WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Giemsa-stained thick blood films as a source of DNA for Plasmodium species-specific real-time PCR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes the use of thick blood films (TBF as specimens for DNA amplification with the Plasmodium species-specific real-time PCR that was recently validated on whole blood samples. Methods The panel of 135 Giemsa-stained clinical TBFs represented single infections of the four Plasmodium species with varying parasite densities or only gametocytes, mixed infections, and negative samples and was stored for up to 12 years. Half of the Giemsa-stained TBF was scraped off by a sterile scalpel and collected into phosphate buffered saline. DNA was extracted with the Qiagen DNA mini kit with minor modifications. DNA was amplified with the 18S rRNA real-time PCR targeting the four Plasmodium species with four species-specific primers and probes in combination with one genus-specific reverse primer. Results of the PCR on TBF were compared to those of the PCR on whole blood and to microscopy. Results Correct identification for single species infections was obtained for all TBF samples with Plasmodium falciparum (n = 50, Plasmodium vivax (n = 25, Plasmodium ovale (n = 25 and in all but one samples with Plasmodium malariae (n = 10. Compared to whole blood samples, higher Ct-values were observed by PCR on TBF with a mean difference of 5.93. Four out of five mixed infections were correctly identified with PCR on TBF. None of the negative samples (n = 20 gave a PCR signal. PCR on TBF showed a detection limit of 0.2 asexual parasites/?l compared to 0.02/?l for whole blood. Intra-run variation was higher for PCR on TBF (%CV 1.90 compared to PCR on whole blood (%CV 0.54. Compared to microscopy, PCR on TBF generated three more species identifications in samples containing a single species and detected the same four mixed-infections. Conclusions Giemsa-stained TBFs are a reliable source of DNA for Plasmodium real-time PCR analysis, allowing applications in reference and research settings in case whole blood samples are not available.

Bottieau Emmanuel

2010-12-01

2

Comparison between Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC) and Giemsa-stained Thin Film (GTF) technique for blood protozoan infections in wild rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The quantitative buffy coat (QBC) technique and conventional Giemsa thin blood smear was compared to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the technique in detecting blood parasitic infection of the rodent populations from four urban cities in Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 432 blood samples from four rat species (Rattus norvegicus, Rattus rattus diardii, Rattus exulans and Rattus argentiventer) were screened using both techniques and successfully detected two blood protozoan species (Trypanosoma lewisi and Plasmodium sp.) with Trypanosoma lewisi predominantly infecting the population. Results showed that Giemsa-stained thin film (GTF) was the better detection method on blood parasitemia (46.7%) compared to Quantitative Buffy Coat method (38.9%) with overall detection technique sensitivity and specificity at 83.2% and 74.8% respectively. The sensitivity in detection of Trypanosoma lewisi was 84.4% with value slightly lower for Plasmodium sp. infections at 76.6%. Statistical analysis proved that GTF technique was significantly more sensitive in the detection of blood protozoan infections in the rodent population compared to QBC (p<0.05). PMID:25382468

Sahimin, N; Alias, S N; Woh, P Y; Edah, M A; Mohd Zain, S N

2014-09-01

3

DNA Comet Giemsa Staining for Conventional Bright-Field Microscopy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate the compatibility of Giemsa staining protocol with the comet assay. We showed, for the first time, that DNA comets can be visualized and analyzed using Giemsa staining. We generated DNA damage dose response curves for human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to X-ray radiation using the comet assay with either SybrGreen I or Giemsa stain. The dose response curves were fitted by linear regressions (R2 > 0.977. The SybrGreen I results showed only ~1.2-fold higher slope coefficient (method sensitivity compared to the Giemsa results. The unexpectedly high sensitivity of Giemsa staining for the comet assay is due to the Romanowsky-Giemsa effect, the stain photo-stability and the higher resolution of bright-field imaging compared to fluorescence imaging. Our results demonstrate that Giemsa staining can effectively be used for measuring DNA damage by the comet assay. The low cost and availability of Giemsa stain makes this method affordable for any low budget research and will facilitate new applications of the comet assay in biology and medicine.

Andreyan Osipov

2014-04-01

4

Blood Smear  

Science.gov (United States)

... of this website will be limited. Search Help? Blood Smear Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... individual cells? 1. Why hasn't the automated blood cell counter totally replaced the blood smear? It ...

5

The Giemsa stain: its history and applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gustav Giemsa was born in Germany in 1867, worked mainly as a chemist, and died in 1948. The staining method, which carries his name, was designed primarily for the demonstration of parasites in malaria, but it was also employed in histology because of the high-quality staining of the chromatin and the nuclear membrane, the metachromasia of some cellular components, and the different qualities of cytoplasmic staining depending on the cell type. The use of methylene azure and its mixture with methylene blue to form an eosinate made stable the stain and its results. Giemsa's stain is regarded as the world's standard diagnostic technique for malaria's plasmodium, and it is also the basic stain for classifying lymphomas in the Kiel classification. PMID:17652540

Barcia, Juan José

2007-07-01

6

Diagnosis and Characterization of Leishmania Species in Giemsa-Stained slides by PCR-RFLP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Direct identification of Leishmania species in Giemsa-stained slides without parasite culturing in the areas where multiple species exist, is very helpful. This study was designed to isolate Leishmani spp. from Giemsa-stained smears and to characterize them by PCR technique.Methods: A total of 48 Giemsa-Stained slides from confirmed cases of leishmaniasis were examined under a light micro­scope at×1000 and classified based on grading of Leishmania parasites. DNA from each slide was extracted separately and sub­jected to PCR. The ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1 was amplified with specific primers and the PCR prod­ucts were digested with a restriction enzyme (HaeIII.Results: Of the 48 microscopy-positive slides, 43(89.6% were positive by PCR-RFLP and Leishmania species were identi­fied. A statistically significant difference was observed between the both methods (P< 0.05 and also a concordance was found between microscopy and PCR-RFLP (k= 0.55.Conclusion: PCR-RFLP seems to be an effective method to identify Leishmania species from Giemsa-stained smears which have been collected from both infected humans and animal reservoir hosts in Iran.

E Kazemi-Rad

2008-05-01

7

Identifying different types of chromatin using Giemsa staining.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mixtures of polychrome methylene blue-eosin Y (i.e., Giemsa stain) are widely used in biological staining. They induce a striking purple coloration of chromatin DNA (the Romanowsky-Giemsa effect), which contrasts with the blue-stained RNA-containing cytoplasm and nucleoli. After specific prestaining treatments that induce chromatin disorganization (giving banded or harlequin chromosomes), Giemsa staining produces a differential coloration, with C- and G-bands appearing in purple whereas remaining chromosome regions are blue. Unsubstituted (TT) and bromo-substituted (BT) DNAs also appear purple and blue, respectively. The same occurs in the case of BT and BB chromatids.In addition to discussing the use of Giemsa stain as a suitable method to reveal specific features of chromosome structure, some molecular processes and models are also described to explain Giemsa staining mechanisms of chromatin. PMID:24162977

Stockert, Juan C; Blázquez-Castro, Alfonso; Horobin, Richard W

2014-01-01

8

Identifying different types of chromatin using Giemsa staining  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mixtures of polychrome methylene blue-eosin Y (i.e., Giemsa stain) are widely used in biological staining. They induce a striking purple coloration of chromatin DNA (the Romanowsky-Giemsa effect), which contrasts with the blue-stained RNA-containing cytoplasm and nucleoli. After specific prestaining treatments that induce chromatin disorganization (giving banded or harlequin chromosomes), Giemsa staining produces a differential coloration, with C- and G-bands appearing in purple whereas remaining chromosome regions are blue. Unsubstituted (TT) and bromo-substituted (BT) DNAs also appear purple and blue, respectively. The same occurs in the case of BT and BB chromatids.In addition to discussing the use of Giemsa stain as a suitable method to reveal specific features of chromosome structure, some molecular processes and models are also described to explain Giemsa staining mechanisms of chromatin.

Stockert, Juan C; Blazquez-Castro, Alfonso

2014-01-01

9

Sensitivity and specificity of polymerase chain reaction in Giemsa-stained slides for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the detection of Leishmania DNA in archived Giemsa-stained bone marrow slides for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), and to compare PCR with conventional diagnostic techniques, like dir [...] ect microscopy and parasite culture. Specimens of archived Giemsa-stained bone marrow slides from 91 patients with VL and from 79 controls with other diseases or conditions were studied. PCR showed the highest sensitivity (92.3%) and had good specificity (97.5%). Direct examination detected 79.1% and culture 59% of positive samples. In addition, PCR was able to detect VL in 16 of 19 patients (84.2%) with negative microscopy. PCR in Giemsa-stained bone marrow slides is a suitable tool for confirming diagnosis in patients with VL and may be useful in the diagnosis of difficult cases. Slide smears are easily stored, do not require special storage conditions such as low temperatures, and can be easily mailed to centers where PCR is available, making it an excellent option for diagnosis in the field.

Yvone Maia, Brustoloni; Rosimar Batista, Lima; Rivaldo Venâncio da, Cunha; Maria Elizabeth, Dorval; Elisa Teruya, Oshiro; Ana Lúcia Lyrio de, Oliveira; Claude, Pirmez.

10

Diagnosis and Characterization of Leishmania Species in Patients and Rodents Giemsa-Stained Slides by PCR-RFLP in Damghan District, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Leishmaniasis is one of the most important infectious diseases in the world. This disease is reported from more than 15 provinces of Iran as a health problem. Identification of reservoirs and characterization of parasite species in patients is very important for identifying the epidemiological aspects of disease and planning for control program.Materials & Methods: This survey was performed as a descriptive study by PCR-RFLP method in Damghan district. Study was carried out on giemsa-stained smears from cases of leishmaniasis and rodents which collected in infected villages that leishmanal infection was confirmed by microscopic observations. DNA of giemsa-stained slides was extracted and followed by conventional PCR technique using specific primers of ITS1. PCR products were digested with a restriction enzyme (HaeIII.Results: Totally 25 smears from human skin lesions and 8 rodent ear scrapings were examined by PCR. Electrophoresis results showed that leishmania major was present in patients and rodents giemsa-stained slides.Conclusion: PCR-RFLP is an effective method to identify leishmania species from giemsa-stained smears which have been collected from humans and animal reservoirs. Using this method identification of causative species of leishmaniasis is possible without sequencing.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2011;17(4:5-9

S. Mohammadi Azni

2011-01-01

11

A rapid method for counting nucleated erythrocytes on stained blood smears by digital image analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Measures of parasitemia by intraerythrocytic hematozoan parasites are normally expressed as the number of infected erythrocytes per n erythrocytes and are notoriously tedious and time consuming to measure. We describe a protocol for generating rapid counts of nucleated erythrocytes from digital micrographs of thin blood smears that can be used to estimate intensity of hematozoan infections in nonmammalian vertebrate hosts. This method takes advantage of the bold contrast and relatively uniform size and morphology of erythrocyte nuclei on Giemsa-stained blood smears and uses ImageJ, a java-based image analysis program developed at the U.S. National Institutes of Health and available on the internet, to recognize and count these nuclei. This technique makes feasible rapid and accurate counts of total erythrocytes in large numbers of microscope fields, which can be used in the calculation of peripheral parasitemias in low-intensity infections.

Gering, E.; Atkinson, C. T.

2004-01-01

12

Anticoagulant induced artefacts in peripheral blood smears.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microscopic evaluation of a peripheral blood smear is one of the most beneficial test. But anticoagulant induced artefacts could lead to misinterpretation of the smears. The present study was undertaken to identify the anticoagulant induced artefacts and avoid misinterpretation of peripheral blood smears. The blood samples were collected using Ethylene Diaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and Sodium citrate, mixed thoroughly and smears were made immediately as well as 1hr apart for 6 hrs, stained and examined under oil immersion microscope. Direct smears were used as controls. Significant morphological artefacts were observed in our study. Artefacts were marked at the end of 2 hrs with EDTA but seen almost immediately with citrate blood. At 6 hrs, artefacts were marked but more severe with citrates than EDTA. Thus the practice of making blood smears before addition of anticoagulant is recommended and a delay up to 1hr is permissible with EDTA blood but not beyond. PMID:23100942

Narasimha, Aparna; Kumar, Harendra; Prasad, C S B R

2008-06-01

13

Trypan blue/giemsa staining to assess sperm membrane integrity in salernitano stallions and its relationship to pregnancy rates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim of this study was to test the reliability of Trypan blue/Giemsa staining to evaluate sperm membrane integrity, acrosomal intactness and morphology in stallion to verify whether it could be applied in vitro as useful tool for sperm fertilizing ability. Fertility data on inseminated mares were collected to evaluate the relationship of sperm quality to pregnancy rates. Forty-one ejaculates were collected from 3 stallions of Salernitano Horse Breed and evaluated for gross appearance, volume, visual motility and membrane integrity with Trypan blue/Giemsa staining and thirty-five mares were inseminated during the breeding season from April to July. Differences among stallions were found in volume, sperm concentration (p Trypan blue/Giemsa staining was confirmed by Receiver operating characteristic ROC analysis and the sensitivity of the test was 85% at a cut-off value of 48% LSIA. Trypan blue-Giemsa showed to be an accurate method that can be applied on field to evaluate sperm membrane integrity and to identify poor-quality ejaculates. PMID:23889365

Serafini, R; Longobardi, V; Spadetta, M; Neri, D; Ariota, B; Gasparrini, B; Di Palo, R

2014-02-01

14

Identification of Leishmania Species Using PCR Assay on Giemsa-Stained Slides Prepared From Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Leishmaniasis is a group of diseases that are created by intracellular parasites of Leishmania. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is considered as one of the health problems in some provinces of Iran.Methods: In this study, a total of 178 Giemsa-stained slides from confirmed cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were examined. The slides were prepared from the patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis that referred to health centers and infected during the epidemic of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Poldokhtar city, Lorestan Province, Iran in 2006.Genomic DNA from each slide was extracted. After DNA extraction, ITS-PCR was used.Results: Out of 178 slides, 129 (72.47% samples had a band in the range of 485 bp and 49 (27.53% samples 626 bp that matched L. tropica and L. major standard samples, respectively.Conclusion: This study showed that Leishmania DNA could be efficiently ex­tracted and amplified even from old Giemsa-stained microscopic slides that were stored more than 6 yr. In this study was shown that both L. tropica and L. major species exist in Lorestan Province.

Farnaz Kheirandish

2013-09-01

15

External quality assessment of Giemsa-stained blood film microscopy for the diagnosis of malaria and sleeping sickness in the Democratic Republic of the Congo / Évaluation externe de la qualité de la microscopie de frottis sanguins colorés au Giemsa pour le diagnostic du paludisme et de la maladie du sommeil en République démocratique du Congo / Evaluación de calidad externa de la microscopía en frotis de sangre con tinción de Giemsa para el diagnóstico de la malaria y la enfermedad del sueño en la República Democrática del Congo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Informar de los resultados de una segunda evaluación de calidad externa de la microscopía en frotis de sangre con tinción de Giemsa en la República Democrática del Congo, llevada a cabo un año después de la primera. MÉTODOS: Se entregó un panel de cuatro muestras a laboratorios de diagnóst [...] ico de todas las provincias del país. Las muestras contenían: (i) gametocitos Plasmodium falciparum; (ii) trofozoítos P. falciparum (densidad de referencia: 113 530 por µl); (iii) subespecies de Trypanosoma brucei y (iv) ningún parásito. RESULTADOS: De los 356 laboratorios contactados, respondieron 277 (77,8%). En total, el 35,0% de los laboratorios informó de las cuatro muestras correctamente, pero el 14,1% informó de resultados correctos en una o ninguna de las muestras. Los principales errores consistieron en no diagnosticar la tripanosomiasis (50,4%), no reconocer los gametocitos P. falciparum (17,5%) y diagnosticar malaria en la muestra sin parásitos (19,0%). La frecuencia de errores graves en la evaluación de la densidad de los parásitos y en informar de resultados con falsos positivos fue menor que en la evaluación de calidad externa anterior. El 17,2% y el 52,3%, respectivamente (P Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To report the findings of a second external quality assessment of Giemsa-stained blood film microscopy in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, performed one year after the first. METHODS: A panel of four slides was delivered to diagnostic laboratories in all provinces of the country. The [...] slides contained: (i) Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes; (ii) P. falciparum trophozoites (reference density: 113 530 per µl); (iii) Trypanosoma brucei subspecies; and (iv) no parasites. FINDINGS: Of 356 laboratories contacted, 277 (77.8%) responded. Overall, 35.0% of the laboratories reported all four slides correctly but 14.1% reported correct results for 1 or 0 slides. Major errors included not diagnosing trypanosomiasis (50.4%), not recognizing P. falciparum gametocytes (17.5%) and diagnosing malaria from the slide with no parasites (19.0%). The frequency of serious errors in assessing parasite density and in reporting false-positive results was lower than in the previous external quality assessment: 17.2% and 52.3%, respectively, (P

Pierre, Mukadi; Philippe, Gillet; Albert, Lukuka; Benjamin, Atua; Nicole, Sheshe; Albert, Kanza; Jean Bosco, Mayunda; Briston, Mongita; Raphaël, Senga; John, Ngoyi; Jean-Jacques, Muyembe; Jan, Jacobs; Veerle, Lejon.

2013-06-01

16

External quality assessment of Giemsa-stained blood film microscopy for the diagnosis of malaria and sleeping sickness in the Democratic Republic of the Congo / Évaluation externe de la qualité de la microscopie de frottis sanguins colorés au Giemsa pour le diagnostic du paludisme et de la maladie du sommeil en République démocratique du Congo / Evaluación de calidad externa de la microscopía en frotis de sangre con tinción de Giemsa para el diagnóstico de la malaria y la enfermedad del sueño en la República Democrática del Congo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Informar de los resultados de una segunda evaluación de calidad externa de la microscopía en frotis de sangre con tinción de Giemsa en la República Democrática del Congo, llevada a cabo un año después de la primera. MÉTODOS: Se entregó un panel de cuatro muestras a laboratorios de diagnóst [...] ico de todas las provincias del país. Las muestras contenían: (i) gametocitos Plasmodium falciparum; (ii) trofozoítos P. falciparum (densidad de referencia: 113 530 por µl); (iii) subespecies de Trypanosoma brucei y (iv) ningún parásito. RESULTADOS: De los 356 laboratorios contactados, respondieron 277 (77,8%). En total, el 35,0% de los laboratorios informó de las cuatro muestras correctamente, pero el 14,1% informó de resultados correctos en una o ninguna de las muestras. Los principales errores consistieron en no diagnosticar la tripanosomiasis (50,4%), no reconocer los gametocitos P. falciparum (17,5%) y diagnosticar malaria en la muestra sin parásitos (19,0%). La frecuencia de errores graves en la evaluación de la densidad de los parásitos y en informar de resultados con falsos positivos fue menor que en la evaluación de calidad externa anterior. El 17,2% y el 52,3%, respectivamente (P Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To report the findings of a second external quality assessment of Giemsa-stained blood film microscopy in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, performed one year after the first. METHODS: A panel of four slides was delivered to diagnostic laboratories in all provinces of the country. The [...] slides contained: (i) Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes; (ii) P. falciparum trophozoites (reference density: 113 530 per µl); (iii) Trypanosoma brucei subspecies; and (iv) no parasites. FINDINGS: Of 356 laboratories contacted, 277 (77.8%) responded. Overall, 35.0% of the laboratories reported all four slides correctly but 14.1% reported correct results for 1 or 0 slides. Major errors included not diagnosing trypanosomiasis (50.4%), not recognizing P. falciparum gametocytes (17.5%) and diagnosing malaria from the slide with no parasites (19.0%). The frequency of serious errors in assessing parasite density and in reporting false-positive results was lower than in the previous external quality assessment: 17.2% and 52.3%, respectively, (P

Pierre, Mukadi; Philippe, Gillet; Albert, Lukuka; Benjamin, Atua; Nicole, Sheshe; Albert, Kanza; Jean Bosco, Mayunda; Briston, Mongita; Raphaël, Senga; John, Ngoyi; Jean-Jacques, Muyembe; Jan, Jacobs; Veerle, Lejon.

17

Low sensitivity of nested PCR using Plasmodium DNA extracted from stained thick blood smears: an epidemiological retrospective study among subjects with low parasitaemia in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The success of PCR technique depends on many factors, such as high quality DNA pellets obtained from blood samples, good reagents and adequate conditions of amplification. Taking these limitations into account, a retrospective epidemiological study for malaria diagnosis was conducted in a mesoendemic area in the Brazilian Amazon. Methods A nested PCR protocol with DNA extracted from two blood storage devices obtained from Giemsa-stained thick blood smears and filter-papers was used for malaria diagnosis. The extracted DNA was used as a template to amplify approximately 100 bp species-specific sequences of the small subunit of the ribosomal RNA (18S SSU rRNA of Plasmodium sp. The prevalence of single and mixed infections was examined in a cross-sectional survey carried out among 369 miners living in the district of Apiacás, Mato Grosso State. The parasitemia levels detected by microscopic examination were compared to the PCR results. Results DNA samples isolated from blood on filter-paper allowed the detection and identification of Plasmodium in 165 (44.7% of the 369 individuals evaluated, while only 62 (16.8% had positive results using DNA obtained from thick smears, a similar rate observed by microscopic examination. The sensitivities of PCR using DNA from blood smears and filter-papers were 65% and 73.0%, respectively. Low parasite infections (below 20 parasites/µL blood were not detected when thick blood smears were used as a DNA source. Conclusions Although the blood preserved as thick blood smears provides an alternative and useful tool for malaria molecular diagnosis, its relatively poor performance at low level parasitemias impairs the correct determination of malaria prevalence in epidemiological studies. However, the results obtained in the present study confirm that the use of filter-paper to collect blood is useful for field studies.

Horta Maria

2004-03-01

18

Comparison of PCR-Based Diagnosis with Centrifuged-Based Enrichment Method for Detection of Borrelia Persica in Animal Blood Samples  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: The mainstay of diagnosis of relapsing fever (RF) is demonstration of the spirochetes in Giemsa-stained thick blood smears, but during non fever periods the bacteria are very scanty and rarely detected in blood smears by mi­cros­copy. This study is aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of different methods developed for detection of low-grade spi­ro­chetemia. Methods: Animal blood samples with low degrees of spirochetemia were tested with two PCRs and a nested PCR tar­get­ing fl...

Sr, Naddaf; Kishdehi, M.; Siavashi, MR

2011-01-01

19

Epidemiological characteristics of Malassezia folliculitis and use of the May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain to diagnose the infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Various bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and viral pathogens can cause folliculitis, which is often mistakenly treated with antibiotics for months or even years. A laboratory diagnosis is required before therapy can be planned. Here, we describe the prevalence and risk factors, as well as the clinical, cytological, and mycological characteristics, of patients with Malassezia folliculitis (MF) in Adana, Turkey. We also report the treatment responses of the MF patients and describe the Malassezia spp. using culture-based molecular methods. Cytological examinations were performed in 264 folliculitis patients, 49 of whom (18.5%) were diagnosed with MF. The positivity of the May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG) smear was higher (100%) than that of the potassium hydroxide test (81.6%). Using Wood's light, yellow-green fluorescence was observed in 66.7% of the MF patients. Identification using the rDNA internal transcribed spacer region revealed that Malassezia globosa was the most common species, followed by Malassezia sympodialis, Malassezia restricta, and Malassezia furfur. The MF patients were treated with itraconazole capsules (200 mg/d) for 2 weeks. Complete recovery was observed in 79.6% of the patients. These novel findings help improve our current understanding of the epidemiological characteristics of MF and establish MGG as a practical tool for the diagnosis of MF. PMID:23706503

Durdu, Murat; Güran, Mümtaz; Ilkit, Macit

2013-08-01

20

Detection of plasmodium parasites from images of thin blood smears  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in tropical and subtropical countries. Conventional microscopy is the Gold standard in the diagnosis of the disease. However, it is prone to some shortcomings which include time consumption and difficultness in reproducing results. Alternative diagnosis techniques which yield superior results are quite expensive and hence inaccessible to developing countries where the disease is prevalent. Thus in this work, an accurate, speedy and affordable system of malaria detection using stained thin blood smear images was developed. The method uses Artificial Neural Network (ANN to test for the presence of plasmodium parasites in thin blood smear images. Images of infected and non-infected erythrocytes were acquired, pre-processed, relevant features extracted from them and eventually diagnosis was made based on the features extracted from the images. Diagnosis entailed detection of plasmodium parasites. Classification accuracy of 95.0% in detection of infected erythrocyte was achieved with respect to results obtained by expert microscopists. The study revealed that artificial neural network (ANN classifiers trained with colour features of infected stained thin blood smear images are suitable for detection. It was further shown that ANN classifiers can be trained to perform image segmentation.

Daniel Maitethia Memeu

2013-11-01

 
 
 
 
21

Blinded comparison of a direct immunofluorescent monoclonal antibody staining method and a Giemsa staining method for identification of Pneumocystis carinii in induced sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage specimens of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new direct immunofluorescence monoclonal antibody (DFA) method (Genetic Systems, Inc., Seattle, Wash.) for identification of Pneumocystis carinii in induced sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage specimens was compared in a blinded study with an established Giemsa stain method. We evaluated 148 consecutive clinical specimens from 104 patients with the following results. For the 67 patients (64%) infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 49 were initially negative by both the DFA and ...

Wolfson, J. S.; Waldron, M. A.; Sierra, L. S.

1990-01-01

22

Investigations of significance of blood smear results in diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases in dogs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The microscopic examination of stained smears of peripheral blood is of vital significance in the speedy diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases, in particular during the stage of infection when the cause is present in the blood, or blood cells. It is sometimes possible to make a definitive diagnosis of an infectious or parasitic disease following an examination of a stained smear of the peripheral blood. Since microscopic examinations of a peripheral blood smear are applied increasingly rarely in clinical practice, due to the development of other methods for the diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases in dogs, as well as the lack of knowledge of the morphology of the numerous causes that can be present in the blood, we carried out an investigation into the presence and spread of infections whose causes can be present in dog blood. The investigations covered 100 dogs from which peripheral blood smears were taken and then stained with a Giemsa solution according to the standard protocol and examined under a microscope with an immersion lens. The examination of peripheral blood smears stained according to Giemsa resulted in the identification of the presence of an Ehrlichia spp. morula in a neutrophil granulocyte in one dog. The presence of hemotropic mycoplasmas was established in erythrocytes of eleven dogs, while the presence of the protozoa Babesia canis in erythrocytes was identified in five dogs included in the investigations. A microscopic examination of dog peripheral blood smears stained according to Giemsa was shown as a speedy, practical, simple, and inexpensive method for making a definitive etiological diagnosis of these infections, and it should be included regularly in standard protocols for the diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases.

Potkonjak Aleksandar

2010-01-01

23

Counting of RBCs and WBCs in noisy normal blood smear microscopic images  

Science.gov (United States)

This work focuses on the segmentation and counting of peripheral blood smear particles which plays a vital role in medical diagnosis. Our approach profits from some powerful processing techniques. Firstly, the method used for denoising a blood smear image is based on the Bivariate wavelet. Secondly, image edge preservation uses the Kuwahara filter. Thirdly, a new binarization technique is introduced by merging the Otsu and Niblack methods. We have also proposed an efficient step-by-step procedure to determine solid binary objects by merging modified binary, edged images and modified Chan-Vese active contours. The separation of White Blood Cells (WBCs) from Red Blood Cells (RBCs) into two sub-images based on the RBC (blood's dominant particle) size estimation is a critical step. Using Granulometry, we get an approximation of the RBC size. The proposed separation algorithm is an iterative mechanism which is based on morphological theory, saturation amount and RBC size. A primary aim of this work is to introduce an accurate mechanism for counting blood smear particles. This is accomplished by using the Immersion Watershed algorithm which counts red and white blood cells separately. To evaluate the capability of the proposed framework, experiments were conducted on normal blood smear images. This framework was compared to other published approaches and found to have lower complexity and better performance in its constituent steps; hence, it has a better overall performance.

Habibzadeh, M.; Krzyzak, A.; Fevens, T.; Sadr, A.

2011-03-01

24

Comparison of PCR-Based Diagnosis with Centrifuged-Based Enrichment Method for Detection of Borrelia Persica in Animal Blood Samples  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The mainstay of diagnosis of relapsing fever (RF is demonstration of the spirochetes in Giemsa-stained thick blood smears, but during non fever periods the bacteria are very scanty and rarely detected in blood smears by mi­cros­copy. This study is aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of different methods developed for detection of low-grade spi­ro­chetemia. Methods: Animal blood samples with low degrees of spirochetemia were tested with two PCRs and a nested PCR tar­get­ing flaB, GlpQ, and rrs genes. Also, a centrifuged-based enrichment method and Giemsa staining were per­formed on blood samples with various degrees of spirochetemia. Results: The flaB-PCR and nested rrs-PCR turned positive with various degrees of spirochetemia including the blood samples that turned negative with dark-field microscopy. The GlpQ-PCR was positive as far as at least one spi­ro­chete was seen in 5-10 microscopic fields. The sensitivity of GlpQ-PCR increased when DNA from Buffy Coat Layer (BCL was used as template. The centrifuged-based enrichment method turned positive with as low concentra­tion as 50 bacteria/ml blood, while Giemsa thick staining detected bacteria with concentrations ? 25000 bacteria/ml. Conclusion: Centrifuged-based enrichment method appeared as much as 500-fold more sensitive than thick smears, which makes it even superior to some PCR assays. Due to simplicity and minimal laboratory requirements, this method can be considered a valuable tool for diagnosis of RF in rural health centers.

SR Naddaf

2011-06-01

25

Comparison of the Novel Partec Rapid Malaria Test to the Conventional Giemsa Stain and the Gold Standard Real-Time PCR ?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Malaria remains the single most frequent cause of death in Africa, killing one child every 30 s, but treatment decisions are often made only on clinical diagnosis, as laboratory techniques to confirm the clinical suspicion are labor intensive and costly. In this study, we evaluated the recently developed Partec rapid malaria test (PM) for the detection of Plasmodium spp. in human blood from patients in an area where malaria is endemic and compared the results with those of thick blood film Gi...

Nkrumah, Bernard; Agyekum, Alex; Acquah, Samuel E. K.; May, Ju?rgen; Tannich, Egbert; Brattig, Norbert; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Von Thien, Heidrun; Adu-sarkodie, Yaw; Huenger, Frank

2010-01-01

26

A comparative study of blood smear, QBC and antigen detection for diagnosis of malaria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rapid diagnosis is prerequisite for effective treatment and reducing mortality and morbidity of malaria. This study was taken up to compare the efficacy of various methods available, i.e., thick and thin smear, quantitative buffy coat (QBC, plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase and aldolase in blood of patient. A total of 411 samples were collected from patients presenting with classic symptoms of malaria. For traditional microscopy; thick and thin smears were prepared and stained with Leishman?s stain, taking thick smear as gold standard, thin smear had a sensitivity and specificity of 54.8% and 100%, respectively. QBC and antigen detection was done using commercially available kits; out of 411 samples, QBC and Malariagen were positive in 66 and 62 cases, with a sensitivity of 78% and 75%, respectively. Leishman?s thick smear, although cost effective, is difficult to interpret for inexperienced microscopists; so if facilities are available, QBC should be used for routine diagnosis. In places where facilities are not available, rapid, simple and easy to interpret antigen detection test can be used despite low sensitivity.

Parija S

2009-04-01

27

A comparative study of blood smear, QBC and antigen detection for diagnosis of malaria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rapid diagnosis is prerequisite for effective treatment and reducing mortality and morbidity of malaria. This study was taken up to compare the efficacy of various methods available, i.e., thick and thin smear, quantitative buffy coat (QBC), plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase and aldolase in blood of patient. A total of 411 samples were collected from patients presenting with classic symptoms of malaria. For traditional microscopy; thick and thin smears were prepared and stained with Leishman's stain, taking thick smear as gold standard, thin smear had a sensitivity and specificity of 54.8% and 100%, respectively. QBC and antigen detection was done using commercially available kits; out of 411 samples, QBC and Malariagen were positive in 66 and 62 cases, with a sensitivity of 78% and 75%, respectively. Leishman's thick smear, although cost effective, is difficult to interpret for inexperienced microscopists; so if facilities are available, QBC should be used for routine diagnosis. In places where facilities are not available, rapid, simple and easy to interpret antigen detection test can be used despite low sensitivity. PMID:19332912

Parija, S C; Dhodapkar, Rahul; Elangovan, Subashini; Chaya, D R

2009-01-01

28

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BLOOD SMEAR, QBC AND ANTIGEN DETECTION FOR DIAGNOSIS OF MALARIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background & objectives:Rapid diagnosis is prerequisite for effective treatment and reducing mortality and morbidity of malaria. Microscopy has been the Gold standard for malaria diagnosis for decades. We made an attempt to compare blood smear, Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC and rapid antigen detection methods for the rapid diagnosis of malaria.Methods & materials:A Cross sectional prospective study was conducted for 6 months in G.G.Hospital, Jamnagar. A total number of 90 hospitalized clinically suspected malarial cases were collected and confirmed by conventional blood smear, QBC and antigen based Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT. Blood smears were prepared and stained with Leishman’s stain. QBC and Rapid Diagnostic tests were done using commercially available kits. Patients were followed-up for signs of clinical recovery.Results:Malaria was diagnosed in 50, 54 and 59 patients by Leishman staining technique, QBC method and Rapid antigen detection test respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of Antigen detection test were 94%, 70% 79% & 90%, respectively while, those of QBC were 84%, 77%, 82% & 79%, respectively. The sensitivity of rapid diagnostic test is high with grade 3 & 4 parasitemia.Conclusion:In our study, rapid diagnostic tests were found more accurate than PBS & QBC. Microscopy is cost effective but microscopy and QBC requires technical expertise to interpret the results. In places where facilities are not available, rapid, simple and easy to interpret antigen detection test can be used, especially in endemic areas. 

Dr. Mitesh N. Suthar

2013-04-01

29

A Preliminary Study of the Suitability of Archival Bone Marrow and Peripheral Blood Smears for Diagnosis of CML Using FISH  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. FISH is a molecular cytogenetic technique enabling rapid detection of genetic abnormalities. Facilities that can run fresh/wet samples for molecular diagnosis and monitoring of neoplastic disorders are not readily available in Ghana and other neighbouring countries. This study aims to demonstrate that interphase FISH can successfully be applied to archival methanol-fixed bone marrow and peripheral blood smear slides transported to a more equipped facility for molecular diagnosis of CML. Methods. Interphase FISH was performed on 22 archival methanol-fixed marrow (BM) and 3 peripheral blood (PB) smear slides obtained at diagnosis. The BM smears included 20 CML and 2 CMML cases diagnosed by morphology; the 3 PB smears were from 3 of the CML patients at the time of diagnosis. Six cases had known BCR-ABL fusion results at diagnosis by RQ-PCR. Full blood count reports at diagnosis were also retrieved. Result. 19 (95%) of the CML marrow smears demonstrated the BCR-ABL translocation. There was a significant correlation between the BCR-ABL transcript detected at diagnosis by RQ-PCR and that retrospectively detected by FISH from the aged BM smears at diagnosis (r = 0.870; P = 0.035). Conclusion. Archival methanol-fixed marrow and peripheral blood smears can be used to detect the BCR-ABL transcript for CML diagnosis. PMID:25328527

Olayemi, Edeghonghon E.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo; Benneh, Amma Anima; Allotey, Emmanuel Alote

2014-01-01

30

Evaluation of Peripheral Blood Smear for Myelodysplasia in Breast Cancer Patients who Received Adjuvant Antracycline  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN account for approximately 10% to 20% of all cases of AML (acute myeloid leukemia, MDS (myelodysplastic syndrome and MDS/MPN (myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasms, MDS, and MDS/MPN. In our study, we evaluated peripheral blood smear samples and hemogram values in breast cancer patients who were receiving adjuvant anthracycline regimens and were in remission. Materials and Methods: A total of 78 patients receiving anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy treatment from Kayseri Research and Training Hospital and Mersin State Hospital were enrolled in the study. Their adjuvant treatments had been completed at least 18 months prior to the study. Results: Two patients complained of anemia (2.2% (Hb<11 mg/dl, leukopenia was observed in seven patients (7.7% (leukocytes<4000/mm3, and thrombocytopenia was observed in four patients (4.4% (PLT<150.000/mm3. In the blood smear samples, the following were observed: ovalomacrocytes (14%, macrocytes (37%, acanthocytes (1%, stomatocytes (12%, teardrops (12%, nucleated erythrocytes (1%, basophilic stippling (14%, and Howell-Jolly bodies (1%. Additionally, hypo-granulation (38%, Pelger-Huet abnormalities (26%, hypersegmentation (20%, immature granulocytes (8%, and blasts (6% were observed. We also confirmed the presence of giant platelets (50% and platelet hypogranulation (19%. Conclusion: According to the peripheral blood smear assessments in our study, we suggest that breast cancer patients should be evaluated for MDS in the early stages, starting from month 18, even if the automated blood counts are normal.

Hasan Mutlu

2011-12-01

31

[The impact of blood smear preparation on effectiveness of functioning of Vision Hema--the digital system of automatic blood analysis].  

Science.gov (United States)

The article deals with study of the impact of standardization of blood smears preparation on effectiveness of functioning of Vision Hema system. The analysis was applied to the results of counting of 200 leukocytes in 30 blood smears prepared from venous blood stabilized with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid using thoroughly degreased slide plates and applying automatic device to prepare blood smears (comparative group) and in 49 preparations prepared manually from non-stabilized capillary blood (control group). The standardization of the procedure of preparation of glass samples resulted in five time decrease of total amount of artifacts and in disappearance of thrombocytes aggregates and pavement epithelium cells. The absolute amount of destroyed leukocytes decreased in 2.4 times and particles of dirt in 9.5 time. The proposed technique of preparation of smear increased velocity of automatic analysis of leukogram by the Vision Hema system in 2 times and speeded up validation by physician of derived results in 3 times. PMID:23984548

Sosnin, D Iu; Nenasheva, O Iu; Falkov, B F; Trusheva, L A

2013-04-01

32

Selection of the best features for leukocytes classification in blood smear microscopic images  

Science.gov (United States)

Automatic differential counting of leukocytes provides invaluable information to pathologist for diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. The main objective of this paper is to detect leukocytes from a blood smear microscopic image and classify them into their types: Neutrophil, Eosinophil, Basophil, Lymphocyte and Monocyte using features that pathologists consider to differentiate leukocytes. Features contain color, geometric and texture features. Colors of nucleus and cytoplasm vary among the leukocytes. Lymphocytes have single, large, round or oval and Monocytes have singular convoluted shape nucleus. Nucleus of Eosinophils is divided into 2 segments and nucleus of Neutrophils into 2 to 5 segments. Lymphocytes often have no granules, Monocytes have tiny granules, Neutrophils have fine granules and Eosinophils have large granules in cytoplasm. Six color features is extracted from both nucleus and cytoplasm, 6 geometric features only from nucleus and 6 statistical features and 7 moment invariants features only from cytoplasm of leukocytes. These features are fed to support vector machine (SVM) classifiers with one to one architecture. The results obtained by applying the proposed method on blood smear microscopic image of 10 patients including 149 white blood cells (WBCs) indicate that correct rate for all classifiers are above 93% which is in a higher level in comparison with previous literatures.

Sarrafzadeh, Omid; Rabbani, Hossein; Talebi, Ardeshir; Banaem, Hossein Usefi

2014-03-01

33

Detection of malarial parasite by blood smear examination and antigen detection: A comparative study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At present about 100 countries in the world are considered malarious, is thought to kill between 1.1 and 2.7 million people worldwide each year, of which about 1 million are children under the age of 5 years in these areas. Under ideal circumstances, the clinical suspicion of malaria would be confirmed by a laboratory test that is simple to perform, rapid, sensitive, specific and expensive. At the present time, no such test exists. The most common test for malaria diagnosis remains the microscopic examination of giemsa or the fields –stained blood smears. The test is based on the detection of Plasmodium falciparum specific histidine rich protein ii (hrp and a pan malarial species specific enzyme aldolose, produced by the respective parasites and released into the blood and the test is based on immune chromatography, the test is highly sensitive. Method: In this study included 100 patients, 60% of patients had history suggestive of malaria, another 40% gave the history of irregular fever; For each patient peripheral blood sample was collected, thin and thick smear blood films were made immediately after blood collection, stained with Leishman stain and examined for malaria parasite by light microscopy. Results: The blood films results indicated that 40 (20% patients were infected with malaria and the rest 171 (85.5% were malaria negative. Among positive patients Plasmodium vivax was detected in 24 cases (60% and Plasmodium falciparum in 10 cases (31% and 6 cases mixed infection (PV + PF (15% correspondingly, the Para HIT Test results indicated that 29 (14.5% of the patient sample were positive for malaria parasites and 171 (85.5 were malaria negative out 29 patients cases. Infection with Plasmodium vivax accounted for 17 (58.6% while infection with Plasmodium falciparum accounted for 9 (25% and 3 (1.3% with mixed infection of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodiumfalciparum

Erumalla Naveen, Dimple Arora, Vinod Agarwal, Neelam sharma, Anuradha B, Vijay Durga S

2013-01-01

34

Pap Smears  

Science.gov (United States)

... Manage a Serious Allergic Reaction Quiz: Baseball Injuries Pap Smears KidsHealth > Teens > Sexual Health > For Girls > Pap Smears ... a Pap Smear? What Happens? What Is a Pap Smear? A Pap smear is a medical test that ...

35

Early diagnosis of intravascular large B-cell lymphoma: clues from routine blood smear morphologic findings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a mature B-cell neoplasm characterized by malignant lymphoid cells within the lumina of blood vessels and capillaries. Given its varied and nonspecific clinical manifestation, this aggressive disease is often not diagnosed until an advanced clinical stage or even at autopsy. This case highlights a patient presenting with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) and fevers. Atypical circulating cells on a screening peripheral smear lead to flow cytometric studies highlighting an increase in large, light chain restricted CD20 positive cells. A diagnostic bone marrow biopsy was performed and trephine cores demonstrated predominantly intrasinusoidal lymphoma cells. In conjunction with additional immunophenotypic data, these studies strongly supported a diagnosis of IVLBCL. Judicious use of flow cytometry and morphology resulted in an early-stage diagnosis and likely contributed to the patient's current complete remission status following anti-CD20 therapy. Differential diagnoses for this presentation are discussed in light of serologic, immunophenotypic, histologic, and cytogenetic findings. PMID:25051078

Patel, Sagar S; Aasen, Garth A; Dolan, Michelle M; Linden, Michael A; McKenna, Robert W; Rudrapatna, Venkatesh K; Trottier, Bryan J; Drawz, Sarah M

2014-01-01

36

Unusual "erythroid loops" in canine blood smears after viper-bite envenomation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Northern Italy is a habitat for many species of viper; Vipera aspis is responsible for most reported bites of humans and animals. Five dogs of different breeds and ages were presented by their owners to a veterinary clinic in northern Italy between September 2004 and August 2007 with a history of being bitten by a viper within the past 2 hours. On physical examination, all of the dogs were depressed, had pale mucous membranes, and had a painful area consistent with a recent viper bite wound on the nose (2), distal front leg (2), or lip (1). Hemoglobinemia and hemoglobinuria were observed in plasma and urine from all dogs. CBCs were done at the time of presentation, daily for 4 days, and 10 days after presentation in all dogs with the exception of one dog that died after 2 days. All dogs had an acute decrease in HCT within 24 hours of presentation; all dogs had neutrophilia, 3/5 had a mildly toxic left shift, and 4/5 had thrombocytopenia. On Diff-Quik-stained blood smears, moderate numbers of echinocytes, spherocytes, and erythrocyte ghosts were observed. In addition, moderate numbers of unusual erythrocyte membrane-like structures ("erythroid loops") were observed. The loops were annular in shape and sometimes disrupted, appearing as thin pale blue bands. Erythrocyte morphologic abnormalities decreased by day 3 and were no longer observed on day 10. The unique appearance of the erythroid loops together with evidence for intravascular hemolysis and other erythrocyte morphologic changes suggest they may be a consequence of erythrocyte lysis. Echinocytes, spherocytes, and erythrocyte ghosts are known to result from the action of phospholipase in viper venom; however, erythroid loops have not been reported previously and their exact mechanism of formation is unknown. PMID:19392755

Masserdotti, Carlo

2009-09-01

37

Estudio de la infección de Leishmanias del complejo Viannia mediante citometría de flujo y coloración de Giemsa empleando líneas de macrófagos humanos y murinos (U-937 y J-774) / Study of Leishmania Viannia infection by means of flow cytometry and Giemsa stain using human and murine macrophage lines (U-937 and J-774)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Ante las dificultades frente al tratamiento de la leishmaniasis, es importante buscar alternativas terapéuticas que deben ser analizadas empleando modelos in vitro e in vivo adecuadamente estandarizados. Con este propósito, se implementó un modelo de infección in vitro de Leishmania conmacrófagos U- [...] 937 y J-774, para evaluar la internalización de promastigotes a distintos puntos tiempo (2 a 6 horas) y por dos técnicas: coloración de Giemsa (CG) y citometría de flujo (CF). En el análisis por CF, se evaluó la invasión teniendo en cuenta la emisión de fluorescencia de los parásitos transfectados con la proteína verde de fluorescencia (GFP) y el aumento de la densidad citoplasmática de los macrófagos debida a los parásitos internalizados, lo cual fue verificado con el recuento microscópico realizado con CG; se encontró que a una proporción 1:35 (células:parásitos) se pueden establecer cambios densitométricos asociados con la infección empleando cepas de parásitos no transfectadas. También se describe que las J774 internalizan más eficientemente promastigotes de Leishmania que las células U937 (P valor: 0,0006), y se observa a su vez para la línea murina un aumento del número de parásitos por célula, respecto a los macrófagos humanos empleados en este ensayo (P valor 0,0038). Este estudio nos permite concluir: (i) que los cambios en la densidad citoplasmática evidenciados por CF son suficientes para establecer el porcentaje de infección parasitaria, aun para aquellos parásitos no transfectados; (ii) que la CG es menos costosa que el uso de la CF para evaluar infección parasitaria, aunque por su carácter semicuantitativo, la variabilidad intra- e inter-observadores la hace menos precisa; (iii) que los resultados cuantitativos obtenidos por la CF se correlacionan con los observados en la CG, y permiten sugerir que estas dos técnicas resultan complementarias; y (iv) que el porcentaje de infección y el número de parásitos internalizados para la J-774 son mayores que lo encontrado para la U-937, lo cual puede deberse a que un mayor número de receptores de complemento sobre la línea murina favorece la internalización de patógenos intracelulares, proceso menos favorecido en la línea humana por los niveles reducidos de este tipo de receptores en su membrana celular. Abstract in english The treatment for Leishmaniasis has presented some difficulties related with adverse effects and resistance. For these reasons it is important to search therapeutic alternatives which must be analyzed using adequately standardized in vitro and in vivo models. With this purpose, we implemented an in [...] vitro model for leishmania infection using U-937 and J-774macrophages, and evaluating promastigote internalization at consecutive time spans (from 2 to 6 hours). The first approximation assayed involves the flow cytometric (CF) analysis for invasion quantification by measuring the fluorescence emitted by parasites previously transfected with green fluorescence protein (GFP). In the alternative strategy, parasitized cells were subjected to Giemsa stain and CF was applied to measure the increase of macrophages cytoplasm density owed to internalized parasites. Giemsa stain also allowed us to estimate the number of parasites within each cell. We report that the presence of 35 parasites per macrophage produces an increase in cytoplasmic density enough to be detected by CF so that infection can be clearly reported. We also found that J-774 macrophages internalize Leishmania promastigotes more efficiently than U-937 cells (P value: 0.0006). Cells of the murine line were infected by a higher number of parasites than the human counterparts used in this study (P value 0.0038). From the resultas, we conclude: (i) the change in macrophage cytoplasm density demonstrated by CF after Giemsa stain are sufficient to estimate the percentage of infection. (ii) Giemsa stain provides a less expensive strategy to evaluate Leishmania infection tha

Yuly Andrea, Gamboa Marín; Gabriela, Delgado Murcia.

2008-01-01

38

Whole Blood Interferon-? Release Assay Is Insufficient for the Diagnosis of Sputum Smear Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose We investigated the value of an interferon-? release assay (IGRA) for the diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) among sputum smear negative PTB suspects in an environment with intermediate burden of PTB and high Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination rate. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed IGRA, medical records, chest PA and CT scan of PTB suspects seen at Gangnam Severance Hospital, Seoul, Korea from Oct. 2007 to Apr. 2013. "Active PTB" was diagnosed when 1) M. tuberculosis culture positive, 2) confirmation by pathologic examination; or 3) clinical findings compatible with TB. Results Of 224 sputum smear negative PTB suspects, 94 were confirmed as having active PTB. There were no statistically significant differences in the diagnostic yield of IGRA between immunocompromised and immunocompetent sputum smear negative PTB suspects. IGRA did show superior sensitivity [81.9%, 95% confidence interval (CI); 74.13-89.70%] in the diagnosis of sputum smear negative PTB when compared with chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), tuberculin skin test (TST), and chest X-ray (pPTB suspects and to screen active PTB in an environment with intermediate TB prevalence and a high BCG vaccination rate. PMID:24719140

Park, HeeJin; Shin, Jung Ar; Kim, Hyung Jung; Ahn, Chul Min

2014-01-01

39

Immunoglobulin and enzyme-conjugated dextran polymers enhance u-PAR staining intensity of carcinoma cells in peripheral blood smears.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The presence of disseminated carcinoma cells in bone marrow and peripheral blood has prognostic importance in patients with carcinomas. Much evidence indicates that dissemination of tumor cells may depend on activation of a variety of degradative enzymes. A strong positive correlation has been shown between the expression of tumor cell proteases and tumor invasion. Therefore, phenotypic characterization of disseminated carcinoma cells for expression of protease activators might define the invasive potential of the cells. We present an immunocytochemically enhanced staining method that allows phenotyping of disseminated carcinoma cells in bone marrow and peripheral blood smears. In the first step, the cells were incubated with antibodies against urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (u-PAR) and subsequently with secondary antibodies conjugated to peroxidase-labeled dextran polymers. A brown color reaction was developed with diaminobenzidine as chromogen. In the second step, the cells were incubated with alkaline phosphatase-conjugated murine monoclonal antibodies against a common cytokeratin epitope and a red color reaction was developed with new fuchsin as substrate. This method allows simultaneous and unambiguous immunolabeling of intracellular cytokeratin and of u-PAR intracellularly and on the surface of carcinoma cells. This novel approach can be used for detection and phenotyping of carcinoma cells in blood smears for u-PAR or, presumably, for any other heterogeneously expressed antigen on the surface of the detected cells.

Werther, K; Normark, M

1999-01-01

40

The estimation of platelet count from a blood smear on the basis of the red cell: platelet ratio  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The estimation of platelet count from blood smears is a daily routine laboratory test, which should be systematic each time the automated count is erroneous.In our laboratory, we estimate the platelet count indirectly by using the automated red blood cell (RBC and calculating the platelet count on the basis of the red cell: platelet ratio in a stained blood film. In this study, we attempted to verify the reliability of this technique.Material and Methods: One hundred ninety-one platelet counts were executed by two laboratory methods: an automated count using an impedance cell counter and then a manual method by reviewing microscopic blood smears. The number of platelets per 1000 erythrocytes was multiplied by the automated RBC (x106 cells/µl to give an approximate manual count (x103 cells/µl. Two paired t-test was used for comparison of the two methods.Results: The regression analyses for the entire data set collected in our study with the two laboratory methods gave the following least squares equation by comparing the automated (y to the manual method (x: y=0.8548x + 12.013 (r=0.908. The paired t-test showed no significant difference between the two methods (p>0.05 and the Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC was equal to 0.905.The plot of the differences between the automated and manual values against their means according to Band and Altman design showed that the difference mean was 3.209 with a standard deviation SD=46.331.We noticed that 93% of the differences were within the agreement limits (mean±2SD, and that 77% of the differences were less than 20,000 platelets/µl.Conclusion: Estimating platelet count on the basis of the red cell: platelet ratio is a reliable technique and it should be proposed as a method of reference.

Mohamed Brahimi

2009-03-01

 
 
 
 
41

Pap Smear  

Science.gov (United States)

Pap Smear Introduction Cancer of the cervix affects more than 10,000 women in the United States every ... to be analyzed. Surface of Cervix During a Pap Smear First you will be asked to undress, at ...

42

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Pap Smear Introduction Cancer of the cervix affects more than 10,000 women in the United States every ... to be analyzed. Surface of Cervix During a Pap Smear First you will be asked to undress, at ...

43

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Thanks to a procedure called a Pap smear test, many early stages of cervical cancer can be ... successful in curing cervical cancer. The Pap smear test is essential in detecting atypia early. It is ...

44

A study of eosinophil count in nasal and blood smear in allergic respiratory diseases in a rural setup  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Allergic respiratory disorders are fairly common visiting cases in pediatrics outpatient department (OPD. With an appropriate history and detailed examination, diagnosis may not be problematic. Routine investigation may not contribute much to the final diagnosis but may help in ruling out other possibilities. This study was done to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of blood or nasal eosinophilia in subjects suffering from allergic respiratory disorders and also to assess the feasibility of nasal cytogram which is a simple, economical and reliable investigation in allergic respiratory disorders. This is a prospective clinical correlation study of patients attending outpatient department. 100 subjects aged between 2-18 years of either sex were selected for the estimation of eosinophil count in nasal and peripheral smear in allergic respiratory disorders. All allergic respiratory cases based on eosinophillia. The nasal and blood eosinophilia were compared with each other and clinical findings of allergic rhinitis with or without asthma were studied. In this study peak age incidence was seen between 11-18 years and it was more common in males. Rhinorrhoea, pale mucosa and nasal obstruction were common findings in allergic rhinitis with bronchial asthma. Nasal eosinophilia was seen in 52.4% and 64.9% of cases of allergic rhinitis and allergic rhinitis with asthma respectively. Blood eosinophilia was seen in 54% and 56.8% of cases of allergic rhinitis with asthma respectively. Nasal cytogram which is a simple, economical and non- invasive procedure can be used as an alternative to invasive peripheral smear eosinophilia as both are equally efficacious in diagnosing allergic respiratory diseases.

Naveen Kumar

2012-01-01

45

Complete blood cell count in psittaciformes by using high-throughput image cytometry: a pilot study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The avian hemogram is usually performed in veterinary diagnostic laboratories by using manual cell counting techniques and differential counts determined by light microscopy. There is no standard automated technique for avian blood cell count and differentiation to date. These shortcomings in birds are primarily because erythrocytes and thrombocytes are nucleated, which precludes the use of automated analyzers programmed to perform mammal complete blood cell counts. In addition, there is no standard avian antibody panel, which would allow cell differentiation by immunophenotyping across all commonly seen bird species. We report an alternative hematologic approach for quantification and differentiation of avian blood cells by using high-throughput image cytometry on blood smears in psittacine bird species. A pilot study was designed with 70 blood smears of different psittacine bird species stained with a Wright-Giemsa stain. The slides were scanned at 0.23 microm/pixel. The open-source softwares CellProfiler and CellProfiler Analyst were used for analyzing and sorting each cell by image cytometry. A "pipeline" was constructed in the CellProfiler by using different modules to identify and export hundreds of measures per cell for shape, intensity, and texture. Rules for classifying the different blood cell phenotypes were then determined based on these measurements by iterative feedback and machine learning by using CellProfiler Analyst. Although this approach shows promises, avian Leukopet results could not be duplicated when using this technique as is. Further studies and more standardized prospective investigations may be needed to refine the "pipeline" strategy and the machine learning algorithm. PMID:24344512

Beaufrère, Hugues; Ammersbach, Mélanie; Tully, Thomas N

2013-09-01

46

A preliminary comparative report of quantitative buffy coat and modified quantitative buffy coat with peripheral blood smear in malaria diagnosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The quantitative buffy coat (QBC) technique is a method of diagnosing malarial parasites based on micro-centrifugation, fluorescence, and density gradient of infected red blood cells. The aim of the present study was to modify the QBC technique in order to reduce the cost per test of malaria diagnosis. This was achieved by introducing some modifications to routine QBC wherein REMI centrifuge (cost Rs 19000/-) and ultra-violet microscope (Rs 115000) were used instead of parafuge (Rs 108000) and paralens (Rs 293625/-). With the above modification, the cost per test for laboratories dealing with high patient load was reduced by 13%, whereas for smaller laboratories with low patient load, the cost per test was reduced by 48%. This is a significant difference in cost. The results of the modified QBC method were compared with the current diagnostic methods: peripheral blood smear (PBS) and routine QBC. Blood samples collected from 96 patients were subjected to the above tests. Considering PBS as the gold standard, routine QBC showed 91% sensitivity and 96% specificity for Plasmodium vivax- and 91% sensitivity and 94% specificity for Plasmodium falciparum-infected patients. It was seen that the modified QBC technique had 91% sensitivity and 98% specificity for P. vivax and 91% sensitivity and 96% specificity for P. falciparum. It was concluded that modification of the QBC technique renders it cheaper without compromising the specificity and sensitivity of the method. PMID:23182137

Kochareka, Manali; Sarkar, Sougat; Dasgupta, Debjani; Aigal, Umesh

2012-10-01

47

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Pap Smear Introduction Cancer of the cervix affects more than 10,000 women in the United States every year. Thanks to a procedure ... Pap smear test, many early stages of cervical cancer can be detected and treated. Your doctor has ...

48

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... com og020106 Last reviewed: 10/01/2012 3 Prevention A Pap smear test is one of the ... development of cervical cancer. Taking the vaccine helps prevent cervical cancer. If you have not taken the ...

49

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Cervical cancer usually develops gradually. At first, the cells that line the cervix become slightly abnormal. This ... should not be painful. The sample, which contains cells and mucus, is then smeared onto a glass ...

50

A Case of Disseminated Histoplasmosis Detected in Peripheral Blood Smear Staining Revealing AIDS at Terminal Phase in a Female Patient from Cameroon  

Science.gov (United States)

Histoplasmosis is endemic in the American continent and also in Sub-Saharan Africa, coexisting with the African histoplasmosis. Immunosuppressed patients, especially those with advanced HIV infection develop a severe disseminated histoplasmosis with fatal prognosis. The definitive diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis is based on the detection of Histoplasma capsulatum from patient' tissues samples or body fluids. Among the diagnostic tests peripheral blood smear staining is not commonly used. Nonetheless a few publications reveal that Histoplasma capsulatum has been discovered by chance using this method in HIV infected patients with chronic fever and hence revealed AIDS at the terminal phase. We report a new case detected in a Cameroonian woman without any previous history of HIV infection. Peripheral blood smear staining should be commonly used for the diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis in the Sub-Saharan Africa, where facilities for mycology laboratories are unavailable. PMID:23251167

Ebenye, Christine Mandengue

2012-01-01

51

Laboratory diagnosis of malaria by conventional peripheral blood smear examination with Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC and Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT - A comparative study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: Rapid diagnosis is prerequisite for effective treatment and reducing mortality and morbidity of malaria. Microscopy has been the Gold standard for malaria diagnosis for decades. Recently, many new rapid diagnostic tests like Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC examination and rapid antigen detection methods are being widely used. We made an attempt to compare peripheral smear, QBC and rapid antigen detection methods for the diagnosis of malaria. Materials and Methods: A total number of 500 samples were collected from patients presenting with classical symptoms of malaria. Thick and thin blood smears were prepared and stained with Leishman’s stain. QBC, Histidine Rich Protein-II antigen test and plasmodium Lactate Dehydrogenase tests were done using commercially available kits. Results: Taking thick smear as gold standard, thin smear had sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 90.9%, 100%, 100% and 98.6% respectively. QBC showed sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 95.45%, 100%, 100% and 99.31% respectively. HRP-II antigen detection showed sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 56.06%, 100%, 100% and 94.20%. pLDH showed sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of 95.45%, 100%, 100% and 99.40% respectively. Conclusion: In our study, QBC had highest sensitivity followed by pLDH assay. Leishman’s stained thick smear is cost effective but requires technical expertise to interpret the results, so if facilities are available, QBC can be used for routine diagnosis. In places where facilities are not available rapid diagnostic test devices can be used, especially in endemic areas.

Bhat Sandhya K

2012-10-01

52

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Cervical cancer usually develops gradually. At first, the cells that line the cervix become slightly abnormal. This is known as “atypia.” After a while, atypia could turn into cancer. ... The sample, which contains cells and mucus, is then smeared onto a glass ...

53

Evaluation of hematological profile, biochemical and peripheral blood smear with a view to the health profile in primates of the Cebus genre maintained in captivity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Non-human primates serve as a model for studies on the dynamics of transmission routes and natural history of diseases shared between humans and animals. The captive environment is conducive the dissemination of zoonotic diseases. Many of these animals do not present clinical symptomatology, even when infected, which characterize them as an important source of infection for domestic animals and man. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sanity of non-human primates kept in captivity through hematological and biochemical analysis as well as peripheral blood smear, aiming to investigate the presence of zoonotic pathogens, serving as a model for future studies on the dynamics of routes of transmission of diseases shared between humans and animals. Were collected samples of blood from 15 nail monkeys (Cebus sp., adults, clinically healthy and belonging to Park Zoobotanic of Teresina. Were stained smear sanguine blades and obtained the haematological and biochemical profiles of each animal. The data analysis was based on basic statistics. Did not observed any haemoparasite present in peripheral blood. All animals were anemic, 46,7% thrombopenics and 87% of the animals showed some type of pathological process of chronic evolution, due to the high rate of monocytes found. All animals showed high rates of alkaline phosphatase, and transaminases AST and ALT, indicating injury of the hepatic parenchyma. New studies should be conducted to better elucidate of results, seeing that biochemical physiological data primate of the genus Cebus are scarce in literature.

David Baruc Cruvinel Lima

2014-09-01

54

The occurrence of hepatozoon in the gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis)  

Science.gov (United States)

Hepatozoon sciuri (Coles, 1914) is reported from gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) in Washington, D.C. and Maryland. Blood smears stained with Giemsa's stain revealed a parasitemia in 16 to 71% of the squirrels examined. A technique for laking the red cells and concentrating the white cells in blood samples demonstrated this protozoon to be present in every squirrel so tested.

Herman, C.M.; Price, D.L.

1955-01-01

55

Diagnóstico presuntivo de histoplasmosis en un frotis sanguíneo / Presumptive diagnosis of histoplasmosis in a blood smear / Diagnóstico presuntivo de histoplasmose em um esfregaço de sangue  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Comunica-se o diagnóstico de um caso de histoplasmose associada à AIDS, de uma microscopia de extensão sanguínea realizada por ocasião do processamento de uma amostra enviada ao laboratório para um estudo hematológico. A extensão, fixada com metanol e corada com solução de Giemsa a 10%, revelou com [...] objetivo de 100X, estruturas leveduriformes de 2-4 µ diâmetro dentro de células leucocitárias do sangue, com a típica coloração em tampão e a presença de um halo claro periférico, os quais caracterizam microscopicamente a Histoplasma capsulatum. Em seguida, para confirmar o achado micológico, foi corada a mesma preparação com a técnica de Grocott, que mostrou leveduras de cor parda, dentro dos leucócitos sanguíneos. O paciente clínica e imunologicamente deteriorado ( Abstract in spanish Se comunica el diagnóstico de un caso de histoplasmosis asociada al SIDA a partir de la microscopía de un extendido hemático realizado en oportunidad del procesamiento de una muestra enviada al laboratorio para un estudio hematológico. El extendido, fijado con metanol y teñido con solución de Giemsa [...] al 10% reveló, con objetivo de 100X, estructuras levaduriformes de 2-4 µ de diámetro dentro de las células leucocitarias sanguíneas, con la típica tinción en casquete y la presencia de un halo claro periférico, que caracterizan microscópicamente a Histoplasma capsulatum. Luego, para confirmar el hallazgo micológico, se procedió a teñir el mismo preparado con la técnica de Grocott, la cual puso de manifiesto levaduras de color pardo, dentro de los leucocitos sanguíneos. El paciente, deteriorado clínica e inmunológicamente ( Abstract in english A case of AIDS-associated histoplasmosis diagnosed by microscopy from a blood smear performed during a hematologic study was reported. The smear, fixed with methanol and stained with 10% Giemsa solution, revealed with a 100X objective, 2-4 µ-diameter yeast - like structures within the leuMicrobiolog [...] ía contakocytes, showing a typical staining in cap and a peripheral clear halo, characteristic of Histoplasma capsulatum. To confirm the mycological finding, the same smear was stained with the Grocott technique, showing brownish yeasts in the leucocytes. The patient, clinically deteriorated and with advanced immunological disorder (

Agustina Daniela, Tkach; Jorge Daniel, Moreno; Amadeo Javier, Bava.

56

Morphological findings in bone marrow biopsy and aspirate smears of visceral kala azar: A review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Context: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is endemic in India and may simulate and cause many hematological disorders like pancytopenia, myelofibrosis, myelodysplasia and hemophagocytosis. Aims: The study aims to investigate the hematological manifestation of Visceral Leishmaniasis and associated changes that may be observed in bone marrow aspirate smears and biopsy which may warn a pathologist of possible infections. Settings and Design: This is a retrospective study of 18 VL cases on B (b one marrow aspirate and biopsy in the department of Pathology in a tertiary care teaching hospital in New Delhi. Methods and Material: Giemsa stained slides of bone marrow aspirates and hematoxylin and Eosin stained biopsy slides were reviewed in detail by two competent pathologists. All the findings were tabulated and discussed and comparisons made with the previous similar studies. Results: Hyper cellular marrow, increased lymphocytes and plasma cells, marrow granulomas, hemophagocytosis, myelofibrosis, myelodysplasia and gelatinous transformation of the marrow were notable features the presence of which together or individually should caution a pathologist to search for Leishman Donovan (LD bodies in patients especially in a non-endemic zone in a tropical country.

Dhingra Kajal

2010-01-01

57

Comparative study of modified quantitative buffy coat and two rapid tests in comparison with peripheral blood smear in malaria diagnosis in mumbai, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to identify a quick and reliable technique for accurate diagnosis of malaria, study of the efficiency of the tests such as Parahit total (HRPII & aldolase Ag), Advantage mal card (parasite specific LDH), and modified QBC was done in comparison with conventional blood smear microscopy. One hundred patients infected with P. vivax and 101 infected with P. falciparum were included in this study. The sensitivity of Parahit total, Advantage mal card, and modified QBC for P. falciparum detection was 70.3, 95%, and 98%, and specificity was 98%, 98%, and 96%, respectively. The sensitivity of Parahit total, Advantage mal card, and modified QBC for P. vivax detection was 73%, 97.0%, and 98%, respectively, and specificity of all the tests was 98%. On day 15, in falciparum arm, Advantage mal card and Parahit total showed 8 (7.92%) and 59 (58.41%) false positives. On day 15, in vivax arm, Parahit total revealed 52% false positives. The study indicated that modified QBC could be only used where appropriate facilities are available. Advantage mal card was a better follow-up tool than Parahit total. PMID:24800057

Kocharekar, Manali M; Sarkar, Sougat S; Dasgupta, Debjani

2014-01-01

58

Pap smear (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

During a Pap smear, cells from the outside and the canal of the cervix are retrieved by gently scraping the outside of the cervix. The Pap smear is performed to detect cancerous or precancerous conditions ...

59

Smear layer in endodontics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Modern methods of root canal cleaning and filing are causing formation of the smear layer on treated surfaces. The aim of this paper was to review clinical aspect of smear layer in endodontics. Smear layer is the consequence of instrumentation of root canal walls and is consisted of organic and inorganic particles of cut dentine, necrotic and/or vital pulp fragments, microorganisms and their products. Existence of smear layer is affecting permeability of the radicular dentine, thus decreasing effects of canal medicaments and impairing adhesion of obturation materials in root canal. Removal of the smear layer from canal walls is possible with use of various chemical agents, ultrasonic or laser techniques. Regardless to contradictory attitudes and opinions, removing the smear layer is required for possible bacterial contamination, compromised effects of root canal medication and in order to obtain better obturation of canals 'system. .

Živkovi? Slavoljub

2005-01-01

60

Sputum fungal smear  

Science.gov (United States)

KOH test; Fungal smear - sputum; Fungal wet prep; Wet prep - fungal ... Abnormal results may be a sign of a fungal infection. Such infections include: Aspergillosis Blastomycosis Coccidioidomycosis Cryptococcosis ...

 
 
 
 
61

The use of fluorescence enhancement to improve the microscopic diagnosis of falciparum malaria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Giemsa staining of thick blood smears remains the "gold standard" for detecting malaria. However, this method is not very good for diagnosing low-level infections. A method for the simultaneous staining of Plasmodium-parasitized culture and blood smears for both bright field and fluorescence was developed and its ability to improve detection efficiency tested. Methods A total of 22 nucleic acid-specific fluorescent dyes were tested for their ability to provide easily observable staining of Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized red blood cells following Giemsa staining. Results Of the 14 dyes that demonstrated intense fluorescence staining, only SYBR Green 1, YOYO-1 and ethidum homodimer-2 could be detected using fluorescent microscopy, when cells were first stained with Giemsa. Giemsa staining was not effective when applied after the fluorescent dyes. SYBR Green 1 provided the best staining in the presence of Giemsa, as a very high percentage of the parasitized cells were simultaneously stained. When blood films were screened using fluorescence microscopy the parasites were more readily detectable due to the sharp contrast between the dark background and the specific, bright fluorescence produced by the parasites. Conclusion The dual staining method reported here allows fluorescence staining, which enhances the reader's ability to detect parasites under low parasitaemia conditions, coupled with the ability to examine the same cell under bright field conditions to detect the characteristic morphology of Plasmodium species that is observed with Giemsa staining.

Liu Paul

2007-07-01

62

Blood parasites in passerine birds from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest / Hemoparasitos em passeriformes da Mata Atlântica Brasileira  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Parasitos podem levar espécies de aves à extinção, afetar as dinâmicas temporais e espaciais dos hospedeiros, alterar a estrutura de comunidades e o status social de indivíduos. Avaliou-se a prevalência e a intensidade de parasitos em famílias e espécies de 925 aves capturadas, entre 2000 e 2001, na [...] Mata Atlântica de Minas Gerais. Foram coradas com Giemsa extensões de sangue para detectar parasitos hematozoários. As aves (n= 15,8%) 11 famílias estavam infectadas por pelo menos um gênero de parasito, especialmente Muscicapidae (28,3%) e Conopophagidae (25%). Entre as 146 aves infectadas, Plasmodium foi detectado em todas as famílias e possuiu a maior prevalência (54,8%). Trypanosoma,Haemoproteus e microfilaria possuíram baixas prevalências (23,3, 23,3 e 2,1%, respectivamente). Aves capturadasdurante a estação chuvosa estavam mais infectadas do que aves capturadas durante a estação seca. A baixa prevalência geral de parasitos do sangue das aves é semelhante aos padrões encontrados em outras localidades da região Neotropical. Abstract in english Parasites may lead bird species to extinction, affect host temporal and spatial population dynamics, alter community structure and alter individuals’ social status. We evaluated blood parasite prevalence and intensity according to bird families and species, among 925 birds that were caught in 2000 a [...] nd 2001, in the Atlantic Forest in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. We applied Giemsa staining to thin blood smears, to detect blood parasites. The birds (n = 15.8%) in 11 families, were infected by at least one parasite genus, especially Muscicapidae (28.3%) and Conopophagidae (25%). Among the 146 infected birds, Plasmodium was detected in all bird families and had the highest prevalence (54.8%). Trypanosoma, Haemoproteus and microfilaria had lower prevalence rates (23.3, 23.3 and 2.1%, respectively). Birds caught during the rainy season were more infected than birds caught during the dry season. The overall low prevalence of blood parasites in birds is similar to the patterns found elsewhere in the Neotropical region.

Fabiane, Sebaio; Érika Martins, Braga; Felipe, Branquinho; Alan, Fecchio; Miguel Ângelo, Marini.

2012-03-01

63

Blood parasites in passerine birds from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Hemoparasitos em passeriformes da Mata Atlântica Brasileira  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Parasites may lead bird species to extinction, affect host temporal and spatial population dynamics, alter community structure and alter individuals’ social status. We evaluated blood parasite prevalence and intensity according to bird families and species, among 925 birds that were caught in 2000 and 2001, in the Atlantic Forest in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. We applied Giemsa staining to thin blood smears, to detect blood parasites. The birds (n = 15.8% in 11 families, were infected by at least one parasite genus, especially Muscicapidae (28.3% and Conopophagidae (25%. Among the 146 infected birds, Plasmodium was detected in all bird families and had the highest prevalence (54.8%. Trypanosoma, Haemoproteus and microfilaria had lower prevalence rates (23.3, 23.3 and 2.1%, respectively. Birds caught during the rainy season were more infected than birds caught during the dry season. The overall low prevalence of blood parasites in birds is similar to the patterns found elsewhere in the Neotropical region.Parasitos podem levar espécies de aves à extinção, afetar as dinâmicas temporais e espaciais dos hospedeiros, alterar a estrutura de comunidades e o status social de indivíduos. Avaliou-se a prevalência e a intensidade de parasitos em famílias e espécies de 925 aves capturadas, entre 2000 e 2001, na Mata Atlântica de Minas Gerais. Foram coradas com Giemsa extensões de sangue para detectar parasitos hematozoários. As aves (n= 15,8% 11 famílias estavam infectadas por pelo menos um gênero de parasito, especialmente Muscicapidae (28,3% e Conopophagidae (25%. Entre as 146 aves infectadas, Plasmodium foi detectado em todas as famílias e possuiu a maior prevalência (54,8%. Trypanosoma,Haemoproteus e microfilaria possuíram baixas prevalências (23,3, 23,3 e 2,1%, respectivamente. Aves capturadasdurante a estação chuvosa estavam mais infectadas do que aves capturadas durante a estação seca. A baixa prevalência geral de parasitos do sangue das aves é semelhante aos padrões encontrados em outras localidades da região Neotropical.

Fabiane Sebaio

2012-03-01

64

The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia in blood donors in a Nigerian teaching hospital  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background & objectives: The present study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of malariaparasitaemia among blood donors and to determine the possible risk of transmission of malaria parasiteto recipients of blood in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Anambra State.Methods: Four hundred and forty-four subjects were selected randomly and EDTA added blood wascollected for screening malaria parasites using Giemsa stain. The data were subjected to ? 2 analysis.Results: Prevalence of malaria was 30.2% among blood donors and showed bimodal distribution withsignificant variation in different months.Interpretation & conclusion: Due to high prevalence of asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia in thisregion, all blood samples should be screened for malaria parasites (post-donor screening andadministered with a curative dose of antimalarials prophylactically to all patients transfused withmalaria parasite positive blood.

E.C. Okocha, C.C. Ibeh, P.U. Ele & N.C. Ibeh

2005-03-01

65

Smearing Center Vortices  

CERN Document Server

We smear Z(2) center vortices in lattice gauge configurations such as to recover thick vortices with full SU(2) Yang-Mills information. In particular, we address the problem that using Z(2) configurations in conjunction with overlap (or chirally improved) fermions is problematic due to their lack of smoothness. Our method allows us to regain this smoothness and simultaneously maintain the center vortex structure. We verify our method with various gluonic and fermionic observables and find good agreement between smeared vortex configurations and full SU(2).

Höllwieser, Roman

2014-01-01

66

Smeared Gauge Fixing  

CERN Document Server

We present a new method of gauge fixing to standard lattice Landau gauge, Max Re Tr $\\sum_{\\mu,x}U_{\\mu,x}$, in which the link configuration is recursively smeared; these smeared links are then gauge fixed by standard extremization. The resulting gauge transformation is simultaneously applied to the original links. Following this preconditioning, the links are gauge fixed again as usual. This method is free of Gribov copies, and we find that for physical parameters ($\\beta \\geq 2$ in SU(2)), it generally results in the gauge fixed configuration with the globally maximal trace. This method is a general technique for finding a unique minimum to global optimization problems.

Hetrick, J E; Forcrand, Ph. de

1998-01-01

67

Pleural fluid smear  

Science.gov (United States)

... smear is a laboratory test to check for bacteria, fungi, or abnormal cells in a sample of the fluid that has ... Normally, no bacteria, fungi, or cancer cells are present in the ... may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk to your ...

68

Collection of Cervical Secretions Does Not Adversely Affect Pap Smears Taken Immediately Afterward  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Collection of cervical secretions for local immunological assessment requires that the secretions be collected prior to the Pap smear to avoid contamination with blood. The objective of the present study was to determine whether gentle collection of cervical secretions prior to a Pap smear collection influences the quality of the Pap smear. A total of 266 women were recruited. Half of the participants were assigned to collection of cervical secretions prior to Pap smear collection with Weck-c...

Hildesheim, Allan; Bratti, M. Concepcion; Edwards, Robert P.; Schiffman, Mark; Rodriguez, Ana C.; Herrero, Rolando; Alfaro, Mario; Morera, Lidia A.; Ermatinger, Susan V.; Miller, Barbara T.; Crowley-nowick, Peggy A.

1998-01-01

69

Camel trypanosomosis in the Canary Islands: assessment of seroprevalence and infection rates using the card agglutination test (CATT/T. evansi) and parasite detection tests  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Trypanosomosis due to Trypanosoma evansi (surra) is a major enzootic disease of the dromedary camel. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to assess seroprevalence and infection rates in the Canary Islands using antibody(-card agglutination test-CATT/T. evansi) and parasite detection tests (micro-Haematocrit Centrifugation technique, Giemsa stained blood smears, microscopic examination of lymph node aspirates and mouse inoculation). PCV was also determined. 745 dromedary camels (483 fema...

Gutierrez, C.; Juste, M. C.; Corbera, J. A.; Magnus, E.; Verloo, D.; Montoya, J. A.

2000-01-01

70

A case report of relapsing fever  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Relapsing fever is an acute febrile illness caused by spirochetes of the genus Borrelia. The high fevers of presenting patients spontaneously abate and then recur. Here we report a 50-year-old woman having relapsing fever associated with thrombocytopenia. Giemsa staining of peripheral blood smear revealed spiral organisms morphologically resembling Borrelia. A rare case of relapsing fever which was successfully treated with doxycycline is discussed.

Aher Atul

2008-04-01

71

Uso de paneles de láminas estandarizadas para la evaluación de competencias en el diagnóstico microscópico de malaria en la Amazonía Peruana Use of standardized blood smear slide sets for competency assessment in the malaria microscopic diagnosis in the Peruvian Amazon  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar la competencia de los microscopistas en el diagnóstico de la malaria mediante paneles de láminas estandarizados en la Amazonía peruana. Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal, realizado entre los meses de julio y septiembre de 2007, en 122 establecimientos de salud de primer nivel de atención de la Amazonía peruana. En el marco del Proyecto PAMAFRO, se evaluó las competencias en el diagnóstico de malaria en 68 microscopistas sin experiencia (un año, utilizando paneles estandarizados de 20 láminas siguiendo las recomendaciones de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS. Se definió concordancia como el porcentaje de aciertos que tuvo el microscopista en los diagnósticos (identificación de especie del parásito. Un microscopista con concordancia ?90% (?18 láminas acertadas fue definido como "experto", 80 a Objectives. To assess the competency of microscopists for malaria diagnosis using standardized slide sets in the Peruvian Amazon. Material and methods. Cross-sectional study carried out in 122 first level health facilities of the Peruvian Amazon, between July and September 2007. Within the frame of the project "Control Malaria in the border areas of the Andean Region: A community approach" (PAMAFRO, we evaluated the malaria diagnosis performance in 68 microscopists without expertise ( 1 year using standardized sets of 20 blood smear slides according to the World Health Organization (WHO recommendations. A correct diagnosis (correct species identification was defined as "agreement", a microscopist was qualified as an "expert" if they have an agreement ?90% (? 18 slides with correct diagnosis, as a "referent" with an agreement between 80% and <90%, "competent" if they are between 70 and <80% and "in training" if they have <70%. Results. Microscopists with expertise (68.6% had more agreement than those without expertise (48.2%. The competency assessment was acceptable (competent, referent, or experts levels in 11.8% of the microscopists without expertise and in 52.6% from those with expertise. The agreement was lower using blood smear slides with P. falciparum with low parasitaemia, with P. malariae and with mixed infections. Conclusions. Is the first assessment, we found only one of three microscopists from the Peruvian Amazon is competent fro malaria diagnosis according to the WHO standards. From this baseline data, we have to continue working in order to improve the competency assessment of the microscopists within the frame of a quality assurance system

Ángel Rosas-Aguirre

2010-12-01

72

Production and validation of durable, high quality standardized malaria microscopy slides for teaching, testing and quality assurance during an era of declining diagnostic proficiency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Sets of Giemsa-stained, blood smear slides with systematically verified composite diagnoses would contribute substantially to development of externally validated quality assurance systems for the microscopic diagnosis of malaria. Methods whole blood from Plasmodium-positive donors in Cambodia and Indonesia and individuals with no history of risk for malaria was collected. Using standard operating procedures, technicians prepared Giemsa-stained thick and thin smears from each donor. One slide from each of the first 35 donations was distributed to each of 28 individuals acknowledged by reputation as having expertise in the microscopic diagnosis of malaria. These reference readers recorded presence or absence of Plasmodium species and parasite density. A composite diagnosis for each donation was determined based on microscopic findings and species-specific small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssrRNA DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification. Results More than 12, 000 slides were generated from 124 donations. Reference readers correctly identified presence of parasites on 85% of slides with densities 350 parasites/?l. Percentages of agreement with composite diagnoses were highest for Plasmodium falciparum (99%, followed by Plasmodium vivax (86%. Conclusion Herein, a standardized method for producing large numbers of consistently high quality, durable Giemsa-stained blood smears and validating composite diagnoses for the purpose of creating a malaria slide repository in support of initiatives to improve training and competency assessment amidst a background of variability in diagnosis is described.

Sismadi Priyanto

2006-10-01

73

Differentiation analyses of adult suspension mononucleated peripheral blood cells of Mus musculus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to determine whether isolated suspension mouse peripheral mononucleated blood cells have the potential to differentiate into two distinct types of cells, i.e., osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Results Differentiation into osteoblast cells was concomitant with the activation of the Opn gene, increment of alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity and the existence of bone nodules, whereas osteoclast cells activated the Catk gene, increment of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP activity and showed resorption activities via resorption pits. Morphology analyses showed the morphology of osteoblast and osteoclast cells after von Kossa and May-Grunwald-Giemsa staining respectively. Conclusions In conclusion, suspension mononucleated cells have the potentiality to differentiate into mature osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and hence can be categorized as multipotent stem cells.

Yazid Muhammad

2010-10-01

74

Uso de paneles de láminas estandarizadas para la evaluación de competencias en el diagnóstico microscópico de malaria en la Amazonía Peruana / Use of standardized blood smear slide sets for competency assessment in the malaria microscopic diagnosis in the Peruvian Amazon  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos. Evaluar la competencia de los microscopistas en el diagnóstico de la malaria mediante paneles de láminas estandarizados en la Amazonía peruana. Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal, realizado entre los meses de julio y septiembre de 2007, en 122 establecimientos de salud de primer ni [...] vel de atención de la Amazonía peruana. En el marco del Proyecto PAMAFRO, se evaluó las competencias en el diagnóstico de malaria en 68 microscopistas sin experiencia (un año), utilizando paneles estandarizados de 20 láminas siguiendo las recomendaciones de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). Se definió concordancia como el porcentaje de aciertos que tuvo el microscopista en los diagnósticos (identificación de especie del parásito). Un microscopista con concordancia ?90% (?18 láminas acertadas) fue definido como "experto", 80 a Abstract in english Objectives. To assess the competency of microscopists for malaria diagnosis using standardized slide sets in the Peruvian Amazon. Material and methods. Cross-sectional study carried out in 122 first level health facilities of the Peruvian Amazon, between July and September 2007. Within the frame of [...] the project "Control Malaria in the border areas of the Andean Region: A community approach" (PAMAFRO), we evaluated the malaria diagnosis performance in 68 microscopists without expertise ( 1 year) using standardized sets of 20 blood smear slides according to the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. A correct diagnosis (correct species identification) was defined as "agreement", a microscopist was qualified as an "expert" if they have an agreement ?90% (? 18 slides with correct diagnosis), as a "referent" with an agreement between 80% and

Ángel, Rosas-Aguirre; Dionicia, Gamboa; Hugo, Rodriguez; Fernando, Llanos-Zavalaga; Kristhian, Aguirre; Alejandro, Llanos-Cuentas.

75

Uso de paneles de láminas estandarizadas para la evaluación de competencias en el diagnóstico microscópico de malaria en la amazonía peruana / Use of standardized blood smear slide sets for competency assessment in the malaria microscopic diagnosis in the peruvian amazon  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos. Evaluar la competencia de los microscopistas en el diagnóstico de la malaria mediante paneles de láminas estandarizados en la Amazonía peruana. Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal, realizado entre los meses de julio y septiembre de 2007, en 122 establecimientos de salud de primer ni [...] vel de atención de la Amazonía peruana. En el marco del Proyecto PAMAFRO, se evaluó las competencias en el diagnóstico de malaria en 68 microscopistas sin experiencia (un año), utilizando paneles estandarizados de 20 láminas siguiendo las recomendaciones de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). Se definió concordancia como el porcentaje de aciertos que tuvo el microscopista en los diagnósticos (identificación de especie del parásito). Un microscopista con concordancia ?90% (?18 láminas acertadas) fue definido como "experto", 80 a Abstract in english Objectives. To assess the competency of microscopists for malaria diagnosis using standardized slide sets in the Peruvian Amazon. Material and methods. Cross-sectional study carried out in 122 first level health facilities of the Peruvian Amazon, between July and September 2007. Within the frame of [...] the project "Control Malaria in the border areas of the Andean Region: A community approach" (PAMAFRO), we evaluated the malaria diagnosis performance in 68 microscopists without expertise ( 1 year) using standardized sets of 20 blood smear slides according to the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. A correct diagnosis (correct species identification) was defined as "agreement", a microscopist was qualified as an "expert" if they have an agreement ?90% (? 18 slides with correct diagnosis), as a "referent" with an agreement between 80% and

Ángel, Rosas-Aguirre; Dionicia, Gamboa; Hugo, Rodriguez; Fernando, Llanos-Zavalaga; Kristhian, Aguirre; Alejandro, Llanos-Cuentas.

76

Uso de paneles de láminas estandarizadas para la evaluación de competencias en el diagnóstico microscópico de malaria en la Amazonía Peruana / Use of standardized blood smear slide sets for competency assessment in the malaria microscopic diagnosis in the Peruvian Amazon  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos. Evaluar la competencia de los microscopistas en el diagnóstico de la malaria mediante paneles de láminas estandarizados en la Amazonía peruana. Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal, realizado entre los meses de julio y septiembre de 2007, en 122 establecimientos de salud de primer ni [...] vel de atención de la Amazonía peruana. En el marco del Proyecto PAMAFRO, se evaluó las competencias en el diagnóstico de malaria en 68 microscopistas sin experiencia (un año), utilizando paneles estandarizados de 20 láminas siguiendo las recomendaciones de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). Se definió concordancia como el porcentaje de aciertos que tuvo el microscopista en los diagnósticos (identificación de especie del parásito). Un microscopista con concordancia ?90% (?18 láminas acertadas) fue definido como "experto", 80 a Abstract in english Objectives. To assess the competency of microscopists for malaria diagnosis using standardized slide sets in the Peruvian Amazon. Material and methods. Cross-sectional study carried out in 122 first level health facilities of the Peruvian Amazon, between July and September 2007. Within the frame of [...] the project "Control Malaria in the border areas of the Andean Region: A community approach" (PAMAFRO), we evaluated the malaria diagnosis performance in 68 microscopists without expertise ( 1 year) using standardized sets of 20 blood smear slides according to the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. A correct diagnosis (correct species identification) was defined as "agreement", a microscopist was qualified as an "expert" if they have an agreement ?90% (? 18 slides with correct diagnosis), as a "referent" with an agreement between 80% and

Ángel, Rosas-Aguirre; Dionicia, Gamboa; Hugo, Rodriguez; Fernando, Llanos-Zavalaga; Kristhian, Aguirre; Alejandro, Llanos-Cuentas.

2010-12-01

77

Uso de paneles de láminas estandarizadas para la evaluación de competencias en el diagnóstico microscópico de malaria en la amazonía peruana / Use of standardized blood smear slide sets for competency assessment in the malaria microscopic diagnosis in the peruvian amazon  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos. Evaluar la competencia de los microscopistas en el diagnóstico de la malaria mediante paneles de láminas estandarizados en la Amazonía peruana. Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal, realizado entre los meses de julio y septiembre de 2007, en 122 establecimientos de salud de primer ni [...] vel de atención de la Amazonía peruana. En el marco del Proyecto PAMAFRO, se evaluó las competencias en el diagnóstico de malaria en 68 microscopistas sin experiencia (un año), utilizando paneles estandarizados de 20 láminas siguiendo las recomendaciones de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). Se definió concordancia como el porcentaje de aciertos que tuvo el microscopista en los diagnósticos (identificación de especie del parásito). Un microscopista con concordancia ?90% (?18 láminas acertadas) fue definido como "experto", 80 a Abstract in english Objectives. To assess the competency of microscopists for malaria diagnosis using standardized slide sets in the Peruvian Amazon. Material and methods. Cross-sectional study carried out in 122 first level health facilities of the Peruvian Amazon, between July and September 2007. Within the frame of [...] the project "Control Malaria in the border areas of the Andean Region: A community approach" (PAMAFRO), we evaluated the malaria diagnosis performance in 68 microscopists without expertise ( 1 year) using standardized sets of 20 blood smear slides according to the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. A correct diagnosis (correct species identification) was defined as "agreement", a microscopist was qualified as an "expert" if they have an agreement ?90% (? 18 slides with correct diagnosis), as a "referent" with an agreement between 80% and

Ángel, Rosas-Aguirre; Dionicia, Gamboa; Hugo, Rodriguez; Fernando, Llanos-Zavalaga; Kristhian, Aguirre; Alejandro, Llanos-Cuentas.

2010-10-01

78

Frequency of tumor diathesis in the smears of cervical carcinoma in a University Hospital  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Tumor diathesis (TD refers to the granular proteinaceous precipitates on the slide surface of cytologic (Pap smears. Found in the background of smears from some, but not all, invasive carcinoma cases, TD is present in the majority of smears from large cell nonkeratinizing carcinoma. It is more pronounced than keratinizing SCC also is almost always present in small cell carcinoma.  Smears from patients with adenocarcinoma are frequently associated with dense inflammatory and fresh blood exudates and less often there is a recognizable tumor diathesis. Methods: To determine the prevalence of TD in cervicovaginal smears from patients with uterine cervix carcinoma, cytologic smears and histologic slides of 46 patients with histologically-confirmed uterine cervix carcinoma were reviewed for the presence or absence of TD, red blood cells and neutrophils on cytologic smears, as well as depth of invasion, histologic types and grade of differentiation of tumor on histologic slides.Results: TD was identified in 28 smears (60.9%, 18 patients with squamous cell carcinoma (62.1%, seven patients with adenocarcinoma (58.3%, two patients with adenosquamous carcinoma (66.7% and one patient with endometrial carcinoma that involved the uterine cervix. TD was seen in smears from four (33.3% patients with uterine cervix carcinoma with invasion <5 mm and 17 (65.4% carcinomas with invasion >5mm. However, some of the patients with invasive carcinoma lacked TD on the cytologic smears. Red blood cells were identified on 16 (34.8% smears.Conclusions: Although TD is the hallmark of invasive carcinoma of the cervix on cytological smears, there have been few studies performed on it. We found that tumors with greater depth of invasion and reduced differentiation are associated with TD cytologic smears. TD was absent in some cases, particularly in micro-invasive carcinoma. This study reinforced what has been recognized from other studies.

Hakimi J.

2008-03-01

79

Hypercubic Smeared Links for Dynamical Fermions  

CERN Document Server

We investigate a variant of hypercubic gauge link smearing where the SU(3) projection is replaced with a normalization to the corresponding unitary group. This smearing is differentiable and thus suitable for use in dynamical fermion simulations using molecular dynamics type algorithms. We show that this smearing is as efficient as projected hypercubic smearing in removing ultraviolet noise from the gauge fields. We test the normalized hypercubic smearing in dynamical improved (clover) Wilson and valence overlap simulations.

Hasenfratz, A; Schäfer, S; Hasenfratz, Anna; Hoffmann, Roland; Schaefer, Stefan

2007-01-01

80

An innovative shape equation to quantify the morphological characteristics of parasitized red blood cells by Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax.  

Science.gov (United States)

The morphology of red blood cells is affected significantly during maturation of malaria parasites, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. A novel shape equation is presented that defines shape of parasitized red blood cells by P. falciparum (Pf-red blood cells) and P. vivax (Pv-red blood cells) at four stages of infection. The Giemsa-stained thin blood films are prepared using blood samples collected from healthy donors, patients having P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria. The diameter and thickness of healthy red blood cells plus Pf-red blood cells and Pv-red blood cells at each stage of infection are measured from their optical images using Olysia and Scanning Probe Image Processor softwares, respectively. Using diameters and thicknesses of parasitized red blood cells, a shape equation is fitted and relative two-dimensional shapes are plotted using MATHEMATICA. The shape of Pf-red blood cell drastically changes at ring stage as its thickness increases by 82%, while Pv-red blood cell remains biconcave (30% increase in thickness). By trophozoite and subsequent schizont stage, the Pf-red blood cell entirely loses its biconcave shape and becomes near spherical (diameter and thickness of ~8 µm). The Pv-red blood cell remains biconcave throughout the parasite development even though its volume increases. These results could have practical use for faster diagnosis, prediction, and treatment of human malaria and sickle-cell diseases. PMID:23637218

Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Motevalli Haghi, Afsaneh; Faghihi, Shahab

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
81

Full blood count and haemozoin-containing leukocytes in children with malaria: diagnostic value and association with disease severity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Diligent and correct laboratory diagnosis and up-front identification of risk factors for progression to severe disease are the basis for optimal management of malaria. Methods Febrile children presenting to the Medical Research Unit at the Albert Schweitzer Hospital (HAS in Lambaréné, Gabon, were assessed for malaria. Giemsa-stained thick films for qualitative and quantitative diagnosis and enumeration of malaria pigment, or haemozoin (Hz-containing leukocytes (PCL were performed, and full blood counts (FBC were generated with a Cell Dyn 3000® instrument. Results Compared to standard light microscopy of Giemsa-stained thick films, diagnosis by platelet count only, by malaria pigment-containing monocytes (PCM only, or by pigment-containing granulocytes (PCN only yielded sensitivities/specificities of 92%/93%; 96%/96%; and 85%/96%, respectively. The platelet count was significantly lower in children with malaria compared to those without (p ® instrument detected significantly more patients with PCL (p Conclusion In the age group examined in the Lambaréné area, platelets are an excellent adjuvant tool to diagnose malaria. Pigment-containing leukocytes (PCL are more readily detected by automated scatter flow cytometry than by microscopy. Automated Hz detection by an instrument as used here is a reliable diagnostic tool and correlates with disease severity. However, clinical usefulness as a prognostic tool is limited due to an overlap of PCL numbers recorded in severe versus non-severe malaria. However, this is possibly because of the instrument detection algorithm was not geared towards this task, and data lost during processing; and thus adjusting the instrument's algorithm may allow to establish a meaningful cut-off value.

Lell Bertrand

2008-06-01

82

UV Suppression by Smearing and Screening Correlators  

CERN Document Server

We investigate the mechanism of smearing in the APE, Stout, HYP and HEX schemes through their effect on glue and quark Fourier modes. Using this, we non-perturbatively tune the smearing parameters to their optimum values. Smearing causes a super-linear improvement in taste symmetry breaking in the high temperature phase of QCD. We use optimal smearing in the high temperature phase and find close agreement of meson screening masses with weak coupling predictions.

Gupta, Sourendu

2013-01-01

83

Atypical Papanicolaou smear in pregnancy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Atypical glandular cells (AGC) in Papanicolaou (Pap) smears can be associated with premalignant and malignant cervical and endometrial lesions. AGC is difficult to diagnose in pregnancy due to confusion with normal cellular changes that accompany graviditas. While guidelines have been established for management of AGC cases in the non-pregnant patient, special considerations are required when this is discovered during a pregnancy. A routine Pap smear performed on a 29-year-old woman being seen for a history of infertility yielded AGC and a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. The patient achieved pregnancy 1 month later. Satisfactory colposcopic exam was performed with cytobrush sampling of the endocervical canal, in addition to 2 exocervical biopsies at 11 weeks gestation. Positive diagnosis of endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ resulted in a risk-informed decision to proceed with a cold knife conization of the cervix. Final pathology showed complete resection of the lesion with negative margins and an additional area of squamous dysplasia (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, grade II to III). Appropriate follow-up was recommended. AGC found upon Pap smear during a pregnancy can be associated with significant pathology for which an aggressive management approach is warranted. PMID:15962016

Connolly, Thomas P; Evans, A C

2005-02-01

84

Comparación de la observación de leucocitos en el sedimento urinario con el recuento en cámara de Neubauer Comparison between the observation of white blood cells from centrifuged urine smear and the Neubauer chamber  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se comparó la metodología rutinaria de observación del sedimento urinario entre porta y cubreobjetos con el recuento en cámara de Neubauer, tomado como método de referencia y se verificó su capacidad de predicción de bacteriuria significativa. En un período de dos meses se realizaron 2.287 urocultivos. Sólo 1.153 resultaron evaluables según los criterios de exclusión y en 982 se pudo correlacionar ambos métodos microscópicos con el resultado de los cultivos. La correlación entre los recuentos en cámara y las observaciones del sedimento urinario fue del 96,4%. Las sensibilidades respectivas de la observación del sedimento y del recuento en cámara respecto del urocultivo fueron de 53,5% y 55,5%. Las especificidades respectivas fueron del 90,7% y 91,4%. A partir de los resultados obtenidos se infiere que la observación de leucocituria significativa es predictiva de la bacteriuria significativa. Por el contrario, su ausencia no puede ser un motivo para descartarla. La observación del sedimento entre porta y cubreobjetos resultó prácticamente equivalente al método más tedioso de recuento en cámara de Neubauer.The current method of centrifuged urine smear was compared to the Neubauer chamber method, using this technique as the gold standard. Their predictive ability for detecting significant bacteriuria was determined. During two months, 2.287 urine cultures were studied. Only 1.153 were evaluable. In 982 samples a comparison between the two microscopic methods could be established. The correlation between them was 96,4%. The sensitivity of the centrifuged urine smear and the Neubauer chamber method was 53.5% and 55.5% respectively. Specificities were 90.7% and 91.4%. Those results pointed out that seeing a significant number of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs both in the centrifuged urine smear and in the Neubauer chamber was predictive of significant bacteriuria. On the other hand, absence of PMNs is not an argument for not considering this possibility. Centrifuged urine was equivalent to the Neubauer chamber method in this comparative study.

Horacio Angel Lopardo

2008-03-01

85

Blood and intestinal parasites of squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae in Amazonian Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report the result of an examination for blood and intestinal protozoa in 12 specimens of the red squirrel Sciurus spadiceus (Rodentia: Sciuridae from Birroque, municipality of Plácido de Castro, state of Acre, Brazil. No parasites were detected in thin, Giemsa-stained blood films of the animals, but culture of the blood of three in Difco B45 medium blood-agar slants gave rise to isolates of epimastigotes. Inoculation of one isolate into laboratory mice resulted in the appearance of Trypanosoma cruzi-like trypomastigotes in their peripheral blood, and the other two isolates gave rise to transient infections with a T. lewisi-like parasite in inoculated mice and hamsters. The failure of the latter parasite to develop in the triatomine bug Rhodnius robustus suggests that it is probably not T. rangeli. This appears to be the first record of a T. lewisi-like trypanosome in neotropical squirrels. Oocysts of an Eimeria sp., were detected in the faeces of 10 animals (83.3%. The parasite develops in the epithelial cells of the intestine, where it may cause severe damage and sometimes results in death of the animal. No oocysts were detected in bile.

Ralph Lainson

2004-10-01

86

Blood and intestinal parasites of squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae) in Amazonian Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We report the result of an examination for blood and intestinal protozoa in 12 specimens of the red squirrel Sciurus spadiceus (Rodentia: Sciuridae) from Birroque, municipality of Plácido de Castro, state of Acre, Brazil. No parasites were detected in thin, Giemsa-stained blood films of the animals, [...] but culture of the blood of three in Difco B45 medium blood-agar slants gave rise to isolates of epimastigotes. Inoculation of one isolate into laboratory mice resulted in the appearance of Trypanosoma cruzi-like trypomastigotes in their peripheral blood, and the other two isolates gave rise to transient infections with a T. lewisi-like parasite in inoculated mice and hamsters. The failure of the latter parasite to develop in the triatomine bug Rhodnius robustus suggests that it is probably not T. rangeli. This appears to be the first record of a T. lewisi-like trypanosome in neotropical squirrels. Oocysts of an Eimeria sp., were detected in the faeces of 10 animals (83.3%). The parasite develops in the epithelial cells of the intestine, where it may cause severe damage and sometimes results in death of the animal. No oocysts were detected in bile.

Ralph, Lainson; Maria do Carmo de Oliveira, Brígido; Fernando Tobias, Silveira.

2004-10-01

87

Ocorrência de apoptose em leucócitos no esfregaço de sangue periférico e em sincícios na infecção in vivo pelo vírus da cinomose canina / Occurrence of apoptosis in leukocytes in the peripheral blood smear and in syncytia in canine distemper infection in vivo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english The aim of this paper is to report the occurrence of apoptosis in peripheral blood leukocytes and in syncytia induced by experimental infection of dogs with canine distemper virus. Blood was collected from nine puppies that were inoculated with the Snyder Hill strain of CDV, and stained with May Gru [...] nwaldt-Giemsa. Dogs were necropsied and retropharyngeal lymph nodes were collected and processed for paraffin embedding. Five micrometers thick sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and methyl green pyronin. Other sections were submitted to TUNEL reaction for in situ detection of apoptosis, and immunohistochemistry to detect CDV antigen. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of viral antigen. Syncytia were present in all retropharyngeal lymph nodes. Several syncytia contained apoptotic nuclei as detected by hematoxylin-eosin and methyl green pyronin stains. Apoptotic nuclei were labeled inside syncytia by the TUNEL reaction. Blood smear analyses indicated higher proportion of apoptotic leukocytes in the peripheral blood of infected dogs.

L., Moro; C.M., Alves; F.G.A., Santos; J.E.S., Nunes; R.A., Carneiro; A.C., Vasconcelos.

2003-02-01

88

Locally-smeared operator product expansions  

CERN Document Server

We propose a "locally-smeared Operator Product Expansion" (sOPE) to decompose non-local operators in terms of a basis of locally-smeared operators. The sOPE formally connects nonperturbative matrix elements of smeared degrees of freedom, determined numerically using the gradient flow, to non-local operators in the continuum. The nonperturbative matrix elements do not suffer from power-divergent mixing on the lattice, provided the smearing scale is kept fixed in the continuum limit. The presence of this smearing scale prevents a simple connection to the standard operator product expansion and therefore requires the construction of a two-scale formalism. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach using the example of real scalar field theory.

Monahan, Christopher

2014-01-01

89

Detection of Theileria annulata by PCR and its Comparison With Smear Method in Native Carrier Cows  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During March and April 2007, 140 native cows with the mean age of more than one year were selected randomly and their age and sex were registered in the related papers. Primarily, a thin layer smear was prepared from their ear sublime vein blood and was fixed with methanol and then it stained with Gimsa dye. Also, 9 mL blood from the jagular vein of the same cow was taken and collected in autoclaved tubes (containing 1 mL of 3.2% buffered citrate solution conversely for extracting their DNA for PCR. Two primers were used: N516/N517 belonged to a huge gene (30 kDa which is responsible for coding the surface antigen of Theileria annulata merozoite. By detection of 140 prepared blood smear with light microscope and lens 100, piroplasmic forms of Theileria annulata were seen in 12 smear (8.57%. By PCR method, 56 DNA of Theileria annulata was separated from 140 samples (40%. Statistical comparison of PCR and smear methods in diagnosing of Theileria annulata carriers can explain a significant difference between these two methods (p<0.05. The results of this study shows that sensitivity and accuracy of PCR method in diagnosing of Theileria annulata carriers is more than common method of smear preparation and can be used in epidemiological studies for the sake of controlling, prevention and determining of immunological condition of cows in region.

Hamidreza Azizi

2008-01-01

90

CLINICOPATHOLOGIC CORRELATION OF THE UNSATISFACTORY PAPANICOLAOU SMEAR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The 1991 Bethesda System for cervical/vaginal cytology reporting has defined adequacy criteria, including unsatisfactory designation. Most laboratories in USA and a few laboratories in Iran have implemented these criteria, but only few studies about clinical implications have been performed. All unsatisfactory Papanicolaou (Pap smears taken between August 2000 and March 2002 were retrieved from the file of cytologic reports of Mirza Koochak Khan Hospital's Department of Pathology. Of 4,598 total Pap smears 204 (4.4% were unsatisfactory (corresponding atypical rate of 2.5% and a SIL/carcinoma rate of 0.97%. About 20.2% of unsatisfactory Pap smears were from patients with a history of epithelial abnormalities. The majority (71 of 204 specimens; 35% of follow-up Pap smears or biopsies occurred within 6 months,12% within 6-12 months,1% within 12-18 months and 1% after 18 months. Approximately 59% had no follow-up. The first repeat Pap smear or histologic specimen in 83 patients with follow-up was negative in 71 (85%, unsatisfactory in 2(2.4%, epithelial cell abnormality in 11 (13.2% and atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance in 4(4.8%. Nonmalignant conditions contributing to the unsatisfactory smears on histologic specimens (23% included cervicitis, endocervical polyp and endometritis. Majority of patients with unsatisfactory Pap smears were followed up within 6 months. A significant number(13.2% of those with follow-up had eventual diagnosis of epithelial cell abnormality. Benign pathologic conditions also contributed to unsatisfactory smears. These patients were more likely to have a history of abnormalities. Unsatisfactory specimens are associated with benign as well as preneoplastic/neoplastic conditions. Clinical correlation should be the first step in delineating the cause of the unsatisfactory diagnosis.

N. Izadi Mood

2004-10-01

91

Smear layer on dentin in restorative dentistry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adhesion to enamel has become a routine technique in restorative dentistry. Adhesion to dentin, however, is still under investigation. Except structural elements of the dentin, smear layer has been one of the reasons that the interaction between the adhesive system and this tissue is difficult. The smear layer tissue created by cutting a tooth. It varies in thickness, roughness, density and degree of attachment andoccludes tubules and reduces the dental permeabilita. Dentin adhesivesystems can react with intertubular and peritubular dentin only when this smear layer is removed or when the adhesive system is capable of diffusion through layer of debris. As part of restorative procedures required by adhesive dentistry, the smear layer must be removed, modified or impregnated by the resin to allow for bonding between the tooth and the restorative material. For remove and dissolve of smear layer acid conditioners on total etch and self-etching primers were used. Self-etching primer systems are undergoing rapid evolution; their results are not yet sufficiently predictable overall, but some systems have achieved positive results in both enamel and dentin bonding. Further studies are necessary to confirm the long-term efficiency of these self-etching primers.

Živkovi? Slavoljub

2004-01-01

92

Measurement of surface contamination by smear method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monitoring of surface contamination by smear method is considered in detail. It consists in determination of the activity sampled from the surface under control by a contact method with a sorbent (cotton fabric, gauze, cotton wool tampon, filter paper). The method of dry and wet smears is distinguished. The latter supposes sorbent wetting prior to sampling in diluted nitric acid or in ethylene alcohol. The method is applied in case of preferential estimation of unfixed contamination as well as when the ?-active substance contamination cannot be determined with devices because of a significant ?-background or when it is impossible to draw a transducer nearer to measured surface. The method of smears is preferentially to be used in case of measuring surface contamination by ?-active substances as a more accurate method. Attention is given to technical volume and procedure of monitoring as well as measurement periodicity

93

Papanicolaou smears and cervical inflammatory cytokine responses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract In a case-control study among 2064 South African women to investigate the risk of clinically invasive cancer of the cervix, we found a marked reduction in the risk of cervical cancer among women who gave a history of ever having undergone even a single Pap smear, and a statistically significant decline in the HPV positivity rate correlated with the lifetime number of Pap smears received. HPV infections and their associated low-grade lesions commonly regress, indicating that most often there is an effective host immune response against HPV infection. We hypothesized that act of performing a Pap smear is associated with inflammatory responses at the site of trauma, the cervix, and that this inflammatory signalling may be an immunological factor initiating these productive anti-HPV responses. In the present study, a randomized controlled trial, we enrolled 80 healthy young women to investigate the impact of performing a Pap smear on cervical inflammation. Forty one women, in the intervention group, received a Pap smear at enrollment and cervicovaginal lavages (CVLs were collected at baseline and 2 weeks later. Thirty nine women received no intervention at enrollment (control group but CVLs were collected at enrolment and 2 weeks later. We assessed various markers of inflammation including IL-12 p70, TNF-?, IL-8, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-1? in CVL specimens. While CVL levels of IL-8, IL-1? and IL-6 remained unchanged following a Pap smear, markers of cell mediated immunity (IL-12 p70 and TNF-? and T cell regulation (IL-10 were significantly elevated.

Shapiro Samual

2007-04-01

94

Suppressing dislocations in normalized hypercubic smearing  

CERN Document Server

Normalized hypercubic smearing improves the behavior of dynamical Wilson-clover fermions, but has the unwanted side effect that it can occasionally produce spikes in the fermion force. These spikes originate in the chain rule connecting the derivative with respect to the smeared links to the derivative with respect to the dynamical links, and are associated with the presence of dislocations in the dynamical gauge field. We propose and study an action designed to suppress these dislocations. We present evidence for improved performance of the hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm. A side benefit is improvement in the properties of valence chiral fermions.

DeGrand, Thomas; Svetitsky, Benjamin

2014-01-01

95

Removal factor determination of some local smear papers for surface contamination smear test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Removal factor determination of some local smear papers has been done, using dry smear test method. The aim of this research is to find removal values of local smear papers on some surfaces, to replace import smear papers. Smear test was done on the various surfaces i.e.: porcelain, formica, glass, stainless steel, steel and PVC, with the local smear papers I.e.: Padalarang, Diagonal, Concorde, Marga, Hard Cloth, and import smear paper. The artificial contaminant which used were I-131 and P-32. The removal factor values of Padalarang paper for surfaces: porcelain, formica, glass stainless steel, steel and PVC were: 24.5%, 20.0%, 27.0%, 6.8%, 4.9%, and 13.6% respectively. The removal factor values of Diagonal paper were:18.4%, 15.9%, 5.7%, 3.5%, and 9.1% respectively. The removal factor values of concord paper were: 18.5%, 20.3%, 23.1%, 6.6%, 3.8%, and 9.0% respectively. The removal factor values of Marga paper were: 16.7%, 13.5%, 21.1%, 4.2%, 4.1% and 8.1% respectively. The removal factor values of Hard Cloth were: 18.6%, 12.6%, 20.5%, 8.2%, and 10.1% respectively. The removal factor values of import smear paper were: 17.8%, 15.0%, 18.8%, 9.1%, 4.8%, and 14.4% respectively . Substitution alternative of import smear paper is Padalarang. (author)

96

Detection of microRNAs in archival cytology urine smears.  

Science.gov (United States)

MicroRNAs' dysregulation and profiling have been demonstrated to be clinically relevant in urothelial carcinoma (UC). Urine cytology is commonly used as the mainstay non-invasive test for secondary prevention and follow-up of UC patients. Ancillary tools are needed to support cytopathologists in the diagnosis of low-grade UC. The feasibility and reliability of microRNAs profiling by qRT-PCR analysis (miR-145 and miR-205) in archival routine urine cytology smears (affected by fixation/staining [Papanicolau] and room temperature storage) was tested in a series of 15 non-neoplastic and 10 UC urine specimens. Only samples with >5,000 urothelial cells and with <50% of inflammatory cells/red blood cells clusters were considered. Overall, a satisfactory amount of total RNA was obtained from all the considered samples (mean 1.27±1.43 µg, range 0.06-4.60 µg). Twenty nanograms of total RNA have been calculated to be the minimal total RNA concentration for reliable and reproducible miRNAs expression profiling analysis of archival cytological smears (slope= -3.4084; R-squared=0.99; efficiency=1.94). miR-145 and miR-205 were significantly downregulated in UC samples in comparison to non-tumor controls. These findings demonstrate that urine archival cytology smears are suitable for obtaining high-quality RNA to be used in microRNAs expression profiling. Further studies should investigate if miRNAs profiling can be successfully translated into clinical practice as diagnostic or prognostic markers. PMID:23469001

Simonato, Francesca; Ventura, Laura; Sartori, Nicola; Cappellesso, Rocco; Fassan, Matteo; Busund, Lill-Tove; Fassina, Ambrogio

2013-01-01

97

Evaluation of remote smearing of DWPF canistered waste forms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Savannah River Site (SRS) is evaluating the variables of the remote smearing process for monitoring transferable contamination on the waste glass canisters at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Smearing for transferable contamination is typically done by hand, but in this case, due to the nature of the high level waste within the canisters, remote smearing is required. The effectiveness of the smear pad was determined under varying conditions (distance traveled, force applied, and canister surface), as well as the relative importance of these factors. It was concluded that the remote smear is more reliable than the hand smear

98

Stout Smearing for Twisted Mass Fermions  

CERN Document Server

The effect of Stout smearing is investigated in numerical simulations with twisted mass Wilson quarks. The phase transition near zero quark mass is studied on 12^3x24, 16^3x32 and 24^3x48 lattices at lattice spacings a = 0.1 - 0.125 fm.

Jansen, K; Montvay, I; Richards, C; Scholz, E E; Urbach, C; Wenger, U

2007-01-01

99

Comparison of ThinPrep and conventional smears in head and neck fine needle aspiration cytology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: The ThinPrep Processor has gained popularity as a collection and preparation technique for fine needle aspiration cytology in addition to Papanicolaou smear test. The aim of this study was to compare the various cytologic features of ThinPrep and conventional smear in head and neck masses.Material and Methods: We reviewed 71 consecutive fine needle aspiration cytology specimens and the conventional smear and ThinPrep slides diagnosed without knowledge of histopathologic diagnosis. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA test on SPSS program.Results: There was no statistical difference between the two groups as regard to the presence of monolayer cells, cell architecture, and nuclear details (p>0.05. Cellularity, informative background and cytoplasmic details were statistically significant in conventional smear group (p<0.05. However, in ThinPrep preparations there were no blood and necrosis masking the findings (p<0.05.Conclusion: Combined use of conventional smear and ThinPrep preparation provides the best results for fine needle aspiration cytology.

Fulya KÖYBA?IO?LU

2008-09-01

100

Test Characteristics of Acridine Orange, Gram, and May-Grünwald-Giemsa Stains for Enumeration of Intracellular Organisms in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For enumeration of intracellular organisms (ICO) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples, the May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG) stain displayed higher interobserver agreement than the acridine orange and Gram stains. The MGG stain offered a reliable enumeration of ICO when 200 cells were counted by one observer.

Brauwer, Els; Jacobs, Jan; Nieman, Fred; Bruggeman, Cathrien; Drent, Marjolein

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

The Anal Pap Smear: Cytomorphology of squamous intraepithelial lesions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Anal smears are increasingly being used as a screening test for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs). This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness and limitations of anal smears in screening for ASILs. Methods The cytomorphological features of 200 consecutive anal smears collected in liquid medium from 198 patients were studied and findings were correlated with results of surgical biopsies and/or repeat smears that became avail...

Arain Shehla; Walts Ann; Thomas Premi; Bose Shikha

2005-01-01

102

Bacteriological safety of smears of surfacesio in catering facilities and food industry in Zenica-Doboj Canton in the period 2005-2007  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim To research bacteriological (hygienic safety of surfaces(hands smear of staff involved in the process of work, smearof furniture used for work, smear from walls in offices in thefacilities for production of meat and meat products (8, forproduction of milk and milk products (3, products of cakes(14, bakery and bakery products (4 sugar refinery and biscuits(1 and in objects of social sustenance in the territory of Zenica-Doboj Canton (Bosnia and Herzegovina B&H in period2005-2007 and to point out the importance of this analysis inproviding food safety for consumers.Methods: Data from the protocol of the Laboratory for Clinicaland Sanitary Microbiology,of the Cantonal Institute for PublicHealth Zenica were used. Samples of smears were inoculatedon MacConkey and blood agar. Results were interpreted inaccordance with applicable law in B&H.Results From 5051 analyzed smears, 190 (3,/% were notsatisfactory. The largest number of unsatisfactory smears wasnoted in Zenica, 75 (39; 47%, Visoko 49 (25.8% and Tešanj37 (19.5%. From 190 unsatisfactory smears, 57 (30%were smears from dishes, 43 (22.6% from furniture and worksurfaces 42 (22,1% and 41 (21.6% smears from hands. Themost frequently isolated was Escherichia coli, in 25 (22.6%smears from machines, and 34 (17.2% smears from dishes.Unsatisfactory smears were mostly found in objects of publicmaintenance, 96 (50.5% and in objects for production ofmeat, 82 (43.2%.Conclusion Regular control (monitoring, hygienic sutabilityqualityof smears in objects and education of employees toimprove hygienic measures for the purpose of the preventionof food contamination.

Edina Garanovi?

2013-05-01

103

Smear layer removal with citric acid solution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy in smear layer removal of 17% EDTA and 10% citric acid, using SEM. Material and method: Twenty human, extracted teeth with a single root canal were examined. Whilst instrumentation with step-back technique and manual K files, root canals were irrigated with 2 ml of 2.5% NaOCl, between each file size. After instrumentatio n, specimens were divided into two groups. The first group was irrigated with a final flush of 17% EDTA, during one minute, and the second group was irrigated with a 10% citric acid. Results: Irrigation with 17% EDTA and 10% citric acid removed smear layer from the root canals walls. There was not statistically significant differences (p>0.05 in cleaning ability between EDTA and citric acid groups.

Petrovi? Violeta

2005-01-01

104

Staggered fermion matrix elements using smeared operators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We investigate the use of two kinds of staggered fermion operators, smeared and unsmeared. The smeared operators extend over a 44 hypercube, and tend to have smaller perturbative corrections than the corresponding unsmeared operators. We use these operators to calculate kaon weak matrix elements on quenched ensembles at ?=6.0, 6.2, and 6.4. Extrapolating to the continuum limit, we find BK(NDR,2GeV)=0.62±0.02(stat)±0.02(syst). The systematic error is dominated by the uncertainty in the matching between lattice and continuum operators due to the truncation of perturbation theory at one loop. We do not include any estimate of the errors due to quenching or to the use of degenerate s and d quarks. For the ?I=3/2 electromagnetic penguin operators we find B7(3/2)=0.62±0.03±0.06 and B8(3/2)=0.77±0.04±0.04. We also use the ratio of unsmeared to smeared operators to make a partially nonperturbative estimate of the renormalization of the quark mass for staggered fermions. We find that tadpole improved perturbation theory works well if the coupling is chosen to be ?MS(q*=1/a). copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

105

Prevalance of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in Donkeys from Eastern Turkey in Winter Season  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi by the examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears and c-ELISA method in donkeys, selected randomly from Erzurum, the largest province of Eastern Turkey. The specimens were consisted of 92 thin blood-smears and 75 sera during winter season. As result of microscopic examination no parasite was detected. Of the 75 sera, 3 (4% and 1 (1.33% samples were positive for the presence of T. equi and B. caballi antibodies, respectively. We couldn’t detect mix infection with both parasites. This study indicated the prevalence of T. equi and B. caballi in donkeys for the first time from Eastern Turkey in winter season.

I. Balkaya*, A. E. Utuk1 and F. C. Piskin1

2010-10-01

106

Synthetic 3D Pap Smear Nucleus Generation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this project we present a 3D Pap smear cell nucleus generator. The shape and the texture are the important features for a realistic synthetic nucleus. For the first one, the shape, a deformed distance transform is used in order to generate deformed spheres. For the second one, the texture, a pseudo random noise algorithm, Perlin noise, is applied to the shape in order to generate the most realistic texture of a cell. As a result, we obtain synthetic 3D cell nuclei as they appear in Pap sme...

Go?mez, Sandra

2010-01-01

107

Immunohistochemical staining of human sperm cells in smears from sexual assault cases  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the routine clinical examination of sexual assault victims, apart from documenting physical evidence of abuse, securing evidence, typically DNA from blood, semen, or saliva, is an important part of the process. Often the presence of semen is considered a most interesting piece of evidence. Not only does it often contain enough DNA for DNA profiling, but it also strongly indicates that an actual sexual act has taken place. The examination of smear slides obtained in sexual assault cases is a time-consuming task especially for the less trained and in cases where the smear only contains few sperm cells. In this work the goal was to develop a procedure to rapidly visualize human sperm cells in smear slides with the use of bright-field microscopy. Using SPERM HY-LITER (TM) by Independent Forensics, human sperm cells are visualized using a fluorescently labeled mouse antibody which significantly decreases the time used to screen smears. By further using an EnVision+ (DAKO) protocol, it was possible to create an immunohistochemical staining method to visualize sperm cells in bright-field microscopy with the same level of certainty as when using SPERM HY-LITER (TM).

Christoffersen, S.

2011-01-01

108

Cervical Cytology Smear Image Interpretation System Based on Semantic Reasoning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on the simulation to the fact that the cytological physician’s interpretation of cervical smears could be seen as the analysis and reasoning process of smear images, an Automatic Interpretation Method of Cervical Smears based on Ontology and Semantic Reasoning (AICSOSR is put forward. Firstly the principle and process of interpretation methods using semantic reasoning is analyzed; secondly smear image features ontology, smear cytological feature ontology and interpretation experience standard ontology are built with semantic mapping methods between the different semantic ontology using rule inference and basic reasoning rules are bright forward; an automatic interpretation method of cervical smears based on Ontology and semantic reasoning is given to elaborate basic methods of interpretation rules, interpretation result merging and conflict management.

Xu Chuanyun

2013-01-01

109

Recency of Pap smear screening: a multivariate model.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most descriptive reports of women who have not received recent Pap smear screening have been limited to bivariate descriptions. The purpose of this study was to develop a multivariate model to predict the recency of Pap smear screening. A systematic sample of women residents, aged 25 to 74 years, in upstate New York was selected. The women were asked to report use of Pap smear screening during several time periods, their congruence with recommended medical practice, general use of medical ser...

Howe, H. L.; Bzduch, H.

1987-01-01

110

Significant pathologic findings in 41 Atypical Glandular Cell pap smears  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between atypical glandular cell (AGC) on Pap smear and significant pathologic finding to tailor management protocols. Methods: Between 2002 and 2005, Among 26893 Pap smears 122 women with AGC Pap smears (prevalence=0.45%) were referred to our colposcopy clinic. Forty one women underwent colposcopy directed biopsy, endocervical curettage, endometrial sampling and cervical conization to determine the cytologic and histologic corr...

Behtash N; Fakhrejahani F; Khafaf A; Ghayouri Azar E

2007-01-01

111

Concentrated gram stain smears prepared with a cytospin centrifuge.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A Cytospin slide centrifuge was used to concentrate 0.05- to 0.5-ml samples of cerebrospinal and other body fluids for Gram stain. Trials with cerebrospinal fluid containing known numbers of microorganisms indicated that the Cytospin increased the sensitivity of cerebrospinal fluid Gram stains by up to 2 logs compared with unconcentrated and conventional centrifuge smears. Cytospin-concentrated smears were prospectively compared with unconcentrated Gram-stained smears and bacteriological cult...

Shanholtzer, C. J.; Schaper, P. J.; Peterson, L. R.

1982-01-01

112

A Study of 13315 Papanicolau Smear Diagnoses in Shohada Hospital  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: This study aimed to review Papanicolaou (Pap) smears in patients of Shohada hospital in Tehran.Materials and methods:  A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out and a database search of all Pap smear reports from 1995 to 2005 at cytopathology department was reviewed. The abnormal Pap smear reports based on the Bethesda System were assessed.Results: A total of 13315 Pap smear reports were reviewed from patients aging 20 to 79 years old. Totally 6065 (45.55%) cases...

Maryam Afrakhteh; Nahid Khodakarami; Afshin Moradi; Ehsan Alavi; Farshad Hosseini Shirazi

2007-01-01

113

Effect of Cervical Wiping with Sterile Cotton on the Quality of Pap-smear  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: There are conflicting reports about the effect of wiping cervix with cotton on Pap-smear results. Therefore, we aimed to do a research about this subject. Materials and Methods: 234 eligible women attended to have Pap-smear at an educational hospital in Rasht, Iran, from July to September 2011, were allocated by block randomization into two groups. In the intervention group, we cleaned cervix with a sterile cotton rotating 360 degrees and obtained samples using spatula for exocervix and cytobrush for endocervix. This method was performed without cleaning the cervix on the control group. Data collection, vulvovaginal examination, laboratory assay were done by investigators masked to the group allocation. Participants were also blind. The data were analyzed using logistic regression in SPSS-13.Results: Rate of sufficient endocervical cell of the slides in the intervention group was significantly higher than in the control group (70.3% vs. 57.8%, p=0.03. In the intervention group 42.4% of the slides were satisfactory and 57.6% had limited quality for interpretation. These figures in the control group were 37.1% and 62.9%, respectively. This difference was not statistically significant. Also, there was no significant difference between the groups on rate of slides with inadequacy of squamous cells and obscuring 75% or more of the slides with inflammatory exudate or blood (p>0.05.Conclusion: There were no significant differences between the groups on some quality indicators of the smears. However, frequency of smears with sufficient endocervical cells was higher in the group with cervical wipping. Therefore, it is recommended to clean cervix before obtaining the smears.

Mahin Kamalifard

2013-09-01

114

Sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis: sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV is complicated by the increased presence of sputum smear negative tuberculosis. Diagnosis of smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis is made by an algorithm recommended by the National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Programme that uses symptoms, signs and laboratory results. The objective of this study is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the tuberculosis treatment algorithm used for the diagnosis of sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods A cross-section study with prospective enrollment of patients was conducted in Dar-es-Salaam Tanzania. For patients with sputum smear negative, sputum was sent for culture. All consenting recruited patients were counseled and tested for HIV. Patients were evaluated using the National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Programme guidelines and those fulfilling the criteria of having active pulmonary tuberculosis were started on anti tuberculosis therapy. Remaining patients were provided appropriate therapy. A chest X-ray, mantoux test, and Full Blood Picture were done for each patient. The sensitivity and specificity of the recommended algorithm was calculated. Predictors of sputum culture positive were determined using multivariate analysis. Results During the study, 467 subjects were enrolled. Of those, 318 (68.1% were HIV positive, 127 (27.2% had sputum culture positive for Mycobacteria Tuberculosis, of whom 66 (51.9% were correctly treated with anti-Tuberculosis drugs and 61 (48.1% were missed and did not get anti-Tuberculosis drugs. Of the 286 subjects with sputum culture negative, 107 (37.4% were incorrectly treated with anti-Tuberculosis drugs. The diagnostic algorithm for smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis had a sensitivity and specificity of 38.1% and 74.5% respectively. The presence of a dry cough, a high respiratory rate, a low eosinophil count, a mixed type of anaemia and presence of a cavity were found to be predictive of smear negative but culture positive pulmonary tuberculosis. Conclusion The current practices of establishing pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis are not sensitive and specific enough to establish the diagnosis of Acid Fast Bacilli smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis and over treat people with no pulmonary tuberculosis.

Mugusi Ferdinand M

2011-11-01

115

Interdisciplinary research at the SMEAR Estonia station  

Science.gov (United States)

Interdisciplinary research on ecosystem-atmosphere relations has been an issue since many years in Estonia. Since 2008, these activities have been intensified and led to the build up of a SMEAR (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) type station in Estonia. It is part of the Estonian Environmental Observatory, a delocalized research infrastructure that is operated by several Estonian universities and research institutions. It's core is located in the experimental forestry district in Järvselja where a major portion of the ecosystem and atmospheric research activities take place. Here, we present an overview of the current state of research which especially takes care of the hemiboreal forest ecosystem. Continuous build up of comprehensive measurements at diverse sites has led to a network of stations over Estonia. It's location in the transition zone between boreal and temperate forest ecosystems allows for new and updated hypothesis regarding fluxes of energy and matter in a globally changing climate system.

Noe, Steffen M.; Niinemets, Ülo; Kangur, Ahto; Hõrrak, Urmas; Soosaar, Kaido; Mander, Ülo

2014-05-01

116

A Study of 13315 Papanicolau Smear Diagnoses in Shohada Hospital  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to review Papanicolaou (Pap smears in patients of Shohada hospital in Tehran.Materials and methods:  A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out and a database search of all Pap smear reports from 1995 to 2005 at cytopathology department was reviewed. The abnormal Pap smear reports based on the Bethesda System were assessed.Results: A total of 13315 Pap smear reports were reviewed from patients aging 20 to 79 years old. Totally 6065 (45.55% cases had diagnosis of ‘negative', 293(2.21% smears were labeled as ‘inadequate', and 6799 (51.06% reports had ‘Benign cellular changes'. There were 158(1.18% abnormal Pap smears consisting of 84 (53.18% SIL with undetermined grade (ASC-US, 28(17.73% low grade SIL (LSIL, 17(10.75% high grade SIL (HSIL, 27(17.08% carcinoma and 2(1.26% atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS. Overall incidence of the cervical cancer among these samples was 0.2%. Benign cellular changes numbered 6799(51.06%, of which 5365 (78.9% smears demonstrated infectious processes.Conclusion: The number of abnormal pap smears in this study is less than western countries, but is comparable with Middle East and Islamic regions. More prospective studies are recommended.

Maryam Afrakhteh

2007-06-01

117

Who is getting Pap smears in urban Peru?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background Cervical cancer, although usually preventable by Pap smear screening, remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru. The percentages and characteristics of women in Peru who have or have not had a Pap smear have not been defined.

Paz Soldan, Valerie A.; Lee, Frank H.; Carcamo, Cesar; Holmes, King K.; Garnett, Geoff P.; Garcia, Patricia

2008-01-01

118

Tricuspid endocarditis following a Papanicolaou smear: case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infective endocarditis is an uncommon complication of obstetrical and gynecological practice and has not been reported in the literature to be associated with Papanicolaou smears. The authors report a nonintravenous drug user who developed group B streptococcal endocarditis of the tricuspid valve following a routine Papanicolaou smear. She required surgical excision of the valve and replacement after failed antibiotic therapy. PMID:9374943

Mong, K; Taylor, D; Muzyka, T; Freed, D; Koshal, A

1997-10-01

119

The Anal Pap Smear: Cytomorphology of squamous intraepithelial lesions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Anal smears are increasingly being used as a screening test for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs. This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness and limitations of anal smears in screening for ASILs. Methods The cytomorphological features of 200 consecutive anal smears collected in liquid medium from 198 patients were studied and findings were correlated with results of surgical biopsies and/or repeat smears that became available for 71 patients within six months. Results Adequate cellularity was defined as an average of 6 or more nucleated squamous cells/hpf. A glandular/transitional component was not required for adequacy. Dysplastic cells, atypical parakeratotic cells and bi/multinucleated cells were frequent findings in ASIL while koilocytes were infrequent. Smears from LSIL cases most frequently showed mildly dysplastic and bi/multinucleate squamous cells followed by parakeratotic cells (PK, atypical parakeratotic cells (APK, and koilocytes. HSIL smears contained squamous cells with features of moderate/severe dysplasia and many APKs. Features of LSIL were also found in most HSIL smears. Conclusions In this study liquid based anal smears had a high sensitivity (98% for detection of ASIL but a low specificity (50% for predicting the severity of the abnormality in subsequent biopsy. Patients with cytologic diagnoses of ASC-US and LSIL had a significant risk (46–56% of HSIL at biopsy. We suggest that all patients with a diagnosis of ASC-US and above be recommended for high resolution anoscopy with biopsy.

Walts Ann E

2005-02-01

120

Lack of molecular correlates of Plasmodium vivax ookinete development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies of Plasmodium vivax transmission to Anopheles spp. mosquitoes have not been able to predict mosquito infectivity on the basis of microscopic or molecular quantification of parasites (total parasites in the sample or total number of gametocytes) in infected blood. Two methods for production of P. vivax ookinete cultures in vitro, with yields of 10(6) macrogametocytes, 10(4) zygotes, and 10(3) ookinetes, respectively, per 10 mL of P. vivax-infected patient blood with approximately 0.01% parasitemia, were used to study P. vivax sexual stage development. The quantity of gametocytes, determined by counting Giemsa-stained blood smears, and quantity and type of gametocyte as determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for Pvalpha tubulin II and macrogametocyte-specific pvg377 did not predict ookinete yield. Factors that affect the efficiency of in vitro P. vivax ookinete transformation remain poorly understood. PMID:21813836

Bounkeua, Viengngeun; Li, Fengwu; Chuquiyauri, Raul; Abeles, Shira R; McClean, Colleen M; Neyra, Victor; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Yori, Pablo P; Vinetz, Joseph M

2011-08-01

 
 
 
 
121

Light and electron microscopic features of eperythrozoon-like parasites in a North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana).  

Science.gov (United States)

Epierythrocytic parasites associated with a severe anemic episode have not been previously reported in the opossum. A Wright-Giemsa-stained peripheral blood smear from an anemic North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana) revealed numerous organisms attached to red blood cells either singularly or in chains. Ring forms of the organism were common and could be found free in the plasma. Electron microscopy revealed that these organisms were attached to the intact plasma membrane in depressions on the surface of red blood cells. Delicate fibrils between the organism and adjacent membrane were observed. The organisms were round to oval with a diameter of 300-750 nm and were enclosed by a single limiting membrane. The light and electron microscopic features of these epierythrocytic organisms are similar to those reported for Eperythrozoon and Haemobartonella species. PMID:10982141

Messick, J B; Berent, L M; Ehrhart, E J; Wasmer, C C

2000-06-01

122

Evaluation of impression smear in the diagnosis of fungal keratitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate and compare impression smear with the conventional mechanical corneal scraping by potassium hydroxide (KOH method in the diagnosis of fungal keratitis. Materials and Methods: Fifty consecutive cases of clinically suspected fungal keratitis were included. Under topical anesthesia, impression smear was obtained from the lesion, followed by the conventional mechanical scraping and both were transferred to sterile glass slides. The slides were examined under direct microscopy with KOH 10% wet mount. Impression smear KOH was compared with the scraping KOH and culture. Results: The KOH smear was positive in 36 (72% patients with impression smear technique and positive in 35 (70% patients from corneal scrapings. Sensitivity of impression smear technique as compared to scraping was 97.14%, specificity 92.86%, positive predictive value 94.4%, negative predictive value 92.86%, false positive rate 5.56%, false negative rate 7.14% and accuracy was 94%. As compared to culture, the sensitivity was 100%, specificity 46.67%, positive predictive value 55.56%, negative predictive value 100%, false positive rate 53.33%, false negative rate 0% and accuracy was 68%. Conclusion: Impression smear KOH examination is comparable to conventional mechanical corneal scraping KOH examination in making a tentative diagnosis of fungal keratitis and can be accurately relied upon for initiating anti-fungal therapy.

Jain Arun

2007-01-01

123

Analysis of cervical smears in a Muslim population  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Screening for the cancer of the cervix remains a neglected health care issue in Pakistan. To provide baseline data for future efforts to improve screening, we conducted a retrospective analysis of cervical smears taken in the obstetrics and gynaecological clinics of the Agha Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. We collected data on cervical smear cytology for cervical smears taken from January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1996. We assessed risk factors for dysplasia, including age, age at first marriage, and number of pregnancies. The overall prevalence of abnormal smears in our study was 0.5%. Of 20,995 cervical smears, showed non-specific inflammation, 7302 (34.8%) were reported as normal, 809 (3.85%) showed monillial infection, 148 (0.71%) showed atypia, 105 (0.5%) had dyplastic cytology and 52 (0.25%) samples were inadequate. The highest incidence of dysplastic smears was seen in the age group 35 to 44 years. Of 105 patients with dysplasia 12 were pregnant, and all were asymptomatic. The low prevalence of abnormal smears, compared with the data from Western populations, could be due to the internet bias of health awareness in the women who attended our hospital. The results of this study may serve as baseline for for future comparisons. A large community-based study may establish the exact prevalence of malignant and premalignant lesions so as to plan for future screening. (author)

124

Significance of a diagnosis of microorganisms on pap smear.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pap smear has been in use for more than half a century as the primary screening test for preinvasive and invasive lesions of the uterine cervix. Although not the primary use and an imperfect test, it can be extremely useful in the diagnosis of some microorganisms. This review focuses on the use of the Pap smear in the diagnosis of several microorganisms including Actinomyces, Chlamydia trachomatis, Candida, Trichomonas vaginalis, Leptothrix vaginalis, Herpes Simplex Virus, the causative agents of bacterial vaginosis, and other rarer organisms. The accuracy of diagnosis using the smear varies among the different organisms in question. PMID:18162813

Fitzhugh, Valerie A; Heller, Debra S

2008-01-01

125

Association of ABO blood group and P. falciparum malaria related outcomes: a cross-sectional study in Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies elucidate conflicting results about the relationships between ABO blood groups and Plasmodium infection outcomes in humans. This study examined association between ABO blood group and Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) malaria related outcomes among 1065 malaria suspected febrile patients who attended Dore Baafano Health Center, southern Ethiopia, between December, 2010 and February, 2011. Blood specimens were collected and examined for malaria using Giemsa-staining, while stool specimens were examined for helminth infections using Kato-Katz method. Haemoglobin level and blood group were determined using hemocue machine and antisera hemagglutination test, respectively. Clinical data were also collected for the patients. Among the study participants, the proportion of O, A, B and AB blood groups were 40.1%, 30.1%, 29.0% and 14.3%, respectively, and P. falciparum malaria cases in the corresponding blood groups were 14.8%, 14.0%, 13.4% and 15.7%. The odds of non-severe P. falciparum malaria were not significantly different between individuals of blood group A versus O or B versus O or AB versus O. Mean haemoglobin concentration was significantly lower in P. falciparum infected blood type A individuals compared to P. falciparum infected blood type O (?=-1.25, 95% CI=-2.31 to -0.19) or non-A (?=-1.27, 95% CI=-2.23 to -0.32) individuals. The odds of P. falciparum malaria related anaemia was about three times higher in individuals with blood type A compared to those with blood type O (adjusted OR=2.82, 95% CI=1.05-7.56) or non-A individuals (adjusted OR=2.84, 95% CI=1.15-7.01). However, mean P. falciparum density did not significantly differ among patients according to their blood groups. In conclusion, individuals with blood group A had higher risk of anaemia compared to those with O and non-A phenotypes among P. falciparum malaria patients. However, there is a need to investigate the mechanism. PMID:22569530

Degarege, Abraham; Medhin, Girmay; Animut, Abebe; Legess, Mengistu; Erko, Berhanu

2012-09-01

126

MICRONUCLEI AND OTHER NUCLEAR ANOMALIES IN BUCCAL SMEARS: METHODS DEVELOPMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

Laboratory work aimed at improving the epidemiologic utility of an innovative genotoxicity marker is described. he exfoliated cell micronucleus assay involves microscope analysis of epithelial smears to determine the prevalence of micronucleation, an indicator of structural or nu...

127

Neutron activation analysis of paint smears on cloth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Methods for element concentration analysis of NAA and a comparison between the paint smears on cloth and paint fragments are introduced. Reduction to absurdity and statistic calculation are used to negate the suspected paint. Calculation steps are given and illustrated

128

Relationship between Bone Mineral Density and Maturity Index in Cervical Smears, Serum Estradiol Levels and Body Mass Index  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease with a consequent increased risk of fracture, decreased quality of life and economic burdens for both the patients and health care system. While Dual energy X-Ray absorptiometry remains the gold standard for assessment of bone mineral density, it cannot be requested for all patients for obvious reasons. By determining other variables that may correlate with osteoporosis, we can identify individuals who may be at risk for osteoporosis earlier. Then, they can be treated at the earlier stages of the disease. In the present study, relationships between bone mineral density, maturity index in cervical smear, serum estradiol level and body mass index were examined. Materials & Methods: The present study performed on 128 women, who had been referred for bone mineral densitometry. Blood samples were obtained for determination of serum estradiol level. Cervical smear was taken for assessment of cell’s maturity. Cervical smears were examined by a pathologist and were sorted as atrophic or mature. Body mass index was calculated too. Relationships among Body mass index, serum estradiol level, and maturity index and bone mineral densitometry were analyzed using proper statistical tests. Results: Maturity index had significant relationship with T Score in the spine and femoral neck (P<0.001. Significant relationships were found between serum estradiol level and femoral neck T Score (P<0.004 and spine T Score (P<0.008. Also a significant relationship was found between body mass index and bone mineral density. Conclusion: Pap smear is a routine examination which is performed mainly for screening purposes in gynecology. It is non-invasive, simple and low-priced. Results of current study suggest that women with atrophic cervical smear should be examined more rigorously for osteoporosis. If any patient has atrophic maturity index in her cervical smear, she will be at much higher risk of osteoporosis.

Homayoun Sheikholeslami

2013-07-01

129

Analysis of inadequate cervical smears using Shewhart control charts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate cervical smears cannot be analysed, can cause distress to women, are a financial burden to the NHS and may lead to further unnecessary procedures being undertaken. Furthermore, the proportion of inadequate smears is known to vary widely amongst providers. This study investigates this variation using Shewhart's theory of variation and control charts, and suggests strategies for addressing this. Methods Cervical cytology data, from six laboratories, serving 100 general practices in a former UK Health Authority area were obtained for the years 2000 and 2001. Control charts of the proportion of inadequate smears were plotted for all general practices, for the six laboratories and for the practices stratified by laboratory. The relationship between proportion of inadequate smears and the proportion of negative, borderline, mild, moderate or severe dyskaryosis as well as the positive predictive value of a smear in each laboratory was also investigated. Results There was wide variation in the proportion of inadequate smears with 23% of practices showing evidence of special cause variation and four of the six laboratories showing evidence of special cause variation. There was no evidence of a clinically important association between high rates of inadequate smears and better detection of dyskaryosis (R2 = 0.082. Conclusions The proportion of inadequate smears is influenced by two distinct sources of variation – general practices and cytology laboratories, which are classified by the control chart methodology as either being consistent with common or special cause variation. This guidance from the control chart methodology appears to be useful in delivering the aim of continual improvement.

Wall Michael K

2004-06-01

130

DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF COLPOSCOPY IN PATIENTS WITH ABNORMAL PAP SMEAR  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

 

Introduction: In order to reduce invasive cervical cancer, it is necessary to follow presisly the patients with abnormal pap smear. Simply, repeating the cytologic assessment in patints with atypical pap smear will result in missing 26-83 percent of squamous intraepithelial lesions and most alarming 50 percent of invasive cancers. Consi...

Allameh, T.

2001-01-01

131

Significant pathologic findings in 41 Atypical Glandular Cell pap smears  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between atypical glandular cell (AGC on Pap smear and significant pathologic finding to tailor management protocols. Methods: Between 2002 and 2005, Among 26893 Pap smears 122 women with AGC Pap smears (prevalence=0.45% were referred to our colposcopy clinic. Forty one women underwent colposcopy directed biopsy, endocervical curettage, endometrial sampling and cervical conization to determine the cytologic and histologic correlations of AGC on pap smears. Results: A total of 122 women with AGC Pap smear were found. Only 41 women accepted to participate in the study and followed the workup procedures. The mean age of the patients was 46.92 ±11.48 years (range, 23-80 years. Of these patients 13 patients (31.7% were post menopause and 28 patients (68.2% were in reproductive age. We found 13 (31.7% significant pathologic findings including 4 (9.7% high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HG-SIL, 3(7.3% low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LG-SIL, 2(4.8% Endometrial hyperplasia, 1(2.4% Endometrial adenocarci-noma, 1(2.4% adenocarcinoma of cervix, 1(2.4% squamous cell carcinoma of cervix and 1(2.4% papillary serous tumor of ovary. There was not any significant difference in the prevalence of significant pathologic findings and subtype of squamous or adenomatous lesions between pre and postmenopausal group. Conclusion: AGC on Pap smear was associated with a clinically significant diagnosis in approximately one third of our cases. The women with a diagnosis of AGC on cervicovaginal smear are needed to be evaluated at least with colposcopy, endocervical and endometrial curettage. Clinicians should be careful about the significance of AGC in pap smears.

Behtash N

2007-07-01

132

String tension from smearing and Wilson flow methods  

CERN Document Server

Recently, we proposed a new method to extract the string tension from 4-dimensionally smeared Wilson loops. In this talk, we first show that the results obtained using this smearing method are identical to those obtained by Wilson flow, once the time step is sufficiently small. We then demonstrate the practical advantage of our method by applying it to the calculation of string tension in SU(3) Yang-Mills theory.

González-Arroyo, Antonio

2014-01-01

133

Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis in a rural setup: Comparison of clinical algorithm, smear scoring and culture by semiquantitative technique  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in a rural set up and compare the smear scoring system to that of culture by semiquantitative technique. A total of 505 married women, who were in sexually active age group of 15-44 years, were selected from three different villages. High vaginal swabs, endocervical swabs, vaginal discharge and blood were collected and processed in the laboratory. Overall prevalenc...

Rao P; Devi S; Shriyan A; Rajaram M.; Jagdishchandra K

2004-01-01

134

Saurian malaria in Kenya: epidemiological features of malarial infections in lizard populations of the West Pokot District.  

Science.gov (United States)

During investigations into the prevalence of malarial parasites among lizards in the West Pokot District in Kenya, 179 lizards comprising eight species were caught. Examination of the Giemsa-stained smears made from their blood showed that 34 lizards were infected with Plasmodium species. Fifteen lizards were infected with a single species of Plasmodium and 19 carried multiple infections, the maximum, in four lizards, was four species. There were 19 combinations of parasite infections. Seventeen Plasmodium species were identified, the commonest being P. icipeensis. Only two of the eight lizard species were infected: the skink Mabuya striata and the agamid Agama agama. Eight of the Plasmodium species infected both; another eight species infected M. striata only but three of these have been described from different lizard families elsewhere in Africa. P. robinsoni infected A. agama only, although it was first described from another lizard family in another part of Africa. The epidemiological significance of these results is discussed. PMID:2332274

Mutinga, M J; Dipeolu, O O

1990-04-01

135

Ehrlichia canis in dogs in a semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil: serology, molecular detection and associated factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated infection by Ehrlichia spp. agents by PCR, immunofluorescence assay test (IFAT), and by Giemsa-stained blood smears in 108 dogs from a semiarid region of the state of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. Seventy-five (69.4%) of the 108 dogs were found to be seropositive to Ehrlichia canis, while only four dogs (3.7%) were positive in real-time PCR for E. canis. In six dogs (5.6%) E. canis-like morulae were observed in monocytes. Animals that stayed in environment whose floor was dried dirt, and dogs whose owners reported low frequency of cleaning the dog environment had higher (P<0.05) PCR positivity for E. canis. Increasing seropositivity was found in older dogs (P=0.012). This study provides the first molecular detection of E. canis in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil. PMID:23141416

Tanikawa, A; Labruna, M B; Costa, A; Aguiar, D M; Justiniano, S V; Mendes, R S; Melo, A L T; Alves, C J; Azevedo, S S

2013-06-01

136

Evaluation of Haematopoietic Cells and M/E Ratio in the Bone Marrow of the Partridge (Alectoris chukar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to study the normal haematopoiesis, cellular components and M/E ratio in the bone marrow of the partridge (Alectoris chukar, bone marrow samples were collected from the proximal tibiotarsus bone of 16 clinically healthy adult partridge (9 male and 7 female. The bone marrow smears were stained using the Giemsa stain. The results indicated that the development and formation of blood cells in the bone marrow of partridge were similar to other birds, whereas the morphology of the cells was similar to chickens, ducks, quail and black-head gull. The mean Myeloid/Erythroid (M/E ratio was 1.33, the mean erythroid percentage was 39.15%, the mean myeloid percentage was 52.34% and the mean percentage of all other cells percentage was 7.45 %. There was no significant difference in any of the cellular composition between male and female.

R. Haghjoo

2012-01-01

137

First case of visceral Leishmaniosis/HIV coinfection in Niš - southeastern Serbia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniosis (VL has emerged as an important opportunistic parasitosis associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. The aim of this paper is to report the first case of Leishmania/HIV coinfection in a patient from Niš (Southeastern Serbia. Microscopical examination of Giemsa-stained bone marrow (BM smears show the presence of Leishmania spp. amastigotes based on their morphological characteristics. In spite of the parasitological finding, the serological test applied gave negative results. Molecular analyses confirmed the infection and allowed us to identify the leishmania species as Leishmania infantum (100% identity. VL/HIV coinfection has important clinical, diagnostic and epidemiological implications. In fact, the failure of serological tests is expected in this condition, and the application of molecular diagnostics to the blood may offer, apart from an easy and non-invasive diagnostic opportunity, the possibility of warning about the risk of possible nosocomial infections. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41018 and br. 175034

Marjanovi? G.

2012-01-01

138

Evaluation of hematopoietic cells and myeloid/erythroid ratio in the bone marrow of the pheasant (Phasianus colchicus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to study the normal hematopoiesis, cellular components and myeloid/erythroid (M/E ratio in the bone marrow of the pheasant (Phasianus colchicus, bone marrow samples were collected from the proximal tibiotarsus bone of 16 clinically healthy adult pheasant. The bone marrow smears were stained using the Giemsa stain. The results indicated that the development and formation of blood cells in the bone marrow of pheasant were similar to other birds, whereas the morphology of the cells was similar to chickens, ducks, quail, and black-head gull. The mean M/E ratio was 1.24, the mean erythroid percentage was 42.24, the mean myeloid percentage was 52.62, and the mean percentage of all other cells percentage was 5.38. There was no significant difference in any of the cellular composition between male and female.

Mina Tadjalli

2013-06-01

139

Evaluation of cervical smear in high risk women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in the department of obstetrics and gynecology, Guwahati medical college and hospital from July 2009 to August 2010 with the help of Pathology department. 200 women attending gynecological OPD with associated risk factors were selected at random. Detailed history, demographic information, contraceptive history and coital history were taken. Smear was taken from endocervix with the help of Ayer's spatula or cytobrush. Results: Out of 200 cases, in 110 (55% the smear was reported negative for malignancy. 73(36.5% had an inflammatory smear, 11 (5.5% had CIN, 1(0.5% had malignancy and 5(2.5% the smear was inadequate for cytological examination. In the study mean age of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN was 42.64 +/- 6.34 years. Low socio-economic status, high parity and the use of oral contraceptive pills were major risk factors. Conclusion: Cervical smear should be routinely used as a reliable diagnostic aid for early detection carcinoma cervix especially in high risk cases. The need of the hour is to create awareness and easy accessibility to proper screening. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(3.000: 1138-1140

Bhabani Pegu

2014-06-01

140

The limits of pap smear in diagnosing preinvasive cervical neoplasias  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The cervical-vaginal cytology can be interpreted after many classifications, starting from Babeú- Papanicolaou and ending with the Bethesda system, but no matter what the interpretation manner is it is really important to have a good quality of the smears and an experienced cytologist. If we refer to the total number of cases from the lot presented - 16732 cases, the results are satisfactory; 83% smears having normal limits, 10.14% MCB, 2.71% L-SIL, 0.82% H-SIL, 2.77% ASCUS, 0.10% AGC. In Iaúi there are significantly more patients with benign cell changes and L- SIL, while in Buz?u there are significantly more patients with a normal smear, but there is also a higher frequency of theatypical squamous cells with an undetermined significance. Classically specialists say that 50-75% of the false negative results are due to the errors made when harvesting the sample. In conclusion we estimate that considering the present conditions in our country where the lack of interest and financial possibilities do not allow an action of detecting the lesions of the cervix organized nationwide, we can still make a selection of the cases with a high risk by making a free Pap smear for all the patients that come to a specialized service, either state or private, provided they respect the protocol of harvesting the cervical secretions, of preparing and reading/interpreting the smears.

Ana Maria Crauciuc

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
141

Detección de mutaciones en los genes K-ras, H-ras y EGFR en muestras de plasma sanguíneo y cepillado cervical de pacientes con neoplasia intraepitelial cervical (NIC) III y cáncer de cuello uterino / Detection of genes mutations in the K-RAS, H-RAS and EGFR in samples of blood plasma and cervical smears for patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia III and cervical cancer  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: El cáncer cervical es el segundo cáncer más importante en mujeres a nivel mundial y la segunda causa de muerte en mujeres por cáncer. Se ha demostrado que el proceso de carcinogénesis cervical presenta componentes tanto genéticos, epigenéticos y medio ambientales. En la actualidad, muc [...] hos estudios se encaminan en la búsqueda de marcadores moleculares como mutaciones en oncogenes y/o genes tumor supresor que se asocien con la progresión de esta entidad. Los genes candidatos más estudiados en cáncer cervical en distintas poblaciones han sido H-ras, K-ras, EGFR entre otros. Objetivos: Se identificó el virus de papiloma humano (VPH) genérico y específico en el ADN libre de plasma y de cepillado cervical de pacientes con cáncer cervical invasivo y con neoplasia intraepitelial cervical (NIC) III además de evaluar alteraciones genéticas, como mutaciones en los genes H-ras, K-ras y EGFR. Metodología: Para ello se detectó el VPH genérico mediante PCR con los iniciadores GP5+/GP6+, y específico para VPH 16 y 18 en la región E6/E7. Para detectar las mutaciones en el codón 12 de H-ras, codones 12 y 13 de K-Ras y el exón 21 de EGFR se realizó mediante secuenciación directa de los productos de PCR de estos fragmentos génicos. Resultados: Obteniendo una buena correlación entre las muestras de plasma sanguíneo y los cepillados cervicales, tanto para los hallazgos de VPH p=0.0374 como para las mutaciones evaluadas p=0. En general, para EGFR en el exón 21 no se encontraron mutaciones, al igual que para los codones 12 y 13 en K-ras y codón 12 en H-ras. Conclusión: El uso del ADN presente en el plasma puede ser relevante para el análisis de mutaciones y de la presencia de marcadores tumorales cuando no se dispone de otras muestras. Abstract in english Introduction: Cervical cancer is the second most important cancer in women worldwide, and the second cause of cancer death in women. It has been shown that the process of cervical carcinogenesis presents as genetic and epigenetic components as environmental issues. At present, many studies are addre [...] ssed in searching for molecular markers such as mutations in oncogenes and/or tumor suppressor genes that are associated with the progression of this disease, the most studied candidate genes in cervical cancer in different populations have been H-ras, K-ras, EGFR among others. Objective: The present study identified human papilloma virus (HPV) generic and specific in DNA-free plasma and cervical smears of invasive cervical cancer patients and patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) III in addition to assessing genetic alterations, such as mutations in the genes H-ras, EGFR and K-ras. Methods: To do so generic HPV was detected by PCR with primers GP5+/GP6+, and specific HPV 16 and 18 in E6/E7 region; to detect mutations in codon 12 of H-ras, codons 12 and 13 of K-ras and EGFR exon 21 was conducted by direct sequencing of PCR products of these gene fragments. Results: Getting a good correlation between samples of blood plasma and cervical smears for both; the findings of HPV p=0.0374 and evaluated mutations p=0. In general, for EGFR in exon 21 mutations were not found, as for codons 12 and 13 in K-ras and codon 12 in H-ras. Conclusion: The use of DNA in plasma may be relevant to the analysis of mutations and the presences of tumor markers are not available from other samples.

Dabeiba Adriana, García; Yazmín Rocío, Arias; Fabio, Ancízar Aristizábal.

142

Shape-based nuclei area of digitized pap smear images  

Science.gov (United States)

Nuclei of the epithelial of Pap smear cells are important risk indicator of cervical cancers. Pathologist uses the changing of the area of the nuclei to determine whether cells are normal or abnormal. It means that having correct measurement of the area of nuclei is important on the pap smears assessment. Our paper present a novel approach to analyze the shape of nuclei in pap smear images and measuring the area of nuclei. We conducted a study to measure the area of nuclei automatically by calculating the number of pixels contained in each of the segmented nuclei. For comparison, we performed measurements of nuclei area using the ellipse area approximation. The result of the t-test confirmed that there were similarity between elliptical area approximation and automatic segmented nuclei-area at 0.5% level of significance.

Muhimmah, Izzati; Kurniawan, Rahadian

2012-04-01

143

Detection of Theileria annulata by PCR and its Comparison With Smear Method in Native Carrier Cows  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During March and April 2007, 140 native cows with the mean age of more than one year were selected randomly and their age and sex were registered in the related papers. Primarily, a thin layer smear was prepared from their ear sublime vein blood and was fixed with methanol and then it stained with Gimsa dye. Also, 9 mL blood from the jagular vein of the same cow was taken and collected in autoclaved tubes (containing 1 mL of 3.2% buffered citrate solution) conversely for extracting their DNA ...

Hamidreza Azizi; Behrooz Shiran; Amir Farzaneh Dehkordi; Fazlollah Salehi; Camellia Taghadosi

2008-01-01

144

The limits of pap smear in diagnosing preinvasive cervical neoplasias  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The cervical-vaginal cytology can be interpreted after many classifications, starting from Babeú- Papanicolaou and ending with the Bethesda system, but no matter what the interpretation manner is it is really important to have a good quality of the smears and an experienced cytologist. If we refer to the total number of cases from the lot presented - 16732 cases, the results are satisfactory; 83% smears having normal limits, 10.14% MCB, 2.71% L-SIL, 0.82% H-SIL, 2.77% ASCUS, 0.10% AGC. In...

Ana Maria Crauciuc; Zenovia Florentina Pricop; Ovidiu Toma; Raluca Balan; Elena Ilie; Eduard Crauciuc,; Dorina Neacsu

2011-01-01

145

Predictors of Papanicolaou Smear Use Among American Samoan Women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To explore the rate and predictors of Papanicolaou (Pap) smear use among American Samoans, we conducted a survey of 986 randomly selected adult, self-identified Samoan women in American Samoa (n = 323), Hawaii (n = 325), and Los Angeles (n = 338). Only 46% of the women reported having a Pap smears within the past 3 years. These women were more likely than others to reside in Hawaii (odds ratio [OR], 1.7), be less than 40 years of age (OR, 2.2), be married (OR, 1.9), have more than 12 years of...

Mishra, Shiraz I.; Luce-aoelua, Pat H.; Hubbell, F. Allan

2001-01-01

146

Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis in a rural setup: Comparison of clinical algorithm, smear scoring and culture by semiquantitative technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs in a rural set up and compare the smear scoring system to that of culture by semiquantitative technique. A total of 505 married women, who were in sexually active age group of 15-44 years, were selected from three different villages. High vaginal swabs, endocervical swabs, vaginal discharge and blood were collected and processed in the laboratory. Overall prevalence of 29% reproductive tract infection was detected. Endogenous infection was commonly observed (27.92%, and very low prevalence of STIs (Trichomonas 1.18%, Syphilis 0%, Gonorrhea 0% was detected. Diagnosis of BV was possible in 104 (20.5% women by smear alone and 88 (17.42% women by semiquantitative culture.

Rao P

2004-01-01

147

Missed Opportunities for Health Education on Pap Smears in Peru  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite cervical cancer being one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru, cervical Pap smear coverage is low. This article uses findings from 185 direct clinician observations in four cities of Peru (representing the capital and each of the three main geographic regions of the country) to assess missed opportunities for…

Bayer, Angela M.; Nussbaum, Lauren; Cabrera, Lilia; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.

2011-01-01

148

Association of Pap Smear Abnormalities with Autoimmune Disorders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, it is hypothesized that there might be an association between immunological disorders and cervical premalignant and malignant abnormalities. Related studies have been generally focused on some particular autoimmune disease, specially the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE. This study aimed at comparing the rate of Pap smear abnormalities in female patients with autoimmune diseases and normal counterparts. In a case-control setting, 118 female patients with various autoimmune diseases (the case group and 118 healthy female counterparts (the control group were recruited in Tabriz Imam Reza Teaching Centre in a 24 months period of time. The two groups were matched for demographics and known risk factors of cervical malignancy. Frequencies of abnormal Pap smear testing were compared between the two groups. The autoimmune disorders were SLE (74 patients, rheumatoid arthritis or RA (32 patients, systemic sclerosis or SS (7 patients and ankylosing spondylitis or AS (5 patients in the case group. Frequency of abnormal Pap smear testing was significantly higher in the case group comparing with that in the controls (7.6% vs. 1.7%; p = 0.03. Frequency of abnormal Pap smear testing was higher in the patients with SLE (8.1% and RA (9.3% comparing with that in the controls; However, these differences were marginally nonsignificant (p = 0.06 and p = 0.07, respectively. Frequency of cases with abnormal Pap smear testing was not statistically different between the autoimmune disorders (p = 0.99. Based on these findings and in conclusion, there might be an association between the autoimmune disorders and occurrence of premalignant or malignant lesions in cervix. Further studies with larger samples sizes are recommended.

Kazem Ghahremanzadeh

2011-01-01

149

Cytokine responses of CD4+ T cells during a Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi (ER blood-stage infection in mice initiated by the natural route of infection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigation of host responses to blood stages of Plasmodium spp, and the immunopathology associated with this phase of the life cycle are often performed on mice infected directly with infected red blood cells. Thus, the effects of mosquito bites and the pre-erythrocytic stages of the parasite, which would be present in natural infection, are ignored In this paper, Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi infections of mice injected directly with infected red blood cells were compared with those of mice infected by the bites of infected mosquitoes, in order to determine whether the courses of primary infection and splenic CD4 T cell responses are similar. Methods C57Bl/6 mice were injected with red blood cells infected with P. chabaudi (ER or infected via the bite of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. Parasitaemia were monitored by Giemsa-stained thin blood films. Total spleen cells, CD4+ T cells, and cytokine production (IFN-?, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 were analysed by flow cytometry. In some experiments, mice were subjected to bites of uninfected mosquitoes prior to infectious bites in order to determine whether mosquito bites per se could affect a subsequent P. chabaudi infection. Results P. chabaudi (ER infections initiated by mosquito bite were characterized by lower parasitaemia of shorter duration than those observed after direct blood challenge. However, splenomegaly was comparable suggesting that parasitaemia alone does not account for the increase in spleen size. Total numbers of CD4 T cells and those producing IFN-?, IL-10 and IL-2 were reduced in comparison to direct blood challenge. By contrast, the reduction in IL-4 producing cells was less marked suggesting that there is a proportionally lower Th1-like response in mice infected via infectious mosquitoes. Strikingly, pre-exposure to bites of uninfected mosquitoes reduced the magnitude and duration of the subsequent mosquito-transmitted infection still further, but enhanced the response of CD4 T cells producing IFN-? and IL-4. Conclusion The data in this paper suggest that studying early host responses in blood stage malaria infections measured after direct blood challenge of mice may not completely reflect the natural situation, and more detailed investigations of blood-stage immunity after mosquito transmission in experimental models should be considered.

Butcher Geoffrey

2007-06-01

150

Fluvastatin remodels resistance arteries in genetically hypertensive rats, even in the absence of any effect on blood pressure.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. The aims of the present study were, first, to determine whether, in the genetically hypertensive (GH) rat, fluvastatin would lower blood pressure and remodel mesenteric resistance arteries (MRA) and the basilar artery and, second, to see whether treatment with a combination of fluvastatin and the angiotensin receptor antagonist valsartan would have any extra beneficial effect on blood pressure and vascular remodelling. 2. Male GH rats had tail-cuff systolic blood pressure (SBP) monitored weekly from the age of 7 to 12 weeks. Groups (n = 12-14) were treated with fluvastatin (4 mg/kg per day), valsartan (5 mg/kg per day), both mixed in with chow, or a combination of fluvastatin 4 mg/kg per day + valsartan 5 mg/kg per day. Untreated GH and a group of normotensive Wistar (N) rats served as control groups. 3. At 12 weeks of age, intra-arterial (i.a.) blood pressure was measured by femoral cannulation and rats were then perfused (at the SBP of the animal) with Tyrode's solution containing heparin and papaverine followed by 2.5% glutaraldehyde in Tyrode's solution; MRA and basilar arteries were embedded in Technovit. Serial sections were cut and Giemsa stained and stereological methods used to obtain media width, lumen diameter, medial cross-sectional area (CSA) and the ratio of media width to lumen diameter. Hearts were weighed to determine left ventricular (LV) mass. 4. Fluvastatin had no effect on blood pressure or LV mass, whereas valsartan given alone or with fluvastatin significantly reduced both parameters. 5. In MRA, fluvastatin reduced medial CSA, increased lumen size and, therefore, probably decreased vascular resistance. The media/lumen ratio was reduced to a level below that seen with the combination treatment and to below that of the N group. 6. In the basilar artery, fluvastatin and valsartan showed similar outward remodelling of the lumen and reduction in the media/lumen ratio. The combination treatment group showed, in addition, a reduction in medial CSA and an even lower ratio than the GH group on fluvastatin or valsartan alone or the N group. 7. Although fluvastatin has no effect on blood pressure, it does cause significant remodelling of MRA and the basilar artery. These beneficial structural changes in a peripheral resistance artery bed and in an artery involved in regulating resistance in the brain are worthy of further study. PMID:12207574

Ledingham, Janet M; Laverty, Richard

2002-10-01

151

Smear microscopy and culture conversion rates among smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients by HIV status in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanzania ranks 15th among the world's 22 countries with the largest tuberculosis burden and tuberculosis has continued to be among the major public health problems in the country. Limited data, especially in patients co infected with HIV, are available to predict the duration of time required for a smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patient to achieve sputum conversion after starting effective treatment. In this study we assessed the sputum smear and culture conversion rates among HIV positive and HIV negative smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Dar es Salaam Methods The study was a prospective cohort study which lasted for nine months, from April to December 2008 Results A total of 502 smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients were recruited. HIV test results were obtained for 498 patients, of which 33.7% were HIV positive. After two weeks of treatment the conversion rate by standard sputum microscopy was higher in HIV positive(72.8% than HIV negative(63.3% patients by univariate analysis(P = 0.046, but not in multivariate analysis. Also after two weeks of treatment the conversion rate by fluorescence microscopy was higher in HIV positive (72.8% than in HIV negative(63.2% patients by univariate analysis (P = 0.043 but not in the multivariate analysis. The conversion rates by both methods during the rest of the treatment period (8, 12, and 20 weeks were not significantly different between HIV positive and HIV negative patients. With regards to culture, the conversion rate during the whole period of the treatment (2, 8, 12 and 20 weeks were not significantly different between HIV positive and HIV negative patients. Conclusion Conversion rates of standard smear microscopy, fluorescence microscopy and culture did not differ between HIV positive and HIV negative pulmonary tuberculosis patients.

Mfinanga Sayoki G

2010-07-01

152

Pap smear screening in the primary health care setting: A study from Turkey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Cervical cancer is one of the ten most frequent cancers in Turkey. It is well known that cervical cancer morbidity and mortality could be significantly reduced with an active cervical smear screening (Pap smear) program. Aims: The aims of this study were: 1) to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of women about cervical smear testing; 2) to establish a cervical smear screening program and to evaluate the cervical cytological abnormalities that were found; 3) to determine the appl...

Hande Celik Mehmetoglu; Ganime Sadikoglu; Alis Ozcakir; Nazan Bilgel

2010-01-01

153

Gambaran Pengetahuan Ibu Mengenai Pemeriksaan Pap Smear Di Kelurahan Petisah Tengah Tahun 2009  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pap smear merupakan salah satu jenis pemeriksaan skrining dalam mendeteksi dini kanker serviks yang efektif, sederhana, dan murah. Di negera-negara maju, Pap smear telah terbukti menurunkan kejadian kanker serviks invasif sebesar 46-76% dan mortalitas kanker serviks sebesar 50-60%. Namun, di Indonesia tercatat hanya 5% penduduk wanita Indonesia yang melakukan pemeriksaan Pap smear secara rutin. Hal ini mungkin disebabkan oleh kurangnya pengetahuan masyarakat mengenai Pap smear. Tujuan pene...

Octavia, Chintami

2009-01-01

154

Comparative Study of Smeared Cracking Models for Concrete Structures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article shows how the constitutive modeling of concrete has evolved since the initial attempts to characterize the medium cracked as continuous, moving from smeared cracking, damage and microplane models, until the current tendency to design different models according to a single theoretical framework. A generic formulation for smeared cracking models, including fixed and rotational models, as well as degradation in tension and in compression, is provided. Using this formulation, three models are generated by specifying the laws of degradation. A comparative study of models, based on computer simulations of a beam subjected to shear at four points, is presented. The results are compared, between themselves and with experimental results, providing a critical analysis of the models.

Samuel Silva Penna

2014-02-01

155

Conventional approach to the problem of the deuteron smearing corrections  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comprehensive analysis of the problem of deuteron smearing corrections is given. Some problems of the usual approach (the conventional approach) are discussed. It is shown that the formalism adopted by this approach leads to (i) the existence of the so-called West ..beta.. correction and (ii) the disagreement of the sum rules with the quark parton model expectations in leptonic scattering. It is also shown that in this formalism the electroproduction expression is not inconsistent. Following West for the identification of the wave function, it is found that the smearing correction sigma/sub s/ of the high-energy (50--370 GeV) pion and nucleon process is non-negligible, and hence, in contradiction with the usual expectations. Another test for this approach is suggested.

Kusno, D.; Moravcsik, M.J.

1983-05-01

156

Conventional approach to the problem of the deuteron smearing corrections  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comprehensive analysis of the problem of deuteron smearing corrections is given. Some problems of the usual approach (the conventional approach) are discussed. It is shown that the formalism adopted by this approach leads to (i) the existence of the so-called West ? correction and (ii) the disagreement of the sum rules with the quark parton model expectations in leptonic scattering. It is also shown that in this formalism the electroproduction expression is not inconsistent. Following West for the identification of the wave function, it is found that the smearing correction sigma/sub s/ of the high-energy (50--370 GeV) pion and nucleon process is non-negligible, and hence, in contradiction with the usual expectations. Another test for this approach is suggested

157

Eggs containing larvae of Enterobius vermicularis in vaginal smear.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enterobius vermicularis also known commonly as pinworm is the most common intestinal parasite. It is a nematode that inhabits the human terminal ileum, colon and appendix. The fertilized female migrates to the perianal area where eggs are deposited but occasionally introduces itself into adjacent orifices, most commonly the female genitourinary tract. Thus the eggs can be seen in the vaginal smear as a result of contamination. We report a case wherein the patient presented with signs and symptoms of vulvovaginitis. In her vaginal smear there were eggs of Enterobius vermicularis which showed a coiled larva within it. In the background there were plenty of acute inflammatory cells. This patient responded favorably to antihelminthics. We report this case to highlight the morphology of the parasite and also to emphasize that such findings should not be neglected. Timely reporting and appropriate treatment of such cases will prevent further complications of this parasite including endometritis, salphingitis and peritonitis. PMID:22438633

Shetty, Jyothi B; Kulkarni, Dhanashri V; Prabhu, Vl

2012-01-01

158

Delay in treatment seeking of smear positive tuberculous patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess and identify the causes and circumstances leading to delays in health seeking and diagnosis of tuberculosis patients as they often present with advance disease resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Settings Department of Tuberculosis, DOTS clinic DHQ Hospital, Vehari. Methodology One (author) inspiration diagnosed smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients were included. Information was gathered through interviews and from TB-01 card. Results Maximum patients were in age group of 16-40 years. Median patient delay was 4-6 months; jobless, homeless personnel had longer delay. The main reason for delay was that the symptoms were not considered serious enough. Delay in presentation of smear positive cases may be due to the lack of awareness of patients and the incompetence of some health workers. Training and supervision of staff and awareness campaigns targeted at the population and involvement of private sector will improve TB control in Vehari. (author)

159

Delay of diagnosis and treatment of new smear positive  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

DELAY OF DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF NEW SMEAR POSITIVE PULMONARY TB IN RURAL AREA; GAZIERA STATE, SUDAN Mohammed A. S.*, Bjune G. **, and El Sony A. I. *** *EpiLab, Khartoum, Sudan, MPhil International Community Health, University of Oslo, Norway; **Department of General Practice and Community Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Norway; *** EpiLab, Khartoum, Sudan. Background: The basics of TB control are based on early detection and treatment of infectious cases. Early detecti...

Mohammed, Ammar Salih

2006-01-01

160

TEMPORAL SMEARING OF TRANSIENT RADIO SOURCES BY THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The temporal smearing of impulsive radio events at cosmological redshifts probes the properties of the ionized intergalactic medium (IGM). We relate the degree of temporal smearing and the profile of a scattered source to the evolution of a turbulent structure in the IGM as a function of redshift. We estimate the degree of scattering expected by analyzing the contributions to the scattering measure of the various components of baryonic matter embedded in the IGM, including the diffuse IGM, intervening galaxies, and intracluster gas. These estimates predict that the amount of temporal smearing expected at 300 MHz is typically as low as ?1 ms and suggests that these bursts may be detectable with low-frequency widefield arrays. A generalization of the dispersion-measure-scattering-measure relation observed for Galactic scattering to the densities and turbulent conditions relevant to the IGM suggests that scattering measures on the order of 10{sup –6} kpc m{sup –20/3} would be expected at z ? 1. This scattering is sufficiently low enough that its effects would not, for most lines of sight, be manifested in existing observations of the scatter broadening in images of extragalactic compact sources. The redshift dependence on the temporal smearing discriminates between scattering that occurs in the host galaxy of the burst and the IGM, with ?{sub host}?(1 + z){sup –3} if the scattering probes length scales below the inner scale of the turbulence or ?{sub host}?(1 + z){sup –17/5} if the turbulence follows a Kolmogorov spectrum. This differs strongly from the expected IGM scaling ?{sub IGM} ? z {sup 2} for z ?< 1 and (1 + z){sup 0.2–0.5} for z ?> 1.

Macquart, Jean-Pierre; Koay, Jun Yi, E-mail: J.Macquart@curtin.edu.au [ICRAR/Curtin University, Curtin Institute of Radio Astronomy, Perth WA 6845 (Australia)

2013-10-20

 
 
 
 
161

Mammography and pap smear use by older rural women.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE. To compare the characteristics of older women who did and did not have screening mammograms and Pap smears during the first two years both services were a Medicare Part B benefit. METHODS. A prospective study was conducted in five rural Pennsylvania counties of 2205 female community-dwelling Medicare Part B beneficiaries who volunteered to participate in a Medicare prevention demonstration project. The baseline health risk appraisal included information on demographics, insurance s...

Ives, D. G.; Lave, J. R.; Traven, N. D.; Schulz, R.; Kuller, L. H.

1996-01-01

162

Association of Pap Smear Abnormalities with Autoimmune Disorders  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recently, it is hypothesized that there might be an association between immunological disorders and cervical premalignant and malignant abnormalities. Related studies have been generally focused on some particular autoimmune disease, specially the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). This study aimed at comparing the rate of Pap smear abnormalities in female patients with autoimmune diseases and normal counterparts. In a case-control setting, 118 female patients with various autoimmune disease...

Kazem Ghahremanzadeh; Heidarali Esmaeili

2011-01-01

163

Pap smear rates among Haitian immigrant women in eastern Massachusetts.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: Given limited prior evidence of high rates of cervical cancer in Haitian immigrant women in the U.S., this study was designed to examine self-reported Pap smear screening rates for Haitian immigrant women and compare them to rates for women of other ethnicities. METHODS: Multi-ethnic women at least 40 years of age living in neighborhoods with large Haitian immigrant populations in eastern Massachusetts were surveyed in 2000-2002. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used ...

Green, Eric H.; Freund, Karen M.; Posner, Michael A.; David, Michele M.

2005-01-01

164

TEMPORAL SMEARING OF TRANSIENT RADIO SOURCES BY THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The temporal smearing of impulsive radio events at cosmological redshifts probes the properties of the ionized intergalactic medium (IGM). We relate the degree of temporal smearing and the profile of a scattered source to the evolution of a turbulent structure in the IGM as a function of redshift. We estimate the degree of scattering expected by analyzing the contributions to the scattering measure of the various components of baryonic matter embedded in the IGM, including the diffuse IGM, intervening galaxies, and intracluster gas. These estimates predict that the amount of temporal smearing expected at 300 MHz is typically as low as ?1 ms and suggests that these bursts may be detectable with low-frequency widefield arrays. A generalization of the dispersion-measure-scattering-measure relation observed for Galactic scattering to the densities and turbulent conditions relevant to the IGM suggests that scattering measures on the order of 10–6 kpc m–20/3 would be expected at z ? 1. This scattering is sufficiently low enough that its effects would not, for most lines of sight, be manifested in existing observations of the scatter broadening in images of extragalactic compact sources. The redshift dependence on the temporal smearing discriminates between scattering that occurs in the host galaxy of the burst and the IGM, with ?host?(1 + z)–3 if the scattering probes length scales below the inner scale of the turbulence or ?host?(1 + z)–17/5 if the turbulence follows a Kolmogorov spectrum. This differs strongly from the expected IGM scaling ?IGM ? z 2 for z ?0.2–0.5 for z ?> 1

165

Temporal Smearing of Transient Radio Sources by the Intergalactic Medium  

CERN Document Server

The temporal smearing of impulsive radio events at cosmological redshifts probes the properties of the ionized Inter-Galactic Medium (IGM). We relate the degree of temporal smearing and the profile of a scattered source to the evolution of turbulent structure in the IGM as a function of redshift. We estimate the degree of scattering expected by analysing the contributions to the Scattering Measure (SM) of the various components of baryonic matter embedded in the IGM, including the diffuse IGM, intervening galaxies and intracluster gas. These estimates predict that the amount of temporal smearing expected at 300\\,MHz is typically as low as ~1 ms and suggests that these bursts may be detectable with low frequency widefield arrays. A generalization of the DM-SM relation observed for Galactic scattering to the densities and turbulent conditions relevant to the IGM suggests that scattering measures of order 10^{-6} kpc m {-20/3} would be expected at z ~ 1. This scattering is sufficiently low that its effects would...

Macquart, Jean-Pierre

2013-01-01

166

ABNORMAL FINDINGS IN PAP SMEARS: ISFAHAN PROVIENCE 1997-1998  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background. Cervical cancer is a common female malignancy in developing countries. In our health care system, the screening program is performed by doing pap smears with the interval of three years. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and frequency disturbation of abnormal smears. Methods. This is a cross sectional study was done in 1997-1998. Sample group were all the under coverage married women aged 20-65 years who have a factor of referal criteria. Papsmears samples were interpreted by a pathologist. Papsmear results were documented by colposcopy and biopsy. Results. The prevalence of abnormal smears in under coverage women is 0.05 percent. Results of abnormal papsmears due to more investigations (colposcopy and biopsy were: Normal 25 percent, ASCUS 57 percent, CIN 14 percent, CIN 2 1 percent, CIN 3 1 percent invasive cancer 2 percent. Conclusion. Refering of women with abnormal signs such as leukoplakia, cervical erosion, and history of contact bleeding is necessary. The number of false positive results in cytotechnologlsts diagtlosfs is high. This result shows that on-job-training for cytotechnologists is important.

G.H SADRI

2001-06-01

167

ABNORMAL FINDINGS IN PAP SMEARS: ISFAHAN PROVIENCE 1997-1998  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background. Cervical cancer is a common female malignancy in developing countries. In our health care system, the screening program is performed by doing pap smears with the interval of three years. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and frequency disturbation of abnormal smears. Methods. This is a cross sectional study was done in 1997-1998. Sample group were all the under coverage married women aged 20-65 years who have a factor of referal criteria. Papsmears samples were interpreted by a pathologist. Papsmear results were documented by colposcopy and biopsy. Results. The prevalence of abnormal smears in under coverage women is 0.05 percent. Results of abnormal papsmears due to more investigations (colposcopy and biopsy were: Normal 25 percent, ASCUS 57 percent, CIN 14 percent, CIN 2 1 percent, CIN 3 1 percent invasive cancer 2 percent. Conclusion. Refering of women with abnormal signs such as leukoplakia, cervical erosion, and history of contact bleeding is necessary. The number of false positive results in cytotechnologlsts diagtlosfs is high. This result shows that on-job-training for cytotechnologists is important.

GH SADRI

2001-03-01

168

National Guidelines Not Always Followed When Diagnosing Smear-Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Patients with HIV in Botswana  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Diagnosis of smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis (SNPTB) is challenging, especially in patients with HIV. The Botswana National Tuberculosis Program (BNTP) guidelines give guidance in diagnosing and treating SNPTB. Patients with chronic cough should be screened for TB by 3 sputum smear investigations. If negative, a chest x-ray (CXR) should be performed. If negative for TB, antimicrobial treatment for other infections should be started. We investigated the clinicians’ use of the guidelines in clinical practice. Methods Data regarding the medical history (coughing period), requested and conducted investigations concerning tuberculosis diagnosis (sputum smear or culture or CXR) or alternative diagnoses (sputum microscopy or blood or sputum culture for diagnosis of other organisms), in SNPTB HIV-positive patients (outpatients and admitted patients) from 2006–2009 in a district hospital in Botswana were extracted from all available hospital medical records. Additionally, a survey was done in all doctors diagnosing SNPTB in this hospital using a self-administered questionnaire with questions regarding the application of the BNTP guidelines in practice. Descriptive analyses of collected data were performed to test the compliance to the guidelines. Results Data from medical records showed that in 47.0% (132/281) of patients, TB treatment was started without microbiological results from sputum smears. Other methods to rule out or confirm PTB were used in 2.1% (6/281); and 99.6% (280/281) of SNPTB patients had received a CXR. The survey in 7 clinicians found that all always used CXR, and all clinicians requested three sputum results only sometimes. Six out of 7 clinicians started antibiotics before starting TB treatment. Reasons clinicians gave for difficulties in following the guidelines included inability of patients to produce sputum; and laboratory delays in releasing sputum results. Conclusion Between 2006 and 2009 a high proportion of SNPTB diagnoses in a district hospital in Botswana were not supported by laboratory investigation. PMID:24551128

Tafuma, Taurayi A.; Burnett, Rosemary J.; Huis in 't Veld, Diana

2014-01-01

169

Cervical Cancer and Pap Smear Awareness and Utilization of Pap Smear Test among Federal Civil Servants in North Central Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in women in developing countries. A key factor linked to the relatively high levels of cervical cancer in these populations is the lack of awareness and access to preventive methods. This study aimed to determine the level of awareness of cervical cancer and Papanicolaou test (Pap smear test) and factors associated with the utilization of Pap test among female civil servants in Jos. Data was obtained from female workers (n?=?388) aged 18?...

Hyacinth, Hyacinth I.; Adekeye, Oluwatoyosi A.; Ibeh, Joy N.; Osoba, Tolulope

2012-01-01

170

Rate of Opportunistic Pap Smear Screening and Patterns of Epithelial Cell Abnormalities in Pap Smears in Ajman, United Arab Emirates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of women undergoing Papanicolaou (Pap) smear examinations, and the frequency of epithelial cell abnormalities in a teaching hospital in one emirate of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) during a three-year period. Methods: A retrospective study of 602 patient records from July 2007 to July 2010 was done in a teaching hospital in Ajman, UAE. The variables studied were age, ethnicity, menopausal status, and abnormalities in the Pap sm...

Shaik, Rizwana B.; Al Eyd, Ghaith J.

2012-01-01

171

Critical evaluation of peripheral smear in cases of anemia with high mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in children: A series of four cases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, a parameter that is reported as a part of a standard complete blood count by automated analyzer, is a measure of the concentration of hemoglobin in a given volume of packed red blood cell. Values of MCHC significantly above reference range are not physiologically possible due to limitations on solubility of hemoglobin. The high MCHC can give us a clue to certain type of hemolytic anemia and necessitate critical evaluation of peripheral smear to reach a definitive diagnosis. Here we are presenting a series of four cases with raised MCHC, emphasizing the importance of systematic and meticulous examination of the peripheral smear to render a definitive diagnosis.

Sharma Sunita

2010-10-01

172

The specimen adequacy and Atypical Squamous Cell frequency: conventional versus liquid-based cytology pap smears  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nBackground: The papanicolaou (pap smear has been used to screen cervical cancer since 1940. Recently, a number of new technologies have been developed to improve the detection of cervical cancer and its precursors. However, there is substantial controversy about whether the new tests offer meaningful advantages over the conventional pap smear. Ideally, these new tests will increase the early detection of meaningful pap smear abnormalities, reduce the number of unsatisfactory smears and provide fewer ambiguous results. "nMethods: In this prospective study the result of Liquid- based cytology smears (Liquid prep method compared with conventional pap smears in terms of adequacy and ASC diagnosis in 289 patients in pathology department of mirza kochak khan hospital (Tehran, 2005- 2006. The smears were interpreted based on Bethesda system 2001. "nResults: In conventional pap smear method, the number of occasions of unsatisfactory smear was 24(5%. In Liquid- based cytology method 66(22.8% smears were unsatisfactory, In which difference between unsatisfactory groups were statistically significant (p<0.05, Also ASC diagnosis in conventional method 5(1.8% as compared with Liquid- based cytology 6(2.1%, was not statistically significant (p>0.05. "nConclusions: There was no significant difference between two methods in term of ASC diagnosis but in conventional method adequacy of specimen was significantly better as compared with this Liquid- based cytology method.

Izadi Mood N

2009-03-01

173

No increased risk for cervical cancer after a broader definition of a negative Pap smear  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The definition of minimal relevant Pap smear abnormality is crucial for balancing the beneficial effects of screening (prevented mortality) with negative side-effects (the high positivity rate). After inflammation ceased to be defined as a borderline abnormal smear outcome in The Netherlands in 1996, the proportion of these smears dropped from 10% to less than 2%. Because this may have caused a loss in smear sensitivity, we analysed the changes in the incidence of cervical cancer after a negative Pap smear. All negative smears made at ages 30-64 in 1990-1995 (n = 1,546,252) and 1998-2006 (n = 3,552,716), registered in the national registry of histo- and cytopathology (PALGA), were followed for up to 9 years. During follow-up of the 1990-1995 smears, 377 women developed cervical cancer within 5,232,959 woman-years at risk, while during the follow-up of the 1998-2006 smears, 619 women developed cervical cancer within 11,210,675 woman-years at risk. The cumulative incidence after the definition change was not significantly higher than before: e.g. at 6 years, the cumulative incidence for smears made in 1990-1995 was 46 per 100,000 (95% CI: 41-52), and for smears in 1998-2006 was 48 per 100,000 (95% CI: 43-54), p = 0.59. The hazard ratio for 1998-2006 compared to 1990-1995 adjusted for age, number of previous negative smears and history of abnormalities was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.78-1.03). In The Netherlands, a setting with high-quality cytological screening, treating smears with only signs of inflammation as negative leads to a considerably lower positivity rate without increasing the risk for cervical cancer after a negative smear.

Rebolj, Matejka; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein

2008-01-01

174

Detection of MicroRNAs in Archival Cytology Urine Smears  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

MicroRNAs’ dysregulation and profiling have been demonstrated to be clinically relevant in urothelial carcinoma (UC). Urine cytology is commonly used as the mainstay non-invasive test for secondary prevention and follow-up of UC patients. Ancillary tools are needed to support cytopathologists in the diagnosis of low-grade UC. The feasibility and reliability of microRNAs profiling by qRT-PCR analysis (miR-145 and miR-205) in archival routine urine cytology smears (affected by fixation/staini...

Simonato, Francesca; Ventura, Laura; Sartori, Nicola; Cappellesso, Rocco; Fassan, Matteo; Busund, Lill-tove; Fassina, Ambrogio

2013-01-01

175

Pap-smear Benchmark Data For Pattern Classification  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This case study provides data and a baseline for comparing classification methods. The data consists of 917 images of Pap-smear cells, classified carefully by cyto-technicians and doctors. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and the cells fall into 7 classes. A basic data analysis includes scatter plots and linear classification results, in order to provide domain knowledge and lower bounds on the acceptable performance of future classifiers. Students and researchers can access the database on the Internet, and use it to test and compare their own classification methods.

Jantzen, Jan

2005-01-01

176

Understanding image quality losses due to smear in high-resolution remote sensing imaging systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Space-based high-resolution scanning array imaging systems have the potential to introduce large amounts of image smear. When designing these systems, it is useful to understand how smear will degrade image quality. A brief description of the causes of smear and a simple mathematical model are presented. A series of image simulations (for a system in which (lambda) FN/p equals 1.0, where (lambda) is the mean wavelength for a panchromatic system, FN is the system f number, and p is the pixel pitch of the detectors) are performed in which along scan smear (ranging from 1.0 to 8.0 pixels) is introduced. Using the National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale (NIIRS), expert observers rated (Delta) NIIRS difference in image quality between the images with simulated smear and the original `unsmeared' image. The functional relationship between smear error and image quality (in units of (Delta) NIIRS) is determined.

Smith, Steven L.; Mooney, James A.; Tantalo, Theodore A.; Fiete, Robert D.

1999-05-01

177

Sputum, sex and scanty smears: new case definition may reduce sex disparities in smear-positive tuberculosis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

SETTING: Urban clinic, Nairobi. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of specimen quality and different smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) case (SPC) definitions on SPC detection by sex. DESIGN: Prospective study among TB suspects. RESULTS: A total of 695 patients were recruited: 644 produced > or =1 specimen for microscopy. The male/female sex ratio was 0.8. There were no significant differences in numbers of men and women submitting three specimens (274/314 vs. 339/380, P = 0.43). Significantly ...

Ramsay, A.; Bonnet, M.; Gagnidze, L.; Githui, W.; Varaine, F.; Gue?rin, Pj

2009-01-01

178

Assessment of smear layer removal protocols in curved root canals.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study sought to assess if the final rinse protocol interferes with the smear layer removal in the apical area of curved canals. Sixty-four extracted human mandibular molars with curved mesial roots were instrumented with rotary files and divided into six experimental groups for final rinse: 1EDTA (syringe irrigation with 1?mL of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)?), 5EDTA (syringe irrigation with 5?mL of 17% EDTA), 1EDTA-P (syringe irrigation with 1?mL of 17% EDTA?+?pumping with gutta-percha point), 5EDTA-P (syringe irrigation with 5?mL of 17% EDTA?+?pumping with gutta-percha point), 1EDTA-EA (syringe irrigation with 1?mL of 17% EDTA?+?EndoActivator) and 5EDTA-EA (syringe irrigation with 5?mL of 17% EDTA?+?EndoActivator). Final rinsing was carried out over 3?min. The specimens were split lengthwise and observed under a scanning electron microscope using a score criterion. Comparison among the groups showed statistically significant difference only between the 5EDTA-EA group and the other groups (Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's post-hoc tests, P?removed smear layer from the apical area of curved root canals more effectively than the other protocols used. PMID:25244220

Yeung, William; Raldi, Denise Pontes; Cunha, Rodrigo Sanches; Mello, Isabel

2014-08-01

179

Association of Oral Contraceptives and Abnormal Pap Smear  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To assess the hypothesis that combined Oral Contraceptive (OCs increase the risk of cervical neoplasia, we conducted a multicenter Case-Control study in Mashhad, the capital of Khorasan province. Seventy-eight women with moderate to severe dysplasia at Pap smear as case group and one hundred fifty nine women with normal Pap smear were selected as the control group for evaluation. The both case and control groups were matched by age, parity and socioeconomic status. All of the women in this study were single partner as husband and no smoker. 30 percent of cases and 64.8 percent of controls were used OCs. The duration of OCs use was the same in both. The odds ratio for OCs consumption was 0.2 with 95% confidence interval 0.11-0.4 in Logistic regression analysis. In contrast to some other studies, our findings showed an association between OCs and cervical dysplasia and there was a protective effect of OCs for cervical dysplasia.

Sayedmohsen Sayednozadi

2005-01-01

180

DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF COLPOSCOPY IN PATIENTS WITH ABNORMAL PAP SMEAR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  

Introduction: In order to reduce invasive cervical cancer, it is necessary to follow presisly the patients with abnormal pap smear. Simply, repeating the cytologic assessment in patints with atypical pap smear will result in missing 26-83 percent of squamous intraepithelial lesions and most alarming 50 percent of invasive cancers. Considering the contraversy of different study reports about the diagnostic value of colposcopy in confirming the abnormal papsmear, this study was conducted to determine the sensitivity and specificity of colposcopy based on the results of biopsy in women referred to hospitals of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS.
Methods: In a prospective study, we selected randomly 210 women from 700 patints who reffered to the hospitals of IUMS. These women were examined and biopsied simultaneously. The data was collected by a structured interview according to the demographic characteristics and then was analyzed using EPI software.
Results. From 210 subjects, only 125 were reported to have abnormal cervical cytologic. The sensitivity came out to be 97.29 percent and specificity was 43.20 percent.
Discussion. In Iran, according to the sensitivity and specificity for colposcpic examination, it can be suggested that in final evaluation of abnormal papsmears, colposcopic assesment of the cervix can be considered as the next appropriate step.

T ALLAMEH

2001-12-01

 
 
 
 
181

Accuracy of abnormal pap smear at Thammasat University Hospital.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to assess the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the Pap smear in the diagnosis of squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Pap smear of 15,345 women in 2 years were screened for early detection of abnormal cervix. In 299 cases (1.9%) were diagnosed as low-grade SIL (LSIL), high-grade SIL (HSIL) and SCC by the Bethesda system (TBS) 2001. Only 195 cases (1.3%) had definitive histologic diagnosis as negative, human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1, CIN 2, CIN 3 and SCC. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in LSIL was 86.5%, 70% and 71.3%, respectively. For HSIL it was 80.8%, 89.7% and 86.2%, respectively. For SCC it was 100%, 96.9% and 96.9%, respectively. Our data had high diagnostic performance for HSIL and SCC group and moderate diagnostic performance for LSIL group. PMID:23964448

Kanjanavirojkul, Nipa; Muanglek, Rotchana; Yanagihara, Lakkakul

2012-01-01

182

The Pathogenic Microorganisms in Papanicolaou Vaginal Smears and Correlation with Inflammation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: Non-specific cervicitis or inflammatory changes in a smear report are common which are usually unclear for clinical approaches. To investigate the frequency of inflammation and pathogenic vaginal microorganisms in cervical smears among an Iranian population sample.Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on Pap smear samples of women referred to gynecological clinic of Taleghani Hospital in Tehran, Iran, between October 2008 and March 2009. This study was c...

Esmat Barouti; Farah Farzaneh; Azadeh Akbari Sene; Zohreh Tajik; Bahar Jafari

2013-01-01

183

Human papillomavirus in false negative archival cervical smears: implications for screening for cervical cancer.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIM--To assess the value of detecting human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in false negative archival cervical smears in population based screening programmes for cervical cancer. METHODS--Cytomorphologically classified false negative archival Pap smears (n = 27) taken from 18 women up to six years before cervical cancer was diagnosed were blindly mixed with 89 smears from hospital patients with a variety of gynaecological complaints and tested for HPV by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Corres...

Roda Husman, A. M.; Snijders, P. J.; Stel, H. V.; Helmerhorst, T. J.; Voorhorst, F. J.; Meijer, C. J.

1995-01-01

184

Colposcopic evaluation of cervix with persistent inflammatory Pap smear: A prospective analytical study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Inflammatory Pap smear is the most common report received by a gynecologist. The cervical screening algorithm for benign cellular changes on the Pap smear recommends treatment of infection if indicated and a repeat Pap smear in 4 to 6 months time. If the inflammatory changes still persist, subject the patient to colposcopy. However, in practice, this is not followed, especially in developing countries like ours where proper screening protocols are not available. Hence, a go...

Dasari Papa; Rajathi S; Kumar Surendra

2010-01-01

185

HPV DNA and Pap smear test results in cases with and without cervical pathology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the HPV prevalance and its relation to Pap smear, colposcopy and colposcopy directed biopsy in our region of Eskisehir, Turkey.Material and Methods: A total of 615 women who applied to the outpatient clinic between December 2009 and December 2010 constituted our study population. All patients underwent pelvic examination and Pap smear sampling. Patients who had pathological cervical appearance or Pap smear results of ASCUS, AGUS, LSIL or HSIL ...

Sabit Sinan Özalp; Tercan Us; Emine Arslan; Tufan Öge; Nilgün Ka?ifo?lu

2012-01-01

186

Gambaran Pengetahuan Ibu tentang Pap Smear di Kelurahan Sei Kera Hilir II Medan Tahun 2010  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pap Smear is one of the method for cervical cancer screenig which is efficacious, simple, and cost-effective. By applying Pap Smear in developed countries, the incidence of invasive cervical cancer has been reduced around 46-76% and the mortality has been decreased around 50-60%. Nevertheless, there are only 5% of women population in Indonesia who have had regular Pap Smear screening. This may have been influenced by lack of public education about Pap Smear. This study aimed to know the marri...

Youvella, Sylvia

2011-01-01

187

Extraction and detection of Mycobacterium leprae DNA from ZNCF-stained skin smear slides for better identification of negative skin smears  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Identification of Mycobacterium leprae, which causes leprosy, is done by Ziehl Neelsen Carbol Fuchsin (ZNCF stained slit skin smear microscopy that aids in the diagnosis and quantification of approximate bacterial load carried by the patient. We attempted M. leprae DNA extraction from 46 stained slit skin smear negative slides, using Proteinase K and SDS lysis, followed by ethanol precipitation. M. leprae specific primers (16SrRNA were used for PCR-based amplification of DNA. We could detect M. leprae DNA in 15 (32.6% samples. The method can be useful in the diagnosis of apparently slit skin smear negative leprosy cases.

Kamble R

2010-01-01

188

Pap smear screening in the primary health care setting: A study from Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is one of the ten most frequent cancers in Turkey. It is well known that cervical cancer morbidity and mortality could be significantly reduced with an active cervical smear screening (Pap smear program. Aims: The aims of this study were: 1 to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of women about cervical smear testing; 2 to establish a cervical smear screening program and to evaluate the cervical cytological abnormalities that were found; 3 to determine the applicability, limitations and effectiveness of this screening in a primary health care unit. Patients and Methods: A total of 332 married women were included in our study. We collected data concerning socio-demographic and fertility characteristics, and knowledge about Pap smear testing was determined through printed questionnaires. A gynecological examination and Pap smear screening was performed on every woman in our study group. Results: Over ninety percent of our study group had never heard of and had not undergone Pap smear screening before. Of the 332 smears evaluated, 328 (98.8% were accepted as normal, whereas epithelial cell anomalies were seen in 4 (1.2%, infection in 59 (17.7%, and reactive cell differences in 223 (67.2% of the smears. Conclusions: The frequency of epithelial cell anomalies in our study group was less than the frequencies reported from Western countries. Knowledge regarding cervical cancer and Pap smear screening was very low. Pap smears can be easily taken and evaluated through a chain built between the primary health care unit and laboratory, and this kind of screening intervention is easily accepted by the population served.

Hande Celik Mehmetoglu

2010-10-01

189

Cervical acid phosphatase detection: A guide to abnormal cells in cytology smear screening for cervical cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Cervical acid phosphatase-Papanicolaou (CAP-PAP test has recently been described for detection of acid phosphatase enzyme in abnormal squamous cells, and has been proposed as a biomarker-based technology for the screening of cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: Eighty-one consecutive cervical smears were subjected to routine Papanicolaou (Pap staining as well as CAP-PAP, which combined cytochemical staining for acid phosphatase with modified Pap stain. Statistical evaluation of its utility was examined. Results: Of 81 smears, 16 (19.75% showed the presence of mature squamous cells with acid phosphatase by CAP-PAP technique and were considered positive. Of these 16, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS or above were initially diagnosed in five of the corresponding routine Pap smears. After re-evaluation with CAP-PAP, eight of the routine Pap smears were considered to have ASCUS or above. Of these eight, three were reported as low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and five as ASCUS on conventional Pap smears. The remaining 8/16 CAP-PAP-positive cases were negative for atypical squamous cells on the corresponding Pap smears. None of the CAP-PAP-negative smears were positive on routine Pap smear screening. Conclusions: This study highlights the efficacy of CAP-PAP in quality assurance of cervical smear screening. It is also an inexpensive method for segregating smears for subsequent re-screening. In the absence of trained cytologists in peripheral laboratories, this technique can be adopted for identifying smears that would require proper evaluation.

Deb Prabal

2008-01-01

190

A Pilot Study of Short-Duration Sputum Pretreatment Procedures for Optimizing Smear Microscopy for Tuberculosis  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Direct sputum smear microscopy for tuberculosis (TB) lacks sensitivity for the detection of acid fast bacilli. Sputum pretreatment procedures may enhance sensitivity. We did a pilot study to compare the diagnostic accuracy and incremental yield of two short-duration (<1 hour) sputum pretreatment procedures to optimize direct smears among patients with suspected TB at a referral hospital in India. Methodology/Findings Blinded laboratory comparison of bleach and universal sediment processing (USP) pretreated centrifuged auramine smears to direct Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) and direct auramine smears and to solid (Loweinstein-Jensen (LJ)) and liquid (BACTEC 460) culture. 178 pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB suspects were prospectively recruited during a one year period. Thirty six (20.2%) were positive by either solid or liquid culture. Direct ZN smear detected 22 of 36 cases and direct auramine smears detected 26 of 36 cases. Bleach and USP centrifugation detected 24 cases each, providing no incremental yield beyond direct smears. When compared to combined culture, pretreated smears were not more sensitive than direct smears (66.6% vs 61.1 (ZN) or 72.2 (auramine)), and were not more specific (92.3% vs 93.0 (ZN) or 97.2 (auramine). Conclusions/Significance Short duration sputum pretreatment with bleach and USP centrifugation did not increase yield as compared to direct sputum smears. Further work is needed to confirm this in a larger study and also determine if longer duration pre-treatment might be effective in optimizing smear microscopy for TB. PMID:19461963

Daley, Peter; Michael, Joy Sarojini; S, Kalaiselvan; Latha, Asha; Mathai, Dilip; John, K. R.; Pai, Madhukar

2009-01-01

191

A Patient with G6PD Deficiency and Falciparum Malaria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 20 year old male patient from Afghanistan with a history of G6PD deficiency and clinical manifestations of malaria referred to Bou-Ali Hospital in Tehran, capital of Iran. Giemsa stained thick blood films revealed an infection of Plasmodium falciparum with 33700 parasite/?L of blood. The patient was successfully treated according to malaria treatment guideline.

Y Fagani

2007-04-01

192

Pap smears for men: a vision of the future?  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) rarely receives as much publicity as its neighbouring orifice, the cervix. As in the cervix, intraepithelial neoplasias are precursors to cancer in the anal canal. AIN and cervical interstitial neoplasia (CIN) undergo dysplasia as a consequence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Since the advent of screening with the Pap smear in CIN, cervical cancer has plummeted to a fifth of its initial incidence. Anal cancer, however, has been rising, with a predilection for human immunodeficiency virus-infected men. HPV causes a squamous epithelial dysplasia and converts healthy tissue into AINs of increasing severity until anal cancer manifests. CLINICAL CASE: This article describes a clinical case of anogenital HPV infection refractory to medical and surgical therapy. It also describes an effective surgical excision technique associated with a good cosmetic outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The paper concludes by briefly discussing the implications of a national screening programme against AIN in the future.

Oon, S F

2012-02-01

193

[Determination of morphotypes of Candida spp. in vaginal smears].  

Science.gov (United States)

Samples of vaginal smears were taken from 100 patients suspected of vaginal candidiasis that attended the Microbiology Laboratory of "Freyre de Andrade" Clinical and Surgical Hospital, in Havana City. These samples were cultivated in Sabouraud agar and Sabouraud triphenyltetrazolium agar (STA). In 45 % of the samples it was observed growth of the yeast-shaped colonies, where Candida albicans (51.1 %) and C. glabrata (22.2 %) were the most frequently isolated species. It was proved that STA allowed to differentiate the morphotypes of the yeast species and it was observed that most of the species presented more than one morphotype with the predominance of flat light pink colonies without mycelial halo in C. albicans, C. glabrata did not grow in it. This phenotypic typing in STA will permit to approach epidemiological studies in a future. PMID:15849931

Lancha, Mayda Perurena; Soto, Mayda Rodríguez; Andreu, Carlos Fernández; Machín, Gerardo Martínez; Claro, Marina Flores

2003-01-01

194

Testicular cytology of alpaca: comparison between impressed and smeared slides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Testicular fine needle aspiration (TFNA) has proven to be a simple and minimally invasive procedure, which allows assessments of cytological parameters of seminiferous epithelium/tubules more accurately in a short time. Though this technique does not cause negative effects on sperm quality or any damage to testicular tissue, its use is very limited in male animal infertility diagnostics. Report on the use of this technique in South American Camelids (SAC) is very limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of TFNA for identification of different testicular cells and cell indices, and their correlation with that of impression cytology. A total of 98 slides were prepared from testes of six adult alpaca males, collected immediately after slaughter. Aspiration samples were performed by inserting a fine butterfly needle (21 G) connected to a 50 ml syringe into a testicle and multiple plane aspirations were carried out to obtain the materials destined to the smear. Three different imprints on slides were taken from each testicle. All slides were air-dried, stained with modified May--Grünwald--Giemsa (MGG) stain and then examined under light microscope with 1000× magnifications. Spermatogenic cells such as, spermatogonia (Sg), primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes, early spermatids (ab), late spermatids (cd) and spermatozoa, and Sertoli cells were counted. The spermatozoa percentage was expressed as spermatic index (SI) and the number of Sertoli cells, counted apart, was expressed as sertoli cell index (SEI). There was not any significant difference between the spermatogenic cell parameters obtained from the two types of slides, but SEI were significantly different in two types of smears. The results of the study provide support for the use of TFNA as a useful minimally invasive modality to identify different spermatogenetic cell classes in alpaca. Moreover, the possibility to standardize this method might provide a greater impulse to the clinical diagnostics of SAC male infertility. PMID:21493020

Stelletta, C; Juyena, N S; Ponce Salazar, D; Ruiz, J; Gutierrez, G

2011-05-01

195

Diagnostic value of the combination of TruScreen and Pap smear in screening cervical epithelial lesions: Does it add advantages over the Pap smear alone?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Pap smear is a well known test in screening of epithelial cell abnormalities of the cervix. However, adding other screening methods to this test may increase the sensitivity and specificity of case finding. Current study has been designed to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the combination of Tru-Screen and Pap tests in comparison to Pap smear alone in women referred for annual screening. Methods: This case-control study was conducted...

Elaheh Refaei; Somayeh Khanjani; Fereshteh Mohammadizadeh; Tajossadat Allameh

2013-01-01

196

Wet smear method by a water sprayer and temporary decontamination method by a vacuum cleaner  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Improving the smear efficiency and the stability of smear method on the monitoring of radioactive floor surface contamination, wet smear method by a water sprayer was designed and examined. And as the temporary decontamination method applied to the wide spread radioactive floor surface contamination, the method by a vacuum cleaner (vacuum cleaner method) was examined. These examinations were carried out by the experiment using the lonleum floor sheets waxed and the various types of pharmaceutical compounds labeled with 99mTc. On wet smear method, the smear efficiencies were larger than 50 % and coefficient of variations by far smaller than that of dry smear method (usual smear method) for all the radiopharmaceuticals examined. These results showed the effectiveness of wet smear method. On vacuum cleaner method, the decontamination coefficients were comparatively large and almost same to that by wet duster method (decontamination method by using the wet duster) except Ringer's solution and DMSA what had less removable part of contamination. These results showed the effectiveness of vacuum cleaner method for the removable parts of contamination. (author)

197

Psammoma bodies and detached ciliary tufts in a cervicovaginal smear associated with benign ovarian cystadenofibroma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Psammoma bodies and detached ciliary tufts, or ciliocytophthoria, were present in a cervicovaginal smear from a 38-year-old woman with a benign cystadenofibroma of the left ovary. This case demonstrates that psammoma bodies in cervicovaginal smears may occur in association with nonmalignant conditions of the female genital tract and that detached ciliary tufts may originate from the ovarian epithelium. PMID:6934683

Kanbour, A; Doshi, N

1980-01-01

198

[Adhesion of sealer cements to dentin with and without smear layer].  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of a smear layer on the adhesion of sealer cements to dentin was assessed in recently extracted human anterior teeth. A total of 120 samples was tested, 40 per sealer; 20 each with and without the smear layer. The teeth were split longitudinally, and the internal surfaces were ground flat. One-half of each tooth was left with the smear layer intact, while the other half had the smear removed by washing for 3 min with 17% EDTA followed by 5.25% NaOCI. Evidence of the ability to remove the smear layer was verified by scanning electron microscopy. Using a specially designed jig, the sealer was placed into a 4-mm wide x 4 mm deep well which was then set onto the tooth. PMID:1659858

Gettleman, B H; Messer, H H; ElDeeb, M E

1991-01-01

199

[Tuberculosis in Nepal: case-finding and quality control of sputum-smear examination].  

Science.gov (United States)

To strengthen National Tuberculosis Programme (NTP) in Nepal, where tuberculosis still remains as one of major infectious diseases, the tuberculosis control project organized by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) has been carried out since April 1987. The programme has covered 55 districts out of 75 districts in the whole country, and the population in the project area was about 90% of the total population. 1) The numbers of sputum examination and of detected smear positive patient have decreased in 55 districts during the period from 1988 to 1991. The number of newly registered smear positive patients has decreased too, while the number of newly registered smear negative patients has increased during the same period. 2) Detection rate of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis out of sputum examined cases was 11.0% in 1990-1991. The highest rate was observed in the central region (15.9%) and the rate was lowest in the mid-western region (6.7%). The rate was also high in plain (Terai) area (12.6%), while low in mountain area (7.3%). 3) At National Tuberculosis Centre (NTC), agreement rate between smear microscopy and culture examination has increased from 86.5% in 1990 to 88.9% in 1992. 4) Quality control of sputum-smear examination for the laboratories of the District Public Health Office (DPHO) was carried out in 1991. In smear staining, inadequate decolorization was obvious. In smear reading, agreement rate between positive and negative results was 90.3%. Disagreement rates in positive slides and negative slides were 16.3 and 2.4%, respectively. Correlation between the quality of smear-staining technique and of smear reading result was clearly observed. PMID:8065085

Takahashi, M

1994-07-01

200

Automated microscopy system for peripheral blood cells  

Science.gov (United States)

The report describes the instrument ASPBS (Automated Screening of Peripheral Blood Cells) designed for an automated analysis of dry blood smears. The instrument is based on computer microscopy and uses dry blood smears prepared according to the standard Romanovskii-Giemza procedure. In comparison with the well-known flow cytometry systems, our instrument provides more detailed information and offers an opporunity of visualizing final results. The basic performances of the instrument are given. Software of this instrument is based on digital image processing and image recognition procedures. It is pointed out that the instrument can be used as a fairly universal tool in scientific research, public demonstrations, in medical treatment, and in medical education. The principle used as the basis of the instrument appeared adequate for creating an instrument version serviceable even during space flights where standard manual procedures and flow cytometry systems fail. The benefit of the use of the instrument in clinical laboratories is described.

Boev, Sergei F.; Sazonov, Vladimir V.; Kozinets, Gennady I.; Pogorelov, Valery M.; Gusev, Alexander A.; Korobova, Farida V.; Vinogradov, Alexander G.; Verdenskaya, Natalya V.; Ivanova, Irina A.

2000-11-01

 
 
 
 
201

Tingkat Pengetahuan Ibu-Ibu Tentang Pap Smear Sebagai Salah Satu Langkah Deteksi Awal Kanker Serviks Di Kelurahan Padang Bulan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background-- Pap smear is one of the method for cervical cancer screening which is efficacious, simple and cost effective. By applying Pap smear in developed countries, the incidence of invasive cervical cancer has been reduced around 46-76% and the mortality has been decreased around 50-60%. Nevertheless only 5 percents of women population in Indonesia who had regular Pap Smear screening. This may have been influenced by lack of public education about pap smear. Purpose-- This study aim t...

Harahap, Eva Yanti

2012-01-01

202

Comparison of real-time polymerase chain reaction and conventional polymerase chain reaction methods for the rapid identification of Bacillus anthracis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacillus anthracis spores have been shown to be one of the most effective biological weapons. For the rapid detection of B. anthracis spores, several genetic markers, including chromosomal and plasmid-based sequences, were studied with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. In the present study, a method using a primer/probe set based on the pXO1-encoded pag gene for the detection of B. anthracis was tested in addition to culture. Eight pathological samples (four blood-immersed cotton specimens, two spleen tissue specimens, and two blood smears) with confirmed positive results for anthrax were used. All samples were suspended in saline solution and fixed with Gram and Giemsa stains for examination of colony and capsule formation. Amplicons were analyzed on 2% agarose gels with the classic PCR method. For real-time PCR, a fluorescently labeled TaqMan probe was used with a Smartcycler. Positive smear and cotton samples were confirmed with the standard culture and real-time PCR methods, but the same samples were found to be negative with the classic PCR method. A spleen sample known to be positive for B. anthracis was found to be negative with the culture method because of possible contamination with Proteus-type bacteria. PMID:17691694

Kenar, Levent; Ortatatli, Mesut; Karayilanoglu, Turan; Yaren, Hakan; Sen, Selahattin

2007-07-01

203

Current approach of health employees in Turkey to pap smear test  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Our primary aim was to detect how much importance is given to pap smear test by the health staff.Material and Methods: In this study inquiries including questions about age, marital status, occupation, attitude for applying to gynecology polyclinics as well as questions regarding their knowledge about and attitude to pap smear test and HPV vaccination were delivered to health staff as well as to a control group which was formed from patients applying to our polyclinics.Results: Neither of the groups applied for gynecologic control without having complaints.There was no significant difference between the groups when the rates of having smear test at least once were taken into consideration. In this study we detected that the smear test was not offered routinely to nearly half of the patients.Those patients who were offered the smear test had the test by significantly higher rates. 91,17% of the women in the study group had heard about HPV vaccination.Discussion: The awareness of health staff as well as the non-health staff population about pap smear test is far from adequate in Turkey. Furthermore, gynecologists do not offer smear tests to their patients efficiently.This situation may prevent the reduction of cervical malignancies in the near future.

Hakan Yetimalar

2009-06-01

204

PROFILE OF CERVICAL SMEAR CYTOLOGY IN WOMEN ATTENDING HEALTH CENTER IN RURAL AREA OF WESTERN MAHARASHTRA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer caused by infection with a sexually transmitted agent human papillomavirus (HPV, can be readily prevented by identifying and treating women with HPV-induced precancerous lesions of the cervix.Objective: To study the profile of cervical smear cytology in rural women in western Maharashtra.Methods: The study was designed to look at the previous reports of the Pap smear present at the health center Pravaranagar in rural area of Western Maharashtra. The reports of 186 smears were analyzed.Results: Maximum numbers of the women (70.43% were less than 40 years of age.  Majority of the women were from lower socio-economic status. There were 29.03 % Pap smears, negative for intraepithelial lesion. Intraepithelial neoplasia of various grade and invasive cervical carcinoma were diagnosed in some cases. Other infections were also detected on Pap smear like bacterial vaginosis, candidial infection and trichomonas vaginalis infestation. Conclusion: An Awareness and education program needs to be implemented to target women about cervical cancer and Pap smear screening. The goal of any screening programme should be to pick up majority of the precursor lesions and not frank cancers; it is desirable to initiate Pap smear screening in women from lower socio-economic status before the 40 years of age.

Vaishali D Phalke

2012-04-01

205

MMP-9 expression increases according to the grade of squamous intraepithelial lesion in cervical smears.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies about cervical carcinogenesis have demonstrated the increased expression of matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP) according to the grade of cervical intraepithelial lesions. Considering the importance of innovative techniques to introduce noninvasive and rapid diagnoses for patients, this study aimed to perform MMP-9 immunocytochemistry in cervical smears according to the cytopathological diagnoses, in order to monitor MMP activity in cervical smears. This cross-sectional study investigated the expression of MMP-9 in normal cervical smears, inflammatory cervical smears, squamous intraepithelial lesions, and cervical carcinoma. Cervical smears from 630 women were collected for cytopathological diagnoses and immunocytochemistry. Women with squamous intraepithelial lesions showed an increase in MMP-9 expression, with moderate to intense staining occurring with increasing cervical lesion grade. The prevalence of moderate to intense MMP-9 staining was 9% in normal cervical smears, 12% in cervical inflammation, 24% in low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), 92% in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and 100% in cervical carcinoma cases. In the specific case of LSIL, we found that association with MMP-9 is more evident when there is the simultaneous presence of an infectious agent. Thus, the expression of MMP-9 in cervical smears increases according to the grade of cervical lesion and LSIL in the presence of infectious agents showed higher MMP-9 expression than women with LSIL without infectious agents. PMID:24578283

Matheus, Erika R; Zonta, Marco A; Discacciati, Michelle G; Paruci, Priscila; Velame, Fernanda; Cardeal, Laura B S; Barros, Silvia B M; Pignatari, Antonio C; Maria-Engler, Silvya S

2014-10-01

206

Psychosocial burden of women with abnormal Pap smears.  

Science.gov (United States)

This cross-sectional study aimed to describe the psychosocial burden of women with abnormal Pap-smear results during the 3 months after recruitment into the study. Seventy-five women negative for intraepithelial lesions and 76 women with epithelial cell abnormalities were recruited. The two study groups did not differ in baseline demographic characteristics or gynecological history. However, the mean Health Impact Profile (HIP) scores were higher for the women negative for intraepithelial lesions [68.18 +/- 14.22 and 57.74 +/- 16.29, respectively (p Questionnaire (WPAI), Health Utilities Index (HUI), Health State Score (HSS), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HADS), between the two study groups. However, there was a significant difference in mean scores for HSS within the younger age group (18-28 years) [(75.00 +/- 13.64, n = 19 and 59.72 +/- 19.13, n = 18, respectively)] (p = 0.008). The provision of information, counseling, and advice, support services and clinician consultation times, need strengthening, to help alleviate women's concerns about infection, and their worries, anxiety or depression, following an abnormal Pap result. PMID:19842448

Phonrat, Benjaluck; Ruengkris, Tosaporn; Naksrisook, Supa; Intalapaporn, Kaewta; Jirakorbchaipong, Phuit; Pitisuttithum, Punnee

2009-05-01

207

Novel chromatin texture features for the classification of pap smears  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a set of novel structural texture features for quantifying nuclear chromatin patterns in cells on a conventional Pap smear. The features are derived from an initial segmentation of the chromatin into bloblike texture primitives. The results of a comprehensive feature selection experiment, including the set of proposed structural texture features and a range of different cytology features drawn from the literature, show that two of the four top ranking features are structural texture features. They also show that a combination of structural and conventional features yields a classification performance of 0.954±0.019 (AUC±SE) for the discrimination of normal (NILM) and abnormal (LSIL and HSIL) slides. The results of a second classification experiment, using only normal-appearing cells from both normal and abnormal slides, demonstrates that a single structural texture feature measuring chromatin margination yields a classification performance of 0.815±0.019. Overall the results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed structural approach and that it is possible to detect malignancy associated changes (MACs) in Papanicoloau stain.

Bejnordi, Babak E.; Moshavegh, Ramin; Sujathan, K.; Malm, Patrik; Bengtsson, Ewert; Mehnert, Andrew

2013-03-01

208

Target time smearing with short transmissions and multipath propagation.  

Science.gov (United States)

In active sonar the target echo level is often estimated with a propagation model that adds all multipath arrivals. If the (post-correlator) transmitted pulse is short compared to the multipath time spread then there is effectively an extra loss (which may be substantial) since only a few of the paths contribute to the target echo at any one instant. This well known "time-smearing" loss is treated in a self-consistent manner with previous calculations of reverberation [Harrison, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 114, 2744-2756 (2003)] to estimate the target response and the signal-to-reverberation-ratio. Again isovelocity water, Lambert's law, and reflection loss proportional to angle are assumed. In this important short pulse regime the target response becomes independent of boundary reflection properties but proportional to transmitted pulse length. Thus the signal-to-reverberation-ratio becomes independent of pulse length. The effect on signal-to-ambient-noise is also investigated and the resulting formulas presented in a table. PMID:21895070

Harrison, Chris H

2011-09-01

209

Diagnosing sputum/smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis: Does fibre-optic bronchoscopy play a significant role?  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Diagnosis of sputum/smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis patients can be both challenging and time consuming with many patients being put on empirical anti-tubercular treatment. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy may provide a confirmative and early diagnosis in such patients. Aims: To assess the role of fibreoptic bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of sputum /smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 75 suspected sputum / smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis cases attending Pulmonary Medicine Department of Mamata Medical College and Hospital, Khammam, AP. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy was performed; culture of sputum and bronchial washings for Mycobacterium tuberculosis was done by BACTEC method. Results: A final diagnosis of sputum /smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis was made in 60 patients. Bronchial washings smear for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) was positive in 21 patients while culture of bronchial washings was positive in 39 patients. In 29 patients, smear or culture of bronchial washing alone contributed to the final diagnosis. Total yield of bronchoscopy in diagnosis of sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis was 83.33% (50/60); bronchoscopy was the only diagnostic method in 66% cases (40/60) with bronchial washings being the only diagnostic method in 48.33%. Bronchial washings smear for AFB and histopathological evidence of caseating granuloma made immediate diagnosis possible in 48.33% (29/60) patients. Conclusion: Our study suggests that fibreoptic bronchoscopy can provide excellent material for diagnosis of suspected cases of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in whom smears of expectorated sputum do not reveal mycobacteria. PMID:20616936

Altaf Bachh, Arshad; Gupta, Rahul; Haq, Inaamul; Varudkar, Hanumant Ganapati

2010-01-01

210

Pattern of epithelial cell abnormality in Pap smear: A clinicopathological and demographic correlation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: In the low resource settings of a developing country, a conventional Papanicolaou (Pap test is the mainstay screening system for cervical cancer. In order to counsel women and to organize a public health system for cervical cancer screening by Pap smear examination, it is imperative to know the pattern of premalignant and malignant lesions. This study was undertaken to find out the prevalence of an abnormal Pap smear, in a tertiary hospital of a developing country, and to carry out a clinicopathological and demographical analysis for establishing the pattern of epithelial cell abnormality in a Pap smear. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in a total of 1699 patients who underwent Pap smear examination. The prevalence of epithelial cell abnormality in the Pap smear was calculated in proportions / percentages. Specimen adequacy and reporting was assessed according to the revised Bethesda system. Results: Among the total of 1699 patients who had their Pap smear done, 139 (8.18% revealed epithelial cell abnormality. Altogether 26 smears revealed high-grade lesions and malignancy, most of which were found to be in women belonging to the 30 - 39 and ? 45 age group. A total of 75 (53.96% women were in the 20 - 44 age group and 64 (46.04% were in the ? 45 age group. A bimodal age distribution was detected in the epithelial cell abnormality, with the bulk being diagnosed in patients aged 45 or above. Overall one-third of the patients with an abnormal Pap smear result showed healthy cervix in per vaginal examination. Conclusions: A raised prevalence of epithelial cell abnormality reflects the lack of awareness about cervical cancer screening. Women aged 45 or above harbor the bulk of premalignant and malignant lesions in the Pap smear, signifying that these women are among the under users of cytological screening.

Banik Urmila

2011-01-01

211

Diagnostic value of the combination of TruScreen and Pap smear in screening cervical epithelial lesions: Does it add advantages over the Pap smear alone?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Pap smear is a well known test in screening of epithelial cell abnormalities of the cervix. However, adding other screening methods to this test may increase the sensitivity and specificity of case finding. Current study has been designed to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the combination of Tru-Screen and Pap tests in comparison to Pap smear alone in women referred for annual screening. Methods: This case-control study was conducted in two groups of 66 and 73 women with epithelial cell abnormality and normal results on Pap smear, respectively. Both groups were subsequently tested with Tru-Screen and colposcopy. Positive finding in any of the three studies made the patient candidate for biopsy as the standard diagnostic test. SPSS software was used to analyze sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of TruScreen, Pap smear, colposcopy and the combination of TruScreen and Pap tests. Results: 105 out of 139 women underwent biopsy. Of these, 32 (30.5% had abnormal result in biopsy. Combination of True screen and Pap smear led to a sensitivity of 93.8% and specificity of 79.5% which means an improvement in both parameters. False negative rate decreased to 6.3% but false positive rate increased to 82.2%. Positive and negative predictive values of the combined tests were 33.3% and 86.7%, respectively. Conclusion: Combination of TruScreen and Pap smear is associated with a significant improvement in both sensitivity and specificity for early screening of preneoplastic and neoplastic cervical epithelial lesions.

Elaheh Refaei

2013-05-01

212

Interpretation of automated blood cell counts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Complete blood count (CBC tests are rapid, inexpensiveand universally available, and often aid primary clinicianswith decision making about patients with severaldisorders. Thus the rapid availability of the results of CBCcould provide considerable advantage for both patientsand clinicians. Furthermore, physicians can also avoidunnecessary peripheral blood smear examination usingCBC parameters. Many hematology analyzers, which enabledus simultaneously, measure several different CBCparameters, are available for early diagnosis. Herein theimpact of both pre and post analytic variations on the interpretationof the CBC results with case reports are reviewedin the light of the latest literature.Key words: Complete blood count, interpretation

Zühre Kaya

2013-09-01

213

First case of visceral Leishmaniosis/HIV coinfection in Niš - southeastern Serbia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Visceral leishmaniosis (VL) has emerged as an important opportunistic parasitosis associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The aim of this paper is to report the first case of Leishmania/HIV coinfection in a patient from Niš (Southeastern Serbia). Microscopical examination of Giemsa-stained bone marrow (BM) smears show the presence of Leishmania spp. amastigotes based on their morphological characteristics. In spite of the parasitological finding, the serological t...

Marjanovi? G.; Miladinovi?-Tasi? Nataša; Gabrielli Simona; Otaševi? Suzana; Popovi?-Dragonji? Lidija; Koci? Branislava; Arsi?-Arsenijevi? Valentina; Tadi? Ljiljana; Cancrini Gabriella

2012-01-01

214

The virtual blood film.  

Science.gov (United States)

The computer and the digital camera offer unprecedented possibilities for improving hematology education, research, and patient service. Peripheral blood smear images of exceptional quality can be acquired rapidly and conveniently from the peripheral blood smear with a modern, high-resolution digital camera and a quality microscope. Digital cameras use CCD or CMOS image sensors to measure light energy and additional circuitry to convert the measured information into a digital signal. Because digital cameras do not use photographic film, images are immediately available for incorporation into web sites or digital publications, printing, transfer to other individuals by e-mail, or other applications. Several excellent consumer digital still cameras are now available for less than $1000 that capture high-quality images comprised of more than three megapixels. These images are essentially indistinguishable from conventional film images when viewed on a quality color monitor or printed on a quality color or black and white printer at sizes up to 8 x 10 in. Several recent dedicated digital photomicroscopy cameras provide an ultrahigh quality image output of more than 12 megapixels and have low noise circuit designs permitting the direct capture of darkfield and fluorescence images. There are many applications of digital images of peripheral blood smears. Because hematology is a visual science, the inclusion of quality digital images into lectures, teaching handouts, and electronic documents is essential. A few institutions have gone beyond the basic application of digital images to develop large electronic hematology atlases; animated, audio-enhanced learning experiences; multidisciplinary Internet conferences; and other innovative applications. Digital images of single microscopic fields (single-frame images) are the most widely used in hematology education at this time, but single images of many adjacent microscopic fields can be stitched together to prepare zoomable panoramas that encompass a large part of a microscope slide and closely stimulate observation through a real microscope. With further advances in computer speed and Internet streaming technology, the virtual microscope could easily replace the real microscope in pathology education. Interactive, immersive computer experiences may completely revolutionize hematology education and make the conventional lecture and laboratory format obsolete later in this decade. Patient care is enhanced by the transmission of digital images to other individuals for consultation and education, and by the inclusion of these images in patient care documents. In research laboratories, digital cameras are widely used to document experimental results and obtain experimental data. PMID:11933581

Riley, Roger S; Ben-Ezra, Jonathan M; Massey, Davis; Cousar, John

2002-03-01

215

Smeared spin-flop transition in random antiferromagnetic Ising chain  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At T = 0 and in a sufficiently large field, the nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic Ising chain undergoes a first-order spin-flop transition into the ferromagnetic phase. We consider its smearing under the random-bond disorder such that all independent random bonds are antiferromagnetic (AF). It is shown that the ground-state thermodynamics of this random AF chain can be described exactly for an arbitrary distribution P(J) of AF bonds. Moreover, the site magnetizations of finite chains can be found analytically in this model. We consider a continuous P(J) that is zero above some -J{sub 1} and behaves near it as (-J{sub 1}-J){sup {lambda}}, {lambda} > -1. In this case, the ferromagnetic phase emerges continuously in a field H > H{sub c} = 2J{sub 1}. At 0 > {lambda} > -1, it has the usual second-order anomalies near H{sub c} with the critical indices obeying the scaling relation and depending on {lambda}. At {lambda} > 0, higher-order transitions occur (third, fourth, etc.), marked by a divergence of the corresponding nonlinear susceptibilities. In the chains with an even number of spins, the intermediate 'bow-tie' phase with linearly modulated AF order exists between the AF and ferromagnetic phases at J{sub 1} < H < H{sub c}. Its origin can be traced to the infinite correlation length of the degenerate AF phase from which it emerges. This implies the existence of similar inhomogeneous phases with size- and form-dependent order in a number of other systems with infinite correlation length. The possibility to observe the signs of the 'bow-tie' phase in low-T neutron diffraction experiments is discussed.

Timonin, P. N., E-mail: pntim@live.ru [Southern Federal University (Russian Federation)

2012-12-15

216

Comparative evaluation of three and six month therapeutic regimens for smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Both smears positive and negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB patients are routinely treated by six month therapeutic regimen. The aim of this study was to compare three and six month regimens chemotherapy for smear negative PTB among tuberculosis patients. Fifty-two patients with smear negative PTB randomly divided into two groups took part in this comparative clinical trial study. The patients in first group were treated with our recommended regimen (rifampicin, isoniazide, and ofloxacin and another group with standard regimen according directly observed treatment short course strategy. Cure rates in first and second group were 96.5% and 100% respectively. There was no difference between two groups in responding to anti tuberculosis chemotherapy (p>0.05. This study showed that three month therapeutic regimen is as effective as six month therapeutic regimen and may be considered effective treatment for adult patients with unprogressive smear negative PTB.

Seyed Mohammad Alavi

2009-01-01

217

An Audit of Sputum Smear Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis Cases in Kinta District, Perak, in 2011  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 58 cases of sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PtB were reported to Kinta Health Department between January and June 2011. It was found that 47 cases (81% were sputum smear negative cases. six cases (10.3% were actually sputum smear positive but were wrongly reported as smear negative. Five cases (8.6% were misdiagnosed as tuberculosis. Majority of these patients (82.7% sought consultation and treatment after two weeks of having cough. only 6.9% sought treatment for cough that was less than two weeks old. Accurate diagnosis of PtB is crucial and the Perak state Health Department needs to quickly adopt steps to improve the situation.

Subashini A

2012-12-01

218

Measurement of DNA content in single cells morphologically identified on smears.  

Science.gov (United States)

A method was developed for measuring the nuclear DNA content in single cells previously identified on a bone marrow smear stained by the Wright-Giemsa method. The smear was first photographed and the location of individual cells, identified by morphology, was recorded on a cell map. The smear was then bleached with 50% acid ethanol and absolute methanol, and re-stained by the Feulgen method in 0.05% pararosaniline Schiff's reagent (pH 2.3) at 7 degrees C for 10 min. Nuclear red fluorescence was observed and the intensity of this fluorescence was proportional to the amount of DNA after prior irradiation of smears with green light for 9 hr. The method is useful for measuring cell DNA content in heterogeneous cell populations when morphological cell identification is required. PMID:3745905

Maruo, N; Nakabo, T; Kondo, M

1986-10-01

219

Leishmania life cycle images in the cutaneous cytologic smear of an immunocompetent patient  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmania life cycle images on cytology smears are very rare. We report herein a gallery of cytologic images from a case of sporadic cutaneous leishmaniasis in a 61 year old man presenting with ulcerative skin lesion.

Zappacosta Roberta

2010-01-01

220

Diagnosis of malaria by acridine orange fluorescent microscopy in an endemic area of Venezuela  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fluorescent (acridine orange microscopical examination of capillary centrifuged blood (quantitative buffy coat [QBC®] analysis and Giemsa stained thick blood smears (GTS were compared for diagnosis of malaria in blood specimens from adults living in malaria transmission areas of the States of Bolivar and Amazonas in southeastern and south Venezuela, respectively. Of a total of 198 GTS examined, 95 subjects (48% showed parasitaemia. Among the 95 blood films with a positive GTS, 94 were judged positive by the QBC. However, positive QBC tubes were found in 29 out of 103 blood specimens with a negative GTS. Thus, relative to a GTS standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the QBC-test was 99.2% and 72%, respectively. Young trophozoites of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum could not be distinguished with certainty. It is confirmed that the QBC offers many advantages compared with the standard diagnosis of malaria parasites, specifically in the speed of staining and ease of interpretation. However, in places where P. falciparum and P. vivax occur, species and stage differentiation should be confirmed with the GTS.

Irene Bosch

1996-02-01

 
 
 
 
221

Diagnosis of malaria by acridine orange fluorescent microscopy in an endemic area of Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Fluorescent (acridine orange) microscopical examination of capillary centrifuged blood (quantitative buffy coat [QBC®] analysis) and Giemsa stained thick blood smears (GTS) were compared for diagnosis of malaria in blood specimens from adults living in malaria transmission areas of the States of Bol [...] ivar and Amazonas in southeastern and south Venezuela, respectively. Of a total of 198 GTS examined, 95 subjects (48%) showed parasitaemia. Among the 95 blood films with a positive GTS, 94 were judged positive by the QBC. However, positive QBC tubes were found in 29 out of 103 blood specimens with a negative GTS. Thus, relative to a GTS standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the QBC-test was 99.2% and 72%, respectively. Young trophozoites of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum could not be distinguished with certainty. It is confirmed that the QBC offers many advantages compared with the standard diagnosis of malaria parasites, specifically in the speed of staining and ease of interpretation. However, in places where P. falciparum and P. vivax occur, species and stage differentiation should be confirmed with the GTS.

Irene, Bosch; Carmen, Bracho; Hilda A, Pérez.

222

Diagnosis of malaria by acridine orange fluorescent microscopy in an endemic area of Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Fluorescent (acridine orange) microscopical examination of capillary centrifuged blood (quantitative buffy coat [QBC®] analysis) and Giemsa stained thick blood smears (GTS) were compared for diagnosis of malaria in blood specimens from adults living in malaria transmission areas of the States of Bol [...] ivar and Amazonas in southeastern and south Venezuela, respectively. Of a total of 198 GTS examined, 95 subjects (48%) showed parasitaemia. Among the 95 blood films with a positive GTS, 94 were judged positive by the QBC. However, positive QBC tubes were found in 29 out of 103 blood specimens with a negative GTS. Thus, relative to a GTS standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the QBC-test was 99.2% and 72%, respectively. Young trophozoites of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum could not be distinguished with certainty. It is confirmed that the QBC offers many advantages compared with the standard diagnosis of malaria parasites, specifically in the speed of staining and ease of interpretation. However, in places where P. falciparum and P. vivax occur, species and stage differentiation should be confirmed with the GTS.

Irene, Bosch; Carmen, Bracho; Hilda A, Pérez.

1996-02-01

223

Preconditioning Maximal Center Gauge with Stout Link Smearing in SU(3)  

CERN Document Server

Center vortices are studied in SU(3) gauge theory using Maximal Center Gauge (MCG) fixing. Stout link smearing and over-improved stout link smearing are used to construct a preconditioning gauge field transformation, applied to the original gauge field before fixing to MCG. We find that preconditioning successfully achieves higher gauge fixing maxima. We observe a reduction in the number of identified vortices when preconditioning is used, and also a reduction in the vortex-only string tension.

Cais, Alan Ó; Langfeld, Kurt; Lasscock, Ben; Leinweber, Derek; Moran, Peter; Sternbeck, Andre; von Smekal, Lorenz

2008-01-01

224

Self-reports of Pap smear screening in women with physical disabilities.  

Science.gov (United States)

We collected self reported rate of cervical smear testing and to examine the affecting factors in women with physical disabilities in the study, to define the reproductive health care for this group of people. The study population recruited 521 women with physical disabilities aged more than 15 years who were officially registered as having physical disabilities in Taipei County, Taiwan. Those people with physical disabilities include following: upper and low limb, spinal cord injury and other nervous system impairments. Results found that there were 71.5% participants had ever used the Pap smear tests in their life time and mean age of the first screening was 39.21±10.16 years (range=20-85 years). Nearly 41% of participants expressed that they had accepted the screening within 1 year and 28.1% reported they used the Pap smear screening regularly. Our study also found women with physical disabilities have higher use of Pap smear tests than does the general population in Taiwan (74% vs. 64% in aged?30 years). Logistic regression model for the use of Pap smear test indicated that those married women (OR=12.06, 95% CI=6.85-21.22), with mild level of disability (OR=2.10, 95% CI=1.05-4.21) and high cognitive level toward Pap smear information were factors to affect the use of Pap smear in the study participants. We suggest the further study should conduct to examine the quality perception and follow-up service of Pap smear test for women with physical disabilities, to ensure the health care right for this group of women. PMID:21273042

Lin, Jin-Ding; Chen, Shih-Fan; Lin, Lan-Ping; Sung, Chang-Lin

2011-01-01

225

Detection of high risk human papillomavirus in routine cervical smears: strategy for screening.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIM: To develop a methodology for direct detection of high risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in routine cervical smears by non-isotopic in situ hybridisation (NISH) which can be compared with cytopathological assessment of the same cells. METHODS: The methodology was established using cultured cells and routine cervical smears hybridised with digoxigenin labelled probes for HPV, 16, 18, 31, and 33. The technique was applied to the analysis of 53 patients from a sexually transmitted di...

Herrington, C. S.; Angelis, M.; Evans, M. F.; Troncone, G.; Mcgee, J. O.

1992-01-01

226

Cervical cancer: developments in screening and evaluation of the abnormal Pap smear.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Of the more than 50 million Pap smears performed annually in the United States, about 5% of them are abnormal. Although the need for treatment of high-grade lesions is clear, the appropriate management of low-grade lesions remains controversial. New methods of screening for cervical cancer have become available, including testing for the human papilloma virus and improved methods of administering and evaluating the Pap smear. This review addresses new developments in cervical cancer screening...

Walsh, J. M.

1998-01-01

227

Knowledge Attitudes and Practice about Pap Smear among Women Reffering to A Public Hospital  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: The Pap smear is a reliable, inexpensive and effective screening test for cervical cancer; the second most common cancer among women worldwide. We aimed to determine women’s knowledge, attitudes and practice towards Pap smear and barriers for the screening in a public hospital.Materials and methods: This study, was carried out on 350 outpatient married women reffering for a visit at the clinics of the Alzahra educational hospital, Rasht- Iran, 2011. A questionnaire including demo...

Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh- Charandabi; Sedighe Rezaie-Chamani; Mahin Kamalifard

2012-01-01

228

Current approach of health employees in Turkey to pap smear test  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: Our primary aim was to detect how much importance is given to pap smear test by the health staff.Material and Methods: In this study inquiries including questions about age, marital status, occupation, attitude for applying to gynecology polyclinics as well as questions regarding their knowledge about and attitude to pap smear test and HPV vaccination were delivered to health staff as well as to a control group which was formed from patients applying to our polyclinics.Results: Ne...

Hakan Yetimalar; Atilla Köksal; Burcu Kasap; Akif Uysal; Külal Çukurova

2009-01-01

229

Knowledge Attitudes and Practice about Pap Smear among Women Reffering to A Public Hospital  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The Pap smear is a reliable, inexpensive and effective screening test for cervical cancer; the second most common cancer among women worldwide. We aimed to determine women’s knowledge, attitudes and practice towards Pap smear and barriers for the screening in a public hospital.Materials and methods: This study, was carried out on 350 outpatient married women reffering for a visit at the clinics of the Alzahra educational hospital, Rasht- Iran, 2011. A questionnaire including demographic characteristics (24 questions, knowledge (14 questions, attitudes (11 statments and practice (10 questions towards Pap smear was completed by interview with the women. The data were analyzed using SPSS ver.13.Results: Mean age of participants was 32 (SD 12 years. Of the respondents, only 44.3% were aware of the Pap smear and 27.1% had had it at least once in their life. The most common reason for having the test was physicians’ or other health workers’ advise and for not having the test was no recommendation by health providers and lack of knowledge about Pap smear. Embarrassing, fear of the test result or economic problems mentioned by only 12 (4.2% as the main barrier. Mean (±SD knowledge score of the women who had heard about the Pap smear was 59.4 (24.3 and attitudes score of all participants was 48.5 (11.6 from possible range score of 0-100. Women with a history of Pap smear had had higher awareness and attitudes score.Conclusion: The knowledge and practice of the women was inadequate and need to be promoted. Considering the main reason mentioned by the participants for not having the test, all health providers should educate and encourage women to do regular Pap smear.

Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh- Charandabi

2012-12-01

230

An "infobutton" for enabling patients to interpret on-line Pap smear reports.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We describe the development of a prototype application that would allow patients with little or no medical background to understand their Pap smear reports. This information button, or "infobutton", is attached to on-line text reports describing Pap smear results present in a medical record system intended for patient access (PatCIS). The infobutton application generates an explanation of terms present in the report and a list of questions related to the terms in the report, which link to pub...

Baorto, D. M.; Cimino, J. J.

2000-01-01

231

Comparison of Gram stain and Pap smear procedures in the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of Gram stain versus Pap smear in diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV). METHODS: One-thousand and sixty women were enrolled in this study. All cases with symptoms of BV were determined by Amsel's criteria, which were accepted as the gold standard for diagnosis of BV. Pap smear and Gram stain evaluations were compared according to Amsel's criteria, without viewing the clinical results of the patients. Gram stain and Pap s...

Hakan Postaci; Funda Tasli; Xd Zg Xfc, Xd Zg Xfc L.; Murat Inal; Izzet Maral; Enver Vardar

2002-01-01

232

Comparison Between Pap Smear and Via As Screening For Cervical Lesions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: An important reason for higher cervical cancer incidence in developing countries is lack of effectivescreening programs like pap smear, aimed at detecting precancerous conditions before they progress to invasivecancer. The potential difficulties in implementing cervical cytology based screening in low-resource settings haveprompted the investigation of accuracy of alternative low technology tests such as Visual inspection with acetic acidapplication [VIA], Visual inspection with acetic acid application with magnification [VIAM], visual inspection onLugol’s Iodine application [VILI] in early detection of cervical neoplasia .In our study we compared pap smear withVIA to study the accurarcy of VIA as it is simpler and easier technique to be used as screening in low resourcesettings. Aim: This is a hospital based descriptive, prospective study to evaluate validity of pap smear and VIAtechniques as screening tests in identifying cervical lesions. Materials And Methods: After general and systemicexamination as a routine,visual local pelvic examination including visualisation of cervix and vagina per speculumand the findings are documented in the proforma .Then VIA and pap smear are done in that order, if any of thesetests are positive then cervical biopsy will be taken and further advise to the subject is given. Results: A total of 313women were involved in the study. The sensitivity of pap smear is 54.5% specificity is 98.9% while that of VIA95.4% and 97.9%respectively. We found that VIA accuracy was comparatively more than that of pap smear.Conclusion: In low resource settings, usefulness of VIA is more than that of pap smear. We suggest to perform VIAin all the women inspite of having pap smear facility to improve detection rate of cervical lesions and provide betterpatient councelling and treatment.

Harshini V 1, Amritha Bhandary 2, Suchithra Thunga 3

2013-09-01

233

Pattern of epithelial cell abnormality in Pap smear: A clinicopathological and demographic correlation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: In the low resource settings of a developing country, a conventional Papanicolaou (Pap) test is the mainstay screening system for cervical cancer. In order to counsel women and to organize a public health system for cervical cancer screening by Pap smear examination, it is imperative to know the pattern of premalignant and malignant lesions. This study was undertaken to find out the prevalence of an abnormal Pap smear, in a tertiary hospital of a developing country, and to ...

Banik Urmila; Bhattacharjee Pradip; Ahamad Shahab; Rahman Zillur

2011-01-01

234

Attitude Concerning the Pap Smear Test of Women Who Admitted to the Family Medicine Outpatient Clinic  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aim: In this trial, we evaluated women’s knowledge and behavior concerning the Pap smear test. Material and Method: Women attending to the family medicine outpatient clinic in between April 1 to May 30 irrespective of their complaints included in the study in Dogansehir, Malatya, Turkey. Sociodemographic data form was filled by trained personnel. Questions regarding whether they heard about the Pap smear test, have ever taken it, if not what were the reasons, what are the indications of the...

Et Al, Ak M.

2010-01-01

235

Microscopy of stained smears of vaginal secretion in the diagnosis of recurrent vulvovaginal candidosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was undertaken to determine the value of stained smears from the vaginal introitus and the posterior vaginal fornix for detection of candida morphotypes in the diagnosis of recurrent vulvovaginal candidosis (RVVC) in cases with an assumed novel attack of the condition, and to compare the value of microscopy of such smears in relation to candida culture, vaginal pH-determinations and leucocyte esterase tests (LE). One hundred and thirteen women with a history and a current assumed attack of RVVC were studied by means of culture of samples from the vaginal introitus and posterior vaginal fornix on Sabouraud and CHROMagar. Microscopy of methylene blue- and Gram-stained smears from these sites was performed. The pH of vaginal secretion and the LE activity in vaginal flushing fluid was measured. Candida morphotypes were found significantly more often in the smears from candida culture-positive than culture-negative women. There was no difference in this respect between the findings in the methylene blue- and Gram-stained smears. Differences were found in candida morphotypes among Candida albicans and non-albicans-positive cases, as blastoconidia were detected only in the latter cases. The leukocyte esterase activity score was higher in the candida-positive than in candida-negative cases. The study showed that microscopy of fixed, stained genital smears can play a role in attempts to distinguish cases infected and not infected by candida among patients consulting with an assumed novel attack of RVVC. Study of methylene blue-stained smears is recommended as they represent an easier means than Gram-stained smears to diagnose genital candida infections in assumed RVVC cases. PMID:11972935

Novikova, Natalia; Yassievich, Elena; Mårdh, Per-Anders

2002-05-01

236

Effects of different irrigation solutions on root dentine microhardness, smear layer removal and erosion.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to compare the effects of different irrigants on root dentine microhardness, erosion and smear layer removal. A total of 72 root dentine slices were divided into six groups, according to the final irrigants used: Group 1: 17% ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) + 2.5% NaOCl, Group 2: 7% maleic acid (MA) + 2.5% sodium hypochloride (NaOCl), Group 3: 1.3% NaOCl + mixture of tetracycline, acid and detergent (MTAD), Group 4: Smear Clear + 2.5% NaOCl, Group 5: 5% NaOCl, Group 6: saline. Vickers microhardness values were measured before and after treatment. In total, 42 root-halves were prepared for scanning electron microscope to evaluate the amount of smear and erosion in the coronal, middle and apical thirds. Data were analysed using two-way anova, Duncan and two-proportion z-tests. Maleic acid showed the greatest reduction in dentine microhardness (P EDTA and MTAD. EDTA, maleic acid, MTAD and Smear Clear removed smear layer efficiently in the coronal and middle thirds of root canal. However, in the apical region, maleic acid showed more efficient removal of the smear layer than the other irrigants (P < 0.05). PMID:23890262

Ulusoy, Özgür ? A; Görgül, Güliz

2013-08-01

237

Incidence of cytological abnormalities within 24 months of a normal cervical smear in Soweto, South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: A screening programme for cervical cancer has been implemented in South Africa (SA) with intervals of 10 years after a normal cytological result. There are no studies that evaluate repeat screening at a shorter interval in SA. OBJECTIVES: (i) To find the incidence of cytological abnormal [...] ities on a repeat test after a report of normal cytology or an inadequate Pap smear; and (ii) to explore the factors associated with an abnormal cytology on repeat testing. METHODS: This was a secondary data analysis of a randomised controlled trial of diaphragm, lubricant gel and condoms v. condoms in the prevention of HIV infection. HIV-negative women were recruited between November 2003 and December 2005, with a normal Pap smear at entry. Observation time was from the first Pap smear to the date of the repeat Pap smear. Explanatory variables used were baseline, excepting any new HIV infection. RESULTS: The incidence of cytological abnormalities was 6.48% yearly in women with a previously normal Pap smear and 11.71% yearly in women with an inadequate smear result (p=0.03). The incidence of high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (HSILs) was

Y, Adam; J A, McIntyre; G, de Bruyn.

238

Incidence of cytological abnormalities within 24 months of a normal cervical smear in Soweto, South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: A screening programme for cervical cancer has been implemented in South Africa (SA) with intervals of 10 years after a normal cytological result. There are no studies that evaluate repeat screening at a shorter interval in SA. OBJECTIVES: (i) To find the incidence of cytological abnormal [...] ities on a repeat test after a report of normal cytology or an inadequate Pap smear; and (ii) to explore the factors associated with an abnormal cytology on repeat testing. METHODS: This was a secondary data analysis of a randomised controlled trial of diaphragm, lubricant gel and condoms v. condoms in the prevention of HIV infection. HIV-negative women were recruited between November 2003 and December 2005, with a normal Pap smear at entry. Observation time was from the first Pap smear to the date of the repeat Pap smear. Explanatory variables used were baseline, excepting any new HIV infection. RESULTS: The incidence of cytological abnormalities was 6.48% yearly in women with a previously normal Pap smear and 11.71% yearly in women with an inadequate smear result (p=0.03). The incidence of high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (HSILs) was

Y, Adam; J A, McIntyre; G, de Bruyn.

2013-01-01

239

Colposcopic evaluation of cervix with persistent inflammatory Pap smear: A prospective analytical study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Inflammatory Pap smear is the most common report received by a gynecologist. The cervical screening algorithm for benign cellular changes on the Pap smear recommends treatment of infection if indicated and a repeat Pap smear in 4 to 6 months time. If the inflammatory changes still persist, subject the patient to colposcopy. However, in practice, this is not followed, especially in developing countries like ours where proper screening protocols are not available. Hence, a good number of patients in the premalignant stage are being missed. This study was undertaken to evaluate patients with persistent inflammatory Pap smears without atypia using colposcopy. Methods: A prospective analytical study of 150 gynecologial patients with persistent inflammatory Pap smear between 2006 and 2008 in an out-patient setting. All of them were subjected to colposcopy and biopsy from the abnormal areas. The incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN/invasive carcinoma was calculated by proportions/percentages. Results: The incidence of invasive carcinoma was <1%. But, the incidence of pre-malignant lesions (CIN was high (20.9%. CIN 2/3 and carcinoma in situ were present in 6.9% of the cases. Conclusions: Patients with persistent inflammatory Pap smears can harbour a high proportion of CIN and hence these patients will need further evaluation.

Dasari Papa

2010-01-01

240

Comparison of visual inspection of cervix and pap smear for cervical cancer screening  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the performance of visual inspection of cervix (VIA) after application of 3% acetic acid in cervical cancer screening in comparison with PAP smear. Results: Out of 540 subjects, 356 were negative with both screening techniques. One hundred and fifty-six subjects were positive with VIA (28.9%) while PAP smear was positive in seventy-eight subjects (14.4%). The sensitivity of VIA was 93.9% and of PAP smear was 46.9%. Corresponding specificities were 30.4% and 69.5%. There was no significant difference between the positive predictive value (PPV) of both test (p<0.05). The accuracy of VIA was 77.5% compared to 52.8% of PAP smear. The difference was highly significant (p < 0.01). Conclusion: These results indicate that VIA is more sensitive and has a higher accuracy as compared to PAP smear. It could, therefore, be valuable in detection of precancerous lesions of cervix. Low cost, easy applicability and immediate results make VIA a useful screening test in developing countries like Pakistan as compared to PAP smear. (author)

 
 
 
 
241

Agreement Between Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid and Papanicolaous Smear as Screening Methods for Cervical Cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To determine degree of agreement between visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and Papanicolaous (Pap) smear as screening methods for cervical cancer. Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Lahore, from July to December 2012. Methodology: Two hundred and fifty women in reproductive age group presenting with various gynaecological complaints were included in the study. A Papanicolaous smear was taken and visual inspection with 5% acetic acid was done. VIA was reported as positive or negative according to acetowhite changes and cytology result was graded as CIN 1, 2, 3 and squamous carcinoma. Those women who showed positive result with either VIA or Pap smear or both were further subjected to colposcopic directed biopsy which was taken as gold standard. Results were computed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16 and statistical test used was kappa. Results: Out of 250 women, VIA was positive in 55 (22%) patients and Pap smear was abnormal in 27 (10.8%). Histological diagnosis of CIN/cancer was made in 36 out of a total 62 patients who underwent biopsy. Conclusion: There was a fair agreement between VIA and Pap smear, with VIA detecting more abnormalities than cytology. In the absence of Pap smear availability, VIA may be a reasonable cervical cancer screening method, especially in low resource settings. (author)

242

Attitude Concerning the Pap Smear Test of Women Who Admitted to the Family Medicine Outpatient Clinic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: In this trial, we evaluated women’s knowledge and behavior concerning the Pap smear test. Material and Method: Women attending to the family medicine outpatient clinic in between April 1 to May 30 irrespective of their complaints included in the study in Dogansehir, Malatya, Turkey. Sociodemographic data form was filled by trained personnel. Questions regarding whether they heard about the Pap smear test, have ever taken it, if not what were the reasons, what are the indications of the Pap smear test were asked. 139 women accepted to participate in the study. 46,8% had heard and 54,2 % didn’t hear about the Pap smear test. The source of information was 57% from health professionals 26% from the media, and 14% from the neighbors. Those who were informed about the Pap smear test from health professionals undertook it more than others. Media was the second effective source and neighbors were ineffective in context to Pap smear test being done Results: As a result preventive medicine has a distinct position in the primary care. Cervical malignancy of the urogenital tract is one of the rare preventable cancers by screening tests. In the primary care set up every effort should be supported in order to improve the awareness of women particularly who are at the risk group.

Ak M et al.

2010-06-01

243

An In Vitro SEM Study on the Effectiveness of Smear Layer Removal of Four Different Irrigations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this study was to compare the smear layer removal efficacies of 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, 17% Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA, SmearClear and BioPure MTAD using a common irrigation protocol. Materials and Methods: Fifty freshly extracted human single rooted maxillary and mandibular teeth were prepared by a ProTaper rotary system up to an apical preparation file size F3. Prepared teeth were randomly divided into five groups (n=10; distilled water (Group A; negative control, EDTA (Group B, SmearClear (Group C, BioPure MTAD (Group D and NaOCl (Group E. After final irrigation with tested irrigants the teeth were decoronated, split into two halves longitudinally and observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM for removal of the smear layer. The SEM images were then analyzed for the amount of smear layer present using a three score system. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Intergroup comparison of groups B, C, and D showed no statistical significant differences in the coronal and middle thirds, however, in the apical third the canal surfaces were cleaner in samples from group D (P<0.05. Conclusion: BioPure MTAD was the most effective agent for the purpose of smear layer removal in the apical third of the root canals.

ASHOK KUMAR

2012-10-01

244

Detection and molecular characterization of a canine piroplasm from Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the beginning of the 20th century, a new canine disease was reported in Brazil under the name "nambiuvú", whose etiological agent was called Rangelia vitalii, a distinct piroplasm that was shown to parasitize not only erythrocytes, but also leucocytes and endothelial cells. In this new century, more publications on R. vitalii were reported from Brazil, including an extensive study on its ultrastructural analysis, in addition to clinical, pathological, and epidemiological data on nambiuvú. However, a molecular analysis of R. vitalii has not been performed to date. In the present study, we performed molecular phylogenetic analyses of R. vitalii based on fragments of the genes 18S rRNA and the heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), amplified by PCR performed on blood samples derived from five clinical cases of dogs presumably infected with R. vitalii in southern Brazil. In addition, we examined Giemsa-stained thin blood smears from these same dogs. DNA sequences (604-bp) of the 18S rRNA gene obtained from the five dogs were identical to each other, and by Blast analysis, this sequence shared the highest degree of sequence identity (95%) with Babesia sp. China-BQ1. DNA sequences (1056-bp) of the hsp70 gene obtained from the five dogs were identical to each other, and by Blast analysis, this sequence shared the highest degree of sequence identity (87%) with Babesia bigemina. Phylogenetic analyses inferred from either of the two genes resulted in the newly genotype being placed in the Babesia spp. sensu stricto clade with very high bootstrap support (95-100%) in three analyses (Neighbor-Joining, Maximum parsimony, and Maximum likelihood). Giemsa-stained thin blood smears from the dogs were shown to contain piroplasm organisms within erythrocytes, monocytes and neutrophils (individual forms), and schizont-like forms within neutrophils, in accordance with literature reports of R. vitalii. Based on these results, we conclude that R. vitalii, the etiological agent of "nambiuvú" in southern Brazil, is a valid species of piroplasm. Further studies are required to evaluate the validity of the genus Rangelia. PMID:21489694

Soares, João F; Girotto, Aline; Brandão, Paulo E; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; França, Raqueli T; Lopes, Sonia T A; Labruna, Marcelo B

2011-08-25

245

Molecular Study of Sheep Malignant Theileriosis at Barka Region in the Sultanate of Oman  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: We used the PCR technique based on the abovementioned primer pair and sequenc­ing to demonstrate the Theileria infection in the sheep samples collected from Sultanate of Oman.Methods: According to the frame work of "integrated control of ticks and tick borne diseases in global­ized world managed by EU-ICTTD-3 project, the samples from blood, liver, spleen, lymph node and lung were sent to the laboratory of Iranian Research Center for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases (IRCTTD. Sam­ples from blood smear and impression smears from liver, spleen, lymph node, and lung were analyzed by Geimsa staining. The DNA was extracted from the abovemen­tioned samples and analyzed by PCR tech­nique using specific primers derived from the nucleo­tide sequences of 18S rRNA gene of T. lestoquardi, which can amplify the common region in other Theileria and Babesia spp. Subsequently the amplified DNA was sequenced.Results: The analysis of blood smears of the sheep was negative for piroplasmosis performed through the Giemsa staining. The impression smears prepared from liver, spleen, lymph node, and lung showed suspi­cious structures mimicking Theileria schizonts in some cells. The results showed an expected PCR prod­uct of 428 bp in length, which is specific for Theileria spp. The PCR products were subsequently se­quenced. The corresponding nucleotide sequence is registered under accession number JF309152 in Gen­Bank. The sequence alignment in GenBank showed that the PCR products had 99% homology to the known T. lestoquardi registered under accession number AF081135 in the GenBank. Conclusion: Oman sheep are highly susceptible for Theileria infection and the infected sheep mostly die before the microschizonts or erythrocytic form of Theileria appears in the nucleated or ery­trocytic cells respectively.

P Shayan

2011-03-01

246

Vomiting blood  

Science.gov (United States)

Vomiting blood is regurgitating (“throwing up”) contents of the stomach that contains blood. Vomited blood may appear ... may be hard to tell the difference between vomiting blood and coughing up blood (from the lung) ...

247

Comparison of amrad ICT test with microscopic examination for rapid diagnosis of malaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To assess the sensitivity and specificity of an alternate and easy technique to diagnose malaria. Design: A prospective study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of pathology, DHQ Hospital, Timergara District, Dir, North-west Frontier Province of Pakistan, from 19th September to 5th October 2000. Subjects and Methods: Smear positive 50 patients (27 males and 23 females, age ranging 2 years to 70 years) were included. Thick and thin smears were stained with Giemsa's stain and examined by the principal author. The ICT malaria test was performed according to the instruction sheet of the manufacturer. Results: on microscopy there were 29 cases of Plasmodium falciparum (P.f) and 21 of Plasmodiium vivax (P.v.). On ICT malaria P.f/P.v, there were 29 samples positive for P. Falciparum and 17 for P. vivax. These results demonstrated that the ICT malaria P.f/P.v test had sensitivity of 100% for P. falciparum and 81% for P. vivax and specificity of 100% for both, when compared to traditional blood films for the detection of P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria. Conclusion: The ICT malaria P.f/P.v test is an effective tool for the rapid diagnosis of malaria and may be used as a first line diagnostic tool. (author)

248

Decline in overall, smear-negative and HIV-positive TB incidence while smear-positive incidence stays stable in Guinea-Bissau 2004-2011  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: To calculate Tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates in Guinea-Bissau over an 8-year period. METHODS: Since 2003, a surveillance system has registered all TB cases in six suburban districts of Bissau. In this population-based prospective follow-up study, 1205 cases of pulmonary TB were identified between January 2004 and December 2011. Incidence rates were calculated using census data from the Bandim Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). RESULTS: The overall incidence of pulmonary TB was 279 per 100 000 person-years of observation; the male incidence being 385, and the female 191. TB incidence rates increased significantly with age in both sexes, regardless of smear or HIV status. Despite a peak with unknown cause of 352 per 100 000 in 2007, the overall incidence of pulmonary TB declined over the period. The incidence of HIV infected TB cases declined significantly from 108 to 39 per 100 000, while the incidence of smear-positive TB cases remained stable; the overall figure was 188 per 100000. CONCLUSIONS: Overall incidence of pulmonary TB in Guinea-Bissau has declined from 2004 to 2011. The decline was also seen in the subgroups of smear-negative and HIV-positive TB cases, probably due to antiretroviral treatment. Smear-positive TB incidence remains stable over the period.

Lemvik, G; Rudolf, F

2014-01-01

249

Effect of the smear layer on salivary bacterial leakage in endodontically treated teeth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: The success of endodontic treatment depends on the method and quality of cleaning, disinfection and three-dimensional sealing of the root canal. The smear layer can play an important role in the success or failure of endodontic treatment. There is controversy over the presence or removal of the smear layer in relation to the success or failure of endodontic treatment. This study used standard methods of endodontic treatment and whole human saliva to evaluate the effect of the smear layer on salivary bacterial leakage in endodontically treated teeth.Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 48 human single- and multiple-rooted teeth were randomly divided into two experimental groups of 20 and two negative and positive control groups of 4 teeth. After access cavity preparation the root canals were prepared with crown-down technique and irrigated with 10 mL of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution. The canals in one group were irrigated with 17% EDTA and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite to remove the smear layer and in the other only with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite to leave the smear layer in place. Then the teeth were sterilized by autoclave and obturated with gutta-percha sterilized with ethylene oxide and Tubliseal sealer under aseptic conditions. Two mL of human saliva were collected from two persons and injected into the coronal portion of the samples, which was repeated for four months. Leakage of the samples was examined twice daily. Data was analyzed with chi-squared test at a confidence interval of 95%. Results: Presence or absence of the smear layer had no significant effect on salivary bacterial leakage of different root canals filled with gutta-percha and Tubliseal sealer (p value = 0.515, although the number of cases with contamination and leakage of saliva in the group with the smear layer (55% was more than that in the group without the smear layer (44%.Conclusion: The results showed no significant effect of the smear layer on coronal leakage of human saliva into obturated canals. Key words: Bacterial microleakage, Root canal therapy, Saliva, Smear layer, Tooth.

Abasali Khademi, ,

2012-01-01

250

A HOME MONITORING APPLICATION FOR COUNTING RED BLOOD CELLS USING A MORPHOMETRIC CONTOUR ALGORITHM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Home monitoring of the personal health is becoming increasingly popular. This article describes the development of a Windows Store application that takes images of a blood smear on a slide from a connected consumer grade USB microscope, removes the cytoplasm background, and uses a morphometric contour algorithm on the cell rim to count blood cells. Thus, a person can test his blood on a regular basis. Experiments show that the application can count blood cells with an accuracy of 96%.

HANS HENRIK HANSEN

2014-03-01

251

An experimental investigation of the development and permeability of clay smears along faults in uncemented sediments  

Science.gov (United States)

The generation of clay smears along faults in uncemented sediments has been studied through laboratory experiments in a newly developed high stress ring shear apparatus. The main objective is to investigate basic mechanisms involved in the deformation process of sediments during faulting and formation of clay smears. The experimental test program comprises ring shear tests on sand with embedded clay segments (sand-clay sequence) under constant effective normal stress. Visual inspection of the samples after testing, analyses of thin sections and permeability measurements across the shear zone are used to characterise geometrical continuity, thickness and sealing potential of the smear. Deformation processes such as grain reorientation, clay smear and cataclasis are identified from the tests. The complexity of the shear zone is observed to increase with the effective normal stress applied to the specimen and the number of clay segments used in the ring (multilayered sand-clay sequences). At low effective normal stress, in clay-rich sediments, clay smear is the most efficient mechanism for permeability reduction. The permeability across the smear decreases with ring rotation (or shear displacement) and effective normal stress. A maximum decrease of two orders of magnitude compared to the permeability of the surrounding sand is observed after 90° rotation under 10.5 MPa effective normal stress. Sand-sand juxtaposition shear is dominated by grain rolling causing only minor permeability reduction. At high effective normal stress, permeability measurements across clay smear and sand-sand juxtaposition yield similar values indicating that the permeability reduction is dominated by grain size reduction in the sand.

Cuisiat, F.; Skurtveit, E.

2010-11-01

252

Psychosocial burden of abnormal pap smears among HIV-infected women at Chon Buri hospital, Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

This retrospective case-control study assessed the psychological burden of abnormal Pap smears, and their prevalence and characteristics among HIV-infected women attending an HIV clinic. Women with positive (n = 73) and negative Pap-smear results (n = 317) were assessed for psychosocial burden using 4 questionnaires: Psycho-Social Impact of Abnormal Pap Smears (PEAPS-Q), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Work Productivity and Impairment (WPAI) and the EURO-Qol Thermometer. The prevalence of pre-cervical cancer lesions in HIV infected woman was 17.5% (ASCUS 2.9%, LSIL 3.8%, HSIL 7.4%, SCC 1.7%, and atypical glandular cells including adenocarcinoma 1.7%). HIV infected women with abnormal Pap smears showed higher anxiety levels on the HADS questionnaire (p = 0.015); this had a significant effect on regular daily activities (p = 0.009) per the WPAI questionnaire compared to HIV positive women with normal Pap smear. Ever married HIV infected woman with an abnormal Pap smear had a significantly lower psychosocial burden using the PEAPS-Q questionnaire (p < 0.001). After adjusting for age and duration since last Pap smear, the education level of the patient was a strong predictor for anxiety. Patients, with a college education had significantly lower anxiety (p = 0.001, 95% CI -5.74 to -1.37) than those with lower or higher education. Women with HSIL were more anxious (p = 0.014, 95% CI 0.49 -4.39) than those with low grade or normal lesions. PMID:20578502

Jayathunge, Mangala P H; Bowanwatanuwong, Chureeratana; Maek-A-nantawat, Wirach; Pitisuttithum, Benjaluck Phonratland Punnee

2010-01-01

253

Establishment of an adherent cell layer from human umbilical cord blood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In addition to bone marrow and peripheral blood, stem cells also occur in human umbilical cord blood (HUCB, and there is an increasing interest in the use of this material as an alternative source for bone marrow transplantation and gene therapy. In vitro hematopoiesis has been maintained for up to 16 weeks in HUCB cultures, but the establishment of an adherent, stromal layer has consistently failed. Adherent cell precursors among mononuclear cells from HUCB were sought for in long-term cultures. Mononuclear cells obtained from cord blood after full term, normal deliveries were cultivated at different concentrations in Iscove's modified Dulbecco's medium (IMDM with weekly feeding. An adherent layer was detected in 16 of 30 cultures, 12 of which were plated at cell concentrations higher than 2 x 10(6 cells/ml. In contrast to bone marrow cultures, in which the stroma is detected early, in most (10/16 positive cultures from HUCB the adherent layer was identified only after the fourth week of culture. The cells never reached confluence and detached from the plate approximately four weeks after detection. May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining of positive cultures revealed fibroblast- or endothelial-like adherent cells in an arrangement different from that of bone marrow stroma in 13 samples. In two of these, the adherent cells were organized into characteristic, delimited cords of cells. Unlike bone marrow cultures, fat cells were never observed in the adherent layers. A rapid development of large myeloid cells in the first week of culture was characteristic of negative cultures and these cells were maintained for up to 12 weeks. HUCB contains adherent cell precursors which occur in lower numbers than in bone marrow and may be at a different (possibly less mature stage of differentiation.As células-mãe são encontradas no sangue do cordão umbilical humano (HUCB, além de na medula óssea e no sangue periférico, e há um crescente interesse no uso desse material como uma fonte alternativa para transplante de medula óssea e terapia gênica. A hematopoiese in vitro tem sido mantida por até 16 semanas em culturas de HUCB, mas o estabelecimento de uma camada estromal aderente tem invariavelmente falhado. Precursores de células aderentes foram pesquisados entre células mononucleares do HUCB em culturas a longo prazo. Células mononucleares obtidas do sangue do cordão depois de partos normais a termo foram cultivadas em diferentes concentrações em meio Dulbecco modificado por Iscove, com alimentação semanal. Uma camada aderente foi detectada em 16 de 30 culturas, 12 das quais em concentrações celulares maiores que 2 x 10(6 células/ml. Ao contrário das culturas de medula óssea, em que o estroma é detectado precocemente, na maioria (10/16 das culturas positivas do HUCB a camada aderente foi identificada apenas depois da quarta semana de cultura. As células nunca atingiram a confluência e se destacaram da placa aproximadamente quatro semanas após sua detecção. A coloração de culturas positivas por May-Grünwald-Giemsa revelou células aderentes semelhantes a fibroblastos ou semelhantes a células endoteliais em um arranjo diferente daquele do estroma da medula óssea em 13 amostras. Em duas dessas, as células aderentes estavam organizadas em cordões característicos e delimitados de células. Ao contrário das culturas de medula óssea, células gordurosas nunca foram observadas nas camadas aderentes. Um rápido desenvolvimento de grandes células mielóides na primeira semana de cultura foi característico de culturas negativas e essas células mantiveram-se por até 12 semanas. HUCB contém precursores de células aderentes que ocorrem em números menores do que na medula óssea e podem estar em um estágio diferente (possivelmente menos maduro de diferenciação.

Zeni Z.C. Alfonso

2000-09-01

254

Now ICT malaria Pf/Pv® frente a microscopía (gota gruesa- extendido) para diagnóstico de malaria en Urabá (Colombia) / Now ICT malaria Pf/Pv ® versus microscopy (thick-smear, thin smear) for diagnosis of malaria in Urabá (Colombia)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Problema: solo conocemos tres informes para Colombia de la prueba diagnóstica de malaria Now ICT Malaria Pf/ Pv ® (NowICT); esos estudios tuvieron resultados de sensibilidad y especificidad muy diferentes. Objetivo: evaluar la capacidad diagnóstica de NowICT frente a la gota gruesa para el diagnósti [...] co de infección plasmodial en sangres periférica materna, del cordón umbilical y placentaria. Metodología: diseño paralelo y enmascarado para evaluación de una prueba diagnóstica. El tamaño de la muestra se calculó con parámetros epidemiológicos y estadísticos y fue de 131 muestras de sangre periférica materna; también se examinaron sendas muestras de sangre placentaria y de cordón umbilical. Resultados: se evaluaron en total 386 muestras. La sensibilidad de NowICT para P. vivax no alcanzó 70% en ninguna de las fuentes (madre, placenta, cordón). La especificidad mínima fue de 99% . Los valores para P. falciparum no se calcularon porque los casos fueron pocos. Conclusión: Now ICT malaria Pf/ Pv® no es una herramienta diagnóstica útil en Colombia porque su sensibilidad para P. vivax es muy deficiente y en el país esta especie es la que predomina en la generación de malaria en humanos. Esta interpretación concuerda con las conclusiones generales de la OMS sobre el estado de desarrollo de las pruebas diagnósticas rápidas para malaria. Abstract in english Problem: To date, there are only three reports from Colombia about the malaria diagnostic test Now ICT Malaria Pf / Pv ® (NowICT). The results from these studies showed major differences in sensitivity and specificity Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of NowICT compared to thick smea [...] r for the diagnosis of Plasmodium infection in matched blood samples from mothers (maternal peripheral blood), umbilical cord and placenta. Methods: We used a closed (blinded/ masked) and parallel design for the evaluation of a diagnostic test. The sample size was calculated with statistical and epidemiological parameters; this consisted of 131 thick smears from maternal peripheral blood. Blood samples from placenta and umbilical cord were also studied (386 samples tested in total). Results: The sensitivity of Now ICT for detection of P. vivax was below 70% in any of the samples (maternal blood, placental blood or cord blood). The specificity was greater than 99% . Values for P. falciparum infection were not calculated since too few cases were detected. Conclusions: Now ICT Malaria Pf / Pv ® is not a useful diagnostic tool in Colombia since the sensitivity for the most frequent species in the country, P. vivax, is poor. This interpretation is consistent with the WHO's general conclusions about the state of development of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria.

Jaime, Carmona- Fonseca; Alexander, Franco Gallego; Eliana, Arango Flórez; Olga María, Agudelo García; Amanda, Maestre Buitrago.

255

Now ICT malaria Pf/Pv® frente a microscopía (gota gruesa- extendido) para diagnóstico de malaria en Urabá (Colombia) / Now ICT malaria Pf/Pv ® versus microscopy (thick-smear, thin smear) for diagnosis of malaria in Urabá (Colombia)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Problema: solo conocemos tres informes para Colombia de la prueba diagnóstica de malaria Now ICT Malaria Pf/ Pv ® (NowICT); esos estudios tuvieron resultados de sensibilidad y especificidad muy diferentes. Objetivo: evaluar la capacidad diagnóstica de NowICT frente a la gota gruesa para el diagnósti [...] co de infección plasmodial en sangres periférica materna, del cordón umbilical y placentaria. Metodología: diseño paralelo y enmascarado para evaluación de una prueba diagnóstica. El tamaño de la muestra se calculó con parámetros epidemiológicos y estadísticos y fue de 131 muestras de sangre periférica materna; también se examinaron sendas muestras de sangre placentaria y de cordón umbilical. Resultados: se evaluaron en total 386 muestras. La sensibilidad de NowICT para P. vivax no alcanzó 70% en ninguna de las fuentes (madre, placenta, cordón). La especificidad mínima fue de 99% . Los valores para P. falciparum no se calcularon porque los casos fueron pocos. Conclusión: Now ICT malaria Pf/ Pv® no es una herramienta diagnóstica útil en Colombia porque su sensibilidad para P. vivax es muy deficiente y en el país esta especie es la que predomina en la generación de malaria en humanos. Esta interpretación concuerda con las conclusiones generales de la OMS sobre el estado de desarrollo de las pruebas diagnósticas rápidas para malaria. Abstract in english Problem: To date, there are only three reports from Colombia about the malaria diagnostic test Now ICT Malaria Pf / Pv ® (NowICT). The results from these studies showed major differences in sensitivity and specificity Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of NowICT compared to thick smea [...] r for the diagnosis of Plasmodium infection in matched blood samples from mothers (maternal peripheral blood), umbilical cord and placenta. Methods: We used a closed (blinded/ masked) and parallel design for the evaluation of a diagnostic test. The sample size was calculated with statistical and epidemiological parameters; this consisted of 131 thick smears from maternal peripheral blood. Blood samples from placenta and umbilical cord were also studied (386 samples tested in total). Results: The sensitivity of Now ICT for detection of P. vivax was below 70% in any of the samples (maternal blood, placental blood or cord blood). The specificity was greater than 99% . Values for P. falciparum infection were not calculated since too few cases were detected. Conclusions: Now ICT Malaria Pf / Pv ® is not a useful diagnostic tool in Colombia since the sensitivity for the most frequent species in the country, P. vivax, is poor. This interpretation is consistent with the WHO's general conclusions about the state of development of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria.

Jaime, Carmona- Fonseca; Alexander, Franco Gallego; Eliana, Arango Flórez; Olga María, Agudelo García; Amanda, Maestre Buitrago.

2010-06-01

256

(AH-26,ROTH- 801, PURE ZOE PASTE IN PRESENCE OR ABSENCE OF SMEAR LAYER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to assess the sealing ability of three sealers (AH-26,Roth-801, Pure ZOE paste using bacterial penetration method in static salivary system in the presence or absence of smear layer. Methods. The canals in 188 human extracted teeth were prepared and in half of the samples the smear layer was removed using EOTA- Naclo. Then, the samples were divided randomly and each experimental group was obturated with single cone gutta percha and of the mentioned sealers. Then the teeth were set up on vials which contained sterilled TSB cultural media. For 90 days the samples were exposed to artificial saliva bacterial suspension and the turbidity of the cultural media was checked twice a day. Results. The longest mean period of turbidity was seen in AH-26 smear layer absent group (59.21 days and the shortest mean period of turbidity was seen in pure ZOE paste smear layer present group (18.35 days. Discussion. The results of this study shows that removal of smear layer enhances the sealing sealers and AH-26 has the best sealing ability amongst the three sealers considered in this experiment.

A.R FARHAD

2002-09-01

257

Activation of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid by a 940?nm diode laser for enhanced removal of smear layer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Laser enhancement of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid with cetrimide (EDTAC) has previously been shown to increase removal of smear layer, for middle-infrared erbium lasers. This study evaluated the efficiency of EDTAC activation using a near-infrared-pulsed 940?nm laser delivered by plain fibre tips into 15% EDTAC or 3% hydrogen peroxide. Root canals in 4 groups of 10 single roots were prepared using rotary files, with controls for the presence and absence of smear layer. After laser treatment (80?mJ?pulse(-1) , 50?Hz, 6 cycles of 10?s), roots were split and the apical, middle and coronal thirds of the canal were examined using scanning electron microscopy, with the area of dentine tubules determined by a validated quantitative image analysis method. Lasing EDTAC considerably improved smear layer removal, while lasing into peroxide gave minimal smear layer removal. The laser protocol used was more effective for smear layer removal than the 'gold standard' protocol using EDTAC with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). In addition, lasers may also provide a benefit through photothermal disinfection. Further research is needed to optimise irrigant activation protocols using near-infrared diode lasers of other wavelengths. PMID:25244221

Lagemann, Manfred; George, Roy; Chai, Lei; Walsh, Laurence J

2014-08-01

258

The Pathogenic Microorganisms in Papanicolaou Vaginal Smears and Correlation with Inflammation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Non-specific cervicitis or inflammatory changes in a smear report are common which are usually unclear for clinical approaches. To investigate the frequency of inflammation and pathogenic vaginal microorganisms in cervical smears among an Iranian population sample.Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on Pap smear samples of women referred to gynecological clinic of Taleghani Hospital in Tehran, Iran, between October 2008 and March 2009. This study was conducted on 528 conventional Papanicolaou cervical smears. The frequency and severity of inflammation and prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV, Trichomonas vaginalis (TV, and vaginal candidiasis (VC was determined in the samples. Also co-infection of the microorganisms in Pap samples was evaluated. percentage, mean±standard deviation of the outcome parameters were calculated. The comparison between data was performed with the Pearson’s chi square or Fisher’s exact test.Results: The prevalence of BV, VC, and TV in Pap samples was 17%, 11%, and 0.4% respectively. Overall, the prevalence of these microorganisms in women of reproductive age was higher than menopausal women. There was a significant association between VC and the presence of inflammation in our samples.Conclusion: Based on our results, inflammation in the Pap smears can suggest an infection of VC and the patients should be considered for proper VC treatment.

Esmat Barouti

2013-03-01

259

Detecting the Aspergillus Spp. In(BAL Fluid Samples by Nested PCR, Culture and Direct Smear  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Aim: Aspergillosis are the most prevalent cause of the respiratory infections. These fungi show invasive aspergillosis(IA in immunocompromised patients. The number of immunocompromised patients are increasing due to immunodisorder illnesses, grafts and immunosuppressor drugs, so, rapid identification methods are very important. The aim of this study was to detect the Aspergillus spp. In fluid samples by nested PCR, and compare with culture and direct smear. Materials and Methods: Conventional detection methods such as culture and direct smear are unsensitive and time consuming. Some methods such as immunodetecting methods have high false positive and are unreliable. Nowadays, molecular methos and PCR are very helpful. These methods are both sensitive and reliable and very rapid. In this study, we used Nested PCR, culture and direct smear to detect Aspergillus spp in BAL fluid samples. Results: This research is a descriptive-comparative study and has been done for rapid identification of fungi related to Aspergillosis such as culture, direct smear and nested- PCR. Findings of this study show that positive results by nested-PCR were more effective and sensitive than culture and direct smear.Conclusions: We found that positive results by PCR were more effective and sensitive than two other methods.

Sanam Afshar Moghaddam

2012-03-01

260

Assessing the Efficacy of Citrus Aurantifolia Extract on Smear Layer Removal with Scanning Electron Microscope  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of citrus aurantifolia (CA extract on smear layer removal in different parts of root canals. Materials and Methods: Thirty-nine single-rooted human teeth were randomly divided into three experimental (n=12 and one control (n=3 groups. Teeth were instrumented using MTwo rotary instruments. Root canals were irrigated with NaOCl during instrumentation. The canals in each group were irrigated with one of the following: completed mixture of citrus aurantifolia extracts, 17% EDTA, and alcoholic extract of CA. Distilled water was used for the control group. The irrigants were left within the canal for 20 minutes, and then rinsed with normal saline solution. Teeth were subsequently split longitudinally into 2 halves, and the canals were examined by a scanning electron-microscope. Cleanliness was evaluated using a five point scoring system. Results: Statistical significant difference was found between groups (P<0.05. The smear layer was more effectively removed with 17% EDTA compared to alcoholic CA extract. However, they were both able to remove the smear layer in the coronal segment. Completed CA extract removed more smear layer in coronal and middle parts compared with the alcoholic extract (P=0.001; however, there was no significant difference in the apical part. Conclusion: Both of the alcoholic and completed mixtures of citrus aurantifolia extracts were not able to effectively remove smear layer compared with 17% EDTA during root canal therapy.

Behnam Bolhari

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
261

Evaluation of AgNOR scores in aspiration cytology smears of breast tumors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the difference in the silver-stained nucleolar organizer regions (AgNOR scores on aspiration smears from benign and malignant breast tumors, and to determine the feasibility of AgNOR staining as part of the cytological investigation of breast tumors. Settings: AgNOR scores were evaluated on aspiration smears and tissue sections from 42 breast tumor cases. Materials and Methods: Smears from 27 breast tumor cases and tissue sections from 15 surgically resected specimens were examined. Counting was performed on a small number of tumor cells (50 cells. Both the mean (mAgNOR score and the AgNOR proliferative index (pAgNOR index were assessed for each specimen. Statistical Analysis: Statistical evaluation was carried out using the Students? ?t?-test. The result was considered significant when P < 0.05. Results and Conclusions: The mAgNOR score and pAgNOR index were significantly higher in smears from malignant tumors than in those from benign tumors (P = 0.01. These results were similar to those obtained for tissue sections and were comparable to established data. The determination of AgNOR scores on cell smears in a limited cell population has practical advantages.

Ansari Hena

2008-01-01

262

A study on the prevalence of a tick-transmitted pathogen, Theileria annulata, and hematological profile of cattle from Southern Punjab (Pakistan).  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Theileria annulata in large ruminants in Southern Punjab (Pakistan). Blood samples were collected from 144 large ruminants, consisting of 105 cattle and 39 buffaloes, from six districts of Southern Punjab including Multan, Layyah, Muzaffar Garh, Bhakar, Bahawalnagar, and Vehari. Data on the characteristics of the animals and herds were collected through questionnaires. The age of animals (P?=?0.02), presence of ticks on animals (P?=?0.02), and presence of ticks on dogs associated with herds (P?=?0.05) were among the major risk factors involved in the spread of tropical theileriosis in the study area. Two different parasite detection techniques, PCR amplification and screening of Giemsa-stained slides, were compared, and it was found that PCR amplification is a more sensitive tool (19% parasite detection) as compared to smear scanning (3% parasite detection) for the detection of T. annulata. Twenty eight out of 144 animals produced the 721-bp fragment specific for T. annulata from five out of six sampling districts. Different blood (hemoglobin, glucose) and serum (ALT, AST, LDH, cholesterol) parameters of calves and cattle were measured and compared between parasite-positive and parasite-negative samples to assess the effect of T. annulata on the blood and serological profile of infected animals. PMID:21451992

Shahnawaz, S; Ali, M; Aslam, M A; Fatima, R; Chaudhry, Z I; Hassan, M U; Ali, M; Iqbal, Furhan

2011-10-01

263

Antimicrobial Effect of Citrus Aurantifolia Extract on Enterococcus Faecalis Within the Dentinal Tubules in The Presence of Smear Layer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and Aims: Instrumentation of the root canals results in formation of smear layer which covers the dentinal tubules. In infected teeth, it is ideal to achieve a material that has the ability to remove the smear layer besides antimicrobial activity. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of Citrus aurantifolia extracts (lime juice and rind extract) on Enterococcus faecalis within dentinal tubules in the presence of smear layer.Materials and Methods: O...

MR. Sharifian; Shokouhinejad N; Hr, Monsef Esfahani; Aligholi M; Amjadi M

2011-01-01

264

Press Imprint Smear: A Rapid, Simple, and Cheap Method for the Diagnosis of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A modified imprint method, Press-Imprint-Smear, was compared with histopathology for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Amastigotes were seen in 69 (92%) of 75 individuals in one or both assays. The Press-Imprint-Smear was positive in 85.3%, and histopathology was positive in 44%. Press-Imprint-Smear is a rapid and relatively sensitive method for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:25114007

Sousa, Anastácio Q; Pompeu, Margarida M L; Frutuoso, Mércia S; Lima, José W O; Tinel, Juliana M B M; Pearson, Richard D

2014-11-01

265

Dukungan Suami Terhadap Tindakan Ibu Dalam Melakukan Pap Smear Di Kelurahan Sitirejo I Kecamatan Medan Kota Tahun 2012  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cervical cancer is a malignant tumour which grows in the cerviks. To detect the exixtence of the cervical cancer earlier is through pap smear examination. Pap smear will be implemented well with the husband supports. This study aimed to determine husband supports of mothers’s action for pap smear in Kelurahan Sitirejo I Kecamatan Medan Kota in 2012. This study was descriptive quantitative. The number of respondents in this study was 87 husbands of productive-age couples an...

Melisa, Lenni

2013-01-01

266

Pengetahuan, Sikap dan Tindakan Mahasiswi Terhadap Pemeriksaan Pap's smear di Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat Universitas Sumatera Utara tahun 2004  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Salah satu pemeriksaan kesehatan yang sangat penting bagi wanita adalah pemeriksaan Pap's smear. Pap's smear merupakan pemeriksaan sitologi cairan selaput lendir rahim serta selaput lendir vagina untuk mendeteksi secara dini kanker leher rahim. Walaupun pemeriksaan Pap's smear tidak diragukan lagi manfaatnya, ada juga orang yang masih enggan melakukan pemeriksaan ini. Ternyata manfaat positif pemeriksaan kesehatan bagi seseorang belum tentu dirasakan sama untuk orang lain. Penelitian ini b...

Rachmi, Emi

2012-01-01

267

Blood Basics  

Science.gov (United States)

... Patient Group Links Advocacy Toolkit Home / For Patients Blood Basics Blood is a specialized body fluid. It ... about 9 pints. Jump To: The Components of Blood and Their Importance Many people have undergone blood ...

268

Blood Transfusions  

Science.gov (United States)

... United States get blood transfusions. A Bit About Blood Blood is like the body's transportation system, busy ... his or her body. Continue What Is a Blood Transfusion? A transfusion is a relatively simple medical ...

269

Blood culture  

Science.gov (United States)

Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed. The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

270

Blood Thinners  

Science.gov (United States)

If you have some kinds of heart or blood vessel disease, or if you have poor blood flow to your brain, your doctor may recommend that you take a blood thinner. Blood thinners reduce the risk of heart ...

271

Blood differential  

Science.gov (United States)

Differential; White blood cell differential count ... The health care provider will take blood from your vein. The blood collects into an airtight container. In infants or a young child, blood will be taken from a ...

272

Blood Transfusion  

Science.gov (United States)

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Blood Transfusion? A blood transfusion is a safe, common ... Very rarely, serious problems develop. Important Information About Blood The heart pumps blood through a network of ...

273

Gambaran Tingkat Pengetahuan Wanita tentang Deteksi Dini Kanker Serviks dengan Pemeriksaan Pap Smear di Kelurahan Gedung Johor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pap Smear is one of the method for cervical cancer screening which is effective, simple, and cost-effective. By applying Pap Smear in developed countries, the incidence of invasive cervical cancer has been reduced from 45 case per 100.000 until 15 case per 100.000 women’s and the mortality has been decreased around 40%. But in Indonesian, many women population who haven’t do regular Pap Smear screening. This may have been influenced by lack of public education about Pap Smear. This s...

Harahap, Rinal Baharsyah

2011-01-01

274

[A method for smear removal of push-broom imaging spectrometers].  

Science.gov (United States)

Smear is an inherent problem of area CCD and there have been many researches on how to deduct it. However, the imaging model of push-broom imaging spectrometer is very special, in which the usual methods are no longer applicable. To develop a new method that is suitable for the application of imaging spectrometer, a more detailed model was built. The problem of distortion of usual method was also analyzed and simulated. The original image of each channel was used to estimate the spectral distribution of the target, by which the contribution of smear of the black optical channel to each channel is quantified. Both simulation and restoration result of the remote sensing image showed that the new method worked well for the CCD smear deduction of push-broom imaging spectrometer. PMID:25269322

Cui, Yi; Wei, Jun; Tang, Yu-Yu; Ma, Liang

2014-07-01

275

Instrumental development for measurement of elements distribution on the surface of smear samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to analyze the isotope ratios of the ultra trace amount nuclear materials in smear samples efficiently, evaluating the distribution of the impurity elements that interfere with isotope ratio measurement beforehand becomes important. Therefore, an instrument to measure the elemental distribution on the surface of the smear sample by X-ray fluorescence was developed. For analyzing of a 10 x 10 cm cotton smear sample, we found linearity between lead concentration and signal intensity within the range 30-1000 ng/pixel when the sample was measured for 6 hours with the resolution of 5 x 7 mm. The detection sensitivity is sufficient, since more than 10 ?g of lead interferes with isotope ratio measurement if ICP-MS is applied. (author)

276

Comparison of coronal leakage after smear layer removal with EDTA or Er:YAG laser  

Science.gov (United States)

This study determined, in vitro, the coronal leakage of root canals evaluating the effect of smear layer removal by either EDTA or laser. Two sealers were also compared. Sixty-four canines were instrumented with the step-back technique and irrigated with 10 ml of 1% sodium hypochlorite. In Group 1, 10 teeth were sealed with Sealer 26 and 10 teeth were sealed with Grossman cement with no attempt of smear layer removal. Group 2 received a final irrigation of 15 ml of 17% EDTA, and was sealed as in Group 1. Group 3 received Er:YAG laser application (140 mJ, 15 Hz and 42 J), and sealed as in Group 1. Root canals sealed with Sealer 26 had significantly less coronal leakage than Grossman cement (Pafte smear layer removal with 17% EDTA or Er:YAG laser was not statistically different (p>0.01).

Pécora, Jesus D.; Mamere de Almeida, Yasmine M. E.; Marchesan, Melissa A.; Brugnera J"nior, Aldo, Jr.

2002-10-01

277

Smearing induced dynamical stability of NbN and MoN in rocksalt structure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present paper reports a comprehensive first-principles calculation of electronic structure and lattice dynamical properties of niobium and molybdenum mononitrides in rocksalt phase at ground state as well as at finite electronic temperature applied using smearing parameter. The optimized structure with equilibrium parameters in rocksalt phase is dynamically unstable. An increase in smearing parameter or considering the finite temperature effects increases acoustic phonon frequencies at X point of the Brillouin zone and rocksalt structure dynamically stabilized for both compounds. This is because of the lowering of Fermi energy with increase of smearing parameter. Much better agreement between the calculated and experimental data is found as compared to previous calculations and a consistent description of the dynamical stability in the case of rocksalt phase of NbN and MoN is achieved. The thermodynamical functions are also calculated in the frame work of quasi harmonic approximation and discussed.

278

HPV DNA and Pap smear test results in cases with and without cervical pathology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the HPV prevalance and its relation to Pap smear, colposcopy and colposcopy directed biopsy in our region of Eskisehir, Turkey.Material and Methods: A total of 615 women who applied to the outpatient clinic between December 2009 and December 2010 constituted our study population. All patients underwent pelvic examination and Pap smear sampling. Patients who had pathological cervical appearance or Pap smear results of ASCUS, AGUS, LSIL or HSIL were referred to colposcopy. Cervical samples for HPV DNA were taken from the patients before Pap smear sampling during the routine examination or before the colposcopic evaluation. Results: Twenty six of 615 patients (4% were HPV positive. Of these 26 patients, 12 were positive for HPV type 16, 3 for type 18, 3 for type 51, 2 for type 6, 1 for type 52, 1 for type 33, 1 for type 16 and type 31, 1 for type 6 and 52, 1 for type 56 and 90, 1 for type 39 and 66. In 4 patients with cervical cancer, and in 3 of 4 CIN III cases both HPV DNA and Pap smear were positive. In the Pap smear examination of 615 patients, cytology revealed 35 ASCUS (5.6% 4 AGUS (0.6%, 2 CIN I (0.3% results who were negative for HPV DNA. These patients with abnormal cytology (n=41 underwent colposcopy directed biopsy, there were 3 CIN I and 1 CIN III and all the other cervical biopsy results of these patients were benign (inflammation, chronic cervicitis. Conclusion: HPV positivity in our hospital setting is low which is compatible with other studies in Turkey. In positive HPV cases there is a good correlation between HPV type and positive cervical biopsy results.

Sabit Sinan Özalp

2012-03-01

279

Development of portable and automatic smear sampler for measuring surface contamination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In measuring radioactive contamination in radiation controlled area of nuclear facility, the technical criteria to evaluate surface contamination level and to sample by indirect method was established in this paper. Radioactive materials always present on surface within operating nuclear facilities. Because of the presence of interfering radiation field, health physicists take smear samples to monitoring surface contamination according to routine monitoring program. But there are some problems like great errors and difference of personnel. Then, to solve them, The portable and automatic smear sampling apparatus was designed and fabricated

280

Development of portable and automatic smear sampler for measuring surface contamination  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In measuring radioactive contamination in radiation controlled area of nuclear facility, the technical criteria to evaluate surface contamination level and to sample by indirect method was established in this paper. Radioactive materials always present on surface within operating nuclear facilities. Because of the presence of interfering radiation field, health physicists take smear samples to monitoring surface contamination according to routine monitoring program. But there are some problems like great errors and difference of personnel. Then, to solve them, The portable and automatic smear sampling apparatus was designed and fabricated.

Lee, Bong Jae; Chang, S. Y.; Kim, B. H.; Kim, J. S.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, C. K.; Swol, C. W

2000-12-01

 
 
 
 
281

The accuracy of Pap smear utilization self-report: a methodological consideration in cervical screening research.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One method used to determine utilization rates of cervical screening is women's self-report. Few studies have assessed the accuracy of this measure--none has been conducted in Australia--although there are a number of reasons for suspecting its validity. This study examined and quantified the accuracy of self-report of Pap smear use among a randomly selected sample of women from an Australian community. Accuracy of Pap smear utilization self-report within a three-year period was assessed by c...

Bowman, J. A.; Redman, S.; Dickinson, J. A.; Gibberd, R.; Sanson-fisher, R. W.

1991-01-01

282

Impact of English Language Proficiency on Receipt of Pap Smears Among Hispanics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Our aim was to assess the impact of English language proficiency on Pap smear use among Hispanics. We performed a cross-sectional study using 2000 National Health Interview Survey data and included 2,331 Hispanic women, age ?18 without a hysterectomy. After adjusting for sociodemographic and access factors, highly proficient English speakers were more likely to report a Pap smear in the past 3 years as compared to low proficient (adjusted prevalence ratio, 1.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.0...

Alba, Israel; Sweningson, Jamie M.; Chandy, Christa; Hubbell, Fallan

2004-01-01

283

Tingkat Pengetahuan Ibu-Ibu Di Daerah Komplek Pondok Surya Tentang Pap Smear  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cervical cancer is the second-most in the world of cancer in women. A proven way to prevent cervical cancer is by screening to find pre-cancer lesion before it becomes invasive cancer. Pap Smear screening is most commonly screening method done on women at high risk age. This research aims to find out the level of knowledge among mothers reside in kompleks pondok surya on Pap smear as an effort to prevent cervical cancer. A cross sectional study w ith a total of 113 samples whic...

Nasution, Hadhinah Rasiqah

2014-01-01

284

Formulation of an improved smeared stiffener theory for buckling analysis of grid-stiffened composite panels  

Science.gov (United States)

A smeared stiffener theory for stiffened panels is presented that includes skin-stiffener interaction effects. The neutral surface profile of the skin-stiffener combination is developed analytically using the minimum potential energy principle and statics conditions. The skin-stiffener interaction is accounted for by computing the stiffness due to the stiffener and the skin in the skin-stiffener region about the neutral axis at the stiffener. Buckling load results for axially stiffened, orthogrid, and general grid-stiffened panels are obtained using the smeared stiffness combined with a Rayleigh-Ritz method and are compared with results from detailed finite element analyses.

Jaunky, Navin; Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Ambur, Damodar R.

1995-01-01

285

Isolation of DNA from archival Papanicolaou stained cytological smears using a simple salting-out procedure.  

Science.gov (United States)

DNA from archival Papanicolaou stained and unstained cytological smears was successfully isolated using a simple, rapid and inexpensive salting-out procedure. The quality of DNA was controlled by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of segments of the human beta-globin, human beta-actin and human papillomavirus L1 genes. Only negligible differences in amplification efficiency were observed between DNA isolated from stained and unstained smears. The salting-out procedure is a more rapid method for the isolation of DNA than phenol-chloroform extraction and may be used in instances where fresh or cryopreserved clinical specimens are not available. PMID:16695977

Poljak, M; Barlic, J; Seme, K; Avsic-Zupanc, T; Zore, A

1995-02-01

286

A General Class of Regular Black Holes based on a Smeared Mass Distribution  

CERN Document Server

We investigate the behavior of a new class of regular black holes based on a non-Gaussian smeared mass distribution. It is shown that the smeared mass distribution consideration cures the well known problems in the terminal phase of black hole evaporation. We find that there is a finite maximum temperature that the black hole reaches before cooling down to absolute zero so that the evaporation ends up in a zero temperature extremal black hole. Finally, we probe the regular characteristic of the new black holes by showing that there is no curvature singularity at the origin.

Larranaga, Alexis; Torres, Daniel Alexdy

2014-01-01

287

Evaluation of DNA Recombinant Methodologies for the Diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum and their Comparison with the Microscopy Assay  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since 1984, DNA tests based on the highly repeated subtelomeric sequences of Plasmodium falciparum (rep 20 have been frequently used in malaria diagnosis. Rep 20 is very specific for this parasite, and is made of 21 bp units, organized in repeated blocks with direct and inverted orientation. Based in this particular organization, we selected a unique consensus oligonucleotide (pf-21 to drive a PCR reaction coupled to hybridization to non-radioactive labeled probes. The pf-21 unique oligo PCR (pf-21-I assay produced DNA amplification fingerprints when was applied on purified P. falciparum DNA samples (Brazil and Colombia, as well as in patient's blood samples from a large area of Venezuela. The performance of the Pf-21-I assay was compared against Giemsa stained thick blood smears from samples collected at a malaria endemic area of the Bolívar State, Venezuela, at the field station of Malariología in Tumeremo. Coupled to non-radioactive hybridization the pf-21-I performed better than the traditional microscopic method with a r=1.7:1. In the case of mixed infections the r value of P. falciparum detection increased to 2.5:1. The increased diagnostic sensitivity of the test produced with this homologous oligonucleotide could provide an alternative to the epidemiological diagnosis of P. falciparum being currently used in Venezuela endemic areas, where low parasitemia levels and asymptomatic malaria are frequent. In addition, the DNA fingerprint could be tested in molecular population studies

Urdaneta L

1998-01-01

288

Plasmodium ovale infection in Malaysia: first imported case  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium ovale infection is rarely reported in Malaysia. This is the first imported case of P. ovale infection in Malaysia which was initially misdiagnosed as Plasmodium vivax. Methods Peripheral blood sample was first examined by Giemsa-stained microscopy examination and further confirmed using a patented in-house multiplex PCR followed by sequencing. Results and Discussion Initial results from peripheral blood smear examination diagnosed P. vivax infection. However further analysis using a patented in-house multiplex PCR followed by sequencing confirmed the presence of P. ovale. Given that Anopheles maculatus and Anopheles dirus, vectors of P. ovale are found in Malaysia, this finding has significant implication on Malaysia's public health sector. Conclusions The current finding should serve as an alert to epidemiologists, clinicians and laboratory technicians in the possibility of finding P. ovale in Malaysia. P. ovale should be considered in the differential diagnosis of imported malaria cases in Malaysia due to the exponential increase in the number of visitors from P. ovale endemic regions and the long latent period of P. ovale. It is also timely that conventional diagnosis of malaria via microscopy should be coupled with more advanced molecular tools for effective diagnosis.

T Thiruventhiran

2010-10-01

289

Babesia infection in naturally exposed pet dogs from a north-eastern state (Assam) of India: detection by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the study was to detect Babesia infections in pet dogs of a north-eastern state of India. The diagnostic efficacy of Babesia infection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique has been compared with microscopy examination. For this, a total of 111 blood samples of pet dogs presented at clinical complex of the College of Veterinary Science, Guwahati, Assam with clinical signs suspected for Babesia infection subjected to the study. A total of 44 (39.63 %) dogs were diagnosed as positive for Babesia infections after microscopic examination. Among these, Babesia canis infection was diagnosed in 5 dogs (4.50 %) and B. gibsoni infection in 39 (35.13 %) dogs microscopically in Giemsa stained blood smears. Molecular diagnosis using PCR detected 63 (56.75 %) dogs positive for Babesia infection. Single infection with B. canis was found in 9 (8.10 %) dogs while B. gibsoni alone was detected in 3 (2.70 %) dogs. Mixed infections by both these species were detected in 51 (45.94 %) dogs. Overall, PCR detected 54 (48.64 %) dogs as B. gibsoni and 60 (54.05 %) dogs as B. canis positive. PMID:25320489

Laha, R; Bhattacharjee, K; Sarmah, P C; Das, M; Goswami, A; Sarma, D; Sen, A

2014-12-01

290

Prevalence of Hemoprotozoan Diseases in Cattle Population of Chittagong Division, Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A one year (2009-10 prevalence study on hemoprotozoan diseases was conducted in crossbred and indigenous cattle, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Blood samples were collected randomly from 216 crossbred and 432 indigenous cattle of four representative areas in three consecutive seasons. Samples were examined by Giemsa's stained blood smear method. The effect of topography, season, age and sex was observed in cattle during this study. The overall prevalence of hemoprotozoan diseases was 16.18 and 12.02% in crossbred and indigenous cattle, respectively where babesiosis and anaplasmosis were predominant. Babesiosis was found to be consistent in all the four different areas but highest prevalence (9.25% was found in hilly area. Hemoprotozoan diseases were predominant in summer season followed by rainy and winter seasons. Adult cattle were significantly (P<0.05 susceptible to babesiosis than younger. Female animals were more susceptible to hemoprotozoan infections than male where babesiosis in crossbred cattle was statistically significant (P<0.05. It could be stated that breed and season were the important predictor of hemoprotozoan diseases. We recommended further studies for molecular detection of such diseases and identification of tick vectors in the study areas which will assist to take necessary preventive measures.

Md. Abdul Alim*, Shubhagata Das, Krisna Roy§, Md. Masuduzzaman, Suchandan Sikder1, Mohammad Mahmudul Hassan2, A. Z. Siddiki and Mohammad Alamgir Hossain

2012-05-01

291

Molecular and parasitological detection of Leishmania spp. in dogs caught in Palmas, TO, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated occurrences of Leishmania infantum in dogs in the municipality of Palmas, Tocantins, comparing diagnostic data obtained using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and parasitological diagnosis. Blood samples and lymph node aspirates were collected from 63 dogs of males and females and various ages and races, with or without owners, between August 2009 and June 2010. Slides containing smears of lymph node aspirates were stained with Giemsa stained. In PCR, the 145 bp target sequence of the LT1 fragment, located in the Leishmania donovani kDNA minicircle was detected using the RV1 and RV2 oligonucleotide primers. The chi-square test revealed that there was a significant relationship between the symptoms and dogs that were positive for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The parasitological investigation showed concordance of 66.7% with PCR on blood and 84.1% with PCR on lymph node aspirate. In addition to these tests, evaluations of the diagnoses in parallel and in series were conducted, which showed concordances with the parasitological test of 76.2% and 74.6%, respectively. The results make it possible to suggest that PCR on lymph nodes should be used in evaluating large populations (surveys) and that the parasitological test should be used for initial clinical evaluations in veterinary consultation offices. PMID:23070439

Teles, Natália Melquie Monteiro; Agostini, Maria Augusta Paes; Bigeli, Júlio Gomes; Noleto, Rosalba Valadares; Oliveira, Jaqueline Dias; de Oliveira Junior, Waldesse Piragé

2012-01-01

292

Evaluation of antioxidant status and oxidative stress in sheep naturally infected with Babesia ovis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study aimed to assess antioxidant status and oxidative stress in sheep naturally infected with Babesia ovis. Red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, packed cell volume (PCV), piroplasm parasitemia percentage, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT) activities and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined in 52 sheep naturally infected with B. ovis as well as same number of healthy sheep in West-Azerbaijan province, Iran. Microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained peripheral blood smears revealed B. ovis infection. The parasitological diagnosis was confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis by amplifying a partial small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssu rRNA) gene sequence of B. ovis of 52 diseased sheep, 18 (34.61%), 11 (21.15%), 16 (30.76%) and 7 (13.48%) had 3% parasitemia, respectively. Compared to controls, the activities of erythrocyte GSH-Px, SOD, TAC and CAT showed a significant decrease, whereas the concentration of MDA in erythrocytes of infected sheep increased significantly. Parasitemia rate was positively correlated with MDA and negatively correlated with PCV, SOD, CAT, GSH-Px and TAC. Also, MDA was negatively correlated with PCV, SOD, catalase, GSH-Px and TAC. The study demonstrated that B. ovis plays an important role in the occurrence of oxidative damage to RBCs and anemia in ovine babesiosis. PMID:22030375

Esmaeilnejad, Bijan; Tavassoli, Mosa; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak; Dalir-Naghadeh, Bahram

2012-04-30

293

Comparison of Visual Inspection with acetic acid and Pap smear in cervical cancer screening at a tertiary care hospital  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

th values of combined test were significantly higher than either of the two tests alone (p<0.01). Conclusion: Visual inspection with acetic acid has significantly higher sensitivity than Pap smear and may replace pap smear as a primary screening tool for universal screening. Combined test with higher predictive accuracy may be used for opportunistic screening. (author)

294

Effectiveness of EDTA and EDTA-T brushingm on the removal of root surface smear layer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the removal of root surface smear layer following active application of EDTA gel and EDTA-T (texapon gel in different concentrations (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 24%, using scanning electron microscopy. A total of 220 dentin blocks obtained from the root surfaces of extracted teeth were divided into 3 groups: Group I - (control application of saline solution (n = 20; Group II - EDTA gel (pH 7.0 was applied in the following concentrations: 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 24% (n = 100; Group III - EDTA-T gel (pH 7.0 applied in the same concentrations described above (n = 100. The photomicrographs were evaluated by one calibrated examiner using a smear layer removal index and following statistical analysis (Kruskal-Wallis test. The results demonstrated that the specimens treated with EDTA and EDTA-T gel presented a better smear layer removal than the control group (p 0.05. Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that all treatment modalities effectively removed the smear layer from the root surface. The addition of texapon into the EDTA gel formulation did not increase its effectiveness.

Sampaio José Eduardo Cezar

2003-01-01

295

Development of manipulator system for decontamination and surface contamination monitering with smear method of recycled dram  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In nuclear power plants, drums are used in carrying out volume reduction treatment of low-level combustible solid wastes. After the treatment process, these drums are decontaminated, subjected to smear testing, and then reutilized. Shikoku Electric Power Co., Ltd. and Meidensha Electric Mfg. Co., Ltd. worked jointly to develop an automatic manipulator system to perform decontamination operation and smear testing for surface contamination of these recycled drums. The system consists of a drum feeder, drum handling equipment, decontamination/testing robot, wiping paper feeder, radioactive ray measuring apparatus, drum conveyor and control system. Major features of the system are as follows: 1) both sides of the lid as well as the body and bottom plate of a drum is decontaminated automatically; 2) liquid secondary wastes are not generated since decontamination is performed by wiping the drum with paper; 3) smear testing is carried out automatically (unaccepted drums are sent back to the decontamination process); 4) three manipulating arms for wet and dry decontamination and smear testing are changed automatically; and 5) several drums are processed continuously. (Nogami, K.)

296

MICRONUCLEI AND OTHER NUCLEAR ANOMALIES IN BUCCAL SMEARS: FIELD TEST IN SNUFF USERS  

Science.gov (United States)

A revised protocol for the exfoliated cell micronucleus assay was ie d-teste in a population exposed to a genotoxic agent at levels associated with a significant increase in cancer risk. The standard assay involves microscope examination of epithelial smears 0 determine the preva...

297

A STUDY ON CERVICAL PAP SMEAR EXAMINATION IN PATIENT LIVING WITH HIV  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Decline in morbidity & mortality due to cervical cancer in developed countries can be mainly attributed to early detection of precancerous & cancerous lesions due to extensive screening programmeof cervical Pap smear examination. HPV infection is a known etiological agent for cervical cancer. HIV infected women are at higher risk of contracting HPV infection due to immune compromised status. Objective: Present study has been undertaken mainly to detect precancerous & cancerous lesions as well as inflammatory lesions in female patients living with HIV & to emphasize the fact that Pap smear examination should be established as a part of routine protocol for examination in these women. Methods: The study was carried out on 407 HIV infected females attending Integrated Counseling &Testing Centre of government institute. As controls, 200 females (not falling under high risk category, attending the Obstetrics& Gynecology OPD with various gynecological complaints were taken & results were compared. Results: Squamous cell abnormalities were found about four times high as compared to control group(Pvalue <0.05. High incidences of squamous cell abnormalities were noted in patients with high parity (parity three or more. Conlcusion: Regular gynecological examination including Pap smear examinations is highly recommended for HIV infected females.Pap smear examination is a simple, cheap, safe & practical diagnostic tool for early detection of cervical cancer in high risk population. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(1.000: 81-84

B M Jha

2012-02-01

298

Cervical cancer screening with pattern of pap smear. Review of multicenter studies.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

The percentage of abnormal pap smear was higher in the prospective part of this study than the previously reported results. Unified national programs for diagnosing cervical precancerous lesions should be established covering different region of the Kingdom to evaluate the magnitude of the problem.

Fadwa J. Altaf

2006-10-01

299

Self-Reports of Pap Smear Screening in Women with Physical Disabilities  

Science.gov (United States)

We collected self reported rate of cervical smear testing to examine the affecting factors in women with physical disabilities in the study, to define the reproductive health care for this group of people. The study population recruited 521 women with physical disabilities aged more than 15 years who were officially registered as having physical…

Lin, Jin-Ding; Chen, Shih-Fan; Lin, Lan-Ping; Sung, Chang-Lin

2011-01-01

300

Light microscopic study of cervical smear in a tertiary hospital at Dhaka.  

Science.gov (United States)

This light microscopic retrospective study of 798 cervical smear were done to see the pattern of cervical lesions and main presenting complaints of the women who attended the Gynae & Obstetrics department of BIRDEM hospital for medical and surgical advice. Out of these 798 smears examined light microscopically 274(34.34%) was normal, 453(54.26%) were inflammatory smear, 49(6.14%) showed Gardrenella, 9(1.13%) revealed the presence of Candida, 3(0.38%) showed Trichomonial infection, 6(0.76%) showed the presence of atypical cells (5ASCUS, 1 CIN) and 2(0.26%) were positive for malignancy, (1 adenocarcinoma, 1 squamous cell carcinoma). The mean age+/-SE of the women were 43.12+/-9.18 years, mean+/-SE age of the last child was 14.19+/-7.99 years; mean+/-SE of para was 3.5+/-7.34 pregnancies. The common presenting complains of these women Menorrhagia (17.92%), Menopausal Symptoms (17.42%), Lower Abdominal pain (15.78%), White PV discharge (15.78%), Dysmenorrhoea (7.52%), Pruritus/Itching vulva (7.14%), Prolapse (4.39%), Fibroid (2.01%), Infertility (1.13%), Post coital bleeding (0.75%) respectively. Pap's smear is reconfirmed as an established major screening tool for diagnosis of different cervical lesions. PMID:20395913

Rahman, M T; Afroze, N; Tahmin, T; Nipa, N N; Faisal, R H; Choudhury, S R

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
301

Rapid determination of plutonium content on filters and smears using Alpha Liquid Scintillation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses a technique for rapidly determining plutonium content on filters and smears using Alpha Liquid Scintillation. Filter and smear samples will be analyzed daily for plutonium (Pu239) content during projected waste retrieval operations at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. daily monitoring will allow for trending of airborne and surface contamination. Alpha Liquid Scintillation (ALS) in conjunction with microwave digestion was investigated as a technique for rapid Pu analyses. Advantages offered by ALS are short turnaround time and field use with acceptable accuracy. A state-of-the-art Photon Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALS) Spectrometer utilizing pulse shape discrimination (PSD), and on oil filled photomultiplier tube counting chamber with 99.7% counting efficiency and 99.95% rejection of beta and gamma pulses, was used. Relatively clean filter samples could be directly counted in an all purpose scintillant, bis 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (HDEHP), 4-biphenyl-6-phenylbenzoxazole (PBBO), toluene and naphthalene. Laboratory preparation of soil samples and smears with high inert solids content was accomplished by dissolution of the sample in nitric and hydrofluoric acids using a microwave digestion system in teflon pressure vessels. The Pu in the dissolved sample was extracted into tertiary amine nitrate and counted in a HDEHP or 1-nonyldecylamine sulfate (NDAS) containing extractive scintillant. This method is applicable to the determination of total plutonium in air filters, smears and soils. 9 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

302

Fiberoptic bronchoscopy for the rapid diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was aimed to investigate the diagnostic value of fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB with chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT for the rapid diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB in patients suspected of PTB but found to have a negative sputum acid-fast bacilli (AFB smear. Methods We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of results from FOB and HRCT in 126 patients at Gangnam Severance Hospital (Seoul, Korea who were suspected of having PTB. Results Of 126 patients who had negative sputum AFB smears but were suspected of having PTB, 54 patients were confirmed as having active PTB. Hemoptysis was negatively correlated with active PTB. Tree-in-bud appearance on HRCT was significantly associated with active PTB. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, and negative predictive value (NPV of FOB alone was 75.9%, 97.2%, 95.3%, and 84.3%, respectively, for the rapid diagnosis of active PTB. The combination of FOB and HRCT improved the sensitivity to 96.3% and the NPV to 96.2%. Conclusions FOB is a useful tool in the rapid diagnosis of active PTB with a high sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV in sputum smear-negative PTB-suspected patients. HRCT improves the sensitivity of FOB when used in combination with FOB in sputum smear-negative patients suspected of having PTB.

Shin Jung

2012-06-01

303

Actinomyces-like organisms in cervical smears: the association with intrauterine device and pelvic inflammatory diseases  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To investigate the incidence of actinomyces-like organisms in routine cervical smears of Korean women and to evaluate its association with the development of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in these women. Methods The results of cervical smears between 2011 and 2012 at a single university hospital were searched. If positive for actinomyces-like organisms, the medical record of the patient was searched and development of PID was followed. If the data were not available in the medical record, the patient was contacted by telephone. Results The incidence of actinomyces-like organisms in cervical smears was 0.26% (52/20,390). Forty-two women (80.8%) were intrauterine device (IUD) users: the copper-IUD in 25 women and the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system in 13 women (type unknown in 4 women). The majority (71.4%, 30/42) of the IUD users maintained the IUD. Prophylactic antibiotics were prescribed to 12 women. Two continuous IUD users were later diagnosed with PID, but these cases were not pelvic actinomycosis. Conclusion It would be a reasonable option to choose the expectant management for asymptomatic women who incidentally showed actinomyces-like organisms in their cervical smear.

Kim, Yeo Joo; Youm, Jina; Kim, Jee Hyun

2014-01-01

304

Comparative study of shape, intensity and texture features and support vector machine for white blood cell classification  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The complete blood count (CBC) is widely used test for counting and categorizing various peripheral particles in the blood. The main goal of the paper is to count and classify white blood cells (leukocytes) in microscopic images into five major categories using features such as shape, intensity and texture features. The first critical step of counting and classification procedure involves segmentation of individual cells in cytological images of thin blood smears. The quality of segmentation ...

Mehdi Habibzadeh; Adam Krzy?ak; Thomas Fevens

2013-01-01

305

Novel methodology to assess sputum smear microscopy quality in private laboratories  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In South Asia, it is estimated that 80% of patients choose to attend a private facility for their healthcare needs. Although patients generally believe that the private-sector provides high quality services, private diagnostic laboratories are largely unregulated and little is known about the accuracy of results provided. This study assesses the accuracy of sputum smear microscopy for pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis in private laboratories operating in Karachi, Pakistan. A novel evaluation methodology was designed in which patient-actors submitted sputum specimens spiked with cultured Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb for testing such that laboratories were not aware that they were being assessed. Methods Smear-negative sputum specimens from Indus Hospital TB Program patients were collected and combined with an attenuated, cultured Mtb strain to create Mtb-spiked samples; for negative standards, no Mtb was added to the smear-negative sputum specimens. Seven of the largest private laboratories across Karachi were chosen for evaluation and were sent six Mtb-spiked and one Mtb-negative sputum specimens. Patient-actors pretending to be laboratory customers submitted these specimens to each laboratory for testing over a three day period. Results Only three laboratories accurately classified all the Mtb-spiked specimens which were submitted. A further three misclassified all the Mtb-spiked specimens as smear-negative, thus providing the ‘patients’ with false negative results. Conclusions TB sputum smear microscopy services are highly variable across private laboratories and are often of extremely poor quality. Engagement, capacity building and rigorous monitoring of standards at private laboratories are of vital importance for the control of TB. Our findings, while specific for TB diagnostic tests, could be symptomatic of other tests performed in private laboratories and warrant further investigation.

Codlin Andrew J

2012-11-01

306

Scanning electron microscopy of root canal walls after removing the smear layer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate ultrastructurally the effect of smear layer removal by applying different root canal irrigances: 3% HO2, 4% NaOCl and 15% Na-EDTA (in combination with 3% HO2, 4% NaOCl and establish the appearance of root canal dentine surface after treatment with 15% Na-EDTA for different time periods(1 min and 5 min using additional irrigant 3% HOor 4% NaOCl. 22 22 Teeth with single and double canals extracted for orthodontic reasons, were used in this study. After instrumentation, coronal and apical parts were removed. Middle parts were cut longitudinally into two equal segments. The specimens were grouped and treated: with HO2, NaOCl, and with combination of Na-EDTA+ HO2 and Na-EDTA+NaOCl where the irrigation with 2 Na-EDTA lasted 1 or 5 minutes. Control segments were enlarged and irrigated with distillate water to obtain the smear layer. The results obtained showed that irrigation with HOand NaOCl did 22 not remove the smear layer, one-minute application of 15% Na-EDTA followed by 4% NaOCl showed that the smear layer was completely removed. Using of 3% HOafter Na-EDTA over the same period of time obtained 22 less "clear" surfaces. Five-minute application of Na-EDTA caused excessive peritubular and intertubular dentinal erosion. It is concluded that for effective removal of smear layer with Na- EDTA, this procedure should not last longer than 1 minute and should be followed by NaOCl.

Gaši? Jovanka

2003-01-01

307

Efficiency of final irrigation of root canal in removal of smear layer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction A smear layer forms on the root canal walls as the consequence of root instrumentation. The smear layer formed in such a way considerably influences the quality of root obturation and endodontic treatment outcome. Objective The aim of this study was to ultrastructurally analyze the surface of intracanal dentine after removal of the smear layer by the solution of doxycycline, citric acid and detergent Tween-80 (MTAD. Methods The study involved 60 single-rooted, extracted, human teeth divided into four groups. All samples were instrumented by a step-back technique and manual K-files, and rinsed during instrumentation by 2% CHX and H2O2. The first group of samples was exclusively rinsed by CHX and H2O2; in the second group, besides using CHX and H2O2, MTAD solution was used for the final irrigation. The samples which were rinsed by distilled water (+ control and the samples rinsed by 5.25% NaOCl and 17% Na EDTA (-control served as control groups. All samples were observed under the scanning electronic microscope JEOL-JSM-5300. The coronary, middle and apex thirds of the radix region were analyzed. Results The obtained results of the SEM analysis showed that the application of 2% chlorhexidine and hydrogen peroxide did not give clear dentine walls, and the smear layer could not be removed completely. The application of the same combination (CHX and H2O2, added by the final MTAD irrigation solution, led to the efficient removal of the smear layer, while the morphological structure of dentine surface remained unchanged. Statistical analysis showed that canal walls in the experimental group with MTAD as the final irrigation were significantly clearer compared to the control group (p<0.001. Conclusion Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that MTAD is an efficient solution for the final irrigation of the canal system.

Miti? Aleksandar

2009-01-01

308

High-resolution CT for identify patients with smear-positive, active pulmonary tuberculosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: This study evaluates the use of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) to differentiate smear-positive, active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) from other pulmonary infections in the emergency room (ER) setting. Methods: One hundred and eighty-three patients diagnosed with pulmonary infections in an ER were divided into an acid fast bacillus (AFB) smear-positive, active PTB group (G1 = 84) and a non-AFB smear-positive, pulmonary infection group (G2 = 99). HRCT images from a 64-Multidetector CT were analyzed, retrospectively, for the morphology, number, and segmental distribution of pulmonary lesions. Results: Utilizing multivariate analysis, five variables were found to be independent risk factors predictive of G1: (1) consolidation involving the apex segment of right upper lobe, posterior segment of the right upper lobe, or apico-posterior segment of the left upper lobe; (2) consolidation involving the superior segment of the right or left lower lobe; (3) presence of a cavitary lesion; (4) presence of clusters of nodules; (5) absence of centrilobular nodules. A G1 prediction score was generated based on these 5 criteria to help differentiate G1 from G2. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.96 ± 0.012 in our prediction model. With an ideal cut-off point score of 3, the specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) are 90.9%, 96.4%, 90.0% and 96.8%, respectively. Conclusion: Th% and 96.8%, respectively. Conclusion: The use of this AFB smear-positive, active PTB prediction model based on 5 key HRCT findings may help ER physicians determine whether or not isolation is required while awaiting serial sputum smear results in high risk patients.

309

Blood Components  

Science.gov (United States)

... mineral salts, sugars, fats, hormones and vitamins. Cryoprecipitated AHF Cryoprecipitated Antihemophilic Factor (Cryo) is a portion of ... Whole Blood Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma Cryoprecipitated AHF COLOR OF THIS BLOOD COMPONENT Red Red Colorless ...

310

Blood Typing  

Science.gov (United States)

... a Glance Why Get Tested? To determine your ABO blood group and Rh type When to Get Tested? When ... absence of these antigens to determine a person's ABO blood group and Rh type. People whose red blood cells ...

311

Blood Types  

Science.gov (United States)

... trigger a patient's immune system to attack the transfused blood, safe blood transfusions depend on careful blood ... best hope for the needs of patients with sickle cell disease, 98 percent of whom are of African-American ...

312

Van Mother-Child Health and Family Planning Center Pap Smear Clinics of Information, Evaluation of Applicants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: In this study of women admitted to our center with information on pap smear test, to evaluate the attitudes and behavior. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study of Van Mother-Child Health and Family Planning Center on a voluntary basis, women aged 15-49 were admitted to the control. The education level of participants, age at first marriage, before the presence of vaginal infection, the story, and motivations pap smear level of information availability, and a family history of cancer, administered a questionnaire asking the state to have a regular income. Results: The study included 362 women with age and hear the pap smear test was significantly increased (p = 0.01. Working women and pap smear level of knowledge (p = 0.04 and pap smears than women not working for International rates significantly higher (p = 0.02. Treatment of vaginal infection at least once before to get there was a significant relationship between the pap smear motivations (p>0.05. Family history of gynecologic cancer or non-gynecologic cancer smears have significantly increased the level of motivations (p = 0.0001. Pap smear information, regular the economic income of those levels, significantly higher than those without regular income (p = 0.0001. Conclusion: We serve the region, with low socio-economic characteristics that are considered, gynecological examination by health workers or women from the home visits, pap smear test for what purpose and how often you get the work done and the importance of explaining and giving more space to this issue suggest that the written and visual media. Keywords: Pap smears, health care, education [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(5.000: 527-532

Sebahat Gucuk

2011-10-01

313

Immunoelectrophoresis - blood  

Science.gov (United States)

IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis ... A blood sample is needed. For information on how this is done, see: Venipuncture

314

High infection rates of the tick Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum with Trypanosoma theileri  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A crossbred calf (3 months old obtained from a farm where regular control of ticks was practised and found to be free of blood parasites was inoculated with 20 ml pooled blood collected from four field cattle which had very low Trypanosoma theileri parasitaemias (one parasite per 70 µl blood as determined by the haematocrit centrifugation technique. Trypanosoma theileri was present in the blood 6 days after injection and a peak parasitaemia of 42 parasites per 70 µl blood was recorded by day 12. Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum nymphs were applied on the ears of the calf on day 8 and they dropped engorged by days 13 and 14. The resulting adult ticks were examined for the presence of T. theileri by severing a leg and making a smear of the clear haemolymph which exuded from the wound. The smear was fixed in methanol and stained with Giemsa stain. The infection rate with T. theileri in the ticks was 43.3 % (26 out of 60. The intensity of infection was very high and various developmental stages of the flagellates were observed (epimastigotes, sphaeromastigotes, trypomastigotes and other intermediate stages. The haemolymph from 12 ticks was also collected in tissue culture medium and the trypanosomes survived for 25 weeks before eventually dying. The results demonstrated unequivocally the high vectorial capacity of the tick H. a. anatolicum for T. theileri.

Amna E. E. Mohamed

2010-11-01

315

Smear layer removal and chelated calcium ion quantification of three irrigating solutions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a remoção de smear layer por meio da microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e quantificar a liberação de íons cálcio resultante da irrigação com as soluções quelantes estudadas, por meio da espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. Dezesseis caninos extraíd [...] os foram instrumentados com a técnica step-back e divididos em 3 grupos de acordo com a solução irrigadora utilizada: G1: 1 mL de EDTAC a 17% entre cada lima; G2: CDTA a 17%; e G3: EGTA a 17%. As soluções foram coletadas após o uso. Os dentes foram secionados longitudinalmente e as raízes examinadas por MEV para verificação de smear layer nos terços por meio de escores (variando de 1 a 4), e avaliadas por três examinadores calibrados "cegos". Para quantificar a liberação de íons cálcio, as soluções coletadas foram avaliadas por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. Com relação ao smear layer, o teste de Friedman evidenciou diferença estatisticamente significante (p Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to evaluate, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), smear layer removal and quantify, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, the amount of calcium ion present in the chelating solutions after their use. Sixteen extracted canines were instrumented using the step-back te [...] chnique and were assigned to 3 groups according to the irrigating solution used: G1: 1 mL 17% EDTAC between each file; G2: 1 mL 17% CDTA; G3: 1 mL 17% EGTA. The solutions were collected after use. The teeth were cleaved longitudinally, evaluated under SEM and assessed for smear layer by blinded examiners and scored from 1 to 4. In order to quantify calcium ion release, the collected solutions were examined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Freidman's test was used for statistical analysis of SEM values and showed that canals irrigated with 17% EDTAC and 17% CDTA had significantly less smear layer throughout the canals than 17% EGTA (p

Andre Augusto Franco, Marques; Melissa Andréia, Marchesan; Celso Bernardo de, Sousa-Filho; Yara Teresinha Correa, Silva-Sousa; Manoel D., Sousa-Neto; Antonio Miranda da, Cruz-Filho.

316

Risk factors in patients with AFB smear-positive sputum who receive inappropriate antituberculous treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cheng-Yu Chang,1,* Jen-Yee Hong,2,* Mei-Kang Yuan,3,4 Shu-Ju Chang,5 Yuan-Ming Lee,6 Shih-Chieh Chang,2,4 Li-Cho Hsu,2,* Shin-Lung Cheng11Division of Chest Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 2Department of Internal Medicine, 3Department of Radiology, 4Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 5Department of Industrial Management and Enterprise Information, Aletheia University, Taipei, Taiwan; 6Department of Laboratory Medicine, National Yang-Ming University Hospital, Yilan, Taiwan *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Acid-fast bacilli (AFB smear-positive sputum is usually an initial clue in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB; however, the test is not disease-specific. Nontuberculous mycobacterium-related colonization or lung disease often has AFB smear-positive sputum results, and physicians may prescribe unnecessary antituberculous drugs for these patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics of patients with AFB smear-positive sputum who received unnecessary anti-TB treatment.Methods and patients: From January 2008 to July 2011, we retrospectively enrolled 97 patients with AFB smear-positive sputum who did not have pulmonary TB according to mycobacterial cultures and clinical judgment. We analyzed the clinical and radiographic features of the patients who received inappropriate and unnecessary anti-TB treatment. Preliminary analyses of chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were applied to determine factors unlikely to be associated with the independent variables. The relationship between independent covariates was then analyzed using multivariate logistic regression.Results: Of the 97 enrolled patients, 25 (25.8% were diagnosed with pulmonary TB and prescribed anti-TB drugs (mostly a combination of isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide. The other 72 (74.2% patients were not initially diagnosed with pulmonary TB and were classified as the control group. Compared to the control group, the patients who received inappropriate anti-TB treatment had more chronic cough as presentation symptom and heavy AFB Ziehl–Neelsen staining in sputum (>10/100 fields, grading 2+ to 4+. There were no significant differences in the radiographic analysis between the two groups.Conclusion: Among the patients with AFB smear-positive sputum that did not have pulmonary TB, chronic cough and heavy AFB staining (2+ to 4+ were risk factors for the inappropriate administration of unnecessary anti-TB treatment.Keywords: AFB smear-positive sputum, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, antituberculous treatment

Chang CY

2013-01-01

317

XMLComparison of Molecular (PCR and Pap Smear Methods in Diagnosis of Human Papiloma Virus (HPV in Women with Genital Warts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Objective: Much research has shown that Human Papiloma Virus (HPV plays an important role in cervix cancer and it is the cause of 99% of cervix cancer worldwide. Lots of research has been done to find a proper method for HPV diagnosis and screening in patients with genital warts. This study aimed at comparing PCR method with Pap smear test in HPV screening. Material and Methods: Considering the presence of DNA of HPV, 45 vaginal and cervix swap samples of women with genital warts were tested by means of specific PCR and Pap smear from September 2010 to April 2011. Results: Out of 45 vaginal and cervix swap samples of women suffering genital warts, 37 samples (82.2% are positive. Of 45 Pap smear samples, 13 (29% are neoplasia and 32 (71% normal. Conclusion: The difference between the results of PCR and Pap smear is due to low specification and sensitivity of Pap smear. Thus it is recommended using diagnostic PCR method in addition to Pap smear in order to promote the quality of screening in individuals with genital warts. Keywords: Human Papiloma Virus (HPV; Genital Warts; Molecular (PCR; Pap Smear

Bashi zadeh Fakhar, H. (MSc

2013-01-01

318

Efficacy of solution form of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid on removing smear layer of root canal at different exposure time In Vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of solution form of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on removing smear layer of root canals at different exposure time periods and to provide scientific basis for EDTA as a choice of root canal irrigation in clinical practice. Twenty-five single-rooted teeth were randomly divided into 5 groups: control group (group A) was given 2.5% NaOCl, and 4 experimental groups were given 2.5% NaOCl and 17% EDTA, including groups B, C, D and E with exposure time of 1, 3, 5 and 7 min, respectively. After preparation of the root canals, the teeth were split along their longitudinal axis, and the root sections were examined under scanning electron microscope for evaluation of smear layer removal and erosion on the surface of the root canal walls. The specimens in group B showed presence of smear layer on the walls of the root canal with no statistical difference from that in group A (P>0.05). In groups C and D, partial removal of smear layer was obtained, and there was no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05), but there was significant difference in removal of smear layer between group C and group B (Pchelating agent was applied for 7 min. At 3 and 5 min of application, partial removal of smear layer was observed and at 1 min negligible removal of smear layer was achieved. PMID:24939310

Poudyal, Sitashi; Pan, Wei-hong; Zhan, Liu

2014-06-01

319

Long-term evaluation of the influence of smear layer on the apical sealing ability of MTA.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of the smear layer on apical microleakage in teeth obturated with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Fifty single-rooted central maxillary teeth were used in this study. All teeth were instrumented to size 60 by using the step-back technique. The selected teeth were randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 20). In the first group (smear [+]), the teeth were irrigated with only NaOCl (5.25%). In the second group (smear [-]), the teeth were irrigated with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (17%) and NaOCl (5.25%) to remove the smear layer. The teeth were then filled with MTA. The computerized fluid filtration method was used for evaluation of apical microleakage. The quantitative apical leakage of each tooth was measured after 2, 30, and 180 days. Statistical analysis was done with the Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon signed ranks tests. At the end of this study there was no difference in 2 days between the groups, but removal of the smear layer caused significantly more apical microleakage than when the smear layer was left intact for 30 and 180 days (P microleakage of MTA is less when the smear layer is present than when it is absent. PMID:19026890

Yildirim, Tahsin; Oruço?lu, Hasan; Cobankara, Funda Kont

2008-12-01

320

A combination of smears and cell block preparations provides high diagnostic accuracy for endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration has demonstrated its accuracy in the diagnostic workup of enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. In addition to conventional smears, the use of liquid-based cytology (LBC) and cell block preparations (CBP) has been introduced more recently. The aim of our study was to determine the performance of each of the different techniques, separately and combined, in terms of diagnostic yield and sensitivity. A total of 290 consecutive patients were included. The pathological examination was based on smear cytology, LBC, and CBP. Adequate sampling was defined by the presence of pathological material or lymphocytes. The global diagnostic yield was 82.7 % and the sensitivity was 89.1 %. The diagnostic yield was 72.8 % for smears, 78.8 % for LBC, and 69.9 % for CBP. The combination of smears with CBP significantly increased diagnostic yield (p?=?0.01) and sensitivity (p?=?0.006), but not the combination of smears with LBC (yield: p?=?0.07; sensitivity: p?=?0.13). The combination of the three techniques further increased yield (p?=?0.007) and sensitivity (p?=?0.006), compared with smears alone. CBP were more sensitive than smears for both diagnoses of carcinoma (p?=?0.01) and granulomatous inflammation (p?=?0.048). Conversely, LBC was less sensitive than smears for granulomatous inflammation (p?=?0.004), but the difference was not significant for carcinoma (p?=?0.42). CBP, as a complement to smears, increases diagnostic yield and sensitivity for both diagnoses of carcinoma and granulomatous inflammation. LBC, if used alone, increases the risk of a false-negative result. PMID:22895864

Gauchotte, Guillaume; Vignaud, Jean-Michel; Ménard, Olivier; Wissler, Marie-Pierre; Martinet, Yves; Siat, Joëlle; Paris, Christophe; Clément-Duchêne, Christelle

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
321

Associations of demographic variables and the Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ditsapelo M McFarland College of Nursing and Public Health, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA Purpose: Papanicolaou (Pap smear services are available in most urban areas in Botswana. Yet most women in such areas do not screen regularly for cancer of the cervix. The purpose of this article is to present findings on the associations of demographic variables and Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana. Sample and methods: The study included a convenience sample of 353 asymptomatic women aged 30 years and older who were living in Gaborone, Botswana. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and items of the Health Belief Model. Data analysis included descriptive statistics for demographic variables and bivariate and ordinal (logit regression to determine the associations of demographic variables. Results: Having health insurance and having a regular health care provider were significant predictors of whether or not women had a Pap smear. Women with health insurance were more likely to have had a Pap smear test than women without health insurance (91% vs 36%. Similarly, women who had a regular health care provider were more likely to have had a Pap smear test than women without a regular health care provider (94% vs 42%. Major barriers to screening included what was described as "laziness" for women who had ever had a Pap smear (57% and limited information about Pap smear screening for women who had never had a Pap smear (44%. Conclusion: There is a need for more information about the importance of the Pap smear test and for increased access to screening services in Botswana. Keywords: cervical, screening, barriers, access, beliefs

McFarl

2013-10-01

322

Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Leontopithecus rosalia at the Reserva Biológica de Poço das Antas, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Wild golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) -- endangered primates that are native to the Brazilian Atlantic coastal forest -- were surveyed for the presence of Trypanosoma cruzi with the use of Giemsa-stained blood smears, hemocultures and an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFAT). Positiv [...] e IFAT with titers ranging from 1:20 to 1:1280 were observed in 52% of the 118 wild tamarins examined and the parasite was isolated from 38 tamarins. No patent parasitemia was observed among the tamarins from which T. cruzi was isolated. Serum conversion and positive hemoculture was observed for three animals that had yielded negative results some months earlier, which indicates that T. cruzi is actively transmitted among tamarins. In contrast to observations with other sylvatic isolates, those from the tamarins were significantly more virulent and most of them produced mortality in experimentally infected Swiss mice. Some variation in the kDNA restriction profiles among the isolates was observed. Electrophoresis with GPI, G6PDH, IDH, MDH and ME enzymes showed a Z2 profile.

Cristiane V, Lisboa; James, Dietz; Andrew J, Baker; Nédia N, Russel; Ana M, Jansen.

2000-08-01

323

Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Leontopithecus rosalia at the Reserva Biológica de Poço das Antas, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wild golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia -- endangered primates that are native to the Brazilian Atlantic coastal forest -- were surveyed for the presence of Trypanosoma cruzi with the use of Giemsa-stained blood smears, hemocultures and an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFAT. Positive IFAT with titers ranging from 1:20 to 1:1280 were observed in 52% of the 118 wild tamarins examined and the parasite was isolated from 38 tamarins. No patent parasitemia was observed among the tamarins from which T. cruzi was isolated. Serum conversion and positive hemoculture was observed for three animals that had yielded negative results some months earlier, which indicates that T. cruzi is actively transmitted among tamarins. In contrast to observations with other sylvatic isolates, those from the tamarins were significantly more virulent and most of them produced mortality in experimentally infected Swiss mice. Some variation in the kDNA restriction profiles among the isolates was observed. Electrophoresis with GPI, G6PDH, IDH, MDH and ME enzymes showed a Z2 profile.

Cristiane V Lisboa

2000-08-01

324

Canine vector-borne disease in travelled dogs in Germany--a retrospective evaluation of laboratory data from the years 2004-2008.  

Science.gov (United States)

When importing dogs from various Mediterranean countries into Western Europe canine vector-borne infections are often considered as a major issue. Several diseases including babesiosis, leishmaniosis, hepatozoonosis, canine heartworm disease or ehrlichiosis can potentially be endemic in this region and pose a potential health risk for travelling dogs. Information on such infections in travelled dogs is scarce and therefore this study has been undertaken to examine the frequency of vector-borne infections in travelled dogs from the years 2004-2008. A total of 997 samples were screened by direct and/or indirect methods. Total seroprevalence was 7.5% with individual seroprevalence for the 3 species Leishmania spp., Ehrlichia canis and Babesia canis spp. ranging from 3.1 to 4.9%. Total detection rate for pathogens by direct methods was 3.5%. Nineteen Giemsa-stained blood smears were positive for large Babesia. None of the samples screened for microfilariae by Knott's test or for Dirofilaria immitis antigen by DiroChek(®) were positive. Using PCR methods Leishmania-DNA was detected in 1/42 samples but none of 59 animals screened for E. canis-DNA was positive. The prevalence values as established by indirect and direct pathogen detection are considered as rather low. PMID:21565447

Hamel, D; Röhrig, E; Pfister, K

2011-09-01

325

First imported relapse case of Plasmodium vivax malaria and analysis of its origin by CSP sequencing in Henan Province, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, there has been a substantial increase of imported Plasmodium vivax incidence in Henan Province. As China is in a pre-elimination phase, the surveillance of imported malaria is essential, but there is no good way to distinguish imported cases from indigenous cases. This paper reports a case of a 39-year-old man who acquired P. vivax while staying in Indonesia for one month in 2013, and relapsed in Henan, China in 2014. This was diagnosed as vivax malaria based on rapid diagnostic test, Giemsa-stained peripheral blood smear and Plasmodium species-specific nested PCR. The genetic sequence for the circumsporozoite protein genes was analysed and the genetic variations were compared with a previously constructed database of Chinese isolates. The results from the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) gene sequence analysis centered on the repeat patterns showed that the imported cases had completely different sequences from any subtypes from Chinese isolates, but well matched with the countries travelled by the patient. The imported vivax cases were able to clearly distinguish from the indigenous vivax cases by detecting the CSP gene and were able to confim its origin by genotyping. PMID:25416163

Liu, Ying; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Zhou, Rui-Min; Yang, Cheng-Yun; Qian, Dan; Zhao, Yu-Ling; Xu, Bian-Li

2014-01-01

326

C-Reactive Protein (CRP in Early Diagnosis of Neonatal Septicemia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: Early diagnosis of sepsis in the neonate is often difficult because symptoms and signs are usually non-specific. A study was conducted to evaluate C-reactive protein (CRP as a screening tool for neonatal sepsis. Method: The prospective observational study was conducted at NICU, V. S. Hospital, Ahmedabad from January 2008 to June 2009. 75 neonates were included with the age group of first 28days (4week of life (infant age in study, all of which were suspected to have sepsis in clinical settings. All peripheral smear of neonate stained with Giemsa stain were reviewed .CRP performed by semi quantitative latex agglutination method. Positive cultures were the “gold standard” against which the performance of CRP , abnormal white blood cell counts (WBC & absolute neutrophil counts (ANC were compared. Results: Among 75 septic screens, 39 (52% patients had positive cultures. The sensitivity and specificity of CRP 0.6 mg/dL was 92.30% and 85.71% respectively. Abnormal platelet count had the lowest specificity(45% and sensitivity(23.07% among them. Conclusion: CRP assay using semi quantitative latex agglutination method is a valuable adjunct in screening for neonatal sepsis, complementing clinical decision-making. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(3.000: 276-278

Setal B Chauhan

2012-06-01

327

First field investigation report on the prevalence of trypanosomosis in camels in northern Tanzania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Parasitological evaluation of equine trypanosomosis in 193 camels (49 male and 144 female from 8 geographical localities of northern, Tanzania were carried out during the period of June-August 2010. The evaluation was carried out using Giemsa stained microscopy examination of blood smear. The overall detected prevalence of camel trypanosomosis was 8.2% with highest prevalence in Kilindi district (100% and with most of the positive slides showing 2+ and 3+. A higher infection was found in brought-in as compared to homebred camels (18.1% vs. 0.9%; P<0.05. When body score condition was considered, infection rate was 100, 6.8 and 3.5% in camels recorded to have poor, fair and good body score, respectively. It was concluded that camel trypanosomosis is prevalent in camel herds and administrative localities, source, and body condition score were identified as important risk factors for the distribution of camel trypanosomosis in the area under study. To our knowledge, this is the first report for the detection of trypanosome pathogen in camels in Tanzania.

E. S. Swai,

2011-01-01

328

An Investigation on the Ecology of Triatoma vitticeps (Stal, 1859) and its Possible Role in the Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, in the Locality of Triunfo, Santa Maria Madalena Municipal District, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english From January 1989 to April 1995, 465 specimens of Triatoma vitticeps were collected in the locality of Triunfo, 2nd District of Santa Maria Madalena municipal district, State of Rio de Janeiro. The bugs were found indoors by local residents with predominance of adults. The flight activity was high i [...] n hot months when the incidence in the domicile also increased. Two hundred and two bugs (111 alive and 91 dead) were examined for Trypanosoma cruzi infection. This was detected in 31 of the dead bugs (34%) and 88 (79%) of the live bugs examined. With a view to investigate the possible vertebrate hosts of the T. cruzi isolates, the blood of 122 mammals was examined through Giemsa-stained smears, hemocultures and xenodiagnosis. T. cruzi was detected in three specimens of Didelphis marsupialis and T. (M.) theileri was detected in one specimen of Bos taurus. The parasites were isolated from triatomine feces, xenoculture and hemoculture. No evidence of human infection was detected in 58 inhabitants examined, as evaluated by indirect imunofluorescence technique using T. cruzi epimastigotes as antigens. These results show that T. vitticeps is still a sylvatic species although nymphs have been found inside the domicile. Thus, an epidemiological vigilance is necessary to know the behaviour of this species following the continuous modifications promoted by the presence of man.

Teresa Cristina M, Gonçalves; Edson de, Oliveira; Lidiamara S, Dias; Magaly D, Almeida; Wagner O, Nogueira; Fernando Dias de Ávila, Pires.

329

An Investigation on the Ecology of Triatoma vitticeps (Stal, 1859 and its Possible Role in the Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, in the Locality of Triunfo, Santa Maria Madalena Municipal District, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available From January 1989 to April 1995, 465 specimens of Triatoma vitticeps were collected in the locality of Triunfo, 2nd District of Santa Maria Madalena municipal district, State of Rio de Janeiro. The bugs were found indoors by local residents with predominance of adults. The flight activity was high in hot months when the incidence in the domicile also increased. Two hundred and two bugs (111 alive and 91 dead were examined for Trypanosoma cruzi infection. This was detected in 31 of the dead bugs (34% and 88 (79% of the live bugs examined. With a view to investigate the possible vertebrate hosts of the T. cruzi isolates, the blood of 122 mammals was examined through Giemsa-stained smears, hemocultures and xenodiagnosis. T. cruzi was detected in three specimens of Didelphis marsupialis and T. (M. theileri was detected in one specimen of Bos taurus. The parasites were isolated from triatomine feces, xenoculture and hemoculture. No evidence of human infection was detected in 58 inhabitants examined, as evaluated by indirect imunofluorescence technique using T. cruzi epimastigotes as antigens. These results show that T. vitticeps is still a sylvatic species although nymphs have been found inside the domicile. Thus, an epidemiological vigilance is necessary to know the behaviour of this species following the continuous modifications promoted by the presence of man.

Gonçalves Teresa Cristina M

1998-01-01

330

Epidemiological studies (parasitological, serological and molecular techniques of Trypanosoma evansi infection in camels (Camelus dromedarius in Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Trypanosomosis in camel caused by Trypanosoma evansi is still a serious problem in camel husbandry causes considerable economic losses in many camel-rearing regions of the world. In the present study 193 camels clinically suspected for surra were examined parasitologically by Giemsa stained blood smear (GSBS and haematocrit centrifugation technique, serologically for detection of anti-trypanosomal antibodies by card agglutination test for trypanosomes (CATT, and for DNA amplification, by Polymerase chain reaction (PCR, with primers yielding a 177 bp PCR product for the specific detection of Trypanozoan parasites. Out of 193, eight camels were positive by GSBS (4.1% while 12 were positive with haematocrit centrifugation technique (6.2%. Detection of anti-trypanosomal antibodies with CATT yielded 84 positive samples (43.5%. Using PCR 110 out of 193 were positive (56.9 %. PCR technique is accurate, more sensitive and specific method for diagnosis of trypanosome infected camels than parasitological techniques; it overcomes the problem of specificity and can detect low parasitemic camels in chronic cases. The PCR proved to be the best test used for detection of camel trypanosomosis in Egypt. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(11.000: 325-328

Ahmed Abdel-Rady

331

Search for Borrelia sp. in ticks collected from potential reservoirs in an urban forest reserve in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil: a short report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A total of 128 ticks of the genus Amblyomma were recovered from 5 marsupials (Didelphis albiventris - with 4 recaptures - and 17 rodents (16 Bolomys lasiurus and 1 Rattus norvegicus captured in an urban forest reserve in Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Of the ticks collected, 95 (78.9% were in larval form and 22 (21.1% were nymphs; the only adult (0.8% was identified as A. cajennense. Viewed under dark-field microscopy in the fourth month after seeding, 9 cultures prepared from spleens and livers of the rodents, blood of the marsupials, and macerates of Amblyomma sp. nymphs revealed spiral-shaped, spirochete-like structures resembling those of Borrelia sp. Some of them showed little motility, while others were non-motile. No such structures could be found either in positive Giemsa-stained culture smears or under electron microscopy. No PCR amplification of DNA from those cultures could be obtained by employing Leptospira sp., B. burgdorferi, and Borrelia sp. primers. These aspects suggest that the spirochete-like structures found in this study do not fit into the genera Borrelia or Leptospira, requiring instead to be isolated for proper identification.

Costa IP da

2002-01-01

332

Search for Borrelia sp. in ticks collected from potential reservoirs in an urban forest reserve in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil: a short report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A total of 128 ticks of the genus Amblyomma were recovered from 5 marsupials (Didelphis albiventris) - with 4 recaptures - and 17 rodents (16 Bolomys lasiurus and 1 Rattus norvegicus) captured in an urban forest reserve in Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Of the ticks collected, 95 [...] (78.9%) were in larval form and 22 (21.1%) were nymphs; the only adult (0.8%) was identified as A. cajennense. Viewed under dark-field microscopy in the fourth month after seeding, 9 cultures prepared from spleens and livers of the rodents, blood of the marsupials, and macerates of Amblyomma sp. nymphs revealed spiral-shaped, spirochete-like structures resembling those of Borrelia sp. Some of them showed little motility, while others were non-motile. No such structures could be found either in positive Giemsa-stained culture smears or under electron microscopy. No PCR amplification of DNA from those cultures could be obtained by employing Leptospira sp., B. burgdorferi, and Borrelia sp. primers. These aspects suggest that the spirochete-like structures found in this study do not fit into the genera Borrelia or Leptospira, requiring instead to be isolated for proper identification.

IP da, Costa; VLN, Bonoldi; NH, Yoshinari.

333

An investigation on the ecology of Triatoma vitticeps (Stal, 1859) and its possible role in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, in the locality of Triunfo, Santa Maria Madalena municipal district, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

From January 1989 to April 1995, 465 specimens of Triatoma vitticeps were collected in the locality of Triunfo, 2nd District of Santa Maria Madalena municipal district, State of Rio de Janeiro. The bugs were found indoors by local residents with predominance of adults. The flight activity was high in hot months when the incidence in the domicile also increased. Two hundred and two bugs (111 alive and 91 dead) were examined for Trypanosoma cruzi infection. This was detected in 31 of the dead bugs (34%) and 88 (79%) of the live bugs examined. With a view to investigate the possible vertebrate hosts of the T. cruzi isolates, the blood of 122 mammals was examined through Giemsa-stained smears, hemocultures and xenodiagnosis. T. cruzi was detected in three specimens of Didelphis marsupialis and T. (M.) theileri was detected in one specimen of Bos taurus. The parasites were isolated from triatomine feces, xenoculture and hemoculture. No evidence of human infection was detected in 58 inhabitants examined, as evaluated by indirect imunofluorescence technique using T. cruzi epimastigotes as antigens. These results show that T. vitticeps is still a sylvatic species although nymphs have been found inside the domicile. Thus, an epidemiological vigilance is necessary to know the behaviour of this species following the continuous modifications promoted by the presence of man. PMID:9921289

Gonçalves, T C; de Oliveira, E; Dias, L S; Almeida, M D; Nogueira, W O; Pires, F D

1998-01-01

334

Enhanced detection of gametocytes by magnetic deposition microscopy predicts higher potential for Plasmodium falciparum transmission  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Aggregated haemozoin crystals within malaria-infected erythrocytes confer susceptibility of parasitized cells to a magnetic field. Here the utility of this method for diagnosis of human malaria is evaluated in a malaria-endemic region of Papua New Guinea (PNG. Methods and findings Individuals with Plasmodium falciparum malaria symptoms (n = 55 provided samples for conventional blood smear (CBS and magnetic deposition microscopy (MDM diagnosis. Standard Giemsa staining and light microscopy was performed to evaluate all preparations. Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia observed on MDM slides was consistently higher than parasitaemia observed by (CBS for ring (CBS = 2.6 vs. MDM = 3.4%; t-test P-value = 0.13, trophozoite (CBS = 0.5 vs. MDM = 1.6%; t-test P-value = 0.01, schizont (CBS = 0.003 vs. MDM = 0.1%; t-test P-value = 0.08 and gametocyte (CBS = 0.001 vs. MDM = 0.4%; t-test P-value = 0.0002 parasitaemias. Gametocyte prevalence determined by CBS compared to MDM increased from 7.3% to 45%, respectively. Conclusion MDM increased detection sensitivity of P. falciparum-infected, haemozoin-containing erythrocytes from infected humans while maintaining detection of ring-stage parasites. Gametocyte prevalence five-fold higher than observed by CBS suggests higher malaria transmission potential in PNG endemic sites compared to previous estimates.

Zborowski Maciej

2008-04-01

335

Effectiveness of a Canal Brush on Removing Smear Layer: A Scanning Electron Microscopic Study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia de um escova intra-canal (CanalBrush, Coltène) na remoção da smear layer das paredes do canal radicular, quando usada de acordo com as instruções do fabricante. Quarenta e quatro incisivos mandibulares unirradiculares foram instrumentados até o ápice co [...] m instrumentos 30/0.06 e aleatoriamente distribuidos em três grupos A, B e C, com regime de irrigação final de 10 mL a 17% EDTA e 10 mL NaOCl a 2,5% para o Grupo A; irrigação final de 10 mL EDTA, 5 mL NaOCl, uso da escovinha CanalBrush por 20 s a 450 rpm e 5 mL NaOCl para o Grupo B e 10 mL NaOCl, uso da escovinha CanalBrush e 10 mL NaOCl para o Grupo C. Foi utilizada escovinha CanalBrush de tamanho médio para cada canal e todas elas foram examinadas em microscópio para avaliação da deformação de cerdas. Depois as raízes foram cortadas longitudinalmente e a presença da smear layer foi avaliada por microscópio eletrônico de varredura. As escovinhas usadas apresentaram todas alguma deformação das cerdas. No Grupo C foi observada a maior média de área de smear layer em todos os terços dentais. Na comparação dos terços apicais de todos os grupos não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos A e B (3,64±0.48 e 3,68±0,62, respectivamente), enquanto que o Grupo C mostrou escores significativamente mais altos(3,9±0.28) que os outros dois grupos. Concluindo, a escovinha CanalBrush mostrou ser incapaz de remover a smear layer dos canais instrumentados, quando usada de acordo com as instruções do fabricante. Abstract in english This study evaluated the effectiveness of a highly flexible endodontic brush made of polypropylene canal brush (CanalBrush; Coltène) on smear layer removal from the canal walls when used according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Forty-four single-rooted mandibular incisors were prepared to ap [...] ical size 30/0.06 and randomly divided into three groups A, B and C, where the final irrigation regimen was 10 mL 17% EDTA and 10 mL 2.5% NaOCl for group A, 10 mL EDTA, 5 mL NaOCl, CanalBrush for 20 s at 450 rpm and 5 mL NaOCl for group B, 10 mL NaOCl, CanalBrush and 10 mL NaOCl for group C. One medium-sized CanalBrush was used for each root canal and all brushes were examined under the optical microscope after application to evaluate bristle deformation. Afterwards, roots were split longitudinally and the presence of smear layer was evaluated under a scanning electron microscope. Used brushes invariably exhibited bristle deformation. Group C exhibited the highest means of smear layer in all thirds. Comparing the apical thirds in all groups, there was no statistical difference between groups A and B (3.64±0.48 and 3.68±0.62 respectively), while group C exhibited significantly higher scores (3.9±0.28) than the other two groups. In conclusion, the CanalBrush proved unable to remove smear layer from the instrumented root canals, when used according to the manufacturers' instructions.

Eleni, Protogerou; Ioanna, Arvaniti; Ioannis, Vlachos; Marouan Georgios, Khabbaz.

2013-12-01

336

The crypto-Hermitian smeared-coordinate representation of wave functions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In discrete-coordinate quantum models the kinematical observable of position need not necessarily be chosen local (i.e., diagonal). Its smearing is selected in the nearest-neighbor form of a real asymmetric (i.e., crypto-Hermitian) tridiagonal matrix Q-hat. Via Gauss-Hermite illustrative example we show how such an option restricts the class of admissible dynamical observables (sampled here just by the Hamiltonian). -- Highlights: ? The new concept of hiddenly Hermitian grid-point-adapted observables proposed. ? A new constructive smeared-coordinate approach to wave functions obtained. ? A tractability of new, controllably non-local models achieved. ? An explicit construction of metric-dependent inner-product spaces presented.

337

The crypto-Hermitian smeared-coordinate representation of wave functions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In discrete-coordinate quantum models the kinematical observable of position need not necessarily be chosen local (i.e., diagonal). Its smearing is selected in the nearest-neighbor form of a real asymmetric (i.e., crypto-Hermitian) tridiagonal matrix Q{sup -hat}. Via Gauss-Hermite illustrative example we show how such an option restricts the class of admissible dynamical observables (sampled here just by the Hamiltonian). -- Highlights: ? The new concept of hiddenly Hermitian grid-point-adapted observables proposed. ? A new constructive smeared-coordinate approach to wave functions obtained. ? A tractability of new, controllably non-local models achieved. ? An explicit construction of metric-dependent inner-product spaces presented.

Znojil, Miloslav, E-mail: znojil@ujf.cas.cz [Nuclear Physics Institute ASCR, 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic)

2011-08-22

338

Pap-smear Classification Using Efficient Second Order Neural Network Training Algorithms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we make use of two highly efficient second order neural network training algorithms, namely the LMAM (Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum) and OLMAM (Optimized Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum), for the construction of an efficient pap-smear test classifier. The algorithms are methodologically similar, and are based on iterations of the form employed in the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method for non-linear least squares problems with the inclusion of an additional adaptive momentum term arising from the formulation of the training task as a constrained optimization problem. The classification results obtained from the application of the algorithms on a standard benchmark pap-smear data set reveal the power of the two methods to obtain excellent solutions in difficult classification problems whereas other standard computational intelligence techniques achieve inferior performances.

Jantzen, Jan

2004-01-01

339

Cervix Cancer Diagnosis from Pap Smear Images Using Structure Based Segmentation and Shape Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available his work presents an approach for analysis of P AP s mear images of cervical region based on cell nuclei distribution and shape and size analysis. PAP smear test is an efficient and easy procedure to detect any abnor mality in cervical cells. But human observation is not always satisfying and it is a tedious task to manually analyze a large number of PAP smear images. The purpose of this study is to automate the screening process and to provide specific statistical data which will be helpful for detecting abnormalities in cervical region. The proposed approach is implemented in MATLAB®, a high level, interactive environment for data visualization/analysis/computation. The MATLAB® Image Processing Toolbox was used to segment the digital images and calculate various statistical data. By comparing cell nuclei distribution and taking into account the shape and size features MATLAB® can be programmed to distinguish normal cervical cell to questionable ones.

Lipi B. Mahanta

2012-02-01

340

Development of search prefilters for infrared library searching of clear coat paint smears.  

Science.gov (United States)

Search prefilters developed from spectral data collected on two 6700 Thermo-Nicolet FTIR spectrometers were able to identify the respective manufacturing plant and the production line of an automotive vehicle from its clear coat paint smear using IR transmission spectra collected on a Bio-Rad 40A or Bio-Rad 60 FTIR spectrometer. All four spectrometers were equipped with DTGS detectors. An approach based on instrumental line functions was used to transfer the classification model between the Thermo-Nicolet and Bio-Rad instruments. In this study, 209 IR spectra of clear coat paint smears comprising the training set were collected using two Thermo-Nicolet 6700 IR spectrometers, whereas the validation set consisted of 242 IR spectra of clear coats obtained using two Bio-Rad FTIR instruments. PMID:24401422

Lavine, Barry K; Fasasi, Ayuba; Mirjankar, Nikhil; Sandercock, Mark

2014-02-01

 
 
 
 
341

Lithuania warns Russia over cheese ban and KGB smears | EurActiv  

...Lithuania warns Russia over cheese ban and KGB smears | EurActiv EU news & policy debates- across languages - en fr Click here for EU news »x Search this site: EurActiv.com Network Sign up to our newsletters »Monday 24 February 2014 BROWSE ... VIDEOS Home › Europe's East › News Lithuania warns Russia over cheese ban and KGB smears [fr] -A + A Published 06 November 2013 2 comments Tags Eastern Partnership, Russia, Ukraine, Vilnius EXCLUSIVE / Lithuanian President Dalia Grybauskaite yesterday (5 November)... The report -which was picked up in the Lithuanian media this week -suggested that the Lithuanian president served in the KGB during her time at Leningrad State University, from where she graduated in 1983 and subsequently taught. A government source told EurActiv that all senior ...

342

Smeared heat-kernel coefficients on the ball and generalized cone  

CERN Document Server

We consider smeared zeta functions and heat-kernel coefficients on the bounded, generalized cone in arbitrary dimensions. The specific case of a ball is analysed in detail and used to restrict the form of the heat-kernel coefficients $A_n$ on smooth manifolds with boundary. Supplemented by conformal transformation techniques, it is used to provide an effective scheme for the calculation of the $A_n$. As an application, the complete $A_{5/2}$ coefficient is given.

Dowker, John S; Kirsten, Klaus

2001-01-01

343

Early Bactericidal Activity and Pharmacokinetics of PA-824 in Smear-Positive Tuberculosis Patients? †  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

PA-824 is a novel nitroimidazo-oxazine being evaluated for its potential to improve tuberculosis (TB) therapy. This randomized study evaluated safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and extended early bactericidal activity of PA-824 in drug-sensitive, sputum smear-positive, adult pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Fifteen patients per cohort received 1 of 4 doses of oral PA-824: 200, 600, 1,000, or 1,200 mg per day for 14 days. Eight subjects received once daily standard antituberculosis treat...

Diacon, Andreas H.; Dawson, Rodney; Hanekom, Madeleine; Narunsky, Kim; Maritz, Stefan J.; Venter, Amour; Donald, Peter R.; Niekerk, Christo; Whitney, Karl; Rouse, Doris J.; Laurenzi, Martino W.; Ginsberg, Ann M.; Spigelman, Melvin K.

2010-01-01

344

The Costs of an Outreach Intervention for Low-Income Women With Abnormal Pap Smears  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available IntroductionFollow-up among women who have had an abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap smear is often poor in public hospitals that serve women at increased risk for cervical cancer. This randomized controlled trial evaluated and compared the total cost and cost per follow-up of a tailored outreach intervention plus usual care with the total cost and cost per follow-up of usual care alone.MethodsWomen with an abnormal Pap smear (n = 348 receiving care at Alameda County Medical Center (Alameda County, California were randomized to intervention or usual care. The intervention used trained community health advisors to complement the clinic’s protocol for usual care. We assessed the costs of the intervention and the cost per follow-up within 6 months of the abnormal Pap smear test result.ResultsThe intervention increased the rate of 6-month follow-up by 29 percentage points, and the incremental cost per follow-up was $959 (2005 dollars. The cost per follow-up varied by the severity of the abnormality. The cost per follow-up for the most severe abnormality (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion was $681, while the cost per follow-up for less severe abnormalities was higher.ConclusionIn a health care system in which many women fail to get follow-up care for an abnormal Pap smear, outreach workers were more effective than usual care (mail or telephone reminders at increasing follow-up rates. The results suggest that outreach workers should manage their effort based on the degree of abnormality; most effort should be placed on women with the most severe abnormality (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.

Todd H. Wagner, PhD

2007-01-01

345

The crypto-Hermitian smeared-coordinate representation of wave functions  

Science.gov (United States)

In discrete-coordinate quantum models the kinematical observable of position need not necessarily be chosen local (i.e., diagonal). Its smearing is selected in the nearest-neighbor form of a real asymmetric (i.e., crypto-Hermitian) tridiagonal matrix Qˆ. Via Gauss-Hermite illustrative example we show how such an option restricts the class of admissible dynamical observables (sampled here just by the Hamiltonian).

Znojil, Miloslav

2011-08-01

346

Clinical management of patients with invasive cervical cancer following a negative Pap smear.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Among 535 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma seen between January 1975 and June 1986, 26 were found to have developed the disease within six months (65 percent), 35 within 12 months (88 percent), 37 within 13 months (93 percent), and three developed the disease within 17 months after a negative Pap smear. Eighty-eight percent of these 40 patients were under age 40 at diagnosis. Rapidly progressive cancers are highly resistant to radiation therapy. Seven stage IB patients treated only w...

Schwartz, P. E.; Merino, M. J.; Mccrea Curnen, M. G.

1988-01-01

347

Awareness and uptake of the Pap smear among market women in Lagos, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Our study evaluates the effect of an educational programme on awareness and uptake of the cervical cancer screening test (Pap smear) by women in a model market in Lagos Nigeria. This was a quasi-experimental study using a multistage sampling technique. A total of 350 women were divided into two groups. A baseline survey on awareness of the Pap test and screening practices was carried out using pre-tested, interviewer administered, structured questionnaires. Participants in the intervention gr...

Faduyile, Francis A.; Kuyinu, Yetunde A.; Babalola Faseru; Wright, Kikelomo O.

2011-01-01

348

The Social Ecology of Cervical Cancer: The Challenges to Pap Smear Screening  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cervical cancer is a preventable disease. The risk factors for the development of cervical cancer include both biologic factors and social factors. In the United States, the leading risk factor for the development of cervical cancer is not having a Pap smear for five years prior to the diagnosis of cancer. In low and middle income countries, cervical cancer incidence and mortality

Annekathryn Goodman

2013-01-01

349

Comparison Between Pap Smear and Via As Screening For Cervical Lesions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: An important reason for higher cervical cancer incidence in developing countries is lack of effectivescreening programs like pap smear, aimed at detecting precancerous conditions before they progress to invasivecancer. The potential difficulties in implementing cervical cytology based screening in low-resource settings haveprompted the investigation of accuracy of alternative low technology tests such as Visual inspection with acetic acidapplication [VIA], Visual inspection with...

Harshini V, Amritha Bhandary

2013-01-01

350

A STUDY ON CERVICAL PAP SMEAR EXAMINATION IN PATIENT LIVING WITH HIV  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Decline in morbidity & mortality due to cervical cancer in developed countries can be mainly attributed to early detection of precancerous & cancerous lesions due to extensive screening programmeof cervical Pap smear examination. HPV infection is a known etiological agent for cervical cancer. HIV infected women are at higher risk of contracting HPV infection due to immune compromised status. Objective: Present study has been undertaken mainly to detect precancerous & c...

Jha, B. M.; Mubin Patel; KomalPatel; Jitendra Patel

2012-01-01

351

Enhanced tree-classifier performance by inversion with application to pap smear screening data  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we present an inversion method to enhance a binary decision tree classifier using boundary search of training samples. We want to enhance the training at those points which are close to the boundaries. Selection of these points is based on the Euclidean distance from those centroids close to classification boundaries. The enhanced training using these selected data was compared with training using randomly selected samples. We also applied this method to improve the classification of pap smear screening data.

Chen, E. T. Y.; Lee, James; Nelson, Alan C.

1993-07-01

352

Detecting the Aspergillus Spp. In(BAL) Fluid Samples by Nested PCR, Culture and Direct Smear  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and Aim: Aspergillosis are the most prevalent cause of the respiratory infections. These fungi show invasive aspergillosis(IA) in immunocompromised patients. The number of immunocompromised patients are increasing due to immunodisorder illnesses, grafts and immunosuppressor drugs, so, rapid identification methods are very important. The aim of this study was to detect the Aspergillus spp. In fluid samples by nested PCR, and compare with culture and direct smear. Materials and Meth...

Sanam Afshar Moghaddam; Fariba Heshmati; Ghazaleh Ghandchi; Seyed Amir Yazdanparast; Mohammad Ali Khodadoust

2012-01-01

353

Nonlinear Analysis of Concrete Structural Components Using Co-axial Rotating Smeared Crack Model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Simulation of concrete behavior in structural components and estimation of real crack profile under static and dynamic loads is one of the most interesting fields in structural engineering. In the present study, a co-axial rotating smeared crack model is proposed for mass concrete in 3D space. The advantages of this model are using variable shear transfer coefficient which is updated in each load step; utilizing an advanced failure criterion for concrete and ability of modeling concrete crack...

Masoud Heshmati; Kolbadi, S. Mahdi S.; Mohammad Amin Hariri Ardebili; Hasan Mirzabozorg

2012-01-01

354

Detection of malignant melanoma of the uterine cervix from Papanicolaou smears. A case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

A case of malignant amelanotic melanoma of the uterine cervix in a patient presenting with right hemiparesis and enlarged lymph nodes was diagnosed in Papanicolaou-stained cervical smears showing many melanoma cells. Melanoma cells with bizzare nuclear and cytoplasmic abnormalities, rarely seen in other tumors, helped to establish a positive diagnosis. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathologic study of the endocervical surgical specimen, including a positive immunoperoxidase staining for S-100 protein. PMID:3544629

Yu, H C; Ketabchi, M

1987-01-01

355

Multispectral microscopy and cell segmentation for analysis of thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology smears.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses the needs for automated tools to aid in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules based on analysis of fine needle aspiration cytology smears. While conventional practices rely on the analysis of grey scale or RGB color images, we present a multispectral microscopy system that uses thirty-one spectral bands for analysis. Discussed are methods and results for system calibration and cell delineation. PMID:19964406

Wu, Xuqing; Thigpen, James; Shah, Shishir K

2009-01-01

356

Validation of candidate smear microscope quality indicators, extracted from tuberculosis laboratory registers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

SETTING: Kinshasa Province, Democratic Republic of Congo. OBJECTIVE: To identify and validate register-based indicators of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) microscopy quality. DESIGN: Selection of laboratories based on reliability and variation in routine smear rechecking results. Calculation of relative sensitivity (RS) compared to recheckers and its correlation coefficient (R) with candidate indicators based on a fully probabilistic analysis incorporating vague prior information using WinBUGS. RESUL...

Deun, A.; Zwahlen, M.; Bola, V.; Lebeke, R.; Bahati, E.; Lubamba, P.; Rieder, H. L.

2007-01-01

357

Fiberoptic bronchoscopy for the rapid diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background This study was aimed to investigate the diagnostic value of fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) with chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for the rapid diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in patients suspected of PTB but found to have a negative sputum acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear. Methods We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of results from FOB and HRCT in 126 patients at Gangnam Severance Hospital (Seoul, Korea) who were...

Shin Jung; Chang Yoon; Kim Tae; Kim Hyung; Ahn Chul; Byun Min

2012-01-01

358

Re-treatment outcome of smear positive tuberculosis cases under DOTS in Bangalore city  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A cohort of 226 smear and culture positive re-treatment cases, initiated on Cat II regimen under DOTS, was followed up prospectively from April 1999 to September 2001, in Bangalore Mahanagara Palike to study the treatment outcome along with the drug susceptibility status. The cohort was interviewed at the initiation and end of treatment using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire to elicit details regarding past and present treatment. More than half of the study group (60%) w...

Vijay, Sophia; Balasangameshwara, V. H.; Jagannatha, P. S.; Saroja, V. N.; Shivashankar, D.; Jagota, P.

2002-01-01

359

Experimental analysis on removal factor of smear method in measurement of surface contamination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The smear test is one of the important ways to measure surface contamination. The loose contamination under the high background radiation, which is more significant in handling non-sealed radioisotopes, can be evaluated by this method. The removal factor is defined as the ratio of the activity removed from the surface by one smear to the whole activity of the removable surface contamination. The removal factor is greatly changed by the quality and condition of surface materials. In this study, the values of removal factor at several typical surface conditions were evaluated experimentally and the practical application of those values was considered. It is required the smear should be pressed by moderate pressure when wiping the surface. The pressure from 1.0 kg to 1.5 kg per filter paper was recommended. The removal factor showed lower value in wiping by the pressure below 1.0 kg. The value of 0.5 for the removal factor could be applied to the smooth surface of linoleum, concrete coated with paint or epoxy resin, stainless steel and glass with the statistical allowance. (author)

360

Development of a clinical scoring system for the diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study developed a clinical score based on clinical and radiographic data for the diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (SNPT. SNPT was defined as a positive culture in Ogawa in a patient with two negative sputum smears. Data from patients admitted to the emergency ward with respiratory symptoms and negative acid-fast bacilli (AFB smears was analyzed by means of logistic regression to develop the predictive score.Two hundred and sixty two patients were included. Twenty patients had SNPT. The variables included in the final model were hemoptysis, weight loss, age > 45 years old, productive cough, upper-lobe infiltrate, and miliary infiltrate. With those, a score was constructed. The score values ranged from -2 to 6. The area under the curve for the ROC curve was 0.83 (95% CI 0.74-0.90. A score of value 0 or less was associated with a sensitivity of 93% and a score of more than 4 points was associated with a specificity of 92% for SNPT. Fifty-two point twenty-nine percent of patients had scores of less than one or more than four, what provided strong evidence against and in favor, respectively, for the diagnosis of SNPT. The score developed is a cheap and useful clinical tool for the diagnosis of SNPT and can be used to help therapeutic decisions in patients with suspicion of having SNPT.

Alonso Soto

2008-04-01

 
 
 
 
361

Development of a clinical scoring system for the diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study developed a clinical score based on clinical and radiographic data for the diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (SNPT). SNPT was defined as a positive culture in Ogawa in a patient with two negative sputum smears. Data from patients admitted to the emergency ward with respir [...] atory symptoms and negative acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smears was analyzed by means of logistic regression to develop the predictive score.Two hundred and sixty two patients were included. Twenty patients had SNPT. The variables included in the final model were hemoptysis, weight loss, age > 45 years old, productive cough, upper-lobe infiltrate, and miliary infiltrate. With those, a score was constructed. The score values ranged from -2 to 6. The area under the curve for the ROC curve was 0.83 (95% CI 0.74-0.90). A score of value 0 or less was associated with a sensitivity of 93% and a score of more than 4 points was associated with a specificity of 92% for SNPT. Fifty-two point twenty-nine percent of patients had scores of less than one or more than four, what provided strong evidence against and in favor, respectively, for the diagnosis of SNPT. The score developed is a cheap and useful clinical tool for the diagnosis of SNPT and can be used to help therapeutic decisions in patients with suspicion of having SNPT.

Alonso, Soto; Lely, Solari; Juan, Agapito; Carlos, Acuna-Villaorduna; Marie-Laurence, Lambert; Eduardo, Gotuzzo; Patrick Van der, Stuyft.

2008-04-01

362

The diagnostic utility of cell block as an adjunct to cytological smears  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: Cytological examination of serous fluids is of paramount importance in detecting cancer cells. Distinguishing malignant cells from benign reactive mesothelial cells in fluid cytology is an everyday diagnostic problem. Cell blocks are valuable when the features in cytology are inconclusive. The motive of this study was to assess the utility of this method in increasing the diagnostic yield of serous fluids. Methods: 225 (25% effusion fluids were analyzed carefully by both smear and cell block technique. Results: Among 225 fluids, 139 were pleural, 84 peritoneal and 2 pericardial. In case of pleural fluids and ascitic fluids, maximum numbers of cases were inflammatory. By the cell block technique, 5 additional cases of malignancy in pleural fluids and 7 additional cases of malignancy in ascitic fluids were diagnosed which could not be detected in the cytological smears. In pericardial fluids both cases were inflammatory. Male predominance was noted in case of pleural effusion and female predominance was noted in case of pericardial effusion and ascites. Maximum numbers of cases were seen in the age group of 40-60 years. Conclusion: We conclude that the cell block technique when used as an adjuvant to routine smear examination has increased the diagnostic yield because of better preservation of the architectural pattern.

Bhavana Grandhi, Vissa Shanthi, Mohan Rao N, Chidananda Reddy V, Venkata MuraliMohan K

2014-04-01

363

[Factors associated with failure to take a Pap smear test among Quilombola women].  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to analyze factors associated with failure to take a Pap smear test among quilombola women living in Vitória da Conquista in the state of Bahia. A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted with women aged 18 to 64. Descriptive analysis and univariate and multivariate analysis using a multinomial logistic model was applied. Women who had never performed the test or had not had one for over three years were compared separately from those who were examined within the preceding three years. Of the 348 women included in the analysis, 27.3%, reported never having a Pap smear test. The following factors were independently associated with never having taken the test: age of 18 to 29 years and 50 to 59 years; lack of education; not having a partner; seeking care in health-related units/establishments other than their place of residence; and having a clinical breast examination three or more years ago or never having one. The findings indicate a need for reflection in order to combat factors that are associated with not having a Pap smear test among quilombola women, since it is important to implement actions for the prevention of cervical cancer. PMID:25351319

Oliveira, Márcio Vasconcelos; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland; França, Elisabeth Barboza

2014-11-01

364

Plant injection and leaf smearing techniques for root distribution studies of barley (Hordem vulgare L.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was undertaken to find out the applicability of 32P plant injection and leaf smearing techniques for root distribution studies of barley. In sand culture experiment, with two varieties of barley (Conquest and BM-86) at two stages of growth (70 and 90 days after sowing) and three periods of sampling (2,4 and 6 days after application of 32P activity), specific activity values of different root sections indicated unequal distribution of 32P upto 4 days. The equilibrium period of 6 days was observed in the present study which remained unaffected due to differences in variety, method and state of growth. Translocation differences of 32P from the site of application to other parts of the plant were observed in all the treatments. 32P plant injection technique was found better than the leaf smearing technique in respect to the percentage of activity transported to the roots. However, the leaf smearing technique may suitably be used in the root kinetic studies. (author)

365

Artificial blood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

Sarkar Suman

2008-01-01

366

A scanning electron microscopy study of root surface smear layer removal after topical application of EDTA plus a detergent Remoção de smear layer de superfícies radiculares com aplicação tópica de EDTA com detergente. Análise em microscopia eletrônica de varredura  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare root surface smear layer removal following topical application of EDTA and EDTA-T (Texapon. Extracted human teeth had their cementum removed and were mechanically scaled. A total of 220 root specimens were obtained and were randomly assigned to the following groups: I-saline solution (control, II-EDTA; III-EDTA-T. Groups II and III specimens were assigned to different EDTA gel concentrations: 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 24%. Smear layer removal score was assessed for each specimen by scanning electron microscopy. The results demonstrated that EDTA and EDTA-T gel led to a higher root surface smear layer removal when compared to the control group. The 5% EDTA gel also showed a higher smear layer removal than the 15%, 20% and 24% EDTA gels (p0.05. EDTA gels had statistically significantly lower smear layer scores than the EDTA-T gels for the 5% and 10% concentrations. The results suggested that topical application of EDTA or EDTA-T gel led to significant smear layer removal of the mechanically treated root surfaces. The addition of a detergent to the EDTA gel formula did not improve smear layer removal of the root surface.O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar, através de microscopia eletrônica de varredura, a remoção de smear layer de superfícies radiculares após aplicação tópica de gel de EDTA com gel de EDTA-T (Texapon. Foram utilizados dentes humanos que foram submetidos a remoção de cemento radicular e raspagem. As amostras dos dentes foram divididas em 3 grupos: Grupo I- (controle (n=20; Grupo II- gel de EDTA (pH 7,0 nas concentrações de 5%,10%,15%,20% e 24% (n=100; Grupo II -gel de EDTA-T (pH 7,0 nas concentrações acima descritas (n=100. As fotomicrografias foram avaliadas através de um índice e os dados foram estatisticamente analisados. Ambos os tratamentos com EDTA foram efetivos na remoção de smear layer quando comparados ao grupo controle. O gel de EDTA a 5% demonstrou maior capacidade na remoção de smear layer quando comparado com as concentrações de 15%, 20% e 24% (p0,05. Os géis de EDTA foram mais efetivos que o EDTA-T nas concentrações de 5 e 10%. Os resultados sugerem que a aplicação tópica de EDTA ou EDTA-T é efetiva na remoção de smear layer, principamente em baixas concentrações e a adição do Texapon não promove vantagens neste tratamento.

José Eduardo Cezar Sampaio

2005-09-01

367

[Frequency and follow-up of non-negative cervical smears in the counties of Storstrøm, Vestsjaelland and Bornholm in 1979-1989].  

Science.gov (United States)

The outcome of the cervical cancer screening in Storstrøm, West Zeeland and Bornholm counties in 1979-1989 was evaluated. About 6% of the screened women had at least one non-negative smear requiring further follow-up. 2% were women with positive smears. Only 3/4 of women with positive smears were followed up within the first three months after the positive smear. Late follow-up probably resulted in a few cases of invasive cervical cancer. The computerized pathology registration system permits automatic monitoring of women with positive smears, and it is suggested that these facilities should be used systematically. PMID:8430472

Lynge, E; Poll, P; Larsen, J; Schultz, H B; Thommesen, N

1993-01-25

368

Effect of MTAD as a final rinse on removal of smear layer in ten-minute preparation time  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of MTAD as final rinse on removal of the smear layer subsequent to primary irrigation with 1.3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) during 10-minute instrumentation periods.

Lotfi, Mehrdad; Vosoughhosseini, Sepideh

2012-01-01

369

Borrelia sp. in naturally infected Didelphis aurita (Wied, 1826 (marsupialia: didelphidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fifty-six opossums (Didelphis aurita were captured on the campus of Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica county, Rio de Janeiro state, in order to investigate the occurrence of Borrelia sp among them in relation with the study of spirochaetemia and its ectoparasites. Blood tests were made through dark field and phase contrast microscopy, as well as the obtainment of blood smears. Smears were stained with Giemsa stain, which did not prove efficacy. There was no relation between results obtained through blood tests (13 opossum positive for Borreliasp., and this technique (two positive animals. Parasitaemia studies of 37 animals kept in captivity as well as of several recaptures in which animals once negative proved to be positive days later, showed that haemoscopical studies could be used as an effective diagnosis tool. Ectoparasites from nine animals were classified; with the occurrence of nymphal Amblyomma cajennense and adult Ctenocephalides sp..Cinquenta e seis gambás (Didelphis aurita foram capturados no campus da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica - Rio de Janeiro, com o intuito de se investigar a ocorrência de Borrelia sp. entre eles, associada ao estudo da espiroquetemia e de seus ectoparasitos. Amostras de sangue dos animais foram examinadas à microscopia de campo escuro e contraste de fase, além deste ter se destinado à obtenção de esfregaços sanguíneos, corados pelo método de Giemsa. Não houve relação entre os resultados obtidos através dos exames diretos do sangue (13 gambás positivos para Borrelia sp. e aqueles observados nos esfregaços sanguíneos (dois animais positivos, o que demonstra a baixa eficácia desta técnica. Estudos sobre a parasitemia de 37 animais mantidos em cativeiro, assim como as várias recapturas nas quais animais uma vez negativos mostraram-se positivos dias mais tarde, revelaram que os estudos hemoscópicos podem ser utilizados eficientemente como ferramentas de diagnóstico. Ectoparasitos colhidos de nove animais foram classificados. Houve ocorrência de ninfas Amblyomma cajennense e adultos Ctenocephalides sp.

Isis dos Santos Abel

2000-01-01

370

Now ICT malaria Pf/Pv® versus microscopy (thick-smear, thin smear for diagnosis of malaria in Urabá (Colombia Now ICT malaria Pf/Pv® frente a microscopía (gota gruesa-extendido para diagnóstico de malaria en Urabá (Colombia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Problem: To date, there are only three reports from Colombia about the malaria diagnostic test Now ICT Malaria Pf / Pv ® (NowICT. The results from these studies showed major differences in sensitivity and specificity.

 

Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of NowICT compared to thick smear for the diagnosis of Plasmodium infection in matched blood samples from mothers (maternal peripheral blood, umbilical cord and placenta.

 

Methods: We used a closed (blinded/masked and parallel design for the evaluation of a diagnostic test. The sample size was calculated with statistical and epidemiological parameters; this consisted of 131 thick smears from maternal peripheral blood. Blood samples from placenta and umbilical cord were also studied (386 samples tested in total.

 

Results: The sensitivity of Now ICT for detection of P. vivax was below 70% in any of the samples (maternal blood, placental blood or cord blood. The specificity was greater than 99%. Values for P. falciparum infection were not calculated since too few cases were detected.

 

Eliana Arango

2010-05-01

371

Smearing in an axisymmetric finite element structural analysis application to the GCFR steam generator cavity closure plug  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A methodical technique for smearing material properties in an elastic finite element analysis to derive an approximate axisymmetric model of a structure is presented. In this process, material properties are smeared circumferentially about an axis of symmetry in the structure's outline. Attention is given to the subsequent problem of unsmearing the results to obtain an estimate of circumferential variation in the solution. The scheme is illustrated with an application to an analysis of a GCFR steam generator cavity closure plug. (Auth.)

372

Comparative study of visual inspection of the cervix using acetic acid (VIA) and Papanicolaou (Pap) smears for cervical cancer screening  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article is a comparative study of two screening methods for pre-invasive lesions of the cervix. The Papanicolaou (Pap) smear, an old and tested screening method, is compared with the findings from visual inspection of the cervix following acetic acid (VIA) wash. VIA is a new screening method being advocated by the World Health Organization as an alternative to Pap smear in low-resource settings.

Albert, So; Oguntayo, Oa; Samaila, Moa

2012-01-01

373

Competency-based Learning: The Impact of Targeted Resident Education and Feedback on Pap Smear Adequacy Rates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Little is known about assessing or improving competency in Papanicolau (Pap) smear sampling among internal medicine residents. We hypothesized that a 3-part targeted resident physician educational program (educational presentation by a knowledgeable instructor, skills workshop, and peer comparison feedback) would be effective in increasing the quality of Pap smears obtained by internal medicine residents. We conducted a randomized, pre-post comparison study over a 16-month period to assess th...

Watkins, Raquel S.; Moran, William P.

2004-01-01

374

Gambaran Faktor-faktor Perilaku Ibu Dalam Pemeriksaan Pap Smear Di Poli Ginekologi RSUD Dr Pirngadi Medan Tahun 2012  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cervical cancer affects many women and 65% of patients already in an advanced stage (Darmindro et al, 2007). One method for early detection of cervical cancer is Pap smear. In Public Hospital Dr Pirngadi Medan acquired the gynecological check-up patient data to hospital with suspected cancer from January to November 2011 as many as 1100 people. The research aims to know the description of predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors of mothers in Pap Smear in public hospitals Dr Pirng...

Nasution, Beta Liana Putri

2012-01-01

375

Associations of demographic variables and the Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ditsapelo M McFarland College of Nursing and Public Health, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA Purpose: Papanicolaou (Pap) smear services are available in most urban areas in Botswana. Yet most women in such areas do not screen regularly for cancer of the cervix. The purpose of this article is to present findings on the associations of demographic variables and Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana. Sample and methods: The study included a...

McFarl; DM

2013-01-01

376

Pengaruh Media Sosialisasi Terhadap Pengetahuan dan Sikap Mahasiswi Tentang Pentingnya Pap Smear di Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat USU Tahun 2011  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cervical cancer is still threatening all women across the world particularly in developing countries. In Indonesia, nowadays cervical cancer is the second most common cancer that affects women after breast cancer. This cancer is a potential killer, since there is no appearance of physical symptom at early stage. One of the efforts for diminishing the mortality caused by this disease is screening. The most suggested screening method for cervical cancer is Pap Smear Test. Pap smear test has ...

Pakpahan, Peranika R.

2012-01-01

377

Pap Smear Test Structures for Measuring Health Belief Model and Factors Affecting Women in Urban Centers Covered Zarandieh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and Objectives: Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide and although pap smear is considered as an effective screening program, the level of using screening is low. The purpose of this study is pap smear test structures for measuring health belief model and factors affecting women in urban centers covered Zarandieh.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study (descriptive-analytical) which included 265 Urban Women's in Zarandieh. Data collection instrument...

Karimy M.; Shamsi M; Araban M; Gholamnia Z

2012-01-01

378

Van Mother-Child Health and Family Planning Center Pap Smear Clinics of Information, Evaluation of Applicants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: In this study of women admitted to our center with information on pap smear test, to evaluate the attitudes and behavior. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study of Van Mother-Child Health and Family Planning Center on a voluntary basis, women aged 15-49 were admitted to the control. The education level of participants, age at first marriage, before the presence of vaginal infection, the story, and motivations pap smear level of information availability, and a family history ...

Sebahat Gucuk; Servet Alkan; Secil Arica; Aysegul Ates

2011-01-01

379

Factors Related to Regular Undergoing Pap-smear Test: Application of Theory of Planned Behavior  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women in the world and the most common cancer in developing countries. Pap smear is and effective tool that can prevent death due to cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the factors related to doing regular Pap-smear test based on the theory of planned behavior.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, conducted in Hamadan County, the west of Iran, during 2009, a total of 400 women's aged 20 to 70 years old, were randomly selected to participate voluntarily in the study. Participants filled out a self-administered questionnaire including the expanded theory of planned behavior components. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 13 using chi-square, t-test, and logistic regression statistical tests at 95% significant level.

Results: Almost 63.8% of the participants had already done Pap-smear test at least once. About 28.3% of volunteers had followed a regular Pap-smear program. There was a significant correlation (P < 0.002 between family history of cervical cancer and undergoing regular Pap-smear test. In addition, there was a significant correlation (P < 0.001 between age and undergoing regular Pap-smear test. The best predictor for regular Pap-smear testing was subjective norms with odds ratio estimate of 1.14 [95% CI: 1.04, 1.23].

Conclusion: Based on our findings, subjective norms may be one of the most effective factors among women for doing regular &l

Farzad Jalilian

2011-07-01

380

BLOOD DONATION  

CERN Multimedia

A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

SC Unit

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Donating Blood  

Science.gov (United States)

... before you walk in the door of the blood bank. Eat a normal breakfast or lunch — this is ... checked. The medical history includes questions that help blood bank staff decide if a person is healthy enough ...

382

Pap Smear  

Science.gov (United States)

... girls and women should get them before becoming sexually active. ^ Back to top 3. Does an abnormal Pap ... Related Pages On This Site Conditions: Cervical Cancer , Sexually Transmitted Diseases Screening: Cervical cancer - Young Adults , Adults , Adults 50 and Up In the ...

383

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... your feet in the stirrups. The doctor or nurse will then gently open your vagina and insert a speculum. A speculum is a specialized instrument that keeps the vagina open so that a health care provider can see and reach inside the vagina ...

384

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... which is the release of eggs needed for reproduction. Estrogen and progesterone prepare the inner lining of ... diseases. A vaccine against some types of the human papilloma viruses is now available. These viruses have ...

385

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... and why it is beneficial. Ovaries Fallopian Tubes Uterus Vagina Anatomy This document is for informational purposes ... The female reproductive organs include: • The vagina • The uterus • The Fallopian tubes • The ovaries These organs are ...

386

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... of the cervix affects more than 10,000 women in the United States every year. Thanks to ... healthcare provider about what is best for you. • Women ages 21 to 29 should be screened every ...

387

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... X-Plain.com og020106 Last reviewed: 10/01/2012 1 The female reproductive organs include: • The vagina • ... X-Plain.com og020106 Last reviewed: 10/01/2012 2 Cervical cancer usually develops gradually. At first, ...

388

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... for your specific condition. ©1995-2012, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. ... of successfully treating cervical cancer are higher if it is found early. There are several ...

389

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... surface area of the cervix. This is called “carcinoma in situ.” If left untreated, the cancer will ... could move to other organs. Treating atypia and carcinoma in situ is very successful in curing cervical ...

390

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Some sexually transmitted diseases are associated with the development of cancer of the cervix, also called cervical ... available. These viruses have been linked to the development of cervical cancer. Taking the vaccine helps prevent ...

391

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... The ovaries have 2 main functions: 1. The production of specialized hormones, such as estrogen and progesterone ... or liquid-based cytology. • Women with certain risk factors may need more frequent screening, including those who ...

392

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... strongly associated with sexually transmitted diseases, practicing safe sex is very important. When used properly, condoms are ... professional for your specific condition. ©1995-2012, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.X-Plain.com og020106 ...

393

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... your specific condition. ©1995-2012, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.X-Plain.com og020106 Last reviewed: 10/01/2012 2 Cervical cancer usually develops gradually. At first, the cells that ...

394

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Inc. www.X-Plain.com og020106 Last reviewed: 10