ch 2 data sets can be used to yield global temperature trend. In a pioneering study, Spencer and Christy (SC) (1990) developed a procedure to derive the global temperature trend from MSU Ch 2 data. Such a procedure can leave unaccounted residual errors in the time series of the temperature anomalies deduced by SC, which could lead to a spurious long-term temperature trend derived from their analysis. In the present study, we have developed a method that avoids the shortcomings of the SC procedure, the magnitude of the coupled errors is not determined explicitly. Furthermore, based on some assumptions, these coupled errors are eliminated in three separate steps. Such a procedure can leave unaccounted residual errors in the time series of the temperature anomalies deduced by SC, which could lead to a spurious long-term temperature trend derived from their analysis. In the present study, we have developed a method that avoids the shortcomings of the SC procedures. Based on our analysis, we find there is a global warming of 0.23+/-0.12 K between 1980 and 1991. Also, in this study, the time series of global temperature anomalies constructed by removing the global mean annual temperature cycle compares favorably with a similar time series obtained from conventional observations of temperature.

  10. Global Warming: some back-of-the-envelope calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Fabara, C.; Hoeneisen, B.

    2005-01-01

    We do several simple calculations and measurements in an effort to gain understanding of global warming and the carbon cycle. Some conclusions are interesting: (i) There has been global warming since the end of the "little ice age" around 1700. There is no statistically significant evidence of acceleration of global warming since 1940. (ii) The increase of CO_2 in the atmosphere, beginning around 1940, accurately tracks the burning of fossil fuels. Burning all of the remaini...

  11. Scientists' Views about Attribution of Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheggen, Bart; Strengers, Bart; Cook, John; van Dorland, Rob; Vringer, Kees; Peters, Jeroen; Visser, Hans; Meyer, Leo

    2015-04-01

    What do scientists think? That is an important question when engaging in science communication, in which an attempt is made to communicate the scientific understanding to a lay audience. To address this question we undertook a large and detailed survey among scientists studying various aspects of climate change , dubbed "perhaps the most thorough survey of climate scientists ever" by well-known climate scientist and science communicator Gavin Schmidt. Among more than 1800 respondents we found widespread agreement that global warming is predominantly caused by human greenhouse gases. This consensus strengthens with increased expertise, as defined by the number of self-reported articles in the peer-reviewed literature. 90% of respondents with more than 10 climate-related peer-reviewed publications (about half of all respondents), agreed that anthropogenic greenhouse gases are the dominant cause of recent global warming, i.e. having contributed more than half of the observed warming. With this survey we specified what the consensus position entails with much greater specificity than previous studies. The relevance of this consensus for science communication will be discussed. Another important result from our survey is that the main attribution statement in IPCC's fourth assessment report (AR4) may lead to an underestimate of the greenhouse gas contribution to warming, because it implicitly includes the lesser known masking effect of cooling aerosols. This shows the importance of the exact wording in high-profile reports such as those from IPCC in how the statement is perceived, even by fellow scientists. The phrasing was improved in the most recent assessment report (AR5). Respondents who characterized the human influence on climate as insignificant, reported having the most frequent media coverage regarding their views on climate change. This shows that contrarian opinions are amplified in the media in relation to their prevalence in the scientific community. This is related to what is sometimes referred to as "false balance" in media reporting and may partly explain the divergence between public and scientific opinion regarding climate change.

  12. Anesthesia and global warming: the real hazards of theoretic science

    OpenAIRE

    Mychaskiw II George

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Recent speculative articles in the medical literature have indicted certain inhalational anesthetics as contributing to global warming. This unfounded speculation may have deleterious patient impact

  13. Farmer’s Adaptation to Global Warming in Punjab

    OpenAIRE

    Keys, Torill

    2011-01-01

    The global warming discourse has mainly focused on how to prevent global warming by trying to pin-point which countries should take most of the responsibility to stop or reduce the possible effects of global warming. We need to make sure that we not only continue to try to prevent further human impacts on the environmental system, but that we also focus on our ability to cope with the possible future impacts of global warming. To do this we will need to be flexible in order to be able to adap...

  14. Halocarbon ozone depletion and global warming potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Richard A.; Wuebbles, D.; Atkinson, R.; Connell, Peter S.; Dorn, H. P.; Derudder, A.; Derwent, Richard G.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Fisher, D.; Isaksen, Ivar S. A.

    1990-01-01

    Concern over the global environmental consequences of fully halogenated chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) has created a need to determine the potential impacts of other halogenated organic compounds on stratospheric ozone and climate. The CFCs, which do not contain an H atom, are not oxidized or photolyzed in the troposphere. These compounds are transported into the stratosphere where they decompose and can lead to chlorine catalyzed ozone depletion. The hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs or HFCs), in particular those proposed as substitutes for CFCs, contain at least one hydrogen atom in the molecule, which confers on these compounds a much greater sensitivity toward oxidation by hydroxyl radicals in the troposphere, resulting in much shorter atmospheric lifetimes than CFCs, and consequently lower potential for depleting ozone. The available information is reviewed which relates to the lifetime of these compounds (HCFCs and HFCs) in the troposphere, and up-to-date assessments are reported of the potential relative effects of CFCs, HCFCs, HFCs, and halons on stratospheric ozone and global climate (through 'greenhouse' global warming).

  15. Electricity generating renewables and global warming emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is sometimes assumed that renewable technologies which emit carbon dioxide (CO2) in their operation do not offset CO2 emissions as much as technologies such as wind energy, PV or hydro. Firstly this paper examines the CO2 savings achieved by electricity generated from renewables as a result of their being substituted for fossil fuel-fired generation. These savings are then balanced against the CO2 emissions arising from the manufacture of the power plant and, in the case of some technologies, the CO2 produced in operation. The end result for all technologies is a net CO2 saving. Some renewable energy technologies also reduce methane emissions. These methane emission savings are converted into CO2 equivalents to give a measure of the net global warming reduction effect of generating electricity from these sources. (Author)

  16. Global warming and SF6 molecule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajevi? Jelena

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the basic SF6 molecule physical characteristics are given concerning its influence on global warming and green house effect. Absorption and relaxation characteristics of this molecule have been investigated within the frame of nonlinear molecule – strong laser field interaction in different gas mixtures. All experiments have been performed on a different gas mixture pressures to analyze and investigate relaxation and energy transfer characteristics of absorbing molecules and non-absorbing collision partners. To show the SF6 absorption and relaxation and energy transfer capability comparison between SF6 and C2H4 was given using the same experimental conditions and argon as a buffer gas. All measurement points and their calculated values presented in this paper have been obtained using the infrared-pulsed photoacoustics technique adopted for atmospheric and subatmospheric pressures.

  17. Global warming and changes in ocean circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This final report provides an overview of the goals and accomplishments of this project. Modeling and observational work has raised the possibility that global warming may cause changes in the circulation of the ocean. If such changes would occur they could have important climatic consequences. The first technical goal of this project was to investigate some of these possible changes in ocean circulation in a quantitative way, using a state-of -the-art numerical model of the ocean. Another goal was to develop our ocean model, a detailed three-dimensional numerical model of the ocean circulation and ocean carbon cycles. A major non-technical goal was to establish LLNL as a center of excellence in modelling the ocean circulation and carbon cycle

  18. The EC's next global warming factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenpeace suggests that, because they waste far more of the fuel's energy than they transform into electricity, fossil fuel power plants would more accurately be called global warming factories. Electricity is effectively only a by-product. Although the European Community's Energy and Environment ministers three years ago agreed to stabilise rising CO2 emissions, the strategy proposed by the European Commission would have virtually no impact on the electricity sector, the largest source of CO2. Emissions threaten to be 17% higher in 2000 than in 1990 yet power companies are building more plants. Greenpeace has compiled a list of the next 145 global warming factories in the EC amounting to 90,000 MW with the potential to emit around 375 million tonnes CO2 per year. More strenuous efforts must be made to curb CO2 emissions. A UN panel of the world's leading climate scientists has confirmed its earlier findings justifying deep cuts in CO2 emissions. Part of the solution lies in severing the link between electricity sales and power companies' profits. Even the best efforts to save energy will be undermined by the power sector unless its profitability is coupled to improving customer energy efficiency. A planning framework along these lines known as Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) has performed successfully in North America for over a decade. Greenpeace is calling for a moratorium on power plant construction until options for saving energy are exhausted and a shake-up of the power sector in Europe to put energy efficiency first with the rapid introduction of new power planning legislation at national and Community levels concerning IRP. 2 refs., 3 tabs

  19. Juvenile Pen Shells (Pinna nobilis) Tolerate Acidification but Are Vulnerable to Warming

    KAUST Repository

    Basso, Lorena

    2015-02-25

    In the course of this century, rising anthropogenic CO2 emissions will likely cause a decrease in ocean pH, know as ocean acidification, together with an increase of water temperature. Only in the last years, studies have focused on synergetic effects of both stressors on marine invertebrates, particularly on early life stages considered more vulnerable. Disparate responses of their singular and combined effects were reported, highlighting the importance of extending the studies to different species and populations of marine invertebrates. Here, we observed the response of important parameters such as growth, mortality and oxygen consumption of juvenile pen shell Pinna nobilis at supplied pCO2 gas levels of 400 ppm (ambient) and 1000 ppm and at three temperatures (20, 23 and 26 °C) during 36 days. To our knowledge, this is the first study on ocean acidification and temperature effects on juveniles of this species. We show that the two stressors play roles at distinct levels, with pCO2 influencing growth and partially mortality, and temperature increasing mortality rates and oxygen consumption strongly. Therefore, juveniles of P. nobilis are more likely affected by increasing temperature than the pCO2 levels expected by the end of the twenty-first century.

  20. Global assessment of the effects of terrestrial acidification on plant species richness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study estimates the potential losses of vascular plant species richness due to terrestrial acidification for different world's biomes. We used empirical occurrence data of 2409 species from 140 studies and estimated the relative species richness – pH response curves using logistic regressions. The regressions were then used to quantify the fraction of species that are potentially lost due to soil pH changes. Although we found considerable variability within biomes, out results show that the pH at which species richness was maximized was found to be the lowest in (sub)tropical forests (pH = 4.1) and the highest in deserts (pH = 7.4). We also found that (sub)tropical moist forests are highly sensitive to decreases of in soil pH below 4.1. This study can be coupled with existing atmospheric deposition models to quantify the risk of species richness loss following soil acidification. Highlights: ? We compare the sensitivity of four biomes to soil acidification. ? We develop logistic regressions using observational field data. ? Sub(tropical) moist forests are highly affected by pH decreases. ? Logistic regressions can be linked to global scale atmospheric and soil fate models. -- Relationships of potential species richness loss along a soil pH gradient are proposed

  1. Biomass energy, forests and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass in all its forms currently provides about 14% of the world's energy, equivalent to 25 million bbl oil/day; in developing countries where it is the major energy source, biomass supplies 35% of total energy use. Although biomass energy use affects the flux of carbon to the atmosphere, the main carbon emission problem is caused by fossil fuels and land clearance for agriculture. Biomass fuels make no net contribution to atmospheric CO2 if used sustainably. A major global revegetation and reforestation effort is a possible strategy to reduce CO2 emissions and to slow the pace of climatic change. However, a more attractive alternative strategy might be to substitute fossil fuels, especially coal, with biomass grown specifically for this purpose producing modern fuels such as electricity, liquids and gases. This paper examines biomass energy use, devegetation, biomass burning, the implications for global warming and the ability of biomass to sequester CO2 and substitute for fossil fuels. It also discusses some socioeconomic and political issues. (author)

  2. Situational Influences upon Children's Beliefs about Global Warming and Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine-Wright, Patrick; Devine-Wright, Hannah; Fleming, Paul

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores children's beliefs about global warming and energy sources from a psychological perspective, focusing upon situational influences upon subjective beliefs, including perceived self-efficacy. The context of the research is one of growing concern at the potential impacts of global warming, yet demonstrably low levels of…

  3. Hot stuff. Global warming as a giant trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article presents various aspects of global warming with focus on meteorological data, global discharges, estimated surface temperature increments, ocean level elevations and net warming effects of various human activities. The consequences for the economic and social developments are discussed. Some action possibilities are mentioned. (tk)

  4. Global Warming and 21st Century Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdun, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-01-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twentyfirst century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman- Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both precipitation and PET changes increase the percentage of global land area projected to experience at least moderate drying (PDSI standard deviation of or = -1; 11 to 44 %), although this is likely less meaningful because much of the PET induced drying in the SPEI occurs in the aforementioned arid regions. Integrated accounting of both the supply and demand sides of the surface moisture balance is therefore critical for characterizing the full range of projected drought risks tied to increasing greenhouse gases and associated warming of the climate system.

  5. Phenology and global warming research in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morellato, L. P. C.

    2009-04-01

    A recent review on South American phenology research has shown an increase in phenology papers over the last two decades, especially in this new 21st century. Nevertheless, there is a lack of long term data sets or monitoring systems, or of papers addressing plant phenology and global warming. The IPCC AR4 report from 2007 has offered indisputable evidence of regional to global-scale change in seasonality, but it is supported by plant and animal phenological data from North Hemisphere and temperate species. Information from tropical regions in general and South America in particular are sparse or lacking. Here I summarize the recent outcomes of our ongoing tropical phenology research in Brazil and its potential contribution to integrate fields and understand the effects of global warming within the tropics. The Phenology Laboratory (UNESP) is located at Rio Claro, São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil. We are looking for trends and shifts on tropical vegetation phenology, and are exploring different methods for collecting and analyzing phenology data. The phenological studies are developed in collaboration with graduate and undergraduate students, post-docs and researchers from Brazil and around the world. We established three long term monitoring programs on Southeastern Brazil from 2000 onwards: trees from an urban garden, semideciduous forest trees, and savanna cerrado woody vegetation, all based on direct weekly to monthly observation of marked plants. We have collected some discontinuous data from Atlantic rain forest trees ranging from 5 to 8 years long. I collaborate with the longest tropical wet forest phenology monitoring system in Central Amazon, and with another long term monitoring system on semi deciduous forest from South Brazil. All research programs aim, in the long run, to monitor and detect shifts on tropical plant phenology related to climatic changes. Our first preliminary findings suggest that: (i) flowering and leafing are more affected by changes on dry season length and severity, shifting on time and synchrony; (ii) shifts on fruiting are more subtle and related to seed dispersal mechanisms (animal, wind or others); (iii) forest edges and gaps, and distance from urban centers may influence tree phenology, stressing the synergic effect of fragmentation (among others) to global warming on tropical phenology; (iv) ground and satellite generated phenology patterns may not agree, deserving further and detailed research; (v) in situ environmental monitoring systems help to track changes on climate and correlate to ground phenology. Some important steps forward are: (i) to build a Brazilian Phenology Network, first based on a selection of national wide distributed species; (ii) to recover historical phenology data series from our herbarium collections and other sources; (iii) to integrate phenology to remote sensing; (iv) to stimulate more phenology long term monitoring programs and the integration across disciplines, advancing our knowledge of seasonal responses within tropics to long-term climate change.

  6. Report nixes Geritol fix for global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, L.

    1991-09-27

    Several years ago John Martin of the Moss Landing Marine Laboratory in California suggested a quick fix to the greenhouse problem: dump iron into the Southern Ocean near Antarctica. That, he said, would trigger a massive bloom of the ocean's microscopic plants, which in turn would suck carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere and help reduce global warming. His idea ignited a firestorm of controversy that rages on today. While the idea quickly won supporters - including some prominent members of the National Academy of Sciences - much of the oceanographic community was incensed, arguing that you don't tinker with a perfectly health ecosystem to clean up humanity's mess. Now the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) has a report that represents the views of much of the oceanographic community. In the report, released in late summer, ASLO trounces the idea of fertilizing the oceans with iron as a greenhouse fix, as expected. But in an unexpected twist, the society endorses a small-scale experiment in which iron would be added to the open ocean. The idea isn't to engineer the oceans, but to test the hypothesis that might answer one of the longstanding puzzles in biological oceanography: why do the phytoplankton of the Southern Ocean, as well as those in parts of the subarctic and equatorial Pacific, grow so poorly, even though the waters are rich in nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrogen The answer could shed light not only on how the food web operates, but on the global carbon cycle as well.

  7. Talking about Climate Change and Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Yoon; Joo, Gea-Jae

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of social networks provides researchers greater opportunities to evaluate and assess changes in public opinion and public sentiment towards issues of social consequence. Using trend and sentiment analysis is one method whereby researchers can identify changes in public perception that can be used to enhance the development of a social consciousness towards a specific public interest. The following study assessed Relative search volume (RSV) patterns for global warming (GW) and Climate change (CC) to determine public knowledge and awareness of these terms. In conjunction with this, the researchers looked at the sentiment connected to these terms in social media networks. It was found that there was a relationship between the awareness of the information and the amount of publicity generated around the terminology. Furthermore, the primary driver for the increase in awareness was an increase in publicity in either a positive or a negative light. Sentiment analysis further confirmed that the primary emotive connections to the words were derived from the original context in which the word was framed. Thus having awareness or knowledge of a topic is strongly related to its public exposure in the media, and the emotional context of this relationship is dependent on the context in which the relationship was originally established. This has value in fields like conservation, law enforcement, or other fields where the practice can and often does have two very strong emotive responses based on the context of the problems being examined. PMID:26418127

  8. Global Warming and Air Quality in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    The atmospheric lapse rate has been observed to decrease as a result of global warming. Reduced lapse rate is a result of a robust water vapor/lapse rate climate feedback simulated in coupled ocean-atmosphere models. The reduced lapse rate makes the atmosphere more stable, and in turn the more stable atmosphere can affect air quality in many aspects, most of them detrimental to the air quality. The largest effect of an increased vertical stability is an increased trapping of air pollutants in the boundary layer. A more stable atmosphere also makes it less likely to precipitate, especially for light and moderate precipitation that requires an unstable large-scale environment. Thus there is less scavenging of air pollutants by precipitation. Furthermore less precipitation implies less cloud cover or more clear days which can result in more nighttime inversions, again trapping more pollutants in the surface layer. Significant increase in clear days has been observed in China in the last 50 years, this can be a major contributor to more and worse fog/haze events in recent decades.

  9. Talking about Climate Change and Global Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lineman, Maurice; Do, Yuno; Kim, Ji Yoon; Joo, Gea-Jae

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of social networks provides researchers greater opportunities to evaluate and assess changes in public opinion and public sentiment towards issues of social consequence. Using trend and sentiment analysis is one method whereby researchers can identify changes in public perception that can be used to enhance the development of a social consciousness towards a specific public interest. The following study assessed Relative search volume (RSV) patterns for global warming (GW) and Climate change (CC) to determine public knowledge and awareness of these terms. In conjunction with this, the researchers looked at the sentiment connected to these terms in social media networks. It was found that there was a relationship between the awareness of the information and the amount of publicity generated around the terminology. Furthermore, the primary driver for the increase in awareness was an increase in publicity in either a positive or a negative light. Sentiment analysis further confirmed that the primary emotive connections to the words were derived from the original context in which the word was framed. Thus having awareness or knowledge of a topic is strongly related to its public exposure in the media, and the emotional context of this relationship is dependent on the context in which the relationship was originally established. This has value in fields like conservation, law enforcement, or other fields where the practice can and often does have two very strong emotive responses based on the context of the problems being examined. PMID:26418127

  10. 40 CFR Table A-1 to Subpart A of... - Global Warming Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Global Warming Potentials A Table A-1...A-1 to Subpart A of Part 98—Global Warming Potentials [100-Year Time... CAS No. Chemical formula Global warming potential(100 yr.)...

  11. 78 FR 20632 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Notice of Data Availability Regarding Global Warming...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ...of Data Availability Regarding Global Warming Potential Values for Certain Fluorinated...the availability of estimated global warming potentials, as well as data and...requesting comments on the estimated global warming potentials and the data and...

  12. Promotion of scientific literacy on global warming by process drama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongprapan PONGSOPHON

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This project aims to investigate how process drama promotes scientific literacy in the context of global warming. Thirty-one lower (n = 24 and upper (n = 7 secondary students of one secondary school in Bangkok, Thailand participated in a seven-day workshop which process drama strategy was implemented. In the workshop, the students were actively engaged in a series of lab exercises, critically reviewed global warming issue presented in selected printed media, and watched a documentary film to understand the science, conflict, and solutions of the global warming. In addition, the students were trained on acting, elements of drama, and storytelling. They made and selected a story, developed a script, formed casts and production crews and performed the drama to the public. Data were collected by using a questionnaire, participant observation, informal interviews, student daily journals, and drama scripts. Results showed that the students developed scientific perception of the keywords related to global warming and conceptual understanding of the causes, processes, and consequences of global warming after the workshop. Students’ views on the solution of global warming were integrated, creative and critical. The students increases intensity in engagement in solving global warming.

  13. Colony-specific investigations reveal highly variable responses among individual corals to ocean acidification and warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavousi, Javid; Reimer, James Davis; Tanaka, Yasuaki; Nakamura, Takashi

    2015-08-01

    As anthropogenic climate change is an ongoing concern, scientific investigations on its impacts on coral reefs are increasing. Although impacts of combined ocean acidification (OA) and temperature stress (T) on reef-building scleractinian corals have been studied at the genus, species and population levels, there are little data available on how individual corals respond to combined OA and anomalous temperatures. In this study, we exposed individual colonies of Acropora digitifera, Montipora digitata and Porites cylindrica to four pCO2-temperature treatments including 400 ?atm-28 °C, 400 ?atm-31 °C, 1000 ?atm-28 °C and 1000 ?atm-31 °C for 26 days. Physiological parameters including calcification, protein content, maximum photosynthetic efficiency, Symbiodinium density, and chlorophyll content along with Symbiodinium type of each colony were examined. Along with intercolonial responses, responses of individual colonies versus pooled data to the treatments were investigated. The main results were: 1) responses to either OA or T or their combination were different between individual colonies when considering physiological functions; 2) tolerance to either OA or T was not synonymous with tolerance to the other parameter; 3) tolerance to both OA and T did not necessarily lead to tolerance of OA and T combined (OAT) at the same time; 4) OAT had negative, positive or no impacts on physiological functions of coral colonies; and 5) pooled data were not representative of responses of all individual colonies. Indeed, the pooled data obscured actual responses of individual colonies or presented a response that was not observed in any individual. From the results of this study we recommend improving experimental designs of studies investigating physiological responses of corals to climate change by complementing them with colony-specific examinations. PMID:26009841

  14. Future oceanic warming and acidification alter immune response and disease status in a commercial shellfish species, Mytilus edulis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Clara L; Lynch, Sharon A; Culloty, Sarah C; Malham, Shelagh K

    2014-01-01

    Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide are leading to physical changes in marine environments including parallel decreases in ocean pH and increases in seawater temperature. This study examined the impacts of a six month exposure to combined decreased pH and increased temperature on the immune response and disease status in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis L. Results provide the first confirmation that exposure to future acidification and warming conditions via aquarium-based simulation may have parallel implications for bivalve health. Collectively, the data suggests that temperature more than pH may be the key driver affecting immune response in M. edulis. Data also suggests that both increases in temperature and/or lowered pH conditions may lead to changes in parasite abundance and diversity, pathological conditions, and bacterial incidence in M. edulis. These results have implications for future management of shellfish under a predicted climate change scenario and future sustainability of shellfisheries. Examination of the combined effects of two stressors over an extended exposure period provides key preliminary data and thus, this work represents a unique and vital contribution to current research efforts towards a collective understanding of expected near-future impacts of climate change on marine environments. PMID:24927423

  15. Global warming and neurodegenerative disorders: speculations on their linkage

    OpenAIRE

    Habibi, Laleh; Perry, George; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is having considerable impact on biological systems. Eras of ice ages and warming shaped the contemporary earth and origin of creatures including humans. Warming forces stress conditions on cells. Therefore, cells evolved elaborate defense mechanisms, such as creation of heat shock proteins, to combat heat stress. Global warming is becoming a crisis and this process would yield an undefined increasing rate of neurodegenerative disorders in future decades. Since heat stress is k...

  16. Global warming: the significance of methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the concept of Global Warming Potential (GWP) indicates the relative contribution to global warming over a given period (for example 100 years) of a pulse emission at the start of the period of 1 kg of a specific greenhouse gas (GHG) in comparison to the contribution, over the same period, of an emission of 1 kg of CO2. The GWPs calculated for different time intervals take into account the differences in atmospheric lifetimes of the different GHGs. Using the '100-year GWP' to measure non CO2 GHG emissions is not well suited to the case of permanent or long lifetime measures whose effectiveness is to be assessed at a given time horizon. In this context, it contributes to significantly playing down the importance of reducing emissions of GHGs with short atmospheric lifetimes. Thus, for example, methane which is not emitted over the period 2020- 2100 as a result of a landfill site being closed in 2020 will have an impact (as opposed to if the site remained in operation) that would be far greater towards 2100 compared to a CO2 emission source that has also been stopped permanently and whose climate impact is measured in an equivalent manner. Using the GWP is only appropriate if applied year after year to time horizons considered to be of concern or decisive by climate studies, thus in particular 2050, 2100 and 2150. This is all the more significant as climate experts' current concerns lead them not only to advocate long-term stabilisation of GHG concentrations but also to avoid as far as possible intermediate excess of these concentrations over the coming century. Finally, it is noted that CH4 prevention policies implemented in the short term may continue to have a long-term impact greater than merely taking into account the current GWP would imply. To more or less ignore the impact of CH4 as it is unsuitable for accounting purposes affects the exclusive character of the link that may exist between the issue of GHGs and that of energy. Furthermore, if the increase in atmospheric concentrations of CH4 which was significant following the onset of the industrial revolution, has slowed down in the last few years for reasons that are still being debated, a renewed sharp increase in the event of the Arctic region melting, for example, remains quite possible. It is thus important, now that the most recent IPCC report points to the consequences of climate change in the medium term, that GHG emission reduction policies be defined individually for each GHG: both CH4 and N2O, on the basis of their real emissions, consistent with the scenarios used by climate experts and depending on the concentration levels they recommend be achieved at given time horizons. Purely economic and financial considerations linked to the emissions trading markets must not mask the importance of robust policies aimed at non CO2 GHGs. Specifically, in addition to the vital CO2 emissions reduction effort, greater attention must be paid to short-term reductions of CH4 emissions whose impacts are significant at a time horizon of a few decades. Climate experts and policy-makers should make the most of the two-year negotiating period on the post 2012 regime, officially launched at the recent Bali Climate Conference, to give thought to this issue

  17. Negatep: A Scenario for Combating Global Warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There have been an increasing number of foresight exercises in the field of energy and global warming in recent years, as we have seen from the articles devoted to these questions by Futuribles in 2011 (both in this special issue and in the April number). It is certainly the case that the goals for greenhouse-gas emission reduction are rather ambitious, particularly in France, it being the aim of the 2005 French framework law on energy to reduce carbon gas discharges by a factor of four. Among these scenarios, the Negatep scenario developed by Claude Acket and Pierre Bacher from the 'Sauvons le climat' [Let's save the climate] Association proposes to achieve this ('factor 4') goal in France by 2050 by reducing fossil fuel use by 75% and replacing this as quickly as possible with electricity produced from non-carbon-gas-emitting sources - chiefly, nuclear power and renewables. The authors lay out their goals here, backed up by figures, comparing these with the reference scenario. They also show the path that must be followed to arrive at these goals, particularly in the residential and tertiary sectors, and in transport and industry (through control of needs and recourse to alternative energy sources). They close by comparing the Negatep scenario with two other more recent scenarios aimed also at reducing greenhouse gas emissions, on the one hand in Europe, and on the other in Germany. The comparison confirms that they were right to rely on electricity as a substitute for oil, but gives them cause for concern in respect of the consequences (formidable in their view) that the replacement of nuclear power and coal energy by intermittent renewable energies might have in Europe, both with regard to costs and to the effects on the power network. (authors)

  18. Global warming, energy use, and economic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Neha

    The dissertation comprises four papers that explore the interactions between global warming, energy use, and economic growth. While the papers are separate entities, they share the underlying theme of highlighting national differences in the growth experience and their implications for long-term energy use and climate change. The first paper provides an overview of some key economic issues in the climate change literature. In doing so, the paper critically appraises the 1995 draft report of Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The focus is the choice of a pure rate of time preference in the economic modeling of climate change, abatement costs differentials between developed and developing countries, and contrasting implications of standard discount rates and value of life estimates for these two country groups. The second paper develops a global model that takes account of the depletion of oil resources in the context of a geo-economic model for climate change. It is found that in the presence of non-decreasing carbon and energy intensities and declining petroleum availability, the carbon emissions trajectory is much higher than that typically projected by other models of this genre. Furthermore, by introducing price and income sensitive demand functions for fossil fuels, the model provides a framework to assess the effectiveness of fuel specific carbon taxes in reducing the COsb2 emissions trajectory. Cross-price substitution effects necessitate unrealistically high tax rates in order to lower the projected emissions trajectory to the optimal level. The economic structure of five integrated assessment models for climate change is reviewed in the third paper, with a special focus on the macroeconomic and damage assessment modules. The final paper undertakes an econometric estimation of the changing shares of capital, labour, energy, and technical change in explaining the growth patterns of 38 countries. Production elasticities vary by country group and also in response to the levels of factor use. It is found that classifying countries according to the GDP growth rate yields statistically different slope coefficients. Using the estimated translog production function, the capital and labour requirements of reductions in energy use are approximated. Analytical expressions for the elasticity of energy intensity with respect to factor inputs and also autonomous energy efficiency improvements are provided.

  19. Data Management Strategy to Improve Global Use of Ocean Acidification Data and Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernan E. Garcia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification (OA refers to the general decrease in pH of the global ocean as a result of absorbing anthropogenic CO2 emitted in the atmosphere since preindustrial times (Sabine et al., 2004. There is, however, considerable variability in ocean acidification, and many careful measurements need to be made and compared in order to obtain scientifically valid information for the assessment of patterns, trends, and impacts over a range of spatial and temporal scales, and to understand the processes involved. A single country or institution cannot undertake measurements of worldwide coastal and open ocean OA changes; therefore, international cooperation is needed to achieve that goal. The OA data that have been, and are being, collected represent a significant public investment. To this end, it is critically important that researchers (and others around the world are easily able to find and use reliable OA information that range from observing data (from time-series moorings, process studies, and research cruises, to biological response experiments (e.g., mesocosm, data products, and model output.

  20. Anesthesia and global warming: the real hazards of theoretic science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mychaskiw II George

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent speculative articles in the medical literature have indicted certain inhalational anesthetics as contributing to global warming. This unfounded speculation may have deleterious patient impact

  1. A matter of degrees: A primer on global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A primer on global warming is presented in order to provide information to Canadians on making environmentally responsible decisions. The fundamentals of natural climate change, the atmospheric environment, factors that influence climate, and the greenhouse effect are explained. Global warming is then discussed with reference to paleoclimatic research, the influence of human activity on increased concentrations of greenhouse gases, and predictions of future climates. The possible impacts of global warming on Canada are described for such sectors as forests, fisheries, agriculture, sea levels, health, energy supply and demand, and the Arctic regions. The actions that citizens and governments can take in order to mitigate or adapt to global warming are then presented. A glossary and index are included. 55 refs., 17 figs

  2. Promotion of scientific literacy on global warming by process drama

    OpenAIRE

    Pongprapan PONGSOPHON; Naruemon YUTAKOM; Saouma B. BOUJAOUDE

    2010-01-01

    This project aims to investigate how process drama promotes scientific literacy in the context of global warming. Thirty-one lower (n = 24) and upper (n = 7) secondary students of one secondary school in Bangkok, Thailand participated in a seven-day workshop which process drama strategy was implemented. In the workshop, the students were actively engaged in a series of lab exercises, critically reviewed global warming issue presented in selected printed media, and watched a documentary film ...

  3. IMPACT OF Global Warming on Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasrullah Khan [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Naeem Abas [2Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Gujrat, Gujrat (Pakistan); Norman Mariun [University Putra Malaysia, Faculty of Engineering, UPM Serdang, Serdang (Malaysia)

    2008-09-30

    Trees store CO{sub 2}, drive food chain, produce oxygen and cause cooling effects through the transpiration process. However, increasing forests to cool the planet needs a lot of care regarding locations and types of trees. Initially it was thought that the city trees fight climate change but later it was found that only tropical trees do the best. Ozone absorption in soil affects its natural carbon sequestration capability. Interaction of plants and soil with changing atmosphere and climate is very complex and not yet understood. Some crops like cotton, wheat and rice are more productive in elevated CO{sub 2} but their response at high temperatures needs further studies (GWDTR, 1997-2007; ITGW, 1990-2008). Use of CO{sub 2} as input raw material in fuel cells might be a revolutionary innovation but there is a long way to go ahead. At this moment we can only start energy education to cope up the time to come. On average CO{sub 2} concentration has been increasing at rate of 2.25ppm/yr from 2004 to 2008 but later from 2007 to 2008 it has been found increasing exponentially at rate of 4ppm/yr. It continues to increase at this rate even after oil peaking then it might exceed 500ppm by 2040-2050. CO{sub 2} concentration in atmosphere was 280 ppm before industrial revolution and in last few centuries it has increased to 385 ppm at an average annual rate of 2 ppm. Weeds normally show poor response to high CO{sub 2} concentrations but crops, fruits and vegetables flourish well. Previous draught cycle was only three years long but recent draught cycle is much longer than earlier (IGWT, 1997-2008). However, few trees in the same constellation are still quite healthy and alive. Some trees were seen dead even close to water canals. Based on literature review and observations recorded in this study it is concluded that high CO{sub 2} induced heat wave (global warming) is responsible for helping beetles and wood ants to eat trees roots and stem to kill them by starvation. The trees have been found to dry from top to bottom in all the known cases in Pakistan. As the water stops reaching top branches due to insect attack at tree-ground interface or reduced water table or both the tree leaves start drying from the top.

  4. Priority setting of strategies and mechanisms for limiting global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific communities have reached a consensus that increases of greenhouse gas emission will result in climatic warming and sea level rises despite existing uncertainties. Major uncertainties include the sensitivities of climate changes in terms of timing, magnitude, and scales of regional changes. Socioeconomic uncertainties encompass population and economic growth, changes in technology, future reliance on fossil fuel, and policies compiled to stabilize the global warming. Moreover, increase in world population coupled with limited resources will increase the vulnerability of ecosystems and social systems. Global warming has become an international concern since the destinies of all nations are closely interwoven by this issue and how nations deal with it. Appropriate strategies and mechanisms are need to slow down the buildup of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. Questionnaires were sent to 150 experts in 30 countries to evaluate such strategies and mechanisms for dealing with global warming, from both the domestic and international perspectives. This paper will focus primarily on strategy selection

  5. Thai Youths and Global Warming: Media Information, Awareness, and Lifestyle Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokriensukchai, Kanchana; Tamang, Ritendra

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the exposure of Thai youths to media information on global warming, the relationship between exposure to global warming information and awareness of global warming, and the relationship between that awareness and lifestyle activities that contribute to global warming. A focus group of eight Thai youths provided information that…

  6. Our Changing Oceans: All about Ocean Acidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consequences of ocean acidification are global in scale. More research into ocean acidification and its consequences is needed. It is already known, for example, that there are regional differences in the vulnerability of fisheries to acidification. The combination of other factors, such as global warming, the destruction of habitats, overfishing and pollution, need to be taken into account when developing strategies to increase the marine environment’s resilience. Among steps that can be taken to reduce the impact is better protection of marine coastal ecosystems, such as mangrove swamps and seagrass meadows, which will help protect fisheries. This recommendation was one of the conclusions of a three-day workshop attended by economists and scientists and organized by the IAEA and the Centre Scientifique de Monaco in November 2012. In their recommendations the workshop also stressed that the impact of increasing ocean acidity must be taken into account in the management of fisheries, particularly where seafood is a main dietary source

  7. How does ocean ventilation change under global warming?

    OpenAIRE

    Gnanadesikan, A.; J. L. Russell; Zeng, F

    2007-01-01

    Since the upper ocean takes up much of the heat added to the earth system by anthropogenic global warming, one would expect that global warming would lead to an increase in stratification and a decrease in the ventilation of the ocean interior. However, multiple simulations in global coupled climate models using an ideal age tracer which is set to zero in the mixed layer and ages at 1 yr/yr outside this layer show that the intermediate depths in the low latitudes, Northwest Atlantic, and part...

  8. Fade of global dimming reveals full magnitude of greenhouse warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Speculations on the impact of variations in surface solar radiation on global warming range from concerns that solar dimming has largely masked the full magnitude of greenhouse warming, to claims that the recent reversal from solar dimming to brightening rather than the greenhouse effect was responsible for the observed warming. To disentangle surface solar and greenhouse influences on global warming, trends in diurnal temperature range are analyzed. The diurnal temperature ranges averaged over global land surfaces show, after decades of decline, a distinct tendency to level off since the mid 1980s. They suggest that solar dimming, possibly caused by increasing air pollution, was effective in masking greenhouse warming, but only up to the 1980s, when dimming gradually transformed into brightening. The reversal from dimming to brightening may be related to more effective air pollution measures and the breakdown of the economy in the former communist countries, leading to cleaner and more transparent atmospheres. With this transition, the uncovered greenhouse effect started to reveal its full dimension, as manifested in a rapid temperature rise (+0.38 /decade over land since mid-1980s). Recent solar brightening cannot supersede the greenhouse effect as main cause of global warming, since land temperatures increased by 0.8 from 1960 to 2000, even though solar brightening did not fully outweigh solar dimming within this period. (author)

  9. Simulation of future global warming scenarios in rice paddies with an open-field warming facility

    OpenAIRE

    Rehmani Muhammad; Zhang Jingqi; Li Ganghua; Ata-Ul-Karim Syed; Wang Shaohua; Kimball Bruce A; Yan Chuan; Liu Zhenghui; Ding Yanfeng

    2011-01-01

    Abstract To simulate expected future global warming, hexagonal arrays of infrared heaters have previously been used to warm open-field canopies of upland crops such as wheat. Through the use of concrete-anchored posts, improved software, overhead wires, extensive grounding, and monitoring with a thermal camera, the technology was safely and reliably extended to paddy rice fields. The system maintained canopy temperature increases within 0.5°C of daytime and nighttime set-point differences of ...

  10. Implications of global warming for the climate of African rainforests

    OpenAIRE

    James, Rachel; Washington, Richard; Rowell, David P.

    2013-01-01

    African rainforests are likely to be vulnerable to changes in temperature and precipitation, yet there has been relatively little research to suggest how the regional climate might respond to global warming. This study presents projections of temperature and precipitation indices of relevance to African rainforests, using global climate model experiments to identify local change as a function of global temperature increase. A multi-model ensemble and two perturbed physics ensembles are used, ...

  11. Critical impacts of global warming on land ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Ostberg, S.; Lucht, W.; Schaphoff, S.; Gerten, D.

    2013-01-01

    Globally increasing temperatures may have unmanageable impacts on terrestrial, aquatic and marine ecosystems. Quantifying impacts worldwide and systematically as a function of global warming is critical to substantiate the ongoing international negotiations on climate mitigation targets. Here we present a macro-scale analysis of climate change impacts on terrestrial ecosystems based on newly developed sets of climate scenarios featuring a step-wise sampling of global mean temperature increase...

  12. Polynomial cointegration tests of anthropogenic impact on global warming

    OpenAIRE

    M. Beenstock; Y. Reingewertz; N. Paldor

    2012-01-01

    We use statistical methods for nonstationary time series to test the anthropogenic interpretation of global warming (AGW), according to which an increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations raised global temperature in the 20th century. Specifically, the methodology of polynomial cointegration is used to test AGW since during the observation period (1880–2007) global temperature and solar irradiance are stationary in 1st differences, whereas greenhouse gas and aerosol forcings are st...

  13. Polynomial cointegration tests of anthropogenic impact on global warming

    OpenAIRE

    M. Beenstock; Y. Reingewertz; N. Paldor

    2012-01-01

    We use statistical methods for nonstationary time series to test the anthropogenic interpretation of global warming (AGW), according to which an increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations raised global temperature in the 20th century. Specifically, the methodology of polynomial cointegration is used to test AGW since during the observation period (1880–2007) global temperature and solar irradiance are stationary in 1st differences whereas greenhouse gases and aerosol forcing...

  14. Global warming combat policies in energy sector of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the efforts to slow the potential for climate change are measures to reduce emissions of CO2 from energy use, and promote long-term storage of carbon in forests and soils. Important environmental changes due to climate change and global warming pose potentially significant risks to humans, social systems, and natural world. Many uncertainties remain regarding precise timing,magnitude, and regional patterns of climate change and the extent to which mankind and nature can adapt to any changes. Estimating technical / economical / environmental potentials for reducing CO2 emission in energy sector and preventing of global warming is one of the main activities, which have been performed for the first time in Iran. By use of 26 factors, model on global warming combat policies in energy sector of Iran in long-medium and short term determine decreasing amount of CO2 emission. The results and also method of providing this model will be described in this paper

  15. Calcification rates of the Caribbean reef-building coral Siderastrea siderea adversely affected by both seawater warming and CO2-induced ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, K. M.; Connolly, B. D.; Westfield, I. T.; Chow, E.; Castillo, K. D.; Ries, J. B.

    2013-05-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts that atmospheric pCO2 will increase to ca. 550-950 ppm by the end of the century, primarily due to the anthropogenic combustion of fossil fuels, deforestation, and cement production. This is predicted to cause SST to increase by 1-3 °C and seawater pH to decrease by 0.1-0.3 units. Laboratory studies have shown that warming depresses calcification rates of scleractinian corals and that acidification yields mixed effects on coral calcification. With both warming and ocean acidification predicted for the next century, we must constrain the interactive effects of these two CO2-induced stressors on scleractinian coral calcification. Here, we present the results of experiments designed to assess the response of the scleractinian coral Siderastrea siderea to both ocean warming and acidification. Coral fragments (12/tank) were reared for 60 days under three temperatures (25.1± 0.02 °C, 28.0± 0.02 °C, 31.8± 0.02 °C) at near modern pCO2 (436 ± 7) and near the highest IPCC estimate for atmospheric pCO2 for the year 2100 AD (883 ± 16). Each temperature and pCO2 treatment was executed in triplicate and contained similarly sized S. Siderea fragments obtained from the same suite of coral colonies equitably distributed amongst the nearshore, backreef, and forereef zones of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System off the coast of southern Belize. Individual coral fragments were hand fed Artemia sp. to satiation twice weekly. Weekly seawater samples (250 ml) were collected and analyzed for dissolved inorganic carbon via coulometry and total alkalinity via closed-cell potentiometric titration. Seawater pCO2, pH, carbonate ion concentration, bicarbonate ion concentration, aqueous CO2, and aragonite saturation state (?A) were calculated with the program CO2SYS. Under near-modern atmospheric pCO2 of ca. 436 ± 7 ppm, seawater warming from 25 to 28 to 32°C caused coral calcification rates (estimated from change in buoyant weight) to decrease nearly linearly. Under the high-pCO2 treatment, warming exerted a parabolic effect on calcification rate, i.e., calcification rate increased from 25 to 28 °C and then declined from 28 to 32 ° C. Under each of the three temperature treatments, increasing atmospheric pCO2 cause calcification rates to significantly decline (p seawater temperatures predicted by the IPCC for the end of this century, seawater warming is predicted to have the more negative impact on calcification rates of the coral S. siderea. Nevertheless, these experiments reveal that the effect of the predicted CO2-induced ocean acidification may be severe and, perhaps most importantly, that it is the combination of ocean warming and acidification that yields the least favorable outcome for calcification by this coral species.

  16. Global warming: knowledge and views of Iranian students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanparast, Taraneh; Salehpour, Sousan; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza; Seyedmehdi, Seyed Mohammad; Boyes, Eddie; Stanisstreet, Martin; Attarchi, Mirsaeed

    2013-01-01

    Study of students' knowledge about global warming can help authorities to have better imagination of this critical environmental problem. This research examines high school students' ideas about greenhouse effect and the results may be useful for the respective authorities to improve cultural and educational aspects of next generation. In this cross-sectional study, a 42 question questionnaire with mix of open and closed questions was used to evaluate high school students' view about the mechanism, consequences, causes and cures of global warming. To assess students' knowledge, cognitive score was also calculated. 1035 students were randomly selected from 19 educational districts of Tehran. Sampling method was multi stage. Only 5.1% of the students could explain greenhouse effect correctly and completely. 88.8% and 71.2% respectively believed "if the greenhouse effect gets bigger the Earth will get hotter" and "incidence of more skin cancers is a consequence of global warming". 69.6% and 68.8% respectively thought "the greenhouse effect is made worse by too much carbon dioxide" and "presence of ozone holes is a cause of greenhouse effect". 68.4% believed "not using cars so much is a cure for global warming". While a student's 'cognitive score' could range from -36 to +36, Students' mean cognitive score was equal to +1.64. Mean cognitive score of male students and grade 2 & 3 students was respectively higher than female ones (P0.05). In general, students' knowledge about global warming was not acceptable and there were some misconceptions in the students' mind, such as supposing ozone holes as a cause and more skin cancer as a consequence of global warming. The Findings of this survey indicate that, this important stratum of society have been received no sufficient and efficient education and sensitization on this matter. PMID:23605603

  17. Global Warming: Knowledge and Views of Iranian Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taraneh Yazdanparast, Sousan Salehpour, Mohammad Reza Masjedi, Seyed Mohammad Seyedmehdi, Eddie Boyes, Martin Stanisstreet, Mirsaeed Attarchi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Study of students’ knowledge about global warming can help authorities to have better imagination of this critical environmental problem. This research examines high school students' ideas about greenhouse effect and the results may be useful for the respective authorities to improve cultural and educational aspects of next generation. In this cross-sectional study, a 42 question questionnaire with mix of open and closed questions was used to evaluate high school students' view about the mechanism, consequences, causes and cures of global warming. To assess students’ knowledge, cognitive score was also calculated. 1035 students were randomly selected from 19 educational districts of Tehran. Sampling method was multi stage. Only 5.1% of the students could explain greenhouse effect correctly and completely. 88.8% and 71.2% respectively believed “if the greenhouse effect gets bigger the Earth will get hotter” and “incidence of more skin cancers is a consequence of global warming”. 69.6% and 68.8% respectively thought “the greenhouse effect is made worse by too much carbon dioxide” and “presence of ozone holes is a cause of greenhouse effect”. 68.4% believed “not using cars so much is a cure for global warming”. While a student’s ‘cognitive score’ could range from -36 to +36, Students' mean cognitive score was equal to +1.64. Mean cognitive score of male students and grade 2 & 3 students was respectively higher than female ones (P0.05. In general, students' knowledge about global warming was not acceptable and there were some misconceptions in the students’ mind, such as supposing ozone holes as a cause and more skin cancer as a consequence of global warming. The Findings of this survey indicate that, this important stratum of society have been received no sufficient and efficient education and sensitization on this matter.

  18. Global warming increases flood risk in mountainous areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allamano, P.; Claps, P.; Laio, F.

    2009-12-01

    The paper aims at assessing the impact of global warming on flood risk in mountainous regions, providing measurable evidence of possible hydrologic changes due to temperature increase. It shows that large floods in mountain basins are now more frequent than in the past and that they may become even more frequent under global warming. The morpho-climatic model used for prediction is very simple and does not require calibration, which makes it suitable for application in scarcely gauged mountainous areas of the world.

  19. REDUCING GLOBAL WARMING - THE ROLE OF RICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Activities to provide energy for an expanding population are increasingly disrupting and changing the concentration of atmospheric gases that increase global temperature. ncreased CO2 and temperature have a clear effect on growth and production of rice as they are key factors in ...

  20. Tropical drying trends in global warming models and observations

    OpenAIRE

    Neelin, J.D.; Münnich, M.; Su, H.; J. E. Meyerson; Holloway, C. E.

    2006-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes in tropical rainfall are evaluated in a multimodel ensemble of global warming simulations. Major discrepancies on the spatial distribution of these precipitation changes remain in the latest-generation models analyzed here. Despite this uncertainty, we find a number of measures, both global and local, on which reasonable agreement is obtained, notably for the regions of drying trend (negative precipitation anomalies). Models agree on the overall amplitude of the precipit...

  1. Externality costs by pollutant. A. Global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The earth's atmosphere is a global commons into which the worlds population emits the gaseous by-products of its activities on the erroneous assumption that the atmosphere has limitless capacity to absorb invisible gaseous wastes without changing its characteristics, and that air pollution is cost-free waste disposal. However, all of these emissions effect changes in the worlds ecosystems, and some of the emissions, in particular emissions from electric power production, may radically alter the worlds climate. If one could determine the cost of the global climatic environmental impacts resulting from electricity production using fossil fuel, then the institutional structures of the electric power industry could be modified to incorporate that cost into the price of electricity and into decisions concerning how to provide electric power services. It is that cost that this chapter attempts to determine

  2. The core of the global warming problem: energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the thermodynamic point of view, the global warming problem is an 'energy balance' problem. The heat (energy) accumulation in the earth and its atmosphere is the cause of global warming. This accumulation is mainly due to the imbalance of (solar) energy reaching and the energy leaving the earth, caused by 'greenhouse effect' in which the CO2 and other greenhouse gases play a critical role; so that balance of the energy entering and leaving the earth should be the key to solve the problem. Currently in the battle of tackling the global warming, we mainly focus on the development of CO2-related measures, i.e., emission reduction, CO2 sequestration, and CO2 recycle technologies. It is right in technical aspect, because they are attempting to thin the CO2 'blanket' around the earth. However, 'Energy' that is the core of the problem has been overlooked, at least in management/policy aspect. This paper is proposing an 'Energy Credit' i.e., the energy measure concept as an alternative to the 'CO2 credit' that is currently in place in the proposed emission trading scheme. The proposed energy credit concept has the advantages such as covering broad activities related to the global warming and not just direct emissions. Three examples are given in the paper to demonstrate the concept of the energy measure and its advantages over the CO2 credit concept. (Author)

  3. The Effect of Global Warming on Infectious Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Kurane, Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Global warming has various effects on human health. The main indirect effects are on infectious diseases. Although the effects on infectious diseases will be detected worldwide, the degree and types of the effect are different, depending on the location of the respective countries and socioeconomical situations.

  4. Mitigation of Global Warming with Focus on Personal Carbon Allowances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    2008-01-01

    The mitigation of global warming requires new efficient systems and methods. The paper presents a new proposal called personal carbon allowances with caps on the CO2 emission from household heating and electricity and on emission from transport in private cars and in personal air flights. Results are given for the cases of Denmark and the UK.

  5. Global Warming: Discussion for EOS Science Writers Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James E

    1999-01-01

    The existence of global warming this century is no longer an issue of scientific debate. But there are many important questions about the nature and causes of long-term climate change, th roles of nature and human-made climate forcings and unforced (chaotic) climate variability, the practical impacts of climate change, and what, if anything, should be done to reduce global warming, Global warming is not a uniform increase of temperature, but rather involves at complex geographically varying climate change. Understanding of global warming will require improved observations of climate change itself and the forcing factors that can lead to climate change. The NASA Terra mission and other NASA Earth Science missions will provide key measurement of climate change and climate forcings. The strategy to develop an understanding of the causes and predictability of long-term climate change must be based on combination of observations with models and analysis. The upcoming NASA missions will make important contributions to the required observations.

  6. Turkish Prospective Teachers' Understanding and Misunderstanding on Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocal, A.; Kisoglu, M.; Alas, A.; Gurbuz, H.

    2011-01-01

    The key objective of this study is to determine the Turkish elementary prospective teachers' opinions on global warming. It is also aimed to establish prospective teachers' views about the environmental education in Turkish universities. A true-false type scale was administered to 564 prospective teachers from science education, social studies…

  7. Promotion of Scientific Literacy on Global Warming by Process Drama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongsophon, Pongprapan; Yutakom, Naruemon; Boujaoude, Saouma B.

    2010-01-01

    This project aims to investigate how process drama promotes scientific literacy in the context of global warming. Thirty-one lower (n = 24) and upper (n = 7) secondary students of one secondary school in Bangkok, Thailand participated in a seven-day workshop which process drama strategy was implemented. In the workshop, the students were actively…

  8. Carbon Dioxide and Global Warming: A Failed Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Global warming is a current environmental issue that has been linked to an increase in anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. To raise awareness of the problem, various simple experiments have been proposed to demonstrate the effect of carbon dioxide on the planet's temperature. This article describes a similar experiment, which…

  9. Seventh Grade Students' Conceptions of Global Warming and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepardson, Daniel P.; Niyogi, Dev; Choi, Soyoung; Charusombat, Umarporn

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate seventh grade students' conceptions of global warming and climate change. The study was descriptive in nature and involved the collection of qualitative data from 91 seventh grade students from three different schools in the Midwest, USA. An open response and draw and explain assessment instrument was…

  10. A Noted Physicist's Contrarian View of Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Evan R., Comp.

    2008-01-01

    According to Freeman Dyson, an emeritus professor of physics at the Institute for Advanced Study, the debate about global warming has become too narrow and opinions have become too entrenched. Relying on a computer model designed by the Yale University economist William D. Nordhaus, Dyson compared the effectiveness and economic feasibility of…

  11. Global Warming and the Microwave Background

    OpenAIRE

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2009-01-01

    In the work, the importance of assigning the microwave background to the Earth is addressed while emphasizing the consequences for global climate change. Climate models can only produce meaningful forecasts when they consider the real magnitude of all radiative processes. The oceans and continents both contribute to terrestrial emissions. However, the extent of oceanic radiation, particularly in the microwave region, raises concerns. This is not only since the globe is covered with water, but...

  12. Global warming considerations in northern Boreal forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The northern boreal forests of circumpolar lands are of special significance to questions of global climate change. Throughout its range, these forests are characterized by a relatively few tree species, although they may exhibit great spatial heterogeneity. Their ecosystems are simpler than temperate systems, and ecosystem processes are strongly affected by interactions between water, the landscape, and the biota. Northern boreal forest vegetation patterns are strongly influenced by forest fires, and distribution of forest generally coincides with occurrence of permafrost. Boreal forest landscapes are extremely sensitive to thermal disruption; global warming may result in lasting thermal and physical degradation of soils, altered rates and patterns of vegetation succession, and damage to engineered structures. A change in fire severity and frequency is also a significant concern. The total carbon pool of boreal forests and their associated peatlands is significant on a global scale; this carbon may amount to 10-20% of the global carbon pool. A change in latitudinal or elevational treeline has been suggested as a probable consequence of global warming. More subtle aspects of boreal forest ecosystems which may be affected by global warming include the depth of the active soil layer, the hydrologic cycle, and biological attributes of boreal stream systems. 48 refs., 2 figs

  13. Global warming and local dimming. The statistical evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two effects largely determine global warming: the well-known greenhouse effect and the less well-known solar radiation effect. An increase in concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases contributes to global warming: the greenhouse effect. In addition, small particles, called aerosols, reflect and absorb sunlight in the atmosphere. More pollution causes an increase in aerosols, so that less sunlight reaches the Earth (global dimming). Despite its name, global dimming is primarily a local (or regional) effect. Because of the dimming the Earth becomes cooler: the solar radiation effect. Global warming thus consists of two components: the (global) greenhouse effect and the (local) solar radiation effect, which work in opposite directions. Only the sum of the greenhouse effect and the solar radiation effect is observed, not the two effects separately. Our purpose is to identify the two effects. This is important, because the existence of the solar radiation effect obscures the magnitude of the greenhouse effect. We propose a simple climate model with a small number of parameters. We gather data from a large number of weather stations around the world for the period 1959-2002. We then estimate the parameters using dynamic panel data methods, and quantify the parameter uncertainty. Next, we decompose the estimated temperature change of 0.73C (averaged over the weather stations) into a greenhouse effect of 1.87C, a solar radiation effect of -1.09C, and a small remainder term. Finally, we subject our findings to extensive sensitivity analyses.

  14. GLOBAL WARMING AND WHEAT PRODUCTION IN ARGENTINA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria I. Travasso; Graciela O. Magrin; Gabriel R. Rodriguez [INTA, Instituto de Clima y Agua, Castelar (Argentina); Silvina Solman; Mario Nunez [CIMA, C. Universitaria, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2008-09-30

    The aim of this work was to assess the impact of past and future changes in climate on potential wheat productivity. The study was based on long term daily climatic data (since 1930) and crop productivity, regional climatic scenarios based on the down scaling of HadCM3 GCM (MM5/CIMA), and a crop simulation model (DSSAT v4.0). In the central and northern part of the Pampas, potential wheat yield has been decreasing with increasing rates since 1930 (28.3 kg/ha between 1930-2000, and 52.7 kg/ha between 1970-2000) due mainly to winter and spring warming. Further increases in temperature could lead to wheat yield reductions of 7.5% for each C of temperature raise until 3 C. According to MM5/CIMA climatic projections, in 2080 under the SRES A2 scenario, temperature will rise between 2 C and 3 C and spring-summer precipitations will have slight increases. Under these conditions mean wheat yield will be reduced by 4% with a great spatial variability. The zones more affected will be those located in the north (Nor-west of Buenos Aires province, and parts of Santa Fe and Cordoba with decreases between 20% and 30%), while the south-west portion could be benefited with increases near to 20% . If CO2 effects are considered mean wheat yield could increase by 14% in the Pampas. However in isolated sites, located mainly in the central and northern part, yields could decrease up to 10% despite CO2 effects. In the future should be convenient to advance planting dates for taking advantage of the new environmental conditions where frost free periods would be prolonged.

  15. Projected impacts of climate change and ocean acidification on the global biogeography of planktonic foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, T.; Lombard, F.; Bopp, L.; Gehlen, M.

    2014-06-01

    Planktonic foraminifera are a major contributor to the deep carbonate-flux and the planktonic biomass of the global ocean. Their microfossil deposits form one of the richest databases for reconstructing paleoenvironments, particularly through changes in their taxonomic and shell composition. Using an empirically-based foraminifer model that incorporates three known major physiological drivers of foraminifer biogeography - temperature, food and light - we investigate (i) the global redistribution of planktonic foraminifera under anthropogenic climate change, and (ii) the alteration of the carbonate chemistry of foraminifer habitat with ocean acidification. The present-day and future (2090-2100) 3-D distributions of foraminifera are simulated using temperature, plankton biomass, and light from an Earth system model forced with historical and a future (IPCC A2) high CO2 emission scenario. The broadscale patterns of present day foraminifer biogeography are well reproduced. Foraminifer abundance and diversity are projected to decrease in the tropics and subpolar regions and increase in the subtropics and around the poles. In the tropics, the geographical shifts are driven by temperature, while the vertical shifts are driven by both temperature and food availability. In the high-latitudes, vertical shifts are driven by food availability, while geographical shifts are driven by both food availability and temperature. Changes in the marine carbon cycle would be expected in response to (i) the large-scale rearrangements in foraminifer abundance, and (ii) the reduction of the carbonate concentration in the habitat range of planktonic foraminifers: from 10-30 ?mol kg-1 in the polar/subpolar regions to 30-70 ?mol kg-1 in the subtropical/tropical regions. High-latitude species are most vulnerable to anthropogenic change: their abundance and available habitat decrease and up to 10% of their habitat drops below the calcite saturation horizon.

  16. Projected impacts of climate change and ocean acidification on the global biogeography of planktonic foraminifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Roy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Planktonic foraminifera are a major contributor to the deep carbonate-flux and the planktonic biomass of the global ocean. Their microfossil deposits form one of the richest databases for reconstructing paleoenvironments, particularly through changes in their taxonomic and shell composition. Using an empirically-based foraminifer model that incorporates three known major physiological drivers of foraminifer biogeography – temperature, food and light – we investigate (i the global redistribution of planktonic foraminifera under anthropogenic climate change, and (ii the alteration of the carbonate chemistry of foraminifer habitat with ocean acidification. The present-day and future (2090–2100 3-D distributions of foraminifera are simulated using temperature, plankton biomass, and light from an Earth system model forced with historical and a future (IPCC A2 high CO2 emission scenario. The broadscale patterns of present day foraminifer biogeography are well reproduced. Foraminifer abundance and diversity are projected to decrease in the tropics and subpolar regions and increase in the subtropics and around the poles. In the tropics, the geographical shifts are driven by temperature, while the vertical shifts are driven by both temperature and food availability. In the high-latitudes, vertical shifts are driven by food availability, while geographical shifts are driven by both food availability and temperature. Changes in the marine carbon cycle would be expected in response to (i the large-scale rearrangements in foraminifer abundance, and (ii the reduction of the carbonate concentration in the habitat range of planktonic foraminifers: from 10–30 ?mol kg?1 in the polar/subpolar regions to 30–70 ?mol kg?1 in the subtropical/tropical regions. High-latitude species are most vulnerable to anthropogenic change: their abundance and available habitat decrease and up to 10% of their habitat drops below the calcite saturation horizon.

  17. Imminent ocean acidification projected with the NCAR global coupled carbon cycle-climate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Steinacher

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification from the uptake of anthropogenic carbon is simulated for the industrial period and IPCC SRES emission scenarios A2 and B1 with a global coupled carbon cycle-climate model. Earlier studies identified seawater saturation state with respect to aragonite, a mineral phase of calcium carbonate, as a key variable governing impacts on corals and other shell-forming organisms. Globally in the A2 scenario, water saturated by more than 300%, considered suitable for coral growth, vanishes by 2070 AD (CO2?630 ppm, and the ocean volume fraction occupied by saturated water decreases from 42% to 25% over this century. The largest simulated pH changes worldwide occur in Arctic surface waters, where hydrogen ion concentration increases by up to 185%. Projected climate change amplifies the decrease in Arctic surface mean saturation and pH by more than 20%, mainly due to freshening and increased carbon uptake in response to sea ice retreat. Modeled saturation compares well with observation-based estimates along an Arctic transect and simulated changes have been corrected for remaining model-data differences in this region. Aragonite undersaturation in Arctic surface waters is projected to occur locally soon and to become more widespread as atmospheric CO2 continues to grow. The results imply that surface waters in the Arctic Ocean will become corrosive to aragonite, with potentially large implications for the marine ecosystem, if anthropogenic carbon emissions are not reduced and atmospheric CO2 not kept below 450 ppm.

  18. I'll Save the World from Global Warming--Tomorrow: Using Procrastination Management to Combat Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malott, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    In the provocatively titled "I'll Save the World from Global Warming--Tomorrow," Dick Malott says that although we all want to do the right thing to help the environment, whether it's buying and installing compact fluorescent light bulbs (CFLs) or replacing an energy-guzzling appliance with a more efficient one, we put it off because there's no…

  19. Global warming What does the data tell us?

    CERN Document Server

    Alban, E X

    2002-01-01

    We analyze global surface temperature data obtained at 13472 weather stations from the year 1702 to 1990. The mean annual temperature of a station fluctuates from year to year by typically +-0.6oC (one standard deviation). Superimposed on this fluctuation is a linear increase of the temperature by typically 0.40oC per century ever since reliable data is available, i.e. since 1702. The world population has doubled from 1952 to 1990, yet we see no statistically significant acceleration of global warming in this period. We conclude that the effect of humankind on global warming up to 1990 is 0.0 +- 0.1oC.

  20. Role of anthropogenic direct heat emissions in global warming

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Fei; Zhao, Guangju; Gao, Peng; Li, Pengfei

    2015-01-01

    The anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) are widely realized as the predominant drivers of global warming, but the huge and increasing anthropogenic direct heat emissions (AHE) has not gained enough attention in terms of its role in the warming of the climate system. Based on two reasonable assumptions of (1) AHE eventually transfers to the Earth energy system and (2) the net warming is only driven by the net radioactive forcing (RF) from either GHG or other causes, we analyzed the role of AHE in global warming. The mean annual total AHE of the four main sources including energy consumption, residual heat of electricity generation, biomass decomposition by land use and cover change (LUCC) and food consumption was estimated to be 4.41*10^20 J in 1970-2010, accounting for 6.23% of the net annual heat increase of the Earth reported by IPCC AR5 for the period. The mean annual radioactive forcing (RF) by AHE was up to 29.94 mW m^(-2) globally in 1981-2010, less than the annual net increase of total GH...

  1. Global warming solutions and the path to recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, David

    2009-01-01

    We will look back on the last year as a period when extraordinary economic events marked the unraveling of one economic model and placed in front of the global community a set of choices. Either we restructure the architecture of the global economy and replace it with something else, or we face a future of devastating economic consequences. The Blue Green Alliance has become one of America's leading advocates for global warming solutions and we believe that the benefits and economic opportunities will far outweigh the costs. We have popularized the terms "green economy" and "green jobs" and we believe that every job in America should turn into a green job. PMID:19608497

  2. ASM Lecture Series: Global Warming and Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The melting of ice and permafrost in the north polar region and the shrinking of the tropical glaciers are signals that global warming is no longer solely a warning about the future, but changes which have already arrived. The initial effects of this warming are noticeably present, and the concerns are now of substantial climate change in the near future. Modeling of the consequences on the future atmosphere from increased release of greenhouse gases and some of the possible consequences of climate change, such as rising sea levels and melting of the north polar ice, are discussed. (author)

  3. On the Present Halting of Global Warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syun-Ichi Akasofu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The rise in global average temperature over the last century has halted since roughly the year 2000, despite the fact that the release of CO2 into the atmosphere is still increasing. It is suggested here that this interruption has been caused by the suspension of the near linear (+ 0.5 °C/100 years or 0.05 °C/10 years temperature increase over the last two centuries, due to recovery from the Little Ice Age, by a superposed multi-decadal oscillation of a 0.2 °C amplitude and a 50~60 year period, which reached its positive peak in about the year 2000—a halting similar to those that occurred around 1880 and 1940. Because both the near linear change and the multi-decadal oscillation are likely to be natural changes (the recovery from the Little Ice Age (LIA and an oscillation related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO, respectively, they must be carefully subtracted from temperature data before estimating the effects of CO2.

  4. Global warming and the insurance industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berz, G.A. (Munich Reinsurance Co., Munich (German). Geosci. Res. Group)

    1993-06-01

    In the last few decades, the international insurance industry has been confronted with a drastic increase in the scope and frequency of great natural disasters. The trend is primarily attributable to the continuing steady growth of the world population and the increasing concentration of people and economic values in urban areas. An additional factor is the global migration of populations and industries into areas which are particularly exposed to natural hazards. The natural hazards themselves, on the other hand, have not yet shown any significant increase. The present problems will be dramatically aggravated if the greenhouse predictions come true. The increased intensity of all convective processes in the atmosphere will force up the frequency and severity of tropical cyclones, tornados, hailstorms, floods and storm surges in many parts of the world with serious consequences for all types of property insurance. Rates will have to be raised and in certain coastal areas insurance cover will only be available after considerable restrictions have been imposed. In areas of high insurace density the loss potential of individual catastrophes can reach a level at which the national and international insurance industries will run into serious capacity problems. Recent disasters showed the disproportionately high participation of reinsurers in extreme disaster losses and the need for more risk transparency if the insurance industry is to fulfil its obligations in an increasingly hostile environment.

  5. Recent decrease in typhoon destructive potential and global warming implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I.-I.; Chan, Johnny C. L.

    2015-05-01

    Typhoons (tropical cyclones) severely impact the half-billion population of the Asian Pacific. Intriguingly, during the recent decade, typhoon destructive potential (Power Dissipation Index, PDI) has decreased considerably (by ~35%). This decrease, paradoxically, has occurred despite the increase in typhoon intensity and ocean warming. Using the method proposed by Emanuel (in 2007), we show that the stronger negative contributions from typhoon frequency and duration, decrease to cancel the positive contribution from the increasing intensity, controlling the PDI. Examining the typhoons' environmental conditions, we find that although the ocean condition became more favourable (warming) in the recent decade, the atmospheric condition `worsened' at the same time. The `worsened' atmospheric condition appears to effectively overpower the `better' ocean conditions to suppress PDI. This stronger negative contribution from reduced typhoon frequency over the increased intensity is also present under the global warming scenario, based on analysis of the simulated typhoon data from high-resolution modelling.

  6. Revisiting social and deep ecology in the light of global warming

    OpenAIRE

    Krøvel, Roy

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is largely theoretical. It asks what type of perspective is needed in order for left libertarians and anarchists to develop a deeper understanding of global warming. This way of framing the question builds on a set of premises which I will spell out. First, global warming is real. Second, the reality of global warming exists independently of our discourse about it. Third, global warming will have real and dangerous consequences for humans and human society. Fourth,...

  7. Marine methane cycle simulations for the period of early global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, S.; Maltrud, M.; Reagan, M.T.; Moridis, G.J.; Cameron-Smith, P.J.

    2011-01-02

    Geochemical environments, fates, and effects are modeled for methane released into seawater by the decomposition of climate-sensitive clathrates. A contemporary global background cycle is first constructed, within the framework of the Parallel Ocean Program. Input from organics in the upper thermocline is related to oxygen levels, and microbial consumption is parameterized from available rate measurements. Seepage into bottom layers is then superimposed, representing typical seabed fluid flow. The resulting CH{sub 4} distribution is validated against surface saturation ratios, vertical sections, and slope plume studies. Injections of clathrate-derived methane are explored by distributing a small number of point sources around the Arctic continental shelf, where stocks are extensive and susceptible to instability during the first few decades of global warming. Isolated bottom cells are assigned dissolved gas fluxes from porous-media simulation. Given the present bulk removal pattern, methane does not penetrate far from emission sites. Accumulated effects, however, spread to the regional scale following the modeled current system. Both hypoxification and acidification are documented. Sensitivity studies illustrate a potential for material restrictions to broaden the perturbations, since methanotrophic consumers require nutrients and trace metals. When such factors are considered, methane buildup within the Arctic basin is enhanced. However, freshened polar surface waters act as a barrier to atmospheric transfer, diverting products into the deep return flow. Uncertainties in the logic and calculations are enumerated including those inherent in high-latitude clathrate abundance, buoyant effluent rise through the column, representation of the general circulation, and bacterial growth kinetics.

  8. Limiting global warming to 2°C is unlikely to save most coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieler, K.; Meinshausen, M.; Golly, A.; Mengel, M.; Lebek, K.; Donner, S. D.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.

    2013-02-01

    Mass coral bleaching events have become a widespread phenomenon causing serious concerns with regard to the survival of corals. Triggered by high ocean temperatures, bleaching events are projected to increase in frequency and intensity. Here, we provide a comprehensive global study of coral bleaching in terms of global mean temperature change, based on an extended set of emissions scenarios and models. We show that preserving >10% of coral reefs worldwide would require limiting warming to below 1.5°C (atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) range: 1.3-1.8°C) relative to pre-industrial levels. Even under optimistic assumptions regarding corals' thermal adaptation, one-third (9-60%, 68% uncertainty range) of the world's coral reefs are projected to be subject to long-term degradation under the most optimistic new IPCC emissions scenario, RCP3-PD. Under RCP4.5 this fraction increases to two-thirds (30-88%, 68% uncertainty range). Possible effects of ocean acidification reducing thermal tolerance are assessed within a sensitivity experiment.

  9. Winners and losers in a world with global warming: Noncooperation, altruism, and social welfare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caplan, A.J. [Weber State Univ., Ogden, UT (United States). Dept. of Economics; Ellis, C.J.; Silva, E.C.D. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Economics

    1999-05-01

    In this paper, global warming is an asymmetric transboundary externality which benefits some countries or regions and harms others. Few environmental problems have captured the public`s imagination as much and attracted as much scrutiny as global warming. The general perception is that global warming is a net social bad, and that across-the-board abatement of greenhouse gas emissions is therefore desirable. Despite many interesting academic contributions, not all of the basic economics of this phenomenon have been fully worked out. The authors use a simple two-country model to analyze the effects of global warming on resource allocations, the global-warming stock, and national and global welfare.

  10. Floods, Droughts and Global Warming: Rolling the Climate Dice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, W. K.; Wu, H.; Kim, K.

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we find from analyses of projections of 14 CMIP5 models a robust, canonical global response in rainfall characteristics to CO2 greenhouse warming. Under a scenario of 1% increase per year of CO2 emission, the model ensemble projects globally more heavy precipitation (+7×2.4%K-1), less moderate precipitation (-2.5×0.6%K-1), more light precipitation (+1.8×1.3%K-1), and increased length of dry (no-rain) periods (+4.7×2.1%K-1). Regionally, a majority of the models project a consistent response with more heavy precipitation over climatologically wet regions of the deep tropics especially the equatorial Pacific Ocean and the Asian monsoon regions, and more dry periods over the land areas of the subtropics and the tropical marginal convective zones. Changes in the global circulation associated with the precipitation changes include a narrowing and deepening of convective zone, a rise of the center of gravity and acceleration of the upper branch of the Hadley circulation, an expansion of the subtropics and a poleward shift of the jetstream. Our results suggest that increased risks of severe floods and droughts worldwide induced by increased CO2 emission is the manifestation of a canonical response of the global rainfall system in association with a re-adjustment of the global circulation system, in a competition for increased availability of atmospheric moisture from global warming.

  11. 78 FR 20632 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Notice of Data Availability Regarding Global Warming...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... AGENCY Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Notice of Data Availability Regarding Global Warming... EPA is announcing to the public the availability of estimated global warming potentials, as well as... requesting comments on the estimated global warming potentials and the data and analysis supporting them....

  12. Health effects of global warming: Problems in assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global warming is likely to result in a variety of environmental effects ranging from impacts on species diversity, changes in population size in flora and fauna, increases in sea level and possible impacts on the primary productivity of the sea. Potential impacts on human health and welfare have included possible increases in heat related mortality, changes in the distribution of disease vectors, and possible impacts on respiratory diseases including hayfever and asthma. Most of the focus thus far is on effects which are directly related to increases in temperature, e.g., heat stress or perhaps one step removed, e.g., changes in vector distribution. Some of the more severe impacts are likely to be much less direct, e.g., increases in migration due to agricultural failure following prolonged droughts. This paper discusses two possible approaches to the study of these less-direct impacts of global warming and presents information from on-going research using each of these approaches

  13. Health effects of global warming: Problems in assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longstreth, J.

    1993-06-01

    Global warming is likely to result in a variety of environmental effects ranging from impacts on species diversity, changes in population size in flora and fauna, increases in sea level and possible impacts on the primary productivity of the sea. Potential impacts on human health and welfare have included possible increases in heat related mortality, changes in the distribution of disease vectors, and possible impacts on respiratory diseases including hayfever and asthma. Most of the focus thus far is on effects which are directly related to increases in temperature, e.g., heat stress or perhaps one step removed, e.g., changes in vector distribution. Some of the more severe impacts are likely to be much less direct, e.g., increases in migration due to agricultural failure following prolonged droughts. This paper discusses two possible approaches to the study of these less-direct impacts of global warming and presents information from on-going research using each of these approaches.

  14. Barriers to using nuclear power for mitigation of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has lately been suggested that nuclear power technologies could be used to mitigate potential global warming. Doing this would give nuclear power technology a new role, and would lead to its widespread deployment worldwide. When examined carefully several barriers to accomplishing this goal are evident, even should the uncertainties of global warming become reduced enough that it could be treated as an established fact. These barriers involve the need for alternative forms of nuclear energy, uranium resource limitations, technology development requirements and difficulties in widespread deployment of nuclear power plants. Overcoming the barriers may prove to be much more difficult than has been appreciated to date, and could strongly influence the future research and development agenda for nuclear and associated technologies. (author)

  15. The role of clouds and oceans in global greenhouse warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past three years we have conducted several studies using models and a combination of satellite data, in situ meteorological and oceanic data, and paleoclimate reconstructions, under the DoE program, ''Quantifying the Link Between Change in Radiative Balance and Atmospheric Temperature''. Our goals were to investigate effects of global cloudiness variations on global climate and their implications for cloud feedback and continue development and application of NYU transient climate/ocean models, with emphasis on coupled effects of greenhouse warming and feedbacks by both the clouds and oceans. Our original research plan emphasized the use of cloud, surface temperature and ocean data sets interpreted by focused climate/ocean models to develop a cloud radiative forcing scenario for the past 100 years and to assess the transient climate response; to narrow key uncertainties in the system; and to identify those aspects of the climate system most likely to be affected by greenhouse warming over short, medium and long time scales

  16. Pre-Service Elementary Teachers’ Opinions about Global Warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep AKSAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Through this research, it has been aimed to determine the perceptions, opinions and ideas of pre-service elementary teachers about global warming which is an environmental problem that threatens the world. This research was applied to 10 pre-service elementary teachers. The data in the research were collected through face-to-face oral interviews. Collected qualitative data were analyzed with descriptive analysis technique. According to the results of the research, it was observed that pre-service teachers worried about the possible outcomesof global warming and were not equipped with sufficient information about environmental problems. It was concluded that preservice teachers established the false cause-effect relationship between the environmental problems such as greenhouse effect, ozone layer problem, acid rain.

  17. Global variations of zonal mean ozone during stratospheric warming events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randel, William J.

    1993-01-01

    Eight years of Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) ozone data are examined to study zonal mean variations associated with stratospheric planetary wave (warming) events. These fluctuations are found to be nearly global in extent, with relatively large variations in the tropics, and coherent signatures reaching up to 50 deg in the opposite (summer) hemisphere. These ozone variations are a manifestation of the global circulation cells associated with stratospheric warming events; the ozone responds dynamically in the lower stratosphere to transport, and photochemically in the upper stratosphere to the circulation-induced temperature changes. The observed ozone variations in the tropics are of particular interest because transport is dominated by zonal-mean vertical motions (eddy flux divergences and mean meridional transports are negligible), and hence, substantial simplifications to the governing equations occur. The response of the atmosphere to these impulsive circulation changes provides a situation for robust estimates of the ozone-temperature sensitivity in the upper stratosphere.

  18. The carbon dioxide thermometer and the cause of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon dioxide in the air may be increasing because the world is warming. This possibility, which contradicts the hypothesis of an enhanced greenhouse warming driven by manmade emissions, is here pursued in two ways. First, increments in carbon dioxide are treated as readings of a natural thermometer that tracks global and hemispheric temperature deviations, as gauged by meteorologists' thermometers. Calibration of the carbon dioxide thermometer to conventional temperatures then leads to a history of carbon dioxide since 1856 that diverges from the ice-core record. Secondly, the increments of carbon dioxide can also be accounted for, without reference to temperature, by the combined effects of cosmic rays, El Nino and volcanoes. The most durable effect is due to cosmic rays. A solar wind history, used as a long-term proxy for the cosmic rays, gives a carbon dioxide history similar to that inferred from the global temperature deviations. (author)

  19. Flooding in Bangladesh under global warming and future flood defence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirza, M.M.Q. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Inst. for Environmental Studies

    2000-07-01

    Bangladesh is very vulnerable to flooding due to its unique location in the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM) basins and their hydrological characteristics. On average, annually floods inundate 21 percent area of the country and in exceptional cases, this may exceed 60 per cent. Global warming, due to the enhanced greenhouse effect, is likely to have significant effects on the hydrology and water resources of the GBM basins that might ultimately lead to more serious floods in Bangladesh. Use of climate change scenarios from four General Circulation Models in hydrological models demonstrates substantial increases in peak discharges in the GBM rivers. Therefore, Bangladesh may well experience a larger flooded area and a longer flooding period. The simulated results further indicate that more land could be deeply flooded under future climate change. Bangladesh needs a shift in flood management policy paradigm in the context of global warming in order to reduce increased flood hazards. (orig.)

  20. Global warming mitigation strategies and programs for power plant developers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power plant developers are increasingly being surprised by regulatory agencies requiring them to mitigate the carbon dioxide(CO2) emissions from their proposed power plants, as part of the plant's operating permit conditions. Since carbon dioxide is not a criteria pollutant with a National Ambient Air Quality Standard, power plant developers are often troubled by this additional regulatory requirement. This presentation will describe the contribution that CO2makes to global warming, the role of trees and forests as carbon sequesters or sinks, some non-forestry related and forestry related mitigation programs, including the advantages, disadvantages, and some cost estimates for the forestry related CO2 mitigation programs. As public concern about global warming continues to escalate, it is almost certain that regulatory agencies will increase their focus on CO2 mitigation

  1. Study on Global Warming and Fuel Conservation in Surat City

    OpenAIRE

    Neha Bansal, Hormaz Garda, Ghanshyam Padmani

    2010-01-01

    The study reveals that though middle and upper middle class of people in Surat city are aware of global warming, contributory reasons and containment measures, yet remain insensitive in terms of practices. The paper points to the need to increase their collective consciousness and responsiveness to this issue through intense awareness campaigns and rallies to promote measures as pooling of vehicles, cycling, hybrid cars and efficient rapid public transport systems through institution of measu...

  2. Global Warming was not Proved at Showa Base in Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Tomohiro Hirao; Takeshi Suzue; Shoko Murakami; Noriko Sakano; Nobuyuki Miyatake

    2011-01-01

    The changes in temperatures at Showa base in Antarctica were evaluated. Various parameters of temperatures at Showa base in Antarctica were obtained from Japan Metrological Agency. Parameters of temperatures were not correlated with years at Showa base (mean temperature in a year: r = 0.056, p = 0.7267). In addition, the number of days over 4?C was negatively correlated with years. Global warming was not proved at Showa base in Antarctica in this study.

  3. Global Warming: Knowledge and Views of Iranian Students

    OpenAIRE

    Taraneh Yazdanparast, Sousan Salehpour, Mohammad Reza Masjedi, Seyed Mohammad Seyedmehdi, Eddie Boyes, Martin Stanisstreet, Mirsaeed Attarchi

    2013-01-01

    Study of students’ knowledge about global warming can help authorities to have better imagination of this critical environmental problem. This research examines high school students' ideas about greenhouse effect and the results may be useful for the respective authorities to improve cultural and educational aspects of next generation. In this cross-sectional study, a 42 question questionnaire with mix of open and closed questions was used to evaluate high school students' view about the mech...

  4. Teaching “Global Warming” through Socioscientific issues-based Instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Prasart Nuangchalerm; Boonpeng Kwuanthong

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate effective teaching criterion through socioscientific issues-based instruction “Global warming” at 80/80, to find out effectiveness index of socioscientific issues-based instruction, to compare analytical thinking between before and after students had learned by socioscientific issues-based learning activities, and to study learning satisfaction of fifth grade students after they had learned through socioscientific issues-based instruction. Participants of the st...

  5. Solar Panels reduce both global warming and Urban Heat Island

    OpenAIRE

    ValéryMasson; MarionBonhomme; Jean-LucSalagnac; XavierBriottet

    2014-01-01

    The production of solar energy in cities is clearly a way to diminish our dependency to fossil fuels, and is a good way to mitigate global warming by lowering the emission of greenhouse gases. However, what are the impacts of solar panels locally ? To evaluate their influence on urban weather, it is necessary to parameterize their effects within the surface schemes that are coupled to atmospheric models. The present paper presents a way to implement solar panels in the Town Energy Balance sch...

  6. Solar panels reduce both global warming and urban heat island

    OpenAIRE

    MASSON, Valéry; Bonhomme, Marion; Salagnac, Jean-Luc; Briottet, Xavier; Lemonsu, Aude

    2014-01-01

    The production of solar energy in cities is clearly a way to diminish our dependency to fossil fuels, and is a good way to mitigate global warming by lowering the emission of greenhouse gases. However, what are the impacts of solar panels locally? To evaluate their influence on urban weather, it is necessary to parameterize their effects within the surface schemes that are coupled to atmospheric models. The present paper presents a way to implement solar panels in the Town Energy Balance sche...

  7. Forests between global warming and local wood use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    The sustainability of extended energetic wood use in atmospheric burners is questioned because it accelerates global warming for decades and often intensifies local air pollution with serious health impacts. Forest developments in Denmark and Austria are compared, the latter including data on shifting CO2-balances. Interrelations between fossil-energy use and biomass use emerge in their complexity. Readjustment time regarding CO2 in the atmosphere after biomass combustion is considered as well a...

  8. Strategic information acquisition and the mitigation of global warming

    OpenAIRE

    Morath, Florian

    2008-01-01

    We consider the strategic role of uncertainty and information acquisition for the mitigation of global warming which is modeled using a standard framework for private provision of a public good. Prior to the voluntary contribution mechanism, we allow for investments in information about the country-specific benefit of reductions of the emissions of greenhouse gases. We show that information acquisition has a substantial strategic value in the following interaction. Countries may prefer not to...

  9. Global warming, sea-level rise, and coastal marsh survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, Donald R.

    1997-01-01

    Coastal wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems in the world. These wetlands at the land-ocean margin provide many direct benefits to humans, including habitat for commercially important fisheries and wildlife; storm protection; improved water quality through sediment, nutrient, and pollution removal; recreation; and aesthetic values. These valuable ecosystems will be highly vulnerable to the effects of the rapid rise in sea level predicted to occur during the next century as a result of global warming.

  10. The IEA is worried about inability to limit global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) is launching a strong appeal to mobilise public authorities: the world is definitely not in a position to respect its commitments on reducing carbon emissions and thus of putting a brake on global warming. Carbon intensity has hardly budged since 1990, the IEA estimates. The reason? Increased energy output has relied more on fossil fuel expansion than on recourse to renewable sources. (author)

  11. Rice yields decline with higher night temperature from global warming

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang; SHEEHY, JOHN E.; Laza, Rebecca C.; Visperas, Romeo M.; ZHONG, XUHUA; Centeno, Grace S.; Khush, Gurdev S.; Cassman, Kenneth G.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of projected global warming on crop yields has been evaluated by indirect methods using simulation models. Direct studies on the effects of observed climate change on crop growth and yield could provide more accurate information for assessing the impact of climate change on crop production. We analyzed weather data at the International Rice Research Institute Farm from 1979 to 2003 to examine temperature trends and the relationship between rice yield and temperature by using data f...

  12. Global warming factor of municipal solid waste management in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Clavreul, Julie; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    The global warming factor (GWF; CO2-eq. tonne—1 waste) performance of municipal waste management has been investigated for six representative European Member States: Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Poland and the United Kingdom. The study integrated European waste statistical data for 2007 in a life-cycle assessment modelling perspective. It is shown that significant GWF benefit was achieved due to the high level of energy and material recovery substituting fossil energy and raw materials prod...

  13. Likely impact of global warming on developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last couple of years there has been mounting evidence that the human costs of rapid global warming are likely to be concentrated especially in developing countries and that some countries may be gravely affected. Climate impacts research has until recently been focused principally on a handful of more affluent countries, but studies of climate impacts on developing countries are now under way and preliminary results are likely to be available for many areas of the world within the next year

  14. Record-breaking precipitation events under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, J.; Coumou, D.; Frieler, K.; Levermann, A.

    2013-12-01

    The last decade has produced an unprecedented number of extreme weather events, including record-breaking rainfall. This seeming accumulation of weather extremes in an exceptionally warm decade has raised the question of whether these events are related to global warming. And hence: How many more extremes do we have to expect in the future? Here we present preliminary results for the analysis of record-breaking precipitation events in the last century using global gridded datasets for annual- and seasonal-maximum daily precipitation. This data reveals significant trends in intensifying precipitation events on a local scale. Thus, we compare the number of observed records for selected SREX-regions with that expected from a stationary climate, for which the simple 1/n relationship holds, where n is the number of previous data points (e.g. years). This anomaly, i.e. the difference in number of registered records, is then related to changes in temperature within the same time period to analyze the influence of global warming.

  15. Global Warming: some back-of-the-envelope calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Fabara, C

    2005-01-01

    We do several simple calculations and measurements in an effort to gain understanding of global warming and the carbon cycle. Some conclusions are interesting: (i) There has been global warming since the end of the "little ice age" around 1700. There is no statistically significant evidence of acceleration of global warming since 1940. (ii) The increase of CO_2 in the atmosphere, beginning around 1940, accurately tracks the burning of fossil fuels. Burning all of the remaining economically viable reserves of oil, gas and coal over the next 150 years or so will approximately double the pre-industrial atmospheric concentration of CO_2. The corresponding increase in the average temperature, due to the greenhouse effect, is quite uncertain: between 1.3 and 4.8K. This increase of temperature is (partially?) offset by the increase of aerosols and deforestation. (iii) Ice core samples indicate that the pre-historic CO_2 concentration and temperature are well correlated. We conclude that changes in the temperatures o...

  16. An innovative nuclear reactor as a solution to global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of global warming is no longer a philosophical discussion, but it is a fact seriously threatening the future of humanity. In this paper a practical solution to the problem of global warming resulting from the fossil fuelled energy suppliers is presented. The energy conservation and alternative forms of energy such as solar, wind, and bio even though having important roles, do not satisfy the energy demand generated by an increasing world population that desires to increase its standard of living. The fission process in the nuclear reactors does not produce greenhouse gases that cause global warming. The new paradigm in nuclear energy is the future innovative reactors that meet the new standards set by the INPRO Program of the IAEA. One such a reactor is presented in this paper, namely the Fixed Bed Nuclear Reactor (FBNR) that is supported by the International Atomic Energy (IAEA) in its program of Small Reactors Without On-Site Refuelling (SRWOSR), being one of the four water cooled reactors in this program. The other three reactor concepts are PFPWR50 of Japan, BWRPB of Russia and AFPR-100 of USA. It is shown that the nuclear energy of the future is totally different than what is today in respect to safety, economics, environmental impact and proliferation. In this manner, the public perception of nuclear energy will change and its acceptability is promoted. (author)

  17. Global Warming in the 21st Century: An Alternate Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James E.; Sato, Makiko; Ruedy, Reto; Lacis, Andrew; Oinas, Valdar

    2000-01-01

    A common view is that the current global warming rate will continue or accelerate. But we argue that rapid warming in recent decades has been driven by non-CO2 greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as CFCs, CH4 and N2O, not by the products of fossil fuel burning, CO2 and aerosols, whose positive and negative climate forcings are partially offsetting. The growth rate of non-CO2 GHGs has declined in the past decade. If sources of CH4 and O3 precursors were reduced in the future, the change of climate forcing by non-CO2 GHGs In the next 50 years could be near zero. Combined with a reduction of black carbon emissions and plausible success in slowing CO2 emissions, this could lead to a decline in the rate of global warming, reducing the danger of dramatic climate change. Such a focus on air pollution has practical benefits that unite the interests of developed and developing countries. However, assessment of ongoing and future climate change requires composition-specific longterm global monitoring of aerosol properties.

  18. Physics for future Presidents - nuclear power, terrorism, global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book explains the science behind the concerns that our nation faces in the immediate future. It outlines the tools of terrorists, the dangers of nuclear power, and the reality of global warming. As citizens who will elect future presidents of the most powerful and influential countries in the world, we need to know-truly understand if Iran's nascent nuclear capability is a genuine threat to the West, if biochemical weapons are likely to be developed by terrorists, if there are viable alternatives to fossil fuels that should be nurtured and supported by the government, if nuclear power should be encouraged, and if global warming is actually happening. This book is written in everyday, nontechnical language on the science behind the concerns that our nations faces in the immediate future. This book is translated from 'Physics for Future Presidents: The Science Behind the Headlines', published by W. W. Norton and Company in August 2008. Contents: 1 - Terrorism: Nine-eleven, Terrorist nukes, The next terrorist attack, Biological terrorism; 2 - Energy: Key energy surprises, Solar Power, The end of oil; 3 - Nukes: Radioactivity and death, Radioactive decay, Nuclear weapons, Nuclear madness, Nuclear power, Nuclear waste, Controlled fusion; 4 - Space: Space and satellites, Gravity applications, Humans in space, Spying with invisible light; 5 - Global Warming: A brief history of climate, The greenhouse effect, A very likely cause, Evidence, Non-solutions, The fruit on the ground, New technologies

  19. Man made global warming explained - closing the blinds

    CERN Document Server

    Sloan, T

    2010-01-01

    One of the big problems of the age concerns 'Global Warming', and whether it is 'man-made' or 'natural'. Most climatologists believe that it is very likely to be the former but some scientists (mostly non-climatologists) subscribe to the latter. Unsurprisingly, the population at large is often confused and and is not convinced either way. Here we try to explain the principles of man-made global warming in a simple way. Our purpose is to try to understand the story which the climatologists are telling us through their rather complicated general circulation models. Although the effects in detail are best left to the climatologists' models, we show that for the Globe as a whole the effects of man-made global warming can be demonstrated in a simple way. The simple model of only the direct heating from the absorption of infrared radiation, illustrates the main principles of the science involved. The predicted temperature increase due to the increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere over the last century descr...

  20. Nuclear power in the context of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper examines the extent to which nuclear power could help ameliorate the greenhouse problem. Topics discussed include: (1) How serious is the environmental threat posed by the greenhouse effect? (2) How large a part do fossil fuels play in producing greenhouse gases? (3) Is it possible to prevent or abate the anticipated global warming? (4) Can nuclear power play a significant role? (5) What overall approached might best reduce greenhouse emissions? Global cooperativeness in addressing the problem will be essential. 14 refs., 5 tabs

  1. Implications of global warming for the climate of African rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Rachel; Washington, Richard; Rowell, David P

    2013-01-01

    African rainforests are likely to be vulnerable to changes in temperature and precipitation, yet there has been relatively little research to suggest how the regional climate might respond to global warming. This study presents projections of temperature and precipitation indices of relevance to African rainforests, using global climate model experiments to identify local change as a function of global temperature increase. A multi-model ensemble and two perturbed physics ensembles are used, one with over 100 members. In the east of the Congo Basin, most models (92%) show a wet signal, whereas in west equatorial Africa, the majority (73%) project an increase in dry season water deficits. This drying is amplified as global temperature increases, and in over half of coupled models by greater than 3% per °C of global warming. Analysis of atmospheric dynamics in a subset of models suggests that this could be partly because of a rearrangement of zonal circulation, with enhanced convection in the Indian Ocean and anomalous subsidence over west equatorial Africa, the Atlantic Ocean and, in some seasons, the Amazon Basin. Further research to assess the plausibility of this and other mechanisms is important, given the potential implications of drying in these rainforest regions. PMID:23878329

  2. The regions and global warming: Impacts and response strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To date, much of the attention given to global warming in scientific research as well as in policy development has focused on the global picture. International negotiations and agreements to stabilize, and eventually reduce, greenhouse gas emissions are very important. By themselves, however, they are not sufficient to address global warming. Regional strategies are also needed. They can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and they will be the most effective way to mitigate the consequences of global warming. Adaptive strategies must respond to local and regional conditions. In many countries, subnational jurisdictions such as states and provinces or community organizations can already take effective actions without direction from their national government or waiting for international agreements. An important factor in defining regional approaches is the disparate consequences of climate change for developed and developing areas. Different strategies will also be needed for industrial and agricultural regions. Wealthy industrial regions may be better able to develop capital-intensive, adaptive infrastructure than regions with fewer discretionary resources where people are more vulnerable to the vagaries of weather patterns. On the other hand, regions that rely on indigenous knowledge and local resources may be better equipped to make incremental adaptations and more willing to modify life-styles. Ultimately, all climate change effects are experienced in specific places and effective response depends upon local action. We recognize that individual localities cannot solve a problem of global proportions by acting alone. However, a regional strategy can supplement international and national action and be the focal point for addressing risks in the unique social and economic context of a particular area. These meetings discussions dealt with the impacts and implications of climate change on such things as agriculture, forestry, and policy

  3. A new international environmental order? An assessment of the impact of the global warming epistemic community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global warming is a problem which ignores national boundaries, making international cooperation essential. The role of epistemic communities, or those composed of professionals who share a commitment to a common causal model and a set of political values, in affecting the international response to the global warming problem is examined. It is claimed that the epistemic global warming community can affect the policy process, both domestically and internationally, and facilitate cooperation in an era of ecological interdependence. This claim is explored and eventually supported through the examination of two case studies: the responses of Canada and Britain to the issue of global warming between 1988 and November 1990. The case studies are supplemented with a more general discussion of the issues surrounding the international politics of global warming through the same period. Through these studies, it is found that a global warming community can be identified and that its efforts have played a significant role in framing the global warming issue. 121 refs

  4. Door still open for action on issue of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global warming may or may not be a legitimate environmental threat, but Washington lobbyists consider it a legislative threat. It does not appear the current Congress will limit or tax use of U.S. fossil fuels, whose burning releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. This paper reports that some scientists have claimed a concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will result in a significant warming of the earth by 2050, threatening agriculture, altering ecosystems, and even melting polar ice and causing rising oceans to flood coastal areas and islands. In 1990 a United Nations panel of climate scientists predicted a 2 degrees C. increase in world temperatures within 35 years and 6 degrees by the end of the next century. Some scientists say preventing further increases will require a 60% reduction in current CO2 emissions. The oil industry already is beginning to feel heat from the global warming issue. The Environmental Protection Agency calculates energy production and use is responsible for 57% of current emissions caused by man

  5. A Contribution by Ice Nuclei to Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiping; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Zhang, Minghua; Hou, Arthur Y.; Xie, Shaocheng; Lang, Stephen; Li, Xiaowen; Starr, David O.; Li, Xiaofan

    2009-01-01

    Ice nuclei (IN) significantly affect clouds via supercooled droplets, that in turn modulate atmospheric radiation and thus climate change. Since the IN effect is relatively strong in stratiform clouds but weak in convective ones, the overall effect depends on the ratio of stratiform to convective cloud amount. In this paper, 10 years of TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) satellite data are analyzed to confirm that stratiform precipitation fraction increases with increasing latitude, which implies that the IN effect is stronger at higher latitudes. To quantitatively evaluate the IN effect versus latitude, large-scale forcing data from ten field campaigns are used to drive a CRM (cloud-resolving model) to generate longterm cloud simulations. As revealed in the simulations, the increase in the net downward radiative flux at the TOA (top of the atmosphere) from doubling the current IN concentrations is larger at higher latitude, which is attributed to the meridional tendency in the stratiform precipitation fraction. Surface warming from doubling the IN concentrations, based on the radiative balance of the globe, is compared with that from anthropogenic COZ . It is found that the former effect is stronger than the latter in middle and high latitudes but not in the Tropics. With regard to the impact of IN on global warming, there are two factors to consider: the radiative effect from increasing the IN concentration and the increase in IN concentration itself. The former relies on cloud ensembles and thus varies mainly with latitude. In contrast, the latter relies on IN sources (e.g., the land surface distribution) and thus varies not only with latitude but also longitude. Global desertification and industrialization provide clues on the geographic variation of the increase in IN concentration since pre-industrial times. Thus, their effect on global warming can be inferred and then be compared with observations. A general match in geographic and seasonal variations between the inferred and observed warming suggests that IN may have contributed positively to global warming over the past decades, especially in middle and high latitudes.

  6. Critical impacts of global warming on land ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostberg, S.; Lucht, W.; Schaphoff, S.; Gerten, D.

    2013-10-01

    Globally increasing temperatures are likely to have impacts on terrestrial, aquatic and marine ecosystems that are difficult to manage. Quantifying impacts worldwide and systematically as a function of global warming is fundamental to substantiating the discussion on climate mitigation targets and adaptation planning. Here we present a macro-scale analysis of climate change impacts on terrestrial ecosystems based on newly developed sets of climate scenarios featuring a step-wise sampling of global mean temperature increase between 1.5 and 5 K by 2100. These are processed by a biogeochemical model (LPJmL) to derive an aggregated metric of simultaneous biogeochemical and structural shifts in land surface properties which we interpret as a proxy for the risk of shifts and possibly disruptions in ecosystems. Our results show a substantial risk of climate change to transform terrestrial ecosystems profoundly. Nearly no area of the world is free from such risk, unless strong mitigation limits global warming to around 2 degrees above preindustrial level. Even then, our simulations for most climate models agree that up to one-fifth of the land surface may experience at least moderate ecosystem change, primarily at high latitudes and high altitudes. If countries fulfil their current emissions reduction pledges, resulting in roughly 3.5 K of warming, this area expands to cover half the land surface, including the majority of tropical forests and savannas and the boreal zone. Due to differences in regional patterns of climate change, the area potentially at risk of major ecosystem change considering all climate models is up to 2.5 times as large as for a single model.

  7. Energy and global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of this study is to develop representative indications of the relative energy use, associated CO2 emissions, and total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of viable option to replace CFCs in their major energy-related application areas. It was motivated, in part, by a concern that most attention to data has focused on the DIRECT global warming effect of CFCs and their alternatives, with inadequate attention being paid to the INDIRECT effect of the CO2 emissions arising from the differences in energy consumption by systems using different alternatives. The DIRECT and INDIRECT contributions are combined in this analysis to determine the TEWI of the various technical options. The study is international in scope and takes into account significant differences in present CFC end-use practices, sources of energy, and other societal factors between Europe, Japan, and North America

  8. Global scale energy budget contrast between warm and cold years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembo, Valerio; Lionello, Piero

    2014-05-01

    This contribution analyses changes to the energy budget of the troposphere associated to global warm anomalies of the Earth surface temperature. This is important for understanding the dynamics of climate change. A phenomenological approach is adopted, comparing coldest and warmest years over the last century. Data are provided by the results of 10 simulations carried out within the ERA-20CM experiment and covering the period 1900-2010. This ensemble is forced by 10 perturbed realizations of SST fields and greenhouse gases concentration time series. Analysis considers the annual mean meridional distribution of zonal mean tropospheric and surface temperature, net downward solar radiation at top of atmosphere and Earth surface, surface heat flux (SHF), consisting of net longwave upward radiation, latent heat and sensible heat vertical fluxes, and outgoing longwave radiation at top of atmosphere (OLR). Differences of these variables between the warmest and coldest years are computed, in order to analyze how the energy budget of the atmosphere is associated to the warming the Earth surface. During warm years, it is observed that tropospheric warming occurs at all latitudes, decreasing at its top, being rather uniform but larger/smaller around the North/South Pole than at the tropics. This is consistent with the overall increase of OLR at all latitudes. Shortwave absorption in the troposphere increases, with a peak around 30 degrees north, as a result of increased net downward solar radiation at the top. The warming of the surface is associated with reduced SHF almost everywhere, particularly at higher latitudes. This combined effect might be interpreted as a reduction of solar reflection by cloud cover and an increased moisture in the lower troposphere, inhibiting evaporation and heat fluxes from the surface, and increasing downward flow of longwave radiation to the surface. Finally, the meridional distribution of residual net energy budget in the troposphere suggests an increased meridional transport toward high latitudes, as well as a more intense energy loss to the surface and to outer space

  9. Modification of cirrus clouds to reduce global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse gases and cirrus clouds regulate outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and cirrus cloud coverage is predicted to be sensitive to the ice fall speed which depends on ice crystal size. The higher the cirrus, the greater their impact is on OLR. Thus by changing ice crystal size in the coldest cirrus, OLR and climate might be modified. Fortunately the coldest cirrus have the highest ice supersaturation due to the dominance of homogeneous freezing nucleation. Seeding such cirrus with very efficient heterogeneous ice nuclei should produce larger ice crystals due to vapor competition effects, thus increasing OLR and surface cooling. Preliminary estimates of this global net cloud forcing are more negative than -2.8 W m-2 and could neutralize the radiative forcing due to a CO2 doubling (3.7 W m-2). A potential delivery mechanism for the seeding material is already in place: the airline industry. Since seeding aerosol residence times in the troposphere are relatively short, the climate might return to its normal state within months after stopping the geoengineering experiment. The main known drawback to this approach is that it would not stop ocean acidification. It does not have many of the drawbacks that stratospheric injection of sulfur species has.

  10. Slowing global warming. Mitigation strategy for the developing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Globally, a range of human activities that characterize modern economic systems are leading to emissions of greenhouse gases. For some activities like the cultivation of paddy rice in flooded soils, there is reason to believe that there are no economically viable or practical alternatives to the current methods which produce these emissions. However, there are several other areas of human activity ranging from the generation of electricity to the provision of passenger and freight transport, in which there clearly exists the potential for preparing the agenda for change which would mitigate global warming. The objective of this paper is to discuss and evaluate a suitable mix of innovative measures which would make efficient use of scarce resources and maximize returns from the resources invested to limit CO2 emissions. In particular, this paper evolves a three phase approach for mitigating CO2 emissions that can be widely applied to reorient economic development policies in the developing world. Comprising an agenda for change, it underlines specific failures in national policies, identifies thrust areas for mitigating CO2 emissions and suggests policy responses in major sectors of the economy. The guiding premise here is simple and straightforward - the energy sector (inclusive of the services provided by energy rather than energy per se) which has been a major cause for invoking the threat of climate change and global warming, must now become a part of the solution. (au) 11 refs

  11. Greenhouse: the 200-year story of global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christianson, G.E.

    1999-07-01

    The book relates the biography of a scientific idea, the story of what global warming - the greenhouse effect - is and how it came to be. In part 1, the story is told of Charles Fourier, and other time travellers, who first described, independent of religious accounts, over time the great changes, both climatic and geologic, which the earth has been subject to over its four billion years of existence. The individuals whose ideas are considered include James Hutton, Charles Lyell, and Charles Darwin. In part two, the world 'eaters' are encountered who as inventors and capitalists wrested fossil fuels from the earth and used them to transform the planet. The individuals introduced here include Richard Arkwright, Abraham Darby, Thomas Newcomen, Richard Trevithick, George Stephenson, Henry Bessemer, Andrew Carnegie, J.D. Rockefeller, I.K. Brunhel, and Henry Ford. In part three, the major discoveries are described, and the debates, both scientific and public, from the early 20th century through to the 1997 United Nations Conference in Climate Change in Kyoto and beyond are traced. Among the individuals who figured prominently in these developments are George Callendar, Charles Keeling, Thomas Midgley, and Joseph Farman. In the closing stages of the book, a glimpse is given of what the future might be like should global warming continue unchecked. The options are either drought, fire, disease, torrential rains, mud slides, and oppressive heat, or a harbinger of more greenery, less privation, and freedom from cold. The fierce debate surrounding the global warming treaty hammered out in Kyoto, is described. 250 refs.

  12. Critical impacts of global warming on land ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ostberg

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Globally increasing temperatures may have unmanageable impacts on terrestrial, aquatic and marine ecosystems. Quantifying impacts worldwide and systematically as a function of global warming is critical to substantiate the ongoing international negotiations on climate mitigation targets. Here we present a macro-scale analysis of climate change impacts on terrestrial ecosystems based on newly developed sets of climate scenarios featuring a step-wise sampling of global mean temperature increase between 1.5 and 5 K by 2100. These are processed by a biogeochemical model (LPJmL to derive an aggregated metric of simultaneous biogeochemical and structural shifts in land surface properties which we interpret as a proxy for the risk of shifts and possibly disruptions in ecosystems. Our results show a substantial risk of climate change to transform terrestrial ecosystems profoundly. Nearly no area of the world is free from such risk, unless strong mitigation limits warming to around 2 degrees above preindustrial level. Even then, most climate models agree that up to one fifth of the land surface may experience at least moderate change, primarily at high latitudes and high altitudes. If countries fulfill their current emissions pledges, resulting in roughly 3.5 K of warming, this area expands to cover half the land surface, including the majority of tropical forests and savannas and the boreal zone. Due to differences in regional patterns of climate change the area potentially at risk of severe ecosystem change considering all AOGCMs is up to 2.5 times as large as for a single AOGCM.

  13. From low-flows to floods under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagoulia, D.

    2009-04-01

    The low-flows and floods regimes of the Acheloo's river at the Mesochora catchment outfall in Western-Central Greece were analyzed under global warming conditions. The global warming patterns were simulated through a set of hypothetical and monthly GISS (Goddard Institute for Space Studies) downscaled scenarios of temperature increases, coupled with downscaled precipitation changes. The hydrology of the catchment is dominated by spring snowmelt runoff. Thus, the daily outflow of the catchment was simulated via the coupling of the snowmelt and soil moisture accounting models of the US National Weather Service River Forecast System. A low-flow day was defined as a day during which the streamflow did not reach the quarter of the long-term mean daily streamflow. A flood day was defined as a day during which the streamflow was more than two or three times the long-term mean daily streamflow In both hydrological cases (low-flows and floods) the basic components (number of days and episodes, duration, magnitude, frequency, etc) were determined. Both representations of global warming resulted in more numerous and longer low-flow episodes, as well as smaller mean values of minimum streamflows. Also, all climate cases posted larger low-flow deficits as the precipitation increased. On the other hand, both hypothetical and GISS downscaled climate cases predicted more numerous and longer flood episodes, as well as greater mean values of peak streamflows. Also, all climate cases reflected larger flood volumes as the precipitation increased. The low-flows results could possibly further jeopardize the river water quality, the reliability of the storages and dams, as well the water supply from local groundwater sources, while the combination of higher and more frequent floods could lead to greater risk of inundation and possible damage of existing structures.

  14. Global Warming and Glaciers Melting at Fjords in Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Pablo

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a discussion on the validation or not of a likely paradigm about the melting of polar glaciers and their direct impact on increasing ocean levels. Physico-chemical properties of ocean waters, as well as anomalies in the thermal behavior of water are used as providers of this discussion using fjords of Greenland as study area. This text seeks to infer the relationship between the most recent developments in global warming, specifically dealing with the melting of glaciers located in fjords in the eastern part of Greenland, increasing the water temperature in ocean currents and changes in sea levels. We emphasize the importance of the correlation of the water physico-chemical characteristics in these changes perceived in the studied environment. Greenland is defined by convention as the widest oceanic island in the world. In its fjords formed in the last glaciation of the Quaternary period, basically made of ice mountains with entries to the sea, there has been melts that are discussed in this work. At first, global warming and the melting of glaciers with a consequent rise in sea levels are presented almost as an axiom. This paper seeks to address the conclusions arising from this type of research according the basic laws of physics and chemistry, related to the behavior of water in their states (typically solid and liquid). The ultimate goal of this work glimpsed through some inferences and validation of water behavior in the ice condition and in its liquid state, a broader view with regard to the findings applied to the relationship between global warming and ice melting processes. Will be observed some water anomalies in the variation between its liquid and solid states to attempt a better understanding of the phenomena occurring in this area of interest as well as their possible impacts. It is noteworthy the fact that the water does not behave thermally as most liquids, with very specific consequences in relation to the variation between its liquid and solid states because of the temperature variation. We infer, therefore, that the increased amount of water in the sea because of the melts, will not necessarily increase the volume or the level of the oceans. Keywords: Melting Glaciers. Levels of Ocean Waters. Global Warming.

  15. The nuclear, an efficient tool against global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proposing and commenting some extracts of a book by Francis Sorin (Le nucleaire et la planete), this document aims at showing that nuclear energy production is a tool to struggle against global warming because of its low carbon emission. Some assessments of this characteristic are given and discussed, as well as figures on carbon emissions in different western countries. This document also criticises the statements made by ecologists against nuclear energy. The author put nuclear energy at the same level as energy savings and renewable energies, as means to reach the desirable CO2 saving level

  16. Global warming damage costs. Discussion of available estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A consistent and reconstructable cost-benefit assessment of action to curb the emission of anthropogenic greenhouse gases requires an estimate, quantification, and expression in monetary quantities to be made of the damage induced. Such an assessment of damage costs could serve as a basis for determining emission taxes. There is already a number of studies presenting figures and analyses for assessing the cost of damage induced by global warming despite the still remaining uncertainties. The article explains the main methodology and results of these studies in a comparative approach and discusses their value as decision aids at the present time. (orig.)

  17. Global warming potentials. The case of emissions from dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global warming potential index (GWP) has been proposed to quantitatively compare the integrated greenhouse effect of different gases. However, the use of the GWP index is still subject to major conceptual difficulties. Here we revise and generalize this index and then apply our alternative index to the case of emissions from some hydroelectric reservoirs in Brazil. Our results suggest that, though the cumulative heating effects of emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs may be far from negligible, for the cases studied, hydroelectricity in general contributes less to the greenhouse effect over a long time horizon than fossil fuelled electricity generation. (Author)

  18. Study on Global Warming and Fuel Conservation in Surat City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Bansal, Hormaz Garda, Ghanshyam Padmani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The study reveals that though middle and upper middle class of people in Surat city are aware of global warming, contributory reasons and containment measures, yet remain insensitive in terms of practices. The paper points to the need to increase their collective consciousness and responsiveness to this issue through intense awareness campaigns and rallies to promote measures as pooling of vehicles, cycling, hybrid cars and efficient rapid public transport systems through institution of measures at individual, community and government levels to ameliorate hindrances to the adoption of environment friendly practices as reported in the observations.

  19. The influence of global warming in Earth rotation speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Abarca del Rio

    Full Text Available The tendency of the atmospheric angular momentum (AAM is investigated using a 49-year set of monthly AAM data for the period January 1949-December 1997. This data set is constructed with zonal wind values from the reanalyses of NCEP/NCAR, used in conjunction with a variety of operationally produced AAM time series with different independent sources and lengths over 1976-1997. In all the analyzed AAM series the linear trend is found to be positive. Since the angular momentum of the atmosphere-earth system is conserved this corresponds to a net loss of angular momentum by the solid earth, therefore decreasing the Earth rotation speed and increasing the length of day (LOD. The AAM rise is significant to the budget of angular momentum of the global atmosphere-earth system; its value in milliseconds/century (ms/cy is +0.56 ms/cy, corresponding to one-third of the estimated increase in LOD (+1.7 ms/cy. The major contribution to this secular trend in AAM comes from the equatorial Tropopause. This is consistent with results from a previous study using a simplified aqua-planet model to investigate the AAM variations due to near equatorial warming conditions. During the same time interval, 1949-1997, the global marine + land-surface temperature increases by about 0.79 °C/cy, showing a linear correspondence between surface temperature increase and global AAM of about 0.07 ms per 0.1 °C. These results imply that atmospheric angular momentum may be used as an independent index of the global atmosphere's dynamical response to the greenhouse forcing, and as such, the length of day may be used as an indirect indicator of global warming.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (general circulation · Geodesy

  20. The multimillennial sea-level commitment of global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levermann, Anders; Clark, Peter U; Marzeion, Ben; Milne, Glenn A; Pollard, David; Radic, Valentina; Robinson, Alexander

    2013-08-20

    Global mean sea level has been steadily rising over the last century, is projected to increase by the end of this century, and will continue to rise beyond the year 2100 unless the current global mean temperature trend is reversed. Inertia in the climate and global carbon system, however, causes the global mean temperature to decline slowly even after greenhouse gas emissions have ceased, raising the question of how much sea-level commitment is expected for different levels of global mean temperature increase above preindustrial levels. Although sea-level rise over the last century has been dominated by ocean warming and loss of glaciers, the sensitivity suggested from records of past sea levels indicates important contributions should also be expected from the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets. Uncertainties in the paleo-reconstructions, however, necessitate additional strategies to better constrain the sea-level commitment. Here we combine paleo-evidence with simulations from physical models to estimate the future sea-level commitment on a multimillennial time scale and compute associated regional sea-level patterns. Oceanic thermal expansion and the Antarctic Ice Sheet contribute quasi-linearly, with 0.4 m °C(-1) and 1.2 m °C(-1) of warming, respectively. The saturation of the contribution from glaciers is overcompensated by the nonlinear response of the Greenland Ice Sheet. As a consequence we are committed to a sea-level rise of approximately 2.3 m °C(-1) within the next 2,000 y. Considering the lifetime of anthropogenic greenhouse gases, this imposes the need for fundamental adaptation strategies on multicentennial time scales. PMID:23858443

  1. Global Warming, Climate Change and Glacier Retreat of Nepal Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, S.; Hisaki, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Global average air temperature near the earth surface rose 0.74¡¾0.18¨¬C during the twentieth century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concludes that observed increased globally averaged temperatures since mid-twentieth century is very likely due to the observed increment in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations, which leads to warming of the surface and lower atmosphere by increasing the greenhouse effect. Climate models referred by IPCC project that global surface temperature are likely to be increase by 1.1 to 6.4¨¬C between 1990 and 2100. An increase in global temperature is expected to cause other changes including glacier retreat, sea level rise, increase intensity of extreme weather events and change in the pattern of precipitation, etc. The Nepal Himalaya revealed 3,252 glaciers and 2,323 lakes, which are 3,500 m above the sea level. They cover an area of 5,323 km2 with an estimated ice reserve of 481 km3. The average temperature in Nepal is rising by 0.5¨¬C per decade, and because of this reason, big glacial lakes in the country are at high risk of flooding from glacial lake bursts, which would have an adverse effect, such as huge loss of life and property. Nepal is facing a disturbance in mountain climate, flash floods, cloudbursts, erratic weather patterns and so on. The death of number of people due to floods and landslides is increasing annually. It is reported that more than 164 people already died because of floods and landslides during the current year, 2007 rainy season. Nepal does emit negligible greenhouse gases compare to developed and industrialized countries, however, country and people are facing the consequences of actions of other developed and industrialized countries. Study shows the¡¡disasters in current years and possible hazards in future due to the probable causes of global warming and recommends some suggestions for controlling of green house gases emission.

  2. The impact of global warming on the tropical Pacific ocean and El Nino

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Collins, M.; An, S.; Cai, W.; Ganachaud, A.; Guilyardi, E.; Jin, F.F.; Jochum, M.; Lengaigne, M.; Power, S.; Timmermann, A.; Vecchi, G.; Wittenberg, A.

    the influence of global warming, the mean climate of the Pacific region will probably undergo significant changes. The tropical easterly trade winds are expected to weaken; surface ocean temperatures are expected to warm fastest near the equator and more slowly...

  3. Energy and global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are used in a number of applications, and volumes of CFCs used grew at a tremendous pace during the 1960s and 1970s. However, in the mid-1980s, it was confirmed that these extremely useful chemicals contribute to the destruction of stratospheric ozone. These chemicals are being phased out of use rapidly to protect the ozone layer and it is very important that the replacements for CFSs do not result in a net increase in global warming by introducing less efficient processes that lead to higher energy use and increased carbon dioxide emissions. A study was conducted to identify those alternative chemicals and technologies that could replace CFCs in energy related applications before the year 2000, and to assess the total potential impact of these alternatives on global warming. The analysis for this project included an estimate of the direct effects from the release of blowing agents, refrigerants, and solvents into the atmosphere and the indirect effects in the form of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from energy use for commercial and residential heating and cooling, household and commercial refrigeration, building and automobile air-conditioning, and general metal and electronics solvent cleaning. The discussion in this paper focuses on those aspects of the study relevant to refrigeration and air-conditioning. In general the use of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) alternatives for CFCs lead to large and sometimes dramatic reduction in total equivalent warming impact (TEWI), lifetime equivalent CO2 emission. Most of the reductions result from decreased direct effects without significant changes in energy use. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  4. Possible human health impacts of a global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, M.C.; Kalkstein, L.S.; Cheng, S. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Dept. of Geography

    1995-03-01

    Some ways in which a global warming may affect human health are discussed. Research is presented which explores the hypothesis that heat stress-induced mortality may increase substantially in the event of a worldwide temperature increase. Two procedures are applied to four disparate nations: the US, Canada, China and Egypt. Results indicate that significant increases in heat-related mortality are likely to occur, particularly in developing nations. Factors which might help to mitigate these increases, such as acclimatization and air conditioning, are also examined. Another human health impact of a global warming is the likely spread of certain vector-borne diseases into areas of the world where they do not currently exist. Two of these, onchocerciasis and malaria, have been chosen for a detailed international study. The initial steps in this effort are discussed. Policy options are proposed which may prepare international organizations and public officials for difficulties which may arise. Implementation of these procedures, which include continuation of internationally sponsored research, could help to ameliorate many of the problems outlined in this paper.

  5. FUEL CONSUMPTION EFFECT OF COMMERCIAL TURBOFANS ON GLOBAL WARMING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onder Turan; T. Hikmet Karakoc [School of Civil Aviation, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2008-09-30

    The main objective pursued in this study is to parametrically investigate the fuel consumption effect of commercial turbofans on global warming. In this regard, Of the important parameters, specific fuel consumption of a commercial turbofans is taken into consideration. In order to minimize the effect of fuel consumption on global warming, the values of engine design parameters are optimized for maintaining minimum specific fuel consumption of high bypass turbofan engine under different flight conditions and design criteria. The backbones of optimization approach consisted of elitism-based genetic algorithm coupled with real parametric cycle analysis of a turbofan engine. For solving optimization problem a new software program is developed in MATLAB, while objective function is determined for minimizing the specific fuel consumption by considering the following parameters such as the fan pressure ratio ({pi}{sub f}), bypass ratio ({alpha}) and the fuel heating value [h{sub PR}-(kJ/kg)]. Accordingly, it may be concluded that the software program developed can successfully solve optimization problems at 1.2{le}{pi}{sub f}{le}2, 2{le}{alpha}{le}10 and 23000{le}h{sub PR}{le}120000 with aircraft flight Mach number {le}0.8. Fuel types used in preliminary engine cycle analysis were JP-4, JP-5, JP-8 and hydrogen in this paper.

  6. Global warming: discounting is not the issue, but substitutability is

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cost-benefit study of Nordhaus (1994) is representative for the neoclassical approach towards global warming. Nordhaus found that no substantial emission cuts are warranted. Most of his critics have concentrated on the issue of discounting and demanded that a lower discount rate should be applied. These criticisms first miss the point and second lead to ethically dubious, inconsistent conclusions and inefficient policy choices. They miss the point because the real problem of Nordhaus's methodology is his implicit underlying assumption of perfect substitutability between natural and other forms of capital. Given the validity of this assumption, lowering the rate of discount is inconsistent with current savings behaviour, is ethically dubious because future generations will be much richer than the current one anyway, and is inefficient because scarce financial resources are channelled into emissions abatement that exhibits rates of return far inferior to alternative public investments. Any call for aggressive emission abatement must therefore directly attack the perfect substitutability assumption of neoclassical economics. The real disagreement is about whether consumption growth can compensate for environmental degradation caused by global warming. Discounting is not the issue, but substitutability is. (author)

  7. Infrared detection based monitoring of global warming gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring of air-born organic and organic pollutants have always been a subject of concern to the environmentalists. Gases in particular Co/sub 2/, N/sub 2/O ad C/sub 4/ are responsible for global warming and have indirect impact on the environment. These gases are generally analyzed by gas chromatography. However on-site monitoring using this technique in rather difficult and it requires reasonable instrumental handling experience. The infrared-based technique is not only simple rather it also offers on advantage of on-site monitoring of a pollutant and eliminates the tedious job of sampling and its preservation. In the present work experimental conditions have been optimize for the selective detection of major global warming agents. Independent gas mixtures of Co/sub 2/, N/sub 2/O and C/sub 4/ have been prepared in pure helium gas by partial pressure method. The measured response of varied amount of each gas is found to be linear. The interference of these gases in presence of each other is also investigated. In this reference, gas mixtures of the gases are prepared considering the relevant concentration of each gas in the ambient air. The monitoring was found almost interference free at ambient concentration of these gases. The reliability can further be improved by incorporating the concentration trend of these gases. The reliability can further be improved by incorporating calibrated gas standard mixtures. (author)

  8. More powerful hurricanes following global warming; Kraftigere orkaner med global oppvarming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern; Rytter, Jens

    2004-07-01

    Rising sea temperature and more moisture in the atmosphere in a warmer climate will probably give more intense tropical hurricanes, but not necessarily more of them. When climatologists are asked if the apparent increase in the number of hurricanes in the Caribbean is caused by global warming, the standard answer is that global warming is expected to give elevated temperatures of the tropical seas, where these cyclones arise, and that this increases the chance of strong hurricanes. It is added that there is considerable natural variation in the frequency of such incidents from one decade to the next and that it is difficult to identify the effect of global warming. Consequently, so far it is unknown whether some of the heavy damage that follows in the wake of hurricanes can be ascribed to global warming. Typhoons are among the natural disasters that take most human lives and inflict the greatest material damage. In the USA the losses correspond to five billion US D per year, on average. In the Philippines, the damage amounts to about five per cent of the national income. In 1998, hurricane Mitch killed at least 10 000 people in Central America. The article discusses the physics of hurricanes and how they are classed. Some of the variation in the occurrence of hurricanes is ascribed to changes in the El Nino phenomenon, which affect how the winds vary with altitude in the relevant cyclone regions.

  9. Entropy Shows that Global Warming Should Cause Increased Variability in the Weather

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, John Michael

    2000-01-01

    Elementary physical reasoning seems to leave it inevitable that global warming would increase the variability of the weather. The first two terms in an approximation to the global entropy are used to show that global warming has increased the free energy available to drive the weather, and that the variance of the weather should increase correspondingly.

  10. 40 CFR Table A-1 to Subpart A of... - Global Warming Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Global Warming Potentials A Table A-1 to Subpart A of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... A-1 to Subpart A of Part 98—Global Warming Potentials Name CAS No. Chemical formula Global...

  11. Global Warming: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast. Part A The Greenhouse Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Bill

    1993-01-01

    Provides information necessary for an interdisciplinary analysis of the greenhouse effect, enhanced greenhouse effect, global warming, global climate change, greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, and scientific study of global warming for students grades 4-12. Several activity ideas accompany the information. (LZ)

  12. Trends in global warming and evolution of polymerase basic protein 2 family from influenza a virus

    OpenAIRE

    Shao-Min Yan; Guang Wu

    2009-01-01

    Both global warming and influenza trouble humans in varying ways, therefore it is important to study the trends in both global warming and evolution of influenza A virus, in particular, proteins from influenza A virus. Recently, we have conducted two studies along this line to determine the trends between global warming and polymerase acidic protein as well as matrix protein 2. Although these two studies reveal some interesting findings, many studies are still in need because at least there a...

  13. Collection, transfer and transport of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eisted, Rasmus; Larsen, Anna Warberg; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    The collection, transfer and transport of waste are basic activities of waste management systems all over the world. These activities all use energy and fuels, primarily of fossil origin. Electricity and fuel consumptions of the individual processes were reviewed and greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions were quantified. The emission factors were assigned a global warming potential (GWP) and aggregated into global warming factors (GWFs), which express the potential contribution to global warming from...

  14. Indirect Global Warming Potentials of Halons Using Atmospheric Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, D.; Patten, K. O.; Wuebbles, D. J.

    2007-05-01

    Emission of bromochlorofluorocarbons, or Halons, results in stratospheric ozone depletion. This leads to cooling of the climate system in the opposite direction to direct warming contribution of the Halons as greenhouse gases. This cooling is a key indirect effect of Halons on radiative forcing or climate. The Global Warming Potential (GWP) is a relative index used to compare the climate impact of an emitted greenhouse gas, relative to an equal amount of carbon dioxide. Until now, indirect GWPs have been calculated based on the concept of Equivalent Effective Stratospheric Chlorine (EESC), which oversimplifies the complex processes in the atmosphere. As a step towards obtaining indirect GWPs through a more robust approach, 2-D and 3-D global chemical transport models (CTM) were used as the computational tool to derive more realistic ozone changes caused by pulse perturbation of Halons at the surface. Indirect GWPs of Halon-1211 and -1301 for a 100-year time horizon were explicitly calculated based on the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) 2-D global CTM and radiative transport model (RTM) and the 3-D CTM, MOZART-3.1. The 2-D and 3-D model simulations show acceptable temporal variations in the atmosphere as well as derived lifetimes and direct GWP values of the Halons. The 2-D model-based indirect GWPs for a 100-year horizon are -16,294 for Halon-1211 and -33,648 for Halon-1301. 3-D indirect GWP for Halon-1211 is -18,216. The indirect GWPs for Halon-1211 presented here are much smaller than previous published results using the previous simplified appraoch.

  15. Transportation in El Salvador: a commitment to global warming management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Salvador City, El Salvador, is a city plagued with air pollution caused by traffic and congestion. Forecasts indicate the problem is likely to worsen in the coming years. Delcan International Corporation was commissioned by the Ministry of Public Works of El Salvador to study and evaluate the design and alternatives to a Ring Road circling San Salvador. The project, financed by the Inter-American Development Bank, is discussed in this paper, along with a summary of aspects of an Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) and the environmental impacts assessment conducted. Human-induced changes in climate, increasing levels of greenhouse gases are referred to as global warming of climate change. Water vapour, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone are the main greenhouse gases, with carbon dioxide representing the biggest threat. Approximately 14 per cent of global carbon dioxide emissions are caused by fumes emanating from motor-vehicle gasoline-fuels, and 50 per cent of those are produced in developing countries. Motor vehicles produce 60 to 90 per cent of carbon dioxide emissions in Latin America urban centres. Some ways of reducing carbon dioxide emissions are: reduce travel, use more efficient vehicles, improving existing vehicle technologies and fuels, improving traveller behaviour, reducing congestion. ITS could be a valuable tool for measuring the effectiveness of measures designed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The Intelligent Transportation System assists with the evaluation of the optimization and enlargement of existing roads, especially downtown, the construction of a highway around the city. This evaluation includes an environmental impact assessment, a traffic study and the highway final design. The Government of El Salvador has shown its commitment to sustainable practices toward global warming

  16. An electric utility program to address global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation believes that despite the incomplete and uncertain state of scientific knowledge concerning global atmospheric change, the plausible negative effects of accelerated global warming, known as open-quotes the Greenhouse Effect,close quotes are so large that purdent actions can and should be taken now to reduce so-called greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, the corporation has adopted a Greenhouse Warming Action Program based on strategies recommended by the National Academy of Sciences and the corporation's Integrated Electric Resource Plan. The program is a logical outgrowth of the company's policy statement on protection of the environment and is designed to surpass the Rio Earth Summit's goal of stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions. Central to the Action Program are increased use of natural gas, aggressive expansion of energy efficiency programs, and maximized generation from hydroelectric and nuclear energy sources. Additional elements include preventing releases of CFC's through customer incentive recycling programs; a forest conservation program of managing lands on a sustainable yield basis, environmentally-conscious use of paper products, and waste paper and cardboard recycling; promoting commercialization of low emitting vehicles; and developing and demonstrating low-CO2 technologies such as wind turbines and photo-voltaic cells. Niagara Mohawk believes that acting now to implement such a policy is a responsible step that makes sense from both scientific and business perspectives. Moreover, voluntary action now by utilities and other segments of the private sector is the best way to avoid the need for future regulation by government designed to achieve the same end. We intend to do our part to stabilize and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, while recognizing that our contribution is only a small fraction of total global greenhouse gas emissions

  17. American exceptionalism? Similarities and differences in national attitudes toward energy policy and global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, D M; Curry, T E; De Figueiredo, M A; Herzog, H J; Ansolabehere, S D; Itaoka, K; Johnsson, F; Odenberger, M

    2006-04-01

    Despite sharp differences in government policy, the views of the U.S. public on energy and global warming are remarkably similar to those in Sweden, Britain, and Japan. Americans do exhibit some differences, placing lower priority on the environment and global warming, and with fewer believing that "global warming has been established as a serious problem and immediate action is necessary". There also remains a small hard core of skeptics (nuclear power), and in willingness to pay for solving global warming. PMID:16646438

  18. Climate extremes and ecosystem productivity in global warming simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, I. N.; Torn, M. S.; Riley, W. J.; Wehner, M. F.; Collins, W.

    2013-12-01

    Ecosystem responses to present-day droughts and heat-waves are often considered indicative of future global warming impacts on ecosystems, under the assumption that the temperature above which vegetation experiences heat and drought stress is invariant with changes in climate and carbon dioxide concentration. Understanding how the impacts of temperature extremes on ecosystems can change with climate change is essential for correctly evaluating and developing Earth System Models (ESMs). The Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) historical and future (RCP8.5) climate predictions were analyzed in this study to illustrate non-stationarity of climate impacts on ecosystems, as evident by changes in the distribution of Gross Primary Production (GPP) as a function of temperature between future and historical climates. These changes consist of (1) a uniform shift in the GPP distribution toward warmer temperatures between future and historical climates, and (2) a proportional increase in GPP at all temperatures, consistent with CO2 fertilization. The temperature at which GPP has a local maximum within a given climate increases with global warming and closely tracks the change in mean temperature for each ecosystem. This maximum GPP temperature can be conceptualized as a stable equilibrium determined by the temperature at which an increase in plant water stress is compensated by a decrease in light stress (decreasing cloud cover) with increasing temperature. Temperature relative to the temperature of maximum GPP is proposed as an improved measure of climate extremes more relevant to ecosystem productivity than absolute temperature. The percentage change in GPP attributed to changes in relative temperature extremes is up to 3% per K (decrease in GPP), and reflects both an increase in the frequency of climate extremes in global warming scenarios and the change in temperature criteria for negative climate impacts on ecosystem productivity. Temperature at GPP maximum as a function of the growing season average temperature, for each ecosystem type. Lengths of crosshairs indicate the standard error of the CMIP5 ensemble average. Both future and historical averages are shown (the temperature of GPP maximum increases monotonically with growing season average temperature between future and historical simulations).

  19. Competition between global warming and an abrupt collapse of the AMOC in Earth's energy imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drijfhout, Sybren

    2015-01-01

    A collapse of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) leads to global cooling through fast feedbacks that selectively amplify the response in the Northern Hemisphere (NH). How such cooling competes with global warming has long been a topic for speculation, but was never addressed using a climate model. Here it is shown that global cooling due to a collapsing AMOC obliterates global warming for a period of 15-20 years. Thereafter, the global mean temperature trend is reversed and becomes similar to a simulation without an AMOC collapse. The resulting surface warming hiatus lasts for 40-50 years. Global warming and AMOC-induced NH cooling are governed by similar feedbacks, giving rise to a global net radiative imbalance of similar sign, although the former is associated with surface warming, the latter with cooling. Their footprints in outgoing longwave and absorbed shortwave radiation are very distinct, making attribution possible. PMID:26437599

  20. Global Deliberative Democracy and Climate Change: Insights from World Wide Views on Global Warming in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Riedy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available On 26 September 2009, approximately 4,000 citizens in 38 countries participated in World Wide Views on Global Warming (WWViews. WWViews was an ambitious first attempt to convene a deliberative mini-public at a global scale, giving people from around the world an opportunity to deliberate on international climate policy and to make recommendations to the decision-makers meeting at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen (COP-15 in December 2009. In this paper, we examine the role that deliberative mini-publics can play in facilitating the emergence of a global deliberative system for climate change response. We pursue this intent through a reflective evaluation of the Australian component of the World Wide Views on Global Warming project (WWViews. Our evaluation of WWViews is mixed. The Australian event was delivered with integrity and feedback from Australian participants was almost universally positive. Globally, WWViews demonstrated that it is feasible to convene a global mini-public to deliberate on issues of global relevance, such as climate change. On the other hand, the contribution of WWViews towards the emergence of a global deliberative system for climate change response was limited and it achieved little influence on global climate change policy. We identify lessons for future global mini-publics, including the need to prioritise the quality of deliberation and provide flexibility to respond to cultural and political contexts in different parts of the world. Future global mini-publics may be more influential if they seek to represent discourse diversity in addition to demographic profiles, use designs that maximise the potential for transmission from public to empowered space, run over longer time periods to build momentum for change and experiment with ways of bringing global citizens together in a single process instead of discrete national events.

  1. Energy and global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of this study is to develop representative indications of the relative energy use, associated CO2 emissions, and total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of viable options to replace CFCs in their major energy-related application areas. It was motivated, in part, by a concern that most attention to date has focused on the DIRECT global warming effect of CFC's and their alternatives, with adequate attention being paid to the INDIRECT effect of the CO2 emissions arising from the differences in energy consumption by systems using different alternatives. The DIRECT and INDIRECT contributions are combined in this analysis to determine the TEWI of the various technical options. The study is international in scope and takes into account significant differences in present CFC end-use practices, sources of energy, and other societal factors between Europe, Japan, and North America. This study should be considered an overview of key issues. The analysis addressed CFCs as well as alternative chemicals and technology alternatives in uses such as refrigeration, foam insulation, and metal and electronic cleaning and drying processes

  2. 'Carbon-Money Exchange' to contain global warming and deforestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper builds a basic theory of 'Carbon-Money Exchange' in which carbon as currency in nature's household (ecosystems) and money as currency in humankind's household (economy) are exchanged just like in a foreign exchange. The simple chemical equation below makes it possible (CO2?C+O2=C+O2?CO2). The left-hand side represents the work of plants to remove atmospheric CO2. The right-hand side represents the work of humans as fossil fuel consumers to produce it. The exchange of the two currencies is possible by copying the fossil fuel market. The paper concludes that this new exchange can automatically contain global warming and deforestation, replacing onerous emissions trading. Moreover, it could revolutionize the conventional economy, creating counter-capitalism, or 'carbonism'

  3. Energy conversion of biomass in coping with global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Shin-ya; Ogi, Tomoko; Minowa, Tomoaki [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    The main purpose of the present paper is to propose energy conversion technologies of biomass in coping with global warming. Among thermochemical conversion, liquid fuel production by high pressure process is mainly introduced. Biomass is a term used to describe materials of biological origin, either purpose-grown or arising as by-products, residues or wastes from forestry, agriculture and food processing. Such biomass is a renewable energy sources dependent on solar energy. Through photosynthesis, plants converts carbon dioxide into organic materials used in their growth. Energy can be recovered from the plant materials by several processes, the simplest way is burning in air. As far as biomass is used in this way, there is no atmospheric accumulation of carbon dioxide making no effect on the Greenhouse Effect, provided that the cycle of regrowth and burning is sustained.

  4. New electric technologies to reduce global warming impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced electric technologies hold significant potential to reduce global warming impact through reduction of primary fuel needed to power end-use applications. These reductions can occur in two forms: (1) reduced kilowatt-hour usage and power plant emissions through efficiency improvements and technological enhancements of existing electrically-driven applications; (2) the development of new electric technologies to replace traditional fossil-fuel driven applications which can result in less overall primary energy consumption and lower overall emissions. Numerous new electric technologies are presently being developed by the Electric Power Research Institute. The technologies reviewed in this paper include: Microwave Fabric Dryer, Advanced Heat Pumps, Heat Pump Water Heater, Infrared Sand Reclaimer, Freeze Concentration, Membrane Water Recovery, Microwave Petrochemical Production, Infrared Drying, and Electric Vehicles. Full commercialization of these technologies can result in significant energy savings and CO2 reductions, in addition to improving the competitiveness of businesses using these technologies

  5. A Robust Response of the Hadley Circulation to Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K M.; Kim, Kyu-Myong

    2014-01-01

    Tropical rainfall is expected to increase in a warmer climate. Yet, recent studies have inferred that the Hadley Circulation (HC), which is primarily driven by latent heating from tropical rainfall, is weakened under global warming. Here, we show evidence of a robust intensification of the HC from analyses of 33 CMIP5 model projections under a scenario of 1 per year CO2 emission increase. The intensification is manifested in a deep-tropics squeeze, characterized by a pronounced increase in the zonal mean ascending motion in the mid and upper troposphere, a deepening and narrowing of the convective zone and enhanced rainfall in the deep tropics. These changes occur in conjunction with a rise in the region of maximum outflow of the HC, with accelerated meridional mass outflow in the uppermost branch of the HC away from the equator, coupled to a weakened inflow in the return branches of the HC in the lower troposphere.

  6. The impact of global warming on the Southern Oscillation Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Scott B.; Kociuba, Greg

    2011-11-01

    The Southern Oscillation Index (SOI)—a measure of air pressure difference across the Pacific Ocean, from Tahiti in the south-east to Darwin in the west—is one of the world's most important climatic indices. The SOI is used to track and predict changes in both the El Niño-Southern Oscillation phenomenon, and the Walker Circulation (WC). During El Niño, for example, the WC weakens and the SOI tends to be negative. Climatic variations linked to changes in the WC have a profound influence on climate, ecosystems, agriculture, and societies in many parts of the world. Previous research has shown that (1) the WC and the SOI weakened in recent decades and that (2) the WC in climate models tends to weaken in response to elevated atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Here we examine changes in the SOI and air pressure across the Pacific in the observations and in numerous WCRP/CMIP3 climate model integrations for both the 20th and 21st centuries. The difference in mean-sea level air pressure (MSLP) between the eastern and western equatorial Pacific tends to weaken during the 21st century, consistent with previous research. Here we show that this primarily arises because of an increase in MSLP in the west Pacific and not a decline in the east. We also show, in stark contrast to expectations, that the SOI actually tends to increase during the 21st century, not decrease. Under global warming MSLP tends to increase at both Darwin and Tahiti, but tends to rise more at Tahiti than at Darwin. Tahiti lies in an extensive region where MSLP tends to rise in response to global warming. So while the SOI is an excellent indicator of interannual variability in both the equatorial MSLP gradient and the WC, it is a highly misleading indicator of long-term equatorial changes linked to global warming. Our results also indicate that the observed decline in the SOI in recent decades has been driven by natural, internally generated variability. The externally forced signal in the June-December SOI during 2010 is estimated to be approximately 5% of the standard deviation of variability in the SOI during the 20th century. This figure is projected to increase to 40% by the end of the 21st century under the A2 SRES scenario. The 2010 global warming signal is already a major contributor to interdecadal variability in the SOI, equal to 45% of the standard deviation of 30-year running averages of the SOI. This figure is projected to increase to nearly 340% by the end of the 21st century. Implications that these discoveries have for understanding recent climatic change and for seasonal prediction are discussed.

  7. Rapid increasing trend of CO2 and ocean acidification in the surface water of the Ulleung Basin, East/Japan Sea inferred from the observations from 1995 to 2004

    OpenAIRE

    J.-Y. Kim; D.-J. Kang; Lee, T; K.-R. Kim

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic carbon is responsible for both global warming and ocean acidification. Efforts are underway to understand the role of ocean in a high CO2 world on a global context. However, marginal seas received little attention despite their significant contribution to biogeochemical cycles. Here we report that the CO2 increase and ocean acidification in the surface waters of the Ulleung Basin (UB) of the East/Japan Sea are much faster than the global mean, and possible causes are disc...

  8. Model of Psychological State Affecting to Global Warming Alleviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nongnapas Thiengkamol

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The intention of psychologists tried to understand on human behavior, and then they had developed a large number of theories and models but they had the main focus on explanation how individual perceived and evaluated the stimulant before making decision to express his behavior. However, study on human behavior, it can’t be ignored the psychological state. Psychological state is a mental condition in which the qualities of a state are relatively constant even though the state itself may be dynamic but it contains certain characteristics that might be permanent for period of life. Especially, people is inspired for value of self-living, value of family living, attitude of sufficiency, religion belief, and Environmental Physical. The populations was 35, 010 undergraduate students of the first semester of academic year 2011 of Mahasarakham University. The simple random sampling was used to collect the sample for 450 undergraduate students with equivalent proportion according to fields of study. The questionnaire was employed as instrument for data collecting. LISREL was used for model verification. Results illustrated that the structural model, confirmatory factors of Psychological State (STATE were able to explain the variation of confirmatory factors of Inspiration of Public Consciousness to caused Environmental Behaviors for Global Warming Alleviation with 63.4 percents. Therefore, the equation can be written as following.

    BEH =  0.38 MIND  + 0.29 STATE                                (1

    (R2 =0.57

    Key words: Model; Psychological State; Affecting;  Global Warming Alleviation

  9. Predicting the global warming potential of agro-ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lehuger

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane are the main biogenic greenhouse gases (GHG contributing to the global warming potential (GWP of agro-ecosystems. Evaluating the impact of agriculture on climate thus requires a capacity to predict the net exchanges of these gases in an integrated manner, as related to environmental conditions and crop management. Here, we used two year-round data sets from two intensively-monitored cropping systems in northern France to test the ability of the biophysical crop model CERES-EGC to simulate GHG exchanges at the plot-scale. The experiments involved maize and rapeseed crops on a loam and rendzina soils, respectively. The model was subsequently extrapolated to predict CO2 and N2O fluxes over an entire crop rotation. Indirect emissions (IE arising from the production of agricultural inputs and from cropping operations were also added to the final GWP. One experimental site (involving a wheat-maize-barley rotation on a loamy soil was a net source of GHG with a GWP of 350 kg CO2-C eq ha?1 yr?1, of which 75% were due to IE and 25% to direct N2O emissions. The other site (involving an oilseed rape-wheat-barley rotation on a rendzina was a net sink of GHG for –250 kg CO2-C eq ha?1 yr?1, mainly due to a higher predicted C sequestration potential and C return from crops. Such modelling approach makes it possible to test various agronomic management scenarios, in order to design productive agro-ecosystems with low global warming impact.

  10. Eddy parametrization and the oceanic response to idealized global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, S.B. [Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Research Centre; Hirst, A.C. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Division of Atmospheric Research, Aspendale (Australia)

    1997-07-01

    A coarse-grid global ocean general circulation model (OGCM) is used to determine the role of sub-grid scale eddy parametrization schemes in the response to idealized changes in the surface heat flux, of the same order as expected under increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. Two schemes are employed. The first (H) incorporates standard horizontal mixing, whereas the second (G) combines both enhanced isopycnal mixing and eddy-induced transport. Uniform surface heating anomalies of +2 Wm{sup -2} and -2Wm{sup -2} are applied for 50 years, and the results are compared with a control experiment in which no anomalous heating is imposed. A passive ``heat`` tracer is applied uniformly (at a rate of 2 Wm{sup -2} for 50 years) in a separate experiment. The sea-surface temperature response to global surface heating is generally larger in G, especially in the northern subtropical gyres, along the southern coast of Australia and off the Antarctic coast. A pronounced interhemispheric asymmetry (primarily arising from an anomalous response south of 35 S) is evident in both H and G. The surface trapping of passive tracers in the Southern Hemisphere is generally greater in G than it is in H, and is particularly pronounced along the prime meridian (0 E). Dynamical changes (i.e., changes in horizontal and vertical currents, convection, and preferred mixing and eddy transport pathways) enhance surface warming in the tropics and subtropics in both G and H. They are dominated by an anomalous meridional overturning centred on the equator, which may also operate in greenhouse warming experiments using coupled atmosphere-ocean GCMs. (orig.). With 15 figs.

  11. Sensitivity of direct global warming potentials to key uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of global warming potential was developed as a relative measure of the potential effects on climate of a greenhouse gas. In this paper a series of sensitivity studies examines several uncertainties in determination of Global Warming Potentials (GWPs). The original evaluation of GWPs did not attempt to account for the possible sinks of carbon dioxide (CO2) that could balance the carbon cycle and produce atmospheric concentrations of CO2 that match observations. In this study, a balanced carbon cycle model is applied in calculation of the radiative forcing from CO2. Use of the balanced model produces up to 21% enhancement of the GWPs for most trace gases compared with the IPCC (1990) values for time horizons up to 100 years, but a decreasing enhancement with longer time horizons. Uncertainty limits of the fertilization feedback parameter contribute a 20% range in GWP values. Another systematic uncertainty in GWPs is the assumption of an equilibrium atmosphere (one in which the concentration of trace gases remains constant) versus a disequilibrium atmosphere (one in which the concentration of trace gases varies with time). The latter gives GWPs that are 19 to 32% greater than the former for a 100 year time horizons, depending upon the carbon dioxide emission scenario chosen. Five scenarios are employed: constant-concentration, constant-emission past 1990 and the three IPCC (1992) emission scenarios. For the analysis of uncertainties in atmospheric lifetime (tor) of the GWP changes in direct proportion to (tor) for short-lived gases, but to a lesser extent for gases with (tor) greater than the time horizontal for the GWP calculation. 40 refs., 7 figs., 13 tabs

  12. Simulation of global warming effect on outdoor thermal comfort conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roshan, G.R.; Ranjbar, F. [Univ. of Tehran (IR). Dept. of Physical Geography; Orosa, J.A. [Univ. of A Coruna (Spain). Dept. of Energy

    2010-07-01

    In the coming decades, global warming and increase in temperature, in different regions of the world, may change indoor and outdoor thermal comfort conditions and human health. The aim of this research was to study the effects of global warming on thermal comfort conditions in indoor ambiences in Iran. To study the increase in temperature, model for assessment of greenhouse-gas induced climate change scenario generator compound model has been used together with four scenarios and to estimate thermal comfort conditions, adaptive model of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers has been used. In this study, Iran was divided into 30 zones, outdoor conditions were obtained using meteorological data of 80 climatological stations and changes in neutral comfort conditions in 2025, 2050, 2075 and 2100 were predicted. In accordance with each scenario, findings from this study showed that temperature in the 30 zones will increase by 2100 to between 3.4 C and 5.6 C. In the coming decades and in the 30 studied zones, neutral comfort temperature will increase and be higher and more intense in the central and desert zones of Iran. The low increase in this temperature will be connected to the coastal areas of the Caspian and Oman Sea in southeast Iran. This increase in temperature will be followed by a change in thermal comfort and indoor energy consumption from 8.6 % to 13.1 % in air conditioning systems. As a result, passive methods as thermal inertia are proposed as a possible solution.

  13. Nuclear energy the best alternative in alleviating global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last century, the average temperature of the earth has abnormally increased by 0.74 c, causing concern among scientists. Some experts believe that the earth has experienced the warmest years during the last decades of 20 century, to the extent that the last 400 years have been the warmest years. The reports 2007 suggest that the hottest periods recorded occur a 1990 - 2007 which was a record high during the past 150 years. It seems that industrialization has contributed significantly to the global warming. The measurement of earth temperature dates hack to 1880 which has continued up to the present time. It is also predicted that the year 2014 would witness an unprecedented high air temperature. Moreover, scientists have expressed grave concern about the occurrence of severe droughts, scorching heat and formidable storms which are yet to strike the earth in the year 2100. According to the International atomic agency, nuclear energy is by far, the best and safest production source of electricity in the future due to it's low emission rate of carbon dioxide. However , prior to making any commitment, it seem imperative to increase public awareness about the dire consequences of the continued utilization of fossil fuels. Based on research carried out by International atomic agency, nuclear energy is superior to other sources of energy in two major respects: lack of any so-called greenhouse gas emission and the utilization of uranium as the single source the energy production. The study aims at first; probing into the causes of global warming, the outcomes and ultimately provision of a way out of the problem and identifying the means to seriously cope with the problem. 5

  14. Solar Panels reduce both global warming and Urban Heat Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ValéryMasson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of solar energy in cities is clearly a way to diminish our dependency to fossil fuels, and is a good way to mitigate global warming by lowering the emission of greenhouse gases. However, what are the impacts of solar panels locally ? To evaluate their influence on urban weather, it is necessary to parameterize their effects within the surface schemes that are coupled to atmospheric models. The present paper presents a way to implement solar panels in the Town Energy Balance scheme, taking account of the energy production (for thermal and photovoltaic panels, the impact on the building below and feedback towards the urban micro-climate through radiative and convective fluxes. A scenario of large but realistic deployment of solar panels on the Paris metropolitan area is then simulated. It is shown that solar panels, by shading the roofs, slightly increases the need for domestic heating (3%. In summer however, the solar panels reduce the energy needed for air-conditioning (by 12% and also the Urban Heat Island (UHI: 0.2K by day and up to 0.3K at night. These impacts are larger than those found in previous works, because of the use of thermal panels (that are more efficient than photovoltaic panels and the geographical position of Paris, which is relatively far from the sea. This means that it is not influenced by sea breezes, and hence that its UHI is stronger than for a coastal city of the same size. But this also means that local adaptation strategies aiming to decrease the UHI will have more potent effects. In summary, the deployment of solar panels is good both globally, to produce renewable energy (and hence to limit the warming of the climate and locally, to decrease the UHI, especially in summer, when it can constitute a health threat.

  15. The use of biofuels to mitigate global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This planet is habitable because of the warming effect because trace gases in the atmosphere that absorb and trap longer IR wavelengths reradiated from the Earth's surface. These trace greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor, methane (CH4) halocarbons, nitrogen oxides (N2O), and ozone (O3). CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere are rising at the rate of about 0.5%/year (Smith, 1988). As the levels of greenhouse gases increase, more solar radiation is trapped and the Earth's temperature increases. Measurements show that the average global temperature has risen only about 1 degrees F, but the problem appears to be accelerating. The 5 warmest years have occurred in the last decade, with 1987 the warmest. Although the consequences are not yet clear, many scientists predict radial climatic changes, with melting of the polar ice caps and the creation of vast deserts. It is recognized that the increase in greenhouse gases is largely due to fossil fuel use, as well as changing land use. While deforestation and land exploitation have been responsible for high CO2 emissions in the past, these sources will be comparatively small in the future, since the rate of deforestation will decline. Hence, future trends in the atmospheric CO2 concentration will depend primarily upon fossil energy usage. Except for a short period following the 1973 oil embargo, world CO2 emissions from combustion of fossil fuels have increased about 3%/year during the last 40 years, to about 24 billion ton in 1988. The US consumes one third of the world's energy, and contributes about one fourth of the CO2 emissions, or 6 billion ton/year. Clearly the energy policies of the US will have a significant influence on potential global warming

  16. Does flower phenology mirror the slowdown of global warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochner, Susanne; Menzel, Annette

    2015-06-01

    Although recent global warming trends in air temperature are not as pronounced as those observed only one decade ago, global mean temperature is still at a very high level. Does plant phenology - which is believed to be a suitable indicator of climate change - respond in a similar way, that is, does it still mirror recent temperature variations? We explored in detail long-term flowering onset dates of snowdrop, cherry, and lime tree and relevant spring temperatures at three sites in Germany (1901-2012) using the Bayesian multiple change-point approach. We investigated whether mean spring temperature changes were amplified or slowed down in the past decade and how plant phenology responded to the most recent temperature changes. Incorporating records with different end points (i.e., 2002 and 2012), we compared differences in trends and inferred possible differences caused by extrapolating phenological and meteorological data. The new multiple-change point approach is characterized by an enhanced structure and greater flexibility compared to the one change point model. However, the highest model probabilities for phenological (meteorological) records were still obtained for the one change point (linear) model. Marked warming trends in the recent decade were only revealed for mean temperatures of March to May, here better described with one or two change point models. In the majority of cases analyzed, changes in temperatures were well mirrored by phenological changes. However, temperatures in March to May were linked to less strongly advancing onset dates for lime tree flowering during the period 1901-2012, pointing to the likely influence of photoperiodic constraints or unfulfilled chilling requirements. Due to the slowdown of temperature increase, analyses conducted on records ending in 2002 demonstrated distinct differences when compared with records ending in 2012. Extrapolation of trends could therefore (along with the choice of the statistical method) lead to distinctly different results and most recent data should be integrated in order not to over- or underestimate future phenological changes. PMID:26078862

  17. MIT study sees nuclear power as green weapon against global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the public doesn't yet view nuclear power as a way to mitigate global warming, an MIT study says a global tripling of nuclear power generation could avoid nearly 2 billion tonnes of carbon emissions annually

  18. MIT Study Sees Nuclear Power as Green Weapon Against Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Jim

    2003-12-01

    Although the public doesn't yet view nuclear power as a way to mitigate global warming, an MIT study says a global tripling of nuclear power generation could avoid nearly 2 billion tonnes of carbon emissions annually.

  19. Constraints of fossil fuels depletion on global warming projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scientific debate is in progress about the intersection of climate change with the new field of fossil fuels depletion geology. Here, new projections of atmospheric CO2 concentration and global-mean temperature change are presented, should fossil fuels be exploited at a rate limited by geological availability only. The present work starts from the projections of fossil energy use, as obtained from ten independent sources. From such projections an upper bound, a lower bound and an ensemble mean profile for fossil CO2 emissions until 2200 are derived. Using the coupled gas-cycle/climate model MAGICC, the corresponding climatic projections out to 2200 are obtained. We find that CO2 concentration might increase up to about 480 ppm (445-540 ppm), while the global-mean temperature increase w.r.t. 2000 might reach 1.2 deg. C (0.9-1.6 deg. C). However, future improvements of fossil fuels recovery and discoveries of new resources might lead to higher emissions; hence our climatic projections are likely to be underestimated. In the absence of actions of emissions reduction, a level of dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system might be already experienced toward the middle of the 21st century, despite the constraints imposed by the exhaustion of fossil fuels. - Highlights: ? CO2 and global temperature are projected under fossil fuels exhaustion scenarios. ? Temperature is projected to reach a minimum of 2 deg. C above pre-industrial. ? Temperature projections are possibly lower than the IPCC ones. ? Fossil fuels exhaustion will not avoid dangerous global warming.

  20. Slowing global warming: benefits for patients and the planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Cindy L

    2011-08-01

    Global warming will cause significant harm to the health of persons and their communities by compromising food and water supplies; increasing risks of morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases and heat stress; changing social determinants of health resulting from extreme weather events, rising sea levels, and expanding flood plains; and worsening air quality, resulting in additional morbidity and mortality from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Vulnerable populations such as children, older persons, persons living at or below the poverty level, and minorities will be affected earliest and greatest, but everyone likely will be affected at some point. Family physicians can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, stabilize the climate, and reduce the risks of climate change while also directly improving the health of their patients. Health interventions that have a beneficial effect on climate change include encouraging patients to reduce the amount of red meat in their diets and to replace some vehicular transportation with walking or bicycling. Patients are more likely to make such lifestyle changes if their physician asks them to and leads by example. Medical offices and hospitals can become more energy efficient by recycling, purchasing wind-generated electricity, and turning off appliances, computers, and lights when not in use. Moreover, physicians can play an important role in improving air quality and reducing greenhouse gas emissions by advocating for enforcement of existing air quality regulations and working with local and national policy makers to further improve air quality standards, thereby improving the health of their patients and slowing global climate change. PMID:21842773

  1. Asynchronous exposure to global warming: freshwater resources and terrestrial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerten, Dieter; Lucht, Wolfgang; Ostberg, Sebastian; Heinke, Jens; Kowarsch, Martin; Kreft, Holger; Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.; Rastgooy, Johann; Warren, Rachel; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2013-09-01

    This modelling study demonstrates at what level of global mean temperature rise (?Tg) regions will be exposed to significant decreases of freshwater availability and changes to terrestrial ecosystems. Projections are based on a new, consistent set of 152 climate scenarios (eight ?Tg trajectories reaching 1.5-5?° C above pre-industrial levels by 2100, each scaled with spatial patterns from 19 general circulation models). The results suggest that already at a ?Tg of 2?° C and mainly in the subtropics, higher water scarcity would occur in >50% out of the 19 climate scenarios. Substantial biogeochemical and vegetation structural changes would also occur at 2?° C, but mainly in subpolar and semiarid ecosystems. Other regions would be affected at higher ?Tg levels, with lower intensity or with lower confidence. In total, mean global warming levels of 2?° C, 3.5?° C and 5?° C are simulated to expose an additional 8%, 11% and 13% of the world population to new or aggravated water scarcity, respectively, with >50% confidence (while ˜1.3 billion people already live in water-scarce regions). Concurrently, substantial habitat transformations would occur in biogeographic regions that contain 1% (in zones affected at 2?° C), 10% (3.5?° C) and 74% (5?° C) of present endemism-weighted vascular plant species, respectively. The results suggest nonlinear growth of impacts along with ?Tg and highlight regional disparities in impact magnitudes and critical ?Tg levels.

  2. Asynchronous exposure to global warming: freshwater resources and terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This modelling study demonstrates at what level of global mean temperature rise (?Tg) regions will be exposed to significant decreases of freshwater availability and changes to terrestrial ecosystems. Projections are based on a new, consistent set of 152 climate scenarios (eight ?Tg trajectories reaching 1.5–5?° C above pre-industrial levels by 2100, each scaled with spatial patterns from 19 general circulation models). The results suggest that already at a ?Tg of 2?° C and mainly in the subtropics, higher water scarcity would occur in >50% out of the 19 climate scenarios. Substantial biogeochemical and vegetation structural changes would also occur at 2?° C, but mainly in subpolar and semiarid ecosystems. Other regions would be affected at higher ?Tg levels, with lower intensity or with lower confidence. In total, mean global warming levels of 2?° C, 3.5?° C and 5?° C are simulated to expose an additional 8%, 11% and 13% of the world population to new or aggravated water scarcity, respectively, with >50% confidence (while ?1.3 billion people already live in water-scarce regions). Concurrently, substantial habitat transformations would occur in biogeographic regions that contain 1% (in zones affected at 2?° C), 10% (3.5?° C) and 74% (5?° C) of present endemism-weighted vascular plant species, respectively. The results suggest nonlinear growth of impacts along with ?Tg and highlight regional disparities in impact magnitudes and critical ?Tg levels. (letter)

  3. Global Warming and Food Insecurity in Rural Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, T. R.; Byrne, J. M.; McDaniel, S.

    2012-12-01

    Food insecurity is one of the most important challenges facing humanity in the 21st century - a challenge that will be further exacerbated by the changing climate. The effects of human induced climate change will be most disproportionate and severe in the developing world, where a stable food supply, decreased purchasing power, and adequate nutrition are often already a daily struggle. This study will build on work done by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (UN), and will assess how vulnerability to household food insecurity will be affected by global warming in various rural parts of Latin America. Temperature data from downscaled Global Circulation Models (GCM) will be used in conjunction with the results of national household surveys to generate information on each rural farming household's probability of falling below a food poverty threshold in the near future. The results of the study will allow us to distinguish between households that are likely to experience chronic food insecurity and those that are likely to experience transitory food insecurity, permitting for improved targeting of policy responses.

  4. Projected range contractions of montane biodiversity under global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Sorte, Frank A; Jetz, Walter

    2010-11-22

    Mountains, especially in the tropics, harbour a unique and large portion of the world's biodiversity. Their geographical isolation, limited range size and unique environmental adaptations make montane species potentially the most threatened under impeding climate change. Here, we provide a global baseline assessment of geographical range contractions and extinction risk of high-elevation specialists in a future warmer world. We consider three dispersal scenarios for simulated species and for the world's 1009 montane bird species. Under constrained vertical dispersal (VD), species with narrow vertical distributions are strongly impacted; at least a third of montane bird diversity is severely threatened. In a scenario of unconstrained VD, the location and structure of mountain systems emerge as a strong driver of extinction risk. Even unconstrained lateral movements offer little improvement to the fate of montane species in the Afrotropics, Australasia and Nearctic. Our results demonstrate the particular roles that the geography of species richness, the spatial structure of lateral and particularly vertical range extents and the specific geography of mountain systems have in determining the vulnerability of montane biodiversity to climate change. Our findings confirm the outstanding levels of biotic perturbation and extinction risk that mountain systems are likely to experience under global warming and highlight the need for additional knowledge on species' vertical distributions, dispersal and adaptive capacities. PMID:20534610

  5. Literature review on the greenhouse effect and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A literature review of recent (1988-1990) publications on global warming and climate change was carried out by the Alberta Research Council. The objectives of the project were to develop a listing of relevant citations, review the publications, prepare a short summary of the contents of each, and develop statistics with respect to the degree to which scientific consensus exists on the various topics of interest. The bibliography contains 1,557 citations, and a total of 501 publications were reviewed. Topics of interest include computer modelling of world climate, potential impacts of climate change, potential strategies for responding to climate change, and technological solutions. Statistical results are presented of numbers of papers reviewed addressing types of emission, time of effective doubling of greenhouse gases, global temperature increase predicted for effective doubling of greenhouse gases, temperature increase in northern lattitudes for an effective doubling of greenhouse gases, components of atmosphere that are changing, potential impacts on agriculture, forestry, and health, suggested emission limitations, and suggested technological solutions. 4 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Increased record-breaking precipitation events under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Jascha; Coumou, Dim; Frieler, Katja

    2015-04-01

    In the last decade record-breaking rainfall events have occurred in many places around the world causing severe impacts to human society and the environment including agricultural losses and floodings. There is now medium confidence that human-induced greenhouse gases have contributed to changes in heavy precipitation events at the global scale. Here, we present the first analysis of observed extreme precipitation events using record statistics. We show that over the last three decades the number of record-breaking daily rainfall events has significantly increased in the global mean. This increase leads to an average of 12% more rainfall records over 1981-2010 compared to those expected in stationary time series. The number of rainfall records peaked in 2010 with an estimated 26% chance that a new rainfall record is due to long-term climate change. This increase in record rainfall is explained by a statistical model which accounts for the warming of air and associated increasing water holding capacity only. Our results suggest that whilst the number of rainfall records can be related to natural multi-decadal variability over the period from 1901 to 1980, rising temperatures have significantly contributed to the observed increase in rainfall records afterwards.

  7. Germination Shifts of C3 and C4 Species under Simulated Global Warming Scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hongxiang; Yu, Qiang; Huang, Yingxin; Zheng, Wei; Tian, Yu; Song, Yantao; Li, Guangdi; Zhou, Daowei

    2014-01-01

    Research efforts around the world have been increasingly devoted to investigating changes in C3 and C4 species' abundance or distribution with global warming, as they provide important insight into carbon fluxes and linked biogeochemical cycles. However, changes in the early life stage (e.g. germination) of C3 and C4 species in response to global warming, particularly with respect to asymmetric warming, have received less attention. We investigated germination percentage and rate of C3 and C4...

  8. Wheat production in Bangladesh: its future in the light of global warming

    OpenAIRE

    Akbar HOSSAIN; Jaime A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

    2013-01-01

    Global warming has already seen a radical change in temperature regimes in Bangladesh. This review provides the first up-to-date perspective and detailed analysis of wheat research in Bangladesh and the impact that global warming will have on its agriculture, especially wheat farming.

  9. Global Warming Responses at the Primary Secondary Interface: 2. Potential Effectiveness of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skamp, Keith; Boyes, Eddie; Stannistreet, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In an earlier paper (Skamp, Boyes, & Stanisstreet, 2009b), students' beliefs and willingness to act in relation to 16 specific actions related to global warming were compared across the primary secondary interface. More primary students believed in the effectiveness of most actions to reduce global warming and were willing to take those actions.…

  10. The Understandings of Global Warming and Learning Styles: A Phenomenographic Analysis of Prospective Primary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirkaya, Hilmi

    2008-01-01

    In this study, statements by prospective primary school teachers such as "I think the word global warming ..." or "I think the term global warming means ..." were analyzed by using qualitative phenomenographic research methods. 142 female (48.3%) and 152 male (51.7%) primary school teacher candidates (n = 294) participated in the study. Moreover,…

  11. Using Interactive Technology to Support Students' Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Keisha; Linn, Marcia C.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we examine middle school students' understanding of the greenhouse effect and global warming. We designed and refined a technology-enhanced curriculum module called "Global Warming: Virtual Earth". In the module activities, students conduct virtual experiments with a visualization of the greenhouse effect. They analyze data and draw…

  12. Metaphors of Primary School Students Relating to the Concept of Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogru, Mustafa; Sarac, Esra

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the metaphors of primary school students (n = 362) relating to the concept of global warming. Data collected by completing the expression of "global warming is like..., because..." of the students were analysed by use of qualitative and quantitative data analysis techniques. According to findings of…

  13. Senior Secondary Indian Students' Views about Global Warming, and Their Implications for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhokar, Kiran; Dua, Shweta; Taylor, Neil; Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin

    2012-01-01

    For individuals to make informed lifestyle choices that may help to reduce global warming, they need some understanding of this phenomenon and the factors that contribute to it. However, there is a "gap" between knowledge about global warming and willingness to take personal action. So, although education may be effective in enhancing student…

  14. Global Warming Responses at the Primary Secondary Interface: 1. Students' Beliefs and Willingness to Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skamp, Keith; Boyes, Eddie; Stannistreet, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Using survey methodology, students' beliefs, and willingness to act, about 16 specific actions related to global warming are compared across the primary secondary interface. More primary students believed in the effectiveness of most actions to reduce global warming and were willing to take those actions. In general there was a disparity between…

  15. Presenting Global Warming and Evolution as Public Health Issues to Encourage Acceptance of Scientific Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Shawn K.; McArthur, Laurence B.; Mabry, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    Although evidence supporting anthropogenic global warming and evolution by natural selection is considerable, the public does not embrace these concepts. The current study explores the hypothesis that individuals will become more receptive to scientific viewpoints if evidence for evolution and implications of global warming are presented as issues…

  16. A New Type of Debate for Global Warming and Scientific Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Expanding on some ideas introduced in the paper by Albe and Gombert (2012) "Students' communication, argumentation and knowledge in a citizen' conference on global warming", I explore two issues relevant to their work: global warming (GW) as a socioscientific controversy and scientific literacy in regards to climate change science. For the first…

  17. Expected effect of fusion reactor on global environment. Nuclear fusion as a global warming mitigation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper outlines the use of nuclear fusion as a global warming mitigation technology. Life cycle CO2 emission from a nuclear fusion plant is quite low; it is comparable to that of nuclear fission. Nuclear fusion has the potential to contribute future energy systems and environment. The technological feasibility of nuclear fusion should be demonstrated in order to begin clarifying the potential contribution of nuclear fusion as well as to educate those outside of the fusion community about its potential. (author)

  18. The myths of global warming and nuclear power. Evidence from public opinion survey in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research, it was investigated why people think that nuclear power generation is a cause of global warming. Factor analysis method was applied to data obtained from survey in Japanese Kansai area. As a result, the misunderstanding, the thermal discharge and radioactive material etc. produced from a nuclear power plant promotes global warming, has influenced on this issue. It has become evident that behind such misunderstanding is a negative image of nuclear power. This negative image is a factor to decrease the evaluation that nuclear power is useful for preventing global warming regardless of the presence of the misunderstanding. It is believed that the negative image of nuclear power does not lead to direct association of nuclear power generation and global warming, but by the fear that the accident of the nuclear plant brings the environmental destruction, people evaluate that nuclear power generation is not effective for preventing global warming without grounds. Especially, the tendency is very strong in young people. (author)

  19. A unified sea-level response function to global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Ricarda; Mengel, Matthias; Reese, Ronja; Levermann, Anders

    2015-04-01

    Linear response functions provide an alternative to process-based models to project future sea-level rise. They are designed to capture the sea-level response to a certain forcing in a comprehensive manner without relying on the full understanding but comprising all processes involved. Here, we propose one unified sea-level response function to global warming as a synthesis of different response functions of the major contributors: oceanic thermal expansion, ice loss from mountain glaciers as well as ice loss from the two ice-sheets on Greenland and Antarctica both through changes in the surface mass balance and dynamic discharge. Except for surface mass balance changes of the ice sheets which occur instantaneously, each response function is inherently time-dependent and accounts for the fact that past climate change will continue to influence sea-level rise in the future. The proposed functions separately estimate the contributions from the main sea-level components on a centennial time scale. The validity of the approach is assessed by comparing the sea-level estimates obtained via the response functions to observations as well as projections from comprehensive models. Total sea level rise and the observed contributions in the past decades are reasonably well reproduced by our approach. Provided that the underlying dynamic mechanisms do not undergo a qualitative change within the 21st century, the response functions found for the individual components can therefore be merged into a single response function in order to project global sea-level rise for a given global mean temperature anomaly.

  20. Recognition of people with an opinion that nuclear power generation causes global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almost a half of the people are thinking that nuclear power generation causes global warming. We conducted a survey in order to explore the recognition and background for the thinking of people. Consequently, the existence of the right knowledge ''nuclear power generation does not discharge carbon dioxide at the time of power generation'' influenced most the idea which nuclear power generation prevents global warming. On the other hand, the misunderstanding as ''the radioactive material produced from a nuclear power plant advances global warming'' has influenced the idea considered as a cause, and it is though that this misunderstanding depend on the negative image to nuclear power generation. Moreover, many people do not recognize the mechanism of global warming, and it is thought that they confuse global warming with the other global environment problems, such as acid rain or ozone layer destruction. Therefore, it is required to spread the knowledge that nuclear power generation does not discharge carbon dioxide, and to promote the understanding that a radioactive material is not related to global warming. Furthermore, it is required to distinguish global warming from the other global environment problems, and to explain them intelligibly. (author)

  1. The Role of Information Professionals in Reducing the Effects of Global Warming through Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lect. Ph. D. Priti Jain

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available As a result of global environmental change, global warming is the greatest environmental challenge in the 21st century. It could lead to the ultimate end of existence of earth and man. Potential catastrophic effects on the environment and for human life are one of the biggest concerns and most widely discussed issues in the world. This paper will explore how Information Professionals can build knowledge management related to global warming and thus make their contribution towards a sustainable environment. With a brief discussion of causes, effects, solutions and challenges related to global warming, the conclusion suggests a way forward for librarians and information professionals.

  2. Estimating the permafrost-carbon feedback on global warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schneider von Deimling

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Thawing of permafrost and the associated release of carbon constitutes a positive feedback in the climate system, elevating the effect of anthropogenic GHG emissions on global-mean temperatures. Multiple factors have hindered the quantification of this feedback, which was not included in the CMIP3 and C4MIP generation of AOGCMs and carbon cycle models. There are considerable uncertainties in the rate and extent of permafrost thaw, the hydrological and vegetation response to permafrost thaw, the decomposition timescales of freshly thawed organic material, the proportion of soil carbon that might be emitted as carbon dioxide via aerobic decomposition or as methane via anaerobic decomposition, and in the magnitude of the high latitude amplification of global warming that will drive permafrost degradation. Additionally, there are extensive and poorly characterized regional heterogeneities in soil properties, carbon content, and hydrology. Here, we couple a new permafrost module to a reduced complexity carbon-cycle climate model, which allows us to perform a large ensemble of simulations. The ensemble is designed to span the uncertainties listed above and thereby the results provide an estimate of the potential strength of the permafrost-carbon feedback. For the high CO2 concentration scenario (RCP8.5, 12–52 PgC, or an extra 3–11 % above projected net CO2 emissions from land carbon cycle feedbacks, are released by 2100 (68 % uncertainty range. This leads to an additional warming of 0.02–0.11 °C. Though projected 21st century emissions are relatively modest, ongoing permafrost thaw and slow but steady soil carbon decomposition means that, by 2300, more than half of the potentially vulnerable permafrost carbon stock in the upper 3m of soil layer (600–1000 PgC could be released as CO2, with an extra 1–3 % being released as methane. Our results also suggest that mitigation action in line with the lower scenario RCP3-PD could contain Arctic temperature increase sufficiently that thawing of the permafrost area is limited to 15–30 % and the permafrost-carbon induced temperature increase does not exceed 0.01–0.07 °C by 2300.

  3. Estimating the permafrost-carbon feedback on global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider von Deimling, T.; Meinshausen, M.; Levermann, A.; Huber, V.; Frieler, K.; Lawrence, D. M.; Brovkin, V.

    2011-05-01

    Thawing of permafrost and the associated release of carbon constitutes a positive feedback in the climate system, elevating the effect of anthropogenic GHG emissions on global-mean temperatures. Multiple factors have hindered the quantification of this feedback, which was not included in the CMIP3 and C4MIP generation of AOGCMs and carbon cycle models. There are considerable uncertainties in the rate and extent of permafrost thaw, the hydrological and vegetation response to permafrost thaw, the decomposition timescales of freshly thawed organic material, the proportion of soil carbon that might be emitted as carbon dioxide via aerobic decomposition or as methane via anaerobic decomposition, and in the magnitude of the high latitude amplification of global warming that will drive permafrost degradation. Additionally, there are extensive and poorly characterized regional heterogeneities in soil properties, carbon content, and hydrology. Here, we couple a new permafrost module to a reduced complexity carbon-cycle climate model, which allows us to perform a large ensemble of simulations. The ensemble is designed to span the uncertainties listed above and thereby the results provide an estimate of the potential strength of the permafrost-carbon feedback. For the high CO2 concentration scenario (RCP8.5), 12-52 PgC, or an extra 3-11 % above projected net CO2 emissions from land carbon cycle feedbacks, are released by 2100 (68 % uncertainty range). This leads to an additional warming of 0.02-0.11 °C. Though projected 21st century emissions are relatively modest, ongoing permafrost thaw and slow but steady soil carbon decomposition means that, by 2300, more than half of the potentially vulnerable permafrost carbon stock in the upper 3m of soil layer (600-1000 PgC) could be released as CO2, with an extra 1-3 % being released as methane. Our results also suggest that mitigation action in line with the lower scenario RCP3-PD could contain Arctic temperature increase sufficiently that thawing of the permafrost area is limited to 15-30 % and the permafrost-carbon induced temperature increase does not exceed 0.01-0.07 °C by 2300.

  4. Is Global Warming Melting the Greenland Ice Sheet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, E.; Huybrechts, P.; Janssens, I.; McConnell, J.; Das, S.; Cappelen, J.; Steffen, K.; Krabill, W.; Thomas, R.; Stephens, A.

    2004-12-01

    Concerted observational and modelling programmes are underway to determine the mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet, and therefore help predict its response to future climatic change. We present results of meteorological modelling based on ERA-40 reanalysis data from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). Our novel surface-mass-balance history of the ice sheet for 1958-2003, is based on accumulation (snowfall minus evaporation/sublimation) modelling and a new monthly melt-water runoff model by Janssens & Huybrechts (Huybrechts 2002). These techniques combined yield valuable insights into the past and present state and variability of the Greenland ice mass and links with climate. Aspects of the validation of the new accumulation, runoff and SMB series are discussed. There was considerable interannual variability in snow accumulation, runoff and mass balance over the last 46 years. By comparing with long-term temperature, precipitation and accumulation records from the meteorological stations and ice cores, we discuss possible climatic factors forcing the ice in this period. There are distinct signals in runoff and SMB following three major volcanic eruptions. Runoff losses from the ice sheet were 280(±28) km^3 yr^-1 in 1961-90 and 391(+-39) km^3 yr^-1 in 1998-2003. Significantly rising runoff since the 1990s has been partly offset by more precipitation. However, our best estimate of overall mass balance declined from -3(±53) km^3 yr^-1 in 1961-90 to -65(±61) km^3 yr^-1 in 1998-2003. Additional dynamical factors that cause an acceleration of ice flow near the margins, and possible enhanced iceberg calving, may have led to a more negative mass balance in the past few years than suggested here. The implication is a significant and accelerating recent contribution from the ice sheet, about 0.22 mm yr^-1 over the last six years, to global sea-level rise. Runoff and thinning of the ice-sheet margins increased substantially since the 1990s. However, massive snow accumulation over south-east Greenland during winter 2002/03, well shown in our analysis, led to unprecedented thickening in recent NASA aircraft LIDAR surveys. Do these recent changes indicate more extreme weather conditions including warming over the Ice Sheet, more storminess and higher accumulation events, due to global warming?

  5. The impact of global warming on the Antarctic mass balance and global sea level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The onset of global warming from increasing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere can have a number of important different impacts on the Antarctic ice sheet. These include increasing basal melt of ice shelves, faster flow of the grounded ice, increased surface ablation in coastal regions, and increased precipitation over the interior. An analysis of these separate terms by ice sheet modeling indicates that the impact of increasing ice sheet flow rates on sea level does not become a dominant factor until 100-200 years after the realization of the warming. For the time period of the next 100 years the most important impact on sea level from the Antarctic mass balance can be expected to result from increasing precipitation minus evaporation balance over the grounded ice. The present Antarctic net accumulation and coastal ice flux each amount to about 2,000 km3 yr-1, both of which on their own would equate to approximately 6 mm yr-1 of sea level change. The present rate of sea level rise of about 1.2 mm yr-1 is therefore equivalent to about 20% imbalance in the Antarctic mass fluxes. The magnitude of the changes to the Antarctic precipitation and evaporation have been studied by a series of General Circulation Model experiments, using a model which gives a reasonable simulation of the present Antarctic climate, including precipitation and evaporation. The experiments examine the changes in the Antarctic precipitation (P) and evaporation (E) resulting separately from decreasing incrementally the Antarctic sea ice concentration and from global warming accompanied by decreased sea ice cover. For total sea ice removal the changes obtained were P:+23%; E:-8%; (P-E):+48%. For global warming with sea ice reduction by about two thirds the changes were P:+47%; E:+22%; (P-E):+68%

  6. The impact of ocean acidification and warming on the elemental and stable isotope composition of Fucus vesiculosus in Wadden Sea mesocosm studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winde, Vera; Pansch, Andreas; Fenner, Anna-Kathrina; Voss, Maren; Schmiedinger, Iris; Schneider, Bernd; Asmus, Ragnhild; Asmus, Harald; Böttcher, Michael E.

    2015-04-01

    In the frame of the German BIOACID II project the separate and combined effects of different stress factors (acidification, warming, eutrophication) on the elemental and stable isotope composition of Fucus vesiculosus are investigated by means of benthic mesocosm experiments in coastal waters of the the North Sea. We aim for a calibration of the biogeochemical and stable isotope composition of Fucus in response to single and combined temperature, pCO2 (pH), and nutrient changes. Benthocosm experiments are carried out at the AWI Wadden Sea station in List (Sylt Island, North Sea) with application of different stressors: an increase in temperature and an increase in atmospheric CO2 partial pressure. The experiments run for almost several months per season. The aquatic biogeochemistry (e.g. TA, pH, ?13C(DIC)) as well as the elemental and stable isotope composition of the grown Fucus vesiculosus organic tissue were followed. It was found, that the changes in daily biological activity caused by alternating phases of net respiration and photosynthesis created strong variations in the dissolved carbonate system and changes in the carbon isotope composition of DIC. The atmosphere of some experimental set-ups was enriched with gaseous carbon dioxide. This caused fast corresponding changes in the isotopic composition of DIC, thereby acting as a tracer for newly formed organic tissue. The chemical and isotopic parameters of the dissolved carbonate system showed differences between the set ups. The research is supported by BMBF during project BIOACID II, Helmholtz AWI Sylt, and Leibniz IOW

  7. Global warming and prairie wetlands: potential consequences for waterfowl habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiani, Karen A.; Johnson, W. Carter

    1991-01-01

    The accumulation of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere is expected to warm the earth's climate at an unprecedented rate (Ramanathan 1988, Schneider 1989). If the climate models are correct, within 100 years the earth will not only be warmer than it has been during the past million years, but the change will have occurred more rapidly than any on record. Many profound changes in the earth's environment are expected, including rising sea level, increasing aridity in continental interiors, and melting permafrost. Ecosystems are expected to respond variously to a rapidly changing climate. Tree ranges in eastern North American are expected to shift northward, and seed dispersal may not be adequate to maintain current diversity (Cohn 1989, Johnson and Webb 1989). In coastal wetlands, rising sea level from melting icecaps and thermal expansion could flood salt-grass marshes and generally reduce the size and productivity of the intertidal zone (Peters and Darling 1985). As yet, little attention has been given to the possible effects of climatic warming on inland prairie wetland ecosystems. These wetlands, located in the glaciated portion of the North American Great Plains (Figure 1), constitute the single most important breeding area for waterfowl on this continent (Hubbard 1988). This region annually produces 50-80% of the continent's total duck production (Batt et al. 1989). These marshes also support a variety of other wildlife, including many species of nongame birds, muskrat, and mink (Kantrud et al. 1989a). Prairie wetlands are relatively shallow, water-holding depressions that vary in size, water permanence, and water chemistry. Permanence types include temporary ponds (typically holding water for a few weeks in the springs), seasonal ponds (holding water from spring until early summer), semipermanent ponds (holding water throughout the growing season during most years), and large permanent lakes (Stewart and Kantrud 1971). Refilling usually occurs in spring from precipitation and runoff from melting snow on frozen or saturated soils (Figure 2). Annual water levels fluctuate widely due to climate variability in the Great Plains (Borchert 1950, Kantrud et al. 1989b). Climate affects the quality of habitat for breeding waterfowl by controlling regional water conditions--water depth, areal extent, and length of wet/dry cycles (Cowardin et al. 1988)--and vegetation patterns such as the cover ration (the ratio of emergent plant cover to open water). With increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide, climate models project warmer and, in some cases, drier conditions for the northern Great Plains (Karl et al. 1991, Manabe and Wetherald 1986, Mitchell 1983, Rind and Lebedeff 1984). In general, a warmer, drier climate could lower waterfowl production directly by increasing the frequency of dry basins and indirectly by producing less favorable cover rations (i.e., heavy emergent cover with few or no open-water areas). The possibility of diminished waterfowl production in a greenhouse climate comes at a time when waterfowl numbers have sharply declined for other reasons (Johnson and Shaffer 1987). Breeding habitat continues to be lost or altered by agriculture, grazing, burning, mowing, sedimentation, and drainage (Kantrud et al. 1989b). For example, it has been estimated that 60% of the wetland area in North Dakota has been drained (Tiner 1984). Pesticides entering wetlands from adjacent agricultural fields have been destructive to aquatic invertebrate populations and have significantly lowered duckling survival (Grue et al. 1988). In this article, we discuss current understanding and projections of global warming; review wetland vegetation dynamics to establish the strong relationship among climate, wetland hydrology, vegetation patterns, and waterflow habitat; discuss the potential effects of a greenhouse warming on these relationships; and illustrate the potential effects of climate change on wetland habitat by using a simulation model. The extent to which intensive management of the waterfowl resource will be needed in the f

  8. Future changes in global warming potentials under representative concentration pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global warming potentials (GWPs) are the metrics currently used to compare emissions of different greenhouse gases under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Future changes in greenhouse gas concentrations will alter GWPs because the radiative efficiencies of marginal changes in CO2, CH4 and N2O depend on their background concentrations, the removal of CO2 is influenced by climate-carbon cycle feedbacks, and atmospheric residence times of CH4 and N2O also depend on ambient temperature and other environmental changes. We calculated the currently foreseeable future changes in the absolute GWP of CO2, which acts as the denominator for the calculation of all GWPs, and specifically the GWPs of CH4 and N2O, along four representative concentration pathways (RCPs) up to the year 2100. We find that the absolute GWP of CO2 decreases under all RCPs, although for longer time horizons this decrease is smaller than for short time horizons due to increased climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. The 100-year GWP of CH4 would increase up to 20% under the lowest RCP by 2100 but would decrease by up to 10% by mid-century under the highest RCP. The 100-year GWP of N2O would increase by more than 30% by 2100 under the highest RCP but would vary by less than 10% under other scenarios. These changes are not negligible but are mostly smaller than the changes that would result from choosing a different time horizon for GWPs, or from choosing altogether different metrics for comparing greenhouse gas emissions, such as global temperature change potentials.

  9. Global warming presents new challenges for maize pest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been conjectured that global warming will increase the prevalence of insect pests in many agro-ecosystems. In this paper, we quantitatively assess four of the key pests of maize, one of the most important systems in North American grain production. Using empirically generated estimates of pest overwintering thresholds and degree-day requirements, along with climate change projections from a high-resolution climate model, we project potential future ranges for each of these pests in the United States. Our analysis suggests the possibility of increased winter survival and greater degree-day accumulations for each of the pests surveyed. We find that relaxed cold limitation could expand the range of all four pest taxa, including a substantial range expansion in the case of corn earworm (H. zea), a migratory, cold-intolerant pest. Because the corn earworm is a cosmopolitan pest that has shown resistance to insecticides, our results suggest that this expansion could also threaten other crops, including those in high-value areas of the western United States. Because managing significant additional pressure from this suite of established pests would require additional pest management inputs, the projected decreases in cold limitation and increases in heat accumulation have the potential to significantly alter the pest management landscape for North American maize production. Further, these range expansions could have substantial economic impacts through increased seed and insecticide costs, decreased yields, and the downstream effects of changes in crop yield variability.

  10. Teaching “Global Warming” through Socioscientific issues-based Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasart Nuangchalerm

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate effective teaching criterion through socioscientific issues-based instruction “Global warming” at 80/80, to find out effectiveness index of socioscientific issues-based instruction, to compare analytical thinking between before and after students had learned by socioscientific issues-based learning activities, and to study learning satisfaction of fifth grade students after they had learned through socioscientific issues-based instruction. Participants of the study were 24 fifth grade students. Research instruments comprised of 9 lesson plans, 20-item achievement test, 20-item analytical thinking test, and 10-item questionnaire on learning satisfaction. Data were gathered and analyzed by dependent t-test. Results revealed that socioscientific issues-based instruction had effective teaching criterion at 85.38/81.25; effectiveness index of socisocientific issues-based instruction was 0.6959; post test score of analytical thinking higher than those pre test score at .05 statistical significance level; and students had learning satisfaction on socioscientific issues-based learning activities at highest level. This study can be showed that socioscientific issues-based instruction helps students reach to the nature of science. Also, it can promote individuals’ development in terms of both cognitive, analytical thinking, and learning satisfaction.

  11. Changes in a modeled MJO with idealized global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping

    2013-02-01

    This study estimates how the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) will change with uniform global warming of 2 and 4 K at the Earth surface using an aqua-planet version of the NCAR CAM2 implemented with the Tiedtke convection scheme. Solar insolation is specified at the vernal equinox with a diurnal cycle. Thirty-year integrations are carried out for each case and the last 20-year's results are used for analysis. For the warmer cases, the modeled MJO's eastward propagation remains dominant at zonal wave numbers 1-4, and notable increase occurs in variance, power spectra, and the number of prominent MJO events. The convective heating is enhanced more in upper troposphere, and the MJO power spectra increase more on 20-30 days than on 30-60 days. In all cases, composite life cycles of prominent MJO events show that the anomalous surface latent heat flux lags precipitation by about 90° in phase, characterizing the nonlinear wind induced surface heat exchange (WISHE) to destabilize the MJO. Interacting with a warmer surface in the 4 K case, perturbations of zonal wind and temperature at bottom model level contribute to the nonlinear WISHE coherently with the latent heat flux. Meanwhile anomalous boundary layer convergence leads precipitation by some 45° in phase, indicating the frictional moisture convergence to maintain the enhanced MJO.

  12. Global warming and livestock husbandry in Kenya. Impacts and adaptations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the economic impact of climate change on livestock production in Kenya. We estimate a Ricardian model of net livestock incomes and further estimate the marginal impacts of climate change. We also simulate the impact of different climate scenarios on livestock incomes. The Ricardian results show that livestock production in Kenya is highly sensitive to climate change and that there is a non-linear relationship between climate change and livestock productivity. The estimated marginal impacts suggest modest gains from rising temperatures and losses from increased precipitation. The predictions from atmospheric ocean general circulation models suggest that livestock farmers in Kenya are likely to incur heavy losses from global warming. The highest and lowest losses are predicted from the Hadley Centre Coupled model (HADCM) and Parallel Climate Model (PCM) respectively, based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A2 Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. The paper concludes that in the long term, climate change is likely to lead to increased poverty, vulnerability and loss of livelihoods. Several policy interventions are recommended to counter this impact. (author)

  13. Global warming---The role for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power is currently making an important contribution to our energy requirements. It provides 17% of the world's electricity today --- almost 20% in the US. Reducing the emissions of carbon dioxide over the next 30 to 50 years sufficiently to address the issue of global warming can only be accomplished by a combination of much improved energy efficiency, substantial growth in use of nuclear power, and substantial growth in use of renewable energy. This paper discusses new initiatives in the major nuclear technologies (LWR, HTGR, LMR) which are emerging from a fundamental reexamination of nuclear power in response to the challenges and opportunities in the 21st century. To fulfill its role, nuclear power must gain worldwide acceptance as a viable energy option. The use of modern technology and ''passive'' safety features in next-generation nuclear power plants offers the potential to simplify their design and operation, enhance their safety, and reduce the cost of electricity. With such improvements, we believe nuclear power can regain public confidence and make a significant contribution to our energy future. 24 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  14. Global warming and oil: Can nuclear power make a difference?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A responsible energy policy, for the United States and the world, must address two needs: to restrain the rate of fossil fuel consumption, and to reduce the consumption of oil. Unless the first is accomplished, the world may experience major climate changes, some perhaps disastrous, from the buildup of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. Unless the second is met, we face recurring threats of economic disruption and war, due to the dangerous concentration of the world's oil resources in the Persian Gulf region. Nuclear power has long been cited as a possible answer to these needs. Mr. Bodansky takes a fresh look at the contribution nuclear power could make, in the light of our increased awareness of global warming dangers and the renewed reminders of the instabilities of oil markets. He notes, however, that the basic objections to nuclear power remain. They are well-known, stemming from concerns about reactor safety, waste disposal, nuclear proliferation, and cost. These are old but continuing controversies, involving a tangle of technical, political, social, and economic issues. If nuclear power is to be revived, these concerns clearly must be addressed. 1 fig., 7 tabs

  15. Some empirical evidence of global warming in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis show that temperatures in Ghana were significantly higher during the 1961-90 era than in the 1931-60 era; this rising trend was discerned even over the last three decades 1961-70, 1971-80 and 1981-90. It involved maximum, minimum, and average temperatures throughout the year, and across virtually the whole country; just the low altitude and non-industrialized Axim, Saltpond, and Kete-Krachi regions experienced some spells of rather higher 1931-60 temperatures. Given the current worldwide 'greenhouse' global warming evolution, this rising temperature development is particularly noteworthy. Urbanization, coupled with the modest industrial development in Ghana. over the past six decades possibly also contributed to it. That notwithstanding, the temperature cycle throughout Ghana has remained quite stable all this while; consistently attaining a maximum in February or March, declining steadily to a minimum in August, and then rising to a second but lower peak in about November. (author). 10 tabs., 22 figs., 3 refs

  16. Is increased Nuclear Energy a practical response to Global Warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jeanne

    2007-05-01

    With the threat of global warming there has been renewed interest in nuclear energy as a carbon-free energy source. There are currently 15 nuclear power plants planned for completion in the U.S. by 2014. In the last 30 years, however, investment and public support for nuclear energy has been minimal. Some factors that led to this loss of interest - high economic costs, risk of accident and radiation exposure, and the challenges of storing nuclear waste - have been analyzed in several recent publications. Comparing the costs and risks of nuclear energy to the benefits in reduced carbon emissions is the goal of this report. Coal plants contribute the most carbon dioxide of all types of power plants. The method of this study is a direct comparison of coal plants and nuclear plants in four areas: the current cost per kWh, the predicted annual cost for health issues, the statistically predicted deaths, and the clean-up costs assuming each facility is as ``green'' as possible. A normalized cost/risk value is then calculated for each plant type. Discussion for how these values are likely to vary is included. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.NWS07.C1.11

  17. Global warming presents new challenges for maize pest management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S [Purdue Climate Change Research Center and Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Purdue University, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2051 (United States); Krupke, Christian H [Department of Entomology, Purdue University, 901 West State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); White, Michael A [Department of Watershed Sciences, Utah State University, 5210 Old Main Hall, Logan, UT 84322-5210 (United States); Alexander, Corinne E [Department of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University, 403 West State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2056 (United States)], E-mail: diffenbaugh@purdue.edu

    2008-10-15

    It has been conjectured that global warming will increase the prevalence of insect pests in many agro-ecosystems. In this paper, we quantitatively assess four of the key pests of maize, one of the most important systems in North American grain production. Using empirically generated estimates of pest overwintering thresholds and degree-day requirements, along with climate change projections from a high-resolution climate model, we project potential future ranges for each of these pests in the United States. Our analysis suggests the possibility of increased winter survival and greater degree-day accumulations for each of the pests surveyed. We find that relaxed cold limitation could expand the range of all four pest taxa, including a substantial range expansion in the case of corn earworm (H. zea), a migratory, cold-intolerant pest. Because the corn earworm is a cosmopolitan pest that has shown resistance to insecticides, our results suggest that this expansion could also threaten other crops, including those in high-value areas of the western United States. Because managing significant additional pressure from this suite of established pests would require additional pest management inputs, the projected decreases in cold limitation and increases in heat accumulation have the potential to significantly alter the pest management landscape for North American maize production. Further, these range expansions could have substantial economic impacts through increased seed and insecticide costs, decreased yields, and the downstream effects of changes in crop yield variability.

  18. Depletion of fossil fuels and the impacts of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper combines the theory of optimal extraction of exhaustible resources with the theory of greenhouse externalities, to analyze problems of global warming when the supply side is considered. The optimal carbon tax will initially rise but eventually fall when the externality is positively related to the stock of carbon in the atmosphere. It is shown that the tax will start falling before the stock of carbon in the atmosphere reaches its maximum. If there exists a non-polluting backstop technology, it will be optimal to extract and consume fossil fuels even when the price of fossil fuels is equal to the price of the backstop. The total extraction is the same as when the externality is ignored, but in the presence of the greenhouse effect, it will be optimal to slow the extraction and spread it over a longer period. If, on the other hand, the greenhouse externality depends on the rate of change in the atmospheric stock of carbon, the evolution of the optimal carbon tax is more complex. It can even be optimal to subsidize carbon emissions to avoid future rapid changes in the stock of carbon, and therefore future damages. 22 refs., 3 figs

  19. Global warming may lead to catastrophic floods in the Himalayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Nepal, data from 49 surveillance stations show that there has been a distinct temperature increase since the middle of the 1970s, the greatest changes being on the highest summits. When lakes overfill and beaches threaten to break down, this is a result of the global warming that melts the glaciers. The glaciers in Bhutan are observed to decrease by 30 - 40 metres per year, in some years as much as 100 metres. In the village of Tribeni an advanced warning system has been established to warn the 10 000 inhabitants of a potential flood from Lake Tsho Rolpa 108 km upstream. Research from the Himalayas also point to another serious threat. The melting threatens not only human lives, tourism, foot paths, roads, bridges and power stations. Since the mountains are the water towers of the world, filling rivers and lakes with water upon which all life depends, continued shrinking of the world's glaciers as is now observed will cause many rivers and fresh-water systems to dry out. Researchers from the UN Unep programme and International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development have registered at least 44 glacier lakes that are increasing so fast that they may cause outburst floods within five years. Similar investigations are being planned in India, Pakistan and China

  20. Potential effects of global warming on calving caribou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calving grounds of barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are often in the portion of their range that remains covered by snow late into spring. The authors propose that global warming would alter the duration of snow cover on the calving grounds and the rate of snowmelt, and thus affect caribou population dynamics. The rationale for this hypothesis is based upon the following arguments. For females of the Porcupine Herd, one of the few forages available before and during early calving are the inflorescences of cotton grass (Eriophorum vaginatum), which are very digestible, high in nitrogen and phosphorus, and low in phenols and acid-detergent fiber. The nutritional levels of the inflorescences are highest in the early stages of phenology and decline rapidly until they are lowest at seed set, about 2 weeks after being exposed from snow cover. The high nutritional level of cotton grass inflorescences is important to post-paturient caribou attempting to meet nutritional requirements of lactation while minimizing associated weight loss. The pattern of weight regain in summer is important to herd productivity as female body weight at mating influences conception in late summer and calving success in spring. Therefore, temporal changes in snowmelt may have major effects on nutritional regimes of the female

  1. Collection, transfer and transport of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contribution

    OpenAIRE

    Eisted, Rasmus; Larsen, Anna Warberg; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    The collection, transfer and transport of waste are basic activities of waste management systems all over the world. These activities all use energy and fuels, primarily of fossil origin. Electricity and fuel consumptions of the individual processes were reviewed and greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions were quantified. The emission factors were assigned a global warming potential (GWP) and aggregated into global warming factors (GWFs), which express the potential contribution to global warmi...

  2. The Role of Information Professionals in Reducing the Effects of Global Warming through Knowledge Management

    OpenAIRE

    Lect. Ph. D. Priti Jain

    2009-01-01

    As a result of global environmental change, global warming is the greatest environmental challenge in the 21st century. It could lead to the ultimate end of existence of earth and man. Potential catastrophic effects on the environment and for human life are one of the biggest concerns and most widely discussed issues in the world. This paper will explore how Information Professionals can build knowledge management related to global warming and thus make their contribution towards a sustainabl...

  3. The Great Season Climatic Oscillation and the Global Warming

    OpenAIRE

    Boucenna, Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    The present earth warming up is often explained by the atmosphere gas greenhouse effect. This explanation is in contradiction with the thermodynamics second law. The warming up by greenhouse effect is quite improbable. It is cloud reflection that gives to the earth s ground its 15 degres C mean temperature. Since the reflection of the radiation by gases is negligible, the role of the atmosphere greenhouse gases in the earth warming up by earth radiation reflection loses its ...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix I to Subpart A of... - Global Warming Potentials (Mass Basis), Referenced to the Absolute GWP for the Adopted Carbon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Global Warming Potentials (Mass Basis...I to Subpart A of Part 82—Global Warming Potentials (Mass Basis), Referenced...chemical) Chemical formula Global warming potential (time horizon)...

  5. Awareness and knowledge about global warming among the school students of south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Kumar Sah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Global warming means average increase in the earth’s temperature and is considered as a major health issue of the 21st century. Objectives: To find out the awareness and knowledge about global warming among the school students. Materials and Methods: Self administered questionnaire was used to collect information from 400 randomly selected school children of three different medium. Statistical analyses were performed with the chi-square and Fisher’s exact test. Ethical clearance, informed consent and assent were obtained. Results: More than three quarters (83.75% of the participants stated cardiovascular and respiratory problem to be the major health issue due to global warming. Less than half (45.75% participants ranked green house gases to be the major cause for global warming. Majority of the students (57.5% were willing to walk or cycle instead of driving and only (12% students were willing to plant trees for combating global warming. Male and female students exhibited significant difference in respect of their awareness and knowledge towards global warming (p<0.05. Conclusion: Periodic health education regarding global warming is still needed to increase awareness and knowledge among the school students.

  6. Habitats at Risk. Global Warming and Species Loss in Globally Significant Terrestrial Ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a suite of models of global climate and vegetation change is used to investigate three important global warming-induced threats to the terrestrial Global 200 ecoregions: (1) Invasions by new habitat types (and corresponding loss of original habitat types); (2) Local changes of habitat types; (3) High rates of required species migration. Seven climate models (general circulation models or GCMs) and two vegetation models (BIOME3 and MAPSS) were used to produce 14 impact scenarios under the climate associated with a doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentrations, which is expected to occur in less than 100 years. Previous analyses indicated that most of the variation among the impact scenarios was attributable to the particular vegetation model used, hence the authors provide results separately for the two models. The models do not provide information on biodiversity per se, but instead simulate current and future potential distributions of major vegetation types (biomes) such as tundra and broadleaf tropical rain forest

  7. Seasonal Climate Extremes : Mechanism, Predictability and Responses to Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shongwe, M. E.

    2010-01-01

    Climate extremes are rarely occurring natural phenomena in the climate system. They often pose one of the greatest environmental threats to human and natural systems. Statistical methods are commonly used to investigate characteristics of climate extremes. The fitted statistical properties are often interpolated or extrapolated to give an indication of the likelihood of a certain event within a given period or interval. Under changing climatic conditions, the statistical properties of climate extremes are also changing. It is an important scientific goal to predict how the properties of extreme events change. To achieve this goal, observational and model studies aimed at revealing important features are a necessary prerequisite. Notable progress has been made in understanding mechanisms that influence climate variability and extremes in many parts of the globe including Europe. However, some of the recently observed unprecedented extremes cannot be fully explained from the already identified forcing factors. A better understanding of why these extreme events occur and their sensitivity to certain reinforcing and/or competing factors is useful. Understanding their basic form as well as their temporal variability is also vital and can contribute to global scientific efforts directed at advancing climate prediction capabilities, particularly making skilful forecasts and realistic projections of extremes. In this thesis temperature and precipitation extremes in Europe and Africa, respectively, are investigated. Emphasis is placed on the mechanisms underlying the occurrence of the extremes, their predictability and their likely response to global warming. The focus is on some selected seasons when extremes typically occur. An atmospheric energy budget analysis for the record-breaking European Autumn 2006 event has been carried out with the goal to identify the sources of energy for the extreme event. Net radiational heating is compared to surface turbulent fluxes of energy and dynamic horizontal advection of heat. There is clear evidence that the central North Atlantic Ocean was the major source of energy for the Autumn 2006 extreme event. Within Europe, anomalously high atmospheric water-vapor loading played a significant role through its strong greenhouse effect which resulted in an increase of downwelling infrared flux to the surface. Potential influences and connections between boreal snow cover during the melt season (February--April) and near-surface temperature in the spring season are established. Large amounts of snow act as a precursor to cold spring seasons by altering the coupling between the land and the overlying air through a modification of the surface energy and hydrological processes. In operational numerical models, a snow signal is found to provide some seasonal forecast skill for cold spring seasons in Europe. Changes in the intensity of droughts and floods in Africa in response to global warming are investigated and compared with changes in mean precipitation simulated by an ensemble of climate models selected from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) fourth assessment report (AR4) set. The model simulations are objectively combined using a Bayesian weighting procedure. In southern Africa south of about 15° S, the most robust climate-change signal is a shortening of the main rainfall season. This arises from a delayed onset of seasonal rainfall associated with a reduction in lower-tropospheric moisture advection from the southwestern Indian Ocean. The semi-arid areas closer to the Kalahari desert are projected to become drier, while the wet areas are projected to become wetter. East Africa is projected to get wet in the future climate, much wetter than other regions within the same latitudinal belt. The zonal asymmetry in tropical precipitation increase is associated with a shift towards positive Indian Ocean Zonal Mode (IOZM)-like events via an alteration in the structure of the Eastern Hemisphere Walker circulation.

  8. Sources of global warming in upper ocean temperature during El Niño

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Warren B.; Cayan, Daniel R.; Dettinger, Mike; Auad, Guillermo

    2001-01-01

    Global average sea surface temperature (SST) from 40°S to 60°N fluctuates ±0.3°C on interannual period scales, with global warming (cooling) during El Niño (La Niña). About 90% of the global warming during El Niño occurs in the tropical global ocean from 20°S to 20°N, half because of large SST anomalies in the tropical Pacific associated with El Niño and the other half because of warm SST anomalies occurring over ?80% of the tropical global ocean. From examination of National Centers for Environmental Prediction [Kalnay et al., 1996] and Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set [Woodruff et al., 1993] reanalyses, tropical global warming during El Niño is associated with higher troposphere moisture content and cloud cover, with reduced trade wind intensity occurring during the onset phase of El Niño. During this onset phase the tropical global average diabatic heat storage tendency in the layer above the main pycnocline is 1–3 W m?2above normal. Its principal source is a reduction in the poleward Ekman heat flux out of the tropical ocean of 2–5 W m?2. Subsequently, peak tropical global warming during El Niño is dissipated by an increase in the flux of latent heat to the troposphere of 2–5 W m?2, with reduced shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes in response to increased cloud cover tending to cancel each other. In the extratropical global ocean the reduction in poleward Ekman heat flux out of the tropics during the onset of El Niño tends to be balanced by reduction in the flux of latent heat to the troposphere. Thus global warming and cooling during Earth's internal mode of interannual climate variability arise from fluctuations in the global hydrological balance, not the global radiation balance. Since it occurs in the absence of extraterrestrial and anthropogenic forcing, global warming on decadal, interdecadal, and centennial period scales may also occur in association with Earth's internal modes of climate variability on those scales.

  9. THE IMPACT OF GLOBAL WARMING ON STORMS AND STORM PREPAREDNESS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Chew-Hung

    2010-01-01

    According to the latest report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), “[w]arming of the climate system is unequivocal, as is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures” (IPCC, 2007: 5) by about 0.8–1.0°C over the last 160 years. Based on a survey of literature on global warming and precipitation, there is agreement that the frequency of extreme precipitation events in Southeast Asia will increase with global warming. At the region...

  10. Global Warming’s Six Americas: An Audience Segmentation Analysis (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roser-Renouf, C.; Maibach, E.; Leiserowitz, A.

    2009-12-01

    One of the first rules of effective communication is to “know thy audience.” People have different psychological, cultural and political reasons for acting - or not acting - to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and climate change educators can increase their impact by taking these differences into account. In this presentation we will describe six unique audience segments within the American public that each responds to the issue in its own distinct way, and we will discuss methods of engaging each. The six audiences were identified using a nationally representative survey of American adults conducted in the fall of 2008 (N=2,164). In two waves of online data collection, the public’s climate change beliefs, attitudes, risk perceptions, values, policy preferences, conservation, and energy-efficiency behaviors were assessed. The data were subjected to latent class analysis, yielding six groups distinguishable on all the above dimensions. The Alarmed (18%) are fully convinced of the reality and seriousness of climate change and are already taking individual, consumer, and political action to address it. The Concerned (33%) - the largest of the Six Americas - are also convinced that global warming is happening and a serious problem, but have not yet engaged with the issue personally. Three other Americas - the Cautious (19%), the Disengaged (12%) and the Doubtful (11%) - represent different stages of understanding and acceptance of the problem, and none are actively involved. The final America - the Dismissive (7%) - are very sure it is not happening and are actively involved as opponents of a national effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Mitigating climate change will require a diversity of messages, messengers and methods that take into account these differences within the American public. The findings from this research can serve as guideposts for educators on the optimal choices for reaching and influencing target groups with varied informational needs, values and beliefs.

  11. Democratising the global economy by ecologicalising economics. The example of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to show that continued reliance on an unreconstructed neo-classical economic model for human progress is largely responsible for an economic development path which is both unsustainable and undemocratic. Using the topical issue of global warming as an illustration, it is argued that the ecologicalisation of the economics discipline challenges the foundations of this strategy and promises, among other benefits, a more democratic global economic organisation. The data analysed in this paper suggest that the damage of global warming is directly attributable to economic activity, the benefits of economic growth go to the economically articulate, and the disbenefits in terms of environmental damage are borne by the economically inarticulate. Mainstream economics gives no answer to, and becomes a method for evading, this moral problem. The data also show that huge increases in energy efficiency are required if a basically unchanged world economic system is to be sustainable. Nevertheless, the predominant goal of development policy is to ignore the problem of scale and to promote an economic model of urbanised development in the 'developing' countries which carries the implication (and the promise) that the rates of resource consumption typical in 'developed' countries can be achieved globally. An alternative development model is presented which includes the recognition that, in ecological terms, 'developed' countries are in debt to 'developing' countries, largely because of the way in which economic growth is measured gross of externalised social and environmental costs. A method is suggested for calculating part of this ecological debt for individual countries, thus going some way towards quantifying the extent of the distortions in the current global political economy and the unsustainability of the present economic order

  12. Ocean acidification limits temperature-induced poleward expansion of coral habitats around Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Yara, Y.; Vogt, M.; Fujii, M.; Yamano, H.; Hauri, C; Steinacher, M.; Gruber, N.; Yamanaka, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Using results from four coupled global carbon cycle-climate models combined with in situ observations, we estimate the combined effects of future global warming and ocean acidification on potential habitats for tropical/subtropical and temperate coral communities in the seas around Japan. The suitability of the coral habitats are identified primarily on the basis of the currently observed ranges for temperature and saturation states ? with regard to aragonite (?arag<...

  13. Imminent ocean acidification in the Arctic projected with the NCAR global coupled carbon cycle-climate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Steinacher

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification from the uptake of anthropogenic carbon is simulated for the industrial period and IPCC SRES emission scenarios A2 and B1 with a global coupled carbon cycle-climate model. Earlier studies identified seawater saturation state with respect to aragonite, a mineral phase of calcium carbonate, as a key variable governing impacts on corals and other shell-forming organisms. Globally in the A2 scenario, water saturated by more than 300%, considered suitable for coral growth, vanishes by 2070 AD (CO2?630 ppm, and the ocean volume fraction occupied by saturated water decreases from 42% to 25% over this century. The largest simulated pH changes worldwide occur in Arctic surface waters, where hydrogen ion concentration increases by up to 185% (?pH=?0.45. Projected climate change amplifies the decrease in Arctic surface mean saturation and pH by more than 20%, mainly due to freshening and increased carbon uptake in response to sea ice retreat. Modeled saturation compares well with observation-based estimates along an Arctic transect and simulated changes have been corrected for remaining model-data differences in this region. Aragonite undersaturation in Arctic surface waters is projected to occur locally within a decade and to become more widespread as atmospheric CO2 continues to grow. The results imply that surface waters in the Arctic Ocean will become corrosive to aragonite, with potentially large implications for the marine ecosystem, if anthropogenic carbon emissions are not reduced and atmospheric CO2 not kept below 450 ppm.

  14. The present effect of global warming on U.S. industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will discuss how global warming issues are currently affecting U.S. industry. Global climate models are projecting global temperature increases in the 1.5-4.5 degrees C range within the next 50-60 years. This increase is based on the assumption that CO2 emissions into the atmosphere will continue to increase 1-2% per year, resulting in a doubling of preindustrial CO2 levels by mid twenty-first century. These projections may cause U.S. industry to readjust its thinking with respect to the benefits of pollution prevention as they relate to global warming, corporate image enhancement, global competitiveness and risk assessment or balance. Real or perceived impacts of global warming are already influencing U.S. competitiveness within the global economy because Japan and the European countries are taking the global warming threat more seriously than is the U.S. Mitigation of CO2 emissions through carbon taxes or permitting will be discussed. Options available to U.S. industry to deal with the current uncertainties of global warming will be presented. Examples of how specific companies are coping with this issue will be given. Finally, recommendations are presented for proactive planning to determine which segments, divisions or facilities in a multinational company would be most sensitive to CO2 stabilization regulations

  15. Deliberating Climate Change : The Case of the global citizen consultation, World Wide Views on Global Warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika; JelsØe, Erling

    The global event World Wide Views on Global Warming (WWV), initiated by the Danish Board of Technology (DBT), took place on September 26, 2009, and was an innovative attempt to gather a united citizen voice on a global scale. As such the WWV is one of the most recent experiments with new ways to include the voice of the citizens into complex scientific and technological issues. The purpose of WWV was to pass on the opinions of ordinary citizens to political decision-makers at The United Nations Climate Summit, COP15, in Copenhagen in December 2009. The authors made a study of the Danish WWV event including a) observations on the Danish location, b) survey among the participants, c) follow-up focus group interview with voluntary participants, and d) interview with the organizers of the global event from DBT. Based on this study we analyse how the deliberation was institutionally framed. This includes considerations regarding how the process was designed in order to be legitimate as a voice for citizens, how different types of knowledge and expert identities were created and negotiated in the event, and how the framing influenced the outcome. The specific conditions of the event, i.e. the relation to a high-policy global summit like COP15, are also considered in the discussion about the WWV as innovative design. The analysis draws upon theoretical perspectives of deliberative democracy and STS studies of public engagement with science.

  16. Global warming in Amazonia: impacts and Mitigation Aquecimento Global na Amazônia: impactos e Mitigação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Martin Fearnside

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Global warming has potentially catastrophic impacts in Amazonia, while at the same time maintenance of the Amazon forest offers one of the most valuable and cost-effective options for mitigating climate change. We know that the El Niño phenomenon, caused by temperature oscillations of surface water in the Pacific, has serious impacts in Amazonia, causing droughts and forest fires (as in 1997-1998. Temperature oscillations in the Atlantic also provoke severe droughts (as in 2005. We also know that Amazonian trees die both from fires and from water stress under hot, dry conditions. In addition, water recycled through the forest provides rainfall that maintains climatic conditions appropriate for tropical forest, especially in the dry season. What we need to know quickly, through intensified research, includes progress in representing El Niño and the Atlantic oscillations in climatic models, representation of biotic feedbacks in models used for decision-making about global warming, and narrowing the range of estimating climate sensitivity to reduce uncertainty about the probability of very severe impacts. Items that need to be negotiated include the definition of "dangerous" climate change, with the corresponding maximum levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Mitigation of global warming must include maintaining the Amazon forest, which has benefits for combating global warming from two separate roles: cutting the flow the emissions of carbon each year from the rapid pace of deforestation, and avoiding emission of the stock of carbon in the remaining forest that can be released by various ways, including climate change itself. Barriers to rewarding forest maintenance include the need for financial rewards for both of these roles. Other needs are for continued reduction of uncertainty regarding emissions and deforestation processes, as well as agreement on the basis of carbon accounting. As one of the countries most subject to impacts of climate change, Brazil must assume the leadership in fighting global warming.O aquecimento global tem impactos potencialmente catastróficos na Amazônia, e, ao mesmo tempo, a manutenção da floresta amazônica oferece uma das opções mais valiosas e baratas para mitigar as mudanças climáticas. Nós sabemos que o fenômeno de El Niño, causado por uma oscilação da temperatura da superfície da água no Pacífico, tem impactos sérios na Amazônia, causando secas e incêndios florestais, como aconteceram em 1997-1998. Oscilações de temperatura no Atlântico também provocam secas severas, como em 2005. Nós também sabemos que árvores amazônicas morrem, tanto do fogo como do estresse hídrico sob condições quentes e secas. Além disso, a água reciclada pela floresta fornece chuva que mantém as condições climáticas apropriadas para floresta tropical, especialmente durante a estação seca. O que nós precisamos saber com urgência, por meio de pesquisa intensificada, inclui como representar melhor o El Niño e as oscilações no Atlântico, nos modelos climáticos, como representar as retroalimentações bióticas nos modelos usados para tomada de decisão sobre o efeito estufa, e um estreitamento da gama das estimativas da sensitividade climática (para reduzir a incerteza sobre a probabilidade de impactos muito severos. Assuntos que precisam ser negociados incluem a definição de mudança de clima "perigosa", com os correspondentes níveis máximos das concentrações de gases de estufa na atmosfera. Mitigação do efeito estufa tem que incluir a manutenção da floresta amazônica, o que traz benefícios para o combate ao efeito estufa por meio de dois papéis separados: diminuir o fluxo de emissões de carbono que acontece em cada ano devido ao ritmo rápido do desmatamento, e evitar a emissão do estoque de carbono na floresta restante que pode ser liberada de várias maneiras, inclusive por causa da própria mudança climática. Barreiras impedindo a recompensação da manutenção de floresta incluem a necessidade por recompensas financeira

  17. The global warming, public goods and carbon market; Calentamiento global, bienes publicos y mercado de carbono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quadri de la Torre, Gabriel [EcoSecurities (Mexico)

    2007-07-15

    The global warming is an issue of the public goods, and demands an outstanding multilateral action, which must to ensure both efficiency and unchanging transition towards an economy of low intensity of carbon. The new system, which is going to replace the Kyoto Protocol, will have compromises for the developing countries and deep implication in the relative competitivity of the nations and companies. [Spanish] El calentamiento global es un problema de bienes publicos que exige una extraordinaria accion multilateral. Esta debe asegurar eficiencia y una transicion fluida hacia una economia de baja intensidad de carbono. El nuevo sistema que sucedera al Protocolo de Kyoto significara compromisos para los paises en vias de desarrollo, y tendra profundas implicaciones en la competitividad relativa de naciones y empresas.

  18. The indirect global warming potential and global temperature change potential due to methane oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methane is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas in the atmosphere next to carbon dioxide. Its global warming potential (GWP) for a time horizon of 100 years is 25, which makes it an attractive target for climate mitigation policies. Although the methane GWP traditionally includes the methane indirect effects on the concentrations of ozone and stratospheric water vapour, it does not take into account the production of carbon dioxide from methane oxidation. We argue here that this CO2-induced effect should be included for fossil sources of methane, which results in slightly larger GWP values for all time horizons. If the global temperature change potential is used as an alternative climate metric, then the impact of the CO2-induced effect is proportionally much larger. We also discuss what the correction term should be for methane from anthropogenic biogenic sources.

  19. Nuclear Energy is the Answer to Cope with the Lack of Energy and Global Warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper of nuclear energy is the answer to cope with the lack of energy and global warming based on the analysis of energy demand which is increasing rapidly, meanwhile the energy reserve is limited and decreased. Mostly world?s energy is generated by fossil fuel energy, mainly oil and coal. Fossil fuel energy and industrial activities produce green house gases (GHG) such as : COx, CH4, N2O, and CFC which cause of global warming. Global warming gives bad impact to environment and to human being. Every country in the world needs sufficient energy, but the energy resources is limited and decreased. The answer for this solution must be an energy source which does not produce green house gases. Why nuclear energy is chosen to cope with the lack of energy and global warming will be explained briefly in this paper. (author)

  20. Global warming or nuclear waste: which of the two do we want?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is argued that global warming is a hazard which is far more serious any other hazard associated with the use of energy and that fossil fuel fired power plants should be abandoned as soon as possible. (P.A.)

  1. Impact of global warming on cyclonic storms over north Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Sankar, S.

    The impact of global warming on the cyclonic storms over the north Indian Ocean have been studied using a suite of multiple datasets that includes the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis, the extended reconstruction sea surface temperature (ERSST) and tracks...

  2. Optimal Detection of Global Warming using Temperature Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Stephen S.

    1997-01-01

    Optimal fingerprinting is applied to estimate the amount of time it would take to detect warming by increased concentrations of carbon dioxide in monthly averages of temperature profiles over the Indian Ocean.

  3. The Role of Emotion in Global Warming Policy Support and Opposition

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Nicholas; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Prior research has found that affect and affective imagery strongly influence public support for global warming. This article extends this literature by exploring the separate influence of discrete emotions. Utilizing a nationally representative survey in the United States, this study found that discrete emotions were stronger predictors of global warming policy support than cultural worldviews, negative affect, image associations, or sociodemographic variables. In particular, worry, interest...

  4. Integrated assessment of the global warming problem. A decision-analytical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project on the title subject aims at developing a policy-oriented methodology for the integrated assessment of the global warming problem. Decision analysis in general and influence diagrams in particular appear to constitute an appropriate integrated assessment methodology. The influence-diagram approach is illustrated at a preliminary integrated modeling of the global warming problem. In next stages of the research, attention will be shifted from the methodology of integrated assessment to the contents of integrated models. 4 figs., 5 refs

  5. Is Global Warming likely to cause an increased incidence of Malaria?

    OpenAIRE

    Nabi, SA; Qader, SS

    2009-01-01

    The rise in the average temperature of earth has been described as global warming which is mainly attributed to the increasing phenomenon of the greenhouse effect. It is believed that global warming can have several harmful effects on human health, both directly and indirectly. Since malaria is greatly influenced by climatic conditions because of its direct relationship with the mosquito population, it is widely assumed that its incidence is likely to increase in a future warmer world.

  6. Someone like it hot? Effects of global warming on insect immunity and microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mandrioli

    2012-01-01

    Global warming represents a substantial challenge on a broad range of organisms with diverse life-history traits and geographical distributions. Up till now several studies correlated global warming to changes in body mass, growth rate or fat content, whereas the effects on immune function and microbiota composition remained almost unexplored. On the contrary, some pioneering studies are showing that increased temperature may influence the insect immune function and the microbiota composition...

  7. Economic Impacts of Global Warming :The Case of the Barents Sea Fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Eide, Arne

    2007-01-01

    Regional analyses of possible physical and biological effects of global warming in the Barents Sea area have been carried out recently. Based on such studies possible economic impacts of global warming on the Barents Sea fisheries have been quantified, assuming different types of management regimes. The EconSimp2000 model, consisting of the ecosystem model AggMult and the fleet model EconMult have been parameterized based on fleet and catch records from the Norwegian Barents Sea fisheri...

  8. Anaerobic digestion and digestate use: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jacob; Boldrin, Alessio; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of source-separated municipal solid waste (MSW) and use of the digestate is presented from a global warming (GW) point of view by providing ranges of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that are useful for calculation of global warming factors (GWFs), i.e. the contribution to GW measured in CO2-equivalents per tonne of wet waste. The GHG accounting was done by distinguishing between direct contributions at the AD facility and indirect upstream or downstream contributions. GHG...

  9. Climate change damage functions in LCA – (1) from global warming potential to natural environment damages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Ingeborg; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Olsen, Stig Irving; Beier, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Energy use often is the most significant contributor to the impact category ‘global warming’ in life cycle impact assessment. However, the potential global warming effects on the climate at regional level and consequential effects on the natural environment are not thoroughly described within LCA methodology. The current scientific understanding of the extent of climate change impacts is limited due to the immense complexity of the multi-factorial environmental changes and unknown adaptive capac...

  10. Economic impact analysis for global warming: Sensitivity analysis for cost and benefit estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proper policies for the prevention or mitigation of the effects of global warming require profound analysis of the costs and benefits of alternative policy strategies. Given the uncertainty about the scientific aspects of the process of global warming, in this paper a sensitivity analysis for the impact of various estimates of costs and benefits of greenhouse gas reduction strategies is carried out to analyze the potential social and economic impacts of climate change

  11. A historical perspective of Global Warming Potential from Municipal Solid Waste Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, K.; Schmidt, Jannick H.; Christensen, Per

    2013-01-01

    The Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) sector has developed considerably during the past century, paving the way for maximum resource (materials and energy) recovery and minimising environmental impacts such as global warming associated with it. The current study is assessing the historical development of MSWM in the municipality of Aalborg, Denmark throughout the period of 1970 to 2010, and its implications regarding Global Warming Potential (GWP(100)), using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA...

  12. Global warming factors modelled for 40 generic municipal waste management scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Simion, F.; Tonini, Davide; Møller, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Global warming factors (kg CO2-eq.-tonne—1 of waste) have been modelled for 40 different municipal waste management scenarios involving a variety of recycling systems (paper, glass, plastic and organics) and residual waste management by landfilling, incineration or mechanical—biological waste treatment. For average European waste composition most waste management scenarios provided negative global warming factors and hence overall savings in greenhouse gas emissions: Scenarios with landfilling s...

  13. A Historical Perspective of Global Warming Potential from Municipal Solid Waste Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Komal; Schmidt, Jannick Højrup; Christensen, Per

    2013-01-01

    The Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) sector has developed considerably during the past century, paving the way for maximum resource (materials and energy) recovery and minimising environmental impacts such as global warming associated with it. The current study is assessing the historical development of MSWM in the municipality of Aalborg, Denmark throughout the period of 1970 to 2010, and its implications regarding Global Warming Potential (GWP100), using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) ...

  14. Global warming factors modelled for 40 generic municipal waste management scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Simion, F.; Tonini, Davide; Møller, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Global warming factors (kg CO2-eq.-tonne—1 of waste) have been modelled for 40 different municipal waste management scenarios involving a variety of recycling systems (paper, glass, plastic and organics) and residual waste management by landfilling, incineration or mechanical—biological waste treatment. For average European waste composition most waste management scenarios provided negative global warming factors and hence overall savings in greenhouse gas emissions: Scenarios with landfillin...

  15. Changes in ocean vertical heat transport with global warming

    OpenAIRE

    Zika, Jan D.; Laliberté, Frédéric; Mudryk, Lawrence R.; Sijp, Willem P.; A. J. G. Nurser

    2015-01-01

    Heat transport between the surface and deep ocean strongly influences transient climate change. Mechanisms setting this transport are investigated using coupled climate models and by projecting ocean circulation into the temperature-depth diagram. In this diagram, a “cold cell” cools the deep ocean through the downwelling of Antarctic waters and upwelling of warmer waters and is balanced by warming due to a “warm cell,” coincident with the interhemispheric overturning and previously linked to...

  16. Global assessment of experimental climate warming on tundra vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmendorf, Sarah C.; Henry, Gregory H.R.; Hollister, Robert D.; Björk, Robert G.; Bjorkman, Anne D.; Callaghan, Terry V.; Collier, Laura Siegwart; Cooper, Elisabeth J.; Cornelissen, Johannes H.C.; Day, Thomas A.; Fosaa, Anna Maria; Gould, William A.; Gretarsdottir, Jarngerdur; Harte, John; Hermanutz, Luise; Hik, David S.; Hofgaard, Annika; Jarrad, Frith; Jonsdottir, Ingibjorg Svala; Keuper, Frida; Klanderud, Kari; Klein, Julia A.; Koh, Saewan; Kudo, Gaku; Lang, Simone I.; Loewen, Val; May, Jeremy L.; Mercado, Joel; Michelsen, Anders; Molau, Ulf; Myers-Smith, Isla H.; Oberbauer, Steven F.; Pieper, Sara; Post, Eric; Rixen, Christian; Robinson, Clare H.; Schmidt, Niels Martin; Shaver, Gaius R.; Stenstrom, Anna; Tolvanen, Anne; Totland, Orjan; Troxler, Tiffany; Wahren, Carl-Henrik; Webber, Patrick J.; Welker, Jeffery M.; Wookey, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the sensitivity of tundra vegetation to climate warming is critical to forecasting future biodiversity and vegetation feedbacks to climate. In situ warming experiments accelerate climate change on a small scale to forecast responses of local plant communities. Limitations of this approach include the apparent site-specificity of results and uncertainty about the power of short-term studies to anticipate longer term change. We address these issues with a synthesis of 61 experimental...

  17. The coastal ocean response to the global warming acceleration and hiatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Enhui; Lu, Wenfang; Yan, Xiao-Hai; Jiang, Yuwu; Kidwell, Autumn

    2015-01-01

    Coastlines are fundamental to humans for habitation, commerce, and natural resources. Many coastal ecosystem disasters, caused by extreme sea surface temperature (SST), were reported when the global climate shifted from global warming to global surface warming hiatus after 1998. The task of understanding the coastal SST variations within the global context is an urgent matter. Our study on the global coastal SST from 1982 to 2013 revealed a significant cooling trend in the low and mid latitudes (31.4% of the global coastlines) after 1998, while 17.9% of the global coastlines changed from a cooling trend to a warming trend concurrently. The trend reversals in the Northern Pacific and Atlantic coincided with the phase shift of Pacific Decadal Oscillation and North Atlantic Oscillation, respectively. These coastal SST changes are larger than the changes of the global mean and open ocean, resulting in a fast increase of extremely hot/cold days, and thus extremely hot/cold events. Meanwhile, a continuous increase of SST was detected for a considerable portion of coastlines (46.7%) with a strengthened warming along the coastlines in the high northern latitudes. This suggests the warming still continued and strengthened in some regions after 1998, but with a weaker pattern in the low and mid latitudes. PMID:26568024

  18. The coastal ocean response to the global warming acceleration and hiatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Enhui; Lu, Wenfang; Yan, Xiao-Hai; Jiang, Yuwu; Kidwell, Autumn

    2015-11-01

    Coastlines are fundamental to humans for habitation, commerce, and natural resources. Many coastal ecosystem disasters, caused by extreme sea surface temperature (SST), were reported when the global climate shifted from global warming to global surface warming hiatus after 1998. The task of understanding the coastal SST variations within the global context is an urgent matter. Our study on the global coastal SST from 1982 to 2013 revealed a significant cooling trend in the low and mid latitudes (31.4% of the global coastlines) after 1998, while 17.9% of the global coastlines changed from a cooling trend to a warming trend concurrently. The trend reversals in the Northern Pacific and Atlantic coincided with the phase shift of Pacific Decadal Oscillation and North Atlantic Oscillation, respectively. These coastal SST changes are larger than the changes of the global mean and open ocean, resulting in a fast increase of extremely hot/cold days, and thus extremely hot/cold events. Meanwhile, a continuous increase of SST was detected for a considerable portion of coastlines (46.7%) with a strengthened warming along the coastlines in the high northern latitudes. This suggests the warming still continued and strengthened in some regions after 1998, but with a weaker pattern in the low and mid latitudes.

  19. The Response of A Coupled Climate Model To Transient Fluxes From A Global Warming Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, M.; Gregory, J. M.; Saenko, O. A.; Schmittner, A.; Weaver, A. J.

    The response of the UVic Earth System Climate Model to forcing from a global warm- ing run is investigated. Four additional transient experiments were performed to look at the relative contribution of fresh water and heat fluxes. The experiments consisted of prescribing freshwater fluxes, either above or below the sea ice, from a transient global warming run to a present day simulation and the present day fluxes to a tran- sient global warming run. These experiments show that the reduction in North Atlantic overturning with global warming is dominated by changes in heat flux in this model. Fresh water fluxes account for about one quarter of the reduction. It is also found that the increased flux of fresh water from the atmosphere to the North Atlantic in a global warming run is enough to make the overturning collapse in a present day simulation. In a similar present day experiment, it is found that the redistribution of fresh wa- ter flux from exported sea ice in the global warming climate actually increases the overturning, even with the increased atmospheric fresh water flux. These experiments demonstrate that the distribution of both heat and fresh water near the deep water for- mation regions is critical in how the thermohaline circulation responds. They show that the treatment of both convection and sea ice are important and demonstrate po- tential difficulties in trying to look at the separate responses of a nonlinear system to fluxes which are in places highly corelated.

  20. Nuclear power a viable alternative in global warming context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy sources available in the world include: coal, oil, gas, biomass, nuclear, hydroelectric, wind, solar, refuse-based, and hydrogen. In addition, fusion had been originally proposed as the long-term source. Every form of energy generation has both advantages and disadvantages. Burning fuel for energy requirements represent about 88% from the total emission of NOx and CO2, and about 90% from SO2 respectively, and about 72% from suspension powder evacuated into the atmosphere. Global warming represents a real threat and is the most visible sign of the climatic changes which take place all over the world. To reduce the emission of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), the 'Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations framework convention on climate change' has been adopted in 1997. According to this protocol European countries must reduce their overall emissions of greenhouse gases by at least 5% below 1990 levels in the commitment period 2008 -- 2012. In this context, because the natural resources for power generation based on the fossil fuels are decreasing and their prices are rising, nuclear power has become a real alternative for classical energy sources. It is indicated by: - Fuel is inexpensive because uranium represents a very small part of nuclear power cost and uranium sediment is found on a large scale all over the world; - No greenhouse emission or acid rain effects occur during a normal operation. Nuclear power is also named 'clean energy'; - Wastes are more compact than those of any source of energy and are stored in underground and secured deposits; - Nuclear energy has a number of advantages which warrant its use as one of the many methods of fulfilling the energy-demand of the world. Even with conservation efforts, energy demand increased and will continue to increase. Using each and every one of these forms of energy production, we need to be sure that the environment is conserved as much as we can, so we can leave behind resources for future generations. This paper will demonstrate why nuclear energy represents a response for world demanding energy and why it is considered a 'clean' source of energy. (authors)

  1. Response of Vegetation in Northern China to Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, H.; Huang, R.

    2009-05-01

    During the last 30 years, the warmth index (WI) (Kira, 1945) has increased by 10 to 20 points in northern China and the humid index (HI) (Xu,1985) correspondingly decreased by 1 to 2 points. Accordingly, the green leaf stage of plants and herbs around Beijing prolonged from late Nov. to mid-Dec. The phenophase has also been changed, e.g., the most enjoyable period of red leaves such as common smoketree (Cotinus coggygria) and maple (Acer mono and A.truncatum) has postponed for 10 days and the blooming period of flowering plants has also advanced for the same span. Some plants, e.g. japanese pagodatree (Sophora japonica) and hispid locust (Robinia hispida) even blossom again in fall. Some evergreen and thermophilic plants have also been planted to further north. Rice (Oryza sativa) have extended to around 49 degree N and, as an extreme case, to 52 degree N (Huma County, Heilongjiang Province), and tea (Camellia sinensis) from around 35 to 36.5 degree N. River basins of Songhuajiang and Nenjiang in Heilongjiang Province become important rice production bases. Rizhao and Qingdao in Shandong province become famous tea production bases. Before 1970s, evergreen broadleaf woody plants were rarely cultivated in Beijing. But now such plants as privet (Lygustrum lucidum), magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), evergreen euonymus (Euonymus japonicus), and boxwood (Buxus sinica var. margaritacea) all live there through the winter. Many thermophilic garden plants, such as fig (Ficus carica), Chinese tulip tree (Liliodendron chinense), Chinese photinia (Photinia serrulata), crape myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica), and plum blossom (Prunus mume) are also successively cultivated outdoors in Beijing. Common papermulberry (Broussonetia papirifera) gradually increases and even becomes subdominant species of deciduous forest during last 30 years in the piedmont around Beijing. The cultivation boundary of some thermophilic trees, e.g., Chinese catalpa (Catalpa ovata), japanese pagodatree (Sophora japonica), tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima), yellow locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina), and gingko (Ginkgo biloba) have also been pushing northward to Huhhot, (41 degree N)Chifeng (42 degree N) and Tongliao (43 degree N), Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Alpine timberline has also been moved to higher altitude in Wutai Mt., Shanxi Province and Changbaishan Mt., Jilin Province. Although global warming seems to benefit agriculture in some cases, considering the decrease of wetness, the perspective is still uncertain. Drought and frost hazard are stress factors for the vegetation introduced to the northern areas. Chinese scholars are carefully watching the trend.

  2. Global warming in Amazonia: impacts and Mitigation / Aquecimento Global na Amazônia: impactos e Mitigação

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Philip Martin, Fearnside.

    Full Text Available O aquecimento global tem impactos potencialmente catastróficos na Amazônia, e, ao mesmo tempo, a manutenção da floresta amazônica oferece uma das opções mais valiosas e baratas para mitigar as mudanças climáticas. Nós sabemos que o fenômeno de El Niño, causado por uma oscilação da temperatura da sup [...] erfície da água no Pacífico, tem impactos sérios na Amazônia, causando secas e incêndios florestais, como aconteceram em 1997-1998. Oscilações de temperatura no Atlântico também provocam secas severas, como em 2005. Nós também sabemos que árvores amazônicas morrem, tanto do fogo como do estresse hídrico sob condições quentes e secas. Além disso, a água reciclada pela floresta fornece chuva que mantém as condições climáticas apropriadas para floresta tropical, especialmente durante a estação seca. O que nós precisamos saber com urgência, por meio de pesquisa intensificada, inclui como representar melhor o El Niño e as oscilações no Atlântico, nos modelos climáticos, como representar as retroalimentações bióticas nos modelos usados para tomada de decisão sobre o efeito estufa, e um estreitamento da gama das estimativas da sensitividade climática (para reduzir a incerteza sobre a probabilidade de impactos muito severos). Assuntos que precisam ser negociados incluem a definição de mudança de clima "perigosa", com os correspondentes níveis máximos das concentrações de gases de estufa na atmosfera. Mitigação do efeito estufa tem que incluir a manutenção da floresta amazônica, o que traz benefícios para o combate ao efeito estufa por meio de dois papéis separados: diminuir o fluxo de emissões de carbono que acontece em cada ano devido ao ritmo rápido do desmatamento, e evitar a emissão do estoque de carbono na floresta restante que pode ser liberada de várias maneiras, inclusive por causa da própria mudança climática. Barreiras impedindo a recompensação da manutenção de floresta incluem a necessidade por recompensas financeiras para ambos estes papéis. Outras necessidades são continuar a redução da incerteza relativo às emissões e ao processo de desmatamento, assim como também um acordo sobre a base da contabilidade do carbono. Por ser um dos países mais sujeito aos impactos da mudança climática, o Brasil tem que assumir a liderança na luta contra o aquecimento global. Abstract in english Global warming has potentially catastrophic impacts in Amazonia, while at the same time maintenance of the Amazon forest offers one of the most valuable and cost-effective options for mitigating climate change. We know that the El Niño phenomenon, caused by temperature oscillations of surface water [...] in the Pacific, has serious impacts in Amazonia, causing droughts and forest fires (as in 1997-1998). Temperature oscillations in the Atlantic also provoke severe droughts (as in 2005). We also know that Amazonian trees die both from fires and from water stress under hot, dry conditions. In addition, water recycled through the forest provides rainfall that maintains climatic conditions appropriate for tropical forest, especially in the dry season. What we need to know quickly, through intensified research, includes progress in representing El Niño and the Atlantic oscillations in climatic models, representation of biotic feedbacks in models used for decision-making about global warming, and narrowing the range of estimating climate sensitivity to reduce uncertainty about the probability of very severe impacts. Items that need to be negotiated include the definition of "dangerous" climate change, with the corresponding maximum levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Mitigation of global warming must include maintaining the Amazon forest, which has benefits for combating global warming from two separate roles: cutting the flow the emissions of carbon each year from the rapid pace of deforestation, and avoiding emission of the stock of carbon in the remaining forest that can be released by various ways, including climate change itse

  3. The multimillennial sea-level commitment of global warming

    OpenAIRE

    Levermann, Anders; Clark, Peter U; Marzeion, Ben; Milne, Glenn A.; Pollard, David; Radic, Valentina; Robinson, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Global mean sea level has been steadily rising over the last century, is projected to increase by the end of this century, and will continue to rise beyond the year 2100 unless the current global mean temperature trend is reversed. Inertia in the climate and global carbon system, however, causes the global mean temperature to decline slowly even after greenhouse gas emissions have ceased, raising the question of how much sea-level commitment is expected for different levels of global mean tem...

  4. Global and regional surface cooling in a warming climate: a multi-model analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhaug, Iselin; Drange, Helge

    2015-09-01

    Instrumental temperature records show that the global climate may experience decadal-scale periods without warming despite a long-term warming trend. We analysed 17 global climate models participating in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), identifying the likelihood and duration of periods without warming in the four Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0 and RCP8.5, together with the preindustrial control and historical simulations. We find that non-warming periods may last 10, 15 and 30 years for RCP8.5, RCP6.0 and RCP4.5, respectively. In the models, anomalous ocean heat uptake and storage are the main factors explaining the decadal-scale surface temperature hiatus periods. The low-latitude East Pacific Ocean is a key region for these variations, acting in tandem with basin-scale anomalies in the sea level pressure. During anomalously cold decades, roughly 35-50 % of the heat anomalies in the upper 700 m of the ocean are located in the Pacific Ocean, and 25 % in the Atlantic Ocean. Decadal-scale ocean heat anomalies, integrated over the upper 700 m, have a magnitude of about 7.5 × 1021 J. This is comparable to the ocean heat uptake needed to maintain a 10 year period without increasing surface temperature under global warming. On sub-decadal time scales the Atlantic, Pacific and Southern Oceans all have the ability to store large amounts of heat, contributing to variations in global surface temperature. The likelihood of decadal-scale non-warming periods decrease with global warming, firstly at the low latitude region stretching eastward from the tropical Atlantic towards the western Pacific. The North Atlantic and Southern Oceans have largest likelihood of non-warming decades in a warming world.

  5. Global warming in an unequal world: a case of environmental colonialism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, A.; Narain, S.

    1991-01-01

    The idea that developing countries must share the blame for climate change is an example of environmental colonialism. The manner in which the global warming debate is being carried out is only sharpening and deepening the North-South divide. A major problem is how to share the global commons of carbon dioxide and methane sinks. A system of global tradeable permits should be introduced to control global greenhouse gas emissions. 12 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. The Great Season Climatic Oscillation and the Global Warming

    CERN Document Server

    Boucenna, Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    The present earth warming up is often explained by the atmosphere gas greenhouse effect. This explanation is in contradiction with the thermodynamics second law. The warming up by greenhouse effect is quite improbable. It is cloud reflection that gives to the earth s ground its 15 degres C mean temperature. Since the reflection of the radiation by gases is negligible, the role of the atmosphere greenhouse gases in the earth warming up by earth radiation reflection loses its importance. We think that natural climatic oscillations contribute more to earth climatic disturbances. The oscillation that we hypothesize to exist has a long period (800 to 1000 years). The glacier melting and regeneration cycles lead to variations in the cold region ocean water density and thermal conductibility according to their salinity. These variations lead one to think about a macro climate oscillating between maximum hot and minimum cold temperatures. This oscillation is materialized by the passages of the planet through hot, mil...

  7. Global warming: what does the science tell us?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer models predict that clear signs of the greenhouse effect should have appeared as a consequence of increases in greenhouse gases, equivalent to a 50% increase in carbon dioxide in the last 100 years. The predictions are contradicted by the climate record in nearly every important respect. Contrary to the models: (1) the Northern Hemisphere has not warmed more than the Southern Hemisphere, (2) high latitudes have not warmed more than low latitudes, and (3) the U.S. has not shown the predicted warming trend, although this is the largest area in the world for which well-distributed, reliable records are available. Finally, all of the computations of the greenhouse effect show an accelerating increase in temperature in the 1980s, reflecting the rapid increase in greenhouse gases in recent years. However, measurements from orbiting satellites with a precision of 0.01.C show no trend to higher temperatures in the 1980s. (author)

  8. Global warming: what does the science tell us

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jastrow, R.; Nierenberg, W.; Seitz, F. (George C. Marshall Inst., Washington, DC (US))

    Computer models predict that clear signs of the greenhouse effect should have appeared as a consequence of increases in greenhouse gases, equivalent to a 50% increase in carbon dioxide in the last 100 years. The predictions are contradicted by the climate record in nearly every important respect. Contrary to the models: (1) the Northern Hemisphere has not warmed more than the Southern Hemisphere, (2) high latitudes have not warmed more than low latitudes, and (3) the U.S. has not shown the predicted warming trend, although this is the largest area in the world for which well-distributed, reliable records are available. Finally, all of the computations of the greenhouse effect show an accelerating increase in temperature in the 1980s, reflecting the rapid increase in greenhouse gases in recent years. However, measurements from orbiting satellites with a precision of 0.01{sup .}C show no trend to higher temperatures in the 1980s. (author).

  9. Scale-dependency of the global mean surface temperature trend and its implication for the recent hiatus of global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yong; Franzke, Christian L. E.

    2015-08-01

    Studies of the global mean surface temperature trend are typically conducted at a single (usually annual or decadal) time scale. The used scale does not necessarily correspond to the intrinsic scales of the natural temperature variability. This scale mismatch complicates the separation of externally forced temperature trends from natural temperature fluctuations. The hiatus of global warming since 1999 has been claimed to show that human activities play only a minor role in global warming. Most likely this claim is wrong due to the inadequate consideration of the scale-dependency in the global surface temperature (GST) evolution. Here we show that the variability and trend of the global mean surface temperature anomalies (GSTA) from January 1850 to December 2013, which incorporate both land and sea surface data, is scale-dependent and that the recent hiatus of global warming is mainly related to natural long-term oscillations. These results provide a possible explanation of the recent hiatus of global warming and suggest that the hiatus is only temporary.

  10. Global Farm Animal Production and Global Warming: Impacting and Mitigating Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneswaran, Gowri; Nierenberg, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Background The farm animal sector is the single largest anthropogenic user of land, contributing to many environmental problems, including global warming and climate change. Objectives The aim of this study was to synthesize and expand upon existing data on the contribution of farm animal production to climate change. Methods We analyzed the scientific literature on farm animal production and documented greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, as well as various mitigation strategies. Discussions An analysis of meat, egg, and milk production encompasses not only the direct rearing and slaughtering of animals, but also grain and fertilizer production for animal feed, waste storage and disposal, water use, and energy expenditures on farms and in transporting feed and finished animal products, among other key impacts of the production process as a whole. Conclusions Immediate and far-reaching changes in current animal agriculture practices and consumption patterns are both critical and timely if GHGs from the farm animal sector are to be mitigated. PMID:18470284

  11. How China’s Options Will Determine Global Warming

    OpenAIRE

    Clifford Singer; Timothy Milligan; T.S. Gopi Rethinaraj

    2013-01-01

    Carbon dioxide emissions, global average temperature, atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and surface ocean mixed layer acidity are extrapolated using analyses calibrated against extensive time series data for nine global regions. Extrapolation of historical trends without policy-driven limitations has China responsible for about half of global CO2 emissions by the middle of the twenty-first century. Results are presented for three possible actions taken by China to limit global average temperatu...

  12. Why do they think nuclear power is origin of global warming effect?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A questionnaire on nuclear power was conducted on 1500 adults in Kansai area, Japan, from October 9 to November 9, 2003. The recovery ratio was 71.0%. The results showed that 34% of them thought the nuclear power was protection of the global warming effect and 35% it was origin of the effect. It was analyzed by the logistic regression analysis method on whether the nuclear power was protection of global warming effect or not. About 43% of them recognized the nuclear power contributed to control carbon dioxide emission, and the mechanism of global warming effect. However, 35% of them did not recognize the mechanism and thought radioactive materials emission gave bad effects on the global environment. To make recognize the nuclear power is a good power source for protection of the global warming effect, the amount of reduction of carbon dioxide emission by nuclear power had to be shown. It is the shortest way for solution of the global warming problem to prove worthy of nuclear power's trust by safety and stable operation. (S.Y.)

  13. Pupils teach to pupils about genetics or global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuny, Delphine

    2013-04-01

    The idea of this project is to put pupils in a teaching situation. Classes of teenagers go to primary schools and animate a science workshop. Junior pupils are separated in small groups and they attend two different sessions in the same half-day. The whole workshop consists of 4 sessions. Each session is organized with an activity (microscope observation, counting of chromosomes, drawing of a curve, etc.) in which senior pupils coach the younger, and ends with a debate or an assessment. The first experiment of this type of project was realized with a class of 14 to 15 year old pupils on the theme: How do your parents transmit your characteristics? The four sessions are attended in disorder but when knowledge of other sessions are necessary, senior pupils explain them at the beginning of the session. Junior pupils have a notebook to write their activities and to note their conclusions. Session 1: What did my father give to make me? Drawing and measuring microscopic observations of human spermatozoons. Conclusion: my father gave a spermatozoon which measures less than one mm long, this spermatozoon met my mother's egg and it made my first cell. Session 2: What does the program that made me look like? Microscope observation of blood cells, identification of chromosomes in the core. On microscope pictures, counting of chromosomes. Conclusion: My program is in each cell of my body, inside the core. Sometimes, in this core, we can observe short sticks that are called chromosomes. All human beings have the same number of chromosomes in their cells: 46. Session 3: Where do my chromosomes come from? Counting of chromosomes in spermatozoons or ovums and playing with sets of chromosomes to deduct sex of a baby. Conclusion: Daddy gave me 23 chromosomes and mummy gave me 23 chromosomes too. My program is then constituted from half of daddy's program and half of mummy's program. My brothers and sisters also have half and half, but not the same halves! Session 4: Where is the program that made me situated? Virtual experiments on the first cell of rats (core transfers) Conclusion: The program that made that a rat is itself is situated in the core of its first cell. It is called a genetic program. Second experiment of this type of project is realized with a class of 16-17 year old pupils, on global warming for 8 to 11 year old pupils from the neighbor school. The older pupils use a teaching set created by "la main à la pâte" foundation, the set is called "le climat, ma planète et moi" (the climate, my planet and me, http://www.fondation-lamap.org/fr/climat). This project is to take place in March 2013.

  14. Nuclear and global warming issues at a deregulated electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present challenge is to develop such an energy mix that best supports industrial and societal development and improves the quality of life, while simultaneously minimizing health and environmental impacts. Although two decades ago nuclear was considered to be the energy of the future, it is often overlooked in this context and is now even being questioned in many parts of the world. But, for a world facing increased energy demand and growing concerns about global warming due to the emissions of the 'greenhouse' gasses from burning fossil fuels, nuclear power may become the first priority again, since the nuclear power plants proved to be a reliable and safe source of electricity that produce no greenhouse or acid rain gases, and have already demonstrated their economic competitiveness with alternative generating sources of electrical energy. The competitiveness of nuclear power depends essentially on capital investments which must remain low enough to secure its competitive position. However, nuclear electricity in most countries is less competitive than coal and gas, particularly so after deregulation and liberalization of electricity markets have taken place. In the European Union (EU) there are at present 151 reactor blocks and 68 more in the rest of the European continent. Nuclear power plants in EU currently generate about 35% of electricity, but with the new competitive markets, a major decline in the use of coal is compensated for by an increase in gas because of its lower carbon content, and thus almost all new power stations fully or partially use gas as fuel. However, nuclear power is expected to remain a necessary component of the EU's energy mix for the next 20 years and beyond, and in Central and Eastern Europe it is continuing its growth. While Hungary recently gave up plans to construct two more blocks in its 'Pacs' plant, the Czech government agreed to continue construction of two blocks at its 'Temelin' plant. In Rumania, the second unit of 'Cerna voda' plant is being constructed. And, in Slovakia unit one of the 'Mohovce' plant was recently completed, and unit two should be on line soon. Renewable energies would also take a more important role in Europe, but they need to be complemented by nuclear power due to their variations, and nuclear share would thus remain stable (or fall slightly if phasing out proceeds), but it would continue its growth in Far East and elsewhere. The European Commission is conducting a review of energy policy this year to take account of two key factors-the Kyoto commitments to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and the future enlargement of the Community. So, extreme care has to be taken in finding the right energy mix. Public acceptance is not in favor of nuclear power due to concerns such as nuclear risks, waste disposal, non-proliferation and many other issues. While nuclear risk aversion in 1995 was less in the countries with larger share of nuclear electricity as presented below from a Eurobarometer investigation (the two exceptions, Italy and Netherlands, are both importing nuclear electricity), general public might become more in favor of nuclear now, if all issues would be properly taken into account. (author)

  15. Comparing the model-simulated global warming signal to observations using empirical estimates of unforced noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    The comparison of observed global mean surface air temperature (GMT) change to the mean change simulated by climate models has received much attention. For a given global warming signal produced by a climate model ensemble, there exists an envelope of GMT values representing the range of possible un...

  16. On the effect of global warming on the snowmelt in an arctic permafrost area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seasonal snow cover is an important factor for the global heat balance and determines the overall albedo of the earth. Snow has a high albedo of 0.8-0.9, while bare ground has an albedo of about 0.2-0.3. The shift of the date of melting of the seasonal snow cover by global warming would drastically change the global heat balance. In other words, the date of disappearance of the snow is one of the major potential feedbacks in global climatic change. In this paper, the details of the energy balance over the snow in the arctic tundra is studied and, assuming a simple global warming, the expected change in the heat balance is discussed. The energy balance observations were made at Imnavait Creek on the North Slope of Alaska. This watershed lies over the continuous permafrost. The net radiation is obtained by a net radiometer. The sensible heat flux, latent heat flux and heat flux in snow are calculated from meteorological and glaciological data. The result of energy balance calculations showed that the most important component for snowmelt is net radiation. Since the global radiation over cloud and fog and the melting snow surface temperature are almost constant, the net radiation is mainly dependent on cloudiness, albedo of snow and atmospheric radiation. An increase of cloudiness due to global warming would suppress snowmelt, while a decrease in snow albedo and an increase in atmospheric radiation due to global warming would enhance snowmelt

  17. Global warming what are the challenges for Copenhagen?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in 1997 and, following a long ratification process, went into effect in 2005. Under the Protocol, 200 countries have committed to reducing their greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) by 2012. What conclusions can we draw from developments thus far, as we await the December conference in Copenhagen to determine a follow-up to the Kyoto Protocol? The work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has given us more accurate knowledge on global warming issues. In its latest report, published in 2007, the IPCC reveals that eleven of the past twelve years studied - 1995 to 2006 - were among the warmest yet recorded since 1850, when this type of data collection began. From 1906 to 2005, global temperatures rose by 0.74 deg. C, and the average rate of increase has more than doubled over the past fifty years. To help companies and countries achieve their GHG emissions reduction targets, the Kyoto Protocol provides for a carbon trading system based on carbon reduction credits (CRC), the exchange currency in a carbon credit market. When a company reduces its emissions below regulatory levels, it can have the 'excess' reduction certified and converted into carbon credits, which it can then sell to a company that has not yet reached its reduction targets. Japan has already used clean technologies and energy saving measures to achieve energy efficiency in the past. Its energy structure is fairly close to that of France, which has a 0% emissions goal. In Japan, nuclear power also accounts for a significant share of the electric power program. The Japanese government recently announced that it was increasing its carbon reduction goal from 6% to an ambitious 25%. China and the United States are the world's leading greenhouse gas emitters. When China ratified the Kyoto Protocol in 2002, it was considered to be a developing country and as such has no emissions reduction obligations. Since then, China has moved closer to the Protocol principles, creating a national climate change group in 2007 and launching its own national climate change program. The program's goal is to lower China's energy consumption per unit of GDP by 20% by 2010 compared with its 2005 level. Under a medium to long-term sustainable development plan, the share of sustainable energies in the overall energy mix will increase to 10% by 2010 and to 15% by 2020. Before the Copenhagen conference, China indicated that it was expecting the United States and Europe to commit to reducing their emissions by 40% and to devote 1% of their GDP to technology transfer towards developing countries by 2020. The Bush Administration used the argument that 'the American way of life is not negotiable' to justify the refusal of the United States to adhere to the Kyoto Protocol. Today, the United States returns to the discussion table in a more open frame of mind. The administration of Barack Obama has decided to become more involved and cooperate more with China and India on climate change. In late June, the American president succeeded in getting his climate change bill through the US House of Representatives. The climate bill, which is still up before the Senate, aims to reduce GHG emissions (particularly CO2) by 17% before 2020 compared with the 2005 level. It also promotes the development of clean energies and provides for the creation of a cap and trade emissions trading system. Under this system, emissions allowances are either sold or given to the most vulnerable industries. The sales revenue would be used to fund the development of clean energies, among other things. The EU-15 member states are close to reaching the targets set at Kyoto. What about EU-27 member states? At the late September summit in Pittsburgh, the G20 countries, which include the most industrialized countries as well as the large emerging countries of China, India and Brazil, agreed to phase out subsidies for fossil energy sources over the medium term, but without setting a deadline. According to the press release issued at the end of the summit, 'inefficient fossil fuel subsidi

  18. Global warming impact assessment of a crop residue gasification project—A dynamic LCA perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A dynamic LCA is proposed considering time-varying factors. • Dynamic LCA is used to highlight GHG emission hotspots of gasification projects. • Indicators are proposed to reflect GHG emission performance. • Dynamic LCA alters the static LCA results. • Crop residue gasification project has high GHG abatement potential. - Abstract: Bioenergy from crop residues is one of the prevailing sustainable energy sources owing to the abundant reserves worldwide. Amongst a wide variety of energy conversion technologies, crop residue gasification has been regarded as promising owing to its higher energy efficiency than that of direct combustion. However, prior to large-scale application of crop residue gasification, the lifetime environmental performance should be investigated to shed light on sustainable strategies. As traditional static life cycle assessment (LCA) does not include temporal information for dynamic processes, we proposed a dynamic life cycle assessment approach, which improves the static LCA approach by considering time-varying factors, e.g., greenhouse gas characterization factors and energy intensity. As the gasification project can reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) discharge compared with traditional direct fuel combustion, trade-offs between the benefits of global warming mitigation and the impact on global warming of crop residue gasification should be considered. Therefore, indicators of net global warming mitigation benefit and global warming impact mitigation period are put forward to justify the feasibility of the crop residue gasification project. The proposed dynamic LCA and indicators were then applied to estimate the life cycle global warming impact of a crop residue gasification system in China. Results show that the crop residue gasification project has high net global warming mitigation benefit and a short global warming impact mitigation period, indicating its prominent potential in alleviating global warming impact. During the lifetime of the project, the largest emitters of the crop residue gasification project are the operation and construction stages, attributed mainly to the consumption of crop residue, electricity and steel. In addition, the comparison of the results obtained with both traditional and dynamic LCA approaches indicates that there is an exaggeration of the global warming impact reduction potential of crop residue gasification projects. This dynamic LCA can also make the decision maker acknowledge the real-time GHG performance during the lifetime of a production process, and thus make timely decisions to minimize the lifetime GHG emissions

  19. Recent decrease in typhoon destructive potential and global warming implications

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, I-I; Chan, Johnny C. L.

    2015-01-01

    Typhoons (tropical cyclones) severely impact the half-billion population of the Asian Pacific. Intriguingly, during the recent decade, typhoon destructive potential (Power Dissipation Index, PDI) has decreased considerably (by ?35%). This decrease, paradoxically, has occurred despite the increase in typhoon intensity and ocean warming. Using the method proposed by Emanuel (in 2007), we show that the stronger negative contributions from typhoon frequency and duration, decrease to cancel the po...

  20. Is Global Warming likely to cause an increased incidence of Malaria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Sa; Qader, Ss

    2009-01-01

    The rise in the average temperature of earth has been described as global warming which is mainly attributed to the increasing phenomenon of the greenhouse effect. It is believed that global warming can have several harmful effects on human health, both directly and indirectly. Since malaria is greatly influenced by climatic conditions because of its direct relationship with the mosquito population, it is widely assumed that its incidence is likely to increase in a future warmer world.This review article discusses the two contradictory views regarding the association of global warming with an increased incidence of malaria. On one hand, there are many who believe that there is a strong association between the recent increase in malaria incidence and global warming. They predict that as global warming continues, malaria is set to spread in locations where previously it was limited, due to cooler climate. On the other hand, several theories have been put forward which are quite contrary to this prediction. There are multiple other factors which are accountable for the recent upsurge of malaria: for example drug resistance, mosquito control programs, public health facilities, and living standards. PMID:21483497

  1. Further evidence of the effects of global warming on lichens, particularly those with Trentepohlia phycobionts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing evidence suggests that lichens are responding to climate change in Western Europe. More epiphytic species appear to be increasing, rather than declining, as a result of global warming. Many terricolous species, in contrast, are declining. Changes to epiphytic floras are markedly more rapid in formerly heavily polluted, generally built-up or open rural areas, as compared to forested regions. Both the distribution (southern) and ecology (warmth-loving) of the newly established or increasing species seem to be determined by global warming. Epiphytic temperate to boreo-montane species appear to be relatively unaffected. Vacant niches caused by other environmental changes are showing the most pronouced effects of global warming. Species most rapidly increasing in forests, although taxonomically unrelated, all contain Trentepohlia as phycobiont in addition to having a southern distribution. This suggests that in this habitat, Trentepohlia algae, rather than the different lichen symbioses, are affected by global warming. - Epiphytic and terricolous lichens in Western Europe respond to global warming through their Trentepohlia algae

  2. The influence of global warming on natural disasters and their public health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, James H

    2007-01-01

    With a documented increase in average global surface temperatures of 0.6 degrees C since 1975, Earth now appears to be warming due to a variety of climatic effects, most notably the cascading effects of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from human activities. There remains, however, no universal agreement on how rapidly, regionally, or asymmetrically the planet will warm or on the true impact of global warming on natural disasters and public health outcomes. Most reports to date of the public health impact of global warming have been anecdotal and retrospective in design and have focused on the increase in heat-stroke deaths following heat waves and on outbreaks of airborne and arthropod-borne diseases following tropical rains and flooding that resulted from fluctuations in ocean temperatures. The effects of global warming on rainfall and drought, tropical cyclone and tsunami activity, and tectonic and volcanic activity will have far-reaching public health effects not only on environmentally associated disease outbreaks but also on global food supplies and population movements. As a result of these and other recognized associations between climate change and public health consequences, many of which have been confounded by deficiencies in public health infrastructure and scientific debates over whether climate changes are spawned by atmospheric cycles or anthropogenic influences, the active responses to progressive climate change must include combinations of economic, environmental, legal, regulatory, and, most importantly, public health measures. PMID:18268873

  3. Equilibrium global warming potential and temperature changes calculated by radiative convective model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Global Warming Potentials (GWPs) is widely used for comparison the calculation of other greenhouse gases warming 'equivalent' related to carbon dioxide effect for different time horizons. The classical GWP for any greenhouse gas is the ratio of the cumulative, globally-averaged radiative forcing over a specified time horizon produced by a unit-mass emissions impulse of that gas to that due to a unit-mass impulse of carbon dioxide. During last decade many investigations are shown, that classical GWPs for CH4 and other minor GHGs are accurate only for short time horizons. The question of what component of climate change should be used for the comparison is still open. What it is: GHGs emission or concentration, radiative forcing or temperature changes? One of the alternative ideas is to use equilibrium temperature changes instead radiative forcing. Very practical tool for the different greenhouse gases warming 'equivalent' estimation is radiative-convective climate model (RCM) with line-by-line solar and thermal radiation fluxes calculation. The demonstration version of such RCM was developed and used for estimation of global surface temperature changes in the case of multiple times raising of CO2 and CH4 atmospheric amount. Equilibrium global warming potential for CH4 defined as equilibrium global warming due to same amount of CO2 and CH4 addition to the atmosphere is calculated by RCM. The result is very similar to 20 years GWP for CH4 and far from long-term methane GWP. (author)

  4. Relative effects on global warming of halogenated methanes and ethanes of social and industrial interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Donald A.; Hales, Charles H.; Wang, Wei-Chyung; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Sze, N. Dak

    1990-01-01

    The relative potential global warming effects for several halocarbons (chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's)-11, 12, 113, 114, and 115; hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC's) 22, 123, 124, 141b, and 142b; and hydrofluorocarbons (HFC's) 125, 134a, 143a, and 152a; carbon tetrachloride; and methyl chloroform) were calculated by two atmospheric modeling groups. These calculations were based on atmospheric chemistry and radiative convective models to determine the chemical profiles and the radiative processes. The resulting relative greenhouse warming when normalized to the effect of CFC-11 agree reasonably well as long as we account for differences between modeled lifetimes. Differences among results are discussed. Sensitivity of relative warming values is determined with respect to trace gas levels assumed. Transient relative global warming effects are analyzed.

  5. Aquecimento global: uma abordagem para o ensino de física / Global warming: an approach for teaching physics

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D.A., Magalhães.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo consite em apresentar uma abordagem didática acerca das mudanças climáticas e do aquecimento global. Apresentamos alguns institutos de pesquisa e o principal órgão de avaliação das mudanças climáticas e um breve panorama dos trabalhos publicados na área em periódicos nacionai [...] s, em português. Nós também discutimos algumas ideias rudimentares, tais como: radiação de corpos negros e modelos elementares, efeito estufa, forçamento radioativo e anomalias de temperatura. O assunto é discutido em diferentes níveis conceituais e matemáticos de ensino. Abstract in english The purpose of this paper is to present a pedagogical approach concerning climate change and global warming. We present some research institutes and the leading international body for the assessment of climate change and a brief overview of papers published on the subject in Brazilian journals, in P [...] ortuguese. We also discuss some elementary ideas, such as blackbody radiation and elementary models, greenhouse effect, radiative forcing and temperature anomalies. The subject is discussed in different conceptual and mathematical levels of teaching.

  6. Response of the Arabian Sea to global warming and associated regional climate shift

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, S. Prasanna; Roshin, Raj P.; Narvekar, Jayu; Kumar, P.K. Dinesh; Vivekanandan, E.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The response of the Arabian Sea to global warming is the disruption in the natural decadal cycle in the sea surface temperature (SST) after 1995, followed by a secular warming. The Arabian Sea is experiencing a regional climate-shift after 1995, which is accompanied by a 5-fold increase in the occurrence of “most intense cyclones”. Signatures of this climate-shift are also perceptible over the adjacent landmass of India as: (1) progressively warmer winters, and (2) decreas...

  7. The change in oceanic O2 inventory associated with recent global warming

    OpenAIRE

    Keeling, Ralph F.; Garcia, Hernan E.

    2002-01-01

    Oceans general circulation models predict that global warming may cause a decrease in the oceanic O2 inventory and an associated O2 outgassing. An independent argument is presented here in support of this prediction based on observational evidence of the ocean's biogeochemical response to natural warming. On time scales from seasonal to centennial, natural O2 flux/heat flux ratios are shown to occur in a range of 2 to 10 nmol of O2 per joule of warming, with larger ratios typically occurring ...

  8. A possible relationship between Global Warming and Lightning Activity in India during the period 1998-2009

    CERN Document Server

    B., Felix Pereira; Girish, T E

    2010-01-01

    Lightning activity on a global scale has been studied season wise using satellite data for the period from 1998 to 2009. Lightning activity shows an increasing trend during the period of study which is highly correlated with atmospheric warming. A similar increasing trend of lightning activity is observed in the Indian region during the pre-monsoon season which is correlated with global lightning trends and warming trends of surface temperature in India. Key words: Global warming, lightning activity, Solar cycle changes

  9. An Inconvenient Truth. The Planetary Emergency of Global Warming and What We Can Do About It

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is published to tie in with a documentary film of the same name. Both the book and film were inspired by a series of multimedia presentations on global warming that the author created and delivers to groups around the world. With this book, Gore, brings together leading-edge research from top scientists around the world; photographs, charts, and other illustrations; and personal anecdotes and observations to document the fast pace and wide scope of global warming. He presents, with alarming clarity and conclusiveness, and with humor, too, that the fact of global warming is not in question and that its consequences for the world we live in will be disastrous if left unchecked

  10. Awareness structure of the people with opinion that nuclear power is effective for preventing global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of people think that nuclear power generation is not effective for preventing global warming. In this research, the reason why people think so was investigated with using questionnaire survey. As a result, the misunderstanding, the thermal effluent and radioactive substance etc. produced from a nuclear plant promotes global warming, has influenced on this issue. People have negative image against nuclear power in the background of this idea. This negative image is a factor to decrease the evaluation that nuclear power is useful for preventing global warming regardless of the presence of the misunderstanding. By the fear that the accident of the nuclear plant brings the environmental destruction, people evaluate that nuclear power doesn't have the capabilities for environmental preservation. Especially young people have such awareness. It is necessary to learn energy and environmental issues including the merits and demerits of nuclear power objectively in the academic training. (author)

  11. The recent global-warming hiatus: What is the role of the Pacific variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douville, Hervé; Voldoire, Aurore

    2015-04-01

    The observed global mean surface air temperature (GMST) has not risen over the last 15 years, spurring outbreaks of skepticism regarding the nature of global warming and challenging the upper-range transient response of the current-generation global climate models. Recent numerical studies have however tempered the relevance of the observed pause in global warming by highlighting the key role of the tropical Pacific internal variability. Here we first show that many climate models overestimate the influence of the El Niño Southern Oscillation on GMST, thereby shedding doubt on their ability to capture the tropical Pacific contribution to the hiatus. Moreover, we highlight that model results are quite sensitive to the experimental design. We argue that overriding the surface wind stress is more suitable than nudging the sea surface temperature for controlling the tropical Pacific ocean heat uptake and, thereby, the multi-decadal variability of GMST. Using the former technique, our model captures several aspects of the recent climate evolution, including the weaker slowdown of global warming over land and the transition towards a negative phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Yet, the recent global warming is still overestimated, not only over the recent 1998-2012 hiatus period but also over former decades, thereby suggesting that the model might be too sensitive to the prescribed radiative forcings.

  12. The recent global warming hiatus: What is the role of Pacific variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douville, H.; Voldoire, A.; Geoffroy, O.

    2015-02-01

    The observed global mean surface air temperature (GMST) has not risen over the last 15 years, spurring outbreaks of skepticism regarding the nature of global warming and challenging the upper range transient response of the current-generation global climate models. Recent numerical studies have, however, tempered the relevance of the observed pause in global warming by highlighting the key role of tropical Pacific internal variability. Here we first show that many climate models overestimate the influence of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation on GMST, thereby shedding doubt on their ability to capture the tropical Pacific contribution to the hiatus. Moreover, we highlight that model results can be quite sensitive to the experimental design. We argue that overriding the surface wind stress is more suitable than nudging the sea surface temperature for controlling the tropical Pacific ocean heat uptake and, thereby, the multidecadal variability of GMST. Using the former technique, our model captures several aspects of the recent climate evolution, including the weaker slowdown of global warming over land and the transition toward a negative phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Yet the observed global warming is still overestimated not only over the recent 1998-2012 hiatus period but also over former decades, thereby suggesting that the model might be too sensitive to the prescribed radiative forcings.

  13. An Integrated Assessment Model for Helping the United States Sea Scallop (Placopecten magellanicus) Fishery Plan Ahead for Ocean Acidification and Warming

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah R. Cooley; Rheuban, Jennie E.; Hart, Deborah R.; Luu, Victoria; Glover, David M; Hare, Jonathan A.; Doney, Scott C.

    2015-01-01

    Ocean acidification, the progressive change in ocean chemistry caused by uptake of atmospheric CO2, is likely to affect some marine resources negatively, including shellfish. The Atlantic sea scallop (Placopecten magellanicus) supports one of the most economically important single-species commercial fisheries in the United States. Careful management appears to be the most powerful short-term factor affecting scallop populations, but in the coming decades scallops will be increasingly influenc...

  14. What role can nuclear power play in mitigating global warming?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although nuclear energy is a low CO2 energy system, it is not a very efficient tool for rapidly reducing carbon emissions. Global climate change does not justify a considerably increased global nuclear programme for the next two to three decades. Even if for other political or socioeconomic reasons such an intensive global nuclear programme were initiated, its impact on CO2 emissions would be only marginal. This is true irrespective of the costs and feasibilities of alternative emission reduction strategies, such as energy efficiency measures, or the availability of other low CO2 energy supplies. (author)

  15. Sources of global warming of the upper ocean on decadal period scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Warren B.; Dettinger, M.D.; Cayan, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies find global climate variability in the upper ocean and lower atmosphere during the twentieth century dominated by quasi-biennial, interannual, quasi-decadal and interdecadal signals. The quasi-decadal signal in upper ocean temperature undergoes global warming/cooling of ???0.1??C, similar to that occuring with the interannual signal (i.e., El Nin??o-Southern Oscillation), both signals dominated by global warming/cooling in the tropics. From the National Centers for Environmental Prediction troposphere reanalysis and Scripps Institution of Oceanography upper ocean temperature reanalysis we examine the quasi-decadal global tropical diabetic heat storage (DHS) budget from 1975 to 2000. We find the anomalous DHS warming tendency of 0.3-0.9 W m-2 driven principally by a downward global tropical latent-plus-sensible heat flux anomaly into the ocean, overwhelming the tendency by weaker upward shortwave-minus-longwave heat flux anomaly to drive an anomalous DHS cooling tendency. During the peak quasi-decadal warming the estimated dissipation of DHS anomaly of 0.2-0.5 W m-2 into the deep ocean and a similar loss to the overlying atmosphere through air-sea heat flux anomaly are balanced by a decrease in the net poleward Ekman heat advection out of the tropics of 0.4-0.7 W m-2. This scenario is nearly the opposite of that accounting for global tropical warming during the El Nin??o. These diagnostics confirm that even though the global quasi-decadal signal is phase-locked to the 11-year signal in the Sun's surface radiative forcing of ???0.1 W m-2, the anomalous global tropical DHS tendency cannot be driven by it directly.

  16. Competition between global warming and an abrupt collapse of the AMOC in Earth’s energy imbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drijfhout, Sybren

    2015-01-01

    A collapse of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) leads to global cooling through fast feedbacks that selectively amplify the response in the Northern Hemisphere (NH). How such cooling competes with global warming has long been a topic for speculation, but was never addressed using a climate model. Here it is shown that global cooling due to a collapsing AMOC obliterates global warming for a period of 15–20 years. Thereafter, the global mean temperature trend is reversed and becomes similar to a simulation without an AMOC collapse. The resulting surface warming hiatus lasts for 40–50 years. Global warming and AMOC-induced NH cooling are governed by similar feedbacks, giving rise to a global net radiative imbalance of similar sign, although the former is associated with surface warming, the latter with cooling. Their footprints in outgoing longwave and absorbed shortwave radiation are very distinct, making attribution possible. PMID:26437599

  17. Competition between global warming and an abrupt collapse of the AMOC in Earth’s energy imbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drijfhout, Sybren

    2015-10-01

    A collapse of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) leads to global cooling through fast feedbacks that selectively amplify the response in the Northern Hemisphere (NH). How such cooling competes with global warming has long been a topic for speculation, but was never addressed using a climate model. Here it is shown that global cooling due to a collapsing AMOC obliterates global warming for a period of 15-20 years. Thereafter, the global mean temperature trend is reversed and becomes similar to a simulation without an AMOC collapse. The resulting surface warming hiatus lasts for 40-50 years. Global warming and AMOC-induced NH cooling are governed by similar feedbacks, giving rise to a global net radiative imbalance of similar sign, although the former is associated with surface warming, the latter with cooling. Their footprints in outgoing longwave and absorbed shortwave radiation are very distinct, making attribution possible.

  18. Earth's surface fluid variations and deformations from GPS and GRACE in global warming

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Shuanggen; Feng, Guiping

    2011-01-01

    Global warming is affecting our Earth's environment. For example, sea level is rising with thermal expansion of water and fresh water input from the melting of continental ice sheets due to human-induced global warming. However, observing and modeling Earth's surface change has larger uncertainties in the changing rate and the scale and distribution of impacts due to the lack of direct measurements. Nowadays, the Earth observation from space provides a unique opportunity to monitor surface mass transfer and deformations related to climate change, particularly the global positioning system (GPS) and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) with capability of estimating global land and ocean water mass. In this paper, the Earth's surface fluid variations and deformations are derived and analyzed from global GPS and GRACE measurements. The fluids loading deformation and its interaction with Earth system, e.g., Earth Rotation, are further presented and discussed.

  19. How China’s Options Will Determine Global Warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford Singer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide emissions, global average temperature, atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and surface ocean mixed layer acidity are extrapolated using analyses calibrated against extensive time series data for nine global regions. Extrapolation of historical trends without policy-driven limitations has China responsible for about half of global CO2 emissions by the middle of the twenty-first century. Results are presented for three possible actions taken by China to limit global average temperature increase to levels it considers to be to its advantage: (1 Help develop low-carbon energy technology broadly competitive with unbridled carbon emissions from burning fossil fuels; (2 Entice other countries to join in limiting use of what would otherwise be economically competitive fossil fuels; (3 Apply geo-engineering techniques such as stratospheric sulfur injection to limit global average temperature increase, without a major global reduction in carbon emissions. Taking into account China’s expected influence and approach to limiting the impact of anthropogenic climate change allows for a narrower range of possible outcomes than for a set of scenarios that are not constrained by analysis of likely policy-driven limitations. While China could hold back on implementing geoengineering given a remarkable amount of international cooperation on limiting fossil carbon burning, an outcome where geoengineering is used to delay the perceived need to limit the atmospheric CO2 concentration may be difficult to avoid.

  20. The role of emotion in global warming policy support and opposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicholas; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2014-05-01

    Prior research has found that affect and affective imagery strongly influence public support for global warming. This article extends this literature by exploring the separate influence of discrete emotions. Utilizing a nationally representative survey in the United States, this study found that discrete emotions were stronger predictors of global warming policy support than cultural worldviews, negative affect, image associations, or sociodemographic variables. In particular, worry, interest, and hope were strongly associated with increased policy support. The results contribute to experiential theories of risk information processing and suggest that discrete emotions play a significant role in public support for climate change policy. Implications for climate change communication are also discussed. PMID:24219420

  1. The status and prospects of the debate upon the global warming and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possible climate change caused by global warming becomes one of the most serious challenges that mankind shall tackle in 21st century. Nuclear power, which doesn't emit any greenhouse gas during the generation of electricity, is a promising solution to mitigate the global warming. However, there are still debates about the role of nuclear power related to the subjects such as safety, radioactive waste management and nuclear proliferation risk in the international climate change talks. This paper introduces on-going negotiation focused on the nuclear power and then, gives some prospects on the future negotiations. Finally the brief analysis of their impacts on domestic nuclear industry is carried out

  2. Quantifying the consensus on anthropogenic global warming in the scientific literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze the evolution of the scientific consensus on anthropogenic global warming (AGW) in the peer-reviewed scientific literature, examining 11?944 climate abstracts from 1991–2011 matching the topics ‘global climate change’ or ‘global warming’. We find that 66.4% of abstracts expressed no position on AGW, 32.6% endorsed AGW, 0.7% rejected AGW and 0.3% were uncertain about the cause of global warming. Among abstracts expressing a position on AGW, 97.1% endorsed the consensus position that humans are causing global warming. In a second phase of this study, we invited authors to rate their own papers. Compared to abstract ratings, a smaller percentage of self-rated papers expressed no position on AGW (35.5%). Among self-rated papers expressing a position on AGW, 97.2% endorsed the consensus. For both abstract ratings and authors’ self-ratings, the percentage of endorsements among papers expressing a position on AGW marginally increased over time. Our analysis indicates that the number of papers rejecting the consensus on AGW is a vanishingly small proportion of the published research. (letter)

  3. What do global warming impacts really mean to U.S. industry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will explore real-world impacts that global warming could have on US industry. The question of dealing with global warming is, to some extent, an exercise in probability or relative risk management. The difficult part is separating fact from fiction. There is another issue that arises in this intense debate regarding impacts on business and policy. This is the question of whether the impacts are real or only perceived. As the authors have been seen in several environmental situations, the difference between a real or perceived impact can be academic, since a perceived risk often produces real impacts. This paper presents a discussion on what companies can and should do to minimize the perceived risk of global warming on their bottom lines. That is, the basic question is, how can businesses today manage this risk so that objective business decisions can be made? Problems that could be directly or indirectly embedded in the global warming controversy are examined. These include financial, engineering, and international aspects of global climate change. This discussion will include possible impacts on the utility, agricultural, insurance, and financial industries

  4. Global warming and the future of the Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Watts, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The globally averaged surface temperature of the Earth has increased during the past century by about 0.7°C. Most of the increase can be attributed to the greenhouse effect, the increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide that is emitted when fossil fuels are burned to produce energy.The book begins with the important distinction between weather and climate, followed by data showing how carbon dioxide has increased and the incontrovertible evidence that it is caused by burning fossil fuels (i.e., coal, oil, and natural gas). I also address the inevitable skepticism that global

  5. Increasing Risk of Droughts and Floods in Taiwan: Aerosols or Global Warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    Significant increases of heavy precipitation and decreases of light precipitation have been reported over widespread regions of the globe. We examine data from 15 Taiwan Central Weather Bureau stations in the period 1961-2011, as well as global data from the GPCP (Global Precipitation Climatology Project, V1.0, 1979-2007), to show that global warming rather than aerosol effects is the primary cause of the changes in the precipitation extremes. Significant increases of annual total dry days and >=7 consecutive dry days in Taiwan during 1961-2011 are shown to be a result of the decrease in light precipitation and increase in heavy precipitation, thereby establishing a causal link among global warming, changes in precipitation extremes, and higher risk of floods and droughts. Similar links are expected over widespread regions of the globe.

  6. Application of PIXE technique to studies on global warming/cooling effect of atmospheric aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last decade, the importance of global warming has been recognized worldwide. Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in the global warming/cooling effects. The physicochemical properties of aerosol particles are fundamental to understanding such effects. In this study, the PIXE technique was applied to measure the average chemical properties of aerosols. Micro-PIXE was also applied to investigate the mixing state of the individual aerosol particle. The chemical composition data were used to estimate the optical properties of aerosols. The average values of aerosol radiative forcing were -1.53 w/m2 in Kyoto and +3.3 w/m2 in Nagoya, indicating cooling and warming effects respectively. The difference of radiative forcing in the two cities may be caused by the large difference in chemical composition of aerosols

  7. Increasing water cycle extremes in California and in relation to ENSO cycle under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin-Ho; Wang, S.-Y. Simon; Gillies, Robert R.; Kravitz, Ben; Hipps, Lawrence; Rasch, Philip J.

    2015-10-01

    Since the winter of 2013-2014, California has experienced its most severe drought in recorded history, causing statewide water stress, severe economic loss and an extraordinary increase in wildfires. Identifying the effects of global warming on regional water cycle extremes, such as the ongoing drought in California, remains a challenge. Here we analyse large-ensemble and multi-model simulations that project the future of water cycle extremes in California as well as to understand those associations that pertain to changing climate oscillations under global warming. Both intense drought and excessive flooding are projected to increase by at least 50% towards the end of the twenty-first century; this projected increase in water cycle extremes is associated with a strengthened relation to El Niño and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO)--in particular, extreme El Niño and La Niña events that modulate California's climate not only through its warm and cold phases but also its precursor patterns.

  8. Increasing water cycle extremes in California and in relation to ENSO cycle under global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin-Ho; Wang, S-Y Simon; Gillies, Robert R; Kravitz, Ben; Hipps, Lawrence; Rasch, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    Since the winter of 2013-2014, California has experienced its most severe drought in recorded history, causing statewide water stress, severe economic loss and an extraordinary increase in wildfires. Identifying the effects of global warming on regional water cycle extremes, such as the ongoing drought in California, remains a challenge. Here we analyse large-ensemble and multi-model simulations that project the future of water cycle extremes in California as well as to understand those associations that pertain to changing climate oscillations under global warming. Both intense drought and excessive flooding are projected to increase by at least 50% towards the end of the twenty-first century; this projected increase in water cycle extremes is associated with a strengthened relation to El Niño and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO)--in particular, extreme El Niño and La Niña events that modulate California's climate not only through its warm and cold phases but also its precursor patterns. PMID:26487088

  9. Solar cycle length hypothesis appears to support the IPCC on global warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laut, Peter; Gundermann, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    Since the discovery of a striking correlation between 1-2-2-2-1 filtered solar cycle lengths and the 11-year running average of Northern Hemisphere land air temperatures there have been widespread speculations as to whether these findings would rule out any significant contributions to global warming from the enhanced concentrations of greenhouse gases. The "solar hypothesis" claims that solar activity causes a significant component of the global mean temperature to vary in phase opposite to the...

  10. Late spring and early autumn frosts in connection with global warming.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    St?eštík, Jaroslav

    Nitra : Slovak Agricultural University, 2011 - (Šiška, B.; Hauptvogl, M.; Eliašová, M.), s. 1-5 ISBN 978-80-552-0640-0. [Bioclimate - source and limit of social development. International scientific conference. Topol?ianky (SK), 06.09.2011-09.09.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : global warming * global temperature * frost-free period * last spring frost * first autumn frost Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  11. Using the past to constrain the future: how the palaeorecord can improve estimates of global warming

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Tamsin L.; Crucifix, Michel; Harrison, Sandy P

    2012-01-01

    Climate sensitivity is defined as the change in global mean equilibrium temperature after a doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentration and provides a simple measure of global warming. An early estimate of climate sensitivity, 1.5-4.5{\\deg}C, has changed little subsequently, including the latest assessment by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The persistence of such large uncertainties in this simple measure casts doubt on our understanding of the mechanisms of ...

  12. More reflectivity for the soil to counteract the global-warming of the Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Tejedor, A

    2009-01-01

    It is argued that a dedicated effort to increase the reflectivity of the surface of our planet by means of, for example, metallic plates would induce an increase in the global albedo which would counteract in part the present global-warming process of the Earth. This could alleviate the urgency of reducing the CO2 emissions. The City of Zaragoza (Spain) is chosen to illustrate the likelihood of our arguments.

  13. Greenhouse gases, radiative forcing, global warming potential and waste management – an introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter; Gentil, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    Management of post-consumer solid waste contributes to emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) representing about 3% of global anthropogenic GHG emissions. Most GHG reporting initiatives around the world utilize two metrics proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): radiative forcing (RF) and global warming potential (GWP). This paper provides a general introduction of the factors that define a GHG and explains the scientific background for estimating RF and GWP, thereby expos...

  14. Greenhouse gases, radiative forcing, global warming potential and waste management – an introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter; Gentil, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    Management of post-consumer solid waste contributes to emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) representing about 3% of global anthropogenic GHG emissions. Most GHG reporting initiatives around the world utilize two metrics proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): radiative forcing (RF) and global warming potential (GWP). This paper provides a general introduction of the factors that define a GHG and explains the scientific background for estimating RF and GWP, thereby ...

  15. An alternative to the Global Warming Potential for comparing climate impacts of emissions of greenhouse gases

    OpenAIRE

    Shine, Keith P.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Stuber, Nicola

    2003-01-01

    The Global Warming Potential (GWP) is used within the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as a metric for weighting the climatic impact of emissions of different greenhouse gases. The GWP has been subject to many criticisms because of its formulation, but nevertheless it has retained some favour because of the simplicity of its design and application, and its transparency compared to proposed alternatives. Here a new metric, which we call the Global Tem...

  16. Carbon dioxide and methane emissions from an artificially drained coastal wetland during a flood: Implications for wetland global warming potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatland, J. R.; Santos, I. R.; Maher, D. T.; Duncan, T. M.; Erler, D. V.

    2014-08-01

    Floods frequently produce deoxygenation and acidification in waters of artificially drained coastal acid sulfate soil (CASS) wetlands. These conditions are ideal for carbon dioxide and methane production. We investigated CO2 and CH4 dynamics and quantified carbon loss within an artificially drained CASS wetland during and after a flood. We separated the system into wetland soils (inundated soil during flood and exposed soil during post flood period), drain water, and creek water and performed measurements of free CO2 ([CO2*]), CH4, dissolved inorganic and organic carbon (DIC and DOC), stable carbon isotopes, and radon (222Rn: natural tracer for groundwater discharge) to determine aquatic carbon loss pathways. [CO2*] and CH4 values in the creek reached 721 and 81 ?M, respectively, 2 weeks following a flood during a severe deoxygenation phase (dissolved oxygen ~ 0% saturation). CO2 and CH4 emissions from the floodplain to the atmosphere were 17-fold and 170-fold higher during the flooded period compared to the post-flood period, respectively. CO2 emissions accounted for about 90% of total floodplain mass carbon losses during both the flooded and post-flood periods. Assuming a 20 and 100 year global warming potential (GWP) for CH4 of 105 and 27 CO2-equivalents, CH4 emission contributed to 85% and 60% of total floodplain CO2-equivalent emissions, respectively. Stable carbon isotopes (?13C in dissolved CO2 and CH4) and 222Rn indicated that carbon dynamics within the creek were more likely driven by drainage of surface floodwaters from the CASS wetland rather than groundwater seepage. This study demonstrated that >90% of CO2 and CH4 emissions from the wetland system occurred during the flood period and that the inundated wetland was responsible for ~95% of CO2-equivalent emissions over the floodplain.

  17. Patterns of change: whose fingerprint is seen in global warming?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attributing observed climate change to causes is challenging. This letter communicates the physical arguments used in attribution, and the statistical methods applied to explore to what extent different possible causes can be used to explain the recent climate records. The methods use fingerprints of climate change that are identified on the basis of the physics governing our climate system, and through the use of climate model experiments. These fingerprints characterize the geographical and vertical pattern of the expected changes caused by external influences, for example, greenhouse gas increases and changes in solar radiation, taking also into account how these forcings and their effects vary over time. These time–space fingerprints can be used to discriminate between observed climate changes caused by different external factors. Attribution assessments necessarily take the natural variability of the climate system into account as well, evaluating whether an observed change can be explained in terms of this internal variability alone, and estimating the contribution of this source of variability to the observed change. Hence the assessment that a large part of the observed recent warming is anthropogenic is based on a rigorous quantitative analysis of these joint drivers and their effects, and proceeds through a much more comprehensive and layered analysis than a comparison at face value of model simulations with observations.

  18. Urban amplification of the global warming in Moscow megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kislov, Alexander; Konstantinov, Pavel; Varentsov, Mikhail; Samsonov, Timofey; Gorlach, Irina; Trusilova, Kristina

    2015-04-01

    Climate changes in the large cities are very important and requires better understanding. The focus of this paper is climate change of the Moscow megacity. Its urban features strongly influence the atmospheric boundary layer above the Moscow agglomeration area and determine the microclimatic features of the local environment, such as urban heat island (UHI). Available meteorological observations within the Moscow urban area and surrounding territory allow us to assess the natural climate variations and human-induced climate warming separately. To obtain more precisely viewing on the UHI structure we have included into the analysis the satellite data (Meteosat-10), providing temperature and humidity profiles with high resolution. To investigate the mechanism of the urban amplification we realized the regional climate model COSMO-CLM+TEB. Apart from detailed climate research the model runs will be planned for climate projecting of Moscow agglomeration area. Climate change differences between urban and rural areas are determined by changes of the shape of the UHI and their relationships with changes of building height and density. Therefore, the urban module of COSMO-CLM+TEB model is fed by information from special GIS database contenting both geometric characteristics of the urban canyons and other characteristics of the urban surface. The sources of information were maps belonging to the OpenStreetMap, and digital elevation models SRTM90 and ASTER GDEM v.2 as well. The multiscale GIS database allows us to generate such kind of information with different spatial resolution (200, 500 and 1000 meters).

  19. Contrasting responses of Central Asian rock glaciers to global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorg, Annina; Kääb, Andreas; Roesch, Andrea; Bigler, Christof; Stoffel, Markus

    2015-01-01

    While the responses of Tien Shan glaciers--and glaciers elsewhere--to climatic changes are becoming increasingly well understood, this is less the case for permafrost in general and for rock glaciers in particular. We use a novel approach to describe the climate sensitivity of rock glaciers and to reconstruct periods of high and low rock glacier activity in the Tien Shan since 1895. Using more than 1500 growth anomalies from 280 trees growing on rock glacier bodies, repeat aerial photography from Soviet archives and high-resolution satellite imagery, we present here the world's longest record of rock glacier movements. We also demonstrate that the rock glaciers exhibit synchronous periods of activity at decadal timescales. Despite the complex energy-balance processes on rock glaciers, periods of enhanced activity coincide with warm summers, and the annual mass balance of Tuyuksu glacier fluctuates asynchronously with rock glacier activity. At multi-decadal timescales, however, the investigated rock glaciers exhibit site-specific trends reflecting different stages of inactivation, seemingly in response to the strong increase in air temperature since the 1970s. PMID:25657095

  20. Enhanced marine sulphur emissions offset global warming and impact rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandey, B S; Wang, C

    2015-01-01

    Artificial fertilisation of the ocean has been proposed as a possible geoengineering method for removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The associated increase in marine primary productivity may lead to an increase in emissions of dimethyl sulphide (DMS), the primary source of sulphate aerosol over remote ocean regions, potentially causing direct and cloud-related indirect aerosol effects on climate. This pathway from ocean fertilisation to aerosol induced cooling of the climate may provide a basis for solar radiation management (SRM) geoengineering. In this study, we investigate the transient climate impacts of two emissions scenarios: an RCP4.5 (Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5) control; and an idealised scenario, based on RCP4.5, in which DMS emissions are substantially enhanced over ocean areas. We use mini-ensembles of a coupled atmosphere-ocean configuration of CESM1(CAM5) (Community Earth System Model version 1, with the Community Atmosphere Model version 5). We find that the cooling effect associated with enhanced DMS emissions beneficially offsets greenhouse gas induced warming across most of the world. However, the rainfall response may adversely affect water resources, potentially impacting human livelihoods. These results demonstrate that changes in marine phytoplankton activity may lead to a mixture of positive and negative impacts on the climate. PMID:26293204

  1. Enhanced marine sulphur emissions offset global warming and impact rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandey, B. S.; Wang, C.

    2015-08-01

    Artificial fertilisation of the ocean has been proposed as a possible geoengineering method for removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The associated increase in marine primary productivity may lead to an increase in emissions of dimethyl sulphide (DMS), the primary source of sulphate aerosol over remote ocean regions, potentially causing direct and cloud-related indirect aerosol effects on climate. This pathway from ocean fertilisation to aerosol induced cooling of the climate may provide a basis for solar radiation management (SRM) geoengineering. In this study, we investigate the transient climate impacts of two emissions scenarios: an RCP4.5 (Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5) control; and an idealised scenario, based on RCP4.5, in which DMS emissions are substantially enhanced over ocean areas. We use mini-ensembles of a coupled atmosphere-ocean configuration of CESM1(CAM5) (Community Earth System Model version 1, with the Community Atmosphere Model version 5). We find that the cooling effect associated with enhanced DMS emissions beneficially offsets greenhouse gas induced warming across most of the world. However, the rainfall response may adversely affect water resources, potentially impacting human livelihoods. These results demonstrate that changes in marine phytoplankton activity may lead to a mixture of positive and negative impacts on the climate.

  2. Can paleorefugia of cold-adapted species in talus slopes resist global warming?.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    R?ži?ka, Vlastimil; Zacharda, M.; Šmilauer, P.; Ku?era, T.

    2015-01-01

    Ro?. 20, ?. 3 (2015), s. 403-412. ISSN 1239-6095 Grant ostatní: GA JU(CZ) 04-142/2010/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : global warming Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.481, year: 2014 http://www.borenv.net/BER/pdfs/ber20/ber20-403.pdf

  3. Monitoring temperature at shallow Earth - source of information on global warming rate.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    ?ermák, Vladimír; Šafanda, Jan; Krešl, Milan; Bodri, L.

    Moscow, 2002, s. 34-37. [The Earth's thermal field and related research methods. Moscow (RU), 17.06.2002-20.06.2002] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : global warming * Earth's climate * thermal field * temperature monitoring Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  4. Implications of fossil fuel constraints on economic growth and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy Security and Global Warming are analysed as 21st century sustainability threats. Best estimates of future energy availability are derived as an Energy Reference Case (ERC). An explicit economic growth model is used to interpret the impact of the ERC on economic growth. The model predicts a divergence from 20th century equilibrium conditions in economic growth and socio-economic welfare is only stabilised under optimistic assumptions that demands a paradigm shift in contemporary economic thought and focused attention from policy makers. Fossil fuel depletion also constrains the maximum extent of Global Warming. Carbon emissions from the ERC comply nominally with the B1 scenario, which is the lowest emissions case considered by the IPCC. The IPCC predicts a temperature response within acceptance limits of the Global Warming debate for the B1 scenario. The carbon feedback cycle, used in the IPCC models, is shown as invalid for low-emissions scenarios and an alternative carbon cycle reduces the temperature response for the ERC considerably compared to the IPCC predictions. Our analysis proposes that the extent of Global Warming may be acceptable and preferable compared to the socio-economic consequences of not exploiting fossil fuel reserves to their full technical potential

  5. Implications of fossil fuel constraints on economic growth and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy Security and Global Warming are analysed as 21st century sustainability threats. Best estimates of future energy availability are derived as an Energy Reference Case (ERC). An explicit economic growth model is used to interpret the impact of the ERC on economic growth. The model predicts a divergence from 20th century equilibrium conditions in economic growth and socio-economic welfare is only stabilised under optimistic assumptions that demands a paradigm shift in contemporary economic thought and focused attention from policy makers. Fossil fuel depletion also constrains the maximum extent of Global Warming. Carbon emissions from the ERC comply nominally with the B1 scenario, which is the lowest emissions case considered by the IPCC. The IPCC predicts a temperature response within acceptance limits of the Global Warming debate for the B1 scenario. The carbon feedback cycle, used in the IPCC models, is shown as invalid for low-emissions scenarios and an alternative carbon cycle reduces the temperature response for the ERC considerably compared to the IPCC predictions. Our analysis proposes that the extent of Global Warming may be acceptable and preferable compared to the socio-economic consequences of not exploiting fossil fuel reserves to their full technical potential. (author)

  6. Do mitigation strategies reduce global warming potential in the northern U.S. Corn Belt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agriculture is both an anthropogenic source of CO2, CH4, and N2O, and a sink for CO2 and CH4. Management can impact agriculture's net global warming potential (GWP) by changing source and/or sink. This study compared GWP among three crop management systems: business as usual (BAU), optimum greenhous...

  7. ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES FOR REDUCING NET GLOBAL WARMING POTENTIAL IN IRRIGATED CROPPING SYSTEMS IN NORTHEASTERN COLORADO

    Science.gov (United States)

    A cropping systems field study initiated in 1999 was used in this analysis to evaluate the economic feasibility of achieving reductions in net global warming potential through changes in cropping system management. Crop yield and management information collected from 2000-2005 were used to estimate ...

  8. Global Warming Potential of Long-Term Grazing Management Systems in the Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazing lands in the northern Great Plains of North America are extensive, occupying over 50 Mha. Yet grazing land contributions to, or mitigation of, global warming potential (GWP) is largely unknown for the region. The objective of this study was to estimate GWP for three long-term (70 to 90 yr)...

  9. Minding the carbon store: Weighing U.S. forestry strategies to slow global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If global warming is to be slowed heat-trapping gases must be controlled but, in addition, carbon sinks must be expanded. This document provides economic, political and technical analyses for each of seven biotic policy options that are feasible for the US. Individual chapters were indexed separately for the data base

  10. Taken by storm : the troubled science, policy and politics of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book explains the complex science of climate change and dispels the myth that a global warming crisis will bring chaos and destruction to the world. The authors argue that the underlying science of climate change is uncertain, yet global warming has ceased to be a subject of scientific debate for several years because prominent players have been swayed into the complex dynamics of politics which often dismiss scientific evidence for the sake of precaution. The book demonstrates how fear about global warming has become irrational and suggests that instead of pouring billions of dollars each year into global warming related projects, governments could put the money to better use by helping people in developing countries live better lives. In the chapter devoted to the Kyoto Protocol the authors argue that the time and energy used to negotiate the agreement could have been better invested in serious research on climate change. With ratification now underway, governments will likely focus on implementation rather than the difficult task of understanding climate models. The authors argue that the treaty is unstable and unenforceable in terms of commitments to reduce greenhouse gases. refs., tabs., figs

  11. Global Warming and the Political Ecology of Health: Emerging Crisis and Systemic Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Smith

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of Global Warming and the Political Ecology of Health: Emerging Crisis and Systemic Solutions. Hans Baer and Merrill Singer. 2008. Left Coast Press, Inc., Walnut Creek, CA. Pp. 238. $32.95 (paperback. ISBN 978-1-59874-354-8.

  12. Climate of Concern--A Search for Effective Strategies for Teaching Children about Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Fiona; Taylor, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that the issue of global warming is one of great concern for Australian children. This point to the need for effective teaching about this issue. Children should be properly informed about actions that help reduce carbon emissions as this may give them a sense of empowerment and go some way to alleviating concerns. This…

  13. A Collection of Studies Conducted in Education about "Global Warming" Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdogan, Aykut Emre

    2011-01-01

    The studies global warming problem conducted in education discipline in the world and in Turkey were analysed for this study. The literature was reviewed extensively especially through the articles in the indexed journals of Ebsco Host, Science Direct, Taylor and Francis and Web of Science databases and this study was conducted according to the…

  14. Debating Global Warming in Media Discussion Forums: Strategies Enacted by "Persistent Deniers" and Implications for Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, G. Michael; Rodger, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    Newspapers and other media are often used as a source of information on science issues, both by the public and teachers in classrooms. Over six months, we collected discussions of global warming issues from the online forums of a national newspaper. Our analysis of these contributions suggests there is a considerable effort in these forums,…

  15. Students' Communication, Argumentation and Knowledge in a Citizens' Conference on Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albe, Virginie; Gombert, Marie-Jose

    2012-01-01

    An empirical study on 12th-grade students' engagement on a global warming debate as a citizens' conference is reported. Within the design-based research methodology, an interdisciplinary teaching sequence integrating an initiation to non-violent communication was developed. Students' debates were analyzed according to three dimensions:…

  16. Omani Students' Views about Global Warming: Beliefs about Actions and Willingness to Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambusaidi, Abdullah; Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin; Taylor, Neil

    2012-01-01

    A 44-item questionnaire was designed to determine students' views about how useful various "specific" actions might be in helping to reduce global warming, their willingness to undertake these various actions and the extent to which these two might be related. The instrument was administered to students in Grades 6 to 12 (N = 1532) from 12 schools…

  17. Beliefs and Willingness to Act about Global Warming: Where to Focus Science Pedagogy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skamp, Keith; Boyes, Eddie; Stanisstreet, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Science educators have a key role in empowering students to take action to reduce global warming. This involves assisting students to understand its causes as well as taking pedagogical decisions that have optimal probabilities of leading to students being motivated to take actions based on empirically based science beliefs. To this end New South…

  18. Fear Appeals and College Students' Attitudes and Behavioral Intentions toward Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Chu Sarrina

    2014-01-01

    This study used Witte's extended parallel process model to examine the relationships between the use of fear appeals and college students' attitudes and behavioral intentions toward global warming. A pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design was adopted. Three hundred forty-one college students from six communication courses at two…

  19. Medical Providers as Global Warming and Climate Change Health Educators: A Health Literacy Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagran, Melinda; Weathers, Melinda; Keefe, Brian; Sparks, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is a threat to wildlife and the environment, but it also one of the most pervasive threats to human health. The goal of this study was to examine the relationships among dimensions of health literacy, patient education about global warming and climate change (GWCC), and health behaviors. Results reveal that patients who have higher…

  20. The Teach-in on Global Warming Solutions and Vygotsky: Fostering Ecological Action and Environmental Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysack, Mishka

    2009-01-01

    The Teach-in on Global Warming Solutions is part of a larger socio-environmental movement concerned with combating climate change. Highlighting the history and elements of the teach-in as a model of learning, the article examines the teach-in movement, using a local event at the University of Calgary as an illustration. Conceptual resources from…

  1. Signatures of global warming and regional climate shift in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Roshin, R.P.; Narvekar, J.; DineshKumar, P.K.; Vivekanandan, E.

    The impact of global warming in the recent decade is shown by the disruption in the natural decadal cycle in the sea surface temperature (SST) of the Arabian Sea after 1995. We propose a regional climate shift after 1995, the signature of which...

  2. Assessment of global expected warming contribution to desertification process development in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessment of moistening condition change in Kazakhstan and its role in processes of desertification at global expected climate warming are cited. Results of numerical experiments by models of common circulation of atmosphere have been used in capacity of potential regional climate change characteristics. (author)

  3. Mass Media and Global Warming: A Public Arenas Model of the Greenhouse Effect's Scientific Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, Mark

    1995-01-01

    Uses the Public Arenas model to examine the historical roots of the greenhouse effect issue as communicated in scientific literature from the early 1800s to modern times. Utilizes a constructivist approach to discuss several possible explanations for the rise and fall of global warming as a social problem in the scientific arena. (PA)

  4. Global warming and drainage development: perspective and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    De Wrachien, D.; Feddes, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture is expected to play a major role in reaching the broader development objectives of achieving food security and improvements in the quality of life, while conserving the environment, in both the developed and developing countries. Especially as we are faced with the prospect of global population growth from almost 6 billion today to at least 8 billion by 2025. In this context, the constraints posed by land and water scarcity and the associated need to increase the carryin...

  5. Estimating the permafrost-carbon feedback on global warming

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider von Deimling, T.; Meinshausen, M.; Levermann, A.; Huber, V.; Frieler, K.; Lawrence, D. M.; Brovkin, V.

    2011-01-01

    Thawing of permafrost and the associated release of carbon constitutes a positive feedback in the climate system, elevating the effect of anthropogenic GHG emissions on global-mean temperatures. Multiple factors have hindered the quantification of this feedback, which was not included in the CMIP3 and C4MIP generation of AOGCMs and carbon cycle models. There are considerable uncertainties in the rate and extent of permafrost thaw, the hydrological and vegetation respons...

  6. Projected range contractions of montane biodiversity under global warming

    OpenAIRE

    La Sorte, Frank A.; Jetz, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Mountains, especially in the tropics, harbour a unique and large portion of the world's biodiversity. Their geographical isolation, limited range size and unique environmental adaptations make montane species potentially the most threatened under impeding climate change. Here, we provide a global baseline assessment of geographical range contractions and extinction risk of high-elevation specialists in a future warmer world. We consider three dispersal scenarios for simulated species and for ...

  7. Should We Ban Unconventional Oil Extraction to Reduce Global Warming?

    OpenAIRE

    Carrara, Samuel; Massetti, Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    The extraction and processing of unconventional oil is more energy intensive and has larger negative environmental impacts than the extraction of conventional oil. The European Union (EU) estimates that oil sands lead to 22% more emissions than conventional oil. The EU is very concerned by the potential climate and environmental impacts and has considered introducing a tax on imported unconventional oil in order to discourage its production. This study shows that a global ban on the use of un...

  8. Global Warming in Schools: An Inquiry about the Competing Conceptions of High School Social Studies and Science Curricula and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Casey R.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the scientific consensus supporting the theory of anthropogenic (human-induced) global warming, whether global warming is a serious problem, whether human activity is the primary cause of it, and whether scientific consensus exists at all are controversial questions among the U.S. lay-public. The cultural theory of risk perception (Schwarz…

  9. The Effects of Instruction with Visual Materials on the Development of Preservice Elementary Teachers' Knowledge and Attitude towards Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdogan, Aykut Emre

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the erroneous knowledge and misconceptions of preservice elementary teachers about global warming and examine the effects of instruction with visual materials on rectifying these misconceptions and fostering a positive attitude towards the issue of global warming. Having a quasi-experimental design, the study made use…

  10. Student Teachers' Conceptions about Global Warming and Changes in Their Conceptions during Pre-Service Education: A Cross Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimer, Sabiha Odabasi; Cimer, Atilla; Ursavas, Nazihan

    2011-01-01

    Global warming is one of the important environmental problems whose dangerous effects are increasing gradually. The study reported herein aimed to reveal student teachers' conceptions about global warming and the effect of biology teacher education program on their awareness of this environmental issue. An open-ended questionnaire was used to…

  11. Nuclear energy and global warming: a new economic view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper tries to state energy situation and then energy policy globally in economic view and then offer the practical solution. Besides above questions, the most important questions that will be answered are: What is the energy position, in economic view? and what is the most important priority among environmental issues? According to present conditions and environmental challenges what is the way map for energy supply? Is the priority for environment and energy with an economic sight, in present and future, same as the past? (Author)

  12. CO2 and solar radiation: cause of global warming?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cause-effect relationship between global temperature as a climatic change indicator and some of the main forcing mechanisms (Atmospheric CO2 concentration, solar radiation and volcanic activity) are analyzed in this paper through time series analysis for the 1610-1990 AD period comparing trends and variability for the frequency spectrums. Temperature seems to fit the CO2 trend for the last century, but we found no cause-effect relationship for this interval. The frequency analysis shows a correlation between radiation and temperature for a period of 22 years. Volcanism presents an inverse relationship with temperature better seen at a decadal scale.

  13. The effect of global warming on lightning frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Colin; Rind, David

    1990-01-01

    The first attempt to model global lightning distributions by using the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM is reported. Three sets of observations showing the relationship between lightning frequency and cloud top height are shown. Zonally averaged lightning frequency observed by satellite are compared with those calculated using the GISS GCM, and fair agreement is found. The change in lightning frequency for a double CO2 climate is calculated and found to be nearly 2.23 x 10 exp 6 extra lightning flashes per day.

  14. Global warming: What does the data tell us?

    OpenAIRE

    Alban, E. X.; Hoeneisen, B.

    2002-01-01

    We analyze global surface temperature data obtained at 13472 weather stations from the year 1702 to 1990. The mean annual temperature of a station fluctuates from year to year by typically +-0.6oC (one standard deviation). Superimposed on this fluctuation is a linear increase of the temperature by typically 0.40oC per century ever since reliable data is available, i.e. since 1702. The world population has doubled from 1952 to 1990, yet we see no statistically significant acc...

  15. How motor vehicles contribute to global warming and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter, the authors describe ways in which motor vehicles are contributing to global climate change and health problems caused by air pollution. Globally, motor vehicles account for about a third of world oil consumption and about 14% of the world's carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel burning. For the US the figures are 50% of oil demand and about 25% of carbon dioxide emissions. Motor vehicles are the major source of ozone precursors and monitoring data suggest that ozone concentrations are increasing by about one percent per year in the northern hemisphere and are causing adverse effects on human health and on crops. A major source of chlorofluorocarbons in the atmosphere is motor vehicle air conditioning. Annually about 120,000 metric tons of CFCs are used in new vehicles and in serving air conditioners in older vehicles. According to the EPA, vehicle air conditioners accounted for about 16% of the total CFC use in the US during 1989. According to the Montreal Protocol, CFCs are to be completely phased out of new vehicles by the turn of the century, thus reducing the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer

  16. Global warming releases microplastic legacy frozen in Arctic Sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obbard, Rachel W.; Sadri, Saeed; Wong, Ying Qi; Khitun, Alexandra A.; Baker, Ian; Thompson, Richard C.

    2014-06-01

    When sea ice forms it scavenges and concentrates particulates from the water column, which then become trapped until the ice melts. In recent years, melting has led to record lows in Arctic Sea ice extent, the most recent in September 2012. Global climate models, such as that of Gregory et al. (2002), suggest that the decline in Arctic Sea ice volume (3.4% per decade) will actually exceed the decline in sea ice extent, something that Laxon et al. (2013) have shown supported by satellite data. The extent to which melting ice could release anthropogenic particulates back to the open ocean has not yet been examined. Here we show that Arctic Sea ice from remote locations contains concentrations of microplastics at least two orders of magnitude greater than those that have been previously reported in highly contaminated surface waters, such as those of the Pacific Gyre. Our findings indicate that microplastics have accumulated far from population centers and that polar sea ice represents a major historic global sink of man-made particulates. The potential for substantial quantities of legacy microplastic contamination to be released to the ocean as the ice melts therefore needs to be evaluated, as do the physical and toxicological effects of plastics on marine life.

  17. Understanding the El Niño-like Oceanic Response in the Tropical Pacific to Global Warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yiyong; Lu, Jian; Liu, Fukai; Liu, Wei

    2015-10-10

    The enhanced central and eastern Pacific SST warming and the associated ocean processes under global warming are investigated using the ocean component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), Parallel Ocean Program version 2 (POP2). The tropical SST warming pattern in the coupled CESM can be faithfully reproduced by the POP2 forced with surface fluxes computed using the aerodynamic bulk formula. By prescribing the wind stress and/or wind speed through the bulk formula, the effects of wind stress change and/or the wind-evaporation-SST (WES) feedback are isolated and their linearity is evaluated in this ocean-alone setting. Result shows that, although the weakening of the equatorial easterlies contributes positively to the El Niño-like SST warming, 80% of which can be simulated by the POP2 without considering the effects of wind change in both mechanical and thermodynamic fluxes. This result points to the importance of the air-sea thermal interaction and the relative feebleness of the ocean dynamical process in the El Niño-like equatorial Pacific SST response to global warming. On the other hand, the wind stress change is found to play a dominant role in the oceanic response in the tropical Pacific, accounting for most of the changes in the equatorial ocean current system and thermal structures, including the weakening of the surface westward currents, the enhancement of the near-surface stratification and the shoaling of the equatorial thermocline. Interestingly, greenhouse gas warming in the absence of wind stress change and WES feedback also contributes substantially to the changes at the subsurface equatorial Pacific. Further, this warming impact can be largely replicated by an idealized ocean experiment forced by a uniform surface heat flux, whereby, arguably, a purest form of oceanic dynamical thermostat is revealed.

  18. Changes in Soil Water Storage under Global Warming in CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, W. Y.; Lan, C. W.; Lo, M. H.; Reager, J. T., II; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in global hydrological cycle play an important role in the Earth's climate system. In this study, we use simulations from CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) model archives to estimate changes in seasonal cycle of terrestrial soil water under global warming (with the RCP8.5 scenario). Our preliminary results show that future global warming is leading to declines in snow fall and snow amount in most models and a lack of snow melt during spring and summer results in less recharge of soil moisture, which makes soil water less during the dry season over most of the middle and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. In addition, decreases in the soil ice also play an important role in modifying the seasonal variations of soil water via affecting the infiltration and runoff rates, which might cause the soil dry out faster. The increase in annual cycle of the global soil water under global warming found in this study has important implications for water management and water security under climate changes due to an increase in the water distribution heterogeneity.

  19. A Robust Response of Precipitation to Global Warming from CMIP5 Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, K. -M.; Wu, H. -T.; Kim, K. -M.

    2012-01-01

    How precipitation responds to global warming is a major concern to society and a challenge to climate change research. Based on analyses of rainfall probability distribution functions of 14 state-of-the-art climate models, we find a robust, canonical global rainfall response to a triple CO2 warming scenario, featuring 100 250% more heavy rain, 5-10% less moderate rain, and 10-15% more very light or no-rain events. Regionally, a majority of the models project a consistent response with more heavy rain events over climatologically wet regions of the deep tropics, and more dry events over subtropical and tropical land areas. Results suggest that increased CO2 emissions induce basic structural changes in global rain systems, increasing risks of severe floods and droughts in preferred geographic locations worldwide.

  20. Regional growth management policies: Toward reducing global warming at state and local levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    State and local governments in the United States are accepting mandates to coordinate legislated land use and growth management planning with vigorous environmental protection and resource conservation. These mandates, implemented or planned in states with populations totaling over 100 million, will directly impact growth patterns and ultimately affect the level of atmospheric gases and particulates generated within their borders. This paper addresses the issues of growth management and land use planning at the local, state and regional levels and identifies areas impacting global warming. A review of existing systems will be presented, and recommendations will be made to improve monitoring of growth management mechanisms and organizational structures with the goal of global atmospheric improvement. The issues discussed include urban sprawl, transportation, and growth patterns as managed by policies also designed to protect environments and provide for sustainable growth. Areas for improved coordination between jurisdictions to ease global warming will also be examined