WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Are Salps A Silver Bullet Against Global Warming And Ocean Acidification?  

Science.gov (United States)

Oceanic uptake of 25 billion tons CO2 annually introduced into the atmosphere from carbon fuels must be mitigated to prevent further widespread changes in ocean biochemistry and potentially severe anthropogenic climate change. Larry Madin of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute and his colleagues have measured the carbon sequestration in the excretia produced by dense swarms of Salps of up to 4,000 tons per day over a 100,000 km2 ocean region, equivalent to over 14 thousand tons of CO2 per day. This poses several questions: 1. Given the ocean surface of 372 million km2, does the Madin report imply a potential removal of 20 billion tons of CO2 per year 80% of emissions? 2. What might be the natural limitations on widespread propagation of Salps, and how would these effect the carbon sequestration actually achieved? 3. What mechanism could encourage the propagation of Salps throughout the oceans? Since Salps feast on phytoplankton which require sunlight and sufficient nutrients, we must first reduce the available ocean by perhaps 60% as a seasonal limit on phytoplankton growth and allow 60% further limit for poor nutrient availability and assuming some ocean regions are an unfavorable environment for Salps. Combined, the net ocean area over which Salps could sequester carbon is thus 36%, or 134 million km2. Assuming Madin's values for carbon sequestration are achievable over this ocean region, about 7.2 billion tons of CO2 could be sequestered annually, equal to 29% of mankind's current fossil-fuel CO2 output. This converts to a carbon equivalent of 1.96 billion tons per year. The mechanism we propose to encourage widespread propagation of Salps is forced upwelling using Atmocean's arrays of wave-driven deep ocean pumps to bring up large volumes of cold, nutrient-rich deep ocean to enhance the ocean's primary production, absorbing CO2 and producing oxygen. The pump simply comprises a buoy, flexible tube, cylinder with valve, cable to connect the buoy and cylinder, and solar panel to power communications & provide remote control. Adjacent pumps are connected at the bottom to maintain relative position. If required, periodic seafloor anchoring can maintain absolute position within an ocean basin. Deployment is low cost as the pumps self-deploy when dropped into the ocean from barges. Pumps would not be deployed in ocean shipping channels, regions used by recreational boaters, nor where excessive tides or currents exist. In a global application, 1,340 arrays each 100,000 km2 are needed to cover the 134 million km2 calculated above. Assuming one pump per square km costing 2,000, an investment of 268 billion is needed. Using a five year payback, this investment is recouped if the carbon credit price is 26.80 per ton applied to sequestering 1.96 billion tons per year of carbon. This is not dramatically different from today's carbon credit price of about 15 per ton. Assuming a governmental mandate of carbon sequestration, today's price could easily increase many-fold, making ocean sequestration using forced upwelling economically attractive. Additional benefits of widespread forced upwelling include: 1 Buffering of ocean pH by removing CO2 during photosynthesis; 2 Possible cooling the upper mixed layer upstream from coral reefs to reduce bleaching from ocean hotspots; 3 Possible mitigation of rapid climate change by enhancing the mixing of arctic/Greenland meltwater; 4 Enhancement of wild fish populations; and, 5 Reduced hurricane intensity, achieved by cooling the upper mixed layer upon approach of a tropical storm in high risk regions such as the Gulf of Mexico.

Kithil, P. W.

2006-12-01

2

Global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Global warming' is a phrase that refers to the effect on the climate of human activities, in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) and large-scale deforestation, which cause emissions to the atmosphere of large amounts of 'greenhouse gases', of which the most important is carbon dioxide. Such gases absorb infrared radiation emitted by the Earth's surface and act as blankets over the surface keeping it warmer than it would otherwise be. Associated with this warming are changes of climate. The basic science of the 'greenhouse effect' that leads to the warming is well understood. More detailed understanding relies on numerical models of the climate that integrate the basic dynamical and physical equations describing the complete climate system. Many of the likely characteristics of the resulting changes in climate (such as more frequent heat waves, increases in rainfall, increase in frequency and intensity of many extreme climate events) can be identified. Substantial uncertainties remain in knowledge of some of the feedbacks within the climate system (that affect the overall magnitude of change) and in much of the detail of likely regional change. Because of its negative impacts on human communities (including for instance substantial sea-level rise) and on ecosystems, global warming is the most important environmental problem the world faces. Adaptation to the inevitable impacts and mitigation to reduce their magnitude are both necessary. International action is being taken by the world's scientific and political communities. Because of the need for urgent action, the greatest challenge is to move rapidly to much increased energy efficiency and to non-fossil-fuel energy sources

2005-06-01

3

Acidification in a global perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Yhe acidification problem associated with anthropogenic emissions of sulfur nad nitrogen oxides is addressed from a global perspective. The picture is dominated by the highly acidified regions in Europe and the eastern parts of North America. An additional acidified region is emerging in the southern parts of China. In most tropical countries emissions are still low, but in many cases increasing. Areas with sensitive soils are identified. Where these areas coincide with present or expected industrial development, future acidification problems are anticipated to occur. (author) (With 25 refs).

Rodhe, H.

1989-01-01

4

Has Global Warming Stopped?  

...Has Global Warming Stopped? Climate & Capitalism An ecosocialist journal Home About Ecosocialist Notebook Book Reviews Archives Articles By Subject Articles by ...MR Press MRzine Economist’s Travelogue You are here: Home / 2008 / September / 23 / Has Global Warming Stopped? Posted on September 23, 2008 Has Global Warming ... The next time someone claims that global warming has “stopped,” show them this response from the actual climate scientists at the UK Met ...Office Global warming goes on (UK Meteorological Office, 23 September 2008) Anyone who thinks global warming has stopped has their head ...

5

Global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The GEF was set up as a pilot programme in 1991 to provide grant and concessional funds to developing countries for projects and activities that aim to protect the global environment. In March 1994, participating governments successfully concluded negotiations to restructure the Facility. The Core Fund of the GEF was also replenished with over $2 billion to be committed over a three-year period. GEF resources are available for projects that address climate change, biological diversity, international waters and depletion of the ozone layer. Activities addressing land degradation, primarily desertification and deforestation, as they relate to the four areas, are also eligible for funding. The GEF is jointly implemented by the United Nations Development Programme, the United Nations Environment Programme and the World Bank

1995-01-01

6

Calcium carbonate production response to future ocean warming and acidification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions are acidifying the ocean, affecting calcification rates in pelagic organisms and thereby modifying the oceanic alkalinity cycle. However, the responses of pelagic calcifying organisms to acidification vary widely between species, contributing uncertainty to predictions of atmospheric CO2 and the resulting climate change. Meanwhile, ocean warming caused by rising CO2 is expected to drive increased growth rates of all pelagic organisms, including calcifiers. It thus remains unclear whether anthropogenic CO2 will ultimately increase or decrease the globally-integrated pelagic calcification rate. Here, we assess the importance of this uncertainty by introducing a variable dependence of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 production on calcite saturation state (?CaCO3 in the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model, an intermediate complexity coupled carbon-climate model. In a series of model simulations, we examine the impact of this parameterization on global ocean carbon cycling under two CO2 emissions scenarios, both integrated to the year 3500. The simulations show a significant sensitivity of the vertical and surface horizontal alkalinity gradients to the parameterization, as well as the removal of alkalinity from the ocean through CaCO3 burial. These sensitivities result in an additional oceanic uptake of carbon when calcification depends on ?CaCO3 (of up to 13 % of total carbon emissions, compared to the case where calcification is insensitive to acidification. In turn, this response causes a reduction of global surface air temperature of up to 0.4 °C in year 3500, a 13 % reduction in the amplitude of warming. Narrowing these uncertainties will require better understanding of both temperature and acidification effects on pelagic calcifiers. Preliminary examination suggests that alkalinity observations can be used to constrain the range of uncertainties and may exclude large sensitivities of CaCO3 production on ?CaCO3.

A. J. Pinsonneault

2011-12-01

7

Global warming yearbook: 1998  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report brings together a year`s worth of global warming stories - over 280 in all - in one convenient volume. It provides a one-stop report on the scientific, political and industrial implications of global warming. The report includes: detailed coverage of negotiations on the Kyoto Protocol; scientific findings on carbon sources and sinks, coral bleaching, Antarctic ice shelves, plankton, wildlife and tree growth; new developments on fuel economy, wind power, fuel cells, cogeneration, energy labelling and emissions trading.

Arris, L. [ed.

1999-02-01

8

Rolling stones; fast weathering of olivine in shallow seas for cost-effective CO2 capture and mitigation of global warming and ocean acidification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Human CO2 emissions may drive the Earth into a next greenhouse state. They can be mitigated by accelerating weathering of natural rock under the uptake of CO2. We disprove the paradigm that olivine weathering in nature would be a slow process, and show that it is not needed to mill olivine to very fine, 10 ?m-size grains in order to arrive at a complete dissolution within 1–2 year. In high-energy shallow marine environments olivine grains and reaction products on the grain surfaces, that otherwise would greatly retard the reaction, are abraded so that the chemical reaction is much accelerated. When kept in motion even large olivine grains rubbing and bumping against each other quickly produce fine clay- and silt-sized olivine particles that show a fast chemical reaction. Spreading of olivine in the world's 2% most energetic shelf seas can compensate a year's global CO2 emissions and counteract ocean acidification against a price well below that of carbon credits.

P. L. de Boer

2011-12-01

9

The global warming problem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this chapter, a discussion is presented of the global warming problem and activities contributing to the formation of acid rain, urban smog and to the depletion of the ozone layer. Globally, about two-thirds of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions arise from fossil-fuel burning; the rest arise primarily from deforestation. Chlorofluorocarbons are the second largest contributor to global warming, accounting for about 20% of the total. The third largest contributor is methane, followed by ozone and nitrous oxide. A study of current activities in the US that contribute to global warming shows the following: electric power plants account for about 33% of carbon dioxide emissions; motor vehicles, planes and ships (31%); industrial plants (24%); commercial and residential buildings (11%)

1990-01-01

10

What is Global Warming?  

Science.gov (United States)

This textbook chapter presents evidence of a warming climate and outlines how a clear picture of global warming has emerged since the 1980s. Students learn about sampling error sources in climate data, and compare graphical data collected by climate scientists Jim Hansen, Philip Jones and Tom Wigley, as they follow the global warming hypothesis move through the process of science. This is the fourth chapter in the unit, Climate Change, which addresses the question of how human activities are changing Earth's climate. The resource includes three classroom investigations, links to current news articles, and a suite of pre- and post-unit assessments. A teacher's guide supports classroom use. This is chapter 4 of Climate Change, part of Global Systems Science (GSS), an interdisciplinary course for high school students that emphasizes how scientists from a wide variety of fields work together to understand significant problems of global impact.

11

Managing Local Coastal Stressors to Reduce the Ecological Effects of Ocean Acidification and Warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Anthropogenic activities have increased the number of stressors acting on ecosystems. When multiple stressors act simultaneously, there is a greater probability of additive, synergistic and antagonistic effects occurring among them. Where additive and synergistic effects occur, managers may yield disproportionately large benefits where they first act upon synergies. Stressors act, however, at different spatial and temporal scales. Global stressors (e.g., ocean acidification and warming) tend ...

Giulia Ghedini; Russell, Bayden D.; Connell, Sean D.

2013-01-01

12

GLOBAL WARMING AND PATTERN OF MAIN ECONOMY IN SUNDARBAN  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article, the phrase “global warming” refers tothe change in the Earth's global average surfacetemperature. Measurements show a global temperatureincrease of 1.4 °F (0.78 °C) between the years 1900 and2005. Global warming is closely associated with a broadspectrum of other climate changes, such as increases inthe frequency of intense rainfall, decreases in snow coverand sea ice, more frequent and intense heat waves, risingsea levels, and widespread ocean acidification. TheIntergo...

2013-01-01

13

Global warming on trial  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Jim Hansen, a climatologist at NASA's Goddard Space Institute, is convinced that the earth's temperature is rising and places the blame on the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Unconvinced, John Sununu, former White House chief of staff, doubts that the warming will be great enough to produce serious threat and fears that measures to reduce the emissions would throw a wrench into the gears that drive the Unites States' troubled economy. During his three years at the White House, Sununu's view prevailed, and although his role in the debate has diminished, others continue to cast doubt on the reality of global warming. A new lobbying group called the Climate Council has been created to do just this. Burning fossil fuels is not the only problem; a fifth of emissions of carbon dioxide now come from clearing and burning forests. Scientists are also tracking a host of other greenhouse gases that emanate from a variety of human activities; the warming effect of methane, chlorofluorocarbons and nitrous oxide combined equals that of carbon dioxide. Although the current warming from these gases may be difficult to detect against the background noise of natural climate variation, most climatologists are certain that as the gases continue to accumulate, increases in the earth's temperature will become evident even to skeptics. If the reality of global warming were put on trial, each side would have trouble making its case. Jim Hansen's side could not prove beyond a reasonable doubt that carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases have warmed the planet. But neither could John Sununu's side prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the warming expected from greenhouse gases has not occurred. To see why each side would have difficulty proving its case, this article reviews the arguments that might be presented in such a hearing

1992-04-01

14

Climate change - global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An explanation about climate, weather, climate changes. What is a greenhouse effect, i.e. global warming and reasons which contribute to this effect. Greenhouse gases (GHG) and GWP (Global Warming Potential) as a factor for estimating their influence on the greenhouse effect. Indicators of the climate changes in the previous period by known international institutions, higher concentrations of global average temperature. Projecting of likely scenarios for the future climate changes and consequences of them on the environment and human activities: industry, energy, agriculture, water resources. The main points of the Kyoto Protocol and problems in its realization. The need of preparing a country strategy concerning the acts of the Kyoto Protocol, suggestions which could contribute in the preparation of the strategy. A special attention is pointed to the energy, its resources, the structure of energy consumption and the energy efficiency. (Author)

2001-01-01

15

Is Global Warming Accelerating?  

Science.gov (United States)

A global pattern that fluctuates naturally on decadal time scales is identified in climate simulations and observations. This newly discovered component, called the Global Multidecadal Oscillation (GMO), is related to the Atlantic Meridional Oscillation and shown to account for a substantial fraction of decadal fluctuations in the observed global average sea surface temperature. IPCC-class climate models generally underestimate the variance of the GMO, and hence underestimate the decadal fluctuations due to this component of natural variability. Decomposing observed sea surface temperature into a component due to anthropogenic and natural radiative forcing plus the GMO, reveals that most multidecadal fluctuations in the observed global average sea surface temperature can be accounted for by these two components alone. The fact that the GMO varies naturally on multidecadal time scales implies that it can be predicted with some skill on decadal time scales, which provides a scientific rationale for decadal predictions. Furthermore, the GMO is shown to account for about half of the warming in the last 25 years and hence a substantial fraction of the recent acceleration in the rate of increase in global average sea surface temperature. Nevertheless, in terms of the global average “well-observed” sea surface temperature, the GMO can account for only about 0.1° C in transient, decadal-scale fluctuations, not the century-long 1° C warming that has been observed during the twentieth century.

Shukla, J.; Delsole, T. M.; Tippett, M. K.

2009-12-01

16

Global Warming Wheel Card  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, students construct a Global Warming Wheel Card, a hand-held tool that they can use to estimate their household's emissions of carbon dioxide and learn how they can reduce them. One side of the wheel illustrates how much carbon dioxide a household contributes to the atmosphere per year through activities such as driving a car, using energy in the home, and disposing of waste. The other side shows how changes in behavior can reduce personal emissions.

US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

17

Ocean acidification and warming scenarios increase microbioerosion of coral skeletons.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biological mediation of carbonate dissolution represents a fundamental component of the destructive forces acting on coral reef ecosystems. Whereas ocean acidification can increase dissolution of carbonate substrates, the combined impact of ocean acidification and warming on the microbioerosion of coral skeletons remains unknown. Here, we exposed skeletons of the reef-building corals, Porites cylindrica and Isopora cuneata, to present-day (Control: 400 ?atm - 24 °C) and future pCO2 -temperature scenarios projected for the end of the century (Medium: +230 ?atm - +2 °C; High: +610 ?atm - +4 °C). Skeletons were also subjected to permanent darkness with initial sodium hypochlorite incubation, and natural light without sodium hypochlorite incubation to isolate the environmental effect of acidic seawater (i.e., ?aragonite <1) from the biological effect of photosynthetic microborers. Our results indicated that skeletal dissolution is predominantly driven by photosynthetic microborers, as samples held in the dark did not decalcify. In contrast, dissolution of skeletons exposed to light increased under elevated pCO2 -temperature scenarios, with P. cylindrica experiencing higher dissolution rates per month (89%) than I. cuneata (46%) in the high treatment relative to control. The effects of future pCO2 -temperature scenarios on the structure of endolithic communities were only identified in P. cylindrica and were mostly associated with a higher abundance of the green algae Ostreobium spp. Enhanced skeletal dissolution was also associated with increased endolithic biomass and respiration under elevated pCO2 -temperature scenarios. Our results suggest that future projections of ocean acidification and warming will lead to increased rates of microbioerosion. However, the magnitude of bioerosion responses may depend on the structural properties of coral skeletons, with a range of implications for reef carbonate losses under warmer and more acidic oceans. PMID:23505093

Reyes-Nivia, Catalina; Diaz-Pulido, Guillermo; Kline, David; Guldberg, Ove-Hoegh; Dove, Sophie

2013-06-01

18

Consumers mediate the effects of experimental ocean acidification and warming on primary producers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is well known that ocean acidification can have profound impacts on marine organisms. However, we know little about the direct and indirect effects of ocean acidification and also how these effects interact with other features of environmental change such as warming and declining consumer pressure. In this study, we tested whether the presence of consumers (invertebrate mesograzers) influenced the interactive effects of ocean acidification and warming on benthic microalgae in a seagrass co...

Alsterberg, Christian; Eklo?f, Johan S.; Gamfeldt, Lars; Havenhand, Jonathan N.; Sundba?ck, Kristina

2013-01-01

19

The challenge of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chapter outlines the science of global warming, the likely consequences of global warming and some of the major challenges in dealing with global climate change. Some of the major international organisations concerned with environmental issues are listed. International agreements might be used to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. 32 refs., 2 tabs

1990-03-26

20

Forests and global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The importance of forests to Canada, both in economic and environmental terms, is indisputable. A warmer global climate may well have profound effects on the Canadian boreal forest, and at least some of the effects will not be beneficial. With the state of the current knowledge of climate processes and climate change it is not possible to predict the extent or rate of projected changes of anthropogenic origin. Given these uncertainties, the appropriate course of action for the Canadian forest sector is to develop policies and strategies which will make good sense under the current climatic regime, and which will also be appropriate for actions in a warmer climate scenario. The business as usual approach is not acceptable in the context of pollution control as it has become clear that anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants must be substantially reduced, both to prevent (or at least slow the rate of) possible global warming, and to reduce impacts on the biophysical environment and human health. Effective mitigative actions must be introduced on both a national and global scale. Forest management policies more effectively geared to the sustainability of forests are needed. The programs that are developed out of such policies must be cognizant of the real possibility that climate in the present boreal forest regions may change in the near future. 13 refs

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Transport and global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this study was to provide price-sensitive forecasts of greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, and carbon monoxide) from the transport sector in Britain in order to contribute to the policy debate on how to deal with the global warming impacts of transport. The study has developed software for a disaggregated model of the car stock: this model breaks down the stock by 9 categories of vehicle size and 16 age categories, to predict how changes in fuel prices will alter fuel consumption characteristics, annual mileage and driving behaviour. The public transport model provides forecasting equations for six separate categories of public transport demand. The car and public transport models are linked by a set of cross-elasticities of demand developed in the study. The models can therefore consider other sources of inter-modal changes in demand, and provide a set of long-term national public transport demand equations to complement the Government`s National Road Traffic Forecasts. In addition an alternative model for forecasting national car ownership has been developed using co-integration techniques. The study has also derived new estimates of public transport emissions from different types of rail service, and from bus services. Finally, the study has produced emissions forecasts for the road freight sector. (Author)

Dodgson, J.

1997-12-31

22

Bioenergy - global advantage and local acidification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bioenergy is usually considered an environmentally friendly source of energy, mainly because of the international focus on carbon dioxide emission. The article questions this point of view. Less emission of global climate gases comes from bioenergy than from the combustion of natural gas and fuel oil, but much more particulate and acidifying matter. According to a Swedish investigation, bioenergy, waste combustion and fuel oil are worse than natural gas if particles, SOx, NOx and CO2 are weighted equally. Biofuel and fuel oil emit almost twice as much nitrogen oxides as do natural gas and waste combustion. Bioenergy and waste emit on the average 160-210 times as much sulphur as do natural gas and 40-170 times as much particles. To what extent bioenergy is environmentally sound is very technology-dependent. Bioenergy is advantageous with respect to emission of climate gases and by definition does not emit carbon dioxide since this is compensated by photosynthetic absorption. As for hydrocarbons, NOx and SOx, which cause local acidification, bioenergy comes in about halfway between the best and the worst energy sources. The pollution from large bioenergy plants can be effectively reduced, but cleaning systems on small plants are not economical. Small bioenergy plants should not be localised in areas with high particle emission

2000-01-01

23

Global Warming Kids.net  

Science.gov (United States)

Global Warming Kids .Net is a project of ClimateChangeEducation.Org: science museum docents; students, staff and scientists at the University of California. Plus elementary, middle and high school student volunteers & interns.

24

Global warming: A vicious circle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases the planet is already committed to regional droughts, storms, disruption of fisheries and the extinction of many plant and animal species. But current predictions of global warming do not take into account the reactions and interactions of the planet's land, ocean and ice masses to the rise in temperatures. It seems likely that the greenhouse effect will give rise to positive feedback reactions, leading to greater global warming than predicted

1991-01-01

25

Acidification and warming affect both a calcifying predator and prey, but not their interaction : Feature article  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Both ocean warming and acidification have been demonstrated to affect the growth, performance and reproductive success of calcifying invertebrates. However, relatively little is known regarding how such environmental change may affect interspecific interactions. We separately treated green crabs Carcinus maenas and periwinkles Littorina littorea under conditions that mimicked either ambient conditions (control) or warming and acidification, both separately and in combination, for 5 mo. After 5 mo, the predators, prey and predator-prey interactions were screened for changes in response to environmental change. Acidification negatively affected the closer-muscle length of the crusher chela and correspondingly the claw-strength increment in C. maenas. The effects of warming and/or acidification on L. littorea were less consistent but indicated weaker shells in response to acidification. On the community level, however, we found no evidence that predator-prey interactions will change in the future. Further experiments exploring the impacts of warming and acidification on key ecological interactions are needed instead of basing predictions of ecosystem change solely on species-specific responses to environmental change.

Landes, Anja; Zimmer, Martin

2012-01-01

26

Antarctic global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Changes to a glacial feature in Antarctica are noted. It was a snow ramp with dimensions described thus in 1961 - a minimum width of 175m, a gradient of near zero (sea level) to 30m elevation in a horizontal distance of 100m. The presence of the snow ramp was reported in 1936, 1946, 1961 and 1975. By 1990 the ramp had gone and there was an open-water channel between Back Bay and the main part of Marguerite Bay. It probably disappeared around 1980, and may contribute to the effects of what might be a progressively warming period in that region of Antarctica. 6 refs.

Splettstoesser, J.

1992-02-06

27

Local cooling, global warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The growing use of refrigeration and air conditioning systems and the shift in refrigerant types due to the Montreal Protocol lead to rapidly increasing HFC refrigerant emissions globally, especially in developing countries. Reducing the emission of these potent greenhouse gases globally seems to be indispensable in a successful long term climate strategy. The thesis uses quantitative vintage models as well as qualitative policy analysis to assess how various policy options to reduce refri...

Hekkenberg, M.

2009-01-01

28

The politics of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The probable warming of the world over the next few decades due to human activity presents a unique threat. The threat of global warming has been brought about by the activities of the entire human race, and only action by a large part of the human race can slow down the process or halt it. Other unwanted effects of industrial activity are trans-national, and require international agreements to regulate them, most obviously radioactivity from nuclear power accidents, acid rain and river pollution; but climatic change, unlike these, is global. International negotiations are going on now to deal with the problem of global warming, mostly by reducing the emission of gases that contribute to it. These are preliminary, yet already different perceptions and conflicting interests are emerging. The aim of the present negotiations is a convention for the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) to be held in June 1992, the so-called ''Earth Summit''. (author)

1991-01-01

29

Managing Local Coastal Stressors to Reduce the Ecological Effects of Ocean Acidification and Warming  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anthropogenic activities have increased the number of stressors acting on ecosystems. When multiple stressors act simultaneously, there is a greater probability of additive, synergistic and antagonistic effects occurring among them. Where additive and synergistic effects occur, managers may yield disproportionately large benefits where they first act upon synergies. Stressors act, however, at different spatial and temporal scales. Global stressors (e.g., ocean acidification and warming tend to change slowly over long periods of time, although their intensity and effects are contingent on local conditions. On the other hand, local stressors tend to change rapidly over shorter, more defined spatial and temporal scales. Hence, local stressors can be subject to a greater degree of control through local management (e.g., eutrophication and overfishing while global stressors are characterized by an intrinsic inertia whose effects last for decades, if not centuries. Although the reduction of carbon emissions is an international priority for managing global stressors, it requires international agreements and management applications that take considerable time to develop. Managers, however, may ‘buy time’ by acting on stressors whose governance is local (e.g., reducing nutrient input and are known to synergize with global stressors (e.g., enriched CO2. Such local actions may potentially disrupt synergies with the more slowly changing global stressors that can only be reduced over longer time scales.

Sean D. Connell

2013-10-01

30

Global Warming: Early Warning Signs  

Science.gov (United States)

Created by a host of organizations (Environmental Defense Fund, Natural Resources Defense Council, Sierra Club, Union of Concerned Scientists, US Public Interest Research Group, World Resources Institute, and World Wildlife Fund), this site seeks to provide evidence of the "fingerprints" and "harbingers" of global warming. A clickable map of the world enables users to take a closer look at geographic regions, at specific examples of "fingerprints" (e.g., heat waves, sea level rise, melting glaciers, and Arctic and Antarctic warming) and "harbingers" (spreading disease, earlier arrival of spring, range shifts and population declines in plants and animals, bleaching of coral reefs, extreme weather events, and fires). While it is unclear that any specific event may be explained by global warming, the combination of events highlighted at this page provides powerful fodder for further thought.

1999-01-01

31

Sustainability Management Based Approach to Global Warming:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The global warming is a kind of sustainability risk. For this reason, Global Warming should be considering in Sustainability Management concept. The global warming risk must be managed effectively since its consequences threats for sustainability of our world. While this is understandable by all of us, a broader view is necessary to manage this risk in both the short and long-term. Risk management mentality is useful to the best managing of global risks. In this study, the global warming is d...

AYSE KUCUK YILMAZ; Karakoc, Hikmet

2008-01-01

32

Ocean warming and acidification have complex interactive effects on the dynamics of a marine fungal disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diseases threaten the structure and function of marine ecosystems and are contributing to the global decline of coral reefs. We currently lack an understanding of how climate change stressors, such as ocean acidification (OA) and warming, may simultaneously affect coral reef disease dynamics, particularly diseases threatening key reef-building organisms, for example crustose coralline algae (CCA). Here, we use coralline fungal disease (CFD), a previously described CCA disease from the Pacific, to examine these simultaneous effects using both field observations and experimental manipulations. We identify the associated fungus as belonging to the subphylum Ustilaginomycetes and show linear lesion expansion rates on individual hosts can reach 6.5 mm per day. Further, we demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that ocean-warming events could increase the frequency of CFD outbreaks on coral reefs, but that OA-induced lowering of pH may ameliorate outbreaks by slowing lesion expansion rates on individual hosts. Lowered pH may still reduce overall host survivorship, however, by reducing calcification and facilitating fungal bio-erosion. Such complex, interactive effects between simultaneous extrinsic environmental stressors on disease dynamics are important to consider if we are to accurately predict the response of coral reef communities to future climate change. PMID:24452029

Williams, Gareth J; Price, Nichole N; Ushijima, Blake; Aeby, Greta S; Callahan, Sean; Davy, Simon K; Gove, Jamison M; Johnson, Maggie D; Knapp, Ingrid S; Shore-Maggio, Amanda; Smith, Jennifer E; Videau, Patrick; Work, Thierry M

2014-03-01

33

Ocean warming and acidification have complex interactive effects on the dynamics of a marine fungal disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Diseases threaten the structure and function of marine ecosystems and are contributing to the global decline of coral reefs. We currently lack an understanding of how climate change stressors, such as ocean acidification (OA) and warming, may simultaneously affect coral reef disease dynamics, particularly diseases threatening key reef-building organisms, for example crustose coralline algae (CCA). Here, we use coralline fungal disease (CFD), a previously described CCA disease from the Pacific, to examine these simultaneous effects using both field observations and experimental manipulations. We identify the associated fungus as belonging to the subphylum Ustilaginomycetes and show linear lesion expansion rates on individual hosts can reach 6.5 mm per day. Further, we demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that ocean-warming events could increase the frequency of CFD outbreaks on coral reefs, but that OA-induced lowering of pH may ameliorate outbreaks by slowing lesion expansion rates on individual hosts. Lowered pH may still reduce overall host survivorship, however, by reducing calcification and facilitating fungal bio-erosion. Such complex, interactive effects between simultaneous extrinsic environmental stressors on disease dynamics are important to consider if we are to accurately predict the response of coral reef communities to future climate change.

Williams, Gareth J.; Price, Nichole N.; Ushijima, Blake; Aeby, Greta S.; Callahan, Sean; Davy, Simon K.; Gove, Jamison M.; Johnson, Maggie D.; Knapp, Ingrid S.; Shore-Maggio, Amanda; Smith, Jennifer E.; Videau, Patrick; Work, Thierry M.

2014-01-01

34

Ocean Warming, More than Acidification, Reduces Shell Strength in a Commercial Shellfish Species during Food Limitation  

Science.gov (United States)

Ocean surface pH levels are predicted to fall by 0.3–0.4 pH units by the end of the century and are likely to coincide with an increase in sea surface temperature of 2–4°C. The combined effect of ocean acidification and warming on the functional properties of bivalve shells is largely unknown and of growing concern as the shell provides protection from mechanical and environmental challenges. We examined the effects of near-future pH (ambient pH –0.4 pH units) and warming (ambient temperature +4°C) on the shells of the commercially important bivalve, Mytilus edulis when fed for a limited period (4–6 h day?1). After six months exposure, warming, but not acidification, significantly reduced shell strength determined as reductions in the maximum load endured by the shells. However, acidification resulted in a reduction in shell flex before failure. Reductions in shell strength with warming could not be explained by alterations in morphology, or shell composition but were accompanied by reductions in shell surface area, and by a fall in whole-body condition index. It appears that warming has an indirect effect on shell strength by re-allocating energy from shell formation to support temperature-related increases in maintenance costs, especially as food supply was limited and the mussels were probably relying on internal energy reserves. The maintenance of shell strength despite seawater acidification suggests that biomineralisation processes are unaffected by the associated changes in CaCO3 saturation levels. We conclude that under near-future climate change conditions, ocean warming will pose a greater risk to shell integrity in M. edulis than ocean acidification when food availability is limited.

Mackenzie, Clara L.; Ormondroyd, Graham A.; Curling, Simon F.; Ball, Richard J.; Whiteley, Nia M.; Malham, Shelagh K.

2014-01-01

35

Ocean warming, more than acidification, reduces shell strength in a commercial shellfish species during food limitation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ocean surface pH levels are predicted to fall by 0.3-0.4 pH units by the end of the century and are likely to coincide with an increase in sea surface temperature of 2-4 °C. The combined effect of ocean acidification and warming on the functional properties of bivalve shells is largely unknown and of growing concern as the shell provides protection from mechanical and environmental challenges. We examined the effects of near-future pH (ambient pH -0.4 pH units) and warming (ambient temperature +4 °C) on the shells of the commercially important bivalve, Mytilus edulis when fed for a limited period (4-6 h day(-1)). After six months exposure, warming, but not acidification, significantly reduced shell strength determined as reductions in the maximum load endured by the shells. However, acidification resulted in a reduction in shell flex before failure. Reductions in shell strength with warming could not be explained by alterations in morphology, or shell composition but were accompanied by reductions in shell surface area, and by a fall in whole-body condition index. It appears that warming has an indirect effect on shell strength by re-allocating energy from shell formation to support temperature-related increases in maintenance costs, especially as food supply was limited and the mussels were probably relying on internal energy reserves. The maintenance of shell strength despite seawater acidification suggests that biomineralisation processes are unaffected by the associated changes in CaCO3 saturation levels. We conclude that under near-future climate change conditions, ocean warming will pose a greater risk to shell integrity in M. edulis than ocean acidification when food availability is limited. PMID:24489785

Mackenzie, Clara L; Ormondroyd, Graham A; Curling, Simon F; Ball, Richard J; Whiteley, Nia M; Malham, Shelagh K

2014-01-01

36

Ocean Acidification’s Potential to Alter Global Marine Ecosystem Services  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ocean acidification lowers the oceanic saturation states of carbonate minerals and decreases the calcification rates of some marine organisms that provide a range of ecosystem services such as wild fishery and aquaculture harvests, coastal protection, tourism, cultural identity, and ecosystem support. Damage to marine ecosystem services by ocean acidification is likely to disproportionately affect developing nations and coastal regions, which often rely more heavily on a variety of marine-related economic and cultural activities. Losses of calcifying organisms or changes in marine food webs could significantly alter global marine harvests that provided 110 million metric tons of food for humans valued at US$160 billion in 2006. Some of the countries most dependent on seafood for dietary protein include developing island nations with few agricultural alternatives. Aquaculture, especially of mollusks, may meet some of the future protein demand of economically developing, growing populations, but ocean acidification may complicate aquaculture of some species. By 2050, both population increases and changes in carbonate mineral saturation state will be greatest in low-latitude regions, multiplying the stresses on tropical marine ecosystems and societies. Identifying cost-effective, adaptive strategies to mitigate the costs associated with ocean acidification requires development of transferrable management strategies that can be tailored to meet the specific needs of regional human and marine communities.

Sarah R. Cooley

2009-12-01

37

Impact and prevention on global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book deals with impact and prevention on global warming with eight chapters, which introduce the change after the earth was born and natural environment, how is global atmospheric environment under the control of radiant energy? What does global warming look with the earth history like? What's the status of global warming so far? How does climate change happen? What is the impact by global warming and climate change and for preservation of global environment of 21 century with consumption of energy, measure and prospect on global warming. It has reference, index and three appendixes.

Park, Heon Ryeol

2003-11-15

38

Impact and prevention on global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book deals with impact and prevention on global warming with eight chapters, which introduce the change after the earth was born and natural environment, how is global atmospheric environment under the control of radiant energy? What does global warming look with the earth history like? What's the status of global warming so far? How does climate change happen? What is the impact by global warming and climate change and for preservation of global environment of 21 century with consumption of energy, measure and prospect on global warming. It has reference, index and three appendixes.

2003-01-01

39

Cosmic Rays and Global Warming  

CERN Multimedia

It has been claimed by others that observed temporal correlations of terrestrial cloud cover with `the cosmic ray intensity' are causal. The possibility arises, therefore, of a connection between cosmic rays and Global Warming. If true, the implications would be very great. We have examined this claim to look for evidence to corroborate it. So far we have not found any and so our tentative conclusions are to doubt it. Such correlations as appear are more likely to be due to the small variations in solar irradiance, which, of course, correlate with cosmic rays. We estimate that less than 15% of the 11-year cycle warming variations are due to cosmic rays and less than 2% of the warming over the last 35 years is due to this cause.

Sloan, T

2007-01-01

40

Cosmic rays and global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The possible effects of cosmic rays on clouds could contribute to global warming. The argument is that the observed increased solar activity during the last century caused a decrease in the ionization due to cosmic rays since the lower energy cosmic particles are deflected by the magnetic field created by the increasing solar wind. This would lead to a decrease in cloud cover allowing more heating of the earth by the sun. Meteorological data combined to solar activity observations and simulations show that any effect of solar activity on clouds and the climate is likely to be through irradiance rather than cosmic rays. Since solar irradiance transfers 8 orders of magnitude more energy to the atmosphere than cosmic rays it is more plausible that this can produce a real effect. The total contribution of variable solar activity to global warming is shown to be less than 14% of the total temperature rise. (A.C.)

Erlykin, A.D. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sloan, T. [Lancaster University (United Kingdom); Wolfendale, A.W. [Durham University (United Kingdom)

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
41

Global Warming and Financial Umbrellas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new instrument for hedging weather risks has made its appearance in the financial arena. Trade in 'weather derivatives' has taken off in the US, and interest is growing elsewhere. Whilst such contracts may be simply interpreted as a new tool for solving a historical problem, the question addressed in this paper is if, besides other factors, the appearance of weather derivatives is somehow related to anthropogenic climate change. Our tentative answer is positive. Since 'global warming' does not simply mean an increase in averaged temperatures, but increased climate variability, and increased frequency and magnitude of weather extremes, derivative contracts may potentially become a useful tool for hedging some weather risks, insofar as they may provide coverage at a lower cost than standard insurance schemes. Keywords: Global warming, climate variability, insurance coverage, weather derivatives

2001-01-01

42

Global Warming: the Sacrificial Temptation  

CERN Multimedia

The claimed unanimity of the scientific community about the human culpability for global warming is questioned. Up today there exists no scientific proof of human culpability. It is not the number of authors of a paper, which validates its scientific content. The use of probability to assert the degree of certainty with respect the global warming problem is shown to be misleading. The debate about global warming has taken on emotional tones driven by passion and irrationality while it should be a scientific debate. The degree of hostility used to mull any dissonance voice demonstrates that the current debate has acquired a quasi-religious nature. Scientists are behaving as priests in their will "to save the planet". We are facing a dangerous social phenomenon, which must be addressed from the social point of view. The current unanimity of citizens, scientists, journalists, intellectuals and politicians is intrinsically worrying. The calls to sacrifice our way of life to calm down the upset nature is an emotio...

Galam, Serge

2008-01-01

43

A global warning for global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The problem of global warming is a complex one not only because it is affecting desert areas such as the Sahel leading to famine disasters of poor rural societies, but because it is an even greater threat to modern well established industrial societies. Global warming is a complex problem of geographical, economical and societal factors together which definitely are biased by local environmental parameters. There is an absolute need to increase the knowledge of such parameters, especially to understand their limits of variance. The greenhouse effect is a global mechanism which means that in changing conditions at one point of the Earth, it will affect all other regions of the globe. Industrial pollution and devastation of the forest are quoted as similar polluting anthropogenic activities in far apart regions of the world with totally different societies and industrial compounds. The other important factor is climatic cyclicity which means that droughts are bound to natural cycles. These natural cycles are numerous as is reflected in the study of geo-proxydata from several sequential geological series on land, ice and deepsea. Each of these cycles reveals a drought cycle which occasionally interfere at the same time. It is believed that the present drought might well be a point of interference between the natural cycles of 2,500 and 1,000 years and the man induced cycle of the last century`s warming up. If the latter is the only cycle involved, man will be able to remediate. If not, global warming will become even more disastrous beyond the 21st century.

Paepe, R. [Earth Technology Inst., Brussels (Belgium)

1996-12-31

44

Global warming-setting the stages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most of us have heard or read about global warming. However, the messages we receive are often in conflict, raising more questions than answer. Is global warming a good or a bad thing? has it already started or is it part of our future? Are we, or are we not doing anything about it? Should we be concerned? This primer on Global Warming is designed to clear up some of this confusion by providing basic scientific information on global warming issue. It is clear that there is still much to learn about global warming. However, it is also clear that there is a lot that we already know - and that dose provide cause for concern. We must understand the global warming issue if we are to make wise decisions and take responsible actions in response to the challenges and opportunities posed by global warming. Chapter 1 of 'the primer on global Warming' set the stage with a brief overview of science of global warming within the context of climate change. In addition, it introduces the specific issues that surround the global warming problem. As far as the science of global warming is concerned the following questions are discussed. What is global climate? Is climate change natural? What causes climate to vary on a global scale? How does the composition of the atmosphere relate to climate change. but there are also certain issues discussed here which surround the global warming such as: If climate varies naturally, why is there a concern about 'global warming'? What are the potential consequences of 'global warning'. What human activities contribute to 'global warming'. (Author)

1994-01-01

45

A Warming World: Global Temperature Update  

Science.gov (United States)

This collection of videos, articles and imagery telling the story of global warming includes: a feature video about global warming; four articles about global warming featuring NASA climate scientists; two videos about how NASA satellites measure the earth's temperature; a gallery of images taken by NASA satellites depicting the effects of a warming world; an interactive graphic of temperature changes since 1880; and a set of NASA surface temperature visualizations.

46

Global Warming Blame the Sun  

CERN Document Server

Concern about climate change reaches a political peak at a UN conference in Kyoto, 1-10 December, but behind the scenes the science is in turmoil. A challenge to the hypothesis that greenhouse gases are responsible for global warming comes from the discovery that cosmic rays from the Galaxy are involved in making clouds (Svensmark and Friis-Christensen, 1997). During the 20th Century the wind from the Sun has grown stronger and the count of cosmic rays has diminished. With fewer clouds, the EarthÕs surface has warmed up. This surprising mechanism explains the link between the Sun and climate change that astronomers and geophysicists have suspected for 200 years.

Calder, N

1997-01-01

47

US demilitarization and global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the paper input-output methods are used to generate ballpark empirical estimates of the implications for global warming of the projected demilitarization of the US federal budget. The impact is found to be qualitatively ambiguous, and highly sensitive to the manner in which the funds saved are distributed. The effect is adverse where the budgetary savings are used to fund economy-wide cuts in personal taxation and/or deficit reduction. In other cases the effect may be neutral or beneficial. (author)

1993-12-01

48

Nuclear efficiency against global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nuclear power is capable of contributing in important proportions for the fight against the global warming. With regard to fossil fuels power plants, nuclear power pants allow to avoid every year the release of 2 milliards tons of carbon dioxide that is about 10 % of the world emissions. Energy savings and development of the renewable energies are only a part of the solution, their contribution will be precious but insufficient. It is the nuclear addition with renewable energies that appears as the key solution to slow down the escalation of the greenhouse effect. (N.C.)

2007-01-01

49

Public perceptions of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examines the way public opinion responds to the prospect of global warming. In particular, it focuses on the public's 'willingness to pay' in order to prevent various hypothetical climate scenarios from transpiring. To this end, fractional factorial survey methods are employed with a sample of over 600 residents of Southern California. By and large, the public is able to understand and evaluate rather complicated hypothetical climate scenarios, but the public appreciates some features of climate far better than others. In this context, the contingent valuation estimates provided, while promising, are clearly not ready of consideration by policy makers. 36 refs., 17 figs

1995-01-01

50

Global Warming Control to Mitigate Climate Change  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Paper describes a proposed development of empirical model of global warming fit on the collective determinants in all countries. Aim is to enable establishment and comparison of the collective effects of global determinants on global warming in the prescription of the regulations most fit for the collective deployment in each of the determinant countries to enable mitigation of the greenhouse gases build-up caused global warming.

Massawe, Antipas T. S.

2012-01-01

51

The economics of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The global warming threat is challenging the world community to both international cooperation and national policy action. This report focuses on the necessity to alternate between ''global and national climate policies''. The Swiss perspective is at issue. The economic rationales for comparing national climate policy options are analyzed. This report explicitly focusses on the fundamental role of the normative framework and the related environmental-economic requisites for establishing an efficient national climate policy and computing a ''carbon tax''. Finally, the latest results of the energy and greenhouse gas scenarios for Switzerland, elaborated on within the network of the IEA/ETSAP Project, Annex IV, ''Greenhouse Gases and National Energy Options: Technologies and Costs for Reducing Emissions of Greenhouse Gases'', illustrate Switzerland's difficulties in reducing greenhouse gas emissions at ''reasonable cost'' compared with other countries. This should make Switzerland very sensitive to the implementation of efficient environmental-policy instruments and international cooperation. (author) figs., tabs., refs

1993-01-01

52

Global warming potential of pavements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pavements comprise an essential and vast infrastructure system supporting our transportation network, yet their impact on the environment is largely unquantified. Previous life-cycle assessments have only included a limited number of the applicable life-cycle components in their analysis. This research expands the current view to include eight different components: materials extraction and production, transportation, onsite equipment, traffic delay, carbonation, lighting, albedo, and rolling resistance. Using global warming potential as the environmental indicator, ranges of potential impact for each component are calculated and compared based on the information uncovered in the existing research. The relative impacts between components are found to be orders of magnitude different in some cases. Context-related factors, such as traffic level and location, are also important elements affecting the impacts of a given component. A strategic method for lowering the global warming potential of a pavement is developed based on the concept that environmental performance is improved most effectively by focusing on components with high impact potentials. This system takes advantage of the fact that small changes in high-impact components will have more effect than large changes in low-impact components.

Santero, Nicholas J [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 407 McLaughlin Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1712 (United States); Horvath, Arpad, E-mail: njsantero@cal.berkeley.ed, E-mail: horvath@ce.berkeley.ed [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 215B McLaughlin Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1712 (United States)

2009-09-15

53

Meta-analysis reveals complex marine biological responses to the interactive effects of ocean acidification and warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ocean acidification and warming are considered two of the greatest threats to marine biodiversity, yet the combined effect of these stressors on marine organisms remains largely unclear. Using a meta-analytical approach, we assessed the biological responses of marine organisms to the effects of ocean acidification and warming in isolation and combination. As expected biological responses varied across taxonomic groups, life-history stages, and trophic levels, but importantly, combining stress...

Harvey, Ben P.; Gwynn-jones, Dylan; Moore, Pippa J.

2013-01-01

54

Integrated assessment of global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The anomalies of sea surface temperatures, which show a warming trend since the 1850s through the decade 1960/70 of {Delta}SST {approximately} 0.3 C, are complemented by changes of the ground surface temperature ({Delta}GST). The global surface temperature change, based on these data, allows an integrated assessment of the associated increase in black-body irradiance and a comparison with the enhanced greenhouse-gas back-scattering. Information on the GST history is obtained from unfolding analyses of underground temperature distributions measured in 90 boreholes in Alaskan permafrost and Canadian bedrock. These analyses show GST increases ({Delta}GST) since the 19th century through 1960/70 of 3 C on average, with standard deviations of +1.8 C and {minus}0.9 C on the high and low end respectively. The onset of the warming trend, which is uncertain in the GST data, is timed more accurately by detailed length records of large valley glaciers in the US and the Alps. Evaluation of the heat capacities and heat transfer indicates that the temperature response to an increase in radiative forcing must be much larger on land than on the sea. Conversely, the observed large ratio of {Delta}GST and {Delta}SST can only be explained by increased radiative forcing. From 1960/70 through the warmest decade on record, 1980/90, global {Delta}SST and {Delta}SAT have further increased to 0.6 C and 0.8 C respectively, But, the most recent GST data are not accurate enough to extend the comparison through 1990. Calculation of the increase of radiative forcing from back-scattering of greenhouse gases for 1850 to 1970 yields 1.3 W/cm{sup 2}. The increase in black-body irradiance from 3.6 C warming on land and 0.3 C on sea provides the required balance. The warming on land of 3.6 C is larger than the average value of 3.0 C, but well within the observed range.

Ott, K.O. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Nuclear Engineering

1996-12-31

55

Keeping cool on global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A number of scientific groups have concluded that the greenhouse effect caused by the man-made emissions of carbon dioxide and other bases has produced much or all of the rise in global temperatures. They predict that there will be an increase in greenhouse gases equivalent to a doubling of carbon dioxide by the middle of the 21st century, and that this will cause the temperature of the earth to rise by as much as 5C. According to these scientists, a temperature rise of this magnitude would cause major disruptions in the earth's ecosystem, including severe summer drought in the midwestern US and other agricultural regions. The worst-case scenarios predict a major rise in sea level as a result of the greenhouse warming, inundating areas of New York, Miami and other coastal cities as well as low-lying river deltas and islands. The lives of hundreds of millions of people would be disrupted. The available data on climate change, however, do not support these predictions, nor do they support the idea that human activity has caused, or will cause, a dangerous increase in global temperatures. As the authors make this statement, they are aware that it contradicts widespread popular opinion, as well as the technical judgments of some of their colleagues. But it would be imprudent to ignore the facts on global warming that have accumulated over the last two years. These facts indicate that theoretical estimates of the greenhouse problem have greatly exaggerated its seriousness. Enormous economic stakes ride on forthcoming government decisions regarding carbon taxes and other restrictions on CO2 emissions. Due attention must therefore be given to the scientific evidence, no matter how contrary to popular opinion its implications appear to be. This article discusses the scientific evidence

1992-07-01

56

Global Warming and Coastal Erosion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the most certain consequences of global warming is an increase of global (eustatic) sea level. The resulting inundation from rising seas will heavily impact low-lying areas; at least 100 million persons live within one meter of mean sea level and are at increased risk in the coming decades. The very existence of some island states and deltaic coasts is threatened by sea level rise. An additional threat affecting some of the most heavily developed and economically valuable real estate will come from an exacerbation of sandy beach erosion. As the beach is lost, fixed structures nearby are increasingly exposed to the direct impact of storm waves, and will ultimately be damaged or destroyed unless expensive protective measures are taken. It has long been speculated that the underlying rate of long-term sandy beach erosion is two orders of magnitude greater than the rate of rise of sea level, so that any significant increase of sea level has dire consequences for coastal inhabitants. We present in this paper an analytical treatment that indicates there is a highly multiplicative association between long-term sandy beach erosion and sea level rise, and use a large and consistent data base of shoreline position field data to show that there is reasonable quantitative agreement with observations of 19th and 20th century sea levels and coastal erosion. This result means that the already-severe coastal erosion problems witnessed in the 20th century will be exacerbated in the 21st century under plausible global warming scenarios.

Zhang, K.; Douglas, B.C.; Leatherman, S.P. [Laboratory for Coastal Research and International Hurricane Research Center, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States)

2004-07-01

57

Environmental Protection Agency's Global Warming Web Site  

Science.gov (United States)

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Home Page on Global Warming is served by the Waste Policy Institute for the EPA Office of Economy and Environment. This well organized site contains a great deal of information on global warming, climate change, and the greenhouse effect. It contains reports, slide presentations, and a glossary of terms, among other features. It also contains predictions on the impacts of global warming and discusses governmental policies and actions. If you would like to make a difference in the study of global warming, this site can also give you the information you need to get involved.

1997-01-01

58

Mitigation of global warming through renewable biomass  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rising level of atmospheric CO2 and consequent global warming is evident. Global surface temperature have already increased by 0.8 °C over the 20th century and is projected to increase by 1.4–5.8 °C during the twenty-first century. The global warming will continue till atmospheric concentrations of the major greenhouse gases are stabilized. Among them, CO2 is mainly responsible and is expected to account for about 60% of the warming over the next century. This study reviews advances on causes and consequences of global climate change and its impact on nature and society. Renewable biomass has tremendous potential to mitigate the global warming. Renewable biomass is expected to play a multifunctional role including food production, source of energy and fodder, biodiversity conservation, yield of goods and services to the society as well as mitigation of the impact of climate change. The review highlights the different management and research strategies in forestry, agriculture, agroforestry and grasslands to mitigate the global warming. -- Highlights: ? Rising level of atmospheric CO2 and consequent global warming is evident. ? CO2 is mainly responsible for global warming. ? Global temperature is predicted to increase by 1.4–5.8 °C during 21st century. ? Renewable biomass has great potential to mitigate the global warming

2013-01-01

59

Sustainability Management Based Approach to Global Warming:  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The global warming is a kind of sustainability risk. For this reason, Global Warming should be considering in Sustainability Management concept. The global warming risk must be managed effectively since its consequences threats for sustainability of our world. While this is understandable by all of us, a broader view is necessary to manage this risk in both the short and long-term. Risk management mentality is useful to the best managing of global risks. In this study, the global warming is discussed within risk and sustainability concept. The risk management-based model and risk score formula has been developed to global warming. The model and formula are based on Enterprise Risk Model to Corporate Sustainability and Enterprise Risk Score Formula, 2008. This model is called as Cgw (Sustainability Risk Management Model to Global Warming, introduced as a useable way for a systematic and effective managerial approach of the global warming issue. Risk score formula has been developed for prioritization of identified global warming risks. Prioritization is useful to allocation of limited sources to managing top risks. Every risk has two dimensions as threat and opportunity in the holistic risk management concept that it is considered in the developing process of Cgw model.

AYSE KUCUK YILMAZ

2008-12-01

60

The effect of the global warming on marine ecosystems in the Arctic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article discusses various results from studies of development in the ecosystems in the Arctic region and the effect the global warming may have. The warming in these areas is larger than in the central Europe and influence the economic and social development of the region. The focus is on the fisheries, exploitation of oil and gas, transport, diversity in species, acidification of the oceans, meteorological phenomena etc.. Some environmental and energy related aspects are mentioned. (tk)

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Atmospheric hypotheses' of Earth's global warming  

CERN Document Server

Two hypotheses are presented, outlining a new cause for global warming. We propose that the crucial factor in global warming is the amount and position of water vapour through the atmosphere. The purpose of this report is to open the debate and to encourage discussion among scientists.

Shaidurov, V

2005-01-01

62

Using isotopes for global warming observation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper, based on a literature review, discusses the main aspects of using isotopic techniques to obtain information about global warming. The rapid increase concentration of carbon dioxide (CO_2) and methane (CH_4) in the atmosphere will result in global warming by the greenhouse effect, and the isotopic techniques constitute an efficient tool to explain this complex environmental phenomenon. (author)

2002-10-01

63

The EPA Global Warming Kids Site  

Science.gov (United States)

This Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) site focuses on the science and impacts of global warming or climate change, and on actions that help address global warming. It features games, events, and links to other relevant sites for kids and educators, including activities on climate and weather and the greenhouse effect.

64

Global warming and nuclear power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is steadily increasing and it is widely believed that this will lead to global warming that will have serious consequences for life on earth. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has estimated that the temperature of the earth will increase by between 1 and 3.5 degrees in the next century. This will melt some of the Antarctic ice cap, raise the sea level and flood many low-lying countries, and also produce unpredictable changes in the earth's climate. The possible ways of reducing carbon dioxide emission are discussed. It is essential to reduce the burning of fossil fuels, but then how are we to obtain the energy we need? We can try to reduce energy use, but we will still need to generate large amounts energy. Some possible ways of doing this are by using wind and solar generators, by hydroelectric and tidal plants, and also by nuclear power. These possibilities will be critically examined. (author)

1999-09-01

65

Global warming and reproductive health.  

Science.gov (United States)

The largest absolute numbers of maternal deaths occur among the 40-50 million women who deliver annually without a skilled birth attendant. Most of these deaths occur in countries with a total fertility rate of greater than 4. The combination of global warming and rapid population growth in the Sahel and parts of the Middle East poses a serious threat to reproductive health and to food security. Poverty, lack of resources, and rapid population growth make it unlikely that most women in these countries will have access to skilled birth attendants or emergency obstetric care in the foreseeable future. Three strategies can be implemented to improve women's health and reproductive rights in high-fertility, low-resource settings: (1) make family planning accessible and remove non-evidenced-based barriers to contraception; (2) scale up community distribution of misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage and, where it is legal, for medical abortion; and (3) eliminate child marriage and invest in girls and young women, thereby reducing early childbearing. PMID:22883918

Potts, Malcolm; Henderson, Courtney E

2012-10-01

66

Are philosophers responsible for global warming?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Global warming has come about as a result of rapid population increase plus our whole modern way of life, all made possible by modern science. In order to tackle global warming successfully, we need a new kind of inquiry that gives intellectual priority to tackling problems of living over problems of knowledge. If we had had this new kind of inquiry fifty years ago, we might have begun to do something about global warming long ago, in the early 1960s, when Keeling first discovered that carbon...

Maxwell, N.

2008-01-01

67

Global Warming and the Iraq War - Climate &  

...Global Warming and the Iraq War - Climate & Capitalism Climate & Capitalism An ecosocialist journal Home About Ecosocialist Notebook Book Reviews ...Economist’s Travelogue You are here: Home / 2008 / March / 19 / Global Warming and the Iraq War Posted on March 19, 2008 Global Warming and the Iraq ... War In 2006. the US spent more on the war in Iraq than the whole world spent on investment in renewable energy. ...On the fifth anniversary of the Iraq war, an advance edition of a new report from Oil Change International, entitled A Climate ...

68

Global warming and north-south solidarity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The discussion on climate change is based on 'contradictory certainties'. All sides claim to have found the truth. Much has been written and said about the connection between global warming, biodiversity and over population. The impoverished countries of the South se the insatiable intentions of the North as the major threat to the environment; and global warming as an excuse for stopping the economic development of the south

1996-09-02

69

Greenhouse gas emissions increase global warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper discusses the greenhouse gas emissions which cause the global warming in the atmosphere. In the 20th century global climate change becomes more sever which is due to greenhouse gas emissions. According to International Energy Agency data, the USA and China are approximately tied and leading global emitters of greenhouse gas emissions. Together they emit approximately 40% of global CO2 emissions, and about 35% of total greenhouse gases. The developed and developing industrialized co...

2011-01-01

70

Global Warming: Is it Real?  

Science.gov (United States)

This short article from the Why Files discusses research that provides new evidence for a century-long warming trend. The research is based on records of lake and river ice melting and freezing dates over a 150-year period in the Northern Hemisphere. Researcher John Magnuson of the University of Wisconsin-Madison published his results in the journal Science.

Tenenbaum, David

2000-09-11

71

NPR: Atmospheric Dry Spell Eases Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

This article from NPR explains why the effects of global warming may not have been noticeable during the past few years. The article warns that there are several factors, such as ocean currents and atmospheric water vapor levels, that mask the problem of rising global temperatures.

2010-03-12

72

Carbonyl sulfide: No remedy for global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors look at the possibility of counteracting global warming forces by the injection of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) into the stratosphere at levels high enough to balance the impact say of a doubling of carbon dioxide concentrations, which are projected to result in a global 3{degrees} C warming. OCS injections at densities to provide such cooling will result a 30 percent impact of global ozone, whereas the carbon dioxide only made a 5% impact. In addition levels which would be found on the earths surface would be in the range 10 ppmv which is questionable as a safe exposure limit for humans, in addition to its impact on the ph of rainwater.

Taubman, S.J.; Kasting, J.F. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

1995-04-01

73

Hydrological consequences of global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 2007 Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change indicates there is strong evidence that the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide far exceeds the natural range over the last 650,000 years, and this recent warming of the climate system is unequivocal, resulting in more frequent extreme precipitation events, earlier snowmelt runoff, increased winter flood likelihoods, increased and widespread melting of snow and ice, longer and more widespread droughts, and rising sea level. The effects of recent warming has been well documented and climate model projections indicate a range of hydrological impacts with likely to very likely probabilities (67 to 99 percent) of occurring with significant to severe consequences in response to a warmer lower atmosphere with an accelerating hydrologic cycle.

Miller, Norman L.

2009-06-01

74

A set of experiments to understand global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed a set of experiments addressed to pupils from the age of 14 to teach the basic causes and effects of global warming. Through ten experiments conducted in turns by the pupils themselves, they will understand the physics, biology and chemistry of the main issues linked to the increase in greenhouse gases in our atmosphere. More specifically, the hand-made, low-cost material, allow the students to discover and experiment the science of the greenhouse effect, sea level rise, ocean circulation, ocean acidification, species relocation and extinction, differential heating according to the albedo, carbon cycle, and photosynthesis. Technical notes give background theory input. All the experiments can easily be reproduced.

Bouquelle, Veronique; Bauwens, Anne; De Bont, Adele; Kivits, Sandrine; Marbaix, Philippe

2014-05-01

75

Researchers Find Genetic Response to Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

University of Alberta biologist Stan Boutin and his research team have recently published findings that North American red squirrels exhibit genetic changes in response to a warming climate. This Web site contains a University of Alberta press release detailing this first-ever demonstration of genetic adaptation to global warming. With implications that extend far beyond the immediate research concerns of geneticists and environmental scientists, Boutin's work as presented in this Web site should be interesting to wide audience.

Dey, Phoebe.

76

Sharing the Cost of Global Warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Due to meteorological factors, the distribution of the environmental damage due to climate change bears no relationship to that of global emissions. We argue in favor of offsetting this discrepancy, and propose a "global insurance scheme" to be fincanced according to countries responsibility for climate change. Because GHG decay very slowly, we argue that the actual burden of global warming should be shared on the basis of cumulated emissions, raher than sharing the expected costs of ...

2010-01-01

77

Tropical atmospheric circulation changes under global warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This PhD thesis consists of three scientific articles. In the first one the tropical sea level pressure (SLP) response under global warming is investigated in a multi-model ensemble (MMEns) of climate models from the 3rd phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3) and in ERA Interim reanalysis data. In this article we follow the idea to split up the tropical warming into a spatial homogeneous part and a spatial inhomogeneous part. Even though the inhomogeneous warming is roughl...

2013-01-01

78

Some coolness concerning global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

The greenhouse effect hypothesis is discussed. The effects of increasing CO2 levels in the atmosphere on global temperature changes are analyzed. The problems with models currently used to predict climatic changes are examined.

Lindzen, Richard S.

1990-01-01

79

The impacts and costs of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is now a scientific consensus that current rates of accumulation of greenhouses gases in the atmosphere will result in significant global warming and climate change. These changes are likely to have important impacts on a wide range of human activities and the natural environment. There has now been a considerable weight of literature published on the impacts of global warming, much of it very recent. This report seeks to summarise the important results, to analyse the uncertainties and to make a preliminary analysis of the feasibility of monetarising these environmental costs. The impacts of global warming are divided into ten major categories: agriculture, forests and forestry, terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity, hydrology and water resources, sea level rise and coastal zones, energy, infrastructure/transport/industry, human health and air quality, oceans, and cryospheric impacts. The results of major summary reports are analysed, notably the report of Working Group II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (the IPCC). (author)

1991-09-01

80

Is the enhancement of global warming important?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is no doubt that global warming is important; without it the Earth's surface would have a mean temperature of 33oC lower than it has currently. The IPCC maintains that human activities are to blame for the observed increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere since pre-industrial times. There are some doubts about whether global warming is being enhanced by the activities of the human race. This article reviews these doubts and the proposed remedies to the alleged enhancement. (author)

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Global warming -- Science and anti-science  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The global warming debate has sparked many facts activities in almost all sectors of human endeavors. There are the hard facts, the measurements of the greenhouse gases, the statistics of human activities responsible for emissions, the demographic figures. There are the soft facts, the interpretations of the hard facts requiring additional assumptions. There are the media, the press, television, for whom environmental problems make good stories, these can be used to rise emotions, to make heroes and antiheroes. There are politicians, the global warming debate can be used even in electron campaigns. Global warming is a topic within and beyond science. The judgment (and hence use) of scientific facts is overwhelmingly influenced by the ``Weltbild`` (underlying beliefs how the world operates), and consequently opposing positions of well-known scientists arise. There are the attempts to invent futures of man on Earth: policies, regulations, laws on nation, international, and global levels shall facilitate a change in the basic behavior of all men. The global warming issue has many facets and cannot be successfully discussed without including, e.g., the North-South dialogue, world population, etc.

Preining, O. [Univ. of Vienna, Wien (Austria). Inst. for Experimental Physics]|[Austrian Academy of Sciences, Wien (Austria). Clean Air Commission

1995-06-01

82

Global Warming Estimation from MSU  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we have developed time series of global temperature from 1980-97 based on the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) Ch 2 (53.74 GHz) observations taken from polar-orbiting NOAA operational satellites. In order to create these time series, systematic errors (approx. 0.1 K) in the Ch 2 data arising from inter-satellite differences are removed objectively. On the other hand, smaller systematic errors (approx. 0.03 K) in the data due to orbital drift of each satellite cannot be removed objectively. Such errors are expected to remain in the time series and leave an uncertainty in the inferred global temperature trend. With the help of a statistical method, the error in the MSU inferred global temperature trend resulting from orbital drifts and residual inter-satellite differences of all satellites is estimated to be 0.06 K decade. Incorporating this error, our analysis shows that the global temperature increased at a rate of 0.13 +/- 0.06 K decade during 1980-97.

Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, Robert, Jr.

1999-01-01

83

Technologies for fighting global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In January 1990, the Japanese government published an action programme against the greenhouse effect which reflected the country's future priorities as regards this issue. At the same time, the Minister of International Trade and Industry started the initiative 'the New Earth 21'. The present situation in Japan is reviewed with regard to the measures taken to prevent global heating and to the intended future technological developments. (orig.)

1993-11-01

84

Climate change and global warming potentials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Climate change and the global budgets of the two main energy consumption related greenhouse gases, CO2 and CH4, are discussed. The global warming potential (GWP) of the non-CO2 greenhouse gases is defined and the large range of GWPs of CH4 in the literature is discussed. GWPs are expected to play an important role in energy policies and negotiations concerning lowering greenhouse gas emissions. (author). 20 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

1996-07-01

85

On Global Warming (Softening Global Constraints)  

CERN Multimedia

We describe soft versions of the global cardinality constraint and the regular constraint, with efficient filtering algorithms maintaining domain consistency. For both constraints, the softening is achieved by augmenting the underlying graph. The softened constraints can be used to extend the meta-constraint framework for over-constrained problems proposed by Petit, Regin and Bessiere.

Van Hoeve, W J; Rousseau, L M; Hoeve, Willem Jan van; Pesant, Gilles; Rousseau, Louis-Martin

2004-01-01

86

Business Feels Heat from Global Warming.  

Science.gov (United States)

The article describes various environmental issues, particularly the global warming, that will affect the U.S. industry in the coming years. The article looks at the political aspects of these issues and the growth of the international market for environm...

E. Reynolds

1991-01-01

87

CERN plans global-warming experiment  

CERN Document Server

A controversial theory that proposes that cosmic rays are responsible for global warming, is going to be tested at CERN. Experimentalists will use a cloud chamber to mimic the Earth's atmosphere in order to try and find out if cloud formation is influenced by solar activity (1 page).

De Laine, M

1998-01-01

88

Can warming particles enter global climate discussions?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Soot' or 'black carbon', which comes from incomplete combustion, absorbs light and warms the atmosphere. Although there have been repeated suggestions that reduction of black carbon could be a viable part of decreasing global warming, it has not yet been considered when choosing actions to reduce climatic impact. In this paper, I examine four conceptual barriers to the consideration of aerosols in global agreements. I conclude that some of the major objections to considering aerosols under hemispheric or global agreements are illusory because: (1) a few major sources will be addressed by local regulations, but the remainder may not be addressed by traditional air quality management; (2) climate forcing by carbon particles is not limited to 'hot spots'-about 90% of it occurs at relatively low concentrations; (3) while aerosol science is complex, the most salient characteristics of aerosol behavior can be condensed into tractable metrics including, but not limited to, the global warming potential; (4) despite scientific uncertainties, reducing all aerosols from major sources of black carbon will reduce direct climate warming with a very high probability. This change in climate forcing accounts for at least 25% of the accompanying CO2 forcing with significant probability (25% for modern diesel engines, 90% for superemitting diesels, and 55% for cooking with biofuels). Thus, this fraction of radiative forcing should not be ignored

2007-01-01

89

NASA: Black soot fuels global warming  

CERN Multimedia

New research from NASA's Goddard Space Center scientists suggests emissions of black soot have been altering the way sunlight reflects off Earth's snow. The research indicates the soot could be responsible for as much as 25 percent of global warming over the past century (assorted news items, 1 paragraph each).

2003-01-01

90

Responses of the metabolism of the larvae of Pocillopora damicornis to ocean acidification and warming.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ocean acidification and warming are expected to threaten the persistence of tropical coral reef ecosystems. As coral reefs face multiple stressors, the distribution and abundance of corals will depend on the successful dispersal and settlement of coral larvae under changing environmental conditions. To explore this scenario, we used metabolic rate, at holobiont and molecular levels, as an index for assessing the physiological plasticity of Pocillopora damicornis larvae from this site to conditions of ocean acidity and warming. Larvae were incubated for 6 hours in seawater containing combinations of CO2 concentration (450 and 950 µatm) and temperature (28 and 30°C). Rates of larval oxygen consumption were higher at elevated temperatures. In contrast, high CO2 levels elicited depressed metabolic rates, especially for larvae released later in the spawning period. Rates of citrate synthase, a rate-limiting enzyme in aerobic metabolism, suggested a biochemical limit for increasing oxidative capacity in coral larvae in a warming, acidifying ocean. Biological responses were also compared between larvae released from adult colonies on the same day (cohorts). The metabolic physiology of Pocillopora damicornis larvae varied significantly by day of release. Additionally, we used environmental data collected on a reef in Moorea, French Polynesia to provide information about what adult corals and larvae may currently experience in the field. An autonomous pH sensor provided a continuous time series of pH on the natal fringing reef. In February/March, 2011, pH values averaged 8.075 ± 0.023. Our results suggest that without adaptation or acclimatization, only a portion of naïve Pocillopora damicornis larvae may have suitable metabolic phenotypes for maintaining function and fitness in an end-of-the century ocean. PMID:24769774

Rivest, Emily B; Hofmann, Gretchen E

2014-01-01

91

Responses of the Metabolism of the Larvae of Pocillopora damicornis to Ocean Acidification and Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Ocean acidification and warming are expected to threaten the persistence of tropical coral reef ecosystems. As coral reefs face multiple stressors, the distribution and abundance of corals will depend on the successful dispersal and settlement of coral larvae under changing environmental conditions. To explore this scenario, we used metabolic rate, at holobiont and molecular levels, as an index for assessing the physiological plasticity of Pocillopora damicornis larvae from this site to conditions of ocean acidity and warming. Larvae were incubated for 6 hours in seawater containing combinations of CO2 concentration (450 and 950 µatm) and temperature (28 and 30°C). Rates of larval oxygen consumption were higher at elevated temperatures. In contrast, high CO2 levels elicited depressed metabolic rates, especially for larvae released later in the spawning period. Rates of citrate synthase, a rate-limiting enzyme in aerobic metabolism, suggested a biochemical limit for increasing oxidative capacity in coral larvae in a warming, acidifying ocean. Biological responses were also compared between larvae released from adult colonies on the same day (cohorts). The metabolic physiology of Pocillopora damicornis larvae varied significantly by day of release. Additionally, we used environmental data collected on a reef in Moorea, French Polynesia to provide information about what adult corals and larvae may currently experience in the field. An autonomous pH sensor provided a continuous time series of pH on the natal fringing reef. In February/March, 2011, pH values averaged 8.075±0.023. Our results suggest that without adaptation or acclimatization, only a portion of naïve Pocillopora damicornis larvae may have suitable metabolic phenotypes for maintaining function and fitness in an end-of-the century ocean.

Rivest, Emily B.; Hofmann, Gretchen E.

2014-01-01

92

Taking the heat out of global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

According to UK Meteorological Scientists (a meeting in Bonn in November 1999), the increase in global temperatures as a result of the increasing greenhouse effect is likely to be considerably more than the 3''oC predicted earlier for the year 2100. However, the chairman of the International Panel for Climate Change (IPCC), urges researchers to keep cool and look for win-win situations where climate change may have environmental advantages. The achievements and views of Bob Watson (chairman of the IPCC) are discussed. Watson is in no doubt that global warming is increasing and his assessments of its impact are discussed. Even where there are doubts about the deleterious effects of global warming enhancement, we should still take mitigating actions where possible. The UK's actions to tackle climate change and the requirements of the Rio and Kyoto agreements are mentioned. Actions which individuals can take are also discussed. Stratospheric ozone depletion is mentioned briefly. (UK)

O' Driscoll, C.

2000-02-01

93

Nuclear energy and global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear energy emits no greenhouse gases during operations. Its life-cycle carbon emissions compete favorably with the best of renewable energy options. It is a proven, reliable base-load electricity generator with predictable and reasonable cost. Nuclear energy also has the potential to replace greenhouse gas emitting technologies in the manufacturing and transportation fuel sectors. National and international leaders are calling for the expansion of nuclear power to be a significant tool in eliminating 75% or more of global carbon dioxide emissions by 2050. Cuts of this magnitude are believed to be necessary in order to mitigate the effects of anthropogenic climate change. Nevertheless, significant expansion of nuclear energy will face technical, social and political hurdles. Because no combination of other supply technologies is likely to fully replace nuclear's carbon abatement potential, success in overcoming these barriers is vital. A nuclear renaissance born of environmental urgency will attract many capable men and women to challenging, rewarding careers in the application of nuclear science and technology. (author)

2008-09-14

94

GLOBAL WARMING: IMPLICATIONS AND ANTICIPATORY ADAPTIVE MEASURES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Our earth is warming up. There is no denying to this fact that the gradual heating up of our globe has a tremendous effect on the climate. It in turn has affected the biotic factors that make up our biosphere, eventually directing the course of our socio-economic development. Some workers are, however, optimistic about this natural phenomenon. Various ways have been suggested to mitigate the effects of global warming, but the damage already done cannot be revoked. Hence, the thing that we are...

2011-01-01

95

Environmental Harm of Hidden Subsidies: Global Warming and Acidification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We investigate environmental impacts of off-budget or indirect subsidies, which, unlike on-budget subsidies, are not visible in government budgets. Such subsidies have received little attention in economic and environmental research, even though they may be at least as important from an environmental perspective as on-budget subsidies. We offer a typology of indirect subsidies. Next, we estimate the magnitude of these subsidies and their impact on greenhouse gas (GHG) and acidifying emissions for the agriculture, energy, and transport sectors in The Netherlands. The calculations are based on a model approach that translates a particular subsidy into price and quantity changes using empirical elasticities, followed by environmental effect estimates using pollution-intensity parameters. The various environmental pollution effects are aggregated into environmental indicators. The results show, among others, that GHG emissions caused by off-budget subsidies contribute to more than 30% of the policy targets specified by the Kyoto Protocol for CO{sub 2} emissions reduction by The Netherlands. Reforming or removing off-budget subsidies may thus be an important strategy of effective climate policy

Beers, Cees van (Dept. of Innovation Economics and Management, Delft Univ. of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)). E-mail: c.p.vanbeers@tudelft.nl; Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den (Inst. for Environmental Science and Technology, and Dept. of Economics and Economic History, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain))

2009-10-15

96

Draft global warming study. Draft 1990 Resource Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 1990 Resource Program Global Warming Study examines potential Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) resource alternatives related to the risk of global warming. The study evaluates strategies for reducing net carbon emissions, and identifies the net c...

1990-01-01

97

Differential impacts of ocean acidification and warming on winter and summer progeny of a coastal squid (Loligo vulgaris).  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known about the capacity of early life stages to undergo hypercapnic and thermal acclimation under the future scenarios of ocean acidification and warming. Here, we investigated a comprehensive set of biological responses to these climate change-related variables (2°C above winter and summer average spawning temperatures and ?pH=0.5 units) during the early ontogeny of the squid Loligo vulgaris. Embryo survival rates ranged from 92% to 96% under present-day temperature (13-17°C) and pH (8.0) scenarios. Yet, ocean acidification (pH 7.5) and summer warming (19°C) led to a significant drop in the survival rates of summer embryos (47%, Phatchlings under present-day conditions (Phatchlings than in embryos. Thus, we show that the stressful abiotic conditions inside the embryo's capsules will be exacerbated under near-future ocean acidification and summer warming scenarios. The occurrence of prolonged embryogenesis along with lowered thermal tolerance limits under such conditions is expected to negatively affect the survival success of squid early life stages during the summer spawning period, but not winter spawning. PMID:24523499

Rosa, Rui; Trübenbach, Katja; Pimentel, Marta S; Boavida-Portugal, Joana; Faleiro, Filipa; Baptista, Miguel; Dionísio, Gisela; Calado, Ricardo; Pörtner, Hans O; Repolho, Tiago

2014-02-15

98

A Paleo Perspective on Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Paleoclimatology Program has made available the Paleo Perspective on Global Warming Website. Sections included at the site are the Beginning, the Story, the Data, Final Word, and Image Gallery, among others. The Story provides the user with a background on climate and climate variability. The Data section gives an in-depth look at the "instrumental and paleoclimatic data that tells us how the Earth's temperature has changed over the past years to the millennia." A highlight of the site is the Image Gallery section, with images from the following NOAA slide sets: Coral Paleoclimatology, Tree Ring, Lake Sediments, Pollen, and Low-Latitude Ice Cores and Polar Ice Cores. The site helps to highlight the importance of paleoclimatic research and shows how paleoclimatic research relates to global warming and other issues regarding climate change and variability.

Program., National G.

99

An Activists’ Handbook on Global Warming - Climate &  

...Articles By Subject Articles by Date MRonline Monthly Review MR Press MRzine Economist’s Travelogue You are here: Home / 2007 / March / 04 / An Activists’ Handbook on Global Warming Posted on March 4, 2007 An Activists’ Handbook on Global Warming For political grounding and stimulating ideas for action, this small booklet is indispensable. It should be on every socialist campaign stall and bookshelf. UNITY Published by Socialist Worker, New Zealand. December 2006, ... For political grounding and stimulating ideas for action, this small booklet is indispensable. It should be on every socialist campaign stall and bookshelf.The scene is set with a dire warning of the scale of the threat. “Vast cemetery or socialist victory?” journal co-editor Daphne Lawless asks in the introduction, paraphrasing Rosa Luxemburg. Australian activist David Spratt titles his article more starkly: “Our world ...

100

Global Warming and Caspian Sea Level Fluctuations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Coastal regions have a high social, economical and environmental importance. Due to this importance the sea level fluctuations can have many bad consequences. In this research the correlation between the increasing trend of temperature in coastal stations due to Global Warming and the Caspian Sea level has been established. The Caspian Sea level data has been received from the Jason-1 satellite. It was resulted that the monthly correlation between the temperature and sea lev...

Ardakanian, Reza; Alemohammad, Seyed Hamed

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

The Effects of Global Warming on Fisheries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper develops two fisheries models in order to estimate the effect of global warming (GW) on firm value. GW is defined as an increase in the average temperature of the earth's surface because of CO? emissions. It is assumed that (i) GW exists, and (ii) higher temperatures negatively affect biomass. The literature on biology and GW supporting these two crucial assumptions is reviewed. The main argument presented is that temperature increase has two effects on biomass, both of which hav...

2011-01-01

102

Effect of global warming in Thailand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The earth absorbs much radiation from the sun to warm the atmosphere, the land, and the oceans. This energy is reradiatedback into space. In the past, the thermal budget of the earth is more or less balanced, with radiation from the sun onpar with thermal radiation from the earth. With increasing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, some of the thermal radiationis absorbed by these gases resulting in an increase of global mean surface temperature, melting of polar ices and thuscontributing to ...

2010-01-01

103

National action strategy on global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A document prepared by a committee of Canadian environmental ministries proposes a strategic framework for a national action plan concerning global warming. The strategy would be carried out jointly by governments and all other sectors of the economy, taking into account the present state of scientific knowledge on global warming. Within this framework, the governments in cooperation with interested parties would take certain measures in their respective areas of competence. The main recommendations of the document include the following. The action strategy should comprise 3 elements: limiting emissions of greenhouse gases; forecasting climatic changes which Canada could undergo due to global warming and preparing for such changes; and improving scientific knowledge and the capacity to predict climatic changes. Limitations on this strategy should take into account such matters as the interaction of greenhouse gases with other pollutants, the importance of the international context, the need to adapt to new discoveries, and the importance of regional differences. Implementation of the strategy should incorporate widespread consultation of all affected sectors, sustained work on establishing international conventions and protocols on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, objectives and schedules for such reductions, and stepwise actions to control emissions in order to enable an adequate evaluation of the consequences and effectiveness of such measures. 10 figs., 2 tabs

1990-01-01

104

Global Warming: A Public Health Concern  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Over the last 100 years the average temperature on the Earth has risen approximately 1ºFahrenheit (F), increasing at a rate twice as fast as has been noted for any period in the last 1,000 years. The Arctic ice cap is shrinking, glaciers are melting, and the Arctic permafrost is thawing. There is mounting evidence that these global climate changes are already affecting human health. This article provides a brief overview of global warming and climate changes, discusses effects of climate cha...

2007-01-01

105

Ocean warming and acidification: Unifying physiological principles linking organism response to ecosystem change?  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of ocean warming and acidification on individual species of marine ectothermic animals may be based on some common denominators, i.e. physiological responses that can be assumed to reflect unifying principles, common to all marine animal phyla. Identification of these principles requires studies, which reach beyond the species-specific response, and consider multiple stressors, for example temperature, CO2 or extreme hypoxia. Analyses of response and acclimation include functional traits of physiological performance on various levels of biological organisation, from changes in the transcriptome to patterns of acid-base regulation and whole animal thermal tolerance. Conclusions are substantiated by comparisons of species and phyla from temperate, Arctic and Antarctic ecosystems and also benefit from the interpretation of paleo-patterns based on the use of a unifying physiological concept, suitable to integrate relevant environmental factors into a more comprehensive picture. Studying the differential specialization of animals on climate regimes and their sensitivity to climate leads to improved understanding of ongoing and past ecosystem change and should then support more reliable projections of future scenarios. For example, accumulating CO2 causes disturbances in acid-base status. Resilience to ocean acidification may be reflected in the capacity to compensate for these disturbances or their secondary effects. Ion and pH regulation comprise thermally sensitive active and passive transfer processes across membranes. Specific responses of ion transporter genes and their products to temperature and CO2 were found in fish, crustaceans and bivalves. However, compensation may cause unfavourable shifts in energy budget and beyond that hamper cellular and mitochondrial metabolism, which are directly linked to the animal's aerobic performance window. In crabs, oysters and, possibly, fishes, a narrowing of the thermal window is caused by moderate increases in CO2 levels. Furthermore, a decrease in the efficiency of energy production may occur and affect growth and fitness as well as larval development. Different sensitivities of life history stages indicate physiologically sensitive bottlenecks during the life cycle of marine organisms. Available evidence suggests that the concept of oxygen and capacity limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT) provides access to the physiological mechanisms closely defining the sensitivities and responses of species to various stressors. It provides causality and quantifies the levels and changes of performance and resistance, and supports more realistic estimates of species and ecosystem sensitivities to environmental change. The emerging picture of differential sensitivities across animal phyla is in line with existing categorizations of sensitivities from palaeo-observations during the Permian-Triassic mass extinctions (A.H. Knoll et al., Earth and Planetary Science Letters 256, 295-313, 2007).

Pörtner, H. O.; Bock, C.; Lannig, G.; Lucassen, M.; Mark, F. C.; Stark, A.; Walther, K.; Wittmann, A.

2011-12-01

106

Global warming and allergy in Asia Minor.  

Science.gov (United States)

The earth is warming, and it is warming quickly. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that global warming is correlated with the frequency of pollen-induced respiratory allergy and allergic diseases. There is a body of evidence suggesting that the prevalence of allergic diseases induced by pollens is increasing in developed countries, a trend that is also evident in the Mediterranean area. Because of its mild winters and sunny days with dry summers, the Mediterranean area is different from the areas of central and northern Europe. Classical examples of allergenic pollen-producing plants of the Mediterranean climate include Parietaria, Olea and Cupressaceae. Asia Minor is a Mediterranean region that connects Asia and Europe, and it includes considerable coastal areas. Gramineae pollens are the major cause of seasonal allergic rhinitis in Asia Minor, affecting 1.3-6.4 % of the population, in accordance with other European regions. This article emphasizes the importance of global climate change and anticipated increases in the prevalence and severity of allergic disease in Asia Minor, mediated through worsening air pollution and altered local and regional pollen production, from an otolaryngologic perspective. PMID:22695877

Bajin, Munir Demir; Cingi, Cemal; Oghan, Fatih; Gurbuz, Melek Kezban

2013-01-01

107

Global Warming: Evidence from Satellite Observations  

Science.gov (United States)

Observations made in Channel 2 (53.74 GHz) of the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) radiometer, flown on-board sequential, sun-synchronous, polar orbiting NOAA operational satellites, indicate that the mean temperature of the atmosphere over the globe increased during the period 1980 to 1999. In this study we have minimized systematic errors in the time series introduced by the satellite orbital drift in an objective manner. This is done with the help the onboard warm black body temperature, which is used in the calibration of the MSU radiometer. The corrected MSU Channel 2 observations of the NOAA satellite series reveal that the vertically weighted global mean temperature of the atmosphere, with a peak weight near the mid-troposphere, warmed at the rate of 0.13 K per decade (with an uncertainty of 0.05 K per decade) during 1980 to 1999. The global warming deduced from conventional meteorological data that have been corrected for urbanization effects agrees reasonably with this satellite deuced result.

Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R., Jr.; Yoo, J.-M.

2001-01-01

108

Fossil-fuel constraints on global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2008 and 2009 two papers by Kharecha and Hansen and by Nel and Cooper examined possible fossil energy availability and energy consumption scenarios and consequences for future climate. The papers yield somewhat similar results regarding atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels, but they reach substantially different conclusions regarding future climate change. Here, we compare their methods and results. Our work shows that Nel and Cooper's paper significantly underestimates future warming. Nel and Cooper conclude that even if all the available fossil fuels would be burned at the maximum possible rate during this century, the consequent warming would cap at less than 1 C above the 2000 level. We find that - under Nel and Cooper's assumption of an intensive exploitation of fossil fuels - the global temperature in 2100 will likely reach levels which would lead to severely damaging long-term impacts. (author)

Zecca, Antonio; Chiari, Luca [Physics Department, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, I-38050 Povo TN (Italy)

2010-01-15

109

Microwave sounding units and global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

A recent work of Spencer and Christy (1990) on precise monitoring of global temperature trends from satellites is critically examined. It is tentatively concluded in the present comment that remote sensing using satellite microwave radiometers can in fact provide a means for the monitoring of troposphere-averaged air temperature. However, for this to be successful more than one decade of data will be required to overcome the apparent inherent variability of global average air temperature. It is argued that the data set reported by Spencer and Christy should be subjected to careful review before it is interpreted as evidence of the presence or absence of global warming. In a reply, Christy provides specific responses to the commenters' objections.

Gary, Bruce L.; Keihm, Stephen J.

1991-01-01

110

Global warming and carbon dioxide through sciences.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased atmospheric CO(2)-concentration is widely being considered as the main driving factor that causes the phenomenon of global warming. This paper attempts to shed more light on the role of atmospheric CO(2) in relation to temperature-increase and, more generally, in relation to Earth's life through the geological aeons, based on a review-assessment of existing related studies. It is pointed out that there has been a debate on the accuracy of temperature reconstructions as well as on the exact impact that CO(2) has on global warming. Moreover, using three independent sets of data (collected from ice-cores and chemistry) we perform a specific regression analysis which concludes that forecasts about the correlation between CO(2)-concentration and temperature rely heavily on the choice of data used, and one cannot be positive that indeed such a correlation exists (for chemistry data) or even, if existing (for ice-cores data), whether it leads to a "severe" or a "gentle" global warming. A very recent development on the greenhouse phenomenon is a validated adiabatic model, based on laws of physics, forecasting a maximum temperature-increase of 0.01-0.03 degrees C for a value doubling the present concentration of atmospheric CO(2). Through a further review of related studies and facts from disciplines like biology and geology, where CO(2)-change is viewed from a different perspective, it is suggested that CO(2)-change is not necessarily always a negative factor for the environment. In fact it is shown that CO(2)-increase has stimulated the growth of plants, while the CO(2)-change history has altered the physiology of plants. Moreover, data from palaeoclimatology show that the CO(2)-content in the atmosphere is at a minimum in this geological aeon. Finally it is stressed that the understanding of the functioning of Earth's complex climate system (especially for water, solar radiation and so forth) is still poor and, hence, scientific knowledge is not at a level to give definite and precise answers for the causes of global warming. PMID:18760479

Florides, Georgios A; Christodoulides, Paul

2009-02-01

111

Negotiating a regime to control global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Diplomats will soon be negotiating a new regime to control global warming. Two centrally necessary conditions for this task are that each member of the coalition see enough gain in the regime to adhere, and that potential and actual 'blocking' coalitions of interests opposed to the regime be neutralised. The paper considers lessons from negotiations over the oceans and the ozone. Four classes of suggestions to stop the formation of blocking coalitions are discussed. They are prevention; incremental agreements and 'ratchets'; avoiding ideological blockage; and instigating a small-scale (expanding) agreement. 68 refs.

Sebenius, J.K.

1990-10-01

112

Canada and global warming: Meeting the challenge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Canada accounts for ca 2% of total world emissions of greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide emissions are by far the largest greenhouse gas source in Canada, primarily from energy consumption. On a per capita basis, Canada ranks second among industrialized countries in terms of energy related carbon dioxide emissions. Canada's northern geography and climate, its export-oriented economy with energy-intensive resource industries, and its relatively small population dispersed over a wide land mass contribute to this high per-capita value. The effects of global warming induced by greenhouse gases are outlined, including a reduction in water supplies, droughts affecting agriculture and forestry, and large-scale thawing of permafrost. A national strategy to respond to global warming has been developed which includes limiting and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, preparing for potential climatic changes, and improving scientific understanding and predictive capabilities with respect to climate change. Details of this strategy are outlined, including provincial and territorial strategies in partnership with the national strategy. 11 figs., 2 tabs

1991-01-01

113

Global warming potential impact of bioenergy systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Reducing dependence on fossil fuels and mitigation of GHG emissions is a main focus in the energy strategy of many Countries. In the case of Demark, for instance, the long-term target of the energy policy is to reach 100% renewable energy system. This can be achieved by drastic reduction of the energy demand, optimization of production/distribution and substitution of fossil fuels with biomasses. However, a large increase in biomass consumption will finally induce conversion of arable and currently cultivated land into fields dedicated to energy crops production determining significant environmental consequences related to land use changes. In this study the global warming potential impact associated with six alternative bioenergy systems based on willow and Miscanthus was assessed by means of life-cycle assessment. The results showed that bioenergy production may generate higher global warming impacts than the reference fossil fuel system, when the impacts from indirect land use changes are accounted for. Ina life-cycle perspective, only highly-efficient co-firing with fossil fuel achieved a (modest) GHG emission reduction.

Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas

114

Environmental refugees in a globally warmed world  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper examines the complex problem of environmental refugees as among the most serious of all the effects of global warming. Shoreline erosion, coastal flooding, and agricultural disruption from drought, soil erosion and desertification are factors now and in the future in creating a group of environmental refugees. Estimates are that at least 10 million such refugees exist today. A preliminary analysis is presented here as a first attempt to understand the full character and extent of the problem. Countries with large delta and coastal areas and large populations are at particular risk from sea-level rise of as little as .5 - 1 meter, compounded by storm surge and salt water intrusions. Bangladesh, Egypt, China, and India are discussed in detail along with Island states at risk. Other global warming effects such as shifts in monsoon systems and severe and persistent droughts make agriculture particularly vulnerable. Lack of soil moisture is during the growing season will probably be the primary problem. Additional and compounding environmental problems are discussed, and an overview of the economic, sociocultural and political consequences is given. 96 refs., 1 tab.

Myers, N.

1993-12-01

115

Canada and global warming: Meeting the challenge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Canada accounts for ca 2% of total world emissions of greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide emissions are by far the largest greenhouse gas source in Canada, primarily from energy consumption. On a per capita basis, Canada ranks second among industrialized countries in terms of energy related carbon dioxide emissions. Canada's northern geography and climate, its export-oriented economy with energy-intensive resource industries, and its relatively small population dispersed over a wide land mass contribute to this high per-capita value. The effects of global warming induced by greenhouse gases are outlined, including a reduction in water supplies, droughts affecting agriculture and forestry, and large-scale thawing of permafrost. A national strategy to respond to global warming has been developed which includes limiting and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, preparing for potential climatic changes, and improving scientific understanding and predictive capabilities with respect to climate change. Details of this strategy are outlined, including provincial and territorial strategies in partnership with the national strategy. 11 figs., 2 tabs.

1991-01-01

116

The Basic Countermeasures to Global Warming Phenomenon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effort to prevent the global warming has basically the nature of worldwide environmental issue. However, the issue related to the influence of climate change should be dealt with dually as local/regional/national levels. The impact of global warming can be different between the north hemisphere and the south hemisphere, or between the continental and the ocean, or among the nations. It is not easy to establish agreements setting up the target to which the gas causing greenhouse effect should be reduced or allocating the specific quantities to reduce it. Also, the international free ticket issues, intrinsic attribute of environmental issue, can be raised. It is understandable that the discussions of national policy are focused on the burden of reduction under Climate Change Convention adopted in The Rio Environmental Summit Meeting in 1992. However, as the national energy and policy discussions concentrates too much on the reduction target of gas causing greenhouse effect, reduction methods, and reduction related parts, the problems are understood from the narrow viewpoint. There should be a firm resolve to change the whole social structures according to the choice of measures and the development of international situations, if necessary. It is also necessary to overcome however excessive the burdens, which may arise to the nation in connection with responses to the Climate Change, are. It is very important for the current and next generations to cooperate to maintain and develop permanently the basic capabilities of supporting life, which exist in the natural ecosystem of Korean peninsular.

Yoon, S.S. [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

2002-03-01

117

Global Warming Estimation From Microwave Sounding Unit  

Science.gov (United States)

Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) Ch 2 data sets, collected from sequential, polar-orbiting, Sun-synchronous National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration operational satellites, contain systematic calibration errors that are coupled to the diurnal temperature cycle over the globe. Since these coupled errors in MSU data differ between successive satellites, it is necessary to make compensatory adjustments to these multisatellite data sets in order to determine long-term global temperature change. With the aid of the observations during overlapping periods of successive satellites, we can determine such adjustments and use them to account for the coupled errors in the long-term time series of MSU Ch 2 global temperature. In turn, these adjusted MSU Ch 2 data sets can be used to yield global temperature trend. In a pioneering study, Spencer and Christy (SC) (1990) developed a procedure to derive the global temperature trend from MSU Ch 2 data. Such a procedure can leave unaccounted residual errors in the time series of the temperature anomalies deduced by SC, which could lead to a spurious long-term temperature trend derived from their analysis. In the present study, we have developed a method that avoids the shortcomings of the SC procedure, the magnitude of the coupled errors is not determined explicitly. Furthermore, based on some assumptions, these coupled errors are eliminated in three separate steps. Such a procedure can leave unaccounted residual errors in the time series of the temperature anomalies deduced by SC, which could lead to a spurious long-term temperature trend derived from their analysis. In the present study, we have developed a method that avoids the shortcomings of the SC procedures. Based on our analysis, we find there is a global warming of 0.23+/-0.12 K between 1980 and 1991. Also, in this study, the time series of global temperature anomalies constructed by removing the global mean annual temperature cycle compares favorably with a similar time series obtained from conventional observations of temperature.

Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R., Jr.; Yoo, J.-M.; Dalu, G.

1998-01-01

118

Imminent ocean acidification projected with the NCAR global coupled carbon cycle-climate model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ocean acidification from the uptake of anthropogenic carbon is simulated for the industrial period and IPCC SRES emission scenarios A2 and B1 with a global coupled carbon cycle-climate model. Earlier studies identified seawater saturation state with respect to aragonite, a mineral phase of calcium carbonate, as a key variable governing impacts on corals and other shell-forming organisms. Globally in the A2 scenario, water saturated by more than 300%, considered suitable for coral growth, vani...

Steinacher, M.; Joos, F.; Fro?licher, T. L.; -k Plattner, G.; Doney, S. C.

2008-01-01

119

Farmer’s Adaptation to Global Warming in Punjab  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The global warming discourse has mainly focused on how to prevent global warming by trying to pin-point which countries should take most of the responsibility to stop or reduce the possible effects of global warming. We need to make sure that we not only continue to try to prevent further human impacts on the environmental system, but that we also focus on our ability to cope with the possible future impacts of global warming. To do this we will need to be flexible in order to be able to adap...

Keys, Torill

2011-01-01

120

Anesthesia and global warming: the real hazards of theoretic science  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Recent speculative articles in the medical literature have indicted certain inhalational anesthetics as contributing to global warming. This unfounded speculation may have deleterious patient impact

Ii, Mychaskiw George

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Halocarbon ozone depletion and global warming potentials  

Science.gov (United States)

Concern over the global environmental consequences of fully halogenated chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) has created a need to determine the potential impacts of other halogenated organic compounds on stratospheric ozone and climate. The CFCs, which do not contain an H atom, are not oxidized or photolyzed in the troposphere. These compounds are transported into the stratosphere where they decompose and can lead to chlorine catalyzed ozone depletion. The hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs or HFCs), in particular those proposed as substitutes for CFCs, contain at least one hydrogen atom in the molecule, which confers on these compounds a much greater sensitivity toward oxidation by hydroxyl radicals in the troposphere, resulting in much shorter atmospheric lifetimes than CFCs, and consequently lower potential for depleting ozone. The available information is reviewed which relates to the lifetime of these compounds (HCFCs and HFCs) in the troposphere, and up-to-date assessments are reported of the potential relative effects of CFCs, HCFCs, HFCs, and halons on stratospheric ozone and global climate (through 'greenhouse' global warming).

Cox, Richard A.; Wuebbles, D.; Atkinson, R.; Connell, Peter S.; Dorn, H. P.; Derudder, A.; Derwent, Richard G.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Fisher, D.; Isaksen, Ivar S. A.

1990-01-01

122

The Water Cycle and Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

The Baylor University College of Medicine continues to work at a furious pace on their delightful BioEd Online site, and educators everywhere love them for their work and dedication. Recently, they placed this ââ¬ÃÂready-to-goââˆlessson on the water cycle and global warming online, and itâ≢s a true delight. As with the other lessons in this series, the materials here include a brief description of the lessonâ≢s objective, along with information on the intended audience, the materials required to complete the lesson, and so on. Teachers will note that they will need to download a slide set, several activity sheets, and a ââ¬ÃÂState of the Climate Reportââˆoffered from the National Climatic Data Center.

123

Electricity generating renewables and global warming emissions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is sometimes assumed that renewable technologies which emit carbon dioxide (CO2) in their operation do not offset CO2 emissions as much as technologies such as wind energy, PV or hydro. Firstly this paper examines the CO2 savings achieved by electricity generated from renewables as a result of their being substituted for fossil fuel-fired generation. These savings are then balanced against the CO2 emissions arising from the manufacture of the power plant and, in the case of some technologies, the CO2 produced in operation. The end result for all technologies is a net CO2 saving. Some renewable energy technologies also reduce methane emissions. These methane emission savings are converted into CO2 equivalents to give a measure of the net global warming reduction effect of generating electricity from these sources. (Author)

1998-09-20

124

Global warming implications of replacing CFCs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The late 1980s were a challenging time for the HVAC and R industries because of the demands being made for increased energy efficiency, the development of alternative refrigerants that do not destroy stratospheric ozone, and the intense pressures of international competition. The 1990s will not be any less demanding, with further requirements to improve efficiency and changing understandings of environmental acceptability. Dealing with the global warming issue creates further difficulties in adapting the refrigeration and insulation technologies for future needs as chlorofluorocarbons are phased out of production and use in accordance with the Montreal Protocol. The study reported in this article was conducted to help industry, government and international policymakers reach sound decisions during the change-over from the CFCs to alternative compounds and technologies. Information developed in this effort complements ongoing studies to assess safety, toxicology, cost and other factors influencing these decisions

1992-01-01

125

Decarbonization and sequestration for mitigating global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mitigating the global warming greenhouse effect while maintaining a fossil fuel economy, requires improving efficiency of utilization of fossil fuels, use of high hydrogen content fossil fuels, decarbonization of fossil fuels, and sequestering of carbon and CO2 applied to all the sectors of the economy, electric power generation, transportation, and industrial, and domestic power and heat generation. Decarbonization means removal of carbon as C or CO2 either before or after fossil fuel combustion and sequestration means disposal of the recovered C or CO2 including its utilization. Removal and recovery of CO2 from power generation plants and sequestration in the ocean represents one possibility of making a major impact on reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. This paper will briefly review the progress made in ocean disposal and present some alternative schemes. (author)

2000-05-01

126

A global warming forum: Scientific, economic, and legal overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Global Warming Forum covers in detail five general subject areas aimed at providing first, the scientific background and technical information available on global warming and second, a study and evaluation of the role of economic, legal, and political considerations in global warming. The five general topic areas discussed are the following: (1) The role of geophysical and geoengineering methods to solve problems related to global climatic change; (2) the role of oceanographic and geochemical methods to provide evidence for global climatic change; (3) the global assessment of greenhouse gas production including the need for additional information; (4) natural resource management needed to provide long-term global energy and agricultural uses; (5) legal, policy, and educational considerations required to properly evaluate global warming proposals

1993-01-01

127

Natural resource management: implications for global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The opportunities offered by the global warming alert for global natural resource management are reviewed. The author systematically introduced a new discipline of managing risks involved in local large scale climatic swings which is based on international and interdisciplinary transfer of knowledge, benefiting citizens of industrialized nations, the industrializing nations, as well as the developing nations. Several programs to utilize the opportunities are outlined, including (A) the monitoring of increased availability of forest land in the circumpolar subarctic area, (B) the deployment of biologically engineered reforestation methods and (C) the production of grain-based and wood based liquid fuel and plastic feedstock to tackle the new energy crisis. Policies must represent collective wisdom in the socio-economic as well as scientific contexts. Newly industralized countries must take into account the existing energy politics which affects energy economics and energy and material security. The paramount importance of the ability to use thermodynamically sound technologies and technologies that are based on renewable resources is to be recognized. The choice of technology must be based on the technology's material and energy efficiency. The basic philosophy of cooperation between nations and coordination of activities to improve resource management in the long term must be based on a responsibility system applicable internationally, and an understanding of resource management that can be translated into policy action. Transboundary environmental and economic development problems are best solved regionally by a regional band of nations. 30 refs.

Shen, S. (Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (USA))

1990-01-01

128

Compositional impact of acidification and warming on Fucus vesiculosus: First biogeochemical and stable isotope results from coastal benthocosm experiments  

Science.gov (United States)

In the frame of the German BIOACID II project, the separate and combined effects of warming and acidification on the elemental and stable isotope composition of Fucus vesiculosus are investigated by means of benthic mesocosm experiments in brackish waters of the Baltic Sea. We aim for a calibration of the composition of Fucus in response to single and combined temperature and pCO2 elevation. Benthocosm experiments are carried out in the Kiel Fjord with a fully crossed array of 2 globally importnant stressors: an increase in temperature and an increase in atmospheric CO2 partial pressure. The experiments run for almost 3 months per season (winter, spring, summer, autumn). There are analyses from the experiments of the aquatic chemistry (TA, pH, salinity, carbon isotope composition of DIC, main and trace elements and nutrients) as well as the composition of the Fucus vesiculosus organic tissues (C-N-S-P contents, and C and N stable isotope composition, as well as major and trace elements). The composition of the aqueous solution in the mesocosms was recovered two times a week and for the Fucus tissue at the start and the end of the experiments. In addition several 24h cycles were followed in high temporal resolution to characterize the community response to diurnal light cycles. It was found, that seasonal variations in the composition of the input solutions (brackish water from the Kiel Fjord) were reflected by changes in the experiments with short time delay. The changes in the aquatic chemistry of the mesocosms, however, were strongly superimposed for most parameters during daytime by biological activity. The response of the communities to light conditions was clearly observed during the 24h-campaigns, when alternating phases of net respiration and photosynthesis were creating strong variations in the dissolved carbonate system. These variations were accompanied by significant changes in the carbon isotope composition of DIC. The atmosphere of some experimental set-ups was enriched with isotopically light gaseous carbon dioxide. This caused fast corresponding changes in the isotopic composition of DIC, thereby acting as a tracer for newly formed organic tissue and carbonates. The chemical and isotopic parameters of the dissolved carbonate system showed differences between the set ups. Fucus vesiculosus shows seasonal variability in the C, N, S contents and the isotopic composition.

Winde, Vera; Al-Janabi, Balsam; Sokol, Steffani; Buchholz, Björn; Escher, Peter; Voss, Maren; Schneider, Bernd; Wahl, Martin; Böttcher, Michael E.

2014-05-01

129

Situational Influences upon Children's Beliefs about Global Warming and Energy  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores children's beliefs about global warming and energy sources from a psychological perspective, focusing upon situational influences upon subjective beliefs, including perceived self-efficacy. The context of the research is one of growing concern at the potential impacts of global warming, yet demonstrably low levels of…

Devine-Wright, Patrick; Devine-Wright, Hannah; Fleming, Paul

2004-01-01

130

Global environmental benefits of heat pumps for mitigating global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is a large potential for realising the present environmental advantage of heat pumps over competing heating systems. Quantifying this advantage is the subject of this work. The analysis focuses on CO{sub 2} emissions, as this is the main reason for global warming. The analysis covers the entire energy chain, including upstream and downstream energy for fuel production and 'grey' energy for production, recycling and disposal of the equipment. The related CO{sub 2} emissions are evaluated for heat pumps and competing systems. Conclusions are that heat pumps are environmentally the most viable option for heating and cooling, although their benefit largely depends on the CO{sub 2} emissions for electricity generation. The present global emissions saving potential is 6%. (orig.)

Breembroek, G. [IEA Heat Pump Centre (HPC), Sittard (Netherlands)

1999-07-01

131

Global crop yield losses from recent warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Global yields of the world-s six most widely grown crops--wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, sorghum--have increased since 1961. Year-to-year variations in growing season minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and precipitation explain 30% or more of the variations in yield. Since 1991, climate trends have significantly decreased yield trends in all crops but rice, leading to foregone production since 1981 of about 12 million tons per year of wheat or maize, representing an annual economic loss of $1.2 to $1.7 billion. At the global scale, negative impacts of climate trends on crop yields are already apparent. Annual global temperatures have increased by {approx}0.4 C since 1980, with even larger changes observed in several regions (1). While many studies have considered the impacts of future climate changes on food production (2-5), the effects of these past changes on agriculture remain unclear. It is likely that warming has improved yields in some areas, reduced them in others, and had negligible impacts in still others; the relative balance of these effects at the global scale is unknown. An understanding of this balance would help to anticipate impacts of future climate changes, as well as to more accurately assess recent (and thereby project future) technologically driven yield progress. Separating the contribution of climate from concurrent changes in other factors--such as crop cultivars, management practices, soil quality, and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels--requires models that describe the response of yields to climate. Studies of future global impacts of climate change have typically relied on a bottom-up approach, whereby field scale, process-based models are applied to hundreds of representative sites and then averaged (e.g., ref 2). Such approaches require input data on soil and management conditions, which are often difficult to obtain. Limitations on data quality or quantity can thus limit the utility of this approach, especially at the local scale (6-8). At the global scale, however, many of the processes and impacts captured by field scale models will tend to cancel out, and therefore simpler empirical/statistical models with fewer input requirements may be as accurate (8, 9). Empirical/statistical models also allow the effects of poorly modeled processes (e.g., pest dynamics) to be captured and uncertainties to be readily quantified (10). Here we develop new, empirical/statistical models of global yield responses to climate using datasets on broad-scale yields, crop locations, and climate variability. We focus on global average yields for the six most widely grown crops in the world: wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, and sorghum. Production of these crops accounts for over 40% of global cropland area (11). 55% of non-meat calories, and over 70% of animal feed (12).

Lobell, D; Field, C

2006-06-02

132

Global declines in oceanic nitrification rates as a consequence of ocean acidification  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ocean acidification produced by dissolution of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in seawater has profound consequences for marine ecology and biogeochemistry. The oceans have absorbed one-third of CO2 emissions over the past two centuries, altering ocean chemistry, reducing seawater pH, and affecting marine animals and phytoplankton in multiple ways. Microbially mediated ocean biogeochemical processes will be pivotal in determining how the earth system responds to global environmen...

Beman, J. Michael; Chow, Cheryl-emiliane; King, Andrew L.; Feng, Yuanyuan; Fuhrman, Jed A.; Andersson, Andreas; Bates, Nicholas R.; Popp, Brian N.; Hutchins, David A.

2011-01-01

133

Impact of ocean acidification and warming on the early ontogeny of a tropical shark  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sharks occupy high trophic levels in marine habitats and play a key role in the structure, function and health of marine ecosystems. Sharks are also one of the most threatened groups of marine animals worldwide, mostly due to overfishing and habitat degradation or loss. Although sharks have evolved to fill many ecological niches across a wide range of habitats, they have limited capability to rapidly adapt to human-induced changes in their environments. Until now, ocean acidification was not ...

Pegado, Maria Rita Carvalho Godinho Macedo

2013-01-01

134

The private sector and global warming mitigation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper investigates ways in which the private sector could act to reduce or slow the accumulation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and thereby help combat the threat of global warming. Particular attention is given to the concept of ''international carbon offsets'' financed by the private sector as a mechanism for reducing greenhouse gases. An international carbon offset is the reduction of GHG emissions by an agent in another country for the purpose of offsetting atmospheric carbon emissions at home. ''Offsetting'' is possible because from the atmosphere's point of view, a ton of carbon has the same effect regardless of where it is emitted. Typical offsets would involve a reduction of more than one ton of carbon ''offshore'' for one ton increased domestically. This can still be profitable if it costs less to reduce offshore gases than domestic emissions. Offsets can be carried out by private companies, national governments or multinational agencies. It is argued that the scope for international carbon offset investments by the industrialized world in developing countries is considerable, that in many cases they are the cheapest approach to GHG emission reduction, and that private sector offset investments represent a practical mechanism for performing such emission reduction. The role of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) is also discussed. As it moves into its operational phase, the GEF could help to increase private sector involvement in GHG reduction through providing services that would facilitate private investments in projects resulting in GHG reduction, and by acting as a clearing house for international offset investments. 21 refs., 2 tabs.

Bann, C.

1993-01-01

135

Solar Activity and Global Warming Revisited  

Science.gov (United States)

While in general the changes in surface air temperature follow the changes in solar activity proving the solar influences on climate, in the last few decades solar activity has remained more or less constant while temperature has continued increasing which is a strong argument in favor of anthropogenic influences on climate. In the same period the correlation between solar and geomagnetic activity has decreased, both in the 11-year cycle and on secular time scale. The solar activity index commonly used for long-term studies is the sunspot number as it has the longest data record. But sunspots reflect only the solar activity originating from closed magnetic field regions. The regions of open magnetic field - coronal holes, sources of high speed solar wind and drivers of recurrent geomagnetic activity, are not accounted for in the sunspot index. It appears that in the last decades the impact of coronal holes has increased which can be explained by the increasing tilt of the heliospheric current sheet. This increased tilt means that the Earth encounters two high speed streams from coronal holes per solar rotation and higher geomagnetic activity. On the other hand, the tilt of the heliospheric current sheet is related to the galactic cosmic rays modulation, and galactic cosmic rays are considered key agents mediating solar activity influences on terrestrial temperature. Therefore, using the sunspot number alone as a measure of solar activity leads to the underestimation of the role of solar activity for the global warming in the recent decades.

Georgieva, K.; Kirov, B.

2006-03-01

136

The European climate under a 2 degrees C global warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A global warming of 2 degrees C relative to pre-industrial climate has been considered as a threshold which society should endeavor to remain below, in order to limit the dangerous effects of anthropogenic climate change. The possible changes in regional climate under this target level of global warming have so far not been investigated in detail. Using an ensemble of 15 regional climate simulations downscaling six transient global climate simulations, we identify the respective time periods ...

2014-01-01

137

Physics in the global greenhouse. [Teaching about global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Given the current escalation of public concern about environmental issues, teachers in all disciplines and at all levels can expect such matters to be raised increasingly frequently in their classes. In many types of science course, the deliberate injection of environmentally relevant material can provide both stimulation and topicality. As far as physics teachers are concerned, the greenhouse effect could be a particularly fruitful subject, offering as it does examples to illustrate many parts of a standard syllabus, as well as giving a great deal of scope for more general discussions. This paper suggests three rather different aspects of the global warming story that might be explored in physics classrooms: the physics underlying greenhouse phenomena; the process of modelling (especially computer modelling), in the context of the debate about future climatic scenarios; the differing nature of the uncertainties associated with the many fields of study that all feed into climate research. (author).

Ross, Shelagh (Open Univ., Milton Keynes (United Kingdom))

1991-05-01

138

Global warming: the significance of methane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

the concept of Global Warming Potential (GWP) indicates the relative contribution to global warming over a given period (for example 100 years) of a pulse emission at the start of the period of 1 kg of a specific greenhouse gas (GHG) in comparison to the contribution, over the same period, of an emission of 1 kg of CO2. The GWPs calculated for different time intervals take into account the differences in atmospheric lifetimes of the different GHGs. Using the '100-year GWP' to measure non CO2 GHG emissions is not well suited to the case of permanent or long lifetime measures whose effectiveness is to be assessed at a given time horizon. In this context, it contributes to significantly playing down the importance of reducing emissions of GHGs with short atmospheric lifetimes. Thus, for example, methane which is not emitted over the period 2020- 2100 as a result of a landfill site being closed in 2020 will have an impact (as opposed to if the site remained in operation) that would be far greater towards 2100 compared to a CO2 emission source that has also been stopped permanently and whose climate impact is measured in an equivalent manner. Using the GWP is only appropriate if applied year after year to time horizons considered to be of concern or decisive by climate studies, thus in particular 2050, 2100 and 2150. This is all the more significant as climate experts' current concerns lead them not only to advocate long-term stabilisation of GHG concentrations but also to avoid as far as possible intermediate excess of these concentrations over the coming century. Finally, it is noted that CH4 prevention policies implemented in the short term may continue to have a long-term impact greater than merely taking into account the current GWP would imply. To more or less ignore the impact of CH4 as it is unsuitable for accounting purposes affects the exclusive character of the link that may exist between the issue of GHGs and that of energy. Furthermore, if the increase in atmospheric concentrations of CH4 which was significant following the onset of the industrial revolution, has slowed down in the last few years for reasons that are still being debated, a renewed sharp increase in the event of the Arctic region melting, for example, remains quite possible. It is thus important, now that the most recent IPCC report points to the consequences of climate change in the medium term, that GHG emission reduction policies be defined individually for each GHG: both CH4 and N2O, on the basis of their real emissions, consistent with the scenarios used by climate experts and depending on the concentration levels they recommend be achieved at given time horizons. Purely economic and financial considerations linked to the emissions trading markets must not mask the importance of robust policies aimed at non CO2 GHGs. Specifically, in addition to the vital CO2 emissions reduction effort, greater attention must be paid to short-term reductions of CH4 emissions whose impacts are significant at a time horizon of a few decades. Climate experts and policy-makers should make the most of the two-year negotiating period on the post 2012 regime, officially launched at the recent Bali Climate Conference, to give thought to this issue

2008-01-01

139

The economic impacts, costs and opportunities of global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper considers the strategies that are available to cope with the widely expected global warming. Cooperation in arriving at an effective treaty is likely only if perceived benefits exceed the expected costs. It is difficult to assess the likely regional impacts of global warming. Useful estimates of the potential biological and socio economic impacts of climate change are possible. Rising sea level is one of the major predicted problems. African countries are especially vulnerable to climatic change, partly due to dependence on agriculture. Global warming is likely to exacerbate the North-South divide. 30 refs.

Perry, A. (University College of Swansea, Swansea (UK). Dept. of Geography)

1992-03-01

140

No Room for Doubt: Global Warming is Real - Climate &  

... They use data collected from diverse sources, including satellites, weather balloons, weather stations, ships, buoys, and field surveys. These independently produced lines of evidence all point to the same conclusion: our planet is warming.” Share: Facebook Reddit Twitter Email More Digg Press This Google Pocket StumbleUpon Pinterest LinkedIn Tumblr Related articleshellip; (auto-generated) Has Global Warming Stopped? (posted on September 23, 2008) No, global warming hasn't stopped (posted on January 20, 2013) June Temperatures Set Global Records& nbsp(posted on ...

 
 
 
 
141

Negatep: A Scenario for Combating Global Warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There have been an increasing number of foresight exercises in the field of energy and global warming in recent years, as we have seen from the articles devoted to these questions by Futuribles in 2011 (both in this special issue and in the April number). It is certainly the case that the goals for greenhouse-gas emission reduction are rather ambitious, particularly in France, it being the aim of the 2005 French framework law on energy to reduce carbon gas discharges by a factor of four. Among these scenarios, the Negatep scenario developed by Claude Acket and Pierre Bacher from the 'Sauvons le climat' [Let's save the climate] Association proposes to achieve this ('factor 4') goal in France by 2050 by reducing fossil fuel use by 75% and replacing this as quickly as possible with electricity produced from non-carbon-gas-emitting sources - chiefly, nuclear power and renewables. The authors lay out their goals here, backed up by figures, comparing these with the reference scenario. They also show the path that must be followed to arrive at these goals, particularly in the residential and tertiary sectors, and in transport and industry (through control of needs and recourse to alternative energy sources). They close by comparing the Negatep scenario with two other more recent scenarios aimed also at reducing greenhouse gas emissions, on the one hand in Europe, and on the other in Germany. The comparison confirms that they were right to rely on electricity as a substitute for oil, but gives them cause for concern in respect of the consequences (formidable in their view) that the replacement of nuclear power and coal energy by intermittent renewable energies might have in Europe, both with regard to costs and to the effects on the power network. (authors)

2011-01-01

142

A matter of degrees: A primer on global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A primer on global warming is presented in order to provide information to Canadians on making environmentally responsible decisions. The fundamentals of natural climate change, the atmospheric environment, factors that influence climate, and the greenhouse effect are explained. Global warming is then discussed with reference to paleoclimatic research, the influence of human activity on increased concentrations of greenhouse gases, and predictions of future climates. The possible impacts of global warming on Canada are described for such sectors as forests, fisheries, agriculture, sea levels, health, energy supply and demand, and the Arctic regions. The actions that citizens and governments can take in order to mitigate or adapt to global warming are then presented. A glossary and index are included. 55 refs., 17 figs.

1993-01-01

143

Anesthesia and global warming: the real hazards of theoretic science  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Recent speculative articles in the medical literature have indicted certain inhalational anesthetics as contributing to global warming. This unfounded speculation may have deleterious patient impact

Mychaskiw II George

2012-03-01

144

Global assessment of the effects of terrestrial acidification on plant species richness  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study estimates the potential losses of vascular plant species richness due to terrestrial acidification for different world's biomes. We used empirical occurrence data of 2409 species from 140 studies and estimated the relative species richness – pH response curves using logistic regressions. The regressions were then used to quantify the fraction of species that are potentially lost due to soil pH changes. Although we found considerable variability within biomes, out results show that the pH at which species richness was maximized was found to be the lowest in (sub)tropical forests (pH = 4.1) and the highest in deserts (pH = 7.4). We also found that (sub)tropical moist forests are highly sensitive to decreases of in soil pH below 4.1. This study can be coupled with existing atmospheric deposition models to quantify the risk of species richness loss following soil acidification. Highlights: ? We compare the sensitivity of four biomes to soil acidification. ? We develop logistic regressions using observational field data. ? Sub(tropical) moist forests are highly affected by pH decreases. ? Logistic regressions can be linked to global scale atmospheric and soil fate models. -- Relationships of potential species richness loss along a soil pH gradient are proposed

2013-03-01

145

Physical aspects of the greenhouse effect and global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

According to the simplest model of the earth's radiative balance, global warming will occur with certainty as humankind increases its production and consumption of nonsolar energy. This prediction is revisited, using a broader model that allows the greenhouse effect to be considered. The new model predicts a global warming of ?TE=(114 K)?, where V is the rate of surface energy release in units of the average incident solar radiation, 342 W m-2, and ?TE is the average temperature rise at the earth's surface. Present values of these quantities, excluding geothermal sources, are V=0.69×10-4 and ?TE=7.9 mK. The model assigns a small number of optical parameters to the atmosphere and surface and qualifies the simple warming prediction: It is rigorous only if parameters other than V are unchanged. The model is not complex and should serve as an aid to an elementary understanding of global warming.

Knox, Robert S.

1999-12-01

146

Focus: Assessing the regional impacts of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five studies are presented which assess the impacts of global warming on physical, economic, and social systems in Canada. A study on the use of climatic change scenarios to estimate ecoclimatic impacts was carried out. These scenarios may include synthetic scenarios produced from historical data, global climate model (GCM) simulations, and hybrid scenarios. The advantages and drawbacks of various scenarios are discussed along with the criteria for selecting impact assessment models. An examination of water resources in the Great Lakes and the Saskatchewan River subbasin uses case studies of two areas that have experienced wide hydrological variations due to climatic variability in order to determine the impacts of global warming scenarios on net basin supply. Problems of developing regional models are discussed and results of projected changes in net basin supply are presented for GCM-based simulations and hypothetical warming scenarios. A study of the impacts of climate warming on transportation and the regional economy in northern Canada uses stochastic models to provide examples of how Mackenzie River barge traffic will be affected. The economic impacts of the resultant lengthened shipping season are outlined under three scenarios. The implications of climatic change on Ontario agriculture are assessed according to GCM scenarios. Results are presented for crop yields and production as well as land resource suitability. Finally, sociocultural implications of global warming on the Arctic and the Inuit are summarized, with reference to a past warming episode occurring around the year 1000. 45 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

1992-01-01

147

Global warming is no longer making debate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Earth's climate is warming up, and the human activity is responsible for at least a part of this warming up. This is the scientifical consensus about which more than 500 specialists of the GIEC (intergovernmental group for climate evolution) have worked on at the Unesco, in Paris, from January 29, 2006 to February 1, 2007. This press kit seizes the opportunity of this meeting to present a status of the last theories and initiatives in the domain of climate change: the scientists' warning, the international mobilization, the initiatives of companies, the analyses made by the journalists of Les Echos, and the series of scientific files about the greenhouse effect, the computerized simulations, the example of past analogues (fast decay of Maya's civilization), and the consumers behaviour in front of the climate change threat. (J.S.)

2007-03-01

148

Global warming, convective threshold and false thermostats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We demonstrate a theoretically expected behavior of the tropical sea surface temperature probability density function (PDF) in future and past (Eocene) greenhouse climate simulations. To first order this consists of a shift to warmer temperatures as climate warms, without change of shape of the PDF. The behavior is tied to a shift of the temperature for deep convection onset. Consequently, the threshold for appearance of high clouds and associated radiative forcing shifts along with temperatu...

2009-01-01

149

Simulation of future global warming scenarios in rice paddies with an open-field warming facility  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract To simulate expected future global warming, hexagonal arrays of infrared heaters have previously been used to warm open-field canopies of upland crops such as wheat. Through the use of concrete-anchored posts, improved software, overhead wires, extensive grounding, and monitoring with a thermal camera, the technology was safely and reliably extended to paddy rice fields. The system maintained canopy temperature increases within 0.5°C of daytime and nighttime set-point diff...

Rehmani Muhammad; Zhang Jingqi; Li Ganghua; Ata-Ul-Karim Syed; Wang Shaohua; Kimball Bruce A; Yan Chuan; Liu Zhenghui; Ding Yanfeng

2011-01-01

150

Future Oceanic Warming and Acidification Alter Immune Response and Disease Status in a Commercial Shellfish Species, Mytilus edulis L.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide are leading to physical changes in marine environments including parallel decreases in ocean pH and increases in seawater temperature. This study examined the impacts of a six month exposure to combined decreased pH and increased temperature on the immune response and disease status in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis L. Results provide the first confirmation that exposure to future acidification and warming conditions via aquarium-based simulation may have parallel implications for bivalve health. Collectively, the data suggests that temperature more than pH may be the key driver affecting immune response in M. edulis. Data also suggests that both increases in temperature and/or lowered pH conditions may lead to changes in parasite abundance and diversity, pathological conditions, and bacterial incidence in M. edulis. These results have implications for future management of shellfish under a predicted climate change scenario and future sustainability of shellfisheries. Examination of the combined effects of two stressors over an extended exposure period provides key preliminary data and thus, this work represents a unique and vital contribution to current research efforts towards a collective understanding of expected near-future impacts of climate change on marine environments. PMID:24927423

Mackenzie, Clara L; Lynch, Sharon A; Culloty, Sarah C; Malham, Shelagh K

2014-01-01

151

Geographical features of global water cycle during warm geological epochs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The impact of global warming on the water cycle can be extremely complex and diverse. The goal of the investigation was to estimate the geographic features of the mean annual water budget of the world during climatic optimums of the Holocene and the Eemian interglacial periods. These geological epochs could be used as analogs of climatic warming on 1 degree, centigrade and 2 degrees, centigrade. The author used the results of climatic reconstructions based on a simplified version of a GCM.

Georgiadi, A.G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Geography

1996-12-31

152

Critical impacts of global warming on land ecosystems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Globally increasing temperatures may have unmanageable impacts on terrestrial, aquatic and marine ecosystems. Quantifying impacts worldwide and systematically as a function of global warming is critical to substantiate the ongoing international negotiations on climate mitigation targets. Here we present a macro-scale analysis of climate change impacts on terrestrial ecosystems based on newly developed sets of climate scenarios featuring a step-wise sampling of global mean temperature increase...

Ostberg, S.; Lucht, W.; Schaphoff, S.; Gerten, D.

2013-01-01

153

Polynomial cointegration tests of anthropogenic impact on global warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We use statistical methods for nonstationary time series to test the anthropogenic interpretation of global warming (AGW), according to which an increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations raised global temperature in the 20th century. Specifically, the methodology of polynomial cointegration is used to test AGW since during the observation period (1880–2007) global temperature and solar irradiance are stationary in 1st differences, whereas greenhouse gas and aerosol forcings are ...

Beenstock, M.; Reingewertz, Y.; Paldor, N.

2012-01-01

154

Global warming and the mining of oceanic methane hydrate  

Science.gov (United States)

The impacts of global warming on the environment, economy and society are presently receiving much attention by the international community. However, the extent to which anthropogenic factors are the main cause of global warming is still being debated. There are obviously large stakes associated with the validity of any theory since that will indicate what actions need to be taken to protect the human race's only home - Earth. Most studies of global warming have investigated the rates and quantities of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere since the beginning of the industrial revolution. In this paper, we focus on the Earth's carbon budget and the associated energy transfer between various components of the climate system. This research invokes some new concepts: (i) certain biochemical processes which strongly interact with geophysical processes in climate system; (ii) a hypothesis that internal processes in the oceans rather than in the atmosphere are at the center of global warming; (iii) chemical energy stored in biochemical processes can significantly affect ocean dynamics and therefore the climate system. Based on those concepts, we propose a new hypothesis for global warming. We also propose a revolutionary strategy to deal with global climate change and provide domestic energy security at the same time. Recent ocean exploration indicates that huge deposits of oceanic methane hydrate deposits exist on the seafloor on continental margins. Methane hydrate transforms into water and methane gas when it dissociates. So, this potentially could provide the United States with energy security if the technology for mining in the 200-mile EEZ is developed and is economically viable. Furthermore, methane hydrate is a relatively environmentally benign, clean fuel. Such technology would help industry reduce carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere, and thus reduce global warming by harnessing the energy from the deep sea.

Lai, C. A.

2004-12-01

155

Global warming combat policies in energy sector of Iran  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among the efforts to slow the potential for climate change are measures to reduce emissions of CO2 from energy use, and promote long-term storage of carbon in forests and soils. Important environmental changes due to climate change and global warming pose potentially significant risks to humans, social systems, and natural world. Many uncertainties remain regarding precise timing,magnitude, and regional patterns of climate change and the extent to which mankind and nature can adapt to any changes. Estimating technical / economical / environmental potentials for reducing CO2 emission in energy sector and preventing of global warming is one of the main activities, which have been performed for the first time in Iran. By use of 26 factors, model on global warming combat policies in energy sector of Iran in long-medium and short term determine decreasing amount of CO2 emission. The results and also method of providing this model will be described in this paper

2002-08-01

156

An evaluation of global warming and its impact  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy balance model has been calculated to assess the magnitude of the average global warming by the middle of the next century. It is shown that an increase in temperatures by about 4 K by the year 2050 as compared to the pre-industrial era (approximately 1800 AD) could result from the projected growth of atmospheric concentrations of major greenhouse gases i.e. carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The changes in global warming are considered for different scenarios including the proposed regulatory measures on the use of CFCs. It is shown that even though the adoption of the revised Montreal Protocol will reduce the global warming due to CFCs by almost 50%, the projected overall global rise in temperature will still be about 2.7K by the year 2050. The possible climatic impacts of the global warming on a few biogeophysical parameters are found to be alarming. Unless prompt action is taken to control the emission fluxes of other major greenhouse gases on lines similar to CFCs, the consequences may be severe for life on earth.

Rao, U.R.; Chakravarty, S.C. (Indian Space Research Organization, Bangalore (India))

1992-03-25

157

Global Warming, Clouds, and Albedo: Feedback Loops  

Science.gov (United States)

This site, from the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), offers a detailed explanation, with diagrams, of both Earth's water cycle and the global heat flow, including the processes that produce the greenhouse effect. Greenhouse gases are listed, and their relative contributions to the greenhouse effect are enumerated. Special attention is paid to the role of clouds.

2009-05-27

158

REDUCING GLOBAL WARMING - THE ROLE OF RICE  

Science.gov (United States)

Activities to provide energy for an expanding population are increasingly disrupting and changing the concentration of atmospheric gases that increase global temperature. ncreased CO2 and temperature have a clear effect on growth and production of rice as they are key factors in ...

159

Global Warming and the Microwave Background  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the work, the importance of assigning the microwave background to the Earth is addressed while emphasizing the consequences for global climate change. Climate models can only produce meaningful forecasts when they consider the real magnitude of all radiative processes. The oceans and continents both contribute to terrestrial emissions. However, the extent of oceanic radiation, particularly in the microwave region, raises concerns. This is not only since the globe is covered with water, but...

2009-01-01

160

On the global warming problem due to carbon dioxide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The subject of global warming due to the increased use of fossil fuels is analyzed using a modification of the predator prey equations. The results of the calculation indicate that both the fossil fuels and civilization will both become extinct as time increases. (author)

Lonngren, Karl E.; Bai, Er-Wei [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

2008-04-15

 
 
 
 
161

Global Warming: Carbon Dioxide and the Greenhouse Effect  

Science.gov (United States)

This video segment demonstrates carbon dioxide's role in the greenhouse effect and explains how increasing concentrations of C02 in the atmosphere may be contributing to global warming. Video includes an unusual demonstration of C02's heat-absorbing properties, using infrared film, a researcher's face, and a stream of C02 between them.

Frontline/nova; Foundation, Wgbh E.; Domain, Teachers'

162

Global warming and mycoflora in the Baltic Region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The author discusses possible effects of global warming on distribution and ecology of larger fungi, and presents examples of suggested indicator species which apparently are spreading from south to north. Only Basidiomycetes are corncerned, while actually no case of non-lichenized Ascomycetes is known. A continued monitoring of the mentioned species is recommended.

Hanns Kreisel

2006-06-01

163

Global Warming: Discussion for EOS Science Writers Workshop  

Science.gov (United States)

The existence of global warming this century is no longer an issue of scientific debate. But there are many important questions about the nature and causes of long-term climate change, th roles of nature and human-made climate forcings and unforced (chaotic) climate variability, the practical impacts of climate change, and what, if anything, should be done to reduce global warming, Global warming is not a uniform increase of temperature, but rather involves at complex geographically varying climate change. Understanding of global warming will require improved observations of climate change itself and the forcing factors that can lead to climate change. The NASA Terra mission and other NASA Earth Science missions will provide key measurement of climate change and climate forcings. The strategy to develop an understanding of the causes and predictability of long-term climate change must be based on combination of observations with models and analysis. The upcoming NASA missions will make important contributions to the required observations.

Hansen, James E

1999-01-01

164

Global Warming: If You Can't Stand the Heat  

Science.gov (United States)

Global warming is the progressive, gradual rise of the earth's average surface temperature, thought to be caused in part by increased concentrations of "greenhouse" gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere. According to the National Academy of Sciences, the Earth's temperature has risen by about one degree Fahrenheit in the past century, with accelerated…

Baird, Stephen L.

2005-01-01

165

Biotic prognostications: Global warming and biological diversity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book focuses on the impacts of the greenhouse effect on biological diversity and on natural ecosystems. Included are chapters which include the following topics: government attitudes to climate change problems; general conclusions and deficiencies of general circulation models; impacts of past climate changes on global biota; effects of climate on vegetation, soils, wildlife diversity, animal physiology, ecology, behavior, migration, and parasites and diseases; arctic mariene ecosystems and coasta marine zones; tropical forests; arctic tundra; western North American forests, etc.; indirect linkages and snyergisms among climate change, biodiversity, geosphere, and anthropogenic stresses.

Peters, R.L.; Lovejoy, T.E. [eds.

1992-12-31

166

Global warming and local dimming. The statistical evidence  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two effects largely determine global warming: the well-known greenhouse effect and the less well-known solar radiation effect. An increase in concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases contributes to global warming: the greenhouse effect. In addition, small particles, called aerosols, reflect and absorb sunlight in the atmosphere. More pollution causes an increase in aerosols, so that less sunlight reaches the Earth (global dimming). Despite its name, global dimming is primarily a local (or regional) effect. Because of the dimming the Earth becomes cooler: the solar radiation effect. Global warming thus consists of two components: the (global) greenhouse effect and the (local) solar radiation effect, which work in opposite directions. Only the sum of the greenhouse effect and the solar radiation effect is observed, not the two effects separately. Our purpose is to identify the two effects. This is important, because the existence of the solar radiation effect obscures the magnitude of the greenhouse effect. We propose a simple climate model with a small number of parameters. We gather data from a large number of weather stations around the world for the period 1959-2002. We then estimate the parameters using dynamic panel data methods, and quantify the parameter uncertainty. Next, we decompose the estimated temperature change of 0.73C (averaged over the weather stations) into a greenhouse effect of 1.87C, a solar radiation effect of -1.09C, and a small remainder term. Finally, we subject our findings to extensive sensitivity analyses.

Magnus, J.R.; Melenberg, B. [Department of Econometrics and Operations Research, Tilburg University, Tilburg (Netherlands); Muris, C. [CentER, Tilburg University, Tilburg (Netherlands)

2011-01-15

167

Global warming considerations in northern Boreal forest ecosystems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The northern boreal forests of circumpolar lands are of special significance to questions of global climate change. Throughout its range, these forests are characterized by a relatively few tree species, although they may exhibit great spatial heterogeneity. Their ecosystems are simpler than temperate systems, and ecosystem processes are strongly affected by interactions between water, the landscape, and the biota. Northern boreal forest vegetation patterns are strongly influenced by forest fires, and distribution of forest generally coincides with occurrence of permafrost. Boreal forest landscapes are extremely sensitive to thermal disruption; global warming may result in lasting thermal and physical degradation of soils, altered rates and patterns of vegetation succession, and damage to engineered structures. A change in fire severity and frequency is also a significant concern. The total carbon pool of boreal forests and their associated peatlands is significant on a global scale; this carbon may amount to 10-20% of the global carbon pool. A change in latitudinal or elevational treeline has been suggested as a probable consequence of global warming. More subtle aspects of boreal forest ecosystems which may be affected by global warming include the depth of the active soil layer, the hydrologic cycle, and biological attributes of boreal stream systems. 48 refs., 2 figs

1992-05-12

168

Imminent ocean acidification in the Arctic projected with the NCAR global coupled carbon cycle-climate model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ocean acidification from the uptake of anthropogenic carbon is simulated for the industrial period and IPCC SRES emission scenarios A2 and B1 with a global coupled carbon cycle-climate model. Earlier studies identified seawater saturation state with respect to aragonite, a mineral phase of calcium carbonate, as a key variable governing impacts on corals and other shell-forming organisms. Globally in the A2 scenario, water saturated by more than 300%, considered suitable for coral growth, vani...

Steinacher, M.; Joos, F.; Fro?licher, T. L.; -k Plattner, G.; Doney, S. C.

2009-01-01

169

Simulation of future global warming scenarios in rice paddies with an open-field warming facility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract To simulate expected future global warming, hexagonal arrays of infrared heaters have previously been used to warm open-field canopies of upland crops such as wheat. Through the use of concrete-anchored posts, improved software, overhead wires, extensive grounding, and monitoring with a thermal camera, the technology was safely and reliably extended to paddy rice fields. The system maintained canopy temperature increases within 0.5°C of daytime and nighttime set-point differences of 1.3 and 2.7°C 67% of the time.

Rehmani Muhammad

2011-12-01

170

Global warming What does the data tell us?  

CERN Document Server

We analyze global surface temperature data obtained at 13472 weather stations from the year 1702 to 1990. The mean annual temperature of a station fluctuates from year to year by typically +-0.6oC (one standard deviation). Superimposed on this fluctuation is a linear increase of the temperature by typically 0.40oC per century ever since reliable data is available, i.e. since 1702. The world population has doubled from 1952 to 1990, yet we see no statistically significant acceleration of global warming in this period. We conclude that the effect of humankind on global warming up to 1990 is 0.0 +- 0.1oC.

Alban, E X

2002-01-01

171

The global warming debate heats up - An analysis and perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Estimates of present and future effects of global warming are discussed and the two opposing schools of thought concerning global warming are summarized. It is pointed out that scientific concern for a high probability of unprecedented climatic change over the next 50 years is not based upon the detailed fluctuations in the climate record to date, but on physical processes that comprise the greenhouse effect. The most recent climatic models are described and validation of these models discussed. Results from these models suggest that global average surface temperatures will increase by 1.5-4.5 C during the next century. However, changes in greenhouse gas concentrations, other nongreenhouse forcings such as solar variability or atmospheric aerosols, and feedback processes not properly accounted for in the present models could produce greater or smaller increases. Sea-level rises of 0.2-1.2 m are typically projected for the next century. Some discussion of policy responses is presented. 62 refs.

Schneider, S.H. (NCAR, Boulder, CO (USA))

1990-09-01

172

On the Present Halting of Global Warming  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The rise in global average temperature over the last century has halted since roughly the year 2000, despite the fact that the release of CO2 into the atmosphere is still increasing. It is suggested here that this interruption has been caused by the suspension of the near linear (+ 0.5 °C/100 years or 0.05 °C/10 years temperature increase over the last two centuries, due to recovery from the Little Ice Age, by a superposed multi-decadal oscillation of a 0.2 °C amplitude and a 50~60 year period, which reached its positive peak in about the year 2000—a halting similar to those that occurred around 1880 and 1940. Because both the near linear change and the multi-decadal oscillation are likely to be natural changes (the recovery from the Little Ice Age (LIA and an oscillation related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO, respectively, they must be carefully subtracted from temperature data before estimating the effects of CO2.

Syun-Ichi Akasofu

2013-05-01

173

Quantifying global warming from the retreat of glaciers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Records of glacier fluctuations compiled by the World Glacier Monitoring Service can be used to derive an independent estimate of global warming during the last 100 years. Records of different glaciers are made comparable by a two-step scaling procedure; one allowing for differences in glacier geometry, the other for differences in climate sensitivity. The retreat of glaciers during the last 100 years appears to be coherent over the globe. On the basis of modeling of the climate sensitivity of glaciers, the observed glacier retreat can be explained by a linear warming trend of 0.66 kelvin per century.

Oerlemans, J. (Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands))

1994-04-08

174

Global warming and the challenge of international cooperation: an interdisciplinary assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book aims to explore the nature of potential climatic change. It seeks to assess the scientific, economic legal and political issues related to the threat of global warming from an interdisciplinary perspective. The seven chapters have the following titles: the challenge of global warming; global warming and ozone depletion - certainties and uncertainties; consequences of global climate change for Earth's biosphere; global energy use and global warming; problems and prospects of institutionalizing ecological interdependence in a world of local independence; political institutions and climate change; and policy options for responding to the threat of global warming. Six chapters are abstracted separately. 158 refs

1990-03-26

175

Global warming and the forest fire business in Canada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current forest fire situation in Canada is outlined, and an attempt is made to predict the impact of global warming on the forest fire business in Canada. Despite the development of extremely sophisticated provincial and territorial fire management systems, forest fires continue to exert a tremendous influence on the Canadian forest resource. Research into the relationship between climate warming and forest fires has fallen into two categories: the effect of future global warming on fire weather severity, and the current contribution of forest fires to global atmospheric greenhouse gas budgets. A 46% increase in seasonal fire severity across Canada is suggested under a doubled atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration scenario. Approximately 89% of carbon released to the atmosphere by forest fire burning is in the form of carbon dioxide, 9% is carbon monoxide, and the remaining carbon is released as methane or non-methane hydrocarbons. It is estimated that forest fires in northern circumpolar countries contribute from 1-2% of the carbon released globally through biomass burning. Fire may be the agent by which a northerly shift of forest vegetation in Canada occurs. 13 refs., 2 figs

1990-09-11

176

Aspectos éticos del calentamiento climático global / ETHICAL ASPECTS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este artículo presenta, de una manera clara y sencilla, la complejidad asociada al calentamiento global. Además, señala algunos de los debates éticos asociados a este fenómeno. El calentamiento global no es un fenómeno que sea ajeno al diario vivir de de cada persona. [...] Abstract in english This article presents in a clear and simple way, the complexity associated to the global warming. In addition, to indicate some of the associated ethical debates to this phenomenon. The global warming is not a phenomenon that is strange to the day living of each person. [...

Guhl Corpas, Andrés.

177

Polynomial cointegration tests of anthropogenic impact on global warming  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We use statistical methods for nonstationary time series to test the anthropogenic interpretation of global warming (AGW, according to which an increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations raised global temperature in the 20th century. Specifically, the methodology of polynomial cointegration is used to test AGW since during the observation period (1880–2007 global temperature and solar irradiance are stationary in 1st differences, whereas greenhouse gas and aerosol forcings are stationary in 2nd differences. We show that although these anthropogenic forcings share a common stochastic trend, this trend is empirically independent of the stochastic trend in temperature and solar irradiance. Therefore, greenhouse gas forcing, aerosols, solar irradiance and global temperature are not polynomially cointegrated, and the perceived relationship between these variables is a spurious regression phenomenon. On the other hand, we find that greenhouse gas forcings might have had a temporary effect on global temperature.

M. Beenstock

2012-11-01

178

Health effects of global warming: Problems in assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Global warming is likely to result in a variety of environmental effects ranging from impacts on species diversity, changes in population size in flora and fauna, increases in sea level and possible impacts on the primary productivity of the sea. Potential impacts on human health and welfare have included possible increases in heat related mortality, changes in the distribution of disease vectors, and possible impacts on respiratory diseases including hayfever and asthma. Most of the focus thus far is on effects which are directly related to increases in temperature, e.g., heat stress or perhaps one step removed, e.g., changes in vector distribution. Some of the more severe impacts are likely to be much less direct, e.g., increases in migration due to agricultural failure following prolonged droughts. This paper discusses two possible approaches to the study of these less-direct impacts of global warming and presents information from on-going research using each of these approaches

1993-06-06

179

Global variations of zonal mean ozone during stratospheric warming events  

Science.gov (United States)

Eight years of Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) ozone data are examined to study zonal mean variations associated with stratospheric planetary wave (warming) events. These fluctuations are found to be nearly global in extent, with relatively large variations in the tropics, and coherent signatures reaching up to 50 deg in the opposite (summer) hemisphere. These ozone variations are a manifestation of the global circulation cells associated with stratospheric warming events; the ozone responds dynamically in the lower stratosphere to transport, and photochemically in the upper stratosphere to the circulation-induced temperature changes. The observed ozone variations in the tropics are of particular interest because transport is dominated by zonal-mean vertical motions (eddy flux divergences and mean meridional transports are negligible), and hence, substantial simplifications to the governing equations occur. The response of the atmosphere to these impulsive circulation changes provides a situation for robust estimates of the ozone-temperature sensitivity in the upper stratosphere.

Randel, William J.

1993-01-01

180

The role of clouds and oceans in global greenhouse warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the past three years we have conducted several studies using models and a combination of satellite data, in situ meteorological and oceanic data, and paleoclimate reconstructions, under the DoE program, ''Quantifying the Link Between Change in Radiative Balance and Atmospheric Temperature''. Our goals were to investigate effects of global cloudiness variations on global climate and their implications for cloud feedback and continue development and application of NYU transient climate/ocean models, with emphasis on coupled effects of greenhouse warming and feedbacks by both the clouds and oceans. Our original research plan emphasized the use of cloud, surface temperature and ocean data sets interpreted by focused climate/ocean models to develop a cloud radiative forcing scenario for the past 100 years and to assess the transient climate response; to narrow key uncertainties in the system; and to identify those aspects of the climate system most likely to be affected by greenhouse warming over short, medium and long time scales

1992-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Low Global Warming Refrigerants For Commercial Refrigeration Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

New refrigerants with the positive attributes of both high thermal performance and low environmental impact are currently in development. Initial evaluation of these refrigerants in refrigeration systems show good energy efficiency and significant lower global warming impact than current refrigerants. Some of those Low GWP refrigerants are non-azeotropic blends with moderate to high glide; therefore guidance on the use of these blends is needed to achieve the desired good performance and low ...

2012-01-01

182

Predicting the global warming potential of agro-ecosystems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane are the main biogenic greenhouse gases (GHG) contributing to the global warming potential (GWP) of agro-ecosystems. Evaluating the impact of agriculture on climate thus requires a capacity to predict the net exchanges of these gases in an integrated manner, as related to environmental conditions and crop management. Here, we used two year-round data sets from two intensively-monitored cropping systems in northern France to test the ability of the biop...

Lehuger, S.; Gabrielle, B.; Larmanou, E.; Laville, P.; Cellier, P.; Loubet, B.

2007-01-01

183

Permafrost carbon-climate feedbacks accelerate global warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Permafrost soils contain enormous amounts of organic carbon, which could act as a positive feedback to global climate change due to enhanced respiration rates with warming. We have used a terrestrial ecosystem model that includes permafrost carbon dynamics, inhibition of respiration in frozen soil layers, vertical mixing of soil carbon from surface to permafrost layers, and CH4 emissions from flooded areas, and which better matches new circumpolar inventories of soil carbon stocks, to explore...

Koven, Charles D.; Ringeval, Bruno; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Ciais, Philippe; Cadule, Patricia; Khvorostyanov, Dmitry; Krinner, Gerhard; Tarnocai, Charles

2011-01-01

184

Scaled biotic disruption during early Eocene global warming events  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Late Paleocene and early Eocene hyperthermals are transient warming events associated with massive perturbations of the global carbon cycle, and are considered partial analogues for current anthropogenic climate change. Because the magnitude of carbon release varied between the events, they are natural experiments ideal for exploring the relationship between carbon cycle perturbations, climate change and biotic response. Here we quantify marine biotic variability through three million years o...

Gibbs, S. J.; Bown, P. R.; Murphy, B. H.; Sluijs, A.; Edgar, K. M.; Pa?like, H.; Bolton, C. T.; Zachos, J. C.

2012-01-01

185

Global Warming was not Proved at Showa Base in Antarctica  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The changes in temperatures at Showa base in Antarctica were evaluated. Various parameters of temperatures at Showa base in Antarctica were obtained from Japan Metrological Agency. Parameters of temperatures were not correlated with years at Showa base (mean temperature in a year: r = 0.056, p = 0.7267). In addition, the number of days over 4?C was negatively correlated with years. Global warming was not proved at Showa base in Antarctica in this study.

Nobuyuki Miyatake; Noriko Sakano; Shoko Murakami; Takeshi Suzue; Tomohiro Hirao

2011-01-01

186

The IEA is worried about inability to limit global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Energy Agency (IEA) is launching a strong appeal to mobilise public authorities: the world is definitely not in a position to respect its commitments on reducing carbon emissions and thus of putting a brake on global warming. Carbon intensity has hardly budged since 1990, the IEA estimates. The reason? Increased energy output has relied more on fossil fuel expansion than on recourse to renewable sources. (author)

2013-01-01

187

Latest Developments of Low Global Warming Refrigerants for Chillers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper will focus on the developments of new molecules that have low global warming potential, high thermal performance, and favorable safety characteristics, to name only a few required characteristics. Several new molecules that have very short atmospheric lifetimes, as well as refrigerant blends utilizing these molecules, have been developed and will be evaluated for use in various types of water chillers ranging from smaller capacity systems that currently use R-410A or R-407C refrige...

2012-01-01

188

Study on Global Warming and Fuel Conservation in Surat City  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study reveals that though middle and upper middle class of people in Surat city are aware of global warming, contributory reasons and containment measures, yet remain insensitive in terms of practices. The paper points to the need to increase their collective consciousness and responsiveness to this issue through intense awareness campaigns and rallies to promote measures as pooling of vehicles, cycling, hybrid cars and efficient rapid public transport systems through institution of measu...

2010-01-01

189

Global warming factor of municipal solid waste management in Europe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The global warming factor (GWF; CO2-eq. tonne—1 waste) performance of municipal waste management has been investigated for six representative European Member States: Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Poland and the United Kingdom. The study integrated European waste statistical data for 2007 in a life-cycle assessment modelling perspective. It is shown that significant GWF benefit was achieved due to the high level of energy and material recovery substituting fossil energy and raw materials...

Gentil, Emmanuel; Clavreul, Julie; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

2009-01-01

190

Artists and now also activists to contrast global warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Artists create new aesthetics to communicate new messages and new concerns. Apprehension about the climate, its changes, global warming and a disposition to anxiously running after an ideal sustainable development are part of the issues we all now experience with a certain degree of anxiety. This is why the sensitive antennae of artists have perceived and evolved that. Now they are committed on many fields to making their voice be heard and to raising ethical and social issues, also regarding...

2008-01-01

191

Global warming, sea-level rise, and coastal marsh survival  

Science.gov (United States)

Coastal wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems in the world. These wetlands at the land-ocean margin provide many direct benefits to humans, including habitat for commercially important fisheries and wildlife; storm protection; improved water quality through sediment, nutrient, and pollution removal; recreation; and aesthetic values. These valuable ecosystems will be highly vulnerable to the effects of the rapid rise in sea level predicted to occur during the next century as a result of global warming.

Cahoon, Donald R.

1997-01-01

192

Global Warming: some back-of-the-envelope calculations  

CERN Document Server

We do several simple calculations and measurements in an effort to gain understanding of global warming and the carbon cycle. Some conclusions are interesting: (i) There has been global warming since the end of the "little ice age" around 1700. There is no statistically significant evidence of acceleration of global warming since 1940. (ii) The increase of CO_2 in the atmosphere, beginning around 1940, accurately tracks the burning of fossil fuels. Burning all of the remaining economically viable reserves of oil, gas and coal over the next 150 years or so will approximately double the pre-industrial atmospheric concentration of CO_2. The corresponding increase in the average temperature, due to the greenhouse effect, is quite uncertain: between 1.3 and 4.8K. This increase of temperature is (partially?) offset by the increase of aerosols and deforestation. (iii) Ice core samples indicate that the pre-historic CO_2 concentration and temperature are well correlated. We conclude that changes in the temperatures o...

Fabara, C

2005-01-01

193

Man made global warming explained - closing the blinds  

CERN Document Server

One of the big problems of the age concerns 'Global Warming', and whether it is 'man-made' or 'natural'. Most climatologists believe that it is very likely to be the former but some scientists (mostly non-climatologists) subscribe to the latter. Unsurprisingly, the population at large is often confused and and is not convinced either way. Here we try to explain the principles of man-made global warming in a simple way. Our purpose is to try to understand the story which the climatologists are telling us through their rather complicated general circulation models. Although the effects in detail are best left to the climatologists' models, we show that for the Globe as a whole the effects of man-made global warming can be demonstrated in a simple way. The simple model of only the direct heating from the absorption of infrared radiation, illustrates the main principles of the science involved. The predicted temperature increase due to the increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere over the last century descr...

Sloan, T

2010-01-01

194

The impact of possible climate catastrophes on global warming policy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent studies on global warming have introduced the inherent uncertainties associated with the costs and benefits of climate policies and have often shown that abatement policies are likely to be less aggressive or postponed in comparison to those resulting from traditional cost-benefit analyses (CBA). Yet, those studies have failed to include the possibility of sudden climate catastrophes. The aim of this paper is to account simultaneously for possible continuous and discrete damages resulting from global warming, and to analyse their implications on the optimal path of abatement policies. Our approach is related to the new literature on investment under uncertainty, and relies on some recent developments of the real option in which we incorporated negative jumps (climate catastrophes) in the stochastic process corresponding to the net benefits associated with the abatement policies. The impacts of continuous and discrete climatic risks can therefore be considered separately. Our numerical applications lead to two main conclusions: (i) gradual, continuous uncertainty in the global warming process is likely to delay the adoption of abatement policies as found in previous studies, with respect to the standard CBA; however (ii) the possibility of climate catastrophes accelerates the implementation of these policies as their net discounted benefits increase significantly

2003-06-01

195

Global Warming in the 21st Century: An Alternate Scenario  

Science.gov (United States)

A common view is that the current global warming rate will continue or accelerate. But we argue that rapid warming in recent decades has been driven by non-CO2 greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as CFCs, CH4 and N2O, not by the products of fossil fuel burning, CO2 and aerosols, whose positive and negative climate forcings are partially offsetting. The growth rate of non-CO2 GHGs has declined in the past decade. If sources of CH4 and O3 precursors were reduced in the future, the change of climate forcing by non-CO2 GHGs In the next 50 years could be near zero. Combined with a reduction of black carbon emissions and plausible success in slowing CO2 emissions, this could lead to a decline in the rate of global warming, reducing the danger of dramatic climate change. Such a focus on air pollution has practical benefits that unite the interests of developed and developing countries. However, assessment of ongoing and future climate change requires composition-specific longterm global monitoring of aerosol properties.

Hansen, James E.; Sato, Makiko; Ruedy, Reto; Lacis, Andrew; Oinas, Valdar

2000-01-01

196

Signal and noise in global warming detection. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The specific objectives of this study were the following: (1) What is the expected sampling error and bias incurred in estimation of the global average temperature from a finite number of point gauges? (2) What is the best one can do by optimally arranging N point gauges, how can one make best use of existing data at N point gauges by optimally weighting them? (3) What is a good estimation of the signal of global warming based upon simple models of the climate system? (4) How does one develop an optimal signal detection technique from the knowledge of signal and noise?

North, G.R.

1998-11-01

197

Global warming threat on water resources and environment: a review  

Science.gov (United States)

Global warming, greenhouse effect, and the climate change problems are long-term anthropogenic consequences that are expected to threaten water related demand and supply patterns in the near future. These problems may be identified linguistically on a logical basis to take the necessary precautions, and implement mitigation strategies after vulnerability possibilities are assessed using fuzzy logic. Climate change effects are the focus of many scientific, engineering, economic, social, cultural, and global nuisances, and these effects awaits cost-effective remedial solutions. Extreme events such as floods and droughts and modified groundwater recharge may be influenced by climate change.

?en, Zekai

2009-03-01

198

Nuclear power in the context of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper examines the extent to which nuclear power could help ameliorate the greenhouse problem. Topics discussed include: (1) How serious is the environmental threat posed by the greenhouse effect? (2) How large a part do fossil fuels play in producing greenhouse gases? (3) Is it possible to prevent or abate the anticipated global warming? (4) Can nuclear power play a significant role? (5) What overall approached might best reduce greenhouse emissions? Global cooperativeness in addressing the problem will be essential. 14 refs., 5 tabs

1989-11-01

199

Marine methane cycle simulations for the period of early global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Geochemical environments, fates, and effects are modeled for methane released into seawater by the decomposition of climate-sensitive clathrates. A contemporary global background cycle is first constructed, within the framework of the Parallel Ocean Program. Input from organics in the upper thermocline is related to oxygen levels, and microbial consumption is parameterized from available rate measurements. Seepage into bottom layers is then superimposed, representing typical seabed fluid flow. The resulting CH{sub 4} distribution is validated against surface saturation ratios, vertical sections, and slope plume studies. Injections of clathrate-derived methane are explored by distributing a small number of point sources around the Arctic continental shelf, where stocks are extensive and susceptible to instability during the first few decades of global warming. Isolated bottom cells are assigned dissolved gas fluxes from porous-media simulation. Given the present bulk removal pattern, methane does not penetrate far from emission sites. Accumulated effects, however, spread to the regional scale following the modeled current system. Both hypoxification and acidification are documented. Sensitivity studies illustrate a potential for material restrictions to broaden the perturbations, since methanotrophic consumers require nutrients and trace metals. When such factors are considered, methane buildup within the Arctic basin is enhanced. However, freshened polar surface waters act as a barrier to atmospheric transfer, diverting products into the deep return flow. Uncertainties in the logic and calculations are enumerated including those inherent in high-latitude clathrate abundance, buoyant effluent rise through the column, representation of the general circulation, and bacterial growth kinetics.

Elliott, S.; Maltrud, M.; Reagan, M.T.; Moridis, G.J.; Cameron-Smith, P.J.

2011-01-02

200

The regions and global warming: Impacts and response strategies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To date, much of the attention given to global warming in scientific research as well as in policy development has focused on the global picture. International negotiations and agreements to stabilize, and eventually reduce, greenhouse gas emissions are very important. By themselves, however, they are not sufficient to address global warming. Regional strategies are also needed. They can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and they will be the most effective way to mitigate the consequences of global warming. Adaptive strategies must respond to local and regional conditions. In many countries, subnational jurisdictions such as states and provinces or community organizations can already take effective actions without direction from their national government or waiting for international agreements. An important factor in defining regional approaches is the disparate consequences of climate change for developed and developing areas. Different strategies will also be needed for industrial and agricultural regions. Wealthy industrial regions may be better able to develop capital-intensive, adaptive infrastructure than regions with fewer discretionary resources where people are more vulnerable to the vagaries of weather patterns. On the other hand, regions that rely on indigenous knowledge and local resources may be better equipped to make incremental adaptations and more willing to modify life-styles. Ultimately, all climate change effects are experienced in specific places and effective response depends upon local action. We recognize that individual localities cannot solve a problem of global proportions by acting alone. However, a regional strategy can supplement international and national action and be the focal point for addressing risks in the unique social and economic context of a particular area. These meetings discussions dealt with the impacts and implications of climate change on such things as agriculture, forestry, and policy

1991-03-03

 
 
 
 
201

Gas hydrate contribution to Late Permian global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Rapid gas hydrate release (the “clathrate gun” hypothesis) has been invoked as a cause for the rapid global warming and associated negative carbon isotope excursion observed during the Latest Permian Extinction (LPE). We modeled the stability of gas hydrates through a warming Middle to Late Permian world, considering three settings for methane reservoirs: 1) terrestrial hydrates, 2) hydrates on exposed continental shelves during glacial sea level drop, and 3) hydrates in deep marine settings. Model results show that terrestrial hydrates would rapidly destabilize over ?400 ky after deglaciation for moderate heatflow (40 mW/m2), and more rapidly for higher heat flow values. Exposed continental shelves would lose hydrates even more rapidly, after being flooded due to loss of ice storage on land. These two major hydrate reservoirs would thus have destabilized during the Middle to Late Permian climate warming, well prior to the LPE event. However, they may have contributed to the >2‰ negative C-isotopic shift during the late Middle Permian. Deep marine hydrates would have remained stable until LPE time. Rapid warming of deep marine waters during this time could have triggered destabilization of this reservoir, however given the configuration of one super continent, Pangea, hydrate bearing continental slopes would have been less extensive than modern day. This suggests that any potential gas hydrate release would have had only a minor contributing impact to the runaway greenhouse during the Latest Permian extinction.

Majorowicz, J.; Grasby, S. E.; Safanda, J.; Beauchamp, B.

2014-05-01

202

Future wildfire in circumboreal forests in relation to global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Despite increasing temperatures since the end of the Little Ice Age (ca. 1850), wildfire frequency has decreased as shown in many field studies from North America and Europe. We believe that global warming since 1850 may have triggered decreases in fire frequency in some regions and future warming may even lead to further decreases in fire frequency. Simulations of present and future fire regimes, using daily outputs from the General Circulation Model (GCM), were in good agreement with recent trends observed in fire history studies. Daily data, rather than monthly data, were used because the weather and, consequently, fire behavior can change dramatically over time periods much shorter than a month. The simulation and fire history results suggest that the impact of global warming on northern forests through forest fires may not be disastrous and that, contrary to the expectation of an overall increase in forest fires, there may be large regions of the Northern Hemisphere with a reduced fire frequency 61 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

Flannigan, M.D. [Canadian Forest Service, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Bergeron, Y. [Quebec Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Groupe de recherche en ecologie forestiere; Engelmark, O. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecological Botany; Wotton, B.M. [Canadian Forest Service, Sault Ste. Marie, ON (Canada)

1998-08-01

203

Imminent ocean acidification projected with the NCAR global coupled carbon cycle-climate model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ocean acidification from the uptake of anthropogenic carbon is simulated for the industrial period and IPCC SRES emission scenarios A2 and B1 with a global coupled carbon cycle-climate model. Earlier studies identified seawater saturation state with respect to aragonite, a mineral phase of calcium carbonate, as a key variable governing impacts on corals and other shell-forming organisms. Globally in the A2 scenario, water saturated by more than 300%, considered suitable for coral growth, vanishes by 2070 AD (CO2?630 ppm, and the ocean volume fraction occupied by saturated water decreases from 42% to 25% over this century. The largest simulated pH changes worldwide occur in Arctic surface waters, where hydrogen ion concentration increases by up to 185%. Projected climate change amplifies the decrease in Arctic surface mean saturation and pH by more than 20%, mainly due to freshening and increased carbon uptake in response to sea ice retreat. Modeled saturation compares well with observation-based estimates along an Arctic transect and simulated changes have been corrected for remaining model-data differences in this region. Aragonite undersaturation in Arctic surface waters is projected to occur locally soon and to become more widespread as atmospheric CO2 continues to grow. The results imply that surface waters in the Arctic Ocean will become corrosive to aragonite, with potentially large implications for the marine ecosystem, if anthropogenic carbon emissions are not reduced and atmospheric CO2 not kept below 450 ppm.

M. Steinacher

2008-11-01

204

Does CO{sub 2} really drive global warming?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Arctic Ocean Model, which was developed to account for the million year temperature oscillations, is explained in terms of the development and the shrinkage of the Arctic ice cap in the northern polar regions according to whether the Arctic Ocean is unfrozen and can supply moisture for the development of the ice cap which reflects the sun's radiation, or is frozen resulting in the shrinkage of the ice cap and the earth absorbing more of the sun's radiation and warming up (global warming). The changes in the direction of the temperature are discussed along with man's impact through fossil fuel combustion, and the identification of water and not carbon dioxide as the major absorbing gas in the atmosphere. The key evidence to support this theory is presented.

Essenhigh, R.H. [Ohio State Univ. (United States)

2001-07-01

205

Projection of Global Warming using an Empirical Model of Climate  

Science.gov (United States)

An empirical model of climate based on multiple linear regression of the century-long global surface temperature record is used to quantify the rise in global average temperature in 2053, the time CO2 reaches 560 ppm (2x pre-industrial) in the RCP 8.5 scenario. This rise in temperature is inherently uncertain due to the cantilevering of aerosol radiative forcing and climate feedback, coupled with the projection that aerosol radiative forcing will diminish in the coming decades due to air quality concerns. We show that, considering this cantilevering, the rise in global temperature at the time CO2 doubles will likely be between 1 and 2 degrees Celsius (relative to a 1961 to 1990 baseline). This empirically driven estimate of future warming is considerably less than projected by CMIP5 models.

Canty, Tim; Hope, Austin; Mascioli, Nora; Salawitch, Ross

2014-05-01

206

Critical impacts of global warming on land ecosystems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Globally increasing temperatures may have unmanageable impacts on terrestrial, aquatic and marine ecosystems. Quantifying impacts worldwide and systematically as a function of global warming is critical to substantiate the ongoing international negotiations on climate mitigation targets. Here we present a macro-scale analysis of climate change impacts on terrestrial ecosystems based on newly developed sets of climate scenarios featuring a step-wise sampling of global mean temperature increase between 1.5 and 5 K by 2100. These are processed by a biogeochemical model (LPJmL to derive an aggregated metric of simultaneous biogeochemical and structural shifts in land surface properties which we interpret as a proxy for the risk of shifts and possibly disruptions in ecosystems. Our results show a substantial risk of climate change to transform terrestrial ecosystems profoundly. Nearly no area of the world is free from such risk, unless strong mitigation limits warming to around 2 degrees above preindustrial level. Even then, most climate models agree that up to one fifth of the land surface may experience at least moderate change, primarily at high latitudes and high altitudes. If countries fulfill their current emissions pledges, resulting in roughly 3.5 K of warming, this area expands to cover half the land surface, including the majority of tropical forests and savannas and the boreal zone. Due to differences in regional patterns of climate change the area potentially at risk of severe ecosystem change considering all AOGCMs is up to 2.5 times as large as for a single AOGCM.

S. Ostberg

2013-05-01

207

Northern hemisphere glaciation during the globally warm early Late Pliocene.  

Science.gov (United States)

The early Late Pliocene (3.6 to ?3.0 million years ago) is the last extended interval in Earth's history when atmospheric CO2 concentrations were comparable to today's and global climate was warmer. Yet a severe global glaciation during marine isotope stage (MIS) M2 interrupted this phase of global warmth ?3.30 million years ago, and is seen as a premature attempt of the climate system to establish an ice-age world. Here we propose a conceptual model for the glaciation and deglaciation of MIS M2 based on geochemical and palynological records from five marine sediment cores along a Caribbean to eastern North Atlantic transect. Our records show that increased Pacific-to-Atlantic flow via the Central American Seaway weakened the North Atlantic Current and attendant northward heat transport prior to MIS M2. The consequent cooling of the northern high latitude oceans permitted expansion of the continental ice sheets during MIS M2, despite near-modern atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Sea level drop during this glaciation halted the inflow of Pacific water to the Atlantic via the Central American Seaway, allowing the build-up of a Caribbean Warm Pool. Once this warm pool was large enough, the Gulf Stream-North Atlantic Current system was reinvigorated, leading to significant northward heat transport that terminated the glaciation. Before and after MIS M2, heat transport via the North Atlantic Current was crucial in maintaining warm climates comparable to those predicted for the end of this century. PMID:24349081

De Schepper, Stijn; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Naafs, B David A; Van Renterghem, Cédéric; Hennissen, Jan; Head, Martin J; Louwye, Stephen; Fabian, Karl

2013-01-01

208

Hurricane Sandy influenced by global warming, climate scientist says | EurActiv  

... Hurricane Sandy influenced by global warming, climate scientist says | EurActiv climate-environment,development-policy,climate change,climate science,global warming,Hurricane Sandy EU ... VIDEOS Home › Climate & Environment › News Hurricane Sandy influenced by global warming, climate scientist says [fr] -A + A Published ...October 2012, updated 14 December 2012 8 comments Tags climate change, climate science, global warming, Hurricane Sandy Anthropogenic climate change has contributed to sea surface warming, influencing ...the intensity of storms like Hurricane Sandy, a leading climate scientist has told EurActiv. Sea surface temperatures off the American East Coast ...

209

Greenhouse Effect/Climate Change/Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

The terms greenhouse effect, climate change, and global warming are often used interchangeably, yet they really refer to three separate and distinct processes. This activity examines all three and assesses whether Earth's atmosphere is getting warmer. Students will read two articles from the journal of Science that discuss the findings of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and investigate the bias of both groups of authors. This activity requires the use of two articles from the July 20, 2001 issue of the journal Science.

Fox, Chris

210

The nuclear, an efficient tool against global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proposing and commenting some extracts of a book by Francis Sorin (Le nucleaire et la planete), this document aims at showing that nuclear energy production is a tool to struggle against global warming because of its low carbon emission. Some assessments of this characteristic are given and discussed, as well as figures on carbon emissions in different western countries. This document also criticises the statements made by ecologists against nuclear energy. The author put nuclear energy at the same level as energy savings and renewable energies, as means to reach the desirable CO2 saving level

2009-01-01

211

Teaching “Global Warming” through Socioscientific issues-based Instruction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aims to investigate effective teaching criterion through socioscientific issues-based instruction “Global warming” at 80/80, to find out effectiveness index of socioscientific issues-based instruction, to compare...

Prasart Nuangchalerm; Boonpeng Kwuanthong

2010-01-01

212

Bill Maher: Global warming is not a debate - Climate &  

... The highly affluent North American who eats steaks, has a house and a cottage, one car and one SUV, one speedboat and one powered snow sled is producing massively more greenhouse gases than the North African farmer producing a small crop of sorghum. Lorraine November 9, 2010 at 9:16 pm | Permalink If I were to base my opinion not on what scientists say or the public says about Global Warming, I would conclude that climate change is a definite possibility. Based on the fact that in the past ...

213

Artists and now also activists to contrast global warming  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Artists create new aesthetics to communicate new messages and new concerns. Apprehension about the climate, its changes, global warming and a disposition to anxiously running after an ideal sustainable development are part of the issues we all now experience with a certain degree of anxiety. This is why the sensitive antennae of artists have perceived and evolved that. Now they are committed on many fields to making their voice be heard and to raising ethical and social issues, also regarding the scientific instruments man possesses to manipulate nature. So they have now accessed the group of special interlocutors in the dialogue between science and society.

Alessandra Drioli

2008-09-01

214

Role of car material recycling in mitigating global warming effects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After a short review of the pollutant effects related to the use of transportation means, the role of recycling of materials coming from discarded cars is analysed. With particular attention to the Italian case, the number of cars yearly discarded is analysed in terms of greenhouse gases released for the production of the involved materials. Adopting some hypotheses on the recycling potentiality of the Italian transportation sector and by means of some observations regarding the Italian market for recycled materials, the resulting saved CO{sub 2} and the mitigating effects on global warming are estimated. 10 refs., 4 tabs.

Barbieri, D.; Morabito, F.; Nucara, A.; Pietrafesa, M. [University of Reggio Calabria, Regio Calabria (Italy)

1995-12-31

215

Energy Prices and Carbon Taxes under Uncertainty about Global Warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper extends the strategic interactions between producers of fossil fuels concerned about their profits and a taxing government concerned about the consumers' welfare for uncertainty: global warming follows an Ito -process. Stochasticity requires to differentiate between reversible and irreversible emissions in contrast to the deterministic version. The unconstrained (= reversible) case allows for a closed form solution but not the more realistic and constrained case. Nevertheless interesting analytical properties (e.g. about when to stop emissions, implicit conservation due to monopolistic supply) are derived and complemented by a numerical example

2007-03-01

216

Scientists studying the greenhouse effect challenge fears of global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author discusses the controversy in the scientific community about the significance of the increased gases causing the greenhouse effect to be detrimental to the earth's ecosystems. He states that the most important aspect of the controversy is the fact that governments are embarking on foolish activities in order to prevent global warming. The fact that scientists offer research with contradicting results furthers the confusion as to what the best course of action is. The government agencies that control policy need to appropriate funds to study specific climatic changes and what effect carbon dioxide and other gases have on the atmosphere.

Wheeler, D.L.

1990-07-01

217

CO sub 2 technology adds fizz to global warming debate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article examines some of the CO{sub 2} removal technology being developed in response to global warming. Technologies discussed include: scrubbing with, for example, amines or potassium carbonate; membranes and molecular-sieve adsorbents; and biological CO{sub 2} fixation. The recovered CO{sub 2} would be used in food manufacture, or disposed of in acquifers or in the ocean. Research programmes are studying combining CO{sub 2} removal with a high thermal combustion process such as integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC). 2 figs., 1 tab.

Basta, N.; Ondrey, G.; Moore, S.

1992-08-01

218

The influence of global warming in Earth rotation speed  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The tendency of the atmospheric angular momentum (AAM is investigated using a 49-year set of monthly AAM data for the period January 1949-December 1997. This data set is constructed with zonal wind values from the reanalyses of NCEP/NCAR, used in conjunction with a variety of operationally produced AAM time series with different independent sources and lengths over 1976-1997. In all the analyzed AAM series the linear trend is found to be positive. Since the angular momentum of the atmosphere-earth system is conserved this corresponds to a net loss of angular momentum by the solid earth, therefore decreasing the Earth rotation speed and increasing the length of day (LOD. The AAM rise is significant to the budget of angular momentum of the global atmosphere-earth system; its value in milliseconds/century (ms/cy is +0.56 ms/cy, corresponding to one-third of the estimated increase in LOD (+1.7 ms/cy. The major contribution to this secular trend in AAM comes from the equatorial Tropopause. This is consistent with results from a previous study using a simplified aqua-planet model to investigate the AAM variations due to near equatorial warming conditions. During the same time interval, 1949-1997, the global marine + land-surface temperature increases by about 0.79 °C/cy, showing a linear correspondence between surface temperature increase and global AAM of about 0.07 ms per 0.1 °C. These results imply that atmospheric angular momentum may be used as an independent index of the global atmosphere's dynamical response to the greenhouse forcing, and as such, the length of day may be used as an indirect indicator of global warming.

Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (general circulation · Geodesy

R. Abarca del Rio

219

Modification of cirrus clouds to reduce global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Greenhouse gases and cirrus clouds regulate outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and cirrus cloud coverage is predicted to be sensitive to the ice fall speed which depends on ice crystal size. The higher the cirrus, the greater their impact is on OLR. Thus by changing ice crystal size in the coldest cirrus, OLR and climate might be modified. Fortunately the coldest cirrus have the highest ice supersaturation due to the dominance of homogeneous freezing nucleation. Seeding such cirrus with very efficient heterogeneous ice nuclei should produce larger ice crystals due to vapor competition effects, thus increasing OLR and surface cooling. Preliminary estimates of this global net cloud forcing are more negative than -2.8 W m{sup -2} and could neutralize the radiative forcing due to a CO{sub 2} doubling (3.7 W m{sup -2}). A potential delivery mechanism for the seeding material is already in place: the airline industry. Since seeding aerosol residence times in the troposphere are relatively short, the climate might return to its normal state within months after stopping the geoengineering experiment. The main known drawback to this approach is that it would not stop ocean acidification. It does not have many of the drawbacks that stratospheric injection of sulfur species has.

Mitchell, David L; Finnegan, William, E-mail: david.mitchell@dri.ed [Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV 89512-1095 (United States)

2009-10-15

220

Modification of cirrus clouds to reduce global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Greenhouse gases and cirrus clouds regulate outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and cirrus cloud coverage is predicted to be sensitive to the ice fall speed which depends on ice crystal size. The higher the cirrus, the greater their impact is on OLR. Thus by changing ice crystal size in the coldest cirrus, OLR and climate might be modified. Fortunately the coldest cirrus have the highest ice supersaturation due to the dominance of homogeneous freezing nucleation. Seeding such cirrus with very efficient heterogeneous ice nuclei should produce larger ice crystals due to vapor competition effects, thus increasing OLR and surface cooling. Preliminary estimates of this global net cloud forcing are more negative than -2.8 W m-2 and could neutralize the radiative forcing due to a CO2 doubling (3.7 W m-2). A potential delivery mechanism for the seeding material is already in place: the airline industry. Since seeding aerosol residence times in the troposphere are relatively short, the climate might return to its normal state within months after stopping the geoengineering experiment. The main known drawback to this approach is that it would not stop ocean acidification. It does not have many of the drawbacks that stratospheric injection of sulfur species has.

2009-10-01

 
 
 
 
221

Global warming and its impact: a story of adaptations, extinctions and diseases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Global warming and its impact were severely underestimated. Recent research has shown that the effects of global warming on biological systems are more far reaching than were assumed previously. It has been proved that global warming can influence animal evolution, which includes influence on adaptive evolution both on genetic as well as behavioral levels. The phenomenon of increased disease prevalence and progression with increase in global temperatures, has also received acknowledgment acro...

2007-01-01

222

The impact of global warming on the energy system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the most important impacts of global warming may be the changes in the energy system which result not from warming per se but from societal reactions to the prospect of warming. Changing the energy system from being 80% dependent on fossil fuels will be difficult at best and expensive. In fact, none of the nonfossil energy sources are yet ready to substitute for fossil fuels at the massive scale required or at reasonable costs. So, for the near to mid-term the best strategy for moderating the rate of increase of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is by much more efficient use and conversion of energy. Nevertheless, sustained reduction of emissions requires better nonfossil sources and expanded RD D efforts necessary to provide the insurance we need. It is evidenced that a combined public and private sector investment of $1 {times} 10{sup 6}/year is needed. This compares to the current level of energy R D which is estimated to cost in the range of $3 to 6 billion/year. Thus, our insurance is about a 16-33% increase. The investment is likely to yield good returns in the form of improved technologies which will be useful whether or not the changing greenhouse effect is as serious as many fear.

Fulkerson, W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1989-01-01

223

Energy and global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are used in a number of applications, and volumes of CFCs used grew at a tremendous pace during the 1960s and 1970s. However, in the mid-1980s, it was confirmed that these extremely useful chemicals contribute to the destruction of stratospheric ozone. These chemicals are being phased out of use rapidly to protect the ozone layer and it is very important that the replacements for CFSs do not result in a net increase in global warming by introducing less efficient processes that lead to higher energy use and increased carbon dioxide emissions. A study was conducted to identify those alternative chemicals and technologies that could replace CFCs in energy related applications before the year 2000, and to assess the total potential impact of these alternatives on global warming. The analysis for this project included an estimate of the direct effects from the release of blowing agents, refrigerants, and solvents into the atmosphere and the indirect effects in the form of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from energy use for commercial and residential heating and cooling, household and commercial refrigeration, building and automobile air-conditioning, and general metal and electronics solvent cleaning. The discussion in this paper focuses on those aspects of the study relevant to refrigeration and air-conditioning. In general the use of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) alternatives for CFCs lead to large and sometimes dramatic reduction in total equivalent warming impact (TEWI), lifetime equivalent CO2 emission. Most of the reductions result from decreased direct effects without significant changes in energy use. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

1992-06-22

224

Environmental policy: Meeting the challenge of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Canadian government's overall approach to resolving the environmental problems due to global warming is discussed, with reference to how this approach is related to actions taken by other countries. Canada's environmental strategy is based the need to correct the failure to take into account the environmental consequences of daily actions. One element seen necessary for such correction, better environmental decisionmaking, is underlain by such key factors as the need to provide a strong scientific base on which to make decisions, resolving uncertainties regarding the greenhouse effect, and an environmentally educated population. Direct governmental measures can be taken to factor environmental considerations into decisions, such as regulatory instruments regarding the environment and economic incentives to encourage taking the environment into account. With respect to global warming, Canada has signed the Hague Declaration on international cooperation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. About half the annual world emissions of greenhouse gases come from fossil fuel combustion. Canada is the fourth largest producer per capita of the single most important greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide. The transport and industrial sectors each account for ca 25% of Canada's CO2 emissions, and energy conservation is seen as a first step in reducing these emissions. The greatest scope for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector appears to lie in the development of convenient and economic alternate fuels

1990-05-01

225

Infrared detection based monitoring of global warming gases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monitoring of air-born organic and organic pollutants have always been a subject of concern to the environmentalists. Gases in particular Co/sub 2/, N/sub 2/O ad C/sub 4/ are responsible for global warming and have indirect impact on the environment. These gases are generally analyzed by gas chromatography. However on-site monitoring using this technique in rather difficult and it requires reasonable instrumental handling experience. The infrared-based technique is not only simple rather it also offers on advantage of on-site monitoring of a pollutant and eliminates the tedious job of sampling and its preservation. In the present work experimental conditions have been optimize for the selective detection of major global warming agents. Independent gas mixtures of Co/sub 2/, N/sub 2/O and C/sub 4/ have been prepared in pure helium gas by partial pressure method. The measured response of varied amount of each gas is found to be linear. The interference of these gases in presence of each other is also investigated. In this reference, gas mixtures of the gases are prepared considering the relevant concentration of each gas in the ambient air. The monitoring was found almost interference free at ambient concentration of these gases. The reliability can further be improved by incorporating the concentration trend of these gases. The reliability can further be improved by incorporating calibrated gas standard mixtures. (author)

1997-01-01

226

Global warming: discounting is not the issue, but substitutability is  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cost-benefit study of Nordhaus (1994) is representative for the neoclassical approach towards global warming. Nordhaus found that no substantial emission cuts are warranted. Most of his critics have concentrated on the issue of discounting and demanded that a lower discount rate should be applied. These criticisms first miss the point and second lead to ethically dubious, inconsistent conclusions and inefficient policy choices. They miss the point because the real problem of Nordhaus's methodology is his implicit underlying assumption of perfect substitutability between natural and other forms of capital. Given the validity of this assumption, lowering the rate of discount is inconsistent with current savings behaviour, is ethically dubious because future generations will be much richer than the current one anyway, and is inefficient because scarce financial resources are channelled into emissions abatement that exhibits rates of return far inferior to alternative public investments. Any call for aggressive emission abatement must therefore directly attack the perfect substitutability assumption of neoclassical economics. The real disagreement is about whether consumption growth can compensate for environmental degradation caused by global warming. Discounting is not the issue, but substitutability is. (author)

1999-01-01

227

Global Warming Potential Of A Waste Refinery Using Enzymatic Treatment  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Decrease of fossil fuel dependence and resource saving has become increasingly important during the last years. In this perspective, higher recycling rates for valuable materials as well as energy recovery from waste streams could play a significant role substituting for virgin material production and fossil resources. This is especially important with respect to the residual waste (i.e. the remains after source-separation and separate collection) which is typically incinerated or landfilled. In this paper the energy and Global Warming performance of a pilot-scale waste refinery for the enzymatic treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) was presented. The refinery produced a liquid (liquefied organic materials and paper) and a solid fraction (non-degradable materials) from the initial waste. A number of scenarios for the utilization of the two outputs were analyzed. Co-combustion in existing power plants and utilization of the liquid fraction for biogas production turned out to be the best options with respect to energy and Global Warming performance.

Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas

2010-01-01

228

Carbon cycles and global warming. Tanso junkan to chikyu ondanka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the following matters about carbon cycles and global warming. Generation of CaCO3 particles in sea water increases CO2 partial pressure in sea water, and decreases generation of organic particles. The CO2 partial pressure in sea water is governed by amounts of organic matters and CaCO3 particles remaining in sea water rather than by their amounts produced. In the North Pacific higher than the north latitude 40[degree], existence of particle fluxes of organic matters depositing in sea water shows no much difference in east and west areas. However, that of CaCO3 fluxes is larger in the eastern part of the North Pacific than in the western part. According to this observation result, it may be inferred that artificial eutrophication of sea water would activate the CaCO3 particle production (not necessarily serving for reducing CO2 in the atmosphere, however). The paper adds the author's idea on the so-called missing carbon (review on average CO2 partial pressure in sea water) that has been drawing interests in relation with the problem of global warming. 8 refs., 7 figs.

Tsunogai, S. (Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Fisheries)

1993-05-01

229

Global warming and oil spills could cool shoaling reefs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High water temperature generated on reef flats have been implicated as one of the factors determining the ecological patterns and structural morphologies peculiar to shoaling reefs. In approximately ten years of water temperature and water level data from a shoaling reef flat at Punta Galeta (Caribbean Panama), water temperatures were dependent on water levels. Water temperatures ranged up to 38[degrees]C when daily minimum water depths over the reef crest were < 12 cm, but never exceeded 30[degrees]C when the minimum water levels were > 12 cm. If conservative predictions of sea level rise caused by global warming are correct, normal vertical accretion rates of the reef flat could keep pace with rising sea level until the middle of the next century; after that the occurrence of high water temperatures would be rapidly reduced. However, damage from an oil spill at Punta Galeta in 1986 was concentrated at the seaward margin of the reef flat, where biogenic processes control the overall vertical accretion of the reef platform. By slowing rates of vertical accretion, oil impact could potentially accelerate the effects of global warming on the ecology and morphology of the reef.

Cubit, J.D. (Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst., Apdo (Panama))

1990-01-09

230

Contribution of the Energy Sector towards Global Warming in Malawi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the energy demand projection for Malawi considering implementation of two energy development strategies. The strategies are Malawi Biomass Energy Strategy (BEST and Malawi electricity investment plan. Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP software was used as the simulation tool. Environmental effects of the energy sector towards global warming by the energy sector as a result of implementing the strategies have been investigated. Three scenarios were developed, the first one to reflect on business as usual, the second one depicting implementation of Malawi BEST and the third one depicting implementation of the Malawi Electricity Investment Plan. A fourth scenario was developed to depict implementation of both strategies. 2008 was used as the base year with energy mix of consisting of biomass consumption decrease in all the scenarios due to better efficiency in the utilization of biomass and change in life style by people as a direct response to available energy alternatives. Implementing both the Malawi BEST and Malawi Electricity Investment Plan for energy sector development would be better in terms of both energy supply and global warming effects.

Wuyuan Peng

2013-05-01

231

Comment on "Global genetic change tracks global climate warming in Drosophila subobscura".  

Science.gov (United States)

Balanyà et al. (Reports, 22 September 2006, p. 1773) build on earlier claims that chromosomal inversion polymorphisms of Drosophila subobscura are rapidly evolving in response to global warming. However, that conclusion is not adequately buttressed by their data, because they overlooked the lag between calendar and climatological dates created by the progressive lengthening of the growing season in their sampling approach. PMID:17363646

Rodríguez-Trelles, Francisco; Rodríguez, Miguel Angel

2007-03-16

232

More powerful hurricanes following global warming; Kraftigere orkaner med global oppvarming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rising sea temperature and more moisture in the atmosphere in a warmer climate will probably give more intense tropical hurricanes, but not necessarily more of them. When climatologists are asked if the apparent increase in the number of hurricanes in the Caribbean is caused by global warming, the standard answer is that global warming is expected to give elevated temperatures of the tropical seas, where these cyclones arise, and that this increases the chance of strong hurricanes. It is added that there is considerable natural variation in the frequency of such incidents from one decade to the next and that it is difficult to identify the effect of global warming. Consequently, so far it is unknown whether some of the heavy damage that follows in the wake of hurricanes can be ascribed to global warming. Typhoons are among the natural disasters that take most human lives and inflict the greatest material damage. In the USA the losses correspond to five billion US D per year, on average. In the Philippines, the damage amounts to about five per cent of the national income. In 1998, hurricane Mitch killed at least 10 000 people in Central America. The article discusses the physics of hurricanes and how they are classed. Some of the variation in the occurrence of hurricanes is ascribed to changes in the El Nino phenomenon, which affect how the winds vary with altitude in the relevant cyclone regions.

Groenaas, Sigbjoern; Rytter, Jens

2004-07-01

233

An electric utility program to address global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation believes that despite the incomplete and uncertain state of scientific knowledge concerning global atmospheric change, the plausible negative effects of accelerated global warming, known as open-quotes the Greenhouse Effect,close quotes are so large that purdent actions can and should be taken now to reduce so-called greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, the corporation has adopted a Greenhouse Warming Action Program based on strategies recommended by the National Academy of Sciences and the corporation's Integrated Electric Resource Plan. The program is a logical outgrowth of the company's policy statement on protection of the environment and is designed to surpass the Rio Earth Summit's goal of stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions. Central to the Action Program are increased use of natural gas, aggressive expansion of energy efficiency programs, and maximized generation from hydroelectric and nuclear energy sources. Additional elements include preventing releases of CFC's through customer incentive recycling programs; a forest conservation program of managing lands on a sustainable yield basis, environmentally-conscious use of paper products, and waste paper and cardboard recycling; promoting commercialization of low emitting vehicles; and developing and demonstrating low-CO2 technologies such as wind turbines and photo-voltaic cells. Niagara Mohawk believes that acting now to implement such a policy is a responsible step that makes sense from both scientific and business perspectives. Moreover, voluntary action now by utilities and other segments of the private sector is the best way to avoid the need for future regulation by government designed to achieve the same end. We intend to do our part to stabilize and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, while recognizing that our contribution is only a small fraction of total global greenhouse gas emissions

1993-06-13

234

Transportation in El Salvador: a commitment to global warming management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

San Salvador City, El Salvador, is a city plagued with air pollution caused by traffic and congestion. Forecasts indicate the problem is likely to worsen in the coming years. Delcan International Corporation was commissioned by the Ministry of Public Works of El Salvador to study and evaluate the design and alternatives to a Ring Road circling San Salvador. The project, financed by the Inter-American Development Bank, is discussed in this paper, along with a summary of aspects of an Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) and the environmental impacts assessment conducted. Human-induced changes in climate, increasing levels of greenhouse gases are referred to as global warming of climate change. Water vapour, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone are the main greenhouse gases, with carbon dioxide representing the biggest threat. Approximately 14 per cent of global carbon dioxide emissions are caused by fumes emanating from motor-vehicle gasoline-fuels, and 50 per cent of those are produced in developing countries. Motor vehicles produce 60 to 90 per cent of carbon dioxide emissions in Latin America urban centres. Some ways of reducing carbon dioxide emissions are: reduce travel, use more efficient vehicles, improving existing vehicle technologies and fuels, improving traveller behaviour, reducing congestion. ITS could be a valuable tool for measuring the effectiveness of measures designed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The Intelligent Transportation System assists with the evaluation of the optimization and enlargement of existing roads, especially downtown, the construction of a highway around the city. This evaluation includes an environmental impact assessment, a traffic study and the highway final design. The Government of El Salvador has shown its commitment to sustainable practices toward global warming

2001-03-28

235

Entropy Shows that Global Warming Should Cause Increased Variability in the Weather  

CERN Multimedia

Elementary physical reasoning seems to leave it inevitable that global warming would increase the variability of the weather. The first two terms in an approximation to the global entropy may be used to show that global warming has increased the free energy available to drive the weather, and that the variance of the weather has increased correspondingly.

Williams, J M

2000-01-01

236

Global Warming: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast. Part A The Greenhouse Effect.  

Science.gov (United States)

Provides information necessary for an interdisciplinary analysis of the greenhouse effect, enhanced greenhouse effect, global warming, global climate change, greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, and scientific study of global warming for students grades 4-12. Several activity ideas accompany the information. (LZ)

Andrews, Bill

1993-01-01

237

Trends in global warming and evolution of polymerase basic protein 2 family from influenza a virus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Both global warming and influenza trouble humans in varying ways, therefore it is important to study the trends in both global warming and evolution of influenza A virus, in particular, proteins from influenza A virus. Recently, we have conducted two studies along this line to determine the trends between global warming and polymerase acidic protein as well as matrix protein 2. Although these two studies reveal some interesting findings, many studies are still in need because at least there a...

Shao-Min Yan; Guang Wu

2009-01-01

238

Effects of ocean acidification and warming on sperm activity and early life stages of the mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Larval stages are among those most vulnerable to ocean acidification (OA). Projected atmospheric CO> levels for the end of this century may lead to negative impacts on communities dominated by calcifying taxa with planktonic life stages. We exposed Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) sperm and early life stages to pHT levels of 8.0 (current pH) and 7.6 (2100 level) by manipulating pCO2 level (380 and 1000 ppm). Sperm activity was examined at ambient temperatures (16-17 °C) u...

Vihtakari, Mikko; Hendriks, Iris E.; Holding, Johnna; Renaud, Paul E.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Havenhand, Jon N.

2013-01-01

239

More and more weather records - Is global warming to blame?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

If one believes in current media coverage it seems very simple: Due to the significant, largely anthropogenic, warming of the world's average temperature, more and more weather extremes occur. Every time we have a record breaking daily maximum temperature, or an immense amount of precipitation in a certain timespan, this is intuitively blamed on global warming. However mathematically the relation between an increasing mean value and the occurrence of records is far from trivial and not completely understood. This relation and its relevance to the analysis of weather data is the subject of this talk. Given an underlying distribution, we consider the probability that an event in a succession of events is a record, when the distribution itself is shifting, or altering its form. We found some approximations that are useful for the comparison with historical climate recordings. We obtained data for the daily maximum and daily minimum temperature and the daily precipitation amount from thousands of weather stations in Europe and the United States and analyzed them with regard to record events. The results are largely in accordance with what we predict from our calculations, but also reveal some interesting deviations.

Wergen, Gregor; Krug, Joachim [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Koeln (Germany)

2009-07-01

240

Unquiet Ice Speaks Volumes on Global Warming; Rutschgefaehrdete Eisschilde  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The land-based ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica hold enough water to raise global sea level by more than 200 feet. A complex plumbing system of rivers, lakes and meltwater lies under the ice sheets. That water 'greases' the flow of vast streams of ice toward the ocean. For millennia, the out-going discharge of ice has been balanced by incoming snowfall. But when warming air or surface meltwater further greases the flow or removes its natural impediments, huge quantities of ice lurch seaward. Models of potential sea-level rise from climate change have ignored the effects of subglacial water and the vast streams of ice on the flow of ice entering the sea. (orig./GL)

Bell, R.E. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Earth Institute ADVANCE Program; Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States). Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory

2008-05-15

 
 
 
 
241

Global warming factor of municipal solid waste management in Europe  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The global warming factor (GWF; CO2-eq. tonneâ??1 waste) performance of municipal waste management has been investigated for six representative European Member States: Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Poland and the United Kingdom. The study integrated European waste statistical data for 2007 in a life-cycle assessment modelling perspective. It is shown that significant GWF benefit was achieved due to the high level of energy and material recovery substituting fossil energy and raw materials production, especially in Denmark and Germany. The study showed that, despite strong regulation of waste management at European level, there are major differences in GWF performance among the member states, due to the relative differences of waste composition, type of waste management technologies available nationally, and the average performance of these technologies. It has been demonstrated through a number of sensitivity analyses that, within the national framework, key waste management technology parameters can influence drastically the national GWF performance of waste management.

Gentil, Emmanuel; Clavreul, Julie

2009-01-01

242

The impact of global warming on the Southern Oscillation Index  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) - a measure of air pressure difference across the Pacific Ocean, from Tahiti in the south-east to Darwin in the west - is one of the world's most important climatic indices. The SOI is used to track and predict changes in both the El Nino-Southern Oscillation phenomenon, and the Walker Circulation (WC). During El Nino, for example, the WC weakens and the SOI tends to be negative. Climatic variations linked to changes in the WC have a profound influence on climate, ecosystems, agriculture, and societies in many parts of the world. Previous research has shown that (1) the WC and the SOI weakened in recent decades and that (2) the WC in climate models tends to weaken in response to elevated atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Here we examine changes in the SOI and air pressure across the Pacific in the observations and in numerous WCRP/CMIP3 climate model integrations for both the 20th and 21st centuries. The difference in mean-sea level air pressure (MSLP) between the eastern and western equatorial Pacific tends to weaken during the 21st century, consistent with previous research. Here we show that this primarily arises because of an increase in MSLP in the west Pacific and not a decline in the east. We also show, in stark contrast to expectations, that the SOI actually tends to increase during the 21st century, not decrease. Under global warming MSLP tends to increase at both Darwin and Tahiti, but tends to rise more at Tahiti than at Darwin. Tahiti lies in an extensive region where MSLP tends to rise in response to global warming. So while the SOI is an excellent indicator of interannual variability in both the equatorial MSLP gradient and the WC, it is a highly misleading indicator of long-term equatorial changes linked to global warming. Our results also indicate that the observed decline in the SOI in recent decades has been driven by natural, internally generated variability. The externally forced signal in the June-December SOI during 2010 is estimated to be approximately 5% of the standard deviation of variability in the SOI during the 20th century. This figure is projected to increase to 40% by the end of the 21st century under the A2 SRES scenario. The 2010 global warming signal is already a major contributor to interdecadal variability in the SOI, equal to 45% of the standard deviation of 30-year running averages of the SOI. This figure is projected to increase to nearly 340% by the end of the 21st century. Implications that these discoveries have for understanding recent climatic change and for seasonal prediction are discussed. (orig.)

Power, Scott B.; Kociuba, Greg [Bureau of Meteorology, Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, Melbourne (Australia)

2011-11-15

243

Energy conversion of biomass in coping with global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main purpose of the present paper is to propose energy conversion technologies of biomass in coping with global warming. Among thermochemical conversion, liquid fuel production by high pressure process is mainly introduced. Biomass is a term used to describe materials of biological origin, either purpose-grown or arising as by-products, residues or wastes from forestry, agriculture and food processing. Such biomass is a renewable energy sources dependent on solar energy. Through photosynthesis, plants converts carbon dioxide into organic materials used in their growth. Energy can be recovered from the plant materials by several processes, the simplest way is burning in air. As far as biomass is used in this way, there is no atmospheric accumulation of carbon dioxide making no effect on the Greenhouse Effect, provided that the cycle of regrowth and burning is sustained.

Yokoyama, Shin-ya; Ogi, Tomoko; Minowa, Tomoaki [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

1993-12-31

244

Why global warming could take Britain by storm  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Global warming could increase the frequency of storms in the UK. More water will evaporate from the warmer seas, in turn causing wide variations in atmospheric moisture and temperature, and so stronger winds. Such storms will occur nearer to the continent and thus there will be less time to predict them. These are characteristics of the hurricane of 1987. Rising sea levels due to thermal expansion will also increase the risk of flood surge. Weather forecasting is hard for a number of reasons; partly because most of Britain's stormy weather originates in the Atlantic, where there are few permanent sources of information. The violence of the 1987 storm may be a symptom of the rapid climate change now being experienced. There have also been devastating tropical hurricanes in the last few years. 1 fig.

Simons, P.

1992-11-07

245

Simulation of global warming effect on outdoor thermal comfort conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the coming decades, global warming and increase in temperature, in different regions of the world, may change indoor and outdoor thermal comfort conditions and human health. The aim of this research was to study the effects of global warming on thermal comfort conditions in indoor ambiences in Iran. To study the increase in temperature, model for assessment of greenhouse-gas induced climate change scenario generator compound model has been used together with four scenarios and to estimate thermal comfort conditions, adaptive model of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers has been used. In this study, Iran was divided into 30 zones, outdoor conditions were obtained using meteorological data of 80 climatological stations and changes in neutral comfort conditions in 2025, 2050, 2075 and 2100 were predicted. In accordance with each scenario, findings from this study showed that temperature in the 30 zones will increase by 2100 to between 3.4 C and 5.6 C. In the coming decades and in the 30 studied zones, neutral comfort temperature will increase and be higher and more intense in the central and desert zones of Iran. The low increase in this temperature will be connected to the coastal areas of the Caspian and Oman Sea in southeast Iran. This increase in temperature will be followed by a change in thermal comfort and indoor energy consumption from 8.6 % to 13.1 % in air conditioning systems. As a result, passive methods as thermal inertia are proposed as a possible solution.

Roshan, G.R.; Ranjbar, F. [Univ. of Tehran (IR). Dept. of Physical Geography; Orosa, J.A. [Univ. of A Coruna (Spain). Dept. of Energy

2010-07-01

246

Constraints of fossil fuels depletion on global warming projections  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A scientific debate is in progress about the intersection of climate change with the new field of fossil fuels depletion geology. Here, new projections of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration and global-mean temperature change are presented, should fossil fuels be exploited at a rate limited by geological availability only. The present work starts from the projections of fossil energy use, as obtained from ten independent sources. From such projections an upper bound, a lower bound and an ensemble mean profile for fossil CO{sub 2} emissions until 2200 are derived. Using the coupled gas-cycle/climate model MAGICC, the corresponding climatic projections out to 2200 are obtained. We find that CO{sub 2} concentration might increase up to about 480 ppm (445-540 ppm), while the global-mean temperature increase w.r.t. 2000 might reach 1.2 deg. C (0.9-1.6 deg. C). However, future improvements of fossil fuels recovery and discoveries of new resources might lead to higher emissions; hence our climatic projections are likely to be underestimated. In the absence of actions of emissions reduction, a level of dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system might be already experienced toward the middle of the 21st century, despite the constraints imposed by the exhaustion of fossil fuels. - Highlights: > CO{sub 2} and global temperature are projected under fossil fuels exhaustion scenarios. > Temperature is projected to reach a minimum of 2 deg. C above pre-industrial. > Temperature projections are possibly lower than the IPCC ones. > Fossil fuels exhaustion will not avoid dangerous global warming.

Chiari, Luca, E-mail: chiari@science.unitn.it [Department of Physics, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Povo (Italy); Zecca, Antonio, E-mail: zecca@science.unitn.it [Department of Physics, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Povo (Italy)

2011-09-15

247

Constraints of fossil fuels depletion on global warming projections  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A scientific debate is in progress about the intersection of climate change with the new field of fossil fuels depletion geology. Here, new projections of atmospheric CO2 concentration and global-mean temperature change are presented, should fossil fuels be exploited at a rate limited by geological availability only. The present work starts from the projections of fossil energy use, as obtained from ten independent sources. From such projections an upper bound, a lower bound and an ensemble mean profile for fossil CO2 emissions until 2200 are derived. Using the coupled gas-cycle/climate model MAGICC, the corresponding climatic projections out to 2200 are obtained. We find that CO2 concentration might increase up to about 480 ppm (445-540 ppm), while the global-mean temperature increase w.r.t. 2000 might reach 1.2 deg. C (0.9-1.6 deg. C). However, future improvements of fossil fuels recovery and discoveries of new resources might lead to higher emissions; hence our climatic projections are likely to be underestimated. In the absence of actions of emissions reduction, a level of dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system might be already experienced toward the middle of the 21st century, despite the constraints imposed by the exhaustion of fossil fuels. - Highlights: ? CO2 and global temperature are projected under fossil fuels exhaustion scenarios. ? Temperature is projected to reach a minimum of 2 deg. C above pre-industrial. ? Temperature projections are possibly lower than the IPCC ones. ? Fossil fuels exhaustion will not avoid dangerous global warming.

2011-09-01

248

Asynchronous exposure to global warming: freshwater resources and terrestrial ecosystems  

Science.gov (United States)

This modelling study demonstrates at what level of global mean temperature rise (?Tg) regions will be exposed to significant decreases of freshwater availability and changes to terrestrial ecosystems. Projections are based on a new, consistent set of 152 climate scenarios (eight ?Tg trajectories reaching 1.5-5?° C above pre-industrial levels by 2100, each scaled with spatial patterns from 19 general circulation models). The results suggest that already at a ?Tg of 2?° C and mainly in the subtropics, higher water scarcity would occur in >50% out of the 19 climate scenarios. Substantial biogeochemical and vegetation structural changes would also occur at 2?° C, but mainly in subpolar and semiarid ecosystems. Other regions would be affected at higher ?Tg levels, with lower intensity or with lower confidence. In total, mean global warming levels of 2?° C, 3.5?° C and 5?° C are simulated to expose an additional 8%, 11% and 13% of the world population to new or aggravated water scarcity, respectively, with >50% confidence (while ˜1.3 billion people already live in water-scarce regions). Concurrently, substantial habitat transformations would occur in biogeographic regions that contain 1% (in zones affected at 2?° C), 10% (3.5?° C) and 74% (5?° C) of present endemism-weighted vascular plant species, respectively. The results suggest nonlinear growth of impacts along with ?Tg and highlight regional disparities in impact magnitudes and critical ?Tg levels.

Gerten, Dieter; Lucht, Wolfgang; Ostberg, Sebastian; Heinke, Jens; Kowarsch, Martin; Kreft, Holger; Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.; Rastgooy, Johann; Warren, Rachel; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

2013-09-01

249

Asynchronous exposure to global warming: freshwater resources and terrestrial ecosystems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This modelling study demonstrates at what level of global mean temperature rise (?Tg) regions will be exposed to significant decreases of freshwater availability and changes to terrestrial ecosystems. Projections are based on a new, consistent set of 152 climate scenarios (eight ?Tg trajectories reaching 1.5–5?° C above pre-industrial levels by 2100, each scaled with spatial patterns from 19 general circulation models). The results suggest that already at a ?Tg of 2?° C and mainly in the subtropics, higher water scarcity would occur in >50% out of the 19 climate scenarios. Substantial biogeochemical and vegetation structural changes would also occur at 2?° C, but mainly in subpolar and semiarid ecosystems. Other regions would be affected at higher ?Tg levels, with lower intensity or with lower confidence. In total, mean global warming levels of 2?° C, 3.5?° C and 5?° C are simulated to expose an additional 8%, 11% and 13% of the world population to new or aggravated water scarcity, respectively, with >50% confidence (while ?1.3 billion people already live in water-scarce regions). Concurrently, substantial habitat transformations would occur in biogeographic regions that contain 1% (in zones affected at 2?° C), 10% (3.5?° C) and 74% (5?° C) of present endemism-weighted vascular plant species, respectively. The results suggest nonlinear growth of impacts along with ?Tg and highlight regional disparities in impact magnitudes and critical ?Tg levels. (letter)

2013-09-01

250

Ozone depletion and global warming potentials of CF3I  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Laboratory measurements of the infrared and near-ultraviolet absorption characteristics of CF3I (a potentially useful substitute for halons) are presented. Using these data together with a detailed photochemical model, it is shown that the lifetime of this gas in the sunlit atmosphere is less than a day. The chemistry of iodine in the stratosphere is evaluated, and it is shown that any iodine that reaches the stratosphere will be very effective for ozone destruction there. However, the extremely short lifetime of CF3I greatly limits its transport to the stratosphere when released at the surface, especially at midlatitudes, and the total anthropogenic surface release of CF3I is likely to be far less than that of natural iodocarbons such as CH3I on a global basis. It is highly probable that the steady-state ozone depletion potential (ODP) of CF3I for surface releases is less than 0.008 and more likely below 0.0001. Measured infrared absorption data are also combined with the lifetime to show that the 20-year global warming potential (GWP) of this gas is likely to be very small, less than 5. Therefore, this study suggests that neither the ODP nor the GWP of this gas represent significant obstacles to its use as a replacement for halons.

Solomon, S.; Burkholder, J.B.; Ravishankara, A.R.; Garcia, R.R. [NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States)]|[National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

1994-10-01

251

Global warming in Amazonia: impacts and Mitigation Aquecimento Global na Amazônia: impactos e Mitigação  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Global warming has potentially catastrophic impacts in Amazonia, while at the same time maintenance of the Amazon forest offers one of the most valuable and cost-effective options for mitigating climate change. We know that the El Niño phenomenon, caused by temperature oscillations of surface water in the Pacific, has serious impacts in Amazonia, causing droughts and forest fires (as in 1997-1998). Temperature oscillations in the Atlantic also provoke severe droughts (as in 2005). We also kn...

Philip Martin Fearnside

2009-01-01

252

Expected effect of fusion reactor on global environment. Nuclear fusion as a global warming mitigation technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper outlines the use of nuclear fusion as a global warming mitigation technology. Life cycle CO2 emission from a nuclear fusion plant is quite low; it is comparable to that of nuclear fission. Nuclear fusion has the potential to contribute future energy systems and environment. The technological feasibility of nuclear fusion should be demonstrated in order to begin clarifying the potential contribution of nuclear fusion as well as to educate those outside of the fusion community about its potential. (author)

2002-11-01

253

Wheat production in Bangladesh: its future in the light of global warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Global warming has already seen a radical change in temperature regimes in Bangladesh. This review provides the first up-to-date perspective and detailed analysis of wheat research in Bangladesh and the impact that global warming will have on its agriculture, especially wheat farming.

Hossain, Akbar; Teixeira Da Silva, Jaime A.

2013-01-01

254

Economic Impacts of Global Warming :The Case of the Barents Sea Fisheries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Regional analyses of possible physical and biological effects of global warming in the Barents Sea area have been carried out recently. Based on such studies possible economic impacts of global warming on the Barents Sea fisheries have been quantified, assuming different types of management

Eide, Arne

2007-01-01

255

Presenting Global Warming and Evolution as Public Health Issues to Encourage Acceptance of Scientific Evidence  

Science.gov (United States)

Although evidence supporting anthropogenic global warming and evolution by natural selection is considerable, the public does not embrace these concepts. The current study explores the hypothesis that individuals will become more receptive to scientific viewpoints if evidence for evolution and implications of global warming are presented as issues…

Stover, Shawn K.; McArthur, Laurence B.; Mabry, Michelle L.

2013-01-01

256

Senior Secondary Indian Students' Views about Global Warming, and Their Implications for Education  

Science.gov (United States)

For individuals to make informed lifestyle choices that may help to reduce global warming, they need some understanding of this phenomenon and the factors that contribute to it. However, there is a "gap" between knowledge about global warming and willingness to take personal action. So, although education may be effective in enhancing student…

Chhokar, Kiran; Dua, Shweta; Taylor, Neil; Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin

2012-01-01

257

Metaphors of Primary School Students Relating to the Concept of Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to reveal the metaphors of primary school students (n = 362) relating to the concept of global warming. Data collected by completing the expression of "global warming is like..., because..." of the students were analysed by use of qualitative and quantitative data analysis techniques. According to findings of…

Dogru, Mustafa; Sarac, Esra

2013-01-01

258

What's Up With the Weather? : NOVA and Frontline Examine the Truth About Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

This site corresponds with the April 18, 2000 episode of Nova's "What's up with the Weather: the Truth About Global Warming." and is an in-depth look at the issue of global warming by NOVA and FRONTLINE. Numerous subjects are addressed, including the burning of fossil fuels, alternative energy sources including biomass energy, wind and solar power, alternative vehicles, and space-based solar power systems, the evidence for global warming in ice cores, and the threat of rising sea level. The differing views on global warming are presented, as is an interactive exercise meant to help the user determine the amount of CO2 produced from their daily activities. A section discussing frequently asked questions can be accessed, as well as a teachers guide for creating a class lesson discussing global warming.

259

Recognition of people with an opinion that nuclear power generation causes global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Almost a half of the people are thinking that nuclear power generation causes global warming. We conducted a survey in order to explore the recognition and background for the thinking of people. Consequently, the existence of the right knowledge ''nuclear power generation does not discharge carbon dioxide at the time of power generation'' influenced most the idea which nuclear power generation prevents global warming. On the other hand, the misunderstanding as ''the radioactive material produced from a nuclear power plant advances global warming'' has influenced the idea considered as a cause, and it is though that this misunderstanding depend on the negative image to nuclear power generation. Moreover, many people do not recognize the mechanism of global warming, and it is thought that they confuse global warming with the other global environment problems, such as acid rain or ozone layer destruction. Therefore, it is required to spread the knowledge that nuclear power generation does not discharge carbon dioxide, and to promote the understanding that a radioactive material is not related to global warming. Furthermore, it is required to distinguish global warming from the other global environment problems, and to explain them intelligibly. (author)

2004-10-01

260

The impact of global warming on the Antarctic mass balance and global sea level  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The onset of global warming from increasing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere can have a number of important different impacts on the Antarctic ice sheet. These include increasing basal melt of ice shelves, faster flow of the grounded ice, increased surface ablation in coastal regions, and increased precipitation over the interior. An analysis of these separate terms by ice sheet modeling indicates that the impact of increasing ice sheet flow rates on sea level does not become a dominant factor until 100-200 years after the realization of the warming. For the time period of the next 100 years the most important impact on sea level from the Antarctic mass balance can be expected to result from increasing precipitation minus evaporation balance over the grounded ice. The present Antarctic net accumulation and coastal ice flux each amount to about 2,000 km3 yr-1, both of which on their own would equate to approximately 6 mm yr-1 of sea level change. The present rate of sea level rise of about 1.2 mm yr-1 is therefore equivalent to about 20% imbalance in the Antarctic mass fluxes. The magnitude of the changes to the Antarctic precipitation and evaporation have been studied by a series of General Circulation Model experiments, using a model which gives a reasonable simulation of the present Antarctic climate, including precipitation and evaporation. The experiments examine the changes in the Antarctic precipitation (P) and evaporation (E) resulting separately from decreasing incrementally the Antarctic sea ice concentration and from global warming accompanied by decreased sea ice cover. For total sea ice removal the changes obtained were P:+23%; E:-8%; (P-E):+48%. For global warming with sea ice reduction by about two thirds the changes were P:+47%; E:+22%; (P-E):+68%

1991-12-01

 
 
 
 
261

Toward a critical anthropology on the impact of global warming on health and human societies.  

Science.gov (United States)

This op-ed essay urges medical anthropologists to join a growing number of public health scholars to examine the impact of global warming on health. Adopting a critical medical anthropology perspective, I argue that global warming is yet another manifestation of the contradictions of the capitalist world system. Ultimately, an serious effort to mitigate the impact of global warming not only on health but also settlement patterns and subsistence will require the creation of a new global political economy based upon social parity, democratic processes, and environmental sustainability. PMID:18266169

Baer, Hans A

2008-01-01

262

Effects of Ocean Acidification and Warming on Sperm Activity and Early Life Stages of the Mediterranean Mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Larval stages are among those most vulnerable to ocean acidification (OA. Projected atmospheric CO2 levels for the end of this century may lead to negative impacts on communities dominated by calcifying taxa with planktonic life stages. We exposed Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis sperm and early life stages to pHT levels of 8.0 (current pH and 7.6 (2100 level by manipulating pCO2 level (380 and 1000 ppm. Sperm activity was examined at ambient temperatures (16–17 °C using individual males as replicates. We also assessed the effects of temperature (ambient and ?20 °C and pH on larval size, survival, respiration and calcification of late trochophore/early D-veliger stages using a cross-factorial design. Increased pCO2 had a negative effect on the percentage of motile sperm (mean response ratio R= 71% and sperm swimming speed (R= 74%, possibly indicating reduced fertilization capacity of sperm in low concentrations. Increased temperature had a more prominent effect on larval stages than pCO2, reducing performance (RSize = 90% and RSurvival = 70% and increasing energy demand (RRespiration = 429%. We observed no significant interactions between pCO2 and temperature. Our results suggest that increasing temperature might have a larger impact on very early larval stages of M. galloprovincialis than OA at levels predicted for the end of the century.

Mikko Vihtakari

2013-11-01

263

Future changes in global warming potentials under representative concentration pathways  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Global warming potentials (GWPs) are the metrics currently used to compare emissions of different greenhouse gases under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Future changes in greenhouse gas concentrations will alter GWPs because the radiative efficiencies of marginal changes in CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O depend on their background concentrations, the removal of CO{sub 2} is influenced by climate-carbon cycle feedbacks, and atmospheric residence times of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O also depend on ambient temperature and other environmental changes. We calculated the currently foreseeable future changes in the absolute GWP of CO{sub 2}, which acts as the denominator for the calculation of all GWPs, and specifically the GWPs of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, along four representative concentration pathways (RCPs) up to the year 2100. We find that the absolute GWP of CO{sub 2} decreases under all RCPs, although for longer time horizons this decrease is smaller than for short time horizons due to increased climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. The 100-year GWP of CH{sub 4} would increase up to 20% under the lowest RCP by 2100 but would decrease by up to 10% by mid-century under the highest RCP. The 100-year GWP of N{sub 2}O would increase by more than 30% by 2100 under the highest RCP but would vary by less than 10% under other scenarios. These changes are not negligible but are mostly smaller than the changes that would result from choosing a different time horizon for GWPs, or from choosing altogether different metrics for comparing greenhouse gas emissions, such as global temperature change potentials.

Reisinger, Andy [New Zealand Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Research Centre, PO Box 10002, Wellington 6143 (New Zealand); Meinshausen, Malte [Earth System Analysis, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (Germany); Manning, Martin, E-mail: andy.reisinger@nzagrc.org.nz [Climate Change Research Institute, Victoria University of Wellington (New Zealand)

2011-04-15

264

Future changes in global warming potentials under representative concentration pathways  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Global warming potentials (GWPs) are the metrics currently used to compare emissions of different greenhouse gases under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Future changes in greenhouse gas concentrations will alter GWPs because the radiative efficiencies of marginal changes in CO2, CH4 and N2O depend on their background concentrations, the removal of CO2 is influenced by climate-carbon cycle feedbacks, and atmospheric residence times of CH4 and N2O also depend on ambient temperature and other environmental changes. We calculated the currently foreseeable future changes in the absolute GWP of CO2, which acts as the denominator for the calculation of all GWPs, and specifically the GWPs of CH4 and N2O, along four representative concentration pathways (RCPs) up to the year 2100. We find that the absolute GWP of CO2 decreases under all RCPs, although for longer time horizons this decrease is smaller than for short time horizons due to increased climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. The 100-year GWP of CH4 would increase up to 20% under the lowest RCP by 2100 but would decrease by up to 10% by mid-century under the highest RCP. The 100-year GWP of N2O would increase by more than 30% by 2100 under the highest RCP but would vary by less than 10% under other scenarios. These changes are not negligible but are mostly smaller than the changes that would result from choosing a different time horizon for GWPs, or from choosing altogether different metrics for comparing greenhouse gas emissions, such as global temperature change potentials.

2011-04-01

265

Global warming---The role for nuclear power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear power is currently making an important contribution to our energy requirements. It provides 17% of the world's electricity today --- almost 20% in the US. Reducing the emissions of carbon dioxide over the next 30 to 50 years sufficiently to address the issue of global warming can only be accomplished by a combination of much improved energy efficiency, substantial growth in use of nuclear power, and substantial growth in use of renewable energy. This paper discusses new initiatives in the major nuclear technologies (LWR, HTGR, LMR) which are emerging from a fundamental reexamination of nuclear power in response to the challenges and opportunities in the 21st century. To fulfill its role, nuclear power must gain worldwide acceptance as a viable energy option. The use of modern technology and ''passive'' safety features in next-generation nuclear power plants offers the potential to simplify their design and operation, enhance their safety, and reduce the cost of electricity. With such improvements, we believe nuclear power can regain public confidence and make a significant contribution to our energy future. 24 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

1989-10-22

266

Scaled biotic disruption during early Eocene global warming events  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Late Paleocene and early Eocene hyperthermals are transient warming events associated with massive perturbations of the global carbon cycle, and are considered partial analogues for current anthropogenic climate change. Because the magnitude of carbon release varied between the events, they are natural experiments ideal for exploring the relationship between carbon cycle perturbations, climate change and biotic response. Here we quantify marine biotic variability through three million years of the early Eocene that include five hyperthermals, utilizing a method that allows us to integrate the records of different plankton groups through scenarios ranging from background to major extinction events. Our long time-series calcareous nannoplankton record indicates a scaling of biotic disruption to climate change associated with the amount of carbon released during the various hyperthermals. Critically, only the three largest hyperthermals, the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2 and the I1 event, show above-background variance, suggesting that the magnitude of carbon input and associated climate change needs to surpass a threshold value to cause significant biotic disruption.

S. J. Gibbs

2012-11-01

267

Scaled biotic disruption during early Eocene global warming events  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Late Paleocene and early Eocene hyperthermals are transient global warming events associated with massive carbon injection or carbon redistribution in the ocean-atmosphere system, and are considered partial analogues for current anthropogenic climate change. Because the magnitude of carbon release varied between the events, they are natural experiments ideal for exploring the relationship between carbon cycle perturbations, climate change and biotic response. Here we quantify marine biotic variability through three million years of the early Eocene, including five hyperthermals, utilizing a method that allows us to integrate the records of different plankton groups through scenarios ranging from background to major extinction events. Our long-time-series calcareous nannoplankton record indicates a scaling of biotic disruption to climate change associated with the amount of carbon released during the various hyperthermals. Critically, only the three largest hyperthermals, the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2 and the I1 event, show above-background variance, suggesting that the magnitude of carbon input and associated climate change needs to surpass a threshold value to cause significant biotic disruption.

S. J. Gibbs

2012-01-01

268

Global warming presents new challenges for maize pest management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been conjectured that global warming will increase the prevalence of insect pests in many agro-ecosystems. In this paper, we quantitatively assess four of the key pests of maize, one of the most important systems in North American grain production. Using empirically generated estimates of pest overwintering thresholds and degree-day requirements, along with climate change projections from a high-resolution climate model, we project potential future ranges for each of these pests in the United States. Our analysis suggests the possibility of increased winter survival and greater degree-day accumulations for each of the pests surveyed. We find that relaxed cold limitation could expand the range of all four pest taxa, including a substantial range expansion in the case of corn earworm (H. zea), a migratory, cold-intolerant pest. Because the corn earworm is a cosmopolitan pest that has shown resistance to insecticides, our results suggest that this expansion could also threaten other crops, including those in high-value areas of the western United States. Because managing significant additional pressure from this suite of established pests would require additional pest management inputs, the projected decreases in cold limitation and increases in heat accumulation have the potential to significantly alter the pest management landscape for North American maize production. Further, these range expansions could have substantial economic impacts through increased seed and insecticide costs, decreased yields, and the downstream effects of changes in crop yield variability.

2008-10-01

269

Some empirical evidence of global warming in Ghana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analysis show that temperatures in Ghana were significantly higher during the 1961-90 era than in the 1931-60 era; this rising trend was discerned even over the last three decades 1961-70, 1971-80 and 1981-90. It involved maximum, minimum, and average temperatures throughout the year, and across virtually the whole country; just the low altitude and non-industrialized Axim, Saltpond, and Kete-Krachi regions experienced some spells of rather higher 1931-60 temperatures. Given the current worldwide 'greenhouse' global warming evolution, this rising temperature development is particularly noteworthy. Urbanization, coupled with the modest industrial development in Ghana. over the past six decades possibly also contributed to it. That notwithstanding, the temperature cycle throughout Ghana has remained quite stable all this while; consistently attaining a maximum in February or March, declining steadily to a minimum in August, and then rising to a second but lower peak in about November. (author). 10 tabs., 22 figs., 3 refs

270

Depletion of fossil fuels and the impacts of global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper combines the theory of optimal extraction of exhaustible resources with the theory of greenhouse externalities, to analyze problems of global warming when the supply side is considered. The optimal carbon tax will initially rise but eventually fall when the externality is positively related to the stock of carbon in the atmosphere. It is shown that the tax will start falling before the stock of carbon in the atmosphere reaches its maximum. If there exists a non-polluting backstop technology, it will be optimal to extract and consume fossil fuels even when the price of fossil fuels is equal to the price of the backstop. The total extraction is the same as when the externality is ignored, but in the presence of the greenhouse effect, it will be optimal to slow the extraction and spread it over a longer period. If, on the other hand, the greenhouse externality depends on the rate of change in the atmospheric stock of carbon, the evolution of the optimal carbon tax is more complex. It can even be optimal to subsidize carbon emissions to avoid future rapid changes in the stock of carbon, and therefore future damages. 22 refs., 3 figs.

Hoel, M.; Kverndokk, S. [University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Economics

1996-06-01

271

Economic responses to global warming: Prospects for cooperative approaches  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the outset, any cooperative approach to global warming will have to reach some rough consensus on two sets of magnitudes and the marginal trade-off between them. One set of magnitudes relates to CO2 production and abatement. It is the cost and difficulties of reducing energy use by households, farms, and industry, and of switching to cleaner fossil fuels or converting to nonfossil energies. These are the kinds of things that economists and engineers, sometimes sociologists and architects, have been working on with special motivation since 1973. The uncertainties remain great, and they increase many-fold when projected to the middle of the next century. But these estimates do receive attention. The other set of magnitudes has to do with the impact of changing climate on economic productivity, on health and comfort, on the quality of life in general, and on the differential rates of progress among countries. These estimates, on which virtually no work was done until recently, are doubly uncertain. In this study the author offers a judgment about the magnitude of the consequences of failing to reduce CO2 emissions drastically below what they would be in the absence of such an effort. The author takes 'drastic' to mean anything between an emissions growth rate half of what it would otherwise be and an emissions growth rate of zero beginning one or two decades from now - that is, annual emissions leveling off within a decade or two. That level would still leave emissions growing at the maximum achieved rate

1991-01-01

272

Collection, transfer and transport of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contribution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The collection, transfer and transport of waste are basic activities of waste management systems all over the world. These activities all use energy and fuels, primarily of fossil origin. Electricity and fuel consumptions of the individual processes were reviewed and greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions were quantified. The emission factors were assigned a global warming potential (GWP) and aggregated into global warming factors (GWFs), which express the potential contribution to global warmi...

Eisted, Rasmus; Larsen, Anna Warberg; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

2009-01-01

273

Scenario analysis of global warming using the Asian Pacific Integrated Model (AIM)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Asian Pacific Integrated Model (AIM) is a large-scale model for scenario analyses of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the impacts of global warming in the Asian Pacific region. The AIM comprises two main models - the AIM/emission model for predicting GHG emissions and the AIM/impact model for estimating the impacts of global warming - which are linked by the global GHG cycle and the climate change models. This paper categorizes the scenarios that have been written so far in relation to global warming, and then, given fixed inputs, simulates the effects of global warming taking into account various uncertainties. Several recent outcomes from the AIM/impact model are then described. Assuming climate change scenarios deduced from AIM/emission and GCM experiments, primary impacts on water resources and natural vegetation are assessed. 45 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

Matsuoka, Y.; Kainamu, M.; Morita, T. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

1995-04-01

274

Pamphlet: Fidel Castro on Global Warming, Biofuels and World Hunger - Climate &  

...Pamphlet: Fidel Castro on Global Warming, Biofuels and World Hunger - Climate & Capitalism Climate & Capitalism An ecosocialist journal Home ...MR Press MRzine Economist’s Travelogue You are here: Home / 2007 / May / 28 / Pamphlet: Fidel Castro on Global Warming, Biofuels and World Hunger Posted on May ...Pamphlet: Fidel Castro on Global Warming, Biofuels and World Hunger This Spring, Fidel Castro has written a remarkable series of articles on ...Press This Google Pocket StumbleUpon Pinterest LinkedIn Tumblr Related articleshellip; (auto-generated) Fidel Castro on Biofuel and World Hunger (posted on March 29, ...

275

Human Rights Commission to Hear Inuit Challenge to U.S. on Global Warming - Climate &  

...Human Rights Commission to Hear Inuit Challenge to U.S. on Global Warming - Climate & Capitalism Climate & Capitalism An ...Economist’s Travelogue You are here: Home / 2007 / February / 13 / Human Rights Commission to Hear Inuit Challenge to U.S. on Global Warming Posted on February ...Human Rights Commission to Hear Inuit Challenge to U.S. on Global Warming The InterAmerican Commission on Human Rights has agreed to hear ... As reported in the article below, a delegation representing Inuit peoples from the US, Canada, Russia and Greenland will argue that ...

276

THE IMPACT OF GLOBAL WARMING ON STORMS AND STORM PREPAREDNESS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

According to the latest report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), “[w]arming of the climate system is unequivocal, as is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures” (IPCC, 2007: 5) by about 0.8–1.0°C over the last 160 years. Based on a survey of literature on global warming and precipitation, there is agreement that the frequency of extreme precipitation events in Southeast Asia will increase with global warming. At the...

2010-01-01

277

Democratising the global economy by ecologicalising economics. The example of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this paper is to show that continued reliance on an unreconstructed neo-classical economic model for human progress is largely responsible for an economic development path which is both unsustainable and undemocratic. Using the topical issue of global warming as an illustration, it is argued that the ecologicalisation of the economics discipline challenges the foundations of this strategy and promises, among other benefits, a more democratic global economic organisation. The data analysed in this paper suggest that the damage of global warming is directly attributable to economic activity, the benefits of economic growth go to the economically articulate, and the disbenefits in terms of environmental damage are borne by the economically inarticulate. Mainstream economics gives no answer to, and becomes a method for evading, this moral problem. The data also show that huge increases in energy efficiency are required if a basically unchanged world economic system is to be sustainable. Nevertheless, the predominant goal of development policy is to ignore the problem of scale and to promote an economic model of urbanised development in the 'developing' countries which carries the implication (and the promise) that the rates of resource consumption typical in 'developed' countries can be achieved globally. An alternative development model is presented which includes the recognition that, in ecological terms, 'developed' countries are in debt to 'developing' countries, largely because of the way in which economic growth is measured gross of externalised social and environmental costs. A method is suggested for calculating part of this ecological debt for individual countries, thus going some way towards quantifying the extent of the distortions in the current global political economy and the unsustainability of the present economic order

1996-04-01

278

El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and global warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is widely accepted by the international scientific community that human activities have increased atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG) and aerosols since the pre-industrial era. This increase has contributed to most of the warming (0.6±0.2°C) observed over the 20th century, land areas warming more than the oceans, with the 1990s very likely to be the warmest decade of the 20th century (IPCC, 2001). How this warming influences the occurrence, severity and frequency of ENSO...

Nyenzi, B.; Lefale, P. F.

2006-01-01

279

Deliberating Climate Change : The Case of the global citizen consultation, World Wide Views on Global Warming  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The global event World Wide Views on Global Warming (WWV), initiated by the Danish Board of Technology (DBT), took place on September 26, 2009, and was an innovative attempt to gather a united citizen voice on a global scale. As such the WWV is one of the most recent experiments with new ways to include the voice of the citizens into complex scientific and technological issues. The purpose of WWV was to pass on the opinions of ordinary citizens to political decision-makers at The United Nations Climate Summit, COP15, in Copenhagen in December 2009. The authors made a study of the Danish WWV event including a) observations on the Danish location, b) survey among the participants, c) follow-up focus group interview with voluntary participants, and d) interview with the organizers of the global event from DBT. Based on this study we analyse how the deliberation was institutionally framed. This includes considerations regarding how the process was designed in order to be legitimate as a voice for citizens, how different types of knowledge and expert identities were created and negotiated in the event, and how the framing influenced the outcome. The specific conditions of the event, i.e. the relation to a high-policy global summit like COP15, are also considered in the discussion about the WWV as innovative design. The analysis draws upon theoretical perspectives of deliberative democracy and STS studies of public engagement with science.

Agger, Annika; Jelsøe, Erling

280

Global warming in Amazonia: impacts and Mitigation Aquecimento Global na Amazônia: impactos e Mitigação  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Global warming has potentially catastrophic impacts in Amazonia, while at the same time maintenance of the Amazon forest offers one of the most valuable and cost-effective options for mitigating climate change. We know that the El Niño phenomenon, caused by temperature oscillations of surface water in the Pacific, has serious impacts in Amazonia, causing droughts and forest fires (as in 1997-1998. Temperature oscillations in the Atlantic also provoke severe droughts (as in 2005. We also know that Amazonian trees die both from fires and from water stress under hot, dry conditions. In addition, water recycled through the forest provides rainfall that maintains climatic conditions appropriate for tropical forest, especially in the dry season. What we need to know quickly, through intensified research, includes progress in representing El Niño and the Atlantic oscillations in climatic models, representation of biotic feedbacks in models used for decision-making about global warming, and narrowing the range of estimating climate sensitivity to reduce uncertainty about the probability of very severe impacts. Items that need to be negotiated include the definition of "dangerous" climate change, with the corresponding maximum levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Mitigation of global warming must include maintaining the Amazon forest, which has benefits for combating global warming from two separate roles: cutting the flow the emissions of carbon each year from the rapid pace of deforestation, and avoiding emission of the stock of carbon in the remaining forest that can be released by various ways, including climate change itself. Barriers to rewarding forest maintenance include the need for financial rewards for both of these roles. Other needs are for continued reduction of uncertainty regarding emissions and deforestation processes, as well as agreement on the basis of carbon accounting. As one of the countries most subject to impacts of climate change, Brazil must assume the leadership in fighting global warming.O aquecimento global tem impactos potencialmente catastróficos na Amazônia, e, ao mesmo tempo, a manutenção da floresta amazônica oferece uma das opções mais valiosas e baratas para mitigar as mudanças climáticas. Nós sabemos que o fenômeno de El Niño, causado por uma oscilação da temperatura da superfície da água no Pacífico, tem impactos sérios na Amazônia, causando secas e incêndios florestais, como aconteceram em 1997-1998. Oscilações de temperatura no Atlântico também provocam secas severas, como em 2005. Nós também sabemos que árvores amazônicas morrem, tanto do fogo como do estresse hídrico sob condições quentes e secas. Além disso, a água reciclada pela floresta fornece chuva que mantém as condições climáticas apropriadas para floresta tropical, especialmente durante a estação seca. O que nós precisamos saber com urgência, por meio de pesquisa intensificada, inclui como representar melhor o El Niño e as oscilações no Atlântico, nos modelos climáticos, como representar as retroalimentações bióticas nos modelos usados para tomada de decisão sobre o efeito estufa, e um estreitamento da gama das estimativas da sensitividade climática (para reduzir a incerteza sobre a probabilidade de impactos muito severos. Assuntos que precisam ser negociados incluem a definição de mudança de clima "perigosa", com os correspondentes níveis máximos das concentrações de gases de estufa na atmosfera. Mitigação do efeito estufa tem que incluir a manutenção da floresta amazônica, o que traz benefícios para o combate ao efeito estufa por meio de dois papéis separados: diminuir o fluxo de emissões de carbono que acontece em cada ano devido ao ritmo rápido do desmatamento, e evitar a emissão do estoque de carbono na floresta restante que pode ser liberada de várias maneiras, inclusive por causa da própria mudança climática. Barreiras impedindo a recompensação da manutenção de floresta incluem a necessidade por recompensas financeira

Philip Martin Fearnside

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

The indirect global warming potential and global temperature change potential due to methane oxidation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Methane is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas in the atmosphere next to carbon dioxide. Its global warming potential (GWP) for a time horizon of 100 years is 25, which makes it an attractive target for climate mitigation policies. Although the methane GWP traditionally includes the methane indirect effects on the concentrations of ozone and stratospheric water vapour, it does not take into account the production of carbon dioxide from methane oxidation. We argue here that this CO{sub 2}-induced effect should be included for fossil sources of methane, which results in slightly larger GWP values for all time horizons. If the global temperature change potential is used as an alternative climate metric, then the impact of the CO{sub 2}-induced effect is proportionally much larger. We also discuss what the correction term should be for methane from anthropogenic biogenic sources.

Boucher, Olivier; Collins, Bill [Met Office Hadley Centre, FitzRoy Road, Exeter EX1 3PB (United Kingdom); Friedlingstein, Pierre [IPSL/LSCE, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Shine, Keith P [Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6BB (United Kingdom)

2009-10-15

282

The global warming, public goods and carbon market; Calentamiento global, bienes publicos y mercado de carbono  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The global warming is an issue of the public goods, and demands an outstanding multilateral action, which must to ensure both efficiency and unchanging transition towards an economy of low intensity of carbon. The new system, which is going to replace the Kyoto Protocol, will have compromises for the developing countries and deep implication in the relative competitivity of the nations and companies. [Spanish] El calentamiento global es un problema de bienes publicos que exige una extraordinaria accion multilateral. Esta debe asegurar eficiencia y una transicion fluida hacia una economia de baja intensidad de carbono. El nuevo sistema que sucedera al Protocolo de Kyoto significara compromisos para los paises en vias de desarrollo, y tendra profundas implicaciones en la competitividad relativa de naciones y empresas.

Quadri de la Torre, Gabriel [EcoSecurities (Mexico)

2007-07-15

283

Global Warming and Our Changing Climate: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions.  

Science.gov (United States)

A warming trend has been recorded since the late 19th century, with the most rapid warming occurring over the past two decades. If emissions of greenhouse gases continue unabated, scientists say we may change global temperature and our planets climate at ...

2000-01-01

284

Rapid increasing trend of CO2 and ocean acidification in the surface water of the Ulleung Basin, East/Japan Sea inferred from the observations from 1995 to 2004  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Anthropogenic carbon is responsible for both global warming and ocean acidification. Efforts are underway to understand the role of ocean in a high CO2 world on a global context. However, marginal seas received little attention despite their significant contribution to biogeochemical cycles. Here we report that the CO2 increase and ocean acidification in the surface waters of the Ulleung Basin (UB) of the East/Japan Sea are much faster than the global mean, and po...

-y Kim, J.; -j Kang, D.; Lee, T.; -r Kim, K.

2013-01-01

285

Optimal Detection of Global Warming using Temperature Profiles  

Science.gov (United States)

Optimal fingerprinting is applied to estimate the amount of time it would take to detect warming by increased concentrations of carbon dioxide in monthly averages of temperature profiles over the Indian Ocean.

Leroy, Stephen S.

1997-01-01

286

Global warming: what does it mean for Australia?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

29 slides are reproduced outlining the science of greenhouse and the projected impacts on Australia of a warming environment. The Australian National Greenhouse Strategy and the role of the Australian Greenhouse Office are discussed.

Grant, C.

2002-07-01

287

The present effect of global warming on U.S. industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper will discuss how global warming issues are currently affecting U.S. industry. Global climate models are projecting global temperature increases in the 1.5-4.5 degrees C range within the next 50-60 years. This increase is based on the assumption that CO2 emissions into the atmosphere will continue to increase 1-2% per year, resulting in a doubling of preindustrial CO2 levels by mid twenty-first century. These projections may cause U.S. industry to readjust its thinking with respect to the benefits of pollution prevention as they relate to global warming, corporate image enhancement, global competitiveness and risk assessment or balance. Real or perceived impacts of global warming are already influencing U.S. competitiveness within the global economy because Japan and the European countries are taking the global warming threat more seriously than is the U.S. Mitigation of CO2 emissions through carbon taxes or permitting will be discussed. Options available to U.S. industry to deal with the current uncertainties of global warming will be presented. Examples of how specific companies are coping with this issue will be given. Finally, recommendations are presented for proactive planning to determine which segments, divisions or facilities in a multinational company would be most sensitive to CO2 stabilization regulations

1993-06-13

288

Nuclear Energy is the Answer to Cope with the Lack of Energy and Global Warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper of nuclear energy is the answer to cope with the lack of energy and global warming based on the analysis of energy demand which is increasing rapidly, meanwhile the energy reserve is limited and decreased. Mostly world?s energy is generated by fossil fuel energy, mainly oil and coal. Fossil fuel energy and industrial activities produce green house gases (GHG) such as : COx, CH4, N2O, and CFC which cause of global warming. Global warming gives bad impact to environment and to human being. Every country in the world needs sufficient energy, but the energy resources is limited and decreased. The answer for this solution must be an energy source which does not produce green house gases. Why nuclear energy is chosen to cope with the lack of energy and global warming will be explained briefly in this paper. (author)

2009-05-01

289

Attitudes about Global Warming in the United States: A Data-Driven Learning Guide  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this module is to explore some of the factors that might be associated with an individual's level of concern about the environment and global warming. Crosstabulations, frequency distributions, and bar charts will be used.

Icpsr

290

Global warming factors modelled for 40 generic municipal waste management scenarios  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Global warming factors (kg CO2-eq.-tonne—1 of waste) have been modelled for 40 different municipal waste management scenarios involving a variety of recycling systems (paper, glass, plastic and organics) and residual waste management by landfilling, incineration or mechanical—biological waste treatment. For average European waste composition most waste management scenarios provided negative global warming factors and hence overall savings in greenhouse gas emissions: Scenarios with landfi...

2009-01-01

291

Palaeoceanographic and biotic response during early Eocene extreme global warming events  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Studying past intervals of abrupt global warming and massive carbon release can improve our knowledge in ways relevant to understanding future climate change. Possible paleo-analogues for future climate change are the early Paleogene hyperthermal events, such as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; ~56 Ma), during which large amounts of carbon were released. More recently, another distinct period of global warming was discovered, similar in nature to the PETM, occurring approximately t...

Stap, H. L.

2010-01-01

292

Is Global Warming likely to cause an increased incidence of Malaria?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The rise in the average temperature of earth has been described as global warming which is mainly attributed to the increasing phenomenon of the greenhouse effect. It is believed that global warming can have several harmful effects on human health, both directly and indirectly. Since malaria is greatly influenced by climatic conditions because of its direct relationship with the mosquito population, it is widely assumed that its incidence is likely to increase in a future warmer world.

Sa, Nabi; Ss, Qader

2009-01-01

293

Economic impact analysis for global warming: Sensitivity analysis for cost and benefit estimates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Proper policies for the prevention or mitigation of the effects of global warming require profound analysis of the costs and benefits of alternative policy strategies. Given the uncertainty about the scientific aspects of the process of global warming, in this paper a sensitivity analysis for the impact of various estimates of costs and benefits of greenhouse gas reduction strategies is carried out to analyze the potential social and economic impacts of climate change.

Ierland, E.C. van; Derksen, L. [Wageningen Agricultural Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of General Economics

1994-12-31

294

Nuclear power a viable alternative in global warming context  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy sources available in the world include: coal, oil, gas, biomass, nuclear, hydroelectric, wind, solar, refuse-based, and hydrogen. In addition, fusion had been originally proposed as the long-term source. Every form of energy generation has both advantages and disadvantages. Burning fuel for energy requirements represent about 88% from the total emission of NOx and CO2, and about 90% from SO2 respectively, and about 72% from suspension powder evacuated into the atmosphere. Global warming represents a real threat and is the most visible sign of the climatic changes which take place all over the world. To reduce the emission of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), the 'Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations framework convention on climate change' has been adopted in 1997. According to this protocol European countries must reduce their overall emissions of greenhouse gases by at least 5% below 1990 levels in the commitment period 2008 -- 2012. In this context, because the natural resources for power generation based on the fossil fuels are decreasing and their prices are rising, nuclear power has become a real alternative for classical energy sources. It is indicated by: - Fuel is inexpensive because uranium represents a very small part of nuclear power cost and uranium sediment is found on a large scale all over the world; - No greenhouse emission or acid rain effects occur during a normal operation. Nuclear power is also named 'clean energy'; - Wastes are more compact than those of any source of energy and are stored in underground and secured deposits; - Nuclear energy has a number of advantages which warrant its use as one of the many methods of fulfilling the energy-demand of the world. Even with conservation efforts, energy demand increased and will continue to increase. Using each and every one of these forms of energy production, we need to be sure that the environment is conserved as much as we can, so we can leave behind resources for future generations. This paper will demonstrate why nuclear energy represents a response for world demanding energy and why it is considered a 'clean' source of energy. (authors)

2008-05-28

295

The Great Season Climatic Oscillation and the Global Warming  

CERN Multimedia

The present earth warming up is often explained by the atmosphere gas greenhouse effect. This explanation is in contradiction with the thermodynamics second law. The warming up by greenhouse effect is quite improbable. It is cloud reflection that gives to the earth s ground its 15 degres C mean temperature. Since the reflection of the radiation by gases is negligible, the role of the atmosphere greenhouse gases in the earth warming up by earth radiation reflection loses its importance. We think that natural climatic oscillations contribute more to earth climatic disturbances. The oscillation that we hypothesize to exist has a long period (800 to 1000 years). The glacier melting and regeneration cycles lead to variations in the cold region ocean water density and thermal conductibility according to their salinity. These variations lead one to think about a macro climate oscillating between maximum hot and minimum cold temperatures. This oscillation is materialized by the passages of the planet through hot, mil...

Boucenna, Ahmed

2008-01-01

296

Life on a warmer earth: possible climatic consequences of man made global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The interaction between energy and climate is explored, including the impact on global climate of three main energy sources: solar, nuclear and fossil fuels. The global warming problem is introduced. Comprehensive analogies with warmer times are made. From the best models available, the future global average surface temperature is found and modified, describing the global warming effects caused by greenhouse effect caused by gases other than carbon dioxide, released into the atmosphere by man, i.e. nitrous oxide, methane, ammonia, and the chlorofluoromethanes. Paleoclimatic scenarios are reviewed, showing possible effects of global warming. An 800 to 1100 ppm CO/sub 2/ concentration causes irreversible Arctic melting, leading to displacement of present climatic zones by 400 to 800 km.

Flohn, H.

1981-01-01

297

Global Farm Animal Production and Global Warming: Impacting and Mitigating Climate Change  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The farm animal sector is the single largest anthropogenic user of land, contributing to many environmental problems, including global warming and climate change. Objectives The aim of this study was to synthesize and expand upon existing data on the contribution of farm animal production to climate change. Methods We analyzed the scientific literature on farm animal production and documented greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, as well as various mitigation strategies. Discussions An analysis of meat, egg, and milk production encompasses not only the direct rearing and slaughtering of animals, but also grain and fertilizer production for animal feed, waste storage and disposal, water use, and energy expenditures on farms and in transporting feed and finished animal products, among other key impacts of the production process as a whole. Conclusions Immediate and far-reaching changes in current animal agriculture practices and consumption patterns are both critical and timely if GHGs from the farm animal sector are to be mitigated.

Koneswaran, Gowri; Nierenberg, Danielle

2008-01-01

298

Why do they think nuclear power is origin of global warming effect?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A questionnaire on nuclear power was conducted on 1500 adults in Kansai area, Japan, from October 9 to November 9, 2003. The recovery ratio was 71.0%. The results showed that 34% of them thought the nuclear power was protection of the global warming effect and 35% it was origin of the effect. It was analyzed by the logistic regression analysis method on whether the nuclear power was protection of global warming effect or not. About 43% of them recognized the nuclear power contributed to control carbon dioxide emission, and the mechanism of global warming effect. However, 35% of them did not recognize the mechanism and thought radioactive materials emission gave bad effects on the global environment. To make recognize the nuclear power is a good power source for protection of the global warming effect, the amount of reduction of carbon dioxide emission by nuclear power had to be shown. It is the shortest way for solution of the global warming problem to prove worthy of nuclear power's trust by safety and stable operation. (S.Y.)

2005-06-01

299

Global warming what are the challenges for Copenhagen?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in 1997 and, following a long ratification process, went into effect in 2005. Under the Protocol, 200 countries have committed to reducing their greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) by 2012. What conclusions can we draw from developments thus far, as we await the December conference in Copenhagen to determine a follow-up to the Kyoto Protocol? The work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has given us more accurate knowledge on global warming issues. In its latest report, published in 2007, the IPCC reveals that eleven of the past twelve years studied - 1995 to 2006 - were among the warmest yet recorded since 1850, when this type of data collection began. From 1906 to 2005, global temperatures rose by 0.74 deg. C, and the average rate of increase has more than doubled over the past fifty years. To help companies and countries achieve their GHG emissions reduction targets, the Kyoto Protocol provides for a carbon trading system based on carbon reduction credits (CRC), the exchange currency in a carbon credit market. When a company reduces its emissions below regulatory levels, it can have the 'excess' reduction certified and converted into carbon credits, which it can then sell to a company that has not yet reached its reduction targets. Japan has already used clean technologies and energy saving measures to achieve energy efficiency in the past. Its energy structure is fairly close to that of France, which has a 0% emissions goal. In Japan, nuclear power also accounts for a significant share of the electric power program. The Japanese government recently announced that it was increasing its carbon reduction goal from 6% to an ambitious 25%. China and the United States are the world's leading greenhouse gas emitters. When China ratified the Kyoto Protocol in 2002, it was considered to be a developing country and as such has no emissions reduction obligations. Since then, China has moved closer to the Protocol principles, creating a national climate change group in 2007 and launching its own national climate change program. The program's goal is to lower China's energy consumption per unit of GDP by 20% by 2010 compared with its 2005 level. Under a medium to long-term sustainable development plan, the share of sustainable energies in the overall energy mix will increase to 10% by 2010 and to 15% by 2020. Before the Copenhagen conference, China indicated that it was expecting the United States and Europe to commit to reducing their emissions by 40% and to devote 1% of their GDP to technology transfer towards developing countries by 2020. The Bush Administration used the argument that 'the American way of life is not negotiable' to justify the refusal of the United States to adhere to the Kyoto Protocol. Today, the United States returns to the discussion table in a more open frame of mind. The administration of Barack Obama has decided to become more involved and cooperate more with China and India on climate change. In late June, the American president succeeded in getting his climate change bill through the US House of Representatives. The climate bill, which is still up before the Senate, aims to reduce GHG emissions (particularly CO2) by 17% before 2020 compared with the 2005 level. It also promotes the development of clean energies and provides for the creation of a cap and trade emissions trading system. Under this system, emissions allowances are either sold or given to the most vulnerable industries. The sales revenue would be used to fund the development of clean energies, among other things. The EU-15 member states are close to reaching the targets set at Kyoto. What about EU-27 member states? At the late September summit in Pittsburgh, the G20 countries, which include the most industrialized countries as well as the large emerging countries of China, India and Brazil, agreed to phase out subsidies for fossil energy sources over the medium term, but without setting a deadline. According to the press release issued at the end of the summit, 'inefficient fossil fuel subsidi

2010-01-01

300

Does fossil fuel combustion lead to global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tropospheric sulfate aerosols produced by atmospheric oxidation of SO[sub 2] emitted from fossil fuel combustion scatter solar radiation and enhance the reflectivity of clouds. Both effects decrease the absorption of solar radiation by the earth-atmosphere system. This cooling influence tends to offset the warming influence resulting from increased absorption of terrestrial infrared radiation by increased atmospheric concentrations of CO[sub 2]. The sulfate forcing is estimated to be offsetting 70% of the forcing by CO[sub 2] derived from fossil fuel combustion, although the uncertainty of this estimate is quite large--range 28-140%, the latter figure indicating that the present combined forcing is net cooling. Because of the vastly different atmospheric residence times of sulfate aerosol (about a week) and CO[sub 2] (about 100 years), the cooling influence of sulfate aerosol is exerted immediately, whereas most of the warming influence of CO[sub 2] is exerted over more than 100 years. Consequently the total forcing integrated over the entire time the materials reside in the atmosphere is net warming, with the total CO[sub 2] forcing estimate to exceed the sulfate forcing by a factor of 4. The present situation in which the forcing by sulfate is comparable to that by CO[sub 2] is shown to be a consequence of the steeply increasing rates of emission over the industrial era. (author)

Schwartz, S.E. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Environmental Chemistry Div.)

1993-12-01

 
 
 
 
301

Sources of global warming in upper ocean temperature during El Nin??o  

Science.gov (United States)

Global average sea surface temperature (SST) from 40?? S to 60?? N fluctuates ??0.3??C on interannual period scales, with global warming (cooling) during El Nin??o (La Nin??a). About 90% of the global warming during El Nin??o occurs in the tropical global ocean from 20?? S to 20?? N, half because of large SST anomalies in the tropical Pacific associated with El Nin??o and the other half because of warm SST anomalies occurring over ???80% of the tropical global ocean. From examination of National Centers for Environmental Prediction [Kalnay et al., 1996] and Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set [Woodruff et al., 1993] reanalyses, tropical global warming during El Nin??o is associated with higher troposphere moisture content and cloud cover, with reduced trade wind intensity occurring during the onset phase of El Nin??o. During this onset phase the tropical global average diabatic heat storage tendency in the layer above the main pycnocline is 1-3 W m-2 above normal. Its principal source is a reduction in the poleward Ekman heat flux out of the tropical ocean of 2-5 W m-2. Subsequently, peak tropical global warming during El Nin??o is dissipated by an increase in the flux of latent heat to the troposphere of 2-5 W m-2, with reduced shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes in response to increased cloud cover tending to cancel each other. In the extratropical global ocean the reduction in poleward Ekman heat flux out of the tropics during the onset of El Nin??o tends to be balanced by reduction in the flux of latent heat to the troposphere. Thus global warming and cooling during Earth's internal mode of interannual climate variability arise from fluctuations in the global hydrological balance, not the global radiation balance. Since it occurs in the absence of extraterrestrial and anthropogenic forcing, global warming on decadal, interdecadal, and centennial period scales may also occur in association with Earth's internal modes of climate variability on those scales. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

White, W. B.; Cayan, D. R.; Dettinger, M. D.; Auad, G.

2001-01-01

302

Further evidence of the effects of global warming on lichens, particularly those with Trentepohlia phycobionts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Increasing evidence suggests that lichens are responding to climate change in Western Europe. More epiphytic species appear to be increasing, rather than declining, as a result of global warming. Many terricolous species, in contrast, are declining. Changes to epiphytic floras are markedly more rapid in formerly heavily polluted, generally built-up or open rural areas, as compared to forested regions. Both the distribution (southern) and ecology (warmth-loving) of the newly established or increasing species seem to be determined by global warming. Epiphytic temperate to boreo-montane species appear to be relatively unaffected. Vacant niches caused by other environmental changes are showing the most pronouced effects of global warming. Species most rapidly increasing in forests, although taxonomically unrelated, all contain Trentepohlia as phycobiont in addition to having a southern distribution. This suggests that in this habitat, Trentepohlia algae, rather than the different lichen symbioses, are affected by global warming. - Epiphytic and terricolous lichens in Western Europe respond to global warming through their Trentepohlia algae.

Aptroot, A. [ABL Herbarium, G.v.d. Veenstraat 107, NL-3762 XK Soest (Netherlands)]. E-mail: andreaptroot@wanadoo.nl; Herk, C.M. van [Lichenologisch Onderzoeksbureau Nederland, Goudvink 47, NL-3766 WK Soest (Netherlands)]. E-mail: lonsoest@wxs.nl

2007-03-15

303

Relative effects on global warming of halogenated methanes and ethanes of social and industrial interest  

Science.gov (United States)

The relative potential global warming effects for several halocarbons (chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's)-11, 12, 113, 114, and 115; hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC's) 22, 123, 124, 141b, and 142b; and hydrofluorocarbons (HFC's) 125, 134a, 143a, and 152a; carbon tetrachloride; and methyl chloroform) were calculated by two atmospheric modeling groups. These calculations were based on atmospheric chemistry and radiative convective models to determine the chemical profiles and the radiative processes. The resulting relative greenhouse warming when normalized to the effect of CFC-11 agree reasonably well as long as we account for differences between modeled lifetimes. Differences among results are discussed. Sensitivity of relative warming values is determined with respect to trace gas levels assumed. Transient relative global warming effects are analyzed.

Fisher, Donald A.; Hales, Charles H.; Wang, Wei-Chyung; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Sze, N. Dak

1990-01-01

304

Imminent ocean acidification in the Arctic projected with the NCAR global coupled carbon cycle-climate model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ocean acidification from the uptake of anthropogenic carbon is simulated for the industrial period and IPCC SRES emission scenarios A2 and B1 with a global coupled carbon cycle-climate model. Earlier studies identified seawater saturation state with respect to aragonite, a mineral phase of calcium carbonate, as a key variable governing impacts on corals and other shell-forming organisms. Globally in the A2 scenario, water saturated by more than 300%, considered suitable for coral growth, vanishes by 2070 AD (CO2?630 ppm, and the ocean volume fraction occupied by saturated water decreases from 42% to 25% over this century. The largest simulated pH changes worldwide occur in Arctic surface waters, where hydrogen ion concentration increases by up to 185% (?pH=?0.45. Projected climate change amplifies the decrease in Arctic surface mean saturation and pH by more than 20%, mainly due to freshening and increased carbon uptake in response to sea ice retreat. Modeled saturation compares well with observation-based estimates along an Arctic transect and simulated changes have been corrected for remaining model-data differences in this region. Aragonite undersaturation in Arctic surface waters is projected to occur locally within a decade and to become more widespread as atmospheric CO2 continues to grow. The results imply that surface waters in the Arctic Ocean will become corrosive to aragonite, with potentially large implications for the marine ecosystem, if anthropogenic carbon emissions are not reduced and atmospheric CO2 not kept below 450 ppm.

M. Steinacher

2009-04-01

305

Explicit calculation of indirect global warming potentials for halons using atmospheric models  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The concept of Global Warming Potentials (GWPs) has been extensively used in policy consideration as a relative index for comparing the climate impact of an emitted greenhouse gas (GHG), relative to carbon dioxide with equal mass emissions. Ozone depletion due to emission of chlorinated or brominated halocarbons leads to cooling of the climate system in the opposite direction to the direct warming contribution by halocarbons as GHGs. This cooling is a key indirect effect of the halocarbons on...

Youn, D.; Patten, K. O.; -t Lin, J.; Wuebbles, D. J.

2009-01-01

306

The stability of the thermohaline circulation in global warming experiments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A simplified climate model of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system is used to perform extensive sensitivity studies concerning possible future climate change induced by anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Supplemented with an active atmospheric hydrological cycle, experiments with different rates of CO{sub 2} increase and different climate sensitivities are performed. The model exhibits a threshold value of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration beyond which the North Atlantic Deep Water formation stops and never recovers. For a climate sensitivity that leads to an equilibrium warming of 3.6 C for a doubling of CO{sub 2} and a rate of CO{sub 2} increase of 1% yr{sup {minus}1}, the threshold lies between 650 and 700 ppmv. Moreover, it is shown that the stability of the thermohaline circulation depends on the rate of increase of greenhouse gases. For a slower increase of atmospheric pCO{sub 2} the final amount that can be reached without a shutdown of the circulation is considerably higher. This rate-sensitive response is due to the uptake of heat and excess freshwater from the uppermost layers to the deep ocean. The increased equator-to-pole freshwater transport in a warmer atmosphere is mainly responsible for the cessation of deep water formation in the North Atlantic. Another consequence of the enhanced latent heat transport is a stronger warming at high latitudes. A model version with fixed water vapor transport exhibits uniform warming at all latitudes. The inclusion of a simple parameterization of the ice-albedo feedback increases the model sensitivity and further decreases the pole-to-equator temperature difference in a greenhouse climate. The possible range of CO{sub 2} threshold concentrations and its dependency on the rate of CO{sub 2} increase, on the climate sensitivity, and on other model parameters are discussed.

Schmittner, A.; Stocker, T.F. [Univ. of Bern (Switzerland). Physics Inst.

1999-04-01

307

Methane Gas May Have Caused Global Warming 55 Million Years Ago  

Science.gov (United States)

According to an article published in the November 19, 1999, issue of the journal Science, a massive release of methane gas (CH4) may have caused global warming during the Paleocene Epoch 55 million years ago. The process began with a gradual atmospheric warming which sent warm currents of surface water down to the ocean floor. Solid methane, called methane hydrate, warmed and became gaseous. The gas escaped from the sediment, and reacted with oxygen to create carbon dioxide which subsequently rose into the atmosphere where it trapped heat. It is thought that this historic global warming, which caused sea temperatures to rise, killed off many deep sea creatures. At the same time, the rise in atmospheric temperature may have created conditions conducive for the evolution of mammals. The evidence for these findings came from close analysis of ocean floor sediment cores. The hypothesis may have profound implications for the current rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide and the potential for further release of trapped methane beneath the ocean floor. This week's In the News explores the current findings and the relevance of methane hydrate to global warming.

Ramanujan, Krishna.

308

A possible relationship between Global Warming and Lightning Activity in India during the period 1998-2009  

CERN Document Server

Lightning activity on a global scale has been studied season wise using satellite data for the period from 1998 to 2009. Lightning activity shows an increasing trend during the period of study which is highly correlated with atmospheric warming. A similar increasing trend of lightning activity is observed in the Indian region during the pre-monsoon season which is correlated with global lightning trends and warming trends of surface temperature in India. Key words: Global warming, lightning activity, Solar cycle changes

B., Felix Pereira; Girish, T E

2010-01-01

309

Clouds and climate: Unraveling a key piece of global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Federal policy decisions relating to mitigation of greenhouse gas and other emissions have the potential to exert an enormous impact on industries in which chemical engineers play a prominent role. Many in these industries keep close watch on the development of scientific understanding associated with predictions of global climate change. The authors review one of the most critical, and most uncertain, pieces of the climate puzzle, the role of aerosols and clouds in the global energy balance

2000-02-01

310

How China’s Options Will Determine Global Warming  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Carbon dioxide emissions, global average temperature, atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and surface ocean mixed layer acidity are extrapolated using analyses calibrated against extensive time series data for nine global regions. Extrapolation of historical trends without policy-driven limitations has China responsible for about half of global CO2 emissions by the middle of the twenty-first century. Results are presented for three possible actions taken by China to limit global average temperature increase to levels it considers to be to its advantage: (1 Help develop low-carbon energy technology broadly competitive with unbridled carbon emissions from burning fossil fuels; (2 Entice other countries to join in limiting use of what would otherwise be economically competitive fossil fuels; (3 Apply geo-engineering techniques such as stratospheric sulfur injection to limit global average temperature increase, without a major global reduction in carbon emissions. Taking into account China’s expected influence and approach to limiting the impact of anthropogenic climate change allows for a narrower range of possible outcomes than for a set of scenarios that are not constrained by analysis of likely policy-driven limitations. While China could hold back on implementing geoengineering given a remarkable amount of international cooperation on limiting fossil carbon burning, an outcome where geoengineering is used to delay the perceived need to limit the atmospheric CO2 concentration may be difficult to avoid.

Clifford Singer

2013-12-01

311

Nonlinear precipitation response to El Niño and global warming in the Indo-Pacific  

Science.gov (United States)

Precipitation changes over the Indo-Pacific during El Niño events are studied using an Atmospheric General Circulation Model forced with sea-surface temperature (SST) anomalies and changes in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Linear increases in the amplitude of the El Niño SST anomaly pattern trigger nonlinear changes in precipitation amounts, resulting in shifts in the location and orientation of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). In particular, the maximum precipitation anomaly along the ITCZ and SPCZ shifts eastwards, the ITCZ shifts south towards the equator, and the SPCZ becomes more zonal. Precipitation in the equatorial Pacific also increases nonlinearly. The effect of increasing CO2 levels and warming SSTs is also investigated. Global warming generally enhances the tropical Pacific precipitation response to El Niño. The precipitation response to El Niño is found to be dominated by changes in the atmospheric mean circulation dynamics, whereas the response to global warming is a balance between dynamic and thermodynamic changes. While the dependence of projected climate change impacts on seasonal variability is well-established, this study reveals that the impact of global warming on Pacific precipitation also depends strongly on the magnitude of the El Niño event. The magnitude and structure of the precipitation changes are also sensitive to the spatial structure of the global warming SST pattern.

Chung, Christine T. Y.; Power, Scott B.; Arblaster, Julie M.; Rashid, Harun A.; Roff, Gregory L.

2014-04-01

312

Sources of global warming of the upper ocean on decadal period scales  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies find global climate variability in the upper ocean and lower atmosphere during the twentieth century dominated by quasi-biennial, interannual, quasi-decadal and interdecadal signals. The quasi-decadal signal in upper ocean temperature undergoes global warming/cooling of ???0.1??C, similar to that occuring with the interannual signal (i.e., El Nin??o-Southern Oscillation), both signals dominated by global warming/cooling in the tropics. From the National Centers for Environmental Prediction troposphere reanalysis and Scripps Institution of Oceanography upper ocean temperature reanalysis we examine the quasi-decadal global tropical diabetic heat storage (DHS) budget from 1975 to 2000. We find the anomalous DHS warming tendency of 0.3-0.9 W m-2 driven principally by a downward global tropical latent-plus-sensible heat flux anomaly into the ocean, overwhelming the tendency by weaker upward shortwave-minus-longwave heat flux anomaly to drive an anomalous DHS cooling tendency. During the peak quasi-decadal warming the estimated dissipation of DHS anomaly of 0.2-0.5 W m-2 into the deep ocean and a similar loss to the overlying atmosphere through air-sea heat flux anomaly are balanced by a decrease in the net poleward Ekman heat advection out of the tropics of 0.4-0.7 W m-2. This scenario is nearly the opposite of that accounting for global tropical warming during the El Nin??o. These diagnostics confirm that even though the global quasi-decadal signal is phase-locked to the 11-year signal in the Sun's surface radiative forcing of ???0.1 W m-2, the anomalous global tropical DHS tendency cannot be driven by it directly.

White, W. B.; Dettinger, M. D.; Cayan, D. R.

2003-01-01

313

Precipitation response to La Niña and global warming in the Indo-Pacific  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies have highlighted the nonlinear rainfall response to El Niño sea surface temperature (SST) events in the Indo-Pacific region and how this response might change over coming decades. Here we investigate the response to La Niña SST anomalies with and without global warming by performing idealised SST-forced experiments with an atmospheric general circulation model. The La Niña SST anomaly is multiplied by a factor 1 ? ? ? 4 and added to climatological SSTs. Similar experiments using El Niño SST anomalies were previously performed, in which large nonlinearities in the precipitation response were evident. We find that: (i) Under current climatic conditions, as ? increases, the precipitation responds in three ways: the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) dries and moves poleward, the maximum precipitation along the equator moves west, and the South Pacific convergence zone (SPCZ) narrows, intensifies, and elongates. For weak (? = 1 ) La Niña events, the precipitation anomalies approximately mirror those from the El Niño events along the ITCZ and SPCZ, though there are some marked differences in the central-eastern Pacific. For stronger La Niña events (? > 1 ), precipitation responds nonlinearly to SST anomalies, though the nonlinearities are smaller and differ spatially from the nonlinearities in the El Niño runs. (ii) The addition of a global warming SST pattern increases rainfall in the western Pacific and SPCZ, enhances the narrowing of the SPCZ, and increases the nonlinear response in the western Pacific. However, large La Niña events reduce the impact of global warming along the central-eastern equatorial Pacific as the global warming and La Niña SST anomalies have opposite signs in that region. (iii) The response to La Niña SST anomalies is driven primarily by changes in the atmospheric circulation, whereas the response to the global warming SST pattern is mainly driven by increases in atmospheric moisture. (iv) Large changes in La Niña-driven rainfall anomalies can occur in response to global warming, even if the La Nina SST anomalies relative to the warmer background state are completely unchanged.

Chung, Christine T. Y.; Power, Scott B.

2014-03-01

314

Ocean acidification in a geoengineering context.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fundamental changes to marine chemistry are occurring because of increasing carbon dioxide (CO(2)) in the atmosphere. Ocean acidity (H(+) concentration) and bicarbonate ion concentrations are increasing, whereas carbonate ion concentrations are decreasing. There has already been an average pH decrease of 0.1 in the upper ocean, and continued unconstrained carbon emissions would further reduce average upper ocean pH by approximately 0.3 by 2100. Laboratory experiments, observations and projections indicate that such ocean acidification may have ecological and biogeochemical impacts that last for many thousands of years. The future magnitude of such effects will be very closely linked to atmospheric CO(2); they will, therefore, depend on the success of emission reduction, and could also be constrained by geoengineering based on most carbon dioxide removal (CDR) techniques. However, some ocean-based CDR approaches would (if deployed on a climatically significant scale) re-locate acidification from the upper ocean to the seafloor or elsewhere in the ocean interior. If solar radiation management were to be the main policy response to counteract global warming, ocean acidification would continue to be driven by increases in atmospheric CO(2), although with additional temperature-related effects on CO(2) and CaCO(3) solubility and terrestrial carbon sequestration. PMID:22869801

Williamson, Phillip; Turley, Carol

2012-09-13

315

The role of emotion in global warming policy support and opposition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prior research has found that affect and affective imagery strongly influence public support for global warming. This article extends this literature by exploring the separate influence of discrete emotions. Utilizing a nationally representative survey in the United States, this study found that discrete emotions were stronger predictors of global warming policy support than cultural worldviews, negative affect, image associations, or sociodemographic variables. In particular, worry, interest, and hope were strongly associated with increased policy support. The results contribute to experiential theories of risk information processing and suggest that discrete emotions play a significant role in public support for climate change policy. Implications for climate change communication are also discussed. PMID:24219420

Smith, Nicholas; Leiserowitz, Anthony

2014-05-01

316

The use of analogies in forecasting ecological and societal responses to global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Due to the limitations of general circulation models, researchers use analogies to look at future climatic change and its effects. Analogies used include the greenhouse, the Altithermal period, regional climates and summertime. Analogical reasoning is a prominent part of general circulation modeling of the atmosphere. Analogies are useful for generating hypotheses and improving understanding, but not as forecasts. The use of an analogy to develop specific policies related to global warming is risky. Historical analogies can provide a first approach to ascertaining the level of societal preparedness for the impacts of a global warming. Each analogy provides additional information about the target problem. 63 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Glantz, M.H. (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder CO (USA). Environmental Research and Societal Impacts Group)

1991-06-01

317

PAGE95: an updated version of the impacts of global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An important measure for global warming policy is the impact of a tonne of carbon emitted to the atmosphere. In economic terms, this value corresponds to the carbon tax level needed to internalize the externalities associated with climate change. This study re-evaluates the marginal impact of CO{sub 2} emissions in the light of new scientific and economic understanding of the cooling effects of sulphate aerosols and ozone depletion, the regional distribution of global warming damages, non-linearity in damage as a function of temperature rise and the appropriate discount rate. The updated PAGE model, PAGE95 (Policy Analysis for the Greenhouse Effect) is used.

Plambeck, E.L.; Hope, C. [University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom). Judge Institute of Management Studies

1996-09-01

318

Global warming policy: A coherent-sequential approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper addresses these two closely related themes: (1) the need for structuring and evaluating global climate policy sequentially and (2) the need to incorporate the analysis of real options which may contribute significantly to global climate policy. This paper is organized into four sections. The first section deals with benefit-cost analysis and capital budgeting as they are generally practiced and discusses the reasons why the traditional benefit-cost formulation is inadequate. The second section then discusses the case of one financial option, namely, the European Call Option and discusses some important results. The third section of the paper addresses some of the important results or principles derived in the literature on real options, and while most of the mathematics is not easily transferred nor relevant to the global climate policy, there are many principles that can be applied. In the fourth section the author discusses the implications of a real option environment for the policy process

1996-04-01

319

Expansion of global drylands under a warming climate  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Global drylands encompassing hyper-arid, arid, semiarid, and dry subhumid areas cover about 41% of the earth's terrestrial surface and are home to more than a third of the world's population. By analyzing observations for 1948–2008 and climate model simulations for 1948–2100, we show that global drylands have expanded in last sixty years and will continue to expand in the 21st century. By the end of this century, the world's drylands under a high greenhouse gas emission scenario ar...

Feng, S.; Fu, Q.

2013-01-01

320

Expansion of global drylands under a warming climate  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Global drylands encompassing hyper-arid, arid, semiarid, and dry subhumid areas cover about 41 percent of the earth's terrestrial surface and are home to more than a third of the world's population. By analyzing observations for 1948–2008 and climate model simulations for 1948–2100, we show that global drylands have expanded in the last sixty years and will continue to expand in the 21st~century. By the end of this century, the world's drylands (under a high greenhouse gas emission scenar...

Feng, S.; Fu, Q.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

What do global warming impacts really mean to U.S. industry?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper will explore real-world impacts that global warming could have on US industry. The question of dealing with global warming is, to some extent, an exercise in probability or relative risk management. The difficult part is separating fact from fiction. There is another issue that arises in this intense debate regarding impacts on business and policy. This is the question of whether the impacts are real or only perceived. As the authors have been seen in several environmental situations, the difference between a real or perceived impact can be academic, since a perceived risk often produces real impacts. This paper presents a discussion on what companies can and should do to minimize the perceived risk of global warming on their bottom lines. That is, the basic question is, how can businesses today manage this risk so that objective business decisions can be made? Problems that could be directly or indirectly embedded in the global warming controversy are examined. These include financial, engineering, and international aspects of global climate change. This discussion will include possible impacts on the utility, agricultural, insurance, and financial industries

1994-04-05

322

Quantifying the consensus on anthropogenic global warming in the scientific literature  

Science.gov (United States)

We analyze the evolution of the scientific consensus on anthropogenic global warming (AGW) in the peer-reviewed scientific literature, examining 11?944 climate abstracts from 1991-2011 matching the topics ‘global climate change’ or ‘global warming’. We find that 66.4% of abstracts expressed no position on AGW, 32.6% endorsed AGW, 0.7% rejected AGW and 0.3% were uncertain about the cause of global warming. Among abstracts expressing a position on AGW, 97.1% endorsed the consensus position that humans are causing global warming. In a second phase of this study, we invited authors to rate their own papers. Compared to abstract ratings, a smaller percentage of self-rated papers expressed no position on AGW (35.5%). Among self-rated papers expressing a position on AGW, 97.2% endorsed the consensus. For both abstract ratings and authors’ self-ratings, the percentage of endorsements among papers expressing a position on AGW marginally increased over time. Our analysis indicates that the number of papers rejecting the consensus on AGW is a vanishingly small proportion of the published research.

Cook, John; Nuccitelli, Dana; Green, Sarah A.; Richardson, Mark; Winkler, Bärbel; Painting, Rob; Way, Robert; Jacobs, Peter; Skuce, Andrew

2013-06-01

323

Effects of global warming on energy use for space heating and cooling in the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study uses a three-step approach to estimate the impact of global warming on U.S. energy expenditures for space heating and cooling in residential and commercial buildings. First, average results from six different global circulation models are used to estimate the change in heating and cooling degree days in five U.S. climate zones associated with a 1{degree} centigrade (C) global warming. Second, the change in degree days is mapped into a corresponding change in U.S. energy use for space conditioning, taking account of differences in population and baseline space conditioning intensity levels across regions, under the assumption that desired indoor temperature is unaffected by climate change. Finally, we estimate the associated change in energy expenditures. We find that a global warming of PC would reduce projected U.S. energy expenditures in 2010 by $5.5 billion (1991 dollars). This contrasts with earlier studies which have suggested modest global warming would increase U.S. expenditures on space conditioning energy. 21 refs., 2 tabs.

Rosenthal, D.H.; Gruenspecht, H.K.; Moran, E.A. [Department of Energy, Washington DC (United States)

1995-12-31

324

Understanding the ocean temperature change in global warming: the tropical Pacific  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The response mechanisms of the tropical Pacific Ocean temperature to increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} are investigated in a coupled climate model. Ensemble simulations are performed under both the transient and stable CO{sub 2} forcing. It is found that the dominant mechanism for temperature change differs in different stages of global warming. During the transient stage, the surface heat flux is a major driving factor for the tropical surface warming. During the equilibrium stage, the dominant mechanism to maintain the surface warming is the meridional advection. The heat flux forcing becomes a damping factor instead, particularly for the western tropical Pacific. Different from the surface warming, the subsurface warming results from the oceanic mixings during the entire period of global warming, whereas the advection terms generally play a cooling role, consistent with the slowdown of the shallow meridional overturning circulation. This paper emphasizes the deterministic role of the dynamic adjustment of the ocean circulation in the long-term change of ocean climate

Haijun Yang; Fuyao Wang (Dept. of Atmospheric Science, School of Physics, Peking Univ., 209 Chengfu Road, Beijing (China)); And Aidong Sun (Computer Center, Peking Univ., 5 Yihe Road, Beijing (China)). e-mail: hjyang@pku.edu.cn

2009-07-01

325

The MJO and global warming: a study in CCSM4  

Science.gov (United States)

The change in Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) amplitude and variance in response to anthropogenic climate change is assessed in the 1° nominal resolution community climate system model, version 4 (CCSM4), which has a reasonable representation of the MJO characteristics both dynamically and statistically. The twentieth century CCSM4 run is compared with the warmest twenty-first century projection (representative concentration pathway 8.5, or RCP8.5). The last 20 years of each simulation are compared in their MJO characteristics, including spatial variance distributions of winds, precipitation and outgoing longwave radiation, histograms of event amplitude, phase and duration, and composite maps of phases. The RCP8.5 run exhibits increased variance in intraseasonal precipitation, larger-amplitude MJO events, stronger MJO rainfall in the central and eastern tropical Pacific, and a greater frequency of MJO occurrence for phases corresponding to enhanced rainfall in the Indian Ocean sector. These features are consistent with the concept of an increased magnitude for the hydrological cycle under greenhouse warming conditions. Conversely, the number of active MJO days decreases and fewer weak MJO events occur in the future climate state. These results motivate further study of these changes since tropical rainfall variability plays such an important role in the region's socio-economic well being.

Subramanian, Aneesh; Jochum, Markus; Miller, Arthur J.; Neale, Richard; Seo, Hyodae; Waliser, Duane; Murtugudde, Raghu

2014-04-01

326

Patterns of change: whose fingerprint is seen in global warming?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Attributing observed climate change to causes is challenging. This letter communicates the physical arguments used in attribution, and the statistical methods applied to explore to what extent different possible causes can be used to explain the recent climate records. The methods use fingerprints of climate change that are identified on the basis of the physics governing our climate system, and through the use of climate model experiments. These fingerprints characterize the geographical and vertical pattern of the expected changes caused by external influences, for example, greenhouse gas increases and changes in solar radiation, taking also into account how these forcings and their effects vary over time. These time–space fingerprints can be used to discriminate between observed climate changes caused by different external factors. Attribution assessments necessarily take the natural variability of the climate system into account as well, evaluating whether an observed change can be explained in terms of this internal variability alone, and estimating the contribution of this source of variability to the observed change. Hence the assessment that a large part of the observed recent warming is anthropogenic is based on a rigorous quantitative analysis of these joint drivers and their effects, and proceeds through a much more comprehensive and layered analysis than a comparison at face value of model simulations with observations.

2011-01-01

327

Global warming and drainage development: perspective and challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Irrigated agriculture is expected to play a major role in reaching the broader development objectives of achieving food security and improvements in the quality of life, while conserving the environment, in both the developed and developing countries. Especially as we are faced with the prospect of global population growth from almost 6 billion today to at least 8 billion by 2025. In this context, the constraints posed by land and water scarcity and the associated need to increase the carryin...

Wrachien, D.; Feddes, R. A.

2004-01-01

328

Climate Change and Global Warming: Signs, Impact and Solutions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is no gain saying our Planet has changed fundamentally. Our World is undergoing a catastrophic climatic drift and is hotter today than it has been in two thousand years. Global temperatures are believed to be on an ever increasing high, with its attendant consequences and it is feared that the trend will continued if not controlled. Some of the causative agents/ indicators of this menace are human propelled and induced and can be curtailed to the barest minimum. The consequences of not ...

2013-01-01

329

Trade Liberalization as a Vehicle for Adapting to Global Warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study assesses the interaction between climate change and agricultural trade policies. We distinguish between two dimensions of agricultural trade policy: market insulation and subsidy levels. Building on the previous work of Tsigas, Frisvold and Kuhn (1997) we find that, in the presence of current levels of agricultural subsidies, increased price transmission --as called for under the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture-- reduces global welfare in the wake of climate change. This ...

1999-01-01

330

Expansion of global drylands under a warming climate  

Science.gov (United States)

Global drylands encompassing hyper-arid, arid, semiarid, and dry subhumid areas cover about 41 percent of the earth's terrestrial surface and are home to more than a third of the world's population. By analyzing observations for 1948-2008 and climate model simulations for 1948-2100, we show that global drylands have expanded in the last sixty years and will continue to expand in the 21st~century. By the end of this century, the world's drylands (under a high greenhouse gas emission scenario) are projected to be 5.8 × 106 km2 (or 10%) larger than in the 1961-1990 climatology. The major expansion of arid regions will occur over southwest North America, the northern fringe of Africa, southern Africa, and Australia, while major expansions of semiarid regions will occur over the north side of the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and North and South America. The global dryland expansions will increase the population affected by water scarcity and land degradations.

Feng, S.; Fu, Q.

2013-10-01

331

Expansion of global drylands under a warming climate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Global drylands encompassing hyper-arid, arid, semiarid, and dry subhumid areas cover about 41% of the earth's terrestrial surface and are home to more than a third of the world's population. By analyzing observations for 1948–2008 and climate model simulations for 1948–2100, we show that global drylands have expanded in last sixty years and will continue to expand in the 21st century. By the end of this century, the world's drylands under a high greenhouse gas emission scenario are projected to be 5.8 × 106 km2 (or 10% larger than in the 1961–1990 climatology. The major expansion of arid regions will occur over southwest North America, the northern fringe of Africa, southern Africa, and Australia, while major expansions of semiarid regions will occur over the north side of the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and North and South America. The global dryland expansions will increase the population affected by water scarcity and land degradations.

S. Feng

2013-06-01

332

Expansion of global drylands under a warming climate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Global drylands encompassing hyper-arid, arid, semiarid, and dry subhumid areas cover about 41 percent of the earth's terrestrial surface and are home to more than a third of the world's population. By analyzing observations for 1948–2008 and climate model simulations for 1948–2100, we show that global drylands have expanded in the last sixty years and will continue to expand in the 21st~century. By the end of this century, the world's drylands (under a high greenhouse gas emission scenario are projected to be 5.8 × 106 km2 (or 10% larger than in the 1961–1990 climatology. The major expansion of arid regions will occur over southwest North America, the northern fringe of Africa, southern Africa, and Australia, while major expansions of semiarid regions will occur over the north side of the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and North and South America. The global dryland expansions will increase the population affected by water scarcity and land degradations.

S. Feng

2013-10-01

333

Decarbonization of fossil fuels as a strategy to control global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the world reaching near-total consensus on the seriousness of the global warming impacts, and on the urgency to halt further warming, R & D efforts have intensified many-fold to find ways and means of global warming control. One of the avenues being explored is 'decarbonization' of fossil fuel use by either decarbonizing the fuels before they are burnt or by capturing the CO{sub 2} they emit on combustion. In this paper the various available options are reviewed in the context of their economic and environmental viability. It emerges that even as the goal is very enchanting, the possibility of it's realization appears remote. It also follows that the only sure method of reducing greenhouse gas emissions presently available to humankind is by reducing consumption of energy and other resources.

Abbasi, T.; Abbasi, S.A. [Pondicherry Central University, Pondicherry (India)

2011-05-15

334

Application of PIXE technique to studies on global warming/cooling effect of atmospheric aerosols  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the last decade, the importance of global warming has been recognized worldwide. Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in the global warming/cooling effects. The physicochemical properties of aerosol particles are fundamental to understanding such effects. In this study, the PIXE technique was applied to measure the average chemical properties of aerosols. Micro-PIXE was also applied to investigate the mixing state of the individual aerosol particle. The chemical composition data were used to estimate the optical properties of aerosols. The average values of aerosol radiative forcing were -1.53 w/m2 in Kyoto and +3.3 w/m2 in Nagoya, indicating cooling and warming effects respectively. The difference of radiative forcing in the two cities may be caused by the large difference in chemical composition of aerosols

2002-04-01

335

Estimate solar contribution to the global surface warming using the ACRIM TSI satellite composite  

CERN Document Server

We study, by using a wavelet decomposition methodology, the solar signature on global surface temperature data using the ACRIM total solar irradiance satellite composite by Willson and Mordvinov. These data present a +0.047%/decade trend between minima during solar cycles 21-23 (1980-2002). We estimate that the ACRIM upward trend might have minimally contributed $\\sim$10-30% of the global surface temperature warming over the period 1980-2002.

Scafetta, N; Scafetta, Nicola; West, Bruce J.

2005-01-01

336

More reflectivity for the soil to counteract the global-warming of the Earth  

CERN Document Server

It is argued that a dedicated effort to increase the reflectivity of the surface of our planet by means of, for example, metallic plates would induce an increase in the global albedo which would counteract in part the present global-warming process of the Earth. This could alleviate the urgency of reducing the CO2 emissions. The City of Zaragoza (Spain) is chosen to illustrate the likelihood of our arguments.

Tejedor, A

2009-01-01

337

An alternative to the Global Warming Potential for comparing climate impacts of emissions of greenhouse gases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Global Warming Potential (GWP) is used within the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as a metric for weighting the climatic impact of emissions of different greenhouse gases. The GWP has been subject to many criticisms because of its formulation, but nevertheless it has retained some favour because of the simplicity of its design and application, and its transparency compared to proposed alternatives. Here a new metric, which we call the Global Tem...

Shine, Keith P.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Stuber, Nicola

2003-01-01

338

Greenhouse gases, radiative forcing, global warming potential and waste management – an introduction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Management of post-consumer solid waste contributes to emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) representing about 3% of global anthropogenic GHG emissions. Most GHG reporting initiatives around the world utilize two metrics proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): radiative forcing (RF) and global warming potential (GWP). This paper provides a general introduction of the factors that define a GHG and explains the scientific background for estimating RF and GWP, thereby ...

Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter; Gentil, Emmanuel

2009-01-01

339

Mass Media and Global Warming: A Public Arenas Model of the Greenhouse Effect's Scientific Roots.  

Science.gov (United States)

Uses the Public Arenas model to examine the historical roots of the greenhouse effect issue as communicated in scientific literature from the early 1800s to modern times. Utilizes a constructivist approach to discuss several possible explanations for the rise and fall of global warming as a social problem in the scientific arena. (PA)

Neuzil, Mark

1995-01-01

340

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE ON VIOLENT CRIME: IMPLICATIONS FOR GLOBAL WARMING  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between ambient temperature and violent crime and to assess what that relationship may imply as the global climate warms. The relationship between temperature and violence has been described alternatively as a positive li...

 
 
 
 
341

Record Breaking Temperatures Seen as Evidence of Faster Rate of Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

This press release examines recent evidence that the rate of global warming is accelerating, and that in the past twenty-five years it achieved the rate of two degrees Celsius per century, a rate that had been predicted for the twenty-first century.

2000-02-22

342

Minding the carbon store: Weighing U.S. forestry strategies to slow global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

If global warming is to be slowed heat-trapping gases must be controlled but, in addition, carbon sinks must be expanded. This document provides economic, political and technical analyses for each of seven biotic policy options that are feasible for the US. Individual chapters were indexed separately for the data base

1991-01-01

343

Social Activism in Elementary Science Education: A Science, Technology, and Society Approach to Teach Global Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of a large-scale instructional intervention research, this study examined elementary students' science knowledge and awareness of social activism with regard to an increased greenhouse effect and global warming. The study involved fifth-grade students from five elementary schools of varying demographic makeup in a large urban school…

Lester, Benjamin T.; Ma, Li; Lee, Okhee; Lambert, Julie

2006-01-01

344

Beliefs and Willingness to Act about Global Warming: Where to Focus Science Pedagogy?  

Science.gov (United States)

Science educators have a key role in empowering students to take action to reduce global warming. This involves assisting students to understand its causes as well as taking pedagogical decisions that have optimal probabilities of leading to students being motivated to take actions based on empirically based science beliefs. To this end New South…

Skamp, Keith; Boyes, Eddie; Stanisstreet, Martin

2013-01-01

345

The effect of global warming on lightning frequencies  

Science.gov (United States)

The first attempt to model global lightning distributions by using the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM is reported. Three sets of observations showing the relationship between lightning frequency and cloud top height are shown. Zonally averaged lightning frequency observed by satellite are compared with those calculated using the GISS GCM, and fair agreement is found. The change in lightning frequency for a double CO2 climate is calculated and found to be nearly 2.23 x 10 exp 6 extra lightning flashes per day.

Price, Colin; Rind, David

1990-01-01

346

CO2 and solar radiation: cause of global warming?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A cause-effect relationship between global temperature as a climatic change indicator and some of the main forcing mechanisms (Atmospheric CO2 concentration, solar radiation and volcanic activity) are analyzed in this paper through time series analysis for the 1610-1990 AD period comparing trends and variability for the frequency spectrums. Temperature seems to fit the CO2 trend for the last century, but we found no cause-effect relationship for this interval. The frequency analysis shows a correlation between radiation and temperature for a period of 22 years. Volcanism presents an inverse relationship with temperature better seen at a decadal scale.

2010-01-01

347

Nuclear energy and global warming: a new economic view  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper tries to state energy situation and then energy policy globally in economic view and then offer the practical solution. Besides above questions, the most important questions that will be answered are: What is the energy position, in economic view? and what is the most important priority among environmental issues? According to present conditions and environmental challenges what is the way map for energy supply? Is the priority for environment and energy with an economic sight, in present and future, same as the past? (Author)

2009-07-01

348

Sensitivity of the regional response to global warming associated with land cover  

Science.gov (United States)

By now there is little doubt left about the fact that the increase in greenhouse gases (GHG) is producing global warming. The question is whether the regional response to the GHG effect is uniform or depends on the land characteristics and use. In this paper we show that the response is very dependent on the type of land cover and use, and desertic and urban areas get more than their "fair share" of GHG warming, whereas broadleaf forested areas have locally reduced warming. We use the Observation minus Reanalysis (OMR) surface temperature trends method suggested by Kalnay and Cai (Nature, 2003) to provide an estimate of the impact of surface effects on regional warming (or cooling). It takes advantage of the insensitivity of the NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis (NNR) to land surface type, and eliminates the natural variability due to changes in circulation (since they are also included in the reanalysis), thus separating surface effects from greenhouse warming. Kalnay et al. (JGR, 2006) showed that over the US the OMR average is small, but it has different regional signs, in good agreement with the regions of "urban heating and cooling" obtained by Hansen et al (JGR 2001). Lim et al. (GRL, 2005) compared two global observation-based data sets (CRU and GHCN) and two different global reanalyses (NCEP-NCAR and ERA40) and MODIS-derived land classes. The results (Figure 3) showed that the OMR trends have a strong dependence on the land-type, and that the OMR land-type dependence is similar using either the NCEP-NCAR or the ERA-40 Reanalyses. Not unexpectedly, the ERA40 trends have about half the amplitude, since this reanalysis uses air surface temperature observations indirectly (from an off-line OI analysis of surface temperature) to initialize the soil temperature and moisture, so that the ERA40 surface temperature are partially influenced by surface observations that are dependent on land surface properties. The results show that OMR warming over barren areas is larger than most other land types, and that urban areas show a large warming second only to barren areas. Croplands with agricultural activity show a larger warming than natural broadleaf forests. The overall assessment indicates surface warming is larger for areas that are barren, anthropogenically developed, or covered with needle-leaf forests. Lim et al (2006, submitted to JAMC) extended this study to establish the dependence of OMR on NDVI (and hence on the Leaf Area Index, LAI), and once again found very robust results. The results indicate that that OMR decreases with NDVI. Areas with little vegetation suffer from warming higher than their "fair GHG share", whereas for highly vegetated zones, the OMR is small or negative.

Kalnay, E.; Cai, M.; Lim, Y.

2007-05-01

349

How motor vehicles contribute to global warming and air pollution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this chapter, the authors describe ways in which motor vehicles are contributing to global climate change and health problems caused by air pollution. Globally, motor vehicles account for about a third of world oil consumption and about 14% of the world's carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel burning. For the US the figures are 50% of oil demand and about 25% of carbon dioxide emissions. Motor vehicles are the major source of ozone precursors and monitoring data suggest that ozone concentrations are increasing by about one percent per year in the northern hemisphere and are causing adverse effects on human health and on crops. A major source of chlorofluorocarbons in the atmosphere is motor vehicle air conditioning. Annually about 120,000 metric tons of CFCs are used in new vehicles and in serving air conditioners in older vehicles. According to the EPA, vehicle air conditioners accounted for about 16% of the total CFC use in the US during 1989. According to the Montreal Protocol, CFCs are to be completely phased out of new vehicles by the turn of the century, thus reducing the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer

1990-01-01

350

Comments on possible causes of recent global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The researcher shows that recent global temperature changes cannot be due to solar luminosity variations coincident with changes in solar cycle amplitudes, since this would violate causality. In addition, a related suggestion using solar cycle lengths instead of amplitudes appears highly unlikely, since time lags between changes in the cycle lengths and observed temperatures are very different from those calculated with a climate model. Finally, lag correlations between historical land and sea temperates indicate that ocean temperatures follow land temperatures by 15 or 20 yr. This means that the oceans' response time must be at least this long, if these temperature changes are due to some change in external forcing. It also suggests that this is in fact the case, since ''natural'' climate variations might well entail SSTs changing before LATs, which is not observed

1992-01-17

351

Is nuclear power part of Australia's global warming solutions?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Forty years ago, I was preparing for my final exams. Having studied electrical engineering and science part-time for seven years at the University of New South Wales, I did well enough to spend the following year doing honours in physics. I then went to the United Kingdom for doctoral studies at the University of York, supported by the UK Atomic Energy Authority. At the time, like most young physicists, I saw nuclear power as the clean energy source of the future. Here, I want to tell you why my professional experience has led me to reject that view. There is no serious doubt that climate change is real, it is happening now and its effects are accelerating. It is already causing serious economic impacts: reduced agricultural production, increased costs of severe events like fires and storms, and the need to consider radical, energy-intensive and costly water supply measures such as desalination plants. The alarming consequences of climate change have driven distinguished scientists like James Lovelock to conclude that the situation is desperate enough to reconsider our attitude to nuclear power. I agree with Lovelock about the urgency of the situation, but not about the response. The science is very clear. We need to reduce global greenhouse pollution by about 60%, ideally by 2050. To achieve that global target, allowing for the legitimate material expectations of poorer countries, Australia's quota will need to be at least as strong as the UK's goal of 60% by 2050 and preferably stronger. Our eventual goal will probably be to reduce our greenhouse pollution by 80-90%. How can we reach this ambitious target?

2007-03-01

352

Trace-gas greenhouse effect and global warming: Underlying principles and outstanding issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the developments that transformed the global warming problem from that arising solely from CO{sub 2} increase to the trace-gas greenhouse effect problem in which several non-CO{sub 2} gases, CFCs, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, O{sub 3} and others contribute as much as CO{sub 2}. Observed trace-gas increases, including CO{sub 2} increase, since the mid-19th century have enhanced the atmospheric greenhouse effect, G{sub a}, ({approx} 130 {+-} 5 W m{sup -2}) by about 2%. Without other competing factors, this heating should have committed the planet to a warming of about 1 to 1.5 K. The added radiative energy is maximum in the low latitudes and about a factor of two smaller in the polar regions. The largest effect of the warming is increased back radiation at the surface by as much as 6 to 8 W m{sup -2} per degree warming. Not all of this increased energy is balanced by surface emission; evaporation (and hence precipitation) increases to restore surface energy balance, by as much as 2 to 4% per degree warming. The increase in evaporation along with the increase in saturation vapor pressure of the warmer troposphere, contributes through the atmospheric dynamics to an increase in water vapor. This water vapor feedback enhances G{sub a} by another 1% per degree warming. Our ability to predict regional and transient effects, depends critically on resolving a number of outstanding issues, including: (i) Aerosol and stratospheric ozone effects; (ii) Response of the tropical convective cirrus clouds, the extra-tropical storm-track systems and persistent coastal stratus to both global warming and to regional emissions of aerosols; (iii) The causes of excess solar absorption in clouds; and (iv) Upper troposphere water vapor feedback effects 62 refs, 10 figs, 2 tabs

Ramanathan, V. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, CA (United States). Center for Clouds, Chemistry and Climate

1998-05-01

353

The potential impact of conservation, alternative energy sources, and reduced nonenergy emissions on global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this report, we examine two global energy consumption scenarios and corresponding nonenergy scenarios to determine how each will contribute to the greenhouse effect and global warming. A steady emissions trend scenario assumes only modest energy conservation and little change in the world's energy consumption patterns and nonenergy emissions. A reduced emissions trend scenario assumes significant conservation, switching from a more carbon-intensive energy source mix to a less intensive mix, and reducing nonenergy emissions. Based on the difference between the two scenarios' results, our conclusions are that it is possible to reduce global warming by over 50% using a combination of conservation and efficiency improvements, increased use of nuclear, geothermal, and solar/renewable energy sources, and reduced nonenergy emissions. 34 refs.

Aronson, E.A.; Edenburn, M.W.

1989-12-01

354

Global warming's impact on the performance of GSHP  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since heating and cooling systems of buildings consume 30-50% of the global energy consumption, increased efficiency of such systems means a considerable reduction in energy consumption. Ground source heat pumps (GSHP) are likely to play a central role in achieving this goal due to their high energy efficient performance. The efficiency of GSHP depends on the ground temperature, heating and cooling demands, and the distribution of heating and cooling over the year. However, all of these are affected by the ongoing climatic change. Consequently, global warming has direct effects on the GSHP performance. Within the framework of current study, heating and cooling demands of a reference building were calculated for different global warming scenarios in different climates i.e. cold, mild and hot climate. The prime energy required to drive the GSHP system is compared for each scenario and two configurations of ground heat exchangers. Current study shows that the ongoing climatic change has significant impact on GSHP systems. (author)

Kharseh, Mohamad; Altorkmany, Lobna; Nordell, Bo [Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Luleaa University of Technology, SE-97187 Luleaa (Sweden)

2011-05-15

355

Polar Low genesis over the North Pacific under different global warming scenarios  

Science.gov (United States)

Following an earlier climatological study of North Pacific Polar Lows by employing dynamical downscaling of NCEP1 reanalysis in the regional climate model COSMO-CLM, the characteristics of Polar Low genesis over the North Pacific under different global warming scenarios are investigated. Simulations based on three scenarios from the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios were conducted using a global climate model (ECHAM5) and used to examine systematic changes in the occurrence of Polar Lows over the twenty first century. The results show that with more greenhouse gas emissions, global air temperature would rise, and the frequency of Polar Lows would decrease. With sea ice melting, the distribution of Polar Low genesis shows a northward shift. In the scenarios with stronger warming there is a larger reduction in the number of Polar Lows.

Chen, Fei; von Storch, Hans; Zeng, Lili; Du, Yan

2014-03-01

356

Environmental impact assessment caused by global warming. Chikyu ondanka no eikyoryo hyoka to sono taisaku  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the considerations on the influence of the global warming on the environment, and the discussions on the measures against the climatic changes. With respect to the environmental effects by the global warming, the considerations were given based on the studies on the effects of mainly the Quaternary climatic changes on the surface sea water temperatures, sea level and animal flocks. If the magnitude of the climatic changes anticipated to occur during the 21st century is lower than that have taken place in the past 10,000 years during which the agricultural production has developed to a full-scale, there would be no fear of drastically changing the ecology on earth. If the estimation of future climatic and environmental changes becomes possible, then four basic positions could be selected for establishing the contermeasure plans. That is, the first is the measures to correspond to birth-rebirth transmigration; the second is the measures to carbon dioxide disposition upon concluding that the cause for the global warming is the atmospheric increase of carbon dioxide concentration, measures for conservation and international cooperation; the third is to deal with the warming environments; and the fourth is the means to reconstruct the earth. While a number of countermeasures may be prepared, Which of them should be selected will be decided by the amount of effects. 15 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Oshima, K. (Geological Survey of Japan, Tokyo (Japan))

1991-09-01

357

The impact of global warming on river runoff  

Science.gov (United States)

A global atmospheric model is used to calculate the annual river runoff for 33 of the world's major rivers for the present climate and for a doubled CO2 climate. The model has a horizontal resolution of 4 x 5 deg, but the runoff from each model grid box is quartered and added to the appropriate river drainage basin on a 2 x 2.5 deg resolution. The computed runoff depends on the model's precipitation, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture storage. For the doubled CO2 climate, the runoff increased for 25 of the 33 rivers, and in most cases the increases coincide with increased rainfall within the drainage basins. There were runoff increases in all rivers in high northern latitudes, with a maximum increase of 47 percent. At low latitudes there were both increases and decreases ranging from a 96 increase to a 43 percent decrease. The effect of the simplified model assumptions of land-atmosphere interactions on the results is discussed.

Miller, James R.; Russell, Gary L.

1992-01-01

358

Atmospheric aerosol characterisation at Cape Grim and Global Warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Australia Global Baseline monitoring station at Cape Grim in north western Tasmania is operated by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. ANSTO has been sampling, measuring and characterising fine particles of 2.5 {mu}m diameters and less (PM2.5) at Cape Grim since the middle of 1992. Accelerator based ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques [2-41 have been used to identify over 25 different elemental species present in over 500 filters collected to date. The elements measured by PIXE, PIGME, ERDA and RBS include, H, C, N, O, F, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb. Of the measured elements not listed the majority occurred at concentrations below 10 ng/m{sup 3}. The average monthly mass variations over the 5 year period from 1992 to 1997 are given. The average non-soil potassium was 92% of the total potassium, showing that the vast majority of fine potassium was associated with smoke from biomass burning. The highest lead value of 542 ng/m{sup 3} occurred on 21 June 1992 and was associated with 337 ng/m{sup 3} of bromine which, after correction for bromine in sea salt (Na was <20 ng/m{sup 3}), was about the correct ratio to be associated with combustion of leaded petrol in motor vehicles. Extended abstracts. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs.

Cohen, D.D.; Garton, D. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Physics Division

1998-06-01

359

Can the desert annual Salvia columbariae adapt to global warming?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Atmospheric concentrations of {open_quotes}greenhouse{close_quotes} gases are increasing, and most atmospheric scientists agree that an increase in global mean air temperatures will follow. The predictions about possible biological consequences range from {open_quotes}significant{close_quotes} to {open_quotes}catastrophic.{close_quotes} To explore the possible effects of elevated temperatures on a winter germinating desert annual, we grew seeds from two populations of Salvia columbariae in controlled environments mimicking normal temperatures for those populations and in temperatures 4 C higher. Measures of individual fitness were successful germination and the number of seeds produced. For both populations, fitness was dramatically lower in the elevated temperatures: both percent germination and seed number were significantly reduced. Sixty-five percent of the family groups (same mother) failed to flower under the elevated temperatures, whereas, all of the families grown in the normal temperatures flowered and produced seeds. There were also differences between families grown in the increased temperature treatments, implying genetic differences in high temperature tolerance. Our results suggest that while some families will be able to survive and adapt to elevated air temperatures, most will not. This could lead to a serious eroding of the genetic variability of these populations and possibly hamper their ability to respond to other kinds of environmental change.

Soulanille, E.L.; Bierzychudek, P. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)]|[Lewis and Clark College, Portland, OR (United States)

1995-06-01

360

The impact of global warming on seasonality of ocean primary production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The seasonal cycle (i.e. phenology) of oceanic primary production (PP) is expected to change in response to climate warming. Here, we use output from 6 global biogeochemical models to examine the response in the seasonal amplitude of PP and timing of peak PP to the IPCC AR5 warming scenario. We also investigate whether trends in PP phenology may be more rapidly detectable than trends in PP itself. The seasonal amplitude of PP decreases by an average of 1–2% per year by 2100 in most biomes, ...

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

The impact of global warming on seasonality of ocean primary production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The seasonal cycle (i.e. phenology) of oceanic primary production (PP) is expected to change in response to climate warming. Here, we use output from 6 global biogeochemical models to examine the response in the seasonal amplitude of PP and timing of peak PP to the IPCC AR5 warming scenario. We also investigate whether trends in PP phenology may be more rapidly detectable than trends in annual mean PP. The seasonal amplitude of PP decreases by an average of 1–2% per year by 2100 in most bio...

Henson, S.; Cole, H.; Beaulieu, C.; Yool, A.

2013-01-01

362

Forests between global warming and local wood use  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bæredygtigheden i udvidet træanvendelse til energiudnyttelse i atmosfæriske brændere er stillet til diskussion, fordi den accelererer den globale opvarmning for årtier og ofte intensiverer lokal luftforurening med alvorlige sundhedsskader til følge. Skovudviklingen i Danmark og �strig bliver sammenlignet, hvorved sidstnævnte inkluderer data om skiftende CO2-balancer. De gensidige relationer mellem brug af fossil energi og biomasse fremkommer i deres større kompleksitet. Der tages hensyn til den genanpasningstid der vedrører CO2 i atmosfæren efter afbrænding af biomasse såvel som usikkerheden af den fremtidige klimaregulering gennem skovene. Der gøres opmærksom på det fysiske faktum at der fremkommer et overskud af CO2-emissioner fra al slags biomasse, når den bliver brugt til at erstatte fossile brændsler, hvilket peger på en øget CO2-gæld fra træafbrænding. Bevislasten med at dokumentere, hvor stor en chance der kan regnes med for at opnå en målsætning om CO2-neutralitet inden for en given periode ligger under alle omstændigheder ved projekterne. Det afvises at promovere afbrænding af træ ved at udstede forhåndskreditter af CO2-neutralitet. CO2-emissioner fra træafbrænding burde indberettes sammen med nationale statistikker vedrørende terrestriske økosystemers udvikling for at fremme fuldstændige kulstofregnskaber. Alvorlige sundhedspåvirkninger fra lokal luftforurening gennem brænderøg burde udløse indgreb fra myndighedernes side. Træanvendelse til ikke-energetiske formål f.eks. i byggesektoren burde prioriteres.

Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

2009-01-01

363

The return to renewables: Will it help in global warming control?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For all but the last 250 years, mankind was almost entirely dependent on renewable energy, mainly from biomass and wind. Then the era of fossil fuels downed and we shifted away from renewables. But excessive use of fossil fuel has now precipitated existence-threatening climate change and ocean acidification. So the world is once again reverting to renewables in a big way. It is as if the human quest for energy has come full circle. But will this 'home coming' bail us out of the global environmental crisis? This paper says it will not as long as we do not drastically reduce the largely conspicuous and wasteful consumption. (author)

Abbasi, Tasneem; Premalatha, M.; Abbasi, S.A. [Centre for Pollution Control and Environmental Engineering, Pondicherry (Central) University, Pondicherry 605014 (India)

2011-01-15

364

Assessing Impacts of Global Warming on Tropical Cyclone Tracks  

Science.gov (United States)

A new approach is proposed to assess the possible impacts of the global climate change on tropical cyclone (TC) tracks in the western North Pacific (WNP) basin. The idea is based on the premise that the future change of TC track characteristics is primarily determined by changes in large-scale environmental steering flows. It is demonstrated that the main characteristics of the current climatology of TC tracks can be derived from the climatological mean velocity field of TC motion by using a trajectory model. The climatological mean velocity of TC motion, which is composed of the large-scale steering and beta drift, is determined on each grid of the basin. The mean beta drift is estimated from the best track data, and the mean large-scale steering flow is computed from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis for the current climate state. The derived mean beta drift agrees well with the results of previous observational and numerical studies in terms of its direction and magnitude. The outputs of experiments A2 and B2 of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) R30 climate model suggest that the subtropical high will be persistently weak over the western part of the WNP or shift eastward during July-September in response to the future climate change. By assuming that the mean beta drift in the future climate state is unchanged, the change in the general circulation by 2059 will decrease the TC activities in the WNP, but favor a northward shift of typical TC tracks. As a result, the storm activities in the South China Sea will decrease by about 12%, while the Japan region will experience an increase of TCs by 12-15%. During the period of 2000-2029, the tropical storms that affect the China region will increase by 5-6%, but return to the current level during 2030-2059. It is also suggested that, during the period of 2030-2059 tropical storms will more frequently affect Japan and the middle latitude region of China given that the formation locations remain the same as in the current climate state.

Wu, Li-Guang; Wang, Bin

2003-01-01

365

Tropical agriculture and global warming: impacts and mitigation options Agricultura tropical e aquecimento global: impactos e opções de mitigação  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The intensive land use invariably has several negative effects on the environment and crop production if conservative practices are not adopted. Reduction in soil organic matter (SOM) quantity means gas emission (mainly CO2, CH4, N2O) to the atmosphere and increased global warming. Soil sustainability is also affected, since remaining SOM quality changes. Alterations can be verified, for example, by soil desegregation and changes in structure. The consequences are erosion, reduction in nutrie...

Cerri, Carlos Eduardo P.; Gerd Sparovek; Martial Bernoux; Easterling, Willian E.; Melillo, Jerry M.; Carlos Clemente Cerri

2007-01-01

366

On the change of flood and drought occurrence frequency due to global warming : 2. Estimation of the change in daily rainfall depth distribution due to global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 60 years when the double CO{sub 2} concentration is anticipated the average annual rainfall depth is expected to be increased by 5-10% due to global warming. However, in the water resources area the frequency change of meteorological extremes such as droughts and floods attracts more interests than the increase of annual rainfall amount. Even though recent frequent occurrences of this kind of meteorological extremes are assumed as an indirect proof of global warming, the prediction of its overall tendency has not yet been made. Thus, in this research we propose a possible methodology to be used for its prediction. The methodology proposed is based on the frequency distribution of daily rainfall by Todorovic and Woolhiser(1975), and Katz(1977), where the input parameters are modified to consider the change of monthly or annual rainfall depth and, thus, to result in the change of frequency distribution. We adopt two values(10 mm, 50 mm) as thresholds and investigate the change of occurrence probability due to the change of monthly and annual rainfall depth. These changes do not directly indicate the changes of occurrence probability of floods and droughts, but it may still be a very useful information for their prediction. Finally, the changes of occurrence probability were found to be greater when considering the monthly rainfall rather than the annual rainfall, and those in rainy season than those in dry season. (author). 16 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs.

Yoon, Yong-Nam; Yoo, Chulsang; Ahn, Jae-Hyun [Korea University, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Jae-Soo [Jeonju University, Jeonju (Korea)

1999-12-31

367

Improved time-space method for 3-D heat transfer problems including global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, the Time-Space Method (TSM) which has been proposed for solving general heat transfer and fluid flow problems was improved in order to cover global and urban warming. The TSM is effective in almost all-transient heat transfer and fluid flow problems, and has been already applied to the 2-D melting problems (or moving boundary problems). The computer running time will be reduced to only 1/100th--1/1000th of the existing schemes for 2-D and 3-D problems. However, in order to apply to much larger-scale problems, for example, global warming, urban warming and general ocean circulation, the SOR method (or other iterative methods) in four dimensions is somewhat tedious and provokingly slow. Motivated by the above situation, the authors improved the speed of iteration of the previous TSM by introducing the following ideas: (1) Timewise chopping: Time domain is chopped into small peaches to save memory requirement; (2) Adaptive iteration: Converged region is eliminated for further iteration; (3) Internal selective iteration: Equation with slow iteration speed in iterative procedure is selectively iterated to accelerate entire convergence; and (4) False transient integration: False transient term is added to the Poisson-type equation and the relevant solution is regarded as a parabolic equation. By adopting the above improvements, the higher-order finite different schemes and the hybrid mesh, the computer running time for the TSM is reduced to some 1/4600th of the conventional explicit method for a typical 3-D natural convection problem in a closed cavity. The proposed TSM will be more efficacious for large-scale environmental problems, such as global warming, urban warming and general ocean circulation, in which a tremendous computing time would be required.

Saitoh, T.S.; Wakashima, Shinichiro

1999-07-01

368

A probabilistic quantification of the anthropogenic component of twentieth century global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines in detail the statement in the 2007 IPCC Fourth Assessment Report that "Most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid-twentieth century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations". We use a quantitative probabilistic analysis to evaluate this IPCC statement, and discuss the value of the statement in the policy context. For forcing by greenhouse gases (GHGs) only, we show that there is a greater than 90 % probability that the expected warming over 1950-2005 is larger than the total amount (not just "most") of the observed warming. This is because, following current best estimates, negative aerosol forcing has substantially offset the GHG-induced warming. We also consider the expected warming from all anthropogenic forcings using the same probabilistic framework. This requires a re-assessment of the range of possible values for aerosol forcing. We provide evidence that the IPCC estimate for the upper bound of indirect aerosol forcing is almost certainly too high. Our results show that the expected warming due to all human influences since 1950 (including aerosol effects) is very similar to the observed warming. Including the effects of natural external forcing factors has a relatively small impact on our 1950-2005 results, but improves the correspondence between model and observations over 1900-2005. Over the longer period, however, externally forced changes are insufficient to explain the early twentieth century warming. We suggest that changes in the formation rate of North Atlantic Deep Water may have been a significant contributing factor.

Wigley, T. M. L.; Santer, B. D.

2013-03-01

369

What controls the response of Agulhas leakage to global warming? A multi-model perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

Agulhas leakage is a crucial component of the climate system whereby warm and saline water from the Indian Ocean flows to the Atlantic Ocean. Recent studies suggest that the magnitude of the Agulhas Leakage is determined by the strength of the Agulhas current and the latitudinal position of maximum zonal wind stress or zero wind stress curl. Using outputs from 19 CMIP3 and CMIP5 models, two factors mentioned above are verified. In the 20th century, wind stress curl in the Indian Ocean shifts poleward and its strength south of Africa increases but decreases in east coast of Africa. As a result of the change in the wind stress curl, the supergyre circulation shifts southward and strengthens, but the Agulhas Current decreases. Aggregated over the 19 models, there is a good relationship between the global warming rate, especially the warming rate in the Indian Ocean, and the size of the modelled Agulhas leakage: as greenhouse warming proceed, the wind stress curl in mid-latitudes of the South Hemisphere shifts poleward, the supergyre circulation, which is forced by wind stress curl, in response, shifts southward and intensifies south of Africa, leading to a stronger Agulhas leakage. Models with a greater warming tend to produce a greater leakage.

Wang, G.; Cai, W.

2012-12-01

370

The mid-Cretaceous super plume, carbon dioxide, and global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbon-dioxide releases associated with a mid-Cretaceous super plume and the emplacement of the Ontong-Java Plateau have been suggested as a principal cause of the mid-Cretaceous global warming. A carbonate-silicate cycle model is developed to quantify the possible climatic effects of these CO2 releases, utilizing four different formulations for the rate of silicate-rock weathering as a function of atmospheric CO2. CO2 emissions resulting from super-plume tectonics could have produced atmospheric CO2 levels from 3.7 to 14.7 times the modern preindustrial value of 285 ppm. Based on the temperature sensitivity to CO2 increases used in the weathering-rate formulations, this would cause a global warming of from 2.8 to 7.7 C over today's glogal mean temperature. Altered continental positions and higher sea level may have been contributed about 4.8 C to mid-Cretaceous warming. Thus, the combined effects of paleogeographic changes and super-plume related CO2 emissions could be in the range of 7.6 to 12.5 C, within the 6 to 14 C range previously estimated for mid-Cretaceous warming. CO2 releases from oceanic plateaus alone are unlikely to have been directly responsible for more than 20 percent of the mid-Cretaceous increase in atmospheric CO2.

Caldeira, Ken; Rampino, Michael R.

1991-01-01

371

The Origins and Consequences of democratic citizens' Policy Agendas. A Study of Popular Concern about Global Warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article proposes and tests a model of the causes and consequences of Americans' judgments of the national seriousness of global warming. The model proposes that seriousness judgments about global warming are a function of beliefs about the existence of global warming, attitudes toward it, the certainty with which these beliefs and attitudes are held, and beliefs about human responsibility for causing global warming and people's ability to remedy it. The model also proposes that beliefs about whether global warming is a problem are a function of relevant personal experiences (with the weather) and messages from informants (in this case, scientists), that attitudes toward global warming are a function of particular perceived consequences of global warming, and that certainty about these attitudes and beliefs is a function of knowledge and prior thought. Data from two representative sample surveys offer support for all of these propositions, document effects of national seriousness judgments on support for ameliorative efforts generally and specific ameliorative policies, and thereby point to psychological mechanisms that may be responsible for institutional and elite impact on the public's assessments of national problem importance and on public policy preferences.

Krosnick, J.A. [Departments of Communication, Political Science, and Psychology, Stanford University, 432 McClatchy Hall, 450 Serra Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Holbrook, A.L. [Departments of Public Administration and Psychology, Survey Research Laboratory, MC336, University of Illinois at Chicago, 412 S Peoria St., Sixth Floor, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Lowe, L. [NFO Ad: Impact, 44 Montgomery St., Suite 2090, San Francisco, CA 94104 (United States); Visser, P.S. [Department of Psychology, University of Chicago, 5848 S. University Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

2006-07-15

372

Non-traditional long-lived chemicals/gases likely to contribute to global warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comprehensive list of chemical compounds was selected from chemicals reported to EPA under the Chemical Update System and that are on the TSCA Inventory as well as other commercial chemicals, such as pesticides and potential CFC and halon replacements. Measured or estimated physical/chemical properties were collected and used to evaluate chemicals that have the potential to contribute to global warming. Factors such as boiling point, vapor pressure, hydroxyl radical rate constant, and functional group of chemicals that may absorb in the infrared between 7 to 1 3 um (window region) were used for selection. Over 30,000 commercial chemicals are being screened and a list of potential global warming chemicals will be presented.

Tunkel, J.L.; Howard, P.H.; Aronson, D. [Syracuse Research Corp., NY (United States); Dutrow, E.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-12-31

373

Driving forces: Motor vehicle trends and their implications for global warming, energy strategies, and transportation planning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cars, trucks, and other vehicles have long been linked to smog and other urban pollution, but the part they play in the larger complex of atmospheric and energy ills that we now face is often overlooked. In Driving Forces: Motor Vehicle Trends and Their Implications for Global Warming, Energy Strategies, and Transportation Planning, James J. MacKenzie, senior associate in World Resources Institute's Program in Climate, Energy, and Pollution, and Michael P. Walsh, an international consultant on transportation and environmental issues, fill in this knowledge gap with new data and analyses. They spell out four policy shifts that can help hold the line on global warming: improve new-vehicle efficiency; make transportation more efficient; cut other greenhouse gas emissions; create the green car of the future. The report focuses especially on the US, which pioneered the automotive revolution and leads the world in oil imports and emissions

1990-01-01

374

A historical perspective of Global Warming Potential from Municipal Solid Waste Management  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) sector has developed considerably during the past century, paving the way for maximum resource (materials and energy) recovery and minimising environmental impacts such as global warming associated with it. The current study is assessing the historical development of MSWM in the municipality of Aalborg, Denmark throughout the period of 1970 to 2010, and its implications regarding Global Warming Potential (GWP(100)), using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. Historical data regarding MSW composition, and different treatment technologies such as incineration, recycling and composting has been used in order to perform the analysis. The LCA results show a continuous improvement in environmental performance of MSWM from 1970 to 2010 mainly due to the changes in treatment options, improved efficiency of various treatment technologies and increasing focus on recycling, resulting in a shift from net emission of 618 kg CO(2)-eq.tonne(-1) to net saving of 670 kg CO(2)-eq.tonne(-1) of MSWM.

Habib, K.

2013-01-01

375

Preventive measures of global warming due to cars in the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Preventive measures of global warming due to cars in the United States were reviewed. In the United States, presently cars are responsible for nearly 25% of carbon dioxide emission, and the only way to decrease the emission from a car consuming carbonaceous fuel is to decrease its fuel consumption. On the other hand, the best alternative fossil fuels offer a carbon dioxide reduction of nearly 20%. Without introducing any new greenhouse-gas controls, it is projected that the total greenhouse-gas contribution of the average car will be halved from recent levels just through fleet turnover and already planned elimination of the current air-conditioning refrigerant. If global warming develops into a serious problem, cars can be operated without fossil fuel. Leading options include battery-electric cars using nuclear power and engine-propelled cars burning biomass-derived alcohol or hydrogen extracted from water with solar cells or nuclear power. 21 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

Amann, C. (General Motors Research Laboratories Reserch Fellow, (USA))

1990-11-16

376

A Historical Perspective of Global Warming Potential from Municipal Solid Waste Management  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) sector has developed considerably during the past century, paving the way for maximum resource (materials and energy) recovery and minimising environmental impacts such as global warming associated with it. The current study is assessing the historical development of MSWM in the municipality of Aalborg, Denmark throughout the period of 1970 to 2010, and its implications regarding Global Warming Potential (GWP100), using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. Historical data regarding MSW composition, and different treatment technologies such as incineration, recycling and composting has been used in order to perform the analysis. The LCA results show a continuous improvement in environmental performance of MSWM from 1970 to 2010 mainly due to the changes in treatment options, improved efficiency of various treatment technologies and increasing focus on recycling, resulting in a shift from net emission of 618 kg CO2-eq. tonneâ??1 to net saving of 670 kg CO2-eq. tonneâ??1 of MSWM.

Habib, Komal; Schmidt, Jannick Højrup

2013-01-01

377

Argument in the greenhouse. The international economics of controlling global warming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book adds a significant new contribution to the crucial climate change/global warming debate. Incorporating the key political and legal considerations into 'real world' applied economic analysis, the authors provide a unique focus on the wider political economy of the problem. All the key issues of controlling climate change (costs, timing and degree of stabilisation, ecological tax reform, developing countries, and evolution of international agreements), are placed firmly within the current legal and political economy context, with state-of-the art economic techniques introduced to analyse different policy proposals. Covering both the developing and developed world, this book identifies important new policies to foster effective agreements on emissions and prevent global warming - realistic policies, likely to receive support at both international and domestic levels. (Author)

1997-01-01

378

The Effects of Concept Cartoons on Eliminating Students’ Misconceptions: Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the study is to examine the effects of concept cartoons on eliminating students’ misconceptions about the global warming and greenhouse effect. The sample of the study is consisted of 17 students from the 7 grade of Rize Çay Primary School. Simple experimental study design was used in the study. Test and semi-structured interview were used to collect the data. The results of the study showed that the students had misconceptions about global warming and greenhouse effect. The teaching process comprising concept cartoons treated most of these misconceptions. Students indicated that the teaching process was enjoyable and it eased the students’ remembering of the given knowledge. Based on the results, it was suggested that the teachers should be informed about the usage of concept cartoon in the classroom and combination of different teaching methods which is supported by concept cartoon may be more useful for different science subjects.

Lale Cerrah Ozsevgeç

2012-10-01

379

Linking Weak and Strong Sustainability Indicators: The Case of Global Warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this paper is to describe and discuss the weak and strong sustainability approach of assessing climate change and to show reasonable applications, weaknesses, possible improvements and linkages of both approaches. Main features of ?weak? and ?strong? sustainability approaches are characterized. Damage cost studies of global warming representing weak sustainability indicators are discussed. Further, the examples of the ?inverse scenario? approach of the German Advisory Council on Gl...

Rennings, Klaus; Hohmeyer, Olav

1997-01-01

380

ANALYSING THE FORMS OF TOURIST TRANSPORTATION WITH MAJOR EFFECT ON GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract: The paper presents the forms of tourist transport with a major effect on global warming and, implicitly, on sustainable development. Tourism is largely affected by the climatic change; however, at the same time, it has a significant contribution to the worldwide emission of greenhouse effect gases. Between tourism and transport, particularly air transport, there is a close connection, especially at the international level. More than 40% of internatio...

Ionela Cristina Micu; Loredana Tu??; Daniela Mihai

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

THE GLOBAL WARMING AWARENESS AMONG THE TEACHERS IN THE FIRST TRIAD OF PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN ZASAVJE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Various measurements have shown that Earth’s atmosphere temperature is rising all around the globe. Theories demonstrate us different causes and consequences of this process. Furthermore, proofs are seen directly in nature worldwide. Subject called Comprehension of Environment is realized in the first three grades of primary school. With this diploma assignment we wanted to research how well are the teachers of the first three grades informed about the global warming, and how do they realiz...

2009-01-01

382

Global warming-enhanced stratification and mass mortality events in the Mediterranean  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Summer conditions in the Mediterranean Sea are characterized by high temperatures and low food availability. This leads to “summer dormancy” in many benthic suspension feeders due to energetic constraints. Analysis of the most recent 33-year temperature time series demonstrated enhanced stratification due to global warming, which produced a ?40% lengthening of summer conditions. Many biological processes are expected to be affected by this trend, culminating in such events as mass morta...

Coma, Rafel; Ribes, Marta; Serrano, Eduard; Jime?nez, Eroteida; Salat, Jordi; Pascual, Josep

2009-01-01

383

Influence of weather and global warming in chloride ingress into concrete: a stochastic approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Reinforced concrete (RC) structures are subject to environmental actions affecting their performance, serviceability and safety. Among these actions, chloride ingress leads to corrosion and has been recognized as a critical factor reducing the service life of RC structures. This paper presents a stochastic approach to study the influence of weather conditions and global warming on chloride ingress into concrete. The assessment of chloride ingress is carried out on the basis of a comprehensive...

Bastidas-arteaga, Emilio; Chateauneuf, Alaa; Sa?nchez-silva, Mauricio; Bressolette, Philippe; Schoefs, Franck

2010-01-01

384

The Zero Discounting and Maximin Optimal Paths in a Simple Model of Global Warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Following Stollery (1998), we extend the Solow-- Dasgupta--Heal model to analyze the effects of global warming The rise of temperature is caused by the use of fossil resources so that the temperature level can be linked to the remaining stock of these resources. The rise of temperature affects both productivity and utility. We characterize optimal solutions for the maximin and zero-discounting cases and present closed form solutions for the case where the production and utility functions are ...

D Autume, Antoine; Hartwick, John; Schubert, Katheline

2010-01-01

385

Transcriptomic resilience to global warming in the seagrass Zostera marina, a marine foundation species  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Large-scale transcription profiling via direct cDNA sequencing provides important insights as to how foundation species cope with increasing climatic extremes predicted under global warming. Species distributed along a thermal cline, such as the ecologically important seagrass Zostera marina, provide an opportunity to assess temperature effects on gene expression as a function of their long-term adaptation to heat stress. We exposed a southern and northern European population of Zostera marin...

Franssen, Susanne U.; Gu, Jenny; Bergmann, Nina; Winters, Gidon; Klostermeier, Ulrich C.; Rosenstiel, Philip; Bornberg-bauer, Erich; Reusch, Thorsten B. H.

2011-01-01

386

Global Warming Potential Implications and Methodological Challenges of Road Transport Emissions in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study is to examine the repercussions vehicular road transport emissions have on global warming potential (GWP), and the need to address the issue considering methodological challenges facing road transportation in Nigeria. Specific objectives of the study includes to determine the emission level in the country, to evaluate the GWP and to develop a emission mapping network on trunk A roads in Nigeria. Accurate information on these emissions is required to strengthen the mi...

Nwanya, S. C.; Offili, I.

2012-01-01

387

Statistical Examination of Frost Characterization: A Case of Global Warming Impact in Jordan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Radiation and advection frost are common in Jordan as well as other neighboring countries as they face several frost waves each year during the late months of winter. Recently, many frost episodes hit the valley and damaged the crops that were compensated by millions of dollars by the Jordanian Government. This manuscript addresses and characterizes frost, and assesses the role of global warming in impacting frost in terms of its frequency, severity, and total number of frost days per year. A...

Hamdi, Moshrik R.; Mahmoud Abu Alaban; Mohammed Jaber

2011-01-01

388

Feedback of global warming to soil carbon cycling in forest ecosystems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thus in this study the simulation of soil carbon cycling and dynamics of its storage in several types of mature forests developed from the cool-temperate to the tropics was carried out for quantitatively assessing carbon loss from the soil under several scenarios of global warming, based on the model of soil carbon cycling in forest ecosystems (Nakane et al. 1984, 1987 and Nakane 1992). (J.P.N.)

1992-03-27

389

Effects of global warming on floods and droughts and related water quality of rivers:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This review focuses on the effect of global warming on droughts, rainstorms and floods and related water quality of rivers. Relations of temperature, rainstorms and river discharges with water quality variables like water temperature, chemical concentrations and microbiological activity are discussed. Examples out of literature are given, mainly for Europe and The Netherlands. Due to the background of Kiwa, the focus has been on water quality variables that are interesting for drinking wa...

Jong, B.

2006-01-01

390

Farmers’ Adaptive Capacity towards the Impacts of Global Warming: A Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Global warming has been detected in Malaysia, and is predicted to worsen in the future. Agriculture is highly dependent on weather stability, and warmer climates are expected to cause formidable challenges to industry. This paper focuses on the impacts of rising temperatures on the environment and farmers’ socio-economic situations. Data were obtained through a literature review and document analyses. It can be concluded that rising temperatures have had direct effects on agricultural produ...

Mas Ernawati Hamdan; Norsida Man; Sulaiman Md Yassin; Jeffrey Lawrence D’Silva; HayrolAzril Mohamed Shaffril

2013-01-01

391

Modelling the economic impact of global warming in a general equilibrium framework  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The issue of global warming has become a major topic in the international environmental debate. Alternative climate policy measures can be evaluated with the help of a simulation model that integrates economic and natural science considerations. A fully integrated assessment of the two-way relationship between the world economy and the climate system requires the incorporation of the repercussions of climate change on economic processes into the analysis. This paper seeks to review the contri...

Kurtze, Christiane; Springer, Katrin

1999-01-01

392

Effects of Global Warming on Predatory Bugs Supported by Data Across Geographic and Seasonal Climatic Gradients  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Global warming may affect species abundance and distribution, as well as temperature-dependent morphometric traits. In this study, we first used historical data to document changes in Orius (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) species assemblage and individual morphometric traits over the past seven decades in Israel. We then tested whether these changes could have been temperature driven by searching for similar patterns across seasonal and geographic climatic gradients in a present survey. The histo...

Schuldiner-harpaz, Tarryn; Coll, Moshe

2013-01-01

393

Developing Countries facing Global Warming: a Post-Kyoto Assessment. Round-table Debate  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reports the results of a round-table debate organized by the Royal Academy for Overseas Sciences (RAOS) on Developing Countries facing Global Warming: a Post-Kyoto Assessment (Brussels, 13 June, 2009) to highlight the view of developing countries on adaptation to and mitigation of climate change. The participants convened to discuss the various aspects of climate change impacts and adaptation in developing countries preceding the Copenhagen Conference (UNFCCC COP 15) in December 20...

Ozer, Pierre

2010-01-01

394

High Mountain Melt-Down:Local Perceptions of Global Warming in the Andes and Himalayas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Present scientific knowledge about global warming affirms that ice and snow packs in the high mountains of the world are melting at increasing rates (see IPCC 2007 and UNEP 2007). Melting glaciers and receding snowlines jeopardize seasonal stream and river systems in arid regions of the world and threaten the livelihood of farmers who utilize the meltwater for irrigation. This study contrasts two case studies in the Himalayas of Nepal and the Central Andes of Perú to gauge the impacts of the...

2008-01-01

395

High Mountain Melt-Down: Local Perceptions of Global Warming in the Andes and Himalayas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Present scientific knowledge about global warming affirms that ice and snow packs in the high mountains of the world are melting at increasing rates (see IPCC 2007 and UNEP 2007). Melting glaciers and receding snowlines jeopardize seasonal stream and river systems in arid regions of the world and threaten the livelihood of farmers who utilize the meltwater for irrigation. This study contrasts two case studies in the Himalayas of Nepal and the Central Andes of Perú to gauge the impacts of the...

2008-01-01

396

Recycling of paper: Accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been established for recycling of paper waste with focus on a material recovery facility (MRF). The MRF upgrades the paper and cardboard waste before it is delivered to other industries where new paper or board products are produced. The accounting showed that the GHG contributions from the upstream activities and operational activities, with global warming factors (GWFs) of respectively 1 to 29 and 3 to 9 kg CO2-eq. tonne— 1 paper waste, were small in co...

Merrild, Hanna Kristina; Damgaard, Anders; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

2009-01-01

397

Model predictive control, the economy, and the issue of global warming  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study is motivated by the evidence of global warming, which is caused by human activity but affects the efficiency of the economy. We employ the integrated assessment Nordhaus DICE-2007 model [16]. Generally speaking, the framework is that of dynamic optimization of the discounted inter-temporal utility of consumption, taking into account the economic and the environmental dynamics. The main novelty is that several reasonable types of behavior (policy) of the economic agents, which may b...

2010-01-01

398

Global warming in the twenty-first century: an alternative scenario  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A common view is that the current global warming rate will continue to accelerate. But the authors argue that rapid warming in recent decades has been driven mainly by non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as chlorofluorocarbons, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, not by the products of fossil fuel burning, CO{sub 2} and aerosols, the positive and negative climate forcings of which are partially offsetting. The growth rate of non-CO{sub 2} GHGs has declined in the past decade. If sources of CH{sub 4} and O{sub 3} precursors were reduced in the future, the change in climate forcing by non-CO{sub 2} GHGs in the next 50 years could be near zero. Combined with a reduction of black carbon emissions and plausible success in slowing CO{sub 2} emissions, this reduction of non-CO{sub 2} GHGs could lead to a decline in the rate of global warming, reducing the danger of dramatic climate change. Such a focus on air pollution has practical benefits that unite the interests of developed and developing countries. However, assessment of ongoing and future climate change requires composition-specific long-term global monitoring of aerosol properties. 71 refs., 5 figs., 1 tabs.

Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Ruedy, R.; Lacis, A.; Oinas, V. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, NY (United States)

2000-08-29

399

When do increasing carbon taxes accelerate global warming? A note on the green paradox  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 'green paradox' by Hans-Werner Sinn suggests that increasing resource taxes accelerate global warming because resource owners increase near-term extraction in fear of higher future taxation. In this note we show that this effect does only occur for the specific set of carbon taxes that increase at a rate higher than the effective discount rate of the resource owners. We calculate a critical initial value for the carbon tax that leads to a decreased cumulative consumption over the entire (infinite) time horizon. Applying our formal findings to carbon taxes for several mitigation targets, we conclude that there is a low risk of a green paradox in case the regulator implements and commits to a permanently mal-adjusted tax. This remaining risk can be avoided by emissions trading scheme as suggested by Sinn-as long as the emission caps are set appropriately and the intertemporal permit market works correctly. - Research highlights: {yields} Fast increasing carbon taxes accelerate global warming if they start at a low level. {yields} Appropriately high carbon taxes can always reduce cumulative emissions. {yields} Many existing tax proposals are unlikely to accelerate global warming. {yields} Capital income taxes cannot reduce cumulative emissions.

Edenhofer, Ottmar [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, PO Box 601203, 14412 Potsdam (Germany); Technische Universitaet Berlin, Strasse des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Kalkuhl, Matthias, E-mail: kalkuhl@pik-potsdam.d [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, PO Box 601203, 14412 Potsdam (Germany)

2011-04-15

400

Collection, transfer and transport of waste: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contribution  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The collection, transfer and transport of waste are basic activities of waste management systems all over the world. These activities all use energy and fuels, primarily of fossil origin. Electricity and fuel consumptions of the individual processes were reviewed and greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions were quantified. The emission factors were assigned a global warming potential (GWP) and aggregated into global warming factors (GWFs), which express the potential contribution to global warming from collection, transport and transfer of 1 tonne of wet waste. Six examples involving collection, transfer and transport of waste were assessed in terms of GHG emissions, including both provision and use of energy. (GHG emissions related to production, maintenance and disposal of vehicles, equipment, infrastructure and buildings were excluded.) The estimated GWFs varied from 9.4 to 368 kg CO2-equivalent (kg CO2-eq.) per tonne of waste, depending on method of collection, capacity and choice of transport equipment, andtravel distances. The GHG emissions can be reduced primarily by avoiding transport of waste in private cars and by optimization of long distance transport, for example, considering transport by rail and waterways.

Eisted, Rasmus; Larsen, Anna Warberg

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Assessment of probable effects of global warming. Chikyu ondan ka no eikyo hyoka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Global warming induced by carbon dioxide is a serious environmental problem. This paper explains the effects of carbon dioxide on climate warming by referring to the results of recent studies. The relationship between the concentration of the greenhouse effect gas (GEG) and the equilibrated rising degree of global average temperature was published in 1985 by using a one-dimensional radiation-convection equilibrium model. As to the effects of GEG based on its increase in concentration, there are a direct effect which is revealed as the activation of photosynthesizing action and an indirect effect which is reflected in climate change. From the direct effect, the increase in crop yield is expected, but the restraint of vaporization due to the decrease in the opening degree of stomata is estimated. The indirect effect will be revealed as the change in thermal condition, change in hydrological condition and rise of sea level. To these effects, global circulation models (GCM) and local climate models (LCM) are proposed, and for assessing the impact of climate warming, various kinds of response models are published. 22 refs., 6 figs.

Uchijima, Z. (Ochanomizu Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

1990-12-05

402

Investigational report on the trend of measures for global warming; Chikyu ondanka taisaku doko chosa hokokusho  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To know the trend of measures taken for global warming, conducted were overseas surveys, participation in academic society meetings, and literature surveys. The phaseout time of all ozone depleting substances responsible for the ozonospherial destruction was determined for both developed and developing countries in the 7th Meeting of countries which concluded the Montreal Protocol. As information on measures for protecting the ozonosphere, introduced was activities under United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). New fluorine containing ethers were introduced as cleaning solvent which causes no ozonospherial destruction and is low in global warming index. Toxicity data were obtained on HFC-236ea and HFC-236fa which are promising substitutes in HCFC foaming and refrigerant fields. The paper introduced an outline of the 1st Meeting of countries which concluded the Framework Convention on Climate Change held in 1995. According to the report on the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection of the Netherlands, the amount of emission of fluorine containing greenhouse effect gas (in CO2 conversion) reached 8-14% of all the amount of greenhouse effect gas emitted in 1990 unless the control is reinforced. An outline of the TEWI-3 project was introduced which is useful for comparing effects of substitution technologies on global warming. 14 refs., 11 figs., 29 tabs.

NONE

1996-03-01

403

Global Warming in the Twenty-First Century: An Alternative Scenario  

Science.gov (United States)

A common view is that the current global warming rate will continue or accelerate. But we argue that rapid warming in recent decades has been driven mainly by non-CO2 greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as chlorofluorocarbons, CH4, and N2O, not by the products of fossil fuel burning, CO2 and aerosols, the positive and negative climate forcings of which are partially offsetting. The growth rate of non-CO2 GHGs has declined in the past decade. If sources of CH4 and O3 precursors were reduced in the future, the change in climate forcing by non-CO2 GHGs in the next 50 years could be near zero. Combined with a reduction of black carbon emissions and plausible success in slowing CO2 emissions, this reduction of non-CO2 GHGs could lead to a decline in the rate of global warming, reducing the danger of dramatic climate change. Such a focus on air pollution has practical benefits that unite the interests of developed and developing countries. However, assessment of ongoing and future climate change requires composition specific long-term global monitoring of aerosol properties.

Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Ruedy, Reto; Lacis, Andrew; Oinas, Valdar

2000-01-01

404

How Dry is the Tropical Free Troposphere? Implications for Global Warming Theory  

Science.gov (United States)

The humidity of the free troposphere is being increasingly scrutinized in climate research due to its central role in global warming theory through positive water vapor feedback. This feedback is the primary source of global warming in general circulation models (GCMs). Because the loss of infrared energy to space increases nonlinearly with decreases in relative humidity, the vast dry zones in the Tropics are of particular interest. These dry zones are nearly devoid of radiosonde stations, and most of those stations have, until recently, ignored the low humidity information from the sondes. This results in substantial uncertainty in GCM tuning and validation based on sonde data. While satellite infrared radiometers are now beginning to reveal some information about the aridity of the tropical free troposphere, the authors show that the latest microwave humidity sounder data suggests even drier conditions than have been previously reported. This underscores the importance of understanding how these low humidity levels are controlled in order to tune and validate GCMs, and to predict the magnitude of water vapor feedback and thus the magnitude of global warming.

Spencer, Roy W.; Braswell, William D.

1997-01-01

405

A first approximation to a planetary continuum of climate controls and feedbacks associated with global warming and global cooling I  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A qualitative or conceptual model of the feedbacks, controls, rates, frequencies and linkages or pathways between and among earth systems, as well as the chronological order in which such feedbacks occur, is presented below as a means of facilitating one's present understanding or perception of climate, particular global warming and global cooling events, on a variety of time scales and rates. Furthermore, the substance and implications of global warming and global cooling are more clearly understood when presented within the context of the full breadth and scope of this planet's climatic history spanning 4.5 billion years - this planet's climate continuum, as opposed to a fragmental, highly specialized and narrowly focused vision of climate, largely based upon the record of climate within the time span of the origin of homo sapiens and the industrial revolution, mere snapshot's of the spectrum of this planet's climate history. It has become increasingly more evident that climate/climate change, as is any other natural phenomenon, is but one of a multiplicity of consequences resulting from the dynamic, complex interactions (feedbacks) among the earth's tectonic, biogeochemical and astronomical systems. 147 refs., 4 figs.

Socci, A.D. (Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC (USA))

1992-01-01

406

A study of the radiative forcing and global warming potentials of hydrofluorocarbons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We developed a new radiation parameterization of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), using the correlated k-distribution method and the high-resolution transmission molecular absorption (HITRAN) 2004 database. We examined the instantaneous and stratospheric adjusted radiative efficiencies of HFCs for clear-sky and all-sky conditions. We also calculated the radiative forcing of HFCs from preindustrial times to the present and for future scenarios given by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES, in short). Global warming potential and global temperature potential were then examined and compared on the basis of the calculated radiative efficiencies. Finally, we discuss surface temperature changes due to various HFC emissions.

2011-01-01

407

A global experiment suggests climate warming will not accelerate litter decomposition in streams but might reduce carbon sequestration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The decomposition of plant litter is one of the most important ecosystem processes in the biosphere and is particularly sensitive to climate warming. Aquatic ecosystems are well suited to studying warming effects on decomposition because the otherwise confounding influence of moisture is constant. By using a latitudinal temperature gradient in an unprecedented global experiment in streams, we found that climate warming will likely hasten microbial litter decomposition and produce an equivalen...

Boyero, Luz; Pearson, R. G.; Gessner, M. O.; Barmuta, L. A.; Ferreira, V.; Grac?a, M. A. S.; Dudgeon, D.; Boulton, A. J.; Callisto, M.; Chauvet, E.

2011-01-01

408

Metal mobility and toxicity to microalgae associated with acidification of sediments: CO2 and acid comparison.  

Science.gov (United States)

The injection and storage of CO2 into marine geological formations has been suggested as a mitigation measure to prevent global warming. However, storage leaks are possible resulting in several effects in the ecosystem. Laboratory-scale experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of CO2 leakage on the fate of metals and on the growth of the microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Metal contaminated sediments were collected and submitted to acidification by means of CO2 injection or by adding HCl. Sediments elutriate were prepared to perform toxicity tests. The results showed that sediment acidification enhanced the release of metals to elutriates. Iron and zinc were the metals most influenced by this process and their concentration increased greatly with pH decreases. Diatom growth was inhibited by both processes: acidification and the presence of metals. Data obtained is this study is useful to calculate the potential risk of CCS activities to the marine environment. PMID:24148229

De Orte, M R; Lombardi, A T; Sarmiento, A M; Basallote, M D; Rodriguez-Romero, A; Riba, I; Del Valls, A

2014-05-01

409

Global warming, aging and environmental physiology - 20th Annual John K. Friesen Conference - Growing Old in a Changing Climate: Exploring the Interface Between Population Aging and Global Warming (2011)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This video clip comprises the three presentations of Panel Session 3, “Climate Change Adaptation Strategies for Aging Populations” held at the 20th Annual John K. Friesen Conference, "Growing Old in a Changing Climate: Exploring the Interface Between Population Aging and Global Warming," MAY 25-26, 2011, Vancouver, BC. Dr. Matthew White "Global warming, aging and environmental physiology" – Talk focuses upon what an environmental physiologist is and how they can assist the elderly durin...

White, Matthew

2011-01-01