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Automated estimation of parasitaemia of Plasmodium yoelii-infected mice by digital image analysis of Giemsa-stained thin blood smears  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasitaemia, the percentage of infected erythrocytes, is used to measure progress of experimental Plasmodium infection in infected hosts. The most widely used technique for parasitaemia determination is manual microscopic enumeration of Giemsa-stained blood films. This process is onerous, time consuming and relies on the expertise of the experimenter giving rise to person-to-person variability. Here the development of image-analysis software, named Plasmodium AutoCount, which can automatically generate parasitaemia values from Plasmodium-infected blood smears, is reported. Methods Giemsa-stained blood smear images were captured with a camera attached to a microscope and analysed using a programme written in the Python programming language. The programme design involved foreground detection, cell and infection detection, and spurious hit filtering. A number of parameters were adjusted by a calibration process using a set of representative images. Another programme, Counting Aid, written in Visual Basic, was developed to aid manual counting when the quality of blood smear preparation is too poor for use with the automated programme. Results This programme has been validated for use in estimation of parasitemia in mouse infection by Plasmodium yoelii and used to monitor parasitaemia on a daily basis for an entire challenge infection. The parasitaemia values determined by Plasmodium AutoCount were shown to be highly correlated with the results obtained by manual counting, and the discrepancy between automated and manual counting results were comparable to those found among manual counts of different experimenters. Conclusions Plasmodium AutoCount has proven to be a useful tool for rapid and accurate determination of parasitaemia from infected mouse blood. For greater accuracy when smear quality is poor, Plasmodium AutoCount, can be used in conjunction with Counting Aid.

Wang Lina

2010-12-01

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Investigation of a novel approach to scoring Giemsa-stained malaria-infected thin blood films  

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Abstract Daily assessment of the percentage of erythrocytes that are infected ('percent-parasitaemia') across a time-course is a necessary step in many experimental studies of malaria, but represents a time-consuming and unpopular task among researchers. The most common method is extensive microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained thin blood-films. This study explored a method for the assessment of percent-parasitaemia that does not require extended periods of microscopy and results...

2008-01-01

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Investigation of a novel approach to scoring Giemsa-stained malaria-infected thin blood films  

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Full Text Available Abstract Daily assessment of the percentage of erythrocytes that are infected ('percent-parasitaemia' across a time-course is a necessary step in many experimental studies of malaria, but represents a time-consuming and unpopular task among researchers. The most common method is extensive microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained thin blood-films. This study explored a method for the assessment of percent-parasitaemia that does not require extended periods of microscopy and results in a descriptive and permanent record of parasitaemia data that is highly amenable to subsequent 'data-mining'. Digital photography was utilized in conjunction with a basic purpose-written computer programme to test the viability of the concept. Partial automation of the determination of percent parasitaemia was then explored, resulting in the successful customization of commercially available broad-spectrum image analysis software towards this aim. Lastly, automated discrimination between infected and uninfected RBCs based on analysis of digital parameters of individual cell images was explored in an effort to completely automate the calculation of an accurate percent-parasitaemia.

Scholzen Anja

2008-04-01

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Giemsa-stained thick blood films as a source of DNA for Plasmodium species-specific real-time PCR  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes the use of thick blood films (TBF as specimens for DNA amplification with the Plasmodium species-specific real-time PCR that was recently validated on whole blood samples. Methods The panel of 135 Giemsa-stained clinical TBFs represented single infections of the four Plasmodium species with varying parasite densities or only gametocytes, mixed infections, and negative samples and was stored for up to 12 years. Half of the Giemsa-stained TBF was scraped off by a sterile scalpel and collected into phosphate buffered saline. DNA was extracted with the Qiagen DNA mini kit with minor modifications. DNA was amplified with the 18S rRNA real-time PCR targeting the four Plasmodium species with four species-specific primers and probes in combination with one genus-specific reverse primer. Results of the PCR on TBF were compared to those of the PCR on whole blood and to microscopy. Results Correct identification for single species infections was obtained for all TBF samples with Plasmodium falciparum (n = 50, Plasmodium vivax (n = 25, Plasmodium ovale (n = 25 and in all but one samples with Plasmodium malariae (n = 10. Compared to whole blood samples, higher Ct-values were observed by PCR on TBF with a mean difference of 5.93. Four out of five mixed infections were correctly identified with PCR on TBF. None of the negative samples (n = 20 gave a PCR signal. PCR on TBF showed a detection limit of 0.2 asexual parasites/?l compared to 0.02/?l for whole blood. Intra-run variation was higher for PCR on TBF (%CV 1.90 compared to PCR on whole blood (%CV 0.54. Compared to microscopy, PCR on TBF generated three more species identifications in samples containing a single species and detected the same four mixed-infections. Conclusions Giemsa-stained TBFs are a reliable source of DNA for Plasmodium real-time PCR analysis, allowing applications in reference and research settings in case whole blood samples are not available.

Bottieau Emmanuel

2010-12-01

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DNA Comet Giemsa Staining for Conventional Bright-Field Microscopy  

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This study was undertaken to evaluate the compatibility of Giemsa staining protocol with the comet assay. We showed, for the first time, that DNA comets can be visualized and analyzed using Giemsa staining. We generated DNA damage dose response curves for human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to X-ray radiation using the comet assay with either SybrGreen I or Giemsa stain. The dose response curves were fitted by linear regressions (R2 > 0.977). The SybrGreen I results showed only ~1.2-fold higher slope coefficient (method sensitivity) compared to the Giemsa results. The unexpectedly high sensitivity of Giemsa staining for the comet assay is due to the Romanowsky-Giemsa effect, the stain photo-stability and the higher resolution of bright-field imaging compared to fluorescence imaging. Our results demonstrate that Giemsa staining can effectively be used for measuring DNA damage by the comet assay. The low cost and availability of Giemsa stain makes this method affordable for any low budget research and will facilitate new applications of the comet assay in biology and medicine.

Osipov, Andreyan; Arkhangelskaya, Ekaterina; Vinokurov, Alexei; Smetanina, Nadezhda; Zhavoronkov, Alex; Klokov, Dmitry

2014-01-01

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DNA comet Giemsa staining for conventional bright-field microscopy.  

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This study was undertaken to evaluate the compatibility of Giemsa staining protocol with the comet assay. We showed, for the first time, that DNA comets can be visualized and analyzed using Giemsa staining. We generated DNA damage dose response curves for human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to X-ray radiation using the comet assay with either SybrGreen I or Giemsa stain. The dose response curves were fitted by linear regressions (R2>0.977). The SybrGreen I results showed only ~1.2-fold higher slope coefficient (method sensitivity) compared to the Giemsa results. The unexpectedly high sensitivity of Giemsa staining for the comet assay is due to the Romanowsky-Giemsa effect, the stain photo-stability and the higher resolution of bright-field imaging compared to fluorescence imaging. Our results demonstrate that Giemsa staining can effectively be used for measuring DNA damage by the comet assay. The low cost and availability of Giemsa stain makes this method affordable for any low budget research and will facilitate new applications of the comet assay in biology and medicine. PMID:24727376

Osipov, Andreyan; Arkhangelskaya, Ekaterina; Vinokurov, Alexei; Smetanin?, Nadezhda; Zhavoronkov, Alex; Klokov, Dmitry

2014-01-01

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DNA Comet Giemsa Staining for Conventional Bright-Field Microscopy  

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Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate the compatibility of Giemsa staining protocol with the comet assay. We showed, for the first time, that DNA comets can be visualized and analyzed using Giemsa staining. We generated DNA damage dose response curves for human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to X-ray radiation using the comet assay with either SybrGreen I or Giemsa stain. The dose response curves were fitted by linear regressions (R2 > 0.977. The SybrGreen I results showed only ~1.2-fold higher slope coefficient (method sensitivity compared to the Giemsa results. The unexpectedly high sensitivity of Giemsa staining for the comet assay is due to the Romanowsky-Giemsa effect, the stain photo-stability and the higher resolution of bright-field imaging compared to fluorescence imaging. Our results demonstrate that Giemsa staining can effectively be used for measuring DNA damage by the comet assay. The low cost and availability of Giemsa stain makes this method affordable for any low budget research and will facilitate new applications of the comet assay in biology and medicine.

Andreyan Osipov

2014-04-01

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Diagnosis and Characterization of Leishmania Species in Giemsa-Stained slides by PCR-RFLP  

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Full Text Available Background: Direct identification of Leishmania species in Giemsa-stained slides without parasite culturing in the areas where multiple species exist, is very helpful. This study was designed to isolate Leishmani spp. from Giemsa-stained smears and to characterize them by PCR technique.Methods: A total of 48 Giemsa-Stained slides from confirmed cases of leishmaniasis were examined under a light micro­scope at×1000 and classified based on grading of Leishmania parasites. DNA from each slide was extracted separately and sub­jected to PCR. The ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1 was amplified with specific primers and the PCR prod­ucts were digested with a restriction enzyme (HaeIII.Results: Of the 48 microscopy-positive slides, 43(89.6% were positive by PCR-RFLP and Leishmania species were identi­fied. A statistically significant difference was observed between the both methods (P< 0.05 and also a concordance was found between microscopy and PCR-RFLP (k= 0.55.Conclusion: PCR-RFLP seems to be an effective method to identify Leishmania species from Giemsa-stained smears which have been collected from both infected humans and animal reservoir hosts in Iran.

E Kazemi-Rad

2008-05-01

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Blood Smear  

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... eye is still the best method for definitively evaluating and identifying immature and abnormal cells. A blood ... production or increased cell destruction, such as an anemia , myeloproliferative disorders , bone marrow disorders , or leukemia . Some ...

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A rapid method for counting nucleated erythrocytes on stained blood smears by digital image analysis  

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Measures of parasitemia by intraerythrocytic hematozoan parasites are normally expressed as the number of infected erythrocytes per n erythrocytes and are notoriously tedious and time consuming to measure. We describe a protocol for generating rapid counts of nucleated erythrocytes from digital micrographs of thin blood smears that can be used to estimate intensity of hematozoan infections in nonmammalian vertebrate hosts. This method takes advantage of the bold contrast and relatively uniform size and morphology of erythrocyte nuclei on Giemsa-stained blood smears and uses ImageJ, a java-based image analysis program developed at the U.S. National Institutes of Health and available on the internet, to recognize and count these nuclei. This technique makes feasible rapid and accurate counts of total erythrocytes in large numbers of microscope fields, which can be used in the calculation of peripheral parasitemias in low-intensity infections.

Gering, E.; Atkinson, C. T.

2004-01-01

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Purpose and Criteria for Blood Smear Scan, Blood Smear Examination, and Blood Smear Review  

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A microscopic examination of an appropriately prepared and well-stained blood smear by a knowledgeable laboratory professional is necessary and clinically useful in a number of circumstances and for a variety of reasons. In this article, an attempt is made to delineate the purpose and criteria for blood smear examination in a variety of circumstances that are encountered in everyday laboratory hematology practice. A blood smear scan serves to at least (a) verify the flagged automated hematolo...

2013-01-01

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DNA extraction from archival Giemsa-stained bone-marrow slides: comparison of six rapid methods.  

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The ability of six rapid DNA extraction procedures to provide DNA for the polymerase chain reaction from archival Giemsa-stained bone marrow slides was tested on 120 samples. Boiling in distilled water, freeze-thaw method, boiling in 10% Chelex-100 resin solution, proteinase K/Tween 20/NP-40 method coupled with simplified phenol/ chloroform/isoamyl alcohol protocol or salting-out procedure using saturated NaCl and modification of commercial QIAamp procedure (Qiagen. Chatsworth, Calif.) gave DNA extraction efficiencies of 50%, 70%, 85%, 95%, 100% and 100%, respectively. Our results demonstrate that rough DNA extraction methods have decreased efficiencies compared to complete DNA extraction protocols and that the latter are required to ensure highly reproducible results from archival Giemsa-stained bone marrow slides. PMID:9609534

Vince, A; Poljak, M; Seme, K

1998-05-01

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Reliable DNA Extraction on Historical Malaria Negative Smears Conducted to Nested PCR in South-East of Iran  

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Full Text Available The reliability of PCR depends on many factors, such as high quality DNA pellets obtained from fixed Giemsa-stained blood samples, good reagents and adequate conditions of amplification. In account of this limitations, a retrospective epidemiological study for malaria diagnosis was conducted in a hypoendemic area, Sistan and Baluchestan province of south-east of Iran. For the first time this research designed to perform a nested PCR protocol using new and modified method of DNA extraction from negative Fixed and Giemsa Stained smears. This study demonstrated 11.55% PCR positive for Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum which were undetectable by microscopy.

A. Ebrahimzadeh

2006-01-01

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Leishmania identification by PCR of Giemsa-stained lesion imprint slides stored for up to 36 years.  

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This study examined the ability of PCR to amplify Leishmania DNA, stored on Giemsa-stained slides, from American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) patients. In total, 475 slides stored for up to 36 years were obtained from an outpatient clinic in a Brazilian ACL-endemic region, and Leishmania DNA was amplified from 395 (83.2%) of the DNA samples using primers specific for the minicircle kinetoplast DNA. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of these amplicons demonstrated that Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis was the only species present in these samples. The results demonstrated that archived Giemsa-stained slides can provide a Leishmania DNA source for performing clinical and epidemiological studies of leishmaniasis. PMID:16842583

Volpini, A C; Marques, M J; Lopes dos Santos, S; Machado-Coelho, G L; Mayrink, W; Romanha, A J

2006-08-01

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A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI, BIOPSY SAMPLES FROM DIFFERENT GASTRIC LESIONS WITH TRIPLE STAINING AND MODIFIED GIEMSA STAINING  

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Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori are associated with most of the disorders of gastro-duodenal tract, such as gastritis, gastric ulcers, dyspepsia and gastric carcinoma. Many staining methods have been developed for the detection of these bacteria from gastric biopsies. However most of the methods adopted were shown to be more expensive, less sensitive, time consuming with less background information. In view of this, the present study was carried out to check the validity of triple staining method against modified Giemsa staining. For this study, 60 biopsy specimens were selected from different gastric lesions as chronic gastritis (30, gastric ulcers (10 and gastric carcinoma (20. These specimens were subjected to modified Giemsa staining showed purple to dark purple bacteria with bluish background. The results showed 56.66, 40 and 15 percentage positivity for chronic gastritis, benign gastric ulcers and malignant gastric lesions, respectively. The stained sections of triple staining showed black to dark brown bacteria with pink colored background with 70, 50 and 10 percentage positivity for chronic gastritis, benign gastric ulcers and malignant gastric lesions, respectively. From the present study it is clear that triple staining method is more sensitive than the modified Giemsa staining.

Pavan Kumar Pindi

2013-02-01

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Applications of a simple Giemsa-staining method in the micronucleus test  

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A straining technique is described which detects the chromosome-breaking effects of a potential mutagen and provides useful information on cytotoxicity and cell-cycle specific mutagenicity of the agent being tested. Two different techniques are compared by studying the bone-marrow smears of irradiated mice. (C.F.)

1979-01-01

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Identification of Leishmania Species Using PCR Assay on Giemsa-Stained Slides Prepared From Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Patients  

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Full Text Available Background: Leishmaniasis is a group of diseases that are created by intracellular parasites of Leishmania. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is considered as one of the health problems in some provinces of Iran.Methods: In this study, a total of 178 Giemsa-stained slides from confirmed cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were examined. The slides were prepared from the patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis that referred to health centers and infected during the epidemic of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Poldokhtar city, Lorestan Province, Iran in 2006.Genomic DNA from each slide was extracted. After DNA extraction, ITS-PCR was used.Results: Out of 178 slides, 129 (72.47% samples had a band in the range of 485 bp and 49 (27.53% samples 626 bp that matched L. tropica and L. major standard samples, respectively.Conclusion: This study showed that Leishmania DNA could be efficiently ex­tracted and amplified even from old Giemsa-stained microscopic slides that were stored more than 6 yr. In this study was shown that both L. tropica and L. major species exist in Lorestan Province.

Farnaz Kheirandish

2013-09-01

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Comparison of the Novel Partec Rapid Malaria Test to the Conventional Giemsa Stain and the Gold Standard Real-Time PCR ?  

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Malaria remains the single most frequent cause of death in Africa, killing one child every 30 s, but treatment decisions are often made only on clinical diagnosis, as laboratory techniques to confirm the clinical suspicion are labor intensive and costly. In this study, we evaluated the recently developed Partec rapid malaria test (PM) for the detection of Plasmodium spp. in human blood from patients in an area where malaria is endemic and compared the results with those of thick blood film Giemsa stain (GS) in terms of its performance and operational characteristics, using real-time (RT) PCR as the gold standard. The sensitivities of the PM and the GS were 62.2% (95% CI, 56.3 to 67.8) and 61.8% (95% CI, 55.9 to 67.4), respectively, while the specificities were 96.0% (95% CI, 92.3 to 98.3) and 98% (95% CI, 95.0 to 99.5), respectively. There was an excellent agreement between the results for the PM and those of the GS (k [level of agreement] = 0.96; P < 0.001). The results for the PM were obtained more quickly and at less cost than those for the GS. The performance characteristics of the PM were almost equal to those of the GS, but the operational characteristics were better, and the PM can therefore be considered as an alternative method for GS.

Nkrumah, Bernard; Agyekum, Alex; Acquah, Samuel E. K.; May, Jurgen; Tannich, Egbert; Brattig, Norbert; Nguah, Samuel Blay; von Thien, Heidrun; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Huenger, Frank

2010-01-01

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Blood parasites in passerine birds from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Hemoparasitos em passeriformes da Mata Atlântica Brasileira  

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Parasites may lead bird species to extinction, affect host temporal and spatial population dynamics, alter community structure and alter individuals’ social status. We evaluated blood parasite prevalence and intensity according to bird families and species, among 925 birds that were caught in 2000 and 2001, in the Atlantic Forest in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. We applied Giemsa staining to thin blood smears, to detect blood parasites. The birds (n = 15.8%) in 11 families, were infect...

Fabiane Sebaio; Érika Martins Braga; Felipe Branquinho; Alan Fecchio; Miguel Ângelo Marini

2012-01-01

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Structural analysis of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations by atomic force microscope (AFM) before and after Giemsa staining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: We have studied structures of chromosome aberration induced by ionizing radiation by an atomic force microscope (AFM). The AFM could visualize the fine structure of chromosomes on Giemsa stained or unstained samples, although it was difficult to visualize unstained chromosomes by light microscope. The height data of chromosomes obtained by AFM provided useful information to describe detailed structure of chromatid gaps induced by heavy ion irradiation. A fibrous structure was observed on the unstained chromosome and these structures were considered to be the 30nm fibers on the chromosome. These types of structures were observed in the gaps as well as on surface of the chromosome. Further more, other types of chromosome aberration induced by ionizing radiation visualized by AFM will be presented

2003-08-17

 
 
 
 
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External quality assessment of Giemsa-stained blood film microscopy for the diagnosis of malaria and sleeping sickness in the Democratic Republic of the Congo / Évaluation externe de la qualité de la microscopie de frottis sanguins colorés au Giemsa pour le diagnostic du paludisme et de la maladie du sommeil en République démocratique du Congo / Evaluación de calidad externa de la microscopía en frotis de sangre con tinción de Giemsa para el diagnóstico de la malaria y la enfermedad del sueño en la República Democrática del Congo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Informar de los resultados de una segunda evaluación de calidad externa de la microscopía en frotis de sangre con tinción de Giemsa en la República Democrática del Congo, llevada a cabo un año después de la primera. MÉTODOS: Se entregó un panel de cuatro muestras a laboratorios de diagnóst [...] ico de todas las provincias del país. Las muestras contenían: (i) gametocitos Plasmodium falciparum; (ii) trofozoítos P. falciparum (densidad de referencia: 113 530 por µl); (iii) subespecies de Trypanosoma brucei y (iv) ningún parásito. RESULTADOS: De los 356 laboratorios contactados, respondieron 277 (77,8%). En total, el 35,0% de los laboratorios informó de las cuatro muestras correctamente, pero el 14,1% informó de resultados correctos en una o ninguna de las muestras. Los principales errores consistieron en no diagnosticar la tripanosomiasis (50,4%), no reconocer los gametocitos P. falciparum (17,5%) y diagnosticar malaria en la muestra sin parásitos (19,0%). La frecuencia de errores graves en la evaluación de la densidad de los parásitos y en informar de resultados con falsos positivos fue menor que en la evaluación de calidad externa anterior. El 17,2% y el 52,3%, respectivamente (P Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To report the findings of a second external quality assessment of Giemsa-stained blood film microscopy in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, performed one year after the first. METHODS: A panel of four slides was delivered to diagnostic laboratories in all provinces of the country. The [...] slides contained: (i) Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes; (ii) P. falciparum trophozoites (reference density: 113 530 per µl); (iii) Trypanosoma brucei subspecies; and (iv) no parasites. FINDINGS: Of 356 laboratories contacted, 277 (77.8%) responded. Overall, 35.0% of the laboratories reported all four slides correctly but 14.1% reported correct results for 1 or 0 slides. Major errors included not diagnosing trypanosomiasis (50.4%), not recognizing P. falciparum gametocytes (17.5%) and diagnosing malaria from the slide with no parasites (19.0%). The frequency of serious errors in assessing parasite density and in reporting false-positive results was lower than in the previous external quality assessment: 17.2% and 52.3%, respectively, (P

Mukadi, Pierre; Gillet, Philippe; Lukuka, Albert; Atua, Benjamin; Sheshe, Nicole; Kanza, Albert; Mayunda, Jean Bosco; Mongita, Briston; Senga, Raphaël; Ngoyi, John; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Jacobs, Jan; Lejon, Veerle.

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Low sensitivity of nested PCR using Plasmodium DNA extracted from stained thick blood smears: an epidemiological retrospective study among subjects with low parasitaemia in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon region  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The success of PCR technique depends on many factors, such as high quality DNA pellets obtained from blood samples, good reagents and adequate conditions of amplification. Taking these limitations into account, a retrospective epidemiological study for malaria diagnosis was conducted in a mesoendemic area in the Brazilian Amazon. Methods A nested PCR protocol with DNA extracted from two blood storage devices obtained from Giemsa-stained thick blood smears and filter-papers was used for malaria diagnosis. The extracted DNA was used as a template to amplify approximately 100 bp species-specific sequences of the small subunit of the ribosomal RNA (18S SSU rRNA of Plasmodium sp. The prevalence of single and mixed infections was examined in a cross-sectional survey carried out among 369 miners living in the district of Apiacás, Mato Grosso State. The parasitemia levels detected by microscopic examination were compared to the PCR results. Results DNA samples isolated from blood on filter-paper allowed the detection and identification of Plasmodium in 165 (44.7% of the 369 individuals evaluated, while only 62 (16.8% had positive results using DNA obtained from thick smears, a similar rate observed by microscopic examination. The sensitivities of PCR using DNA from blood smears and filter-papers were 65% and 73.0%, respectively. Low parasite infections (below 20 parasites/µL blood were not detected when thick blood smears were used as a DNA source. Conclusions Although the blood preserved as thick blood smears provides an alternative and useful tool for malaria molecular diagnosis, its relatively poor performance at low level parasitemias impairs the correct determination of malaria prevalence in epidemiological studies. However, the results obtained in the present study confirm that the use of filter-paper to collect blood is useful for field studies.

Horta Maria

2004-03-01

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Gram negative septicaemia diagnosed on peripheral blood smear appearances.  

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Buffy coat smears from febrile patients may contain visible bacteria and therefore detect bacteraemia before conventional blood cultures become positive. However, it is unusual to see micro-organisms in an otherwise untreated peripheral blood smear. The case of a febrile neutropenic patient is reported. A Wright's stained peripheral blood smear contained bacterial elements, thus making earlier diagnosis of septicaemia and identification of the causative bacterium possible.

Fife, A.; Hill, D.; Barton, C.; Burden, P.

1994-01-01

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Prevalence of theileriosis in cross-bred cattle: its detection through blood smear examination and polymerase chain reaction in Dehradun district, Uttarakhand, India  

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Full Text Available Aim: Theileriosis is a major threat to dairy and related industries. Theileria is a protozoan parasite that causes theileriosis, a fatal disease. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of theileriosis in crossbred cattle belonging to Dehradun district, Uttarakhand, India. Materials and Methods: We screened 301 blood samples each month from apparently normal/healthy crossbred cattle from various locations of Dehradun district. Samples were tested using Giemsa's staining technique and specific PCR test. Result: Microscopic examination of blood smears revealed 27.2% (82 overall prevalence of theileriosis. The highest prevalence was found in rainy season with a prevalence rate 45.4%. By Theileria genus specific PCR test, 98 samples (32.5 % were found to be positive for theileriosis. Conclusion: Our study suggests that theileriosis is spreading to even the temperate region in Uttarakhand and immediate screening norms/policies are needed to reduce the extent of spread. There is a need for further investigation using molecular technique.

Shweta Kohli

2014-03-01

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RBCs and Parasites Segmentation from Thin Smear Blood Cell Images  

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Manually examine the blood smear for the detection of malaria parasite consumes lot of time for trend pathologists. As the computational power increases, the role of automatic visual inspection becomes more important. An automated system is therefore needed to complete as much work as possible for the identification of malaria parasites. The given scheme based on used of RGB color space, G layer processing, and segmentation of Red Blood Cells (RBC) as well as cell parasites by auto-thresholdi...

2012-01-01

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A sero-epidemiological survey of blood parasites in cattle in the north-eastern Free State, South Africa  

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A survey to determine the incidence of parasites in cattle (n = 386) was conducted in the north eastern Free State between August 1999 and July 2000. Giemsa-stained blood smears were negative for blood parasites. A total of 94 % of the cattle were sero-positive for Babesia bigemina by indirect fluorescent antibody test while 87 % were sero-positive for Anaplasma by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The observation of ...

Mtshali, M. S.; Waal, D. T.; Mbati, P. A.

2010-01-01

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Low sensitivity of nested PCR using Plasmodium DNA extracted from stained thick blood smears: an epidemiological retrospective study among subjects with low parasitaemia in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon region  

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Abstract Background The success of PCR technique depends on many factors, such as high quality DNA pellets obtained from blood samples, good reagents and adequate conditions of amplification. Taking these limitations into account, a retrospective epidemiological study for malaria diagnosis was conducted in a mesoendemic area in the Brazilian Amazon. Methods A nested PCR protocol with DNA extracted from two blood storage devices obtained from Giemsa-stained thick...

Kg, Scopel Ke?zia; Jf, Fontes Cor; Nunes Álvaro C; Horta Maria; Braga Érika M

2004-01-01

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Low-magnification image analysis of Giemsa stained, electroporation and bleomycin treated endothelial monolayers provides reliable monolayer integrity data.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to develop an in vitro cell model for studying the in vivo observed vascular effect, induced by exposing blood vessels to changing electric field strengths. Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) were cultured as monolayers on 8 chamber glass slides as a model of capillary wall. Exposed to electric pulses alone, or in the presence of bleomycin (electrochemotherapy), monolayers were incubated with culture medium, fixed with methanol, stained with Giemsa, and photographed. Images of high-contrast low-magnification monolayers made under identical optimal light exposure were converted to greyscale, and the use of a threshold tool yielded a binary distribution, from which we determined two parameters of monolayer integrity: the covered surface area and the number of cells. We show that this low-magnification image analysis method for attached endothelial cells provides reliable control parameters of monolayer integrity, representing capillary wall. Besides, already within 2h post-treatment the data show distinct effects in the monolayer integrity parameters for electric pulses alone, or in the presence of bleomycin. The present method can be readily introduced to short and long-term toxicity assays with a variety of treatment conditions. PMID:24412537

Meulenberg, Cécil J W; Cemazar, Maja

2014-06-01

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RBCs and Parasites Segmentation from Thin Smear Blood Cell Images  

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Full Text Available Manually examine the blood smear for the detection of malaria parasite consumes lot of time for trend pathologists. As the computational power increases, the role of automatic visual inspection becomes more important. An automated system is therefore needed to complete as much work as possible for the identification of malaria parasites. The given scheme based on used of RGB color space, G layer processing, and segmentation of Red Blood Cells (RBC as well as cell parasites by auto-thresholding with offset value and use of morphological processing. The work compare with the manual results obtained from the pathology lab, based on total RBC count and cells parasite count. The designed system successfully detects malaria parasites and RBC cells in thin smear image.

Vishal V. Panchbhai

2012-09-01

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A novel haemoplasma species identified in archived primate blood smears  

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In order to confirm a microscopic diagnosis of ‘eperythrozoonosis’ made over 40 years ago in a captive owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus), DNA was extracted from archived fixed and stained blood smears and subjected to generic haemotropic mycoplasma (haemoplasma) quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and a human glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase qPCR as an amplification control. The qPCRs confirmed the extraction of host DNA from the samples and the presence of a haemoplasma species. Parti...

Barker, Emily N.; Helps, Chris R.; Neimark, Harold; Peters, Iain R.; Peters, Wallace; Tasker, Se?verine

2011-01-01

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Detection of plasmodium parasites from images of thin blood smears  

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Full Text Available Malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in tropical and subtropical countries. Conventional microscopy is the Gold standard in the diagnosis of the disease. However, it is prone to some shortcomings which include time consumption and difficultness in reproducing results. Alternative diagnosis techniques which yield superior results are quite expensive and hence inaccessible to developing countries where the disease is prevalent. Thus in this work, an accurate, speedy and affordable system of malaria detection using stained thin blood smear images was developed. The method uses Artificial Neural Network (ANN to test for the presence of plasmodium parasites in thin blood smear images. Images of infected and non-infected erythrocytes were acquired, pre-processed, relevant features extracted from them and eventually diagnosis was made based on the features extracted from the images. Diagnosis entailed detection of plasmodium parasites. Classification accuracy of 95.0% in detection of infected erythrocyte was achieved with respect to results obtained by expert microscopists. The study revealed that artificial neural network (ANN classifiers trained with colour features of infected stained thin blood smear images are suitable for detection. It was further shown that ANN classifiers can be trained to perform image segmentation.

Daniel Maitethia Memeu

2013-11-01

32

Investigations of significance of blood smear results in diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases in dogs  

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Full Text Available The microscopic examination of stained smears of peripheral blood is of vital significance in the speedy diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases, in particular during the stage of infection when the cause is present in the blood, or blood cells. It is sometimes possible to make a definitive diagnosis of an infectious or parasitic disease following an examination of a stained smear of the peripheral blood. Since microscopic examinations of a peripheral blood smear are applied increasingly rarely in clinical practice, due to the development of other methods for the diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases in dogs, as well as the lack of knowledge of the morphology of the numerous causes that can be present in the blood, we carried out an investigation into the presence and spread of infections whose causes can be present in dog blood. The investigations covered 100 dogs from which peripheral blood smears were taken and then stained with a Giemsa solution according to the standard protocol and examined under a microscope with an immersion lens. The examination of peripheral blood smears stained according to Giemsa resulted in the identification of the presence of an Ehrlichia spp. morula in a neutrophil granulocyte in one dog. The presence of hemotropic mycoplasmas was established in erythrocytes of eleven dogs, while the presence of the protozoa Babesia canis in erythrocytes was identified in five dogs included in the investigations. A microscopic examination of dog peripheral blood smears stained according to Giemsa was shown as a speedy, practical, simple, and inexpensive method for making a definitive etiological diagnosis of these infections, and it should be included regularly in standard protocols for the diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases.

Potkonjak Aleksandar

2010-01-01

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Use of Romanowsky type (Diff-3) stain for detecting Helicobacter pylori in smears and tissue sections.  

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A Romanowsky type (Diff-3) stain was used for identifying Helicobacter pylori in gastric biopsy specimens from 50 patients with ulcer and non-ulcer dyspepsia. Air dried smears were prepared from fresh biopsy tissue and histological sections were prepared from paraffin wax processed tissue. The Diff-3 technique is accomplished in five steps and takes about 30 seconds. Results using the Diff-3 stain correlated 100% with those using the Giemsa stain. The Diff-3 stain is reliable, simple, rapid, ...

Zaitoun, A. M.

1992-01-01

34

Comparative study of peripheral blood smear and quantitative buffy coat in malaria diagnosis.  

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A rapid test for diagnosis of malaria based on acridine orange staining of centrifuged blood samples in a microhaematocrit tube (QBC) was compared with Leishman stained thin peripheral blood smear in 287 samples. Malaria was diagnosed in 44 patients by Leishman staining technique and in 65 patients by QBC method. The QBC method allowed detection of an additional 21 cases. Thus the prevalence rate of malaria during the study was 22.65%. In 222 Patients who were negative by the QBC technique, the Leishman stained smears were also negative for malarial parasite. Although QBC method was superior to the smear for malarial parasite detection, species identification was difficult by this technique. The QBC method provides a reliable, quick, easily mastered, accurate method for diagnosis of malaria. The QBC system can also be used in the diagnosis of other parasitic diseases from blood (Filariasis). However, Leishman stained thin blood film still appear superior for species identification. PMID:23785883

Salmani, Manjunath P; Preeti, B Mindolli; Peerapur, B V

2011-03-01

35

Counting of RBCs and WBCs in noisy normal blood smear microscopic images  

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This work focuses on the segmentation and counting of peripheral blood smear particles which plays a vital role in medical diagnosis. Our approach profits from some powerful processing techniques. Firstly, the method used for denoising a blood smear image is based on the Bivariate wavelet. Secondly, image edge preservation uses the Kuwahara filter. Thirdly, a new binarization technique is introduced by merging the Otsu and Niblack methods. We have also proposed an efficient step-by-step procedure to determine solid binary objects by merging modified binary, edged images and modified Chan-Vese active contours. The separation of White Blood Cells (WBCs) from Red Blood Cells (RBCs) into two sub-images based on the RBC (blood's dominant particle) size estimation is a critical step. Using Granulometry, we get an approximation of the RBC size. The proposed separation algorithm is an iterative mechanism which is based on morphological theory, saturation amount and RBC size. A primary aim of this work is to introduce an accurate mechanism for counting blood smear particles. This is accomplished by using the Immersion Watershed algorithm which counts red and white blood cells separately. To evaluate the capability of the proposed framework, experiments were conducted on normal blood smear images. This framework was compared to other published approaches and found to have lower complexity and better performance in its constituent steps; hence, it has a better overall performance.

Habibzadeh, M.; Krzyzak, A.; Fevens, T.; Sadr, A.

2011-03-01

36

Comparison of the Novel Partec Rapid Malaria Test to the Conventional Giemsa Stain and the Gold Standard Real-Time PCR ?  

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Malaria remains the single most frequent cause of death in Africa, killing one child every 30 s, but treatment decisions are often made only on clinical diagnosis, as laboratory techniques to confirm the clinical suspicion are labor intensive and costly. In this study, we evaluated the recently developed Partec rapid malaria test (PM) for the detection of Plasmodium spp. in human blood from patients in an area where malaria is endemic and compared the results with those of thick blood film Gi...

2010-01-01

37

Crowdsourcing Malaria Parasite Quantification: An Online Game for Analyzing Images of Infected Thick Blood Smears  

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Background: There are 600,000 new malaria cases daily worldwide. The gold standard for estimating the parasite burden and the corresponding severity of the disease consists in manually counting the number of parasites in blood smears through a microscope, a process that can take more than 20 minutes of an expert microscopist’s time.

2012-01-01

38

Diagnosis of Carrion's Disease by Direct Blood PCR in Thin Blood Smear Negative Samples  

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Bartonella bacilliformis is the etiologic agent of Carrion's disease. This disease has two well established phases, the most relevant being the so called Oroya Fever, in which B. bacilliformis infect the erythrocytes resulting in severe anemia and transient immunosuppression, with a high lethality in the absence of adequate antibiotic treatment. The presence of B. bacilliformis was studied in 113 blood samples suspected of Carrion’s disease based on clinical criteria, despite the absence of a positive thin blood smear, by two different PCR techniques (using Bartonella-specific and universal 16S rRNA gene primers), and by bacterial culture. The specific 16S rRNA gene primers revealed the presence of 21 B. bacilliformis and 1 Bartonella elizabethae, while universal primers showed both the presence of 3 coinfections in which a concomitant pathogen was detected plus Bartonella, in addition to the presence of infections by other microorganisms such as Agrobacterium or Bacillus firmus. These data support the need to implement molecular tools to diagnose Carrion’s disease.

Tinco Valdez, Carmen; Pons, Maria J.; del Valle, Luis J.; Ore, Veronica Casabona; Michelena, Denisse Champin; Mayra, Jorge Bazan; Gavidea, Victor Zavaleta; Vargas, Martha; Ruiz, Joaquim

2014-01-01

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Evaluation of Peripheral Blood Smear for Myelodysplasia in Breast Cancer Patients who Received Adjuvant Antracycline  

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Full Text Available Objective: Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN account for approximately 10% to 20% of all cases of AML (acute myeloid leukemia, MDS (myelodysplastic syndrome and MDS/MPN (myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasms, MDS, and MDS/MPN. In our study, we evaluated peripheral blood smear samples and hemogram values in breast cancer patients who were receiving adjuvant anthracycline regimens and were in remission. Materials and Methods: A total of 78 patients receiving anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy treatment from Kayseri Research and Training Hospital and Mersin State Hospital were enrolled in the study. Their adjuvant treatments had been completed at least 18 months prior to the study. Results: Two patients complained of anemia (2.2% (Hb<11 mg/dl, leukopenia was observed in seven patients (7.7% (leukocytes<4000/mm3, and thrombocytopenia was observed in four patients (4.4% (PLT<150.000/mm3. In the blood smear samples, the following were observed: ovalomacrocytes (14%, macrocytes (37%, acanthocytes (1%, stomatocytes (12%, teardrops (12%, nucleated erythrocytes (1%, basophilic stippling (14%, and Howell-Jolly bodies (1%. Additionally, hypo-granulation (38%, Pelger-Huet abnormalities (26%, hypersegmentation (20%, immature granulocytes (8%, and blasts (6% were observed. We also confirmed the presence of giant platelets (50% and platelet hypogranulation (19%. Conclusion: According to the peripheral blood smear assessments in our study, we suggest that breast cancer patients should be evaluated for MDS in the early stages, starting from month 18, even if the automated blood counts are normal.

Hasan Mutlu

2011-12-01

40

Selection of the best features for leukocytes classification in blood smear microscopic images  

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Automatic differential counting of leukocytes provides invaluable information to pathologist for diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. The main objective of this paper is to detect leukocytes from a blood smear microscopic image and classify them into their types: Neutrophil, Eosinophil, Basophil, Lymphocyte and Monocyte using features that pathologists consider to differentiate leukocytes. Features contain color, geometric and texture features. Colors of nucleus and cytoplasm vary among the leukocytes. Lymphocytes have single, large, round or oval and Monocytes have singular convoluted shape nucleus. Nucleus of Eosinophils is divided into 2 segments and nucleus of Neutrophils into 2 to 5 segments. Lymphocytes often have no granules, Monocytes have tiny granules, Neutrophils have fine granules and Eosinophils have large granules in cytoplasm. Six color features is extracted from both nucleus and cytoplasm, 6 geometric features only from nucleus and 6 statistical features and 7 moment invariants features only from cytoplasm of leukocytes. These features are fed to support vector machine (SVM) classifiers with one to one architecture. The results obtained by applying the proposed method on blood smear microscopic image of 10 patients including 149 white blood cells (WBCs) indicate that correct rate for all classifiers are above 93% which is in a higher level in comparison with previous literatures.

Sarrafzadeh, Omid; Rabbani, Hossein; Talebi, Ardeshir; Banaem, Hossein Usefi

2014-03-01

 
 
 
 
41

Detection of malarial parasite by blood smear examination and antigen detection: A comparative study  

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Full Text Available At present about 100 countries in the world are considered malarious, is thought to kill between 1.1 and 2.7 million people worldwide each year, of which about 1 million are children under the age of 5 years in these areas. Under ideal circumstances, the clinical suspicion of malaria would be confirmed by a laboratory test that is simple to perform, rapid, sensitive, specific and expensive. At the present time, no such test exists. The most common test for malaria diagnosis remains the microscopic examination of giemsa or the fields –stained blood smears. The test is based on the detection of Plasmodium falciparum specific histidine rich protein ii (hrp and a pan malarial species specific enzyme aldolose, produced by the respective parasites and released into the blood and the test is based on immune chromatography, the test is highly sensitive. Method: In this study included 100 patients, 60% of patients had history suggestive of malaria, another 40% gave the history of irregular fever; For each patient peripheral blood sample was collected, thin and thick smear blood films were made immediately after blood collection, stained with Leishman stain and examined for malaria parasite by light microscopy. Results: The blood films results indicated that 40 (20% patients were infected with malaria and the rest 171 (85.5% were malaria negative. Among positive patients Plasmodium vivax was detected in 24 cases (60% and Plasmodium falciparum in 10 cases (31% and 6 cases mixed infection (PV + PF (15% correspondingly, the Para HIT Test results indicated that 29 (14.5% of the patient sample were positive for malaria parasites and 171 (85.5 were malaria negative out 29 patients cases. Infection with Plasmodium vivax accounted for 17 (58.6% while infection with Plasmodium falciparum accounted for 9 (25% and 3 (1.3% with mixed infection of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodiumfalciparum

Erumalla Naveen, Dimple Arora, Vinod Agarwal, Neelam sharma, Anuradha B, Vijay Durga S

2013-01-01

42

Diagnosis of Rhodesian Sleeping Sickness in the Lambwe Valley (1980-1984). (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

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In primary Rhodesian sleeping sickness patients, parasitological diagnosis was best performed by rodent inoculation of blood (98.5%+) followed by Giemsa-stained thick blood smears (93.3%+). Parasitological diagnosis in relapse patients was sometimes impos...

B. T. Wellde D. A. Chumo M. J. Reardon J. Nawiri J. Olando

1989-01-01

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Atypical Herpes simplex keratitis (HSK presenting as a perforated corneal ulcer with a large infiltrate in a contact lens wearer: multinucleated giant cells in the Giemsa smear offered a clue to the diagnosis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To report a case of atypical herpes simplex keratitis initially diagnosed as bacterial keratitis, in a contact lens wearer. Results Case report of an 18-year-old woman using contact lenses who presented with pain, redness and gradual decrease in vision in the right eye. Examination revealed a paracentral large stromal infiltrate with a central 2-mm perforation. Corneal and conjunctival scrapings were collected for microbiological investigations. Corneal tissue was obtained following penetrating keratoplasty. Corneal scraping revealed no microorganisms. Giemsa stained smear showed multinucleated giant cells. Conjunctival, corneal scrapings and tissue were positive for herpes simplex virus - 1 (HSV antigen. Corneal tissue was positive for HSV DNA by PCR. Conclusions Atypical HSV keratitis can occur in contact lens wearers. A simple investigation like Giemsa stain may offer a clue to the diagnosis.

Vemuganti Geeta K

2001-04-01

44

Comparison of thick blood smear and saponin haemolysis for the detection of Loa loa and Mansonella perstans infections  

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In an endemic area, #Loa loa$ and #Mansonella perstans microfilariae$ were detected by the examination of 5 ml blood in respectively 7.4 and 26.2 % of subjects who would have been erroneously considered amicrofilaraemic by the conventional method of two thick blood smears (40 micro l blood). Correction factors to be applied to the results obtained with thick blood films in order to approach the true parasitological prevalences were 1.5 for #L. loa$ and 1.6 for #M. perstans$. In addition, the ...

Noireau, Franc?ois; Apembet, J. D.

1990-01-01

45

Early diagnosis of intravascular large B-cell lymphoma: clues from routine blood smear morphologic findings.  

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Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a mature B-cell neoplasm characterized by malignant lymphoid cells within the lumina of blood vessels and capillaries. Given its varied and nonspecific clinical manifestation, this aggressive disease is often not diagnosed until an advanced clinical stage or even at autopsy. This case highlights a patient presenting with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) and fevers. Atypical circulating cells on a screening peripheral smear lead to flow cytometric studies highlighting an increase in large, light chain restricted CD20 positive cells. A diagnostic bone marrow biopsy was performed and trephine cores demonstrated predominantly intrasinusoidal lymphoma cells. In conjunction with additional immunophenotypic data, these studies strongly supported a diagnosis of IVLBCL. Judicious use of flow cytometry and morphology resulted in an early-stage diagnosis and likely contributed to the patient's current complete remission status following anti-CD20 therapy. Differential diagnoses for this presentation are discussed in light of serologic, immunophenotypic, histologic, and cytogenetic findings. PMID:25051078

Patel, Sagar S; Aasen, Garth A; Dolan, Michelle M; Linden, Michael A; McKenna, Robert W; Rudrapatna, Venkatesh K; Trottier, Bryan J; Drawz, Sarah M

2014-01-01

46

The estimation of platelet count from a blood smear on the basis of the red cell: platelet ratio  

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Objective: The estimation of platelet count from blood smears is a daily routine laboratory test, which should be systematic each time the automated count is erroneous.In our laboratory, we estimate the platelet count indirectly by using the automated red blood cell (RBC) and calculating the platelet count on the basis of the red cell: platelet ratio in a stained blood film. In this study, we attempted to verify the reliability of this technique.Material and Methods: One hundred ninety-one pl...

2009-01-01

47

Whole Blood Interferon-? Release Assay Is Insufficient for the Diagnosis of Sputum Smear Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis  

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Purpose We investigated the value of an interferon-? release assay (IGRA) for the diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) among sputum smear negative PTB suspects in an environment with intermediate burden of PTB and high Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination rate. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed IGRA, medical records, chest PA and CT scan of PTB suspects seen at Gangnam Severance Hospital, Seoul, Korea from Oct. 2007 to Apr. 2013. "Active PTB" was diagnosed when 1) M. tuberculosis culture positive, 2) confirmation by pathologic examination; or 3) clinical findings compatible with TB. Results Of 224 sputum smear negative PTB suspects, 94 were confirmed as having active PTB. There were no statistically significant differences in the diagnostic yield of IGRA between immunocompromised and immunocompetent sputum smear negative PTB suspects. IGRA did show superior sensitivity [81.9%, 95% confidence interval (CI); 74.13-89.70%] in the diagnosis of sputum smear negative PTB when compared with chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), tuberculin skin test (TST), and chest X-ray (p<0.001). Also, IGRA showed highest negative predictive value (82.7%, 95% CI; 75.16-90.15%) when compared with HRCT, TST and chest X-ray (p=0.023). However, combining the results of IGRA with those of HRCT, TST, or both did not increase any diagnostic parameters. Conclusion Failure to increase diagnostic yields by combination with other diagnostic modalities suggests that additional enforcement with IGRA may be insufficient to exclude other diagnoses in sputum smear negative PTB suspects and to screen active PTB in an environment with intermediate TB prevalence and a high BCG vaccination rate.

Park, HeeJin; Shin, Jung Ar; Kim, Hyung Jung; Ahn, Chul Min

2014-01-01

48

Prevalence of Oral Trichomoniasis in Patients with Periodontitis and Gingivitis Using PCR and Direct Smear  

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Full Text Available Background: Trichomonas tenax, a commensal flagellated protozoan, inhabits in human oral cavity. This parasite is cos-mopoli­tan and frequently found in patients with poor oral hygiene and advanced periodontal disease. There is only one pub­lished study that rebound the prevalence of this parasite in Iran. This PCR based study compared the prevalence of oral tricho­moni­asis in patients with oral diseases and a healthy control group.Methods: From May 2005 to April 2006, the subgingival dental plaques of 160 patients with gingivitis or periodontitis and 160 controls who attended to Dental School of Shaheed Beheshti Medical University, Iran were taken and examined by wet mount smear, and Giemsa staining. Likewise, a PCR protocol was developed for specific detection of T.tenax using a pair of prim­ers designed for its 18S rRNA gene. Results: Thirty three (20.6% of patients were PCR positive while 28 (15.5% were diagnosed using wet preparation and Giemsa staining. In the other hand, 2 (1.9% of control group were identified positive by PCR procedure.  The prevalence of oral trichomoniasis in our study (20.6% was compatible with many other published reports which mostly has ranged from 12%-32%.  Conclusion: The study revealed dependence between the frequency of occurrence of T. tenax and the state of periodontitis. The present PCR procedure could provide a simple and rapid detection method of T. tenax in dental plague.

A Athari

2007-09-01

49

Investigation of human haemotropic Mycoplasma infections using a novel generic haemoplasma qPCR assay on blood samples and blood smears  

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The aim of this study was to develop quantitative real-time (q)PCR assays to detect all known haemoplasma species, and a human housekeeping gene in order to demonstrate both successful DNA extraction from clinical samples and to test for sample inhibition, and to apply these qPCRs to human blood samples and blood smears. Sensitive and specific generic haemoplasma qPCR assays were developed to amplify haemoplasma species, as well as human glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as an ...

Tasker, Se?verine; Peters, Iain R.; Mumford, Andrew D.; Day, Michael J.; Gruffydd-jones, Timothy J.; Day, Sarinder; Pretorius, Anne-marie; Birtles, Richard J.; Helps, Chris R.; Neimark, Harold

2010-01-01

50

Pap Smear  

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Full Text Available ... Thanks to a procedure called a Pap smear test, many early stages of cervical cancer can be ... successful in curing cervical cancer. The Pap smear test is essential in detecting atypia early. It is ...

51

A study of eosinophil count in nasal and blood smear in allergic respiratory diseases in a rural setup  

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Full Text Available Allergic respiratory disorders are fairly common visiting cases in pediatrics outpatient department (OPD. With an appropriate history and detailed examination, diagnosis may not be problematic. Routine investigation may not contribute much to the final diagnosis but may help in ruling out other possibilities. This study was done to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of blood or nasal eosinophilia in subjects suffering from allergic respiratory disorders and also to assess the feasibility of nasal cytogram which is a simple, economical and reliable investigation in allergic respiratory disorders. This is a prospective clinical correlation study of patients attending outpatient department. 100 subjects aged between 2-18 years of either sex were selected for the estimation of eosinophil count in nasal and peripheral smear in allergic respiratory disorders. All allergic respiratory cases based on eosinophillia. The nasal and blood eosinophilia were compared with each other and clinical findings of allergic rhinitis with or without asthma were studied. In this study peak age incidence was seen between 11-18 years and it was more common in males. Rhinorrhoea, pale mucosa and nasal obstruction were common findings in allergic rhinitis with bronchial asthma. Nasal eosinophilia was seen in 52.4% and 64.9% of cases of allergic rhinitis and allergic rhinitis with asthma respectively. Blood eosinophilia was seen in 54% and 56.8% of cases of allergic rhinitis with asthma respectively. Nasal cytogram which is a simple, economical and non- invasive procedure can be used as an alternative to invasive peripheral smear eosinophilia as both are equally efficacious in diagnosing allergic respiratory diseases.

Naveen Kumar

2012-01-01

52

Complete blood cell count in psittaciformes by using high-throughput image cytometry: a pilot study.  

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The avian hemogram is usually performed in veterinary diagnostic laboratories by using manual cell counting techniques and differential counts determined by light microscopy. There is no standard automated technique for avian blood cell count and differentiation to date. These shortcomings in birds are primarily because erythrocytes and thrombocytes are nucleated, which precludes the use of automated analyzers programmed to perform mammal complete blood cell counts. In addition, there is no standard avian antibody panel, which would allow cell differentiation by immunophenotyping across all commonly seen bird species. We report an alternative hematologic approach for quantification and differentiation of avian blood cells by using high-throughput image cytometry on blood smears in psittacine bird species. A pilot study was designed with 70 blood smears of different psittacine bird species stained with a Wright-Giemsa stain. The slides were scanned at 0.23 microm/pixel. The open-source softwares CellProfiler and CellProfiler Analyst were used for analyzing and sorting each cell by image cytometry. A "pipeline" was constructed in the CellProfiler by using different modules to identify and export hundreds of measures per cell for shape, intensity, and texture. Rules for classifying the different blood cell phenotypes were then determined based on these measurements by iterative feedback and machine learning by using CellProfiler Analyst. Although this approach shows promises, avian Leukopet results could not be duplicated when using this technique as is. Further studies and more standardized prospective investigations may be needed to refine the "pipeline" strategy and the machine learning algorithm. PMID:24344512

Beaufrère, Hugues; Ammersbach, Mélanie; Tully, Thomas N

2013-09-01

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Correlation between Sex Chromatin and Female Breast Tumour in Paraffin Sections, Buccal Smears and Peripheral Blood Films.  

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Introduction: Sex chromatin is a plano-convex to triangular DNA mass measuring approximately 1?m in size and lying adjacent to the inner side of nuclear membrane in the somatic cells of the females. There is consistent loss in the sex chromatin percentage in the carcinoma cases in comparison to benign lesions and normal individuals. Aim: To know the correlation between the sex chromatin status in female breast tumors on paraffin sections, buccal smears and peripheral blood films. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on the paraffin sections prepared from carcinoma breast patients from their lumpectomy and mastectomy specimens. Buccal smears and a peripheral blood films were also prepared from each patient. Discussion: The control group had shown a mean sex chromatin of 54.6±6.73% which was found to be similar to the mean sex chromatin percentage in the fibroadenoma breast cases i.e. 54.91±6.06%. However, the mean sex chromatin in the carcinoma breast cases was markedly reduced i.e. 8.22±6.03%. Maximum no. of fibroadenoma cases (67%) were in the younger age group i.e. 15 to 25 year, while maximum number of carcinoma breast cases (42%) occurred in the 4(th) and 5(th) decade. Conclusion: There is a loss of sex chromatin in cases of carcinoma breast and is associated with poor histological markers. A statistically significant correlation was also found between sex chromatin status and microscopic grading in carcinoma breast. The tumors with higher microscopic grade had lower sex chromatin as compared to those with lower microscopic grading. PMID:24783091

Vijay Kumar, Bodal; Ravneet, Kalra; Manjit Singh, Bal; Ranjeev, Bhagat; Kalyan, Gurdeep Singh; Nishit, Gupta; Anil, Suri; Richika

2014-03-01

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Correlation between Sex Chromatin and Female Breast Tumour in Paraffin Sections, Buccal Smears and Peripheral Blood Films  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: Sex chromatin is a plano-convex to triangular DNA mass measuring approximately 1?m in size and lying adjacent to the inner side of nuclear membrane in the somatic cells of the females. There is consistent loss in the sex chromatin percentage in the carcinoma cases in comparison to benign lesions and normal individuals. Aim: To know the correlation between the sex chromatin status in female breast tumors on paraffin sections, buccal smears and peripheral blood films. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on the paraffin sections prepared from carcinoma breast patients from their lumpectomy and mastectomy specimens. Buccal smears and a peripheral blood films were also prepared from each patient. Discussion: The control group had shown a mean sex chromatin of 54.6±6.73% which was found to be similar to the mean sex chromatin percentage in the fibroadenoma breast cases i.e. 54.91±6.06%. However, the mean sex chromatin in the carcinoma breast cases was markedly reduced i.e. 8.22±6.03%. Maximum no. of fibroadenoma cases (67%) were in the younger age group i.e. 15 to 25 year, while maximum number of carcinoma breast cases (42%) occurred in the 4th and 5th decade. Conclusion: There is a loss of sex chromatin in cases of carcinoma breast and is associated with poor histological markers. A statistically significant correlation was also found between sex chromatin status and microscopic grading in carcinoma breast. The tumors with higher microscopic grade had lower sex chromatin as compared to those with lower microscopic grading.

Vijay Kumar, Bodal; Ravneet, Kalra; Manjit Singh, Bal; Ranjeev, Bhagat; Kalyan, Gurdeep Singh; Nishit, Gupta; Anil, Suri; Richika

2014-01-01

55

Pap Smear  

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Full Text Available ... reliable. Getting regular Pap smears could save your life! Don’t forget to schedule your Pap smear. It is a small price to pay for your health. This document is for informational purposes and is not intended to be a substitute ...

56

Pap Smear  

Science.gov (United States)

... cancer . A doctor may also order an HPV DNA test along with or following a Pap smear, especially ... dependent on age, concurrent use of the HPV DNA test , and risk factors (see Screening: Cervical Cancer (Young ...

57

Rapid and reliable diagnosis of murine myeloid leukemia (ML by FISH of peripheral blood smear using probe of PU. 1, a candidate ML tumor suppressor  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Murine myeloid leukemia (ML provides a good animal model to study the mechanisms of radiation-induced leukemia in humans. This disease has been cytogenetically characterized by a partial deletion of chromosome 2 with G-banding. For the rapid diagnosis of ML, this study reports a FISH method using spleen cells and peripheral blood smears from ML mice exposed to gamma rays and neutrons with PU.1, a candidate ML tumor suppressor, as a probe. Results Among mice that were tentatively diagnosed with ML by clinical findings and blood smear examination, 85% carried spleen cells showing the loss of PU.1 although the frequency of these abnormal cells varied among individuals. Mice with very low frequencies of cells showing the loss of one copy of PU.1 (one-PU.1 frequency were later diagnosed pathologically not with ML but with blastic or eosinophilic leukemia. Some neutron-irradiated mice had cells showing translocated PU.1, although no pathological features differentiated these ML mice from ML mice expressing the simple loss of PU.1. The one-PU.1 frequency can be detected from spleen metaphase cells, spleen interphase cells, and blood smears. There was a good correlation between the one-PU.1 frequency in spleen metaphase cells and that in spleen interphase cells (r = 0.96 and between one-PU.1 frequency in spleen interphase cells and that in blood cells (r = 0.83. Conclusion The FISH method was capable of detecting aberration of copy number of the PU.1 gene on murine chromosome 2, and using a peripheral blood smear is more practical and less invasive than conventional pathological diagnosis or the cytogenetic examination of spleen cells.

Ban Nobuhiko

2008-10-01

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Accuracy and Potential Usefulness of Triplex Real-Time PCR for Improving Antibiotic Treatment of Patients with Blood Cultures Showing Clustered Gram-Positive Cocci on Direct Smears?  

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Bacterial identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing currently require 48 h when a first blood culture (BC) is positive for clustered gram-positive cocci on direct smear examination (DSE). Meanwhile, antibiotic treatment is often inadequate, reducing the chances of effective treatment or creating unnecessary selective pressure. A new real-time PCR (RT-PCR) technique that differentiates Staphylococcus aureus from coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) and detects methicillin resista...

Ruimy, Raymond; Dos-santos, Marie; Raskine, Laurent; Bert, Fre?de?ric; Masson, Rene?; Elbaz, Sandrine; Bonnal, Christine; Lucet, Jean-christophe; Lefort, Agne?s; Fantin, Bruno; Wolff, Michel; Hornstein, Michele; Andremont, Antoine

2008-01-01

59

Laboratory diagnosis of malaria by conventional peripheral blood smear examination with Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC and Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT - A comparative study  

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Full Text Available Aim: Rapid diagnosis is prerequisite for effective treatment and reducing mortality and morbidity of malaria. Microscopy has been the Gold standard for malaria diagnosis for decades. Recently, many new rapid diagnostic tests like Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC examination and rapid antigen detection methods are being widely used. We made an attempt to compare peripheral smear, QBC and rapid antigen detection methods for the diagnosis of malaria. Materials and Methods: A total number of 500 samples were collected from patients presenting with classical symptoms of malaria. Thick and thin blood smears were prepared and stained with Leishman’s stain. QBC, Histidine Rich Protein-II antigen test and plasmodium Lactate Dehydrogenase tests were done using commercially available kits. Results: Taking thick smear as gold standard, thin smear had sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 90.9%, 100%, 100% and 98.6% respectively. QBC showed sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 95.45%, 100%, 100% and 99.31% respectively. HRP-II antigen detection showed sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 56.06%, 100%, 100% and 94.20%. pLDH showed sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of 95.45%, 100%, 100% and 99.40% respectively. Conclusion: In our study, QBC had highest sensitivity followed by pLDH assay. Leishman’s stained thick smear is cost effective but requires technical expertise to interpret the results, so if facilities are available, QBC can be used for routine diagnosis. In places where facilities are not available rapid diagnostic test devices can be used, especially in endemic areas.

Bhat Sandhya K

2012-10-01

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Diagnóstico presuntivo de histoplasmosis en un frotis sanguíneo Diagnóstico presuntivo de histoplasmose em um esfregaço de sangue Presumptive diagnosis of histoplasmosis in a blood smear  

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Full Text Available Se comunica el diagnóstico de un caso de histoplasmosis asociada al SIDA a partir de la microscopía de un extendido hemático realizado en oportunidad del procesamiento de una muestra enviada al laboratorio para un estudio hematológico. El extendido, fijado con metanol y teñido con solución de Giemsa al 10% reveló, con objetivo de 100X, estructuras levaduriformes de 2-4 µ de diámetro dentro de las células leucocitarias sanguíneas, con la típica tinción en casquete y la presencia de un halo claro periférico, que caracterizan microscópicamente a Histoplasma capsulatum. Luego, para confirmar el hallazgo micológico, se procedió a teñir el mismo preparado con la técnica de Grocott, la cual puso de manifiesto levaduras de color pardo, dentro de los leucocitos sanguíneos. El paciente, deteriorado clínica e inmunológicamente (Comunica-se o diagnóstico de um caso de histoplasmose associada à AIDS, de uma microscopia de extensão sanguínea realizada por ocasião do processamento de uma amostra enviada ao laboratório para um estudo hematológico. A extensão, fixada com metanol e corada com solução de Giemsa a 10%, revelou com objetivo de 100X, estruturas leveduriformes de 2-4 µ diâmetro dentro de células leucocitárias do sangue, com a típica coloração em tampão e a presença de um halo claro periférico, os quais caracterizam microscopicamente a Histoplasma capsulatum. Em seguida, para confirmar o achado micológico, foi corada a mesma preparação com a técnica de Grocott, que mostrou leveduras de cor parda, dentro dos leucócitos sanguíneos. O paciente clínica e imunologicamente deteriorado (A case of AIDS-associated histoplasmosis diagnosed by microscopy from a blood smear performed during a hematologic study was reported. The smear, fixed with methanol and stained with 10% Giemsa solution, revealed with a 100X objective, 2-4 µ-diameter yeast - like structures within the leuMicrobiología contakocytes, showing a typical staining in cap and a peripheral clear halo, characteristic of Histoplasma capsulatum. To confirm the mycological finding, the same smear was stained with the Grocott technique, showing brownish yeasts in the leucocytes. The patient, clinically deteriorated and with advanced immunological disorder (<50 T CD4+ lymphocytes/µL, died the next day after the diagnosis was made, in spite of the established treatments. This finding highlights the need to have operators trained in the recognition of microbiological structures of diagnostic importance in hematological smears in a Reference Center of Infectious Diseases, and even in the General Laboratory. The immediate diagnosis of this and other serious infections, as Malaria, enables the etiologic treatment and increases the possibilities of therapeutic success.

Agustina Daniela Tkach

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
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Morphological findings in bone marrow biopsy and aspirate smears of visceral kala azar: A review  

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Full Text Available Context: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is endemic in India and may simulate and cause many hematological disorders like pancytopenia, myelofibrosis, myelodysplasia and hemophagocytosis. Aims: The study aims to investigate the hematological manifestation of Visceral Leishmaniasis and associated changes that may be observed in bone marrow aspirate smears and biopsy which may warn a pathologist of possible infections. Settings and Design: This is a retrospective study of 18 VL cases on B (b one marrow aspirate and biopsy in the department of Pathology in a tertiary care teaching hospital in New Delhi. Methods and Material: Giemsa stained slides of bone marrow aspirates and hematoxylin and Eosin stained biopsy slides were reviewed in detail by two competent pathologists. All the findings were tabulated and discussed and comparisons made with the previous similar studies. Results: Hyper cellular marrow, increased lymphocytes and plasma cells, marrow granulomas, hemophagocytosis, myelofibrosis, myelodysplasia and gelatinous transformation of the marrow were notable features the presence of which together or individually should caution a pathologist to search for Leishman Donovan (LD bodies in patients especially in a non-endemic zone in a tropical country.

Dhingra Kajal

2010-01-01

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Florid Erythrophagocytosis on the Peripheral Smear  

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Erythrophagocytosis is a relatively rare observation on blood smears. It has been reported in auto immune hemolytic anemias and sporadically in few other conditions. Here, we report a case of florid erythrophagocytosis with severe anemia following a viral infection in an 18-year-old girl. Her complete blood count (CBC) revealed hemoglobin of 3.6 gm/dl and a hematocrit of 10%. The peripheral smear showed erythrophagocytosis by neutrophils and rosetting of erythrocytes around neutrophils. The d...

2012-01-01

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Comparative Study of Modified Quantitative Buffy Coat and Two Rapid Tests in Comparison with Peripheral Blood Smear in Malaria Diagnosis in Mumbai, India  

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In order to identify a quick and reliable technique for accurate diagnosis of malaria, study of the efficiency of the tests such as Parahit total (HRPII & aldolase Ag), Advantage mal card (parasite specific LDH), and modified QBC was done in comparison with conventional blood smear microscopy. One hundred patients infected with P. vivax and 101 infected with P. falciparum were included in this study. The sensitivity of Parahit total, Advantage mal card, and modified QBC for P. falciparum detection was 70.3, 95%, and 98%, and specificity was 98%, 98%, and 96%, respectively. The sensitivity of Parahit total, Advantage mal card, and modified QBC for P. vivax detection was 73%, 97.0%, and 98%, respectively, and specificity of all the tests was 98%. On day 15, in falciparum arm, Advantage mal card and Parahit total showed 8 (7.92%) and 59 (58.41%) false positives. On day 15, in vivax arm, Parahit total revealed 52% false positives. The study indicated that modified QBC could be only used where appropriate facilities are available. Advantage mal card was a better follow-up tool than Parahit total.

Kocharekar, Manali M.; Sarkar, Sougat S.; Dasgupta, Debjani

2014-01-01

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Borrelia sp. in naturally infected Didelphis aurita (Wied, 1826) (marsupialia: didelphidae)  

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Fifty-six opossums (Didelphis aurita) were captured on the campus of Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica county, Rio de Janeiro state, in order to investigate the occurrence of Borrelia sp among them in relation with the study of spirochaetemia and its ectoparasites. Blood tests were made through dark field and phase contrast microscopy, as well as the obtainment of blood smears. Smears were stained with Giemsa stain, which did not prove efficacy. There was no relation b...

2000-01-01

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Prevalence of Congenital Malaria in Minna, North Central Nigeria  

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The study was designed to determine the true prevalence of congenital, cord, and placental malaria in General Hospital Minna, North Central Nigeria. Peripheral blood smears of near-term pregnant women, as well as the placental, cord, and peripheral blood smears of their newborn babies, were examined for malaria parasites, using the Giemsa staining technique. Out of 152 pregnant women screened, 21 (13.82%) of them were infected with malaria parasites. Of the 152 new born babies, 4 (2.63%) show...

Omalu, Innocent Chukwuemeka James; Mgbemena, Charles; Mgbemena, Amaka; Ayanwale, Victoria; Olayemi, Israel Kayode; Lateef, Adeniran; Chukwuemeka, Victoria I.

2012-01-01

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Entamoeba gingivalis in sputum smears.  

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Entamoeba gingivalis is a common parasite of the human buccal cavity whose rare appearance in Papanicolaou-stained sputum smears may be missed. Two such cases are described, including the morphologic features of this ameba. The trophozoites were seen to phagocytize leukocytes as well as red blood cells, in distinction to E. histiolytica, which phagocytizes only red blood cells and also can cause pulmonary abscesses. The concomitant finding of Actinomyces sp. organisms in one patient reinforces the possible symbiotic relationship between the two organisms, as has been suggested for their appearance in other extraoral sites, such as the female genital tract. PMID:3861055

Dao, A H

1985-01-01

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Comparação de nested-PCR com o diagnóstico direto na detecção de Ehrlichia canis e Anaplasma platys em cães Comparison of nested-PCR with blood smear examination in detection of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in dogs  

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Full Text Available Os sinais clínicos das infecções por Ehrlichia canis e Anaplasma platys são similares, e o diagnóstico desses patógenos feito por esfregaços sanguíneos corados é difícil devido à sensibilidade e especificidade. Por outro lado, os diagnósticos moleculares são altamente sensíveis e específicos, e nested-PCRs têm sido otimizadas para o diagnóstico preciso desses patógenos em cães. Em um Hospital Veterinário Escola, amostras de sangue total com EDTA foram obtidas de 100 cães, e esfregaços foram feitos das amostras de sangue para busca dos parasitos intracelulares. Para cada amostra, DNA foi extraído e submetido à nPCR para detecção de E. canis e A. platys. Os resultados dos esfregaços sanguíneos mostraram que 9% dos animais foram positivos para E. canis e 21% para A. platys. Com relação à nPCR, 57 e 55% dos cães foram positivos para E. canis e A. platys, respectivamente. Quando comparados com a nPCR, os esfregaços sanguíneos corados revelaram resultados falso-negativos para E. canis e A. platys. Os resultados indicam que a nPCR é altamente sensível e específica para detecção de ambos os patógenos, e os diagnósticos moleculares podem ser mais úteis nos Hospitais Veterinários.The clinical signs of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys infection are similar, and the diagnosis of these pathogens made by stained blood smears is poor due sensibility and specificity. On the other hand, the molecular diagnosis is highly sensitive and specific and nested-PCR have been optimized for accurate diagnosis these pathogens in dogs. At the veterinary teaching hospital, whole-blood samples with EDTA were obtained from 100 dogs and smears were made from blood samples for evaluation for intracellular parasites. For each sample, DNA was extracted and submitted to nPCR analysis for detection of E. canis and A. platys. The results of stained blood smears showed 9% of the animals were positive for E. canis and 21% for A. platys. Regarding of nPCR analysis, 57 and 55% of dogs were positive for E. canis and A. platys respectively. As compared to a nested PCR, the stained blood smears revealed false-negative results for both E. canis and A. platys. The results indicate that the nPCR is highly sensitive and specific for detection of both pathogens and the molecular diagnosis could be more useful at veterinary hospital.

Carlos A. N. Ramos

2009-12-01

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Comparação de nested-PCR com o diagnóstico direto na detecção de Ehrlichia canis e Anaplasma platys em cães / Comparison of nested-PCR with blood smear examination in detection of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in dogs  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os sinais clínicos das infecções por Ehrlichia canis e Anaplasma platys são similares, e o diagnóstico desses patógenos feito por esfregaços sanguíneos corados é difícil devido à sensibilidade e especificidade. Por outro lado, os diagnósticos moleculares são altamente sensíveis e específicos, e nest [...] ed-PCRs têm sido otimizadas para o diagnóstico preciso desses patógenos em cães. Em um Hospital Veterinário Escola, amostras de sangue total com EDTA foram obtidas de 100 cães, e esfregaços foram feitos das amostras de sangue para busca dos parasitos intracelulares. Para cada amostra, DNA foi extraído e submetido à nPCR para detecção de E. canis e A. platys. Os resultados dos esfregaços sanguíneos mostraram que 9% dos animais foram positivos para E. canis e 21% para A. platys. Com relação à nPCR, 57 e 55% dos cães foram positivos para E. canis e A. platys, respectivamente. Quando comparados com a nPCR, os esfregaços sanguíneos corados revelaram resultados falso-negativos para E. canis e A. platys. Os resultados indicam que a nPCR é altamente sensível e específica para detecção de ambos os patógenos, e os diagnósticos moleculares podem ser mais úteis nos Hospitais Veterinários. Abstract in english The clinical signs of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys infection are similar, and the diagnosis of these pathogens made by stained blood smears is poor due sensibility and specificity. On the other hand, the molecular diagnosis is highly sensitive and specific and nested-PCR have been optimized [...] for accurate diagnosis these pathogens in dogs. At the veterinary teaching hospital, whole-blood samples with EDTA were obtained from 100 dogs and smears were made from blood samples for evaluation for intracellular parasites. For each sample, DNA was extracted and submitted to nPCR analysis for detection of E. canis and A. platys. The results of stained blood smears showed 9% of the animals were positive for E. canis and 21% for A. platys. Regarding of nPCR analysis, 57 and 55% of dogs were positive for E. canis and A. platys respectively. As compared to a nested PCR, the stained blood smears revealed false-negative results for both E. canis and A. platys. The results indicate that the nPCR is highly sensitive and specific for detection of both pathogens and the molecular diagnosis could be more useful at veterinary hospital.

Carlos A. N., Ramos; Rafael A. N., Ramos; Flábio R., Araújo; Daniel S., Guedes Jr; Ingrid I. F., Souza; Tatiana M., Ono; Anahi S., Vieira; Danillo S., Pimentel; Eduardo O., Rosas; Maria A. G., Faustino; Leucio C., Alves.

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The use of fluorescence enhancement to improve the microscopic diagnosis of falciparum malaria  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Giemsa staining of thick blood smears remains the "gold standard" for detecting malaria. However, this method is not very good for diagnosing low-level infections. A method for the simultaneous staining of Plasmodium-parasitized culture and blood smears for both bright field and fluorescence was developed and its ability to improve detection efficiency tested. Methods A total of 22 nucleic acid-specific fluorescent dyes were tested for their ability to provide easily observable staining of Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized red blood cells following Giemsa staining. Results Of the 14 dyes that demonstrated intense fluorescence staining, only SYBR Green 1, YOYO-1 and ethidum homodimer-2 could be detected using fluorescent microscopy, when cells were first stained with Giemsa. Giemsa staining was not effective when applied after the fluorescent dyes. SYBR Green 1 provided the best staining in the presence of Giemsa, as a very high percentage of the parasitized cells were simultaneously stained. When blood films were screened using fluorescence microscopy the parasites were more readily detectable due to the sharp contrast between the dark background and the specific, bright fluorescence produced by the parasites. Conclusion The dual staining method reported here allows fluorescence staining, which enhances the reader's ability to detect parasites under low parasitaemia conditions, coupled with the ability to examine the same cell under bright field conditions to detect the characteristic morphology of Plasmodium species that is observed with Giemsa staining.

Liu Paul

2007-07-01

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Evaluation of buffalo semen by Trypan blue/Giemsa staining and related fertility in vitro  

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The aim of this work was to verify the feasibility of an easy, quick double staining technique for evaluation of frozen-thawed semen to predict the fertilizing capability in vitro of buffalo bulls. In Experiment 1, frozen-thawed semen from 6 bulls was stained with double Trypan blue/ Giemsa and the incidence of acrosome-intact live (AIL), acrosome-intact dead (AID), acrosome-lost live (ALL) and acrosome-lost dead (ALD) sperm was recorded. In Experiment 2, sperm from the same bulls were used t...

Boccia, L.; Di Palo, R.; Rosa, A.; Attanasio, L.; Mariotti, E.; Gasparrini, B.

2010-01-01

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High LET radiation: is there a chromosomal fingerprint when using Giemsa- staining ?  

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Our data provide further evidence that the F-value, i.e. the ratio of interchromosomal to intrachromosomal exchange-type aberrations shows no LET-dependence. Yet, in all cell lines tested the yield ratio of excess acentrics to exchanges and the ratio of linear fragments to all other aberration types have a potential to serve as an indicator of high LET radiation. Moreover, our data indicate that the obtained values are strongly influenced by the repair capacity of the cell line under study. For example, at a given LET value the ratio of linear fragments to all other aberration types is in double-strand break repairdeficient xrs5 cells about 2 times higher than in thier repairproficient counterpart.

Ritter, S.; Gudowska-Novak, E.; Nasonova, E.

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Evaluation of buffalo semen by Trypan blue/Giemsa staining and related fertility in vitro  

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Full Text Available The aim of this work was to verify the feasibility of an easy, quick double staining technique for evaluation of frozen-thawed semen to predict the fertilizing capability in vitro of buffalo bulls. In Experiment 1, frozen-thawed semen from 6 bulls was stained with double Trypan blue/ Giemsa and the incidence of acrosome-intact live (AIL, acrosome-intact dead (AID, acrosome-lost live (ALL and acrosome-lost dead (ALD sperm was recorded. In Experiment 2, sperm from the same bulls were used to fertilize in vitro matured oocytes. The data obtained confirm that there is a strong “bull effect” in buffalo species, with differences in the percentage of AIL sperm at thawing, in cleavage and blastocyst rates among bulls. Interestingly, it was found that this staining technique can be used for a preliminary screening to select semen to use for IVF, as shown by the correlation existent between the percentages of acrosome-intact viable sperm cells at thawing and the blastocyst yields for 4/6 bulls.

B. Gasparrini

2010-02-01

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Blood parasites in passerine birds from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest / Hemoparasitos em passeriformes da Mata Atlântica Brasileira  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Parasitos podem levar espécies de aves à extinção, afetar as dinâmicas temporais e espaciais dos hospedeiros, alterar a estrutura de comunidades e o status social de indivíduos. Avaliou-se a prevalência e a intensidade de parasitos em famílias e espécies de 925 aves capturadas, entre 2000 e 2001, na [...] Mata Atlântica de Minas Gerais. Foram coradas com Giemsa extensões de sangue para detectar parasitos hematozoários. As aves (n= 15,8%) 11 famílias estavam infectadas por pelo menos um gênero de parasito, especialmente Muscicapidae (28,3%) e Conopophagidae (25%). Entre as 146 aves infectadas, Plasmodium foi detectado em todas as famílias e possuiu a maior prevalência (54,8%). Trypanosoma,Haemoproteus e microfilaria possuíram baixas prevalências (23,3, 23,3 e 2,1%, respectivamente). Aves capturadasdurante a estação chuvosa estavam mais infectadas do que aves capturadas durante a estação seca. A baixa prevalência geral de parasitos do sangue das aves é semelhante aos padrões encontrados em outras localidades da região Neotropical. Abstract in english Parasites may lead bird species to extinction, affect host temporal and spatial population dynamics, alter community structure and alter individuals? social status. We evaluated blood parasite prevalence and intensity according to bird families and species, among 925 birds that were caught in 2000 a [...] nd 2001, in the Atlantic Forest in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. We applied Giemsa staining to thin blood smears, to detect blood parasites. The birds (n = 15.8%) in 11 families, were infected by at least one parasite genus, especially Muscicapidae (28.3%) and Conopophagidae (25%). Among the 146 infected birds, Plasmodium was detected in all bird families and had the highest prevalence (54.8%). Trypanosoma, Haemoproteus and microfilaria had lower prevalence rates (23.3, 23.3 and 2.1%, respectively). Birds caught during the rainy season were more infected than birds caught during the dry season. The overall low prevalence of blood parasites in birds is similar to the patterns found elsewhere in the Neotropical region.

Sebaio, Fabiane; Braga, Érika Martins; Branquinho, Felipe; Fecchio, Alan; Marini, Miguel Ângelo.

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Blood parasites in passerine birds from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Hemoparasitos em passeriformes da Mata Atlântica Brasileira  

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Full Text Available Parasites may lead bird species to extinction, affect host temporal and spatial population dynamics, alter community structure and alter individuals’ social status. We evaluated blood parasite prevalence and intensity according to bird families and species, among 925 birds that were caught in 2000 and 2001, in the Atlantic Forest in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. We applied Giemsa staining to thin blood smears, to detect blood parasites. The birds (n = 15.8% in 11 families, were infected by at least one parasite genus, especially Muscicapidae (28.3% and Conopophagidae (25%. Among the 146 infected birds, Plasmodium was detected in all bird families and had the highest prevalence (54.8%. Trypanosoma, Haemoproteus and microfilaria had lower prevalence rates (23.3, 23.3 and 2.1%, respectively. Birds caught during the rainy season were more infected than birds caught during the dry season. The overall low prevalence of blood parasites in birds is similar to the patterns found elsewhere in the Neotropical region.Parasitos podem levar espécies de aves à extinção, afetar as dinâmicas temporais e espaciais dos hospedeiros, alterar a estrutura de comunidades e o status social de indivíduos. Avaliou-se a prevalência e a intensidade de parasitos em famílias e espécies de 925 aves capturadas, entre 2000 e 2001, na Mata Atlântica de Minas Gerais. Foram coradas com Giemsa extensões de sangue para detectar parasitos hematozoários. As aves (n= 15,8% 11 famílias estavam infectadas por pelo menos um gênero de parasito, especialmente Muscicapidae (28,3% e Conopophagidae (25%. Entre as 146 aves infectadas, Plasmodium foi detectado em todas as famílias e possuiu a maior prevalência (54,8%. Trypanosoma,Haemoproteus e microfilaria possuíram baixas prevalências (23,3, 23,3 e 2,1%, respectivamente. Aves capturadasdurante a estação chuvosa estavam mais infectadas do que aves capturadas durante a estação seca. A baixa prevalência geral de parasitos do sangue das aves é semelhante aos padrões encontrados em outras localidades da região Neotropical.

Fabiane Sebaio

2012-03-01

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The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia in blood donors in a Nigerian teaching hospital  

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Full Text Available Background & objectives: The present study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of malariaparasitaemia among blood donors and to determine the possible risk of transmission of malaria parasiteto recipients of blood in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Anambra State.Methods: Four hundred and forty-four subjects were selected randomly and EDTA added blood wascollected for screening malaria parasites using Giemsa stain. The data were subjected to ? 2 analysis.Results: Prevalence of malaria was 30.2% among blood donors and showed bimodal distribution withsignificant variation in different months.Interpretation & conclusion: Due to high prevalence of asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia in thisregion, all blood samples should be screened for malaria parasites (post-donor screening andadministered with a curative dose of antimalarials prophylactically to all patients transfused withmalaria parasite positive blood.

E.C. Okocha, C.C. Ibeh, P.U. Ele & N.C. Ibeh

2005-03-01

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Concordancia entre gota gruesa, inmunocromatografía y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa para el diagnóstico de malaria / Concordance between thick blood smear, immunochromatography and polymerase chain reaction for malaria diagnosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. El diagnóstico oportuno y efectivo del paludismo, o malaria, son condiciones determinantes para hacer un tratamiento adecuado de la enfermedad y un control de la misma. Objetivo. Se evaluó la concordancia de la sensibilidad, especificidad, valor diagnóstico positivo y negativo de una p [...] rueba rápida y de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR), con la prueba estándar, la gota gruesa, para el diagnóstico de la malaria. Materiales y métodos. Se analizó una población de 100 pacientes con signos y síntomas indicativos de paludismo, procedentes de las zonas de Urabá, Córdoba, Bajo Cauca y de otras regiones de Colombia, como Valle, Chocó y Vichada, todas áreas endémicas de la enfermedad. A cada paciente se le practicó una gota gruesa, la prueba rápida OptiMAL® y la amplificación a través de una PCR de secuencias de ADN específicas para género y para Plasmodium falciparum y Plasmodium vivax. Resultados. La sensibilidad de la prueba rápida frente a la gota gruesa, para el diagnóstico de ambas especies de Plasmodium fue de 93,85% (IC95% 87,23-100) y la especificidad de 94,29% (IC95% 85,17-100). La PCR comparada con la gota gruesa mostró una sensibilidad de 100% (IC95% 99,23-100) y una especificidad de 97,14% (IC95% 90,19-100). Conclusiones. Estos hallazgos muestran que la sensibilidad y especificidad de la prueba rápida y la PCR para el diagnóstico de malaria son comparables con el examen al microscopio de la gota gruesa, recomendada por su eficacia y bajo costo. Abstract in english Introduction. The rapid and effective diagnosis of malaria is the determining condition for an appropriate treatment and control of the disease. Objective. The sensitivity, specificity and the positive and negative predictive values were evaluated in cases of suspected malaria in Colombia in a compa [...] rison of a rapid diagnostic test. the PCR test and the thick blood smear-the traditional ‘gold standard.’ Materials and methods. A group of 100 patients with symptoms compatible with malaria, were included in the study. They were selected from the following Colombian regions: Urabá, Córdoba, lower Cauca, and relatively fewer from other malaria endemic areas of Colombia including the provinces of Valle, Chocó in the central west of Colombia and Vichada to the east. To each patient the following three tests were performed: the rapid OptiMAL® test, the PCR identification and the thick blood smear. The PCR amplified specific DNA sequences with primers designed to identify the genus Plasmodium, and the two species present in Colombia, P. falciparum and P. vivax. Results. The sensitivity of the rapid test versus the thick smear, for the diagnosis of both species of Plasmodium was 93.9% (95% CI: 87-100%) and the specificity was 94.3% (95% CI:.253 85-100%). The PCR compared with the thick smear showed a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 99-100%) and a specificity of 97.1% (95% CI: 90-100%). Conclusions. The sensitivity and specificity of the three tests did not present statistically significant differences. However, the thick blood smear was recommended as the standard test, mainly due to its low cost.

Astrid Elena, Montoya; José, Menco; Natalia, Osorio; María Alejandra, Zuluaga; Juliana, Duque; Giovanny, Torres; Marcos, Restrepo.

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The resurgence of trypanosomosis in Botswana : short communication  

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No sleeping sickness or nagana cases have been reported in Botswana since 1985. In view of several confirmed clinical cases of nagana and reports of heavy bovine mortality, a parasitological survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of trypanosome infection in cattle in Maun and Shakawe areas of Ngamiland district. Wet blood films, buffy coat and Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood smears were used to detect trypanosomes in animals. Overall,trypanosome infection rate was 15.98%, with 5...

2012-01-01

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Smudge cells in peripheral blood smears did not differentiate chronic lymphocytic leukemia from other B-cell chronic lymphoprolipherative diseases / Sombras nucleares no esfregaço do sangue periférico não diferenciam a leucemia linfocítica crônica das outras doenças linfoproliferativas B crônicas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As sombras nucleares têm sido classicamente associadasà leucemia linfocítica crônica (LLC), embora possam ser encontradas nos esfregaços do sangue periférico de outras doenças linfoproliferativas B crônicas (DLBC). Nesse estudo, nós investigamos se a porcentagem de sombras nucleares nos esfregaços d [...] o sangue periférico pode ser utilizada na prática clínica da hematologia para diferenciar a LLC das outras DLBC. Foram analisados os esfregaços do sangue periférico de 63 pacientes com o diagnóstico de LLC e 62 com outras DLPC. Trezentas células, entre células linfoides e sombras nucleares, foram contadas em cada esfregaço. A comparação da porcentagem de sombras nucleares entre os dois grupos foi realizada e, subsequentemente, foram fixados 5 cut-offs de mais de 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% e 50% de sombras nucleares com o propósito de definir um caso como "positivo para sombras nucleares" e verificar se havia diferenças entre a LLC e as outras DLBC. A porcentagem das sombras nucleares em pacientes com LLC (mediana 26%, 4%-86%) foi maior do que em pacientes com DLBC (mediana 14%, 1%-64%). Entretanto, nenhum dos cut-offs testados apresentou valores apropriados de sensibilidade, especificidade e valor preditivo positivo para distinguir os dois grupos. Desde queé necessário se dispor de um único valor de cut-off com alta sensibilidade, especificidade e valor preditivo positivo para inferir o diagnóstico de CLL na prática clínica, conclui-se que as sombras nucleares não são úteis para diferenciar a LLC das outras DLBC. Abstract in english Smudge cells has been classically associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), but they are found in peripheral blood tests for other chronic B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases (CLD). We investigated whether the percentage of smudge cells in peripheral blood smears can be used in the clinica [...] l practice to differentiate CLL from other B-cell CLD. The peripheral blood smears of 63 patients with the diagnosis of CLL and 62 with other B-cell CLD were analyzed. Three hundred cells (both lymphoid cells and smudge cells) were counted for each peripheral blood smear. A comparison of the percentage of smudge cells between the two groups was performed and, subsequently, 5 cut-off values were fixed (10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of smudge cells) with the aim of defining cases as "positive" or "negative" for smudge cells and verifying whether there are any differences between CLL and the other B-cell CLD. The percentage of smudge cells in patients with CLL (median 26%, 4%-86%) was higher than in patients with B-cell CLD (median 14%, 1%-64%). However, none of the cut-off values tested presented suitable values of sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value to separate the two groups. As it is necessary to have a single cut-off value with high sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value to infer the diagnosis of CLL in the clinical practice, we concluded that smudge cells are not fitting to differentiate CLL from other B-cell CLD.

Daniel M., Matos; Guilherme, Perini; Carlos, Kruzich; Eduardo M., Rego; Roberto P., Falcão.

79

Diagnóstico de leishmaniosis visceral por frotis de sangre periférica. A propósito de un caso en Cojedes, Venezuela / Visceral leishmaniasis diagnosis for smear of peripheral blood. A case report from Cojedes, Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En Venezuela se conoce la existencia de Leishmaniosis visceral desde 1941, y desde 1990 se notifican en promedio 50 casos por año, en focos separados ubicados en el centro, oeste sur y este del país. La incidencia de Leishmaniosis visceral en el Estado Cojedes en Venezuela es baja, reportándose únic [...] amente tres casos en la década de 1998 al 2007. En este artículo, se informa el primer caso de Leishmaniosis visceral en adulto en este Estado, diagnosticado por demostración del parásito por frotis de sangre periférica. Se resalta, el tener la posibilidad de efectuar diagnóstico a partir de sangre periférica, como un método alternativo y menos invasivo en fase aguda, particularmente en regiones donde no se dispone de otras herramientas de escrutinio. Abstract in english In Venezuela, known to exist Visceral leishmaniasis since 1941, and since 1990 are reported on average 50 cases per year, separate sources located in central, west south and east of country. The incidence of visceral Leishmaniasis in Venezuela Cojedes state is low, being reported only three cases in [...] the decade 1998 to 2007. In this article, we reported the first case of visceral leishmaniasis in adult in this state, diagnosed by demonstration of the parasite by peripheral blood smear. Is highlighted, having the possibility of diagnosis from peripheral blood, as an alternative and less invasive in the acute phase, particularly in regions where there are no other screening tools.

Wladimir, Ochoa; Luis, Gutiérrez; Rafael, Guevara; Milagros, Oviedo; Lisbeth, Loaiza; Gilberto, Bastidas.

80

First case of Plasmodium knowlesi infection in a Japanese traveller returning from Malaysia  

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This is the first case of Plasmodium knowlesi infection in a Japanese traveller returning from Malaysia. In September 2012, a previously healthy 35-year-old Japanese man presented to National Center for Global Health and Medicine in Tokyo with a two-day history of daily fever, mild headaches and mild arthralgia. Malaria parasites were found in the Giemsa-stained thin blood smear, which showed band forms similar to Plasmodium malariae. Although a nested PCR showed the amplification of the prim...

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Assessment of LED fluorescence microscopy for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum infections in Gabon  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Rapid and accurate diagnosis of malaria is central to clinical management and the prevention of drug-overuse, which may lead to resistance development, toxicity and economic losses. So far, light microscopy (LM) of Giemsa-stained thick blood smears is the gold standard. Under optimal conditions the procedure is fast and reliable; nevertheless a gain in speed would be a great advantage. Rapid diagnosis tests are an alternative, although they cost more and g...

Lenz Dominic; Kremsner Peter G; Lell Bertrand; Biallas Barbara; Boettcher Michael; Mordmüller Benjamin; Adegnika Ayola A

2011-01-01

82

A Case of Imported Plasmodium ovale malaria  

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There have been reports in Korea of imported malaria cases of four Plasmodium species, but there has been no report of imported Plasmodium ovale malaria confirmed by molecular biological methods. We report an imported case of that was confirmed by Wright-Giemsa-stained peripheral blood smear and nested polymerase chain reaction targeting the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. The amplified DNA was sequenced and compared with other registered P. ovale isolates. The isolate in this study was a m...

Han, Tae Hee; Kim, Baek-nam; Seong, Hee Kyung

2006-01-01

83

Epidemiological studies (parasitological, serological and molecular techniques) of Trypanosoma evansi infection in camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Egypt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Trypanosomosis in camel caused by Trypanosoma evansi is still a serious problem in camel husbandry causes considerable economic losses in many camel-rearing regions of the world. In the present study 193 camels clinically suspected for surra were examined parasitologically by Giemsa stained blood smear (GSBS) and haematocrit centrifugation technique, serologically for detection of anti-trypanosomal antibodies by card agglutination test for trypanosomes (CATT), and for DNA amplification, by Po...

Ahmed Abdel-Rady

2008-01-01

84

Production and validation of durable, high quality standardized malaria microscopy slides for teaching, testing and quality assurance during an era of declining diagnostic proficiency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Sets of Giemsa-stained, blood smear slides with systematically verified composite diagnoses would contribute substantially to development of externally validated quality assurance systems for the microscopic diagnosis of malaria. Methods whole blood from Plasmodium-positive donors in Cambodia and Indonesia and individuals with no history of risk for malaria was collected. Using standard operating procedures, technicians prepared Giemsa-stained thick and thin smears from each donor. One slide from each of the first 35 donations was distributed to each of 28 individuals acknowledged by reputation as having expertise in the microscopic diagnosis of malaria. These reference readers recorded presence or absence of Plasmodium species and parasite density. A composite diagnosis for each donation was determined based on microscopic findings and species-specific small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssrRNA DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification. Results More than 12, 000 slides were generated from 124 donations. Reference readers correctly identified presence of parasites on 85% of slides with densities 350 parasites/?l. Percentages of agreement with composite diagnoses were highest for Plasmodium falciparum (99%, followed by Plasmodium vivax (86%. Conclusion Herein, a standardized method for producing large numbers of consistently high quality, durable Giemsa-stained blood smears and validating composite diagnoses for the purpose of creating a malaria slide repository in support of initiatives to improve training and competency assessment amidst a background of variability in diagnosis is described.

Sismadi Priyanto

2006-10-01

85

The GZK cutoff smeared  

CERN Document Server

The observed energy spectrum of ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) is distorted by errors in the energy reconstruction. We estimate the UHECR spectrum at the Earth assuming it is originated from a cosmological flux. We then convolute this flux assuming a lognormal error in the energy. We show that if the standard deviation of the lognormal error distribution is equal or larger than 0.25, not only the shape but also the normalization of the measured energy spectra will be modified. As a consequence the GZK cutoff might be sufficiently smeared and as not to be seen. This result is independent of the power law of the cosmological flux. As a conclusion we show that in order to establish the presence or not of the GZK feature, not only more data is needed but also that the shape of the energy error distribution has to be known well.

Albuquerque, I F M; Albuquerque, Ivone F. M.; Smoot, George F.

2005-01-01

86

Differentiation analyses of adult suspension mononucleated peripheral blood cells of Mus musculus  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to determine whether isolated suspension mouse peripheral mononucleated blood cells have the potential to differentiate into two distinct types of cells, i.e., osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Results Differentiation into osteoblast cells was concomitant with the activation of the Opn gene, increment of alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity and the existence of bone nodules, whereas osteoclast cells activated the Catk gene, increment of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP activity and showed resorption activities via resorption pits. Morphology analyses showed the morphology of osteoblast and osteoclast cells after von Kossa and May-Grunwald-Giemsa staining respectively. Conclusions In conclusion, suspension mononucleated cells have the potentiality to differentiate into mature osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and hence can be categorized as multipotent stem cells.

Yazid Muhammad

2010-10-01

87

Frequency of tumor diathesis in the smears of cervical carcinoma in a University Hospital  

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Full Text Available Background: Tumor diathesis (TD refers to the granular proteinaceous precipitates on the slide surface of cytologic (Pap smears. Found in the background of smears from some, but not all, invasive carcinoma cases, TD is present in the majority of smears from large cell nonkeratinizing carcinoma. It is more pronounced than keratinizing SCC also is almost always present in small cell carcinoma.  Smears from patients with adenocarcinoma are frequently associated with dense inflammatory and fresh blood exudates and less often there is a recognizable tumor diathesis. Methods: To determine the prevalence of TD in cervicovaginal smears from patients with uterine cervix carcinoma, cytologic smears and histologic slides of 46 patients with histologically-confirmed uterine cervix carcinoma were reviewed for the presence or absence of TD, red blood cells and neutrophils on cytologic smears, as well as depth of invasion, histologic types and grade of differentiation of tumor on histologic slides.Results: TD was identified in 28 smears (60.9%, 18 patients with squamous cell carcinoma (62.1%, seven patients with adenocarcinoma (58.3%, two patients with adenosquamous carcinoma (66.7% and one patient with endometrial carcinoma that involved the uterine cervix. TD was seen in smears from four (33.3% patients with uterine cervix carcinoma with invasion <5 mm and 17 (65.4% carcinomas with invasion >5mm. However, some of the patients with invasive carcinoma lacked TD on the cytologic smears. Red blood cells were identified on 16 (34.8% smears.Conclusions: Although TD is the hallmark of invasive carcinoma of the cervix on cytological smears, there have been few studies performed on it. We found that tumors with greater depth of invasion and reduced differentiation are associated with TD cytologic smears. TD was absent in some cases, particularly in micro-invasive carcinoma. This study reinforced what has been recognized from other studies.

Hakimi J.

2008-03-01

88

Continuous smearing of Wilson Loops  

CERN Document Server

Continuum smearing was introduced in section 4.1 of JHEP03, 064 (2006) as a meaningful continuum analogue of the well known set of lattice techniques by the same name. Here we apply continuous smearing in continuous space-time to Wilson loops in order to clarify what it does in the context of field theory and also in the context of the loop calculus of the Makeenko-Migdal equation.

Lohmayer, Robert

2011-01-01

89

Uso de paneles de láminas estandarizadas para la evaluación de competencias en el diagnóstico microscópico de malaria en la amazonía peruana / Use of standardized blood smear slide sets for competency assessment in the malaria microscopic diagnosis in the peruvian amazon  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos. Evaluar la competencia de los microscopistas en el diagnóstico de la malaria mediante paneles de láminas estandarizados en la Amazonía peruana. Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal, realizado entre los meses de julio y septiembre de 2007, en 122 establecimientos de salud de primer ni [...] vel de atención de la Amazonía peruana. En el marco del Proyecto PAMAFRO, se evaluó las competencias en el diagnóstico de malaria en 68 microscopistas sin experiencia (un año), utilizando paneles estandarizados de 20 láminas siguiendo las recomendaciones de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). Se definió concordancia como el porcentaje de aciertos que tuvo el microscopista en los diagnósticos (identificación de especie del parásito). Un microscopista con concordancia ?90% (?18 láminas acertadas) fue definido como "experto", 80 a Abstract in english Objectives. To assess the competency of microscopists for malaria diagnosis using standardized slide sets in the Peruvian Amazon. Material and methods. Cross-sectional study carried out in 122 first level health facilities of the Peruvian Amazon, between July and September 2007. Within the frame of [...] the project "Control Malaria in the border areas of the Andean Region: A community approach" (PAMAFRO), we evaluated the malaria diagnosis performance in 68 microscopists without expertise ( 1 year) using standardized sets of 20 blood smear slides according to the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. A correct diagnosis (correct species identification) was defined as "agreement", a microscopist was qualified as an "expert" if they have an agreement ?90% (? 18 slides with correct diagnosis), as a "referent" with an agreement between 80% and

Rosas-Aguirre, Ángel; Gamboa, Dionicia; Rodriguez, Hugo; Llanos-Zavalaga, Fernando; Aguirre, Kristhian; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro.

90

Evaluation of the CytoRich technique for cervical smears.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to assess the ability of the CytoRich System to prepare optimal gynaecological smears for diagnosis. The diagnostic results obtained from evaluating 1,325 matched slide-pairs, prepared using conventional methods and thin-layer technology, were compared. Cytological material for study was obtained using the combined spatula-cytobrush sampling technique. An assessment of the pitfalls associated with the interpretation of these smears was also undertaken. Diagnostic agreement was achieved in 1,272 of the 1,325 matched slide-pairs (96.0%), and these included 1,172 negative, 50 atypical, 24 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), 24 high-grade SIL (HSIL), and two malignancies. A total of 1,309 cases showed the same diagnosis within one diagnostic grade for an agreement of 98.8%. Evaluation of the 53 discordant diagnoses revealed that the conventional smear identified a significantly greater number of abnormal smears than the CytoRich technique (P CytoRich after conventional smear preparation. This limitation is evidenced by the fact that the CytoRich preparations showed a lower yield of endocervical cells (P < .001) and infectious organisms (P < .001) than was demonstrated on conventional smears. Despite a number of diagnostic pitfalls associated with the interpretation of thin-layer smears, these preparations were easier and faster to screen and showed well-preserved and evenly distributed cells. Thin-layer smears were also characterised by a marked reduction in thick cell groups, air drying artifact, and obscuring inflammation and blood. The results confirm the limitation of the combined spatula-cytobrush technique in these types of comparative studies. PMID:9523146

Stevens, M W; Nespolon, W W; Milne, A J; Rowland, R

1998-03-01

91

DEPENDENCE OF MALARIA DETECTION AND SPECIES DIAGNOSIS BY MICROSCOPY ON PARASITE DENSITY  

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Giemsa-stained blood smears from each of 2,190 patients from Thai government-operated clinics on the Thailand-Myanmar border were independently examined by the on-duty microscopists at the clinics and by 2–3 research microscopists, each blinded to the clinics’ and each other’s reports. Using a strictly defined protocol, a consensus reference-standard blood smear interpretation for each sample was produced by the research microscopists. This result was compared with the clinic’s diagno...

Mckenzie, F. Ellis; Sirichaisinthop, Jeeraphat; Miller, R. Scott; Gasser, Robert A.; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda

2003-01-01

92

Hypercubic Smeared Links for Dynamical Fermions  

CERN Multimedia

We investigate a variant of hypercubic gauge link smearing where the SU(3) projection is replaced with a normalization to the corresponding unitary group. This smearing is differentiable and thus suitable for use in dynamical fermion simulations using molecular dynamics type algorithms. We show that this smearing is as efficient as projected hypercubic smearing in removing ultraviolet noise from the gauge fields. We test the normalized hypercubic smearing in dynamical improved (clover) Wilson and valence overlap simulations.

Hasenfratz, A; Schäfer, S; Hasenfratz, Anna; Hoffmann, Roland; Schaefer, Stefan

2007-01-01

93

Systematical cytogenetic analysis of stable and unstable chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood of NPP workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between stable and unstable chromosome aberration frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes using Giemsa staining and FISH chromosome analysis. 15 Nuclear Power Plant's workers occupationally exposed to external radiation, with high (> 500 mSv) and intermediate lifetime cumulative doses and 15 healthy individuals, not occupationally exposed to radiation from administrative staff of Kozloduy NPP have been selected. The cytogenetic results in 10 years following systematic investigations by conventional analysis are shown. A total 14 610 metaphases was scored from 15 NPP workers and 15 controls. Mean frequency of dicentrics in workers group was 1,25 x 10"-"3 dic/cell. The mean frequency was 0,27 x 10"-"3 dic/cell in controls. It was observed 5 times lower dicentric frequency in controls then in workers, but it is not significant. It is known that dicentrics are unstable type of aberrations and their persistence depends on lymphocytes life time (about 3 years). The results are consistent with recent findings for Nuclear power workers by Giemsa staining. Dose-response dependence, genome frequency of translocations and dicentrics per 100 cells in NPP workers and controls are presented. The overall mean total translocation frequency for control group was 1.7x10"-"3 tr/cell and 5.4x10"-"3 tr/cell. When compared to unexposed controls the yields of translocations were significantly higher, but no dose dependence was apparent. Chromosome analysis of radiation exposed populations, using techniques to identify stable aberrations, offers the opportunity to examine the relative effectiveness of different exposure conditions and is of particular relevance since chromosome rearrangements are of prime importance in process of carcinogenesis. Such studies should therefore aid the understanding of risks associated with radiation exposure

2004-10-14

94

Criteria for reflex peripheral smear review in infants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Criteria for peripheral smear review are designed to include those samples with results outside the reference interval and can be more extreme based on what is considered to have clinical utility. However, we are unaware of previous studies that reported the distributions of various complete blood cell count (CBC) parameters in infants. In the following study we reviewed screening CBC results of 692 infants aged 9-15 months in order to determine the proportion of peripheral smear reviews recommended according to consensus criteria and that after adjusting for the observed distributions of the various parameters. According to consensus criteria the recommended reflex peripheral smear review rate was 39.7% (95% CI 36.1-43.4) whereas after adjustment for the observed distributions, the rate fell to 5.6% (95% CI 3.9-7.3) (p count > 7 × 10(9)/L (17.5%), the presence of a plus one blast flag (4.3%), and a large unstained cell count of ? 5% (26.2%) (equivalent to + 1 atypical flag). We found that international consensus criteria for reflex peripheral smear review results in a very high peripheral smear review rate in well infants, and might be inappropriate. PMID:24650178

Froom, Paul; Isakov, Elada; Barak, Mira

2014-06-01

95

Debris removal in Pap-smear images.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since its introduction in the 1940s the Pap-smear test has helped reduce the incidence of cervical cancer dramatically in countries where regular screening is standard. The automation of this procedure is an open problem that has been ongoing for over fifty years without reaching satisfactory results. Existing systems are discouragingly expensive and yet they are only able to make a correct distinction between normal and abnormal samples in a fraction of cases. Therefore, they are limited to acting as support for the cytotechnicians as they perform their manual screening. The main reason for the current limitations is that the automated systems struggle to overcome the complexity of the cell structures. Samples are covered in artefacts such as blood cells, overlapping and folded cells, and bacteria, that hamper the segmentation processes and generate large number of suspicious objects. The classifiers designed to differentiate between normal cells and pre-cancerous cells produce unpredictable results when classifying artefacts. In this paper, we propose a sequential classification scheme focused on removing unwanted objects, debris, from an initial segmentation result, intended to be run before the actual normal/abnormal classifier. The method has been evaluated using three separate datasets obtained from cervical samples prepared using both the standard Pap-smear approach as well as the more recent liquid based cytology sample preparation technique. We show success in removing more than 99% of the debris without loosing more than around one percent of the epithelial cells detected by the segmentation process. PMID:23582663

Malm, Patrik; Balakrishnan, Byju N; Sujathan, Vilayil K; Kumar, Rajesh; Bengtsson, Ewert

2013-07-01

96

UV Suppression by Smearing and Screening Correlators  

CERN Document Server

We investigate the mechanism of smearing in the APE, Stout, HYP and HEX schemes through their effect on glue and quark Fourier modes. Using this, we non-perturbatively tune the smearing parameters to their optimum values. Smearing causes a super-linear improvement in taste symmetry breaking in the high temperature phase of QCD. We use optimal smearing in the high temperature phase and find close agreement of meson screening masses with weak coupling predictions.

Gupta, Sourendu

2013-01-01

97

Logarithmic link smearing for full QCD  

CERN Multimedia

A new Lie-algebra based recipe for analytic link smearing in lattice QCD is presented. It is more efficient in suppressing UV-noise than the standard ``stout'' smearing, roughly comparable to traditional APE smearing. It may be used together with the hypercubic nesting trick, and the advantage is that this LOG/HYL smearing yields differentiable ``fat'' links, which makes it attractive for a HMC approach to full QCD.

Durr, Stephan

2007-01-01

98

Full blood count and haemozoin-containing leukocytes in children with malaria: diagnostic value and association with disease severity  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Diligent and correct laboratory diagnosis and up-front identification of risk factors for progression to severe disease are the basis for optimal management of malaria. Methods Febrile children presenting to the Medical Research Unit at the Albert Schweitzer Hospital (HAS in Lambaréné, Gabon, were assessed for malaria. Giemsa-stained thick films for qualitative and quantitative diagnosis and enumeration of malaria pigment, or haemozoin (Hz-containing leukocytes (PCL were performed, and full blood counts (FBC were generated with a Cell Dyn 3000® instrument. Results Compared to standard light microscopy of Giemsa-stained thick films, diagnosis by platelet count only, by malaria pigment-containing monocytes (PCM only, or by pigment-containing granulocytes (PCN only yielded sensitivities/specificities of 92%/93%; 96%/96%; and 85%/96%, respectively. The platelet count was significantly lower in children with malaria compared to those without (p ® instrument detected significantly more patients with PCL (p Conclusion In the age group examined in the Lambaréné area, platelets are an excellent adjuvant tool to diagnose malaria. Pigment-containing leukocytes (PCL are more readily detected by automated scatter flow cytometry than by microscopy. Automated Hz detection by an instrument as used here is a reliable diagnostic tool and correlates with disease severity. However, clinical usefulness as a prognostic tool is limited due to an overlap of PCL numbers recorded in severe versus non-severe malaria. However, this is possibly because of the instrument detection algorithm was not geared towards this task, and data lost during processing; and thus adjusting the instrument's algorithm may allow to establish a meaningful cut-off value.

Lell Bertrand

2008-06-01

99

Smearing corrections on deuterium targets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we show and clarify further the consistency (which in the conventional, non-relativistic approach is lacking) of the recent, simple, spinless and relativistic approach (the nucleon-parton approach) to Fermi motion effects on deuterium targets. In analysing the recent high-energy cross-section data of ?D, ?N and ND, NN processes, we find that the conventional approach leads to a non-negligible smearing correction sigmasub(s). On the other hand, the nucleon-parton approach, by using a simple ansatz for the truncated n-p-d relativistic vertex function, leads to a vanishing sigmasub(s). We show, also, that the inclusion of a spin degree of freedom in the formalism for leptonic scattering, where smearing effects are very important, does not affect the previous (spinless) results. (orig.)

1981-06-15

100

The smear layer in endodontics - a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Root canal instrumentation produces a layer of organic and inorganic material called the smear layer that may also contain bacteria and their by-products. It can prevent the penetration of intracanal medicaments into dentinal tubules and influence the adaptation of filling materials to canal walls. This article provides an overview of the smear layer, focusing on its relevance to endodontics. The PubMed database was used initially; the reference list for smear layer featured 1277 articles, and for both smear layer dentine and smear layer root canal revealed 1455 publications. Smear layer endodontics disclosed 408 papers. A forward search was undertaken on selected articles and using some author names. Potentially relevant material was also sought in contemporary endodontic texts, whilst older books revealed historic information and primary research not found electronically, such that this paper does not represent a 'classical' review. Data obtained suggests that smear layer removal should enhance canal disinfection. Current methods of smear removal include chemical, ultrasonic and laser techniques - none of which are totally effective throughout the length of all canals or are universally accepted. If smear is to be removed, the method of choice seems to be the alternate use of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and sodium hypochlorite solutions. Conflict remains regarding the removal of the smear layer before filling root canals, with investigations required to determine the role of the smear layer in the outcomes of root canal treatment. PMID:20002799

Violich, D R; Chandler, N P

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

A Case of Plasmodium ovale Malaria Imported from West Africa  

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Malaria is a parasitic infection caused by Plasmodium species. Most of the imported malaria in Korea are due to Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum, and Plasmodium ovale infections are very rare. Here, we report a case of a 24-year-old American woman who acquired P. ovale while staying in Ghana, West Africa for 5 months in 2010. The patient was diagnosed with P. ovale malaria based on a Wright-Giemsa stained peripheral blood smear, Plasmodium genus-specific real-time PCR, Plasmodium sp...

Kang, Yunjung; Yang, Jinyoung

2013-01-01

102

Smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis and lymphocyte subsets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To correlate and quantitate Iymphocyte subsets with clinically diagnosed smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis and severity of disease. Subjects and Methods: Freshly diagnosed, well-characterized smear-negative patients (n=15) of pulmonary tuberculosis were selected. Non-induced three-consecutive negative smears of sputum with simultaneous culture for AFB for 6-8 weeks, positive Mauntoux test (= or > 0 mm), blood complete picture with ESR and chest x-rays were done. Selected panel of monoclonal antibodies against specific CD markers were used. Statistical analysis done by student t-test or Mann-Whitney rank-sum test with the help of Sigma State software. Results: Hemoglobin and total lymphocyte counts were significantly reduced whereas total leukocyte counts with absolute neutrophil counts were increased. Fraction of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes with HLA-DR expression was reduced while no significant change in rest of the TB and NK lymphocytes. Conclusion: Low hemoglobin level, high neutrophil count and low total lymphocytes suggest possible direct relationship with extent of disease. The number of activated CD4+, CD8+, alpha beta and gamma delta TCR T cells have tendency to increase during Mycobacterium infection. This seems to have a potential of being a good, non-invasive prognostic indicator for patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. (author)

2004-07-01

103

How to Interpret Abnormal Pap Smear Results  

Science.gov (United States)

... HPV testing. ASC-H means ASC with possible HSIL: Some of your cells are not normal and ... HPV testing or recommend a repeat Pap smear. HSIL HSIL stands for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. ...

104

Effects of interfering constituents on tritium smears  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tritium smears are performed by Health Protection Operations (HPO) to assess transferable contamination on work place surfaces, materials for movement outside Radiologically Controlled Areas (RCA), and product containers being shipped between facilities. Historically, gas proportional counters were used to detect transferable tritium contamination collected by smearing. Because tritium is a low-energy beta emitter, gas proportional counters do not provide the sensitivity or the counting efficiency to accurately measure the tritium activity on the smear. Liquid Scintillation Counters (LSC) provide greater counting efficiency for the low-energy beta particles along with greater reliability and reproducibility compared to gas flow proportional counters. The purpose of this technical evaluation was to determine the effects of interfering constituents such as filters, dirt and oil on the counting efficiency and tritium recoveries of tritium smears by LSC

1993-01-01

105

Blood parasites of wild and domestic animals from South Kalimantan (Borneo), Indonesia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wild and domestic animals trapped from forests, villages, and rice fields in South Kalimantan (3 degrees 20' S, 115 degrees 02' E, 25 m) were examined for blood parasites using Giemsa stained thick and thin blood films and Nuclepore filter preparations of peripheral vein and heart puncture blood. Presbytis cristatus (silvered leaf monkey) (25%) and Felis catus (domestic cat) (7%) were infected with Brugia malayi and B. pahangi. In addition, P. cristatus was infected with Wuchereria kalimantani (35%); Cardiofilaria sp. (1%) and Dirofilaria sp. (1%). Microfilariae of Cardiofilaria were also recovered from Callosciurus notatus (squirrel), Pitta sordida (bird), Pycnonotus goiavier (bird) and Gallus gallus (bird). Paradoxurus hermaphroditus (civet) and Muntiacus muncak (barking deer), were positive for Dirofilaria sp. Bos indicus (cow) for Onchocerca sp. and Nectarinia jugularis (bird) for Splendidofilaria sp. Plasmodium coatneyi was found in 22% of the P. cristatus examined. Plasmodium sp. was also recovered from Zaocys fuscus and Ahaetulla prasina (reptile); Muscicapa sp. Lonchura malacca, Orthotomus sericeus, Rhipidura javanica, Treron vernans, Pycnonotus melanoleucus and G. gallus (bird). In addition 39% of the Cynopterus brachyotis and 29% of C. horsfieldi (fruit bats) were infected with Hepatocystis pteropi. A single G. gallus was infected with Leucocytozoon sabrazesi and another with Trypanosoma sp. PMID:6789456

Masbar, S; Palmieri, J R; Marwoto, H A; Purnomo; Darwis, F

1981-03-01

106

Seroprevalence and bacteremia [corrected] of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in cats from Bavaria and Lower Saxony (Germany).  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaplasma (A.) phagocytophilum is a tick-transmitted obligate intracellular bacterium and has been identified in a wide range of mammalian species, causing febrile disease in some. Few reports show that it can also cause granulocytic anaplasmosis in cats. As data on the occurrence of A. phagocytophilum in cats from Germany is limited, a total of 326 serum and 306 EDTA-blood samples from cats from Germany were screened by direct (Giemsa-stained blood/buffy coat smears, real-time PCR) and indirect (IFAT) methods. Of 274 Giemsa-stained blood smears which could be evaluated none was positive for morulae, but one blood sample ( or = 1:64) were detected in 53 out of 326 samples (16.2%). Altogether, the results show a high seroprevalence rate of anti-A. phagocytophilum antibodies in cats in Germany while the low detection rate of this bacterial agent by direct methods is similar to those of other studies on A. phagocytophilum infections in cats. PMID:22515036

Hamel, Dietmar; Bondarenko, Anna; Silaghi, Cornelia; Nolte, Ingo; Pfister, Kurt

2012-01-01

107

Smear layer on dentin in restorative dentistry  

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Full Text Available Adhesion to enamel has become a routine technique in restorative dentistry. Adhesion to dentin, however, is still under investigation. Except structural elements of the dentin, smear layer has been one of the reasons that the interaction between the adhesive system and this tissue is difficult. The smear layer tissue created by cutting a tooth. It varies in thickness, roughness, density and degree of attachment andoccludes tubules and reduces the dental permeabilita. Dentin adhesivesystems can react with intertubular and peritubular dentin only when this smear layer is removed or when the adhesive system is capable of diffusion through layer of debris. As part of restorative procedures required by adhesive dentistry, the smear layer must be removed, modified or impregnated by the resin to allow for bonding between the tooth and the restorative material. For remove and dissolve of smear layer acid conditioners on total etch and self-etching primers were used. Self-etching primer systems are undergoing rapid evolution; their results are not yet sufficiently predictable overall, but some systems have achieved positive results in both enamel and dentin bonding. Further studies are necessary to confirm the long-term efficiency of these self-etching primers.

Živkovi? Slavoljub

2004-01-01

108

Differentiation of the microfilariae of Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens in stained blood films.  

Science.gov (United States)

An examination was made of Giemsa-stained microfilariae in thin blood films from (n = 9) dogs naturally or experimentally infected with Dirofilaria immitis or Dirofilaria repens. Morphological measurements (total length, length of cephalic space, anterior end to nerve ring and last body nucleus, and nucleus-free tail tip) were made on 2-6 microfilariae from each dog with the use of digitally captured images and imaging software. The microfilariae of D. repens were significantly greater (P immitis. The cephalic space of D. repens was characterized by being short and routinely being terminated by a distinct pair of nuclei that were separate from the remaining somatic nuclei of the microfilaria. The cephalic space of the smaller microfilaria of D. immitis was longer and did not have the distinct nuclei separated from the somatic column nuclei near the anterior end. The character of the cephalic space seems to be a criterion that could be routinely used for the easy differentiation of these 2 microfilariae in stained blood films. PMID:23146115

Liotta, Janice L; Sandhu, Gursimrat K; Rishniw, Mark; Bowman, Dwight D

2013-06-01

109

REHYDRATION OF AIR-DRIED CERVICAL SMEARS: AN ALTERNATIVE TO ROUTINE WET FIXATION  

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Full Text Available To prepare Pap smears, the routine practice is to fix the slides immediately in 95% ethanol. This study was performed to evaluate the possibility of routine use of alternative method of air-drying and rehydration prior to alcohol fixation instead of conventional method. Paired cervical smears with at least low cellularity were collected from 117 women who participated in the study. One set was labeled WF (wet fixed or fixed immediately in 95% ethanol and the other one ARF (air-dried, rehydrated and fixed. The latter further split into 3 subgroups based on the duration of air-drying. The staining quality of the slides was assessed with respect to chromatin, nuclear and cytoplasmic borders, cytolysis, cellularity, cytoplasmic staining, and red blood cells lysis. Then they were graded blindly. The results were analyzed by Chi square test to compare the defined parameters between the 2 groups and also the 3 subgroups. ARF slides were significantly better with regard to clearance of background due to the lysis of red blood cells (P value, 0.000, x2 test; kappa, -0.27. No statistically significant differences were noted between two groups in terms of other cytologic features. Cytologic features of ARF slides were statistically identical to WF smears. However, red blood cells lysis rendered clearer background in ARF slides. Air-drying and rehydration of slides is a superior method for heavily blood stained smears and can be used at least with identical quality for routine practice.

A. Zare-Mirzaie

2007-08-01

110

Modification of CytoRich Red fixative system for use on bloody Pap and fine-needle aspiration smears.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent work has shown CytoRich Red fixative system is effective in lysing red blood cells and reducing background in bloody fluid specimens. The scope of this study was to see whether CytoRich Red can lyse red blood cells in freshly prepared Pap and fine-needle aspiration smears. Paired smears from 20 bloody fine-needle aspirations were prepared. One slide was initially placed in CytoRich Red for up to 30 sec, removed, and then fixed in 95% alcohol. The other slide was placed directly into 95% alcohol. Ten paired Pap smears, one fixed with a commercial fixative and another immersed in a solution of CytoRich Red, were evaluated. All slides were stained with the Papanicolaou stain and analyzed for the amount of red blood cells, background material, and nuclear and cytoplasmic staining. In 100% of all smears utilizing CytoRich Red, red blood cells were significantly reduced without hindering staining. Significant loss of cells from the slides sent in CytoRich Red solution was not observed. CytoRich Red fixative can be effective in reducing red blood cells and background on freshly made smears. In both gynecological and nongynecological cases, diagnostic cells were well preserved and not compromised by blood. PMID:9951606

Weidmann, J; King, L C; Bibbo, M

1999-02-01

111

Laboratory reliability of the Papanicolaou smear.  

Science.gov (United States)

Variation in clinical cytology diagnoses was examined at the microscope and in the cytology laboratory as a unit. Results provide preliminary information about the comparability of cytologic diagnosis under specified conditions. In onsite proficiency testing using "normed" smears with a wide range of findings, 814 individual cytotechnologists and cytopathologists from 306 laboratories in 44 states made the target diagnosis in 63.8% of 8929 cases. False negative diagnoses were made in 7.5% of 4520 smears with moderate dysplasia through frank malignancy, and false positive diagnoses were recorded in 8.9% of 3808 smears with no more than benign atypia. Evaluation of a sample of actual work output from two laboratories showed 3.2 to 3.4% false positive and 4.8 to 11.2% false negative diagnoses on the cases rescreened. PMID:3969236

Yobs, A R; Swanson, R A; Lamotte, L C

1985-02-01

112

Blood  

Science.gov (United States)

... of the blood's reduced capacity for carrying oxygen. Causes of anemia can be grouped into two categories: anemia caused ... they can be replaced, a person will develop anemia. Several causes of increased red blood cell destruction can affect ...

113

Suppressing dislocations in normalized hypercubic smearing  

CERN Document Server

Normalized hypercubic smearing improves the behavior of dynamical Wilson-clover fermions, but has the unwanted side effect that it can occasionally produce spikes in the fermion force. These spikes originate in the chain rule connecting the derivative with respect to the smeared links to the derivative with respect to the dynamical links, and are associated with the presence of dislocations in the dynamical gauge field. We propose and study an action designed to suppress these dislocations. We present evidence for improved performance of the hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm. A side benefit is improvement in the properties of valence chiral fermions.

DeGrand, Thomas; Svetitsky, Benjamin

2014-01-01

114

Impact of sputum gross appearance and volume on smear positivity of pulmonary tuberculosis: a prospective cohort study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Although checking specimen quality upon sputum collection for acid-fast smear of suspected tuberculosis (TB cases is recommended, this procedure is based on expert opinion. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the impact of sputum gross appearance and volume on smear positivity among patients with suspected pulmonary TB, according to sex. Methods From November 2010 through June 2011, we enrolled consecutive patients suspected to have active pulmonary TB. The association of sputum gross appearance and volume with smear positivity, along with other variables possibly affecting smear positivity such as symptoms, disease extent, and cavity on chest radiograph, were investigated. Results Among 2,439 patients undergoing TB examination, 170 (113 men, 57 women with active pulmonary TB were enrolled. They submitted 492 sputa. There were 73 smear-positive patients (42.9% and 164 smear-positive sputa (33.3%. While gross appearance was associated with smear positivity in both sexes (purulent or blood-tinged sputum (rather than mucoid sputum or saliva; odds ratio (OR, 2.05, 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.21–3.47 in men; OR, 2.78, 95% CI, 1.23–6.26 in women, the amount of sputum specimens was associated with smear positivity in only female patients (?4?ml versus Conclusions Sputum gross appearance and volume were associated with smear positivity. A volume of 4?ml seems to be the the minimum sputum volume acceptable for smear microscopy in females suspected of TB. Those suspected of TB should be encouraged to expectorate grossly qualified sputum specimens.

Yoon Soon

2012-08-01

115

Removal factor determination of some local smear papers for surface contamination smear test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Removal factor determination of some local smear papers has been done, using dry smear test method. The aim of this research is to find removal values of local smear papers on some surfaces, to replace import smear papers. Smear test was done on the various surfaces i.e.: porcelain, formica, glass, stainless steel, steel and PVC, with the local smear papers I.e.: Padalarang, Diagonal, Concorde, Marga, Hard Cloth, and import smear paper. The artificial contaminant which used were I-131 and P-32. The removal factor values of Padalarang paper for surfaces: porcelain, formica, glass stainless steel, steel and PVC were: 24.5%, 20.0%, 27.0%, 6.8%, 4.9%, and 13.6% respectively. The removal factor values of Diagonal paper were:18.4%, 15.9%, 5.7%, 3.5%, and 9.1% respectively. The removal factor values of concord paper were: 18.5%, 20.3%, 23.1%, 6.6%, 3.8%, and 9.0% respectively. The removal factor values of Marga paper were: 16.7%, 13.5%, 21.1%, 4.2%, 4.1% and 8.1% respectively. The removal factor values of Hard Cloth were: 18.6%, 12.6%, 20.5%, 8.2%, and 10.1% respectively. The removal factor values of import smear paper were: 17.8%, 15.0%, 18.8%, 9.1%, 4.8%, and 14.4% respectively . Substitution alternative of import smear paper is Padalarang. (author)

1996-06-01

116

Evaluation of remote smearing of DWPF canistered waste forms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Savannah River Site (SRS) is evaluating the variables of the remote smearing process for monitoring transferable contamination on the waste glass canisters at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Smearing for transferable contamination is typically done by hand, but in this case, due to the nature of the high level waste within the canisters, remote smearing is required. The effectiveness of the smear pad was determined under varying conditions (distance traveled, force applied, and canister surface), as well as the relative importance of these factors. It was concluded that the remote smear is more reliable than the hand smear

1991-02-24

117

Comment on "Quantum mechanics of smeared particles"  

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In a recent article, Sastry has proposed a quantum mechanics of smeared particles. We show that the effects induced by the modification of the Heisenberg algebra, proposed to take into account the delocalization of a particle defined via its Compton wavelength, are important enough to be excluded experimentally.

Brau, F.

2003-01-01

118

Smeared versus localised sources in flux compactifications  

CERN Document Server

We investigate whether vacuum solutions in flux compactifications that are obtained with smeared sources (orientifolds or D-branes) still survive when the sources are localised. This seems to rely on whether the solutions are BPS or not. First we consider two sets of BPS solutions that both relate to the GKP solution through T-dualities: (p+1)-dimensional solutions from spacetime-filling Op-planes with a conformally Ricci-flat internal space, and p-dimensional solutions with Op-planes that wrap a 1-cycle inside an everywhere negatively curved twisted torus. The relation between the solution with smeared orientifolds and the localised version is worked out in detail. We then demonstrate that a class of non-BPS AdS_4 solutions that exist for IASD fluxes and with smeared D3-branes (or analogously for ISD fluxes with anti-D3-branes) does not survive the localisation of the (anti) D3-branes. This casts doubts on the stringy consistency of non-BPS solutions that are obtained in the limit of smeared sources.

Blåbäck, Johan; Junghans, Daniel; Van Riet, Thomas; Wrase, Timm; Zagermann, Marco

2010-01-01

119

Comparison of ThinPrep and conventional smears in head and neck fine needle aspiration cytology  

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Full Text Available Aim: The ThinPrep Processor has gained popularity as a collection and preparation technique for fine needle aspiration cytology in addition to Papanicolaou smear test. The aim of this study was to compare the various cytologic features of ThinPrep and conventional smear in head and neck masses.Material and Methods: We reviewed 71 consecutive fine needle aspiration cytology specimens and the conventional smear and ThinPrep slides diagnosed without knowledge of histopathologic diagnosis. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA test on SPSS program.Results: There was no statistical difference between the two groups as regard to the presence of monolayer cells, cell architecture, and nuclear details (p>0.05. Cellularity, informative background and cytoplasmic details were statistically significant in conventional smear group (p<0.05. However, in ThinPrep preparations there were no blood and necrosis masking the findings (p<0.05.Conclusion: Combined use of conventional smear and ThinPrep preparation provides the best results for fine needle aspiration cytology.

Fulya KÖYBA?IO?LU

2008-09-01

120

Full blood count and haemozoin-containing leukocytes in children with malaria: diagnostic value and association with disease severity  

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Background Diligent and correct laboratory diagnosis and up-front identification of risk factors for progression to severe disease are the basis for optimal management of malaria. Methods Febrile children presenting to the Medical Research Unit at the Albert Schweitzer Hospital (HAS) in Lambaréné, Gabon, were assessed for malaria. Giemsa-stained thick films for qualitative and quantitative diagnosis and enumeration of malaria pigment, or haemozoin (Hz)-containing leukocytes (PCL) were performed, and full blood counts (FBC) were generated with a Cell Dyn 3000® instrument. Results Compared to standard light microscopy of Giemsa-stained thick films, diagnosis by platelet count only, by malaria pigment-containing monocytes (PCM) only, or by pigment-containing granulocytes (PCN) only yielded sensitivities/specificities of 92%/93%; 96%/96%; and 85%/96%, respectively. The platelet count was significantly lower in children with malaria compared to those without (p < 0.001), and values showed little overlap between groups. Compared to microscopy, scatter flow cytometry as applied in the Cell-Dyn 3000® instrument detected significantly more patients with PCL (p < 0.01). Both PCM and PCN numbers were higher in severe versus non-severe malaria yet reached statistical significance only for PCN (p < 0.0001; PCM: p = 0.14). Of note was the presence of another, so far ill-defined pigment-containing group of phagocytic cells, identified by laser-flow cytometry as lymphocyte-like gated events, and predominantly found in children with malaria-associated anaemia. Conclusion In the age group examined in the Lambaréné area, platelets are an excellent adjuvant tool to diagnose malaria. Pigment-containing leukocytes (PCL) are more readily detected by automated scatter flow cytometry than by microscopy. Automated Hz detection by an instrument as used here is a reliable diagnostic tool and correlates with disease severity. However, clinical usefulness as a prognostic tool is limited due to an overlap of PCL numbers recorded in severe versus non-severe malaria. However, this is possibly because of the instrument detection algorithm was not geared towards this task, and data lost during processing; and thus adjusting the instrument's algorithm may allow to establish a meaningful cut-off value.

Hanscheid, Thomas; Langin, Matthias; Lell, Bertrand; Potschke, Marc; Oyakhirome, Sunny; Kremsner, Peter G; Grobusch, Martin P

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Quick Kato smear for field quantification of Schistosoma mansoni eggs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 50-mg Kato thick smear was modified by using stainless steel templates which deliver 20 mg of stools accurately; fecal material can thus be processed in the field and the smears cleared within 15 minutes. The counts obtained from the 20-mg quick Kato were proportional to those obtained by the 50-mg thick smear. PMID:7369441

Peters, P A; El Alamy, M; Warren, K S; Mahmoud, A A

1980-03-01

122

Bacteriological safety of smears of surfacesio in catering facilities and food industry in Zenica-Doboj Canton in the period 2005-2007  

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Full Text Available Aim To research bacteriological (hygienic safety of surfaces(hands smear of staff involved in the process of work, smearof furniture used for work, smear from walls in offices in thefacilities for production of meat and meat products (8, forproduction of milk and milk products (3, products of cakes(14, bakery and bakery products (4 sugar refinery and biscuits(1 and in objects of social sustenance in the territory of Zenica-Doboj Canton (Bosnia and Herzegovina B&H in period2005-2007 and to point out the importance of this analysis inproviding food safety for consumers.Methods: Data from the protocol of the Laboratory for Clinicaland Sanitary Microbiology,of the Cantonal Institute for PublicHealth Zenica were used. Samples of smears were inoculatedon MacConkey and blood agar. Results were interpreted inaccordance with applicable law in B&H.Results From 5051 analyzed smears, 190 (3,/% were notsatisfactory. The largest number of unsatisfactory smears wasnoted in Zenica, 75 (39; 47%, Visoko 49 (25.8% and Tešanj37 (19.5%. From 190 unsatisfactory smears, 57 (30%were smears from dishes, 43 (22.6% from furniture and worksurfaces 42 (22,1% and 41 (21.6% smears from hands. Themost frequently isolated was Escherichia coli, in 25 (22.6%smears from machines, and 34 (17.2% smears from dishes.Unsatisfactory smears were mostly found in objects of publicmaintenance, 96 (50.5% and in objects for production ofmeat, 82 (43.2%.Conclusion Regular control (monitoring, hygienic sutabilityqualityof smears in objects and education of employees toimprove hygienic measures for the purpose of the preventionof food contamination.

Edina Garanovi?

2013-05-01

123

WBC (White Blood Cell) Differential Count  

Science.gov (United States)

... name: White Blood Cell Differential Related tests: White Blood Cell Count , Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy , ... know? How is it used? The white blood cell differential is often used as part of a complete blood count (CBC) as a general health check. It may ...

124

Phenomenology with Wilson fermions using smeared sources  

CERN Multimedia

We investigate the use of two types of non-local (``smeared'') sources for quark propagators in quenched lattice QCD at $\\beta=6.0$ using Wilson fermions at $\\kappa=0.154$ and $0.155$. We present results for the hadron mass spectrum, meson decay constants, quark masses, the chiral condensate and the quark distribution amplitude of the pion. The use of smeared sources leads to a considerable improvement over previous results. We find a disturbing discrepancy between the baryon spectra obtained using Wuppertal and wall sources. We find good signals in the ratio of correlators used to calculate the quark mass and the chiral condensate and show that the extrapolation to the chiral limit is smooth.

Daniel, D; Kilcup, G W; Patel, A; Sharpe, S

1992-01-01

125

Smeared and unsmeared chiral vertex operators  

CERN Multimedia

We prove unboundedness and boundedness of the unsmeared and smeared chiral vertex operators, respectively. We use elementary methods in bosonic Fock space, only. Possible applications to conformal two - dimensional quantum field theory, perturbation thereof, and to the perturbative construction of the sine-Gordon model by the Epstein-Glaser method are discussed. From another point of view the results of this paper can be looked at as a first step towards a Hilbert space interpretation of vertex operator algebras.

Constantinescu, F; Constantinescu, Florin

1999-01-01

126

Comparison of the automicrobic system, acridine orange-stained smears, and gram-stained smears in detecting bacteriuria.  

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We compared the accuracy of the Gram-stained smear, the acridine orange-stained smear, and the AutoMicrobic system (AMS; Vitek Systems, Inc., Hazelwood, Mo.) in screening for bacteriuria, as detected by conventional cultures. For 1,024 clinical specimens, results with the acridine orange-stained smear and the Gram-stained smear were very similar. When read for the presence of one or more microorganisms or leukocytes per 20 oil immersion fields, both smears were highly sensitive (92.1 and 93.3...

Lipsky, B. A.; Plorde, J. J.; Tenover, F. C.; Brancato, F. P.

1985-01-01

127

Molecular Diagnostic of Anaplasma marginale in Carrier Cattle  

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Full Text Available "nBackground: Anaplasmosis belongs to the complex of several tick-borne diseases and can cause diseases in the livestock with high economical losses. Cattle that recover from acute infection become carriers and the parasite can persist most probably for the lifetime in the blood. The aim of the present study was the determination of the persistently infected cattle in a region of Iran with the previous history of acute anaplasmosis."nMethods: One hundred and fifty blood samples and corresponding blood smears of cattle without any signs of diseases were prepared from a region in Isfahan/ Iran with the previous history of acute anaplasmosis from March 2007 to July 2007 for cross sectional study of carriers of Anaplasma. The blood smears were first screened by Giemsa staining, the extracted DNA from blood cells were analyzed by Anaplasma marginale specific nested PCR, and PCR-RFLP using primers derived from 16S rRNA gene and restriction endonuclease Bst1107 I."nResults: Anaplasma like structures could be identified in the limited amount of erythrocytes of 75 blood smears. In these samples, the percentage of erythrocytes harboring Anaplasma like structures varied from 10-3% to 10-2%. Nested-PCR and PCR-RFLP analysis showed 58 A. marginale positive cases within 75 Anaplasma suspected blood samples. In 150 total blood samples, 50% were A. marinale positive."nConclusion: Our results revealed that the traditional Giemsa staining method is not applicable for the determination of the persistently infected cattle. In addition, the results showed that the carrier animals must be widespread in the Anaplasma endemic areas in Iran.

Vahid Noaman

2009-02-01

128

[Automation of cytological analysis of cervical smears].  

Science.gov (United States)

Quality Control (QC) is essential in cytologic laboratories. To reduce or avoid false negatives due to screening or interpretation errors, all cervical smears may be analyzed twice by two different cytopathologists (CP). During rescreening or Quality Control (QC), the second CP may be assisted by an automated device. Today there are different instruments: computerized microscope Ac Cell Series 2000 Pathfinder System), semiautomated or interactive systems (PAPNET, CytoRich or AutoCyte, ACCESS), automated systems (AutoPap 300). These devices, except computerized microscopes, utilize algorithmic image analysis that values single cells using morphological features but has difficulty in analyzing clusters of overlapping cells. For this reason it is better to use thin or monolayer preparations. This approach results in the loss of background and cells useful for the diagnosis and modifies sampling and processing methods. However, the techniques to obtain thin or monolayer preparations may process a higher number of cells than conventional method; moreover, the samples obtained may be valued also by the optic microscope, making cytologic analysis easier. The only device that combines the use of algorithmic image analysis with neural networks is the PAPNET system. Neural networks was inspired by neurobiology and may identify different cellular morphology and overlapping cells. In our laboratory, the PAPNET was proposed in 1995. In the present study, the last rescreening results of 1958 negative cervical smears are reported, analyzed during primary screening from July 1997 to February 1998. During the QC assisted by the PAPNET, 6 false negatives (0.31%), due to cytologic errors in the primary screening were detected. These results confirm the usefulness and the effectiveness of QC assisted by automated devices. However, only the CP evaluates abnormal cells detected by semiautomated systems or analyzes more atypical smears identified by the instruments. The work of CP is difficult: therefore a strict collaboration between clinician and CP to formulate the correct diagnosis is essential. PMID:10536424

Cenci, M; Giovagnoli, M R; Olla, S V; Drusco, A; Vecchione, A

1999-01-01

129

Immunohistochemical staining of human sperm cells in smears from sexual assault cases  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the routine clinical examination of sexual assault victims, apart from documenting physical evidence of abuse, securing evidence, typically DNA from blood, semen, or saliva, is an important part of the process. Often the presence of semen is considered a most interesting piece of evidence. Not only does it often contain enough DNA for DNA profiling, but it also strongly indicates that an actual sexual act has taken place. The examination of smear slides obtained in sexual assault cases is a time-consuming task especially for the less trained and in cases where the smear only contains few sperm cells. In this work the goal was to develop a procedure to rapidly visualize human sperm cells in smear slides with the use of bright-field microscopy. Using SPERM HY-LITER (TM) by Independent Forensics, human sperm cells are visualized using a fluorescently labeled mouse antibody which significantly decreases the time used to screen smears. By further using an EnVision+ (DAKO) protocol, it was possible to create an immunohistochemical staining method to visualize sperm cells in bright-field microscopy with the same level of certainty as when using SPERM HY-LITER (TM).

Christoffersen, S.

2011-01-01

130

Cervical Cytology Smear Image Interpretation System Based on Semantic Reasoning  

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Full Text Available Based on the simulation to the fact that the cytological physician’s interpretation of cervical smears could be seen as the analysis and reasoning process of smear images, an Automatic Interpretation Method of Cervical Smears based on Ontology and Semantic Reasoning (AICSOSR is put forward. Firstly the principle and process of interpretation methods using semantic reasoning is analyzed; secondly smear image features ontology, smear cytological feature ontology and interpretation experience standard ontology are built with semantic mapping methods between the different semantic ontology using rule inference and basic reasoning rules are bright forward; an automatic interpretation method of cervical smears based on Ontology and semantic reasoning is given to elaborate basic methods of interpretation rules, interpretation result merging and conflict management.

Xu Chuanyun

2013-01-01

131

Analysis of cervical smears in a Muslim population.  

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BACKGROUND: Screening for cancer of the cervix remains a neglected health care issue in Pakistan. To provide baseline data for future efforts to improve screening, we conducted a retrospective analysis of cervical smears taken in the obstetrics and gynaecological clinics of the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. METHOD: We collected data on cervical smear cytology for cervical smears taken from January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1996. We assessed risk factors for dysplasia, includi...

2004-01-01

132

Establishment of an adherent cell layer from human umbilical cord blood  

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Full Text Available In addition to bone marrow and peripheral blood, stem cells also occur in human umbilical cord blood (HUCB, and there is an increasing interest in the use of this material as an alternative source for bone marrow transplantation and gene therapy. In vitro hematopoiesis has been maintained for up to 16 weeks in HUCB cultures, but the establishment of an adherent, stromal layer has consistently failed. Adherent cell precursors among mononuclear cells from HUCB were sought for in long-term cultures. Mononuclear cells obtained from cord blood after full term, normal deliveries were cultivated at different concentrations in Iscove's modified Dulbecco's medium (IMDM with weekly feeding. An adherent layer was detected in 16 of 30 cultures, 12 of which were plated at cell concentrations higher than 2 x 10(6 cells/ml. In contrast to bone marrow cultures, in which the stroma is detected early, in most (10/16 positive cultures from HUCB the adherent layer was identified only after the fourth week of culture. The cells never reached confluence and detached from the plate approximately four weeks after detection. May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining of positive cultures revealed fibroblast- or endothelial-like adherent cells in an arrangement different from that of bone marrow stroma in 13 samples. In two of these, the adherent cells were organized into characteristic, delimited cords of cells. Unlike bone marrow cultures, fat cells were never observed in the adherent layers. A rapid development of large myeloid cells in the first week of culture was characteristic of negative cultures and these cells were maintained for up to 12 weeks. HUCB contains adherent cell precursors which occur in lower numbers than in bone marrow and may be at a different (possibly less mature stage of differentiation.

Alfonso Zeni Z.C.

2000-01-01

133

The Anal Pap Smear: Cytomorphology of squamous intraepithelial lesions  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Anal smears are increasingly being used as a screening test for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs. This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness and limitations of anal smears in screening for ASILs. Methods The cytomorphological features of 200 consecutive anal smears collected in liquid medium from 198 patients were studied and findings were correlated with results of surgical biopsies and/or repeat smears that became available for 71 patients within six months. Results Adequate cellularity was defined as an average of 6 or more nucleated squamous cells/hpf. A glandular/transitional component was not required for adequacy. Dysplastic cells, atypical parakeratotic cells and bi/multinucleated cells were frequent findings in ASIL while koilocytes were infrequent. Smears from LSIL cases most frequently showed mildly dysplastic and bi/multinucleate squamous cells followed by parakeratotic cells (PK, atypical parakeratotic cells (APK, and koilocytes. HSIL smears contained squamous cells with features of moderate/severe dysplasia and many APKs. Features of LSIL were also found in most HSIL smears. Conclusions In this study liquid based anal smears had a high sensitivity (98% for detection of ASIL but a low specificity (50% for predicting the severity of the abnormality in subsequent biopsy. Patients with cytologic diagnoses of ASC-US and LSIL had a significant risk (46–56% of HSIL at biopsy. We suggest that all patients with a diagnosis of ASC-US and above be recommended for high resolution anoscopy with biopsy.

Arain Shehla

2005-01-01

134

Reliable enumeration of malaria parasites in thick blood films using digital image analysis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitation of malaria parasite density is an important component of laboratory diagnosis of malaria. Microscopy of Giemsa-stained thick blood films is the conventional method for parasite enumeration. Accurate and reproducible parasite counts are difficult to achieve, because of inherent technical limitations and human inconsistency. Inaccurate parasite density estimation may have adverse clinical and therapeutic implications for patients, and for endpoints of clinical trials of anti-malarial vaccines or drugs. Digital image analysis provides an opportunity to improve performance of parasite density quantitation. Methods Accurate manual parasite counts were done on 497 images of a range of thick blood films with varying densities of malaria parasites, to establish a uniformly reliable standard against which to assess the digital technique. By utilizing descriptive statistical parameters of parasite size frequency distributions, particle counting algorithms of the digital image analysis programme were semi-automatically adapted to variations in parasite size, shape and staining characteristics, to produce optimum signal/noise ratios. Results A reliable counting process was developed that requires no operator decisions that might bias the outcome. Digital counts were highly correlated with manual counts for medium to high parasite densities, and slightly less well correlated with conventional counts. At low densities (fewer than 6 parasites per analysed image signal/noise ratios were compromised and correlation between digital and manual counts was poor. Conventional counts were consistently lower than both digital and manual counts. Conclusion Using open-access software and avoiding custom programming or any special operator intervention, accurate digital counts were obtained, particularly at high parasite densities that are difficult to count conventionally. The technique is potentially useful for laboratories that routinely perform malaria parasite enumeration. The requirements of a digital microscope camera, personal computer and good quality staining of slides are potentially reasonably easy to meet.

Frean John A

2009-09-01

135

Evaluation of impression smear in the diagnosis of fungal keratitis  

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Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate and compare impression smear with the conventional mechanical corneal scraping by potassium hydroxide (KOH method in the diagnosis of fungal keratitis. Materials and Methods: Fifty consecutive cases of clinically suspected fungal keratitis were included. Under topical anesthesia, impression smear was obtained from the lesion, followed by the conventional mechanical scraping and both were transferred to sterile glass slides. The slides were examined under direct microscopy with KOH 10% wet mount. Impression smear KOH was compared with the scraping KOH and culture. Results: The KOH smear was positive in 36 (72% patients with impression smear technique and positive in 35 (70% patients from corneal scrapings. Sensitivity of impression smear technique as compared to scraping was 97.14%, specificity 92.86%, positive predictive value 94.4%, negative predictive value 92.86%, false positive rate 5.56%, false negative rate 7.14% and accuracy was 94%. As compared to culture, the sensitivity was 100%, specificity 46.67%, positive predictive value 55.56%, negative predictive value 100%, false positive rate 53.33%, false negative rate 0% and accuracy was 68%. Conclusion: Impression smear KOH examination is comparable to conventional mechanical corneal scraping KOH examination in making a tentative diagnosis of fungal keratitis and can be accurately relied upon for initiating anti-fungal therapy.

Jain Arun

2007-01-01

136

Impact of changing diagnostic criteria for smear-positive tuberculosis: a cohort study in Malawi.  

Science.gov (United States)

We assessed the impact on measured burden and outcomes of the revised World Health Organization and Malawi guidelines reclassifying people with single (including 'scanty') positive smears as smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis cases. In a retrospective cohort in rural Malawi, 567 (34%) of 1670 smear-positive episodes were based on single positive smears (including 176 with scanty smears). Mortality rates and the proportion starting treatment were similar in those with two positive smears or single, non-scanty smears. Those with single scanty smears had higher mortality and a lower proportion starting treatment. The reclassification will increase the reported burden substantially, but should improve treatment access. PMID:24902563

Koole, O; Munthali, L; Mhango, B; Mpunga, J; Glynn, J R; Crampin, A C

2014-07-01

137

Micronuclei and Other Nuclear Anomalies in Buccal Smears: Methods Development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Laboratory work aimed at improving the epidemiologic utility of an innovative genotoxicity marker is described. The exfoliated cell micronucleus assay involves microscope analysis of epithelial smears to determine the prevalence of micronucleation, an ind...

P. E. Tolbert C. M. Shy J. W. Allen

1992-01-01

138

The resurgence of trypanosomosis in Botswana : short communication  

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Full Text Available No sleeping sickness or nagana cases have been reported in Botswana since 1985. In view of several confirmed clinical cases of nagana and reports of heavy bovine mortality, a parasitological survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of trypanosome infection in cattle in Maun and Shakawe areas of Ngamiland district. Wet blood films, buffy coat and Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood smears were used to detect trypanosomes in animals. Overall,trypanosome infection rate was 15.98%, with 5.94% and 27.29% in Maun and Shakawe respectively. The urgent need to combat trypanosomosis in Ngamiland, particularly in the Shakawe area, is highlighted, and a 3-phase integrated tsetse control strategy for this disease problem is discussed.

S.P. Sharma

2012-07-01

139

Prevalence of hemoprotozoan diseases in cattle population of chittagong division, Bangladesh  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A one year (2009-10) prevalence study on hemoprotozoan diseases was conducted in crossbred and indigenous cattle, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Blood samples were collected randomly from 216 crossbred and 432 indigenous cattle of four representative areas in three consecutive seasons. Samples were examined by Giemsa's stained blood smear method. The effect of topography, season, age and sex was observed in cattle during this study. The overall prevalence of hemoprotozoan diseases was 16.18 and 12.02% in crossbred and indigenous cattle, respectively where babesiosis and anaplasmosis were predominant. Babesiosis was found to be consistent in all the four different areas but highest prevalence (9.25%)was found in hilly area. Hemoprotozoan diseases were predominant in summer season followed by rainy and winter seasons. Adult cattle were significantly (P

Alim, Md. Abdul; Das, Shubhagata

2012-01-01

140

Surface Microflora of Four Smear-Ripened Cheeses  

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The microbial composition of smear-ripened cheeses is not very clear. A total of 194 bacterial isolates and 187 yeast isolates from the surfaces of four Irish farmhouse smear-ripened cheeses were identified at the midpoint of ripening using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), repetitive sequence-based PCR, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing for identifying and typing the bacteria and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (mtDNA R...

Mounier, Je?ro?me; Gelsomino, Roberto; Goerges, Stefanie; Vancanneyt, Marc; Vandemeulebroecke, Katrien; Hoste, Bart; Scherer, Siegfried; Swings, Jean; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Cogan, Timothy M.

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Molecular and parasitological survey of Hepatozoon canis (Apicomplexa: Hepatozoidae) in dogs from rural area of Sao Paulo state, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hepatozoon canis is a protozoan that infects dogs and is transmitted by the ingestion of the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Two distinct species of Hepatozoon genus can infect dogs, H. canis and H. americanum. Routine tests to detect the disease are based on direct examination of gametocytes on Giemsa-stained blood smears. The objectives of this study were the investigation of infection prevalence in rural area dogs, the comparison of diagnostics by blood smear examination and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the association of infection with tick infestation. Blood smears, collected by puncture of the cephalic vein and ear margin capillary bed from 150 dogs, were examined. This technique detected 17 positive animals (11.3%), with 14 (9.3%) in peripheral blood and seven (4.7%) in cephalic vein blood. PCR tests detected 80 (53.3%) positive animals. R. sanguineus and Amblyomma spp. were found in 36 of the dogs (24%), in equal proportions. The identified species for Amblyomma genus were A. cajennense and A. ovale. Data analysis showed that PCR was much more sensitive when compared to blood smear examination. Hepatozoon species was previously identified as closely related to H. canis. PMID:18188597

Rubini, Adriano Stefani; dos Santos Paduan, Karina; Von Ah Lopes, Viviane; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena

2008-04-01

142

Bleach sedimentation method for increased sensitivity of sputum smear microscopy: does it work?  

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SETTING: A non-governmental organisation (NGO) supported tuberculosis control programme in Bangladesh with good smear microscopy. OBJECTIVE: To verify whether bleach sedimentation method increases the sensitivity of sputum smear microscopy for acid-fast bacilli (AFB), and if so, how. DESIGN: Duplicate smears from successive routine specimens, peripheral centres examining direct smears, and blind examination of bleach sediment smears at central laboratories. RESULTS: When all 3,287 sputum samp...

Deun, A.; Aung Kya Maug; Cooreman, E.; Hossain, M. A.; Chambuganj, N.; Rema, V.; Marandi, H.; Kawria, A.; Portaels, F.

2000-01-01

143

Bulk acid-fast staining of sputum smears: time to end a taboo  

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SETTING: A high-throughput laboratory routinely performing fluorescence microscopy for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear with automated bulk staining. OBJECTIVES: To determine the risk of false-positive AFB sputum smears from bulk staining showing as smear-positive, culture-negative specimens, or a decrease in smear- and culture-positives. DESIGN: Direct AFB smear and Löwenstein-Jensen culture were performed for a total of 39 350 routine sputum specimens. Of these, 6633 were randomly selected fo...

Kam, K. M.; Yip, C. W.; Tang, H. S.; Deun, A.

2009-01-01

144

Evaluation of hematopoietic cells and myeloid/erythroid ratio in the bone marrow of the pheasant (Phasianus colchicus  

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Full Text Available In order to study the normal hematopoiesis, cellular components and myeloid/erythroid (M/E ratio in the bone marrow of the pheasant (Phasianus colchicus, bone marrow samples were collected from the proximal tibiotarsus bone of 16 clinically healthy adult pheasant. The bone marrow smears were stained using the Giemsa stain. The results indicated that the development and formation of blood cells in the bone marrow of pheasant were similar to other birds, whereas the morphology of the cells was similar to chickens, ducks, quail, and black-head gull. The mean M/E ratio was 1.24, the mean erythroid percentage was 42.24, the mean myeloid percentage was 52.62, and the mean percentage of all other cells percentage was 5.38. There was no significant difference in any of the cellular composition between male and female.

Mina Tadjalli

2013-06-01

145

Evaluation of Haematopoietic Cells and M/E Ratio in the Bone Marrow of the Partridge (Alectoris chukar  

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Full Text Available In order to study the normal haematopoiesis, cellular components and M/E ratio in the bone marrow of the partridge (Alectoris chukar, bone marrow samples were collected from the proximal tibiotarsus bone of 16 clinically healthy adult partridge (9 male and 7 female. The bone marrow smears were stained using the Giemsa stain. The results indicated that the development and formation of blood cells in the bone marrow of partridge were similar to other birds, whereas the morphology of the cells was similar to chickens, ducks, quail and black-head gull. The mean Myeloid/Erythroid (M/E ratio was 1.33, the mean erythroid percentage was 39.15%, the mean myeloid percentage was 52.34% and the mean percentage of all other cells percentage was 7.45 %. There was no significant difference in any of the cellular composition between male and female.

R. Haghjoo

2012-01-01

146

A case of imported Plasmodium ovale malaria.  

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There have been reports in Korea of imported malaria cases of four Plasmodium species, but there has been no report of imported Plasmodium ovale malaria confirmed by molecular biological methods. We report an imported case of that was confirmed by Wright-Giemsa-stained peripheral blood smear and nested polymerase chain reaction targeting the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. The amplified DNA was sequenced and compared with other registered P. ovale isolates. The isolate in this study was a member of the classic type group. The patient was a 44-yr-old male who had worked as a woodcutter in Côte d'Ivoire in tropical West Africa. He was treated with hydroxychloroquine and primaquine and discharged following improvement. In conclusion, P. ovale should be considered as an etiology in the imported malaria in Korea, because the number of travelers to P. ovale endemic regions has recently increased. PMID:17043432

Han, Tae Hee; Kim, Baek-Nam; Seong, Hee Kyung

2006-10-01

147

A Case of Imported Plasmodium ovale malaria  

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There have been reports in Korea of imported malaria cases of four Plasmodium species, but there has been no report of imported Plasmodium ovale malaria confirmed by molecular biological methods. We report an imported case of that was confirmed by Wright-Giemsa-stained peripheral blood smear and nested polymerase chain reaction targeting the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. The amplified DNA was sequenced and compared with other registered P. ovale isolates. The isolate in this study was a member of the classic type group. The patient was a 44-yr-old male who had worked as a woodcutter in Côte d'Ivoire in tropical West Africa. He was treated with hydroxychloroquine and primaquine and discharged following improvement. In conclusion, P. ovale should be considered as an etiology in the imported malaria in Korea, because the number of travelers to P. ovale endemic regions has recently increased.

Kim, Baek-Nam; Seong, Hee Kyung

2006-01-01

148

Newsprint smearing - an industrial problem studied with the nuclear microprobe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Six newsprint samples, selected with respect to their different smearing properties, have been investigated with the PIXE-technique with a nuclear microprobe. In addition, local basis weight was simultaneously measured with the off-axis STIM technique. The newsprint samples were all printed nominally with the same amount of cyan ink (?2% Cu). The normalised Cu-yield distributions differ both with respect to spread and slope of the tail. Correlations have been found between the spread and global paper parameters like surface roughness and porosity. Of major interest for the smearing problem is the correlation found between the momentary smearing parameter, set-off and the micro distribution parameters. Correlations between basis weight and ink distributions are discussed and a possibility to measure the different penetrations of pigment particles and oil in the paper structure is pointed out

1999-09-02

149

Predictors of Papanicolaou Smear Use Among American Samoan Women  

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To explore the rate and predictors of Papanicolaou (Pap) smear use among American Samoans, we conducted a survey of 986 randomly selected adult, self-identified Samoan women in American Samoa (n = 323), Hawaii (n = 325), and Los Angeles (n = 338). Only 46% of the women reported having a Pap smears within the past 3 years. These women were more likely than others to reside in Hawaii (odds ratio [OR], 1.7), be less than 40 years of age (OR, 2.2), be married (OR, 1.9), have more than 12 years of...

2001-01-01

150

Are patients with abnormal cervical smears adequately managed?  

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The outcome was assessed for all 1062 women in Nottingham who had a first report of abnormal cervical cytology in 1981. Satisfactory follow up could be found for only 628 (59%) of them. For 275 (26%) one subsequent normal smear had been reported but no further follow up requested. For 43 (4%), no subsequent test, after the abnormal smear, had been requested by the patient's general practitioner. Thirty patients (3%), 22 of whom had been tested at a special clinic, had not responded to a reque...

Elwood, J. M.; Cotton, R. E.; Johnson, J.; Jones, G. M.; Curnow, J.; Beaver, M. W.

1984-01-01

151

A simple field diagnostic smear test for bovine besnoitiosis.  

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A fast and inexpensive skin biopsy smear was used for confirming suspected clinical cases of bovine besnoitiosis. The technique was based on the demonstration of Besnoitia besnoiti bradyzoites (cystic stages), which appeared stumpy, each organism 6.2 microns by 3.1 microns in size, or banana-shaped, 7.7 microns by 1.5 micron in affected skin smears. A more rapid non-surgical technique, scleral conjunctival scraping, revealed similar bradyzoites, thus enhancing the diagnostic value of conjunctival cysts in more chronic infections. The technique will aid prompt management decisions to contain suspected outbreaks in herds not routinely served by tissue-processor-equipped diagnostic laboratories. PMID:1910222

Sannusi, A

1991-07-01

152

Detección de mutaciones en los genes K-ras, H-ras y EGFR en muestras de plasma sanguíneo y cepillado cervical de pacientes con neoplasia intraepitelial cervical (NIC) III y cáncer de cuello uterino / Detection of genes mutations in the K-RAS, H-RAS and EGFR in samples of blood plasma and cervical smears for patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia III and cervical cancer  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: El cáncer cervical es el segundo cáncer más importante en mujeres a nivel mundial y la segunda causa de muerte en mujeres por cáncer. Se ha demostrado que el proceso de carcinogénesis cervical presenta componentes tanto genéticos, epigenéticos y medio ambientales. En la actualidad, muc [...] hos estudios se encaminan en la búsqueda de marcadores moleculares como mutaciones en oncogenes y/o genes tumor supresor que se asocien con la progresión de esta entidad. Los genes candidatos más estudiados en cáncer cervical en distintas poblaciones han sido H-ras, K-ras, EGFR entre otros. Objetivos: Se identificó el virus de papiloma humano (VPH) genérico y específico en el ADN libre de plasma y de cepillado cervical de pacientes con cáncer cervical invasivo y con neoplasia intraepitelial cervical (NIC) III además de evaluar alteraciones genéticas, como mutaciones en los genes H-ras, K-ras y EGFR. Metodología: Para ello se detectó el VPH genérico mediante PCR con los iniciadores GP5+/GP6+, y específico para VPH 16 y 18 en la región E6/E7. Para detectar las mutaciones en el codón 12 de H-ras, codones 12 y 13 de K-Ras y el exón 21 de EGFR se realizó mediante secuenciación directa de los productos de PCR de estos fragmentos génicos. Resultados: Obteniendo una buena correlación entre las muestras de plasma sanguíneo y los cepillados cervicales, tanto para los hallazgos de VPH p=0.0374 como para las mutaciones evaluadas p=0. En general, para EGFR en el exón 21 no se encontraron mutaciones, al igual que para los codones 12 y 13 en K-ras y codón 12 en H-ras. Conclusión: El uso del ADN presente en el plasma puede ser relevante para el análisis de mutaciones y de la presencia de marcadores tumorales cuando no se dispone de otras muestras. Abstract in english Introduction: Cervical cancer is the second most important cancer in women worldwide, and the second cause of cancer death in women. It has been shown that the process of cervical carcinogenesis presents as genetic and epigenetic components as environmental issues. At present, many studies are addre [...] ssed in searching for molecular markers such as mutations in oncogenes and/or tumor suppressor genes that are associated with the progression of this disease, the most studied candidate genes in cervical cancer in different populations have been H-ras, K-ras, EGFR among others. Objective: The present study identified human papilloma virus (HPV) generic and specific in DNA-free plasma and cervical smears of invasive cervical cancer patients and patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) III in addition to assessing genetic alterations, such as mutations in the genes H-ras, EGFR and K-ras. Methods: To do so generic HPV was detected by PCR with primers GP5+/GP6+, and specific HPV 16 and 18 in E6/E7 region; to detect mutations in codon 12 of H-ras, codons 12 and 13 of K-ras and EGFR exon 21 was conducted by direct sequencing of PCR products of these gene fragments. Results: Getting a good correlation between samples of blood plasma and cervical smears for both; the findings of HPV p=0.0374 and evaluated mutations p=0. In general, for EGFR in exon 21 mutations were not found, as for codons 12 and 13 in K-ras and codon 12 in H-ras. Conclusion: The use of DNA in plasma may be relevant to the analysis of mutations and the presences of tumor markers are not available from other samples.

García, Dabeiba Adriana; Arias, Yazmín Rocío; Ancízar Aristizábal, Fabio.

153

Critical evaluation of peripheral smear in cases of anemia with high mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in children: A series of four cases  

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Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), a parameter that is reported as a part of a standard complete blood count by automated analyzer, is a measure of the concentration of hemoglobin in a given volume of packed red blood cell. Values of MCHC significantly above reference range are not physiologically possible due to limitations on solubility of hemoglobin. The high MCHC can give us a clue to certain type of hemolytic anemia and necessitate critical evaluation of peripheral smear t...

2010-01-01

154

Molecular detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in carrier cattle of Iran - first documented report  

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Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a zoonotic, tick borne rickettsial pathogen. A. phagocytophilum has been detected in North America, Europe, Africa and Asia by molecular methods. In Iran we have little information about the distribution of this agent in human and animals."nMaterials and Methods: From March 2007 to July 2007, one hundred and fifty blood samples and corresponding blood smears of cattle without any signs of disease were prepared from a region in Isfahan, Iran with previous history of tick borne disease outbreak.The blood smears were first stained with Giemsa and analyzed for the presence of A. phagocytophilum in the neutrophils. The extracted DNA from blood cells were analyzed by A. phagocytophilum specific nested PCR using primers derived from the 16S rRNA gene."nResults: All blood smears were negative for A. phagocytophilum like structures by Giemsa staining, but 2 out of 150 blood samples (1.33% were positive for A. phagocytophilum specific nested PCR using specific primers derived from 16S rRNA gene."nConclusion: This study is the first detection of A. phagocytophilum in carrier cattle in Iran. The present study showed that A. Phagocytophilum is detectable in cattle without any sign of infection but maintained a persistant sub-clinical state in the cattle reservoir, which can be inferred as possible risk for management of public health.

P Shayan

2009-11-01

155

Rapid diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in gastric imprint smears.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV), and negative predictive values (NPV) of Diff-Quik-stained gastric imprint cytology smears in the detection of H. pylori compared with histology. Air-dried imprint smears of gastric biopsies from 150 patients were stained by the Diff-Quik method in the endoscopy suite and examined for H. pylori, providing results within minutes. The presence of inflammation and intestinal metaplasia were documented. The same biopsy was processed and stained with H&E and Warthin-Starry stains, and reviewed by a different pathologist blind to the imprint cytology results. Ninety-four of the 150 patients were male with a mean age of 50 years. Based on histology, the H. pylori prevalence was very low at 8%. The sensitivity and specificity of imprint cytology in the detection of H. pylori were 83.3% and 100%, respectively. The PPV and NPV were 100% and 98.6%, respectively. There were two false negatives and no false positives. A combination of imprint cytology and histology achieved 100% sensitivity. Imprint smears did not provide added value over histology with regards to inflammation and metaplasia. Gastric imprint smears stained with Diff-Quik method is a rapid, cheap, and reliable method for the detection of H. pylori and have their best results when complemented with histology. PMID:15689086

Kaur, Gurjeet; Madhavan, Manoharan; Basri, Amir Hakim; Sain, Abdul Hamid Mat; Hussain, Mohd Shaiful Bahrun; Yatiban, Mohd Kamal; Naing, Nyi Nyi

2004-09-01

156

Critical analysis of cell block versus smear examination in effusions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the utility of the cell block preparation method in increasing the sensitivity of cytodiagnosis of serous fluids and to know the primary site of malignant effusions. Materials and Methods: A total of 190 cases were subjected to routine smear examination as well as cell block preparation. After the cytological diagnosis, each case was objectively analysed for cellularity, arrangement (acini, papillae, cell balls, and proliferation spheres, cytoplasmic, and nuclear details. Results: Out of 190 cases, 70 cases were found to be malignant and had been examined in smears and paraffin-embedded cell blocks. Using a combination of the cell block and smear techniques yielded 13% more malignant cases than what were detected using smears by themselves. The combined technique helped to ascertain the primary site of malignancy in 83.3% of the cases, whereas the primary site could not be ascertained in 17.7% of the cases. Conclusions: The cell block technique not only increased the positive results, but also helped to demonstrate better architectural patterns, which could be of great help in making correct diagnosis of the primary site. The cell block technique was also useful for special stains and immunohistochemistry and can give morphological details by preserving the architectural patterns.

Thapar Meenu

2009-01-01

157

Missed Opportunities for Health Education on Pap Smears in Peru  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite cervical cancer being one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru, cervical Pap smear coverage is low. This article uses findings from 185 direct clinician observations in four cities of Peru (representing the capital and each of the three main geographic regions of the country) to assess missed opportunities for…

Bayer, Angela M.; Nussbaum, Lauren; Cabrera, Lilia; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.

2011-01-01

158

Association of Pap Smear Abnormalities with Autoimmune Disorders  

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Full Text Available Recently, it is hypothesized that there might be an association between immunological disorders and cervical premalignant and malignant abnormalities. Related studies have been generally focused on some particular autoimmune disease, specially the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE. This study aimed at comparing the rate of Pap smear abnormalities in female patients with autoimmune diseases and normal counterparts. In a case-control setting, 118 female patients with various autoimmune diseases (the case group and 118 healthy female counterparts (the control group were recruited in Tabriz Imam Reza Teaching Centre in a 24 months period of time. The two groups were matched for demographics and known risk factors of cervical malignancy. Frequencies of abnormal Pap smear testing were compared between the two groups. The autoimmune disorders were SLE (74 patients, rheumatoid arthritis or RA (32 patients, systemic sclerosis or SS (7 patients and ankylosing spondylitis or AS (5 patients in the case group. Frequency of abnormal Pap smear testing was significantly higher in the case group comparing with that in the controls (7.6% vs. 1.7%; p = 0.03. Frequency of abnormal Pap smear testing was higher in the patients with SLE (8.1% and RA (9.3% comparing with that in the controls; However, these differences were marginally nonsignificant (p = 0.06 and p = 0.07, respectively. Frequency of cases with abnormal Pap smear testing was not statistically different between the autoimmune disorders (p = 0.99. Based on these findings and in conclusion, there might be an association between the autoimmune disorders and occurrence of premalignant or malignant lesions in cervix. Further studies with larger samples sizes are recommended.

Kazem Ghahremanzadeh

2011-01-01

159

Interpretation of automated blood cell counts  

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Complete blood count (CBC) tests are rapid, inexpensiveand universally available, and often aid primary clinicianswith decision making about patients with severaldisorders. Thus the rapid availability of the results of CBCcould provide considerable advantage for both patientsand clinicians. Furthermore, physicians can also avoidunnecessary peripheral blood smear examination usingCBC parameters. Many hematology analyzers, which enabledus simultaneously, measure several different CBCparameters,...

2013-01-01

160

Smear microscopy and culture conversion rates among smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients by HIV status in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanzania ranks 15th among the world's 22 countries with the largest tuberculosis burden and tuberculosis has continued to be among the major public health problems in the country. Limited data, especially in patients co infected with HIV, are available to predict the duration of time required for a smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patient to achieve sputum conversion after starting effective treatment. In this study we assessed the sputum smear and culture conversion rates among HIV positive and HIV negative smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Dar es Salaam Methods The study was a prospective cohort study which lasted for nine months, from April to December 2008 Results A total of 502 smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients were recruited. HIV test results were obtained for 498 patients, of which 33.7% were HIV positive. After two weeks of treatment the conversion rate by standard sputum microscopy was higher in HIV positive(72.8% than HIV negative(63.3% patients by univariate analysis(P = 0.046, but not in multivariate analysis. Also after two weeks of treatment the conversion rate by fluorescence microscopy was higher in HIV positive (72.8% than in HIV negative(63.2% patients by univariate analysis (P = 0.043 but not in the multivariate analysis. The conversion rates by both methods during the rest of the treatment period (8, 12, and 20 weeks were not significantly different between HIV positive and HIV negative patients. With regards to culture, the conversion rate during the whole period of the treatment (2, 8, 12 and 20 weeks were not significantly different between HIV positive and HIV negative patients. Conclusion Conversion rates of standard smear microscopy, fluorescence microscopy and culture did not differ between HIV positive and HIV negative pulmonary tuberculosis patients.

Mfinanga Sayoki G

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
161

Sensitivity of a papanicolaou smear in the diagnosis of candida albicans infection of the cervix  

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Background: Candida albicans infections of the cervix are not adequately diagnosed in Papanicolaou smears when compared with culture in Sabouraud dextrose agar. Methods: Cervical smears were collected from 1000, non-pregnant, asymptomatic women. The specimens were prepared using the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear method examined by microscopy and subsequently cultured in Sabouraud dextrose agar. Results: The overall incidences of C. albicans in cervical smears cultured in Sabouraud dextrose agar wa...

Avwioro Og; Olabiyi Oe; Avwioro To

2010-01-01

162

Are Three Sputum Acid-Fast Bacillus Smears Necessary for Discontinuing Tuberculosis Isolation?  

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To evaluate the efficacy of three sputum acid-fast bacillus (AFB) smears to rule out pulmonary tuberculosis, sputum AFB smear and culture results were analyzed at two university-affiliated teaching hospitals. The negative predictive value of the smear increased by only 0.2% on days 2 and 3 each, indicating that in low-prevalence populations, there is limited value in requiring three negative sputum AFB smears before discontinuing tuberculosis isolation.

Mathew, Philip; Kuo, Yen-hong; Vazirani, Bindu; Eng, Robert H. K.; Weinstein, Melvin P.

2002-01-01

163

Psychological effects of a low-grade abnormal cervical smear test result: anxiety and associated factors  

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Receipt of an abnormal cervical smear result often generates fear and confusion and can have a negative impact on a woman's well-being. Most previous studies have focussed on high-grade abnormal smears. This study describes the psychological and psychosocial effects, on women, of having received a low-grade abnormal smear result. Over 3500 women recruited to TOMBOLA (Trial Of Management of Borderline and Other Low-grade Abnormal smears) participated in this study. Anxiety was assessed using t...

Gray, N. M.; Sharp, L.; Cotton, S. C.; Masson, L. F.; Little, J.; Walker, L. G.; Avis, M.; Philips, Z.; Russell, I; Whynes, D.; Cruickshank, M.; Woolley, C. M.

2006-01-01

164

Interlaboratory reproducibility in reporting inadequate cervical smears--a multicentre multinational study.  

Science.gov (United States)

A set of 300 vaginal smears was interpreted by 13 cytologists from six European laboratories, who were requested to report inadequate and suboptimal smears. The set had been appropriately seeded to reach approximately 10% inadequate and 20% suboptimal smear frequency. According to the majority report, 230 smears were classified as adequate (76.7%), 43 as inadequate (14.3%), and 27 as suboptimal (9.0%). Agreement with the majority report ranged from 52% to 91% (average 78%). Kappa statistics for reporting inadequate smears showed a high level of agreement for five cytologists, and fair to good agreement for eight. In contrast, kappa statistics for reporting suboptimal smears showed fair to good agreement with the majority report only in five instances, whereas agreement was poor for eight cytologists. 'Inadequate smear' rates may be used to compare the quality of smears received in different laboratories, as there is a high level of agreement among cytologists as to what constitutes an inadequate smear. However, this is not true for "suboptimal smear" rates, and more precise reporting criteria must be defined and tested if an intermediate category is to be retained to report poor quality smears: more precise reporting criteria must be defined and tested if an intermediate category is to be retained to report poor quality smears. PMID:8958471

Ciatto, S; Cariaggi, M P; Minuti, A P; Confortini, M; Palli, D; Pas, L; McKee, G; Schenck, U; Bonaccorsi, A; Corradi, G; Olivati, S; Pieri, L; Carretti, D; Cocchi, V

1996-12-01

165

Integrated Strategies to Optimize Sputum Smear Microscopy: A Prospective Observational Study  

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Rationale: Smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) case detection rates are far below targets in most low-income countries. The standard approach to smear microscopy involves sputum collection over multiple days and examination of sputum smears by light microscopy (LM), an insensitive and time-consuming technique.

Cattamanchi, Adithya; Huang, Laurence; Worodria, William; Den Boon, Saskia; Kalema, Nelson; Katagira, Winceslaus; Byanyima, Patrick; Yoo, Samuel; Matovu, John; Hopewell, Philip C.; Davis, J. Lucian

2011-01-01

166

A simplified and reliable HPV testing of archival Papanicolaou-stained cervical smears: application to cervical smears from cancer patients starting with cytologically normal smears  

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The efficacy of four methods to recover DNA from Papanicolaou (Pap)-stained archival cervical smears for optimal detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA by GP5+/bioGP6+ polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was investigated. Two of the methods were based on proteinase K treatment and two based on treatment with guanidinium thiocyanate (GTC). The quality of the DNA as measured by PCR assays amplifying different sizes of the ?-globin gene appeared to be superior for the GTC-based assays. Using c...

Jacobs, M. V.; Zielinski, D.; Meijer, C. J. L. M.; Pol, R. P.; Voorhorst, F. J.; Schipper, F. A.; Runsink, A. P.; Snijders, P. J. F.; Walboomers, J. M. M.

2000-01-01

167

Eggs containing larvae of Enterobius vermicularis in vaginal smear.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enterobius vermicularis also known commonly as pinworm is the most common intestinal parasite. It is a nematode that inhabits the human terminal ileum, colon and appendix. The fertilized female migrates to the perianal area where eggs are deposited but occasionally introduces itself into adjacent orifices, most commonly the female genitourinary tract. Thus the eggs can be seen in the vaginal smear as a result of contamination. We report a case wherein the patient presented with signs and symptoms of vulvovaginitis. In her vaginal smear there were eggs of Enterobius vermicularis which showed a coiled larva within it. In the background there were plenty of acute inflammatory cells. This patient responded favorably to antihelminthics. We report this case to highlight the morphology of the parasite and also to emphasize that such findings should not be neglected. Timely reporting and appropriate treatment of such cases will prevent further complications of this parasite including endometritis, salphingitis and peritonitis. PMID:22438633

Shetty, Jyothi B; Kulkarni, Dhanashri V; Prabhu, Vl

2012-01-01

168

Improvement via hypercubic smearing in triplet and sextet QCD  

CERN Document Server

We study non-perturbative improvement in SU(3) lattice gauge theory coupled to fermions in the fundamental and two-index symmetric representations. Our lattice action is defined with hypercubic smeared links incorporated into the Wilson-clover fermion kernel. Using standard Schroedinger-functional techniques we estimate the clover coefficient Csw and find that discretization errors are much smaller than in thin-link theories.

Shamir, Yigal; Yurkovsky, Evgeny

2010-01-01

169

Positron motion in metals: thermal smearing of the momentum distribution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The positron momentum distribution resulting from positron-phonon scattering in metals is known to be well-described by the gaussian exp (-p2/2m**ksub(B)T), except at very large momentum. An approximate analytic expression for the apparent effective mass m**(T) is found, and the implications of a direct fit to the smearing of a long slit angular correlation spectrum are discussed. (Auth.)

1982-04-07

170

Smearing and filtering methods in lattice QCD - a quantitative comparison  

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We systematically compare three filtering methods used to extract topological excitations from lattice gauge configurations, namely smearing, Laplace filtering and the filtered fermionic topological charge (with chirally improved fermions). Each of these techniques introduces ambiguities, like its parameter dependence. We show, however, that all these methods can be tuned to each other over a broad range of filtering levels and that they reveal very similar topological struc...

Solbrig, Stefan; Bruckmann, Falk; Gattringer, Christof; Ilgenfritz, Ernst-michael; Mu?ller-preussker, Michael; Scha?fer, Andreas

2007-01-01

171

Pap smear rates among Haitian immigrant women in eastern Massachusetts.  

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OBJECTIVE: Given limited prior evidence of high rates of cervical cancer in Haitian immigrant women in the U.S., this study was designed to examine self-reported Pap smear screening rates for Haitian immigrant women and compare them to rates for women of other ethnicities. METHODS: Multi-ethnic women at least 40 years of age living in neighborhoods with large Haitian immigrant populations in eastern Massachusetts were surveyed in 2000-2002. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used ...

Green, Eric H.; Freund, Karen M.; Posner, Michael A.; David, Michele M.

2005-01-01

172

Immunofluorescence detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in fecal smears.  

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An indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) procedure was developed for the detection of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts in human, nonhuman primate, and bovine fecal smears. The procedure, which takes about 90 min to perform, involves the use of a rabbit antiserum against Cryptosporidium oocysts isolated from dairy cattle. Cross-specificity testing of the IFA method revealed no reactivity with yeasts, various amoebae, Giardia lamblia, Chilomastix sp., or Blastocystis sp. and only very weak cross-react...

Stibbs, H. H.; Ongerth, J. E.

1986-01-01

173

Association of Pap Smear Abnormalities with Autoimmune Disorders  

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Recently, it is hypothesized that there might be an association between immunological disorders and cervical premalignant and malignant abnormalities. Related studies have been generally focused on some particular autoimmune disease, specially the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). This study aimed at comparing the rate of Pap smear abnormalities in female patients with autoimmune diseases and normal counterparts. In a case-control setting, 118 female patients with various autoimmune disease...

Heidarali Esmaeili; Kazem Ghahremanzadeh

2011-01-01

174

Delay of diagnosis and treatment of new smear positive  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

DELAY OF DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF NEW SMEAR POSITIVE PULMONARY TB IN RURAL AREA; GAZIERA STATE, SUDAN Mohammed A. S.*, Bjune G. **, and El Sony A. I. *** *EpiLab, Khartoum, Sudan, MPhil International Community Health, University of Oslo, Norway; **Department of General Practice and Community Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Norway; *** EpiLab, Khartoum, Sudan. Background: The basics of TB control are based on early detection and treatment of infectious cases. Early detecti...

Mohammed, Ammar Salih

2006-01-01

175

The Abnormal Pap Smear: A Rationale for Follow Up  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is readily identifiable by cytology, so theoretically, most cases of invasive carcinoma should be preventable. Risk factors for carcinoma of the cervix are related to sexual activity, therefore screening should be similarly related. All women should have routine annual cytology as soon as they are sexually active. The high risk male partner should also be considered when taking a history. Those with moderately atypical smears or higher should be referr...

Toews, H. A.

1983-01-01

176

Eggs containing larvae of Enterobius vermicularis in vaginal smear  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Enterobius vermicularis also known commonly as pinworm is the most common intestinal parasite. It is a nematode that inhabits the human terminal ileum, colon and appendix. The fertilized female migrates to the perianal area where eggs are deposited but occasionally introduces itself into adjacent orifices, most commonly the female genitourinary tract. Thus the eggs can be seen in the vaginal smear as a result of contamination. We report a case wherein the patient presented with signs and symp...

Shetty, Jyothi B.; Kulkarni, Dhanashri V.; Prabhu, Vl

2012-01-01

177

Taste symmetry breaking with HYP-smeared staggered fermions  

CERN Document Server

We study the impact of HYP smearing on the size of taste breaking for staggered fermions, comparing to unimproved and to asqtad-improved staggered fermions. As in previous studies, we find a substantial reduction in taste-breaking compared to unimproved staggered fermions (by a factor of 4-7 on lattices with spacing $a\\approx 0.1 $fm). In addition, we observe that discretization effects of next-to-leading order in the chiral expansion (${\\cal O}(a^2 p^2)$) are markedly reduced by HYP smearing. Compared to asqtad valence fermions, we find that taste-breaking in the pion spectrum is reduced by a factor of 2.5-3, down to a level comparable to the expected size of generic ${\\cal O}(a^2)$ effects. Our results suggest that, once one reaches a lattice spacing of $a\\approx 0.09 $fm, taste-breaking will be small enough after HYP smearing that one can use a modified power counting in which ${\\cal O}(a^2) \\ll {\\cal O}(p^2)$, simplify fitting to phenomenologically interesting quantities.

Bae, Taegil; Jung, Chulwoo; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Jongjeong; Kim, Kwangwoo; Lee, Weonjong; Sharpe, Stephen R

2008-01-01

178

Slit-skin smear in leprosy: lest we forget it!  

Science.gov (United States)

Diagnosing and classifying leprosy solely on the basis of skin lesions as per WHO operational classification may lead to over or under diagnosis and inadequate treatment particularly of pauci-lesional multibacillary cases with consequent risk of resistance, relapse and progressive horizontal transmission. Announcing elimination of leprosy as public health problem in India under NLEP was probably ambitious aspiration. However, such a strategy is perhaps not justified scientifically at the moment in view of new case detection rate not showing significant decline. The fact remains that it is still highly desirable to provide sustained quality leprosy services to all individuals through general health services and good referral system. Being nearly of 100% specificity when performed expertly, slit-skin smear remains the simplest diagnostic technique available until new cutting-edge diagnostic tools become available for routine bedside use. However, the interest has been declining for learning this simple test among all the persons involved in leprosy work even in the teaching/training institutes. This is perhaps due to confusion over number and sites of smears, and its declining usefulness in WHO recommendations/guidelines. Various technical aspects of slit-skin smear testing are reviewed here keeping in view the need of leprosy workers in referral/teaching institutes. PMID:24834639

Mahajan, V K

2013-01-01

179

Cervical Cancer and Pap Smear Awareness and Utilization of Pap Smear Test among Federal Civil Servants in North Central Nigeria  

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Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in women in developing countries. A key factor linked to the relatively high levels of cervical cancer in these populations is the lack of awareness and access to preventive methods. This study aimed to determine the level of awareness of cervical cancer and Papanicolaou test (Pap smear test) and factors associated with the utilization of Pap test among female civil servants in Jos. Data was obtained from female workers (n?=?388) aged 18?...

2012-01-01

180

Critical evaluation of peripheral smear in cases of anemia with high mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in children: A series of four cases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, a parameter that is reported as a part of a standard complete blood count by automated analyzer, is a measure of the concentration of hemoglobin in a given volume of packed red blood cell. Values of MCHC significantly above reference range are not physiologically possible due to limitations on solubility of hemoglobin. The high MCHC can give us a clue to certain type of hemolytic anemia and necessitate critical evaluation of peripheral smear to reach a definitive diagnosis. Here we are presenting a series of four cases with raised MCHC, emphasizing the importance of systematic and meticulous examination of the peripheral smear to render a definitive diagnosis.

Sharma Sunita

2010-10-01

 
 
 
 
181

No increased risk for cervical cancer after a broader definition of a negative Pap smear  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The definition of minimal relevant Pap smear abnormality is crucial for balancing the beneficial effects of screening (prevented mortality) with negative side-effects (the high positivity rate). After inflammation ceased to be defined as a borderline abnormal smear outcome in The Netherlands in 1996, the proportion of these smears dropped from 10% to less than 2%. Because this may have caused a loss in smear sensitivity, we analysed the changes in the incidence of cervical cancer after a negative Pap smear. All negative smears made at ages 30-64 in 1990-1995 (n = 1,546,252) and 1998-2006 (n = 3,552,716), registered in the national registry of histo- and cytopathology (PALGA), were followed for up to 9 years. During follow-up of the 1990-1995 smears, 377 women developed cervical cancer within 5,232,959 woman-years at risk, while during the follow-up of the 1998-2006 smears, 619 women developed cervical cancer within 11,210,675 woman-years at risk. The cumulative incidence after the definition change was not significantly higher than before: e.g. at 6 years, the cumulative incidence for smears made in 1990-1995 was 46 per 100,000 (95% CI: 41-52), and for smears in 1998-2006 was 48 per 100,000 (95% CI: 43-54), p = 0.59. The hazard ratio for 1998-2006 compared to 1990-1995 adjusted for age, number of previous negative smears and history of abnormalities was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.78-1.03). In The Netherlands, a setting with high-quality cytological screening, treating smears with only signs of inflammation as negative leads to a considerably lower positivity rate without increasing the risk for cervical cancer after a negative smear.

Rebolj, Matejka; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein

2008-01-01

182

Finite amplitude surface waves in cooled plasmas with smeared interface  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nonlinear dynamics of surface wave propagation in cooled plasmas with smeared interface is discussed. The strong parametric instability with excitation of a short-wave spectrum of the Langmuir vibrations is shown to evolve in the inhomogeneous region near the plasma resonance. At the nonlinear stage of the process the short-wave spectrum exchanges energy with the surface wave. The small quasi-stationary perturbations of electrons density and plasma ions with broken quasi-neutrality condition arise in vicinity of the plasma resonance. 10 refs

1988-01-01

183

Mass shell smearing effects in top pair production  

CERN Document Server

The top quark pair production and decay are considered in the framework of the smeared-mass unstable particles model. The results for total and differential cross sections in vicinity of $t\\bar{t}$ threshold are in good agreement with the previous ones in the literature. The strategy of calculations of the higher order corrections in the framework of the model is discussed. Suggested approach significantly simplifies calculations compared to the standard perturbative one and can serve as a convenient tool for fast and precise preliminary analysis of processes involving intermediate time-like top quark exchanges in the near-threshold region.

Kuksa, V I; Vlasenko, D E

2011-01-01

184

Full blood count and haemozoin-containing leukocytes in children with malaria: diagnostic value and association with disease severity  

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Abstract Background Diligent and correct laboratory diagnosis and up-front identification of risk factors for progression to severe disease are the basis for optimal management of malaria. Methods Febrile children presenting to the Medical Research Unit at the Albert Schweitzer Hospital (HAS) in Lambaréné, Gabon, were assessed for malaria. Giemsa-stained thick films for qualitative and quantitative diagnosis and enumeration of malaria pigment, or haemozoin (Hz...

Hänscheid Thomas; Längin Matthias; Lell Bertrand; Pötschke Marc; Oyakhirome Sunny; Kremsner Peter G; Grobusch Martin P

2008-01-01

185

Value of third sputum smear for detection of pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV infected patients  

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We evaluated diagnostic yield of third sputum smear in patients co infected with HIV for detection of pulmonary tuberculosis. Among 139 pulmonary tuberculosis cases confirmed with positive sputum culture, diagnostic yield of first smear of sputum with acid fast staining was 83.5%. Incremental yield of 2nd and 3rd samples was 11.2% and 5.2% respectively. So two sputum smears may be enough for primary evaluation of HIV infected patients suspected to TB.

Majid Marjani; Payam Tabarsi; Parvaneh Baghaei; Davoud Mansouri; Mohammad Reza Masjedi; Ali Akbar Velayati

2012-01-01

186

Value of third sputum smear for detection of pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV infected patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We evaluated diagnostic yield of third sputum smear in patients co infected with HIV for detection of pulmonary tuberculosis. Among 139 pulmonary tuberculosis cases confirmed with positive sputum culture, diagnostic yield of first smear of sputum with acid fast staining was 83.5%. Incremental yield of 2nd and 3rd samples was 11.2% and 5.2% respectively. So two sputum smears may be enough for primary evaluation of HIV infected patients suspected to TB.

Parvaneh Baghaei

2012-04-01

187

Efficiency of final irrigation of root canal in removal of smear layer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction A smear layer forms on the root canal walls as the consequence of root instrumentation. The smear layer formed in such a way considerably influences the quality of root obturation and endodontic treatment outcome. Objective The aim of this study was to ultrastructurally analyze the surface of intracanal dentine after removal of the smear layer by the solution of doxycycline, citric acid and detergent Tween-80 (MTAD). Methods The study involved 60 single-rooted, extracted, human t...

Miti? Aleksandar; Miti? Nadica; Živkovi? Slavoljub; Toši? Goran; Savi? Vojin; Da?i? Stefan; Stojanovi? Miodrag

2009-01-01

188

A review of the diagnosis and treatment of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recommendations on the management of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) are still based on the behaviour of this disease in populations unaffected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Studies prior to the HIV epidemic estimated that there were 1.22 cases of smear-negative and extra-pulmonary TB for each smear-positive case. Patients with smear-negative pulmonary TB were found to be less infectious and to have a lower mortality, but a significant proportion (50%-71%) progressed t...

Colebunders, R.; Bastian, I.

2000-01-01

189

Blood parasites from California ducks and geese  

Science.gov (United States)

Blood smears were procured from 1,011 geese and ducks of 19 species from various locations in California. Parasites were found in 28 individuals. The parasites observed included Haemoproteus hermani, Leucocytozoon simondi, microfilaria, Plasmodium relictum (=P. biziurae), and Plasmodium sp. with elongate gametocytes. This is the first report of a natural infection with a Plasmodium in North American wild ducks.

Herman, C.M.

1951-01-01

190

Cervical acid phosphatase detection: A guide to abnormal cells in cytology smear screening for cervical cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Cervical acid phosphatase-Papanicolaou (CAP-PAP test has recently been described for detection of acid phosphatase enzyme in abnormal squamous cells, and has been proposed as a biomarker-based technology for the screening of cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: Eighty-one consecutive cervical smears were subjected to routine Papanicolaou (Pap staining as well as CAP-PAP, which combined cytochemical staining for acid phosphatase with modified Pap stain. Statistical evaluation of its utility was examined. Results: Of 81 smears, 16 (19.75% showed the presence of mature squamous cells with acid phosphatase by CAP-PAP technique and were considered positive. Of these 16, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS or above were initially diagnosed in five of the corresponding routine Pap smears. After re-evaluation with CAP-PAP, eight of the routine Pap smears were considered to have ASCUS or above. Of these eight, three were reported as low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and five as ASCUS on conventional Pap smears. The remaining 8/16 CAP-PAP-positive cases were negative for atypical squamous cells on the corresponding Pap smears. None of the CAP-PAP-negative smears were positive on routine Pap smear screening. Conclusions: This study highlights the efficacy of CAP-PAP in quality assurance of cervical smear screening. It is also an inexpensive method for segregating smears for subsequent re-screening. In the absence of trained cytologists in peripheral laboratories, this technique can be adopted for identifying smears that would require proper evaluation.

Deb Prabal

2008-01-01

191

Pap smears for men: a vision of the future?  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) rarely receives as much publicity as its neighbouring orifice, the cervix. As in the cervix, intraepithelial neoplasias are precursors to cancer in the anal canal. AIN and cervical interstitial neoplasia (CIN) undergo dysplasia as a consequence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Since the advent of screening with the Pap smear in CIN, cervical cancer has plummeted to a fifth of its initial incidence. Anal cancer, however, has been rising, with a predilection for human immunodeficiency virus-infected men. HPV causes a squamous epithelial dysplasia and converts healthy tissue into AINs of increasing severity until anal cancer manifests. CLINICAL CASE: This article describes a clinical case of anogenital HPV infection refractory to medical and surgical therapy. It also describes an effective surgical excision technique associated with a good cosmetic outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The paper concludes by briefly discussing the implications of a national screening programme against AIN in the future.

Oon, S F

2012-02-01

192

A Patient with G6PD Deficiency and Falciparum Malaria  

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A 20 year old male patient from Afghanistan with a history of G6PD deficiency and clinical manifestations of malaria referred to Bou-Ali Hospital in Tehran, capital of Iran. Giemsa stained thick blood films revealed an infection of Plasmodium falciparum with 33700 parasite/?L of blood. The patient was successfully treated according to malaria treatment guideline.

Nateghpour, M.; Miahipour, A.; Yousefi, M.; Mohammadiha, A.; Fagani, Y.

2007-01-01

193

A Patient with G6PD Deficiency and Falciparum Malaria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 20 year old male patient from Afghanistan with a history of G6PD deficiency and clinical manifestations of malaria referred to Bou-Ali Hospital in Tehran, capital of Iran. Giemsa stained thick blood films revealed an infection of Plasmodium falciparum with 33700 parasite/?L of blood. The patient was successfully treated according to malaria treatment guideline.

Y Fagani

2007-04-01

194

Wet smear method by a water sprayer and temporary decontamination method by a vacuum cleaner  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Improving the smear efficiency and the stability of smear method on the monitoring of radioactive floor surface contamination, wet smear method by a water sprayer was designed and examined. And as the temporary decontamination method applied to the wide spread radioactive floor surface contamination, the method by a vacuum cleaner (vacuum cleaner method) was examined. These examinations were carried out by the experiment using the lonleum floor sheets waxed and the various types of pharmaceutical compounds labeled with /sup 99m/Tc. On wet smear method, the smear efficiencies were larger than 50 % and coefficient of variations by far smaller than that of dry smear method (usual smear method) for all the radiopharmaceuticals examined. These results showed the effectiveness of wet smear method. On vacuum cleaner method, the decontamination coefficients were comparatively large and almost same to that by wet duster method (decontamination method by using the wet duster) except Ringer's solution and DMSA what had less removable part of contamination. These results showed the effectiveness of vacuum cleaner method for the removable parts of contamination. (author).

Kawano, Takao; Ebihara, Hiroshi

1989-03-01

195

Papanicolaou Smear Screening of Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Taiwan  

Science.gov (United States)

Although little is known about the incidence of cervical cancer in women with intellectual disabilities (ID), Pap smear screening is an effective public health program to prevent cervical cancer to this group of people. The purposes of this study were to identify and evaluate the factors regarding the utilization of the Pap smears in women with ID…

Lin, Lan-Ping; Lin, Jin-Ding; Sung, Chang-Lin; Liu, Ta-Wen; Liu, Yi-Lian; Chen, Li-Mei; Chu, Cordia M.

2010-01-01

196

Effect of EDTA with and without surfactants or ultrasonics on removal of smear layer.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compared the in vitro efficacy of Smear Clear (Sybron Endo, CA), a 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution with surfactants, to 17% EDTA, with and without the use of ultrasonics, in removal of the smear layer. Seventy-five extracted teeth, randomly distributed into 5 test groups, were prepared by using ProFile rotary instruments (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and subjected to different final irrigating regimes; group A, 1% sodium hypochlorite; group B, 17% EDTA; group C, 17% EDTA with ultrasonics; group D, Smear Clear; and group E, Smear Clear with ultrasonics. Samples were examined under the scanning electron microscope and scored for debris and smear layer removal. Statistical analysis showed that groups D and E did not perform significantly better than groups B and C. Group C performed significantly better than group B. Addition of surfactants to EDTA in Smear Clear did not result in better smear layer removal. The use of ultrasonics with 17% EDTA improved smear layer removal. PMID:17368342

Lui, Jeen-Nee; Kuah, Hong-Guan; Chen, Nah-Nah

2007-04-01

197

[Adhesion of sealer cements to dentin with and without smear layer].  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of a smear layer on the adhesion of sealer cements to dentin was assessed in recently extracted human anterior teeth. A total of 120 samples was tested, 40 per sealer; 20 each with and without the smear layer. The teeth were split longitudinally, and the internal surfaces were ground flat. One-half of each tooth was left with the smear layer intact, while the other half had the smear removed by washing for 3 min with 17% EDTA followed by 5.25% NaOCI. Evidence of the ability to remove the smear layer was verified by scanning electron microscopy. Using a specially designed jig, the sealer was placed into a 4-mm wide x 4 mm deep well which was then set onto the tooth. PMID:1659858

Gettleman, B H; Messer, H H; ElDeeb, M E

1991-01-01

198

Prevalence of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae in cats in the south of Brazil: a molecular study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Bartonella spp are the causative agent of cat scratch disease in humans. Cats are the natural reservoir of these bacteria and may infect humans through scratches, bites or fleas. Blood samples from 47 cats aged up to 12 months were collected for this study. All animals were lodged in municipal anima [...] l shelters in the Vale do Sinos region, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Bartonella spp were detected by genus-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and when the PCR was positive, the species were determined by DNA sequencing. A Giemsa-stained blood smear was also examined for the presence of intraerythrocytic elements suggestive of Bartonella spp infection. Phylogenetic analysis was also performed for all positive samples. Using molecular detection methods, Bartonella spp were detected in 17.02% (8/47) of the samples. In seven out of eight samples confirmed to be positive for Bartonella spp, blood smear examination revealed the presence of intraerythrocytic elements suggestive of Bartonella spp. Phylogenetic analysis characterized positive samples as Bartonella henselae (5) or Bartonella clarridgeiae (3). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first molecular study demonstrating the presence of Bartonella spp in cats from the Southern Region of Brazil.

Rodrigo, Staggemeier; Carolina Augusto, Venker; Deisy Heck, Klein; Mariana, Petry; Fernando Rosado, Spilki; Vlademir Vicente, Cantarelli.

199

Prevalence of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae in cats in the south of Brazil: a molecular study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bartonella spp are the causative agent of cat scratch disease in humans. Cats are the natural reservoir of these bacteria and may infect humans through scratches, bites or fleas. Blood samples from 47 cats aged up to 12 months were collected for this study. All animals were lodged in municipal animal shelters in the Vale do Sinos region, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Bartonella spp were detected by genus-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR and when the PCR was positive, the species were determined by DNA sequencing. A Giemsa-stained blood smear was also examined for the presence of intraerythrocytic elements suggestive of Bartonella spp infection. Phylogenetic analysis was also performed for all positive samples. Using molecular detection methods, Bartonella spp were detected in 17.02% (8/47 of the samples. In seven out of eight samples confirmed to be positive for Bartonella spp, blood smear examination revealed the presence of intraerythrocytic elements suggestive of Bartonella spp. Phylogenetic analysis characterized positive samples as Bartonella henselae (5 or Bartonella clarridgeiae (3. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first molecular study demonstrating the presence of Bartonella spp in cats from the Southern Region of Brazil.

Rodrigo Staggemeier

2010-11-01

200

Prevalence of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae in cats in the south of Brazil: a molecular study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bartonella spp are the causative agent of cat scratch disease in humans. Cats are the natural reservoir of these bacteria and may infect humans through scratches, bites or fleas. Blood samples from 47 cats aged up to 12 months were collected for this study. All animals were lodged in municipal animal shelters in the Vale do Sinos region, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Bartonella spp were detected by genus-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and when the PCR was positive, the species were determined by DNA sequencing. A Giemsa-stained blood smear was also examined for the presence of intraerythrocytic elements suggestive of Bartonella spp infection. Phylogenetic analysis was also performed for all positive samples. Using molecular detection methods, Bartonella spp were detected in 17.02% (8/47) of the samples. In seven out of eight samples confirmed to be positive for Bartonella spp, blood smear examination revealed the presence of intraerythrocytic elements suggestive of Bartonella spp. Phylogenetic analysis characterized positive samples as Bartonella henselae (5) or Bartonella clarridgeiae (3). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first molecular study demonstrating the presence of Bartonella spp in cats from the Southern Region of Brazil. PMID:21120356

Staggemeier, Rodrigo; Venker, Carolina Augusto; Klein, Deisy Heck; Petry, Mariana; Spilki, Fernando Rosado; Cantarelli, Vlademir Vicente

2010-11-01

 
 
 
 
201

Comparison of Direct and Concentrated Acid-Fast Smears To Identify Specimens Culture Positive for Mycobacterium spp.  

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Microscopic examination of respiratory specimens for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) plays a key role in the initial diagnosis of tuberculosis, monitoring of treatment, and determination of eligibility for release from isolation. The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity obtained with smears for detection of AFB (AFB smears) made directly from respiratory specimens (direct AFB smears) to that obtained with parallel smears made from concentrates of the specimens (concentrated AFB smea...

Peterson, Ellena M.; Nakasone, Audrey; Platon-deleon, J. M.; Jang, Y.; La Maza, Luis M.; Desmond, Edward

1999-01-01

202

Are Unstained Smears, Effective Tools in the Evaluation of the Cytological Sample Adequacy?  

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Background Cytologists are often under time pressure due to a constant need and a demand for quick despatch of reports, which calls for an early assessment of sample adequacy. Objective To study whether unstained smears are effective in evaluation of sample adequacy of cytology aspirates. Materials and Methods The study had 3 groups. Assessment of sample adequacy of cytology aspirates was done on unstained smears in Group I (200 cases), Group II (100 cases out of Group I) and Group III ( 80 cases out of Group II ) by a Professor, Assistant Professor and a junior resident respectively. The results were compared with assessment of adequacy on stained smears and statistical analysis was done. Results Evaluation of adequacy of cytology aspirates by examination of unstained and stained smears by 3 observers of varied experience revealed no significant difference between the observers and between the stained and unstained smears (p<0.001). Conclusion Unstained smear study offered advantages over the stained smears in the evaluation of sample adequacy. Hence, it maybe recommended as a routine practice in cytology clinics.

A.L., Hemalatha; M.K., Umarani; U., Asha; M.N., Gayathri

2012-01-01

203

Sensitivity of a papanicolaou smear in the diagnosis of candida albicans infection of the cervix  

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Full Text Available Background: Candida albicans infections of the cervix are not adequately diagnosed in Papanicolaou smears when compared with culture in Sabouraud dextrose agar. Methods: Cervical smears were collected from 1000, non-pregnant, asymptomatic women. The specimens were prepared using the Papanicolaou (Pap smear method examined by microscopy and subsequently cultured in Sabouraud dextrose agar. Results: The overall incidences of C. albicans in cervical smears cultured in Sabouraud dextrose agar was 30.10%, while the incidence in the Pap smears was 7.60%, making the sensitivity of Pap smears for the diagnosis of C. albicans to be 25.25%. Mild, and some moderate, infections detectable in Sabouraud dextrose agar could not be detected in the Pap smear specimens. Vulnerability to C. albicans infection decreased with age, the highest infection rate being between 20 and 39 years of age while the least was between 60 and 69 years of age. Papanicolaou’s method stained the nuclei, chromatin and nucleoli very well and enhanced differentiation between malignant and non-malignant cells. It also stained the cytoplasm and its contents such as keratin, vacuoles and granules and differentiated between acidophilic and basophilic materials. Non-cellular substances such as fibrin, crystals and pigments were also stained using this method. In addition, Papanicolaou’s method also stained some fungal and bacterial species, but did not provide differential staining characteristics seen in Gram staining technique. Conclusions: Papanicolaou stain should not be used as an alternative to culture in the diagnosis of Candida albicans.

Avwioro Og

2010-02-01

204

Does oral contraceptive pill increase the risk of abnormal Pap smear?  

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Background: It is noted that oral contraceptive pills increase the risk of abnormal Pap smear but results have been inconsistent across the populations. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the association between oral contraceptive pill (OCP) consumption and abnormal Pap smear in women who referred to Shahid Sadoughi and Madar hospitals in Yazd. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out and a database of all Pap smear reports from 2009-2011 at Cytopathology Department of Shahid Sadoughi and Madar hospitals in Yazd, Iran was reviewed. A total number of 1286 women with history of OCP consumption were selected as the case group and 1218 women applying other contraceptive methods were selected as control group for evaluation. Both case and control groups were matched by age, parity and socioeconomic status. All of the women in this study maintained a single partner as their husband and none of them were considered as smokers. The duration of OCP use was at least 5 years. Results: Abnormal Pap smear results were observed in 0.4% of cases and 0.2% of controls. There was no significant association between OCP consumption and abnormal Pap smear (p=0.727). Conclusion: Our findings did not show any specific association between OCP consumption and abnormal Pap smear results. In addition, the number of abnormal Pap smears in women who consumed OCP was lower than that of western countries. More prospective studies are required.

Binesh, Fariba; Akhavan, Ali; Pirdehghan, Azar; Davoodi, Mahnoosh

2013-01-01

205

PROFILE OF CERVICAL SMEAR CYTOLOGY IN WOMEN ATTENDING HEALTH CENTER IN RURAL AREA OF WESTERN MAHARASHTRA  

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Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer caused by infection with a sexually transmitted agent human papillomavirus (HPV, can be readily prevented by identifying and treating women with HPV-induced precancerous lesions of the cervix.Objective: To study the profile of cervical smear cytology in rural women in western Maharashtra.Methods: The study was designed to look at the previous reports of the Pap smear present at the health center Pravaranagar in rural area of Western Maharashtra. The reports of 186 smears were analyzed.Results: Maximum numbers of the women (70.43% were less than 40 years of age.  Majority of the women were from lower socio-economic status. There were 29.03 % Pap smears, negative for intraepithelial lesion. Intraepithelial neoplasia of various grade and invasive cervical carcinoma were diagnosed in some cases. Other infections were also detected on Pap smear like bacterial vaginosis, candidial infection and trichomonas vaginalis infestation. Conclusion: An Awareness and education program needs to be implemented to target women about cervical cancer and Pap smear screening. The goal of any screening programme should be to pick up majority of the precursor lesions and not frank cancers; it is desirable to initiate Pap smear screening in women from lower socio-economic status before the 40 years of age.

Vaishali D Phalke

2012-04-01

206

Novel chromatin texture features for the classification of pap smears  

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This paper presents a set of novel structural texture features for quantifying nuclear chromatin patterns in cells on a conventional Pap smear. The features are derived from an initial segmentation of the chromatin into bloblike texture primitives. The results of a comprehensive feature selection experiment, including the set of proposed structural texture features and a range of different cytology features drawn from the literature, show that two of the four top ranking features are structural texture features. They also show that a combination of structural and conventional features yields a classification performance of 0.954±0.019 (AUC±SE) for the discrimination of normal (NILM) and abnormal (LSIL and HSIL) slides. The results of a second classification experiment, using only normal-appearing cells from both normal and abnormal slides, demonstrates that a single structural texture feature measuring chromatin margination yields a classification performance of 0.815±0.019. Overall the results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed structural approach and that it is possible to detect malignancy associated changes (MACs) in Papanicoloau stain.

Bejnordi, Babak E.; Moshavegh, Ramin; Sujathan, K.; Malm, Patrik; Bengtsson, Ewert; Mehnert, Andrew

2013-03-01

207

Smeared spin-flop transition in random antiferromagnetic Ising chain  

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At T = 0 and in a sufficiently large field, the nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic Ising chain undergoes a first-order spin-flop transition into the ferromagnetic phase. We consider its smearing under the random-bond disorder such that all independent random bonds are antiferromagnetic (AF). It is shown that the ground-state thermodynamics of this random AF chain can be described exactly for an arbitrary distribution P( J) of AF bonds. Moreover, the site magnetizations of finite chains can be found analytically in this model. We consider a continuous P( J) that is zero above some - J 1 and behaves near it as (- J 1- J)?, ? > -1. In this case, the ferromagnetic phase emerges continuously in a field H > H c = 2 J 1. At 0 > ? > -1, it has the usual second-order anomalies near H c with the critical indices obeying the scaling relation and depending on ?. At ? > 0, higher-order transitions occur (third, fourth, etc.), marked by a divergence of the corresponding nonlinear susceptibilities. In the chains with an even number of spins, the intermediate "bow-tie" phase with linearly modulated AF order exists between the AF and ferromagnetic phases at J 1 phase from which it emerges. This implies the existence of similar inhomogeneous phases with size- and form-dependent order in a number of other systems with infinite correlation length. The possibility to observe the signs of the "bow-tie" phase in low- T neutron diffraction experiments is discussed.

Timonin, P. N.

2012-12-01

208

Diagnosing sputum/smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis: Does fibre-optic bronchoscopy play a significant role?  

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Full Text Available Background : Diagnosis of sputum/smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis patients can be both challenging and time consuming with many patients being put on empirical anti-tubercular treatment. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy may provide a confirmative and early diagnosis in such patients. Aims: To assess the role of fibreoptic bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of sputum /smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 75 suspected sputum / smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis cases attending Pulmonary Medicine Department of Mamata Medical College and Hospital, Khammam, AP. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy was performed; culture of sputum and bronchial washings for Mycobacterium tuberculosis was done by BACTEC method. Results: A final diagnosis of sputum /smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis was made in 60 patients. Bronchial washings smear for acid-fast bacilli (AFB was positive in 21 patients while culture of bronchial washings was positive in 39 patients. In 29 patients, smear or culture of bronchial washing alone contributed to the final diagnosis. Total yield of bronchoscopy in diagnosis of sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis was 83.33% (50/60; bronchoscopy was the only diagnostic method in 66% cases (40/60 with bronchial washings being the only diagnostic method in 48.33%. Bronchial washings smear for AFB and histopathological evidence of caseating granuloma made immediate diagnosis possible in 48.33% (29/60 patients. Conclusion: Our study suggests that fibreoptic bronchoscopy can provide excellent material for diagnosis of suspected cases of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in whom smears of expectorated sputum do not reveal mycobacteria.

Bachh Arshad

2010-01-01

209

Improved Laboratory Safety by Decontamination of Unstained Sputum Smears for Acid-Fast Microscopy  

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Tubercle bacilli may survive in unstained heat-fixed sputum smears and may be an infection risk to laboratory staff. We compared the effectiveness of 1% and 5% sodium hypochlorite, 5% phenol, 2% glutaraldehyde, and 3.7% formalin in killing Mycobacterium tuberculosis present in smears prepared from 51 sputum samples. The smears were decontaminated by the tube and slide techniques. Phenol at 5%, glutaraldehyde at 2%, and buffered formalin at 3.7% for 1 min (tube technique) or for 10 min (slide ...

Giacomelli, Luiz Roberto Biga?o; Helbel, Cesar; Ogassawara, Roger Leandro Nunes; Barreto, A?ngela Maria Werneck; Martins, Fa?tima Moreira; Cardoso, Celso Lui?z; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura

2005-01-01

210

Thermodynamics of noncommutative geometry inspired black holes based on Maxwell-Boltzmann smeared mass distribution  

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In order to further explore the effects of non-Gaussian smeared mass distribution on the thermodynamical properties of noncommutative black holes, we consider noncommutative black holes based on Maxwell-Boltzmann smeared mass distribution in (2+1)-dimensional spacetime. The thermodynamical properties of the black holes are investigated, including Hawking temperature, heat capacity, entropy and free energy. We find that multiple black holes with the same temperature do not exist, while there exists a possible decay of the noncommutative black hole based on Maxwell-Boltzmann smeared mass distribution into the rotating (commutative) BTZ black hole.

Liang, Jun; Liu, Yan-Chun; Zhu, Qiao

2014-02-01

211

Smeared spin-flop transition in random antiferromagnetic Ising chain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At T = 0 and in a sufficiently large field, the nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic Ising chain undergoes a first-order spin-flop transition into the ferromagnetic phase. We consider its smearing under the random-bond disorder such that all independent random bonds are antiferromagnetic (AF). It is shown that the ground-state thermodynamics of this random AF chain can be described exactly for an arbitrary distribution P(J) of AF bonds. Moreover, the site magnetizations of finite chains can be found analytically in this model. We consider a continuous P(J) that is zero above some ?J1 and behaves near it as (?J1?J)?, ? > ?1. In this case, the ferromagnetic phase emerges continuously in a field H > Hc = 2J1. At 0 > ? > ?1, it has the usual second-order anomalies near Hc with the critical indices obeying the scaling relation and depending on ?. At ? > 0, higher-order transitions occur (third, fourth, etc.), marked by a divergence of the corresponding nonlinear susceptibilities. In the chains with an even number of spins, the intermediate “bow-tie” phase with linearly modulated AF order exists between the AF and ferromagnetic phases at J1 c. Its origin can be traced to the infinite correlation length of the degenerate AF phase from which it emerges. This implies the existence of similar inhomogeneous phases with size- and form-dependent order in a number of other systems with infinite correlation length. The possibility to observe the signs of the “bow-tie” phase in low-T neutron diffraction experiments is discussed.

2012-12-01

212

Smeared spin-flop transition in random antiferromagnetic Ising chain  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At T = 0 and in a sufficiently large field, the nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic Ising chain undergoes a first-order spin-flop transition into the ferromagnetic phase. We consider its smearing under the random-bond disorder such that all independent random bonds are antiferromagnetic (AF). It is shown that the ground-state thermodynamics of this random AF chain can be described exactly for an arbitrary distribution P(J) of AF bonds. Moreover, the site magnetizations of finite chains can be found analytically in this model. We consider a continuous P(J) that is zero above some -J{sub 1} and behaves near it as (-J{sub 1}-J){sup {lambda}}, {lambda} > -1. In this case, the ferromagnetic phase emerges continuously in a field H > H{sub c} = 2J{sub 1}. At 0 > {lambda} > -1, it has the usual second-order anomalies near H{sub c} with the critical indices obeying the scaling relation and depending on {lambda}. At {lambda} > 0, higher-order transitions occur (third, fourth, etc.), marked by a divergence of the corresponding nonlinear susceptibilities. In the chains with an even number of spins, the intermediate 'bow-tie' phase with linearly modulated AF order exists between the AF and ferromagnetic phases at J{sub 1} < H < H{sub c}. Its origin can be traced to the infinite correlation length of the degenerate AF phase from which it emerges. This implies the existence of similar inhomogeneous phases with size- and form-dependent order in a number of other systems with infinite correlation length. The possibility to observe the signs of the 'bow-tie' phase in low-T neutron diffraction experiments is discussed.

Timonin, P. N., E-mail: pntim@live.ru [Southern Federal University (Russian Federation)

2012-12-15

213

Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in HIV-positive patients: A study of two cases  

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Cutaneous leishmaniasis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection is emerging as increasingly frequent and serious new disease. Leishmaniasis may be acquired before or after HIV infection. We describe two cases of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in HIV-positive patients. Both the patients had papulonodular lesions on upper extremities and back with low CD4 count. Slit skin smear with giemsa stain revealed Leishman Donovan (LD) bodies and skin biopsy of both the patients revealed...

2010-01-01

214

Improvement of the pion spectrum with HYP-smeared staggered fermions  

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We extend our previous study of taste-symmetry breaking using HYP-smeared staggered fermions in two ways. First, we improve the statistics of a comparison of unimproved and HYP-smeared staggered fermions on quenched lattices with $a\\approx 0.1 $fm. This allows us to obtain a signal for all pion tastes, rather than just a subset, and thus to make a complete comparison. In addition, it allows us to differentiate between wall and local sources. Second, we compare HYP-smeared valence quarks to asqtad valence quarks on 2+1 flavor unquenched MILC lattices. We find that taste breaking is substantially reduced by HYP-smearing, bringing the size of this discretization effect (which is the dominant such effect with staggered fermions) down to the size expected generically for any fermion type.

Bae, Taegil; Jung, Chulwoo; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Jongjeong; Kim, Kwangwoo; Lee, Weonjong; Sharpe, Stephen R

2007-01-01

215

An Audit of Sputum Smear Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis Cases in Kinta District, Perak, in 2011  

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Full Text Available 58 cases of sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PtB were reported to Kinta Health Department between January and June 2011. It was found that 47 cases (81% were sputum smear negative cases. six cases (10.3% were actually sputum smear positive but were wrongly reported as smear negative. Five cases (8.6% were misdiagnosed as tuberculosis. Majority of these patients (82.7% sought consultation and treatment after two weeks of having cough. only 6.9% sought treatment for cough that was less than two weeks old. Accurate diagnosis of PtB is crucial and the Perak state Health Department needs to quickly adopt steps to improve the situation.

Subashini A

2012-12-01

216

Comparative evaluation of three and six month therapeutic regimens for smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis  

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Full Text Available Both smears positive and negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB patients are routinely treated by six month therapeutic regimen. The aim of this study was to compare three and six month regimens chemotherapy for smear negative PTB among tuberculosis patients. Fifty-two patients with smear negative PTB randomly divided into two groups took part in this comparative clinical trial study. The patients in first group were treated with our recommended regimen (rifampicin, isoniazide, and ofloxacin and another group with standard regimen according directly observed treatment short course strategy. Cure rates in first and second group were 96.5% and 100% respectively. There was no difference between two groups in responding to anti tuberculosis chemotherapy (p>0.05. This study showed that three month therapeutic regimen is as effective as six month therapeutic regimen and may be considered effective treatment for adult patients with unprogressive smear negative PTB.

Seyed Mohammad Alavi

2009-01-01

217

A note on smeared branes in flux vacua and gauged supergravity  

Science.gov (United States)

In the known examples of flux vacua with calibrated spacetime-filling sources (branes or orientifold planes), one can smear the source in order to perform a standard KK reduction and obtain a lower-dimensional supergravity description. Furthermore, it is expected that the smeared and localized solution preserve equal amounts of supersymmetry. In this note we point out that the AdS7 solution discussed in arXiv:1111.2605 and arXiv:1309.2949 is a counterexample to this common lore. The solution is supersymmetric when the spacetime-filling D6-branes are localized but breaks supersymmetry in the smeared limit. By using the embedding tensor formalism we demonstrate that there is no gauged supergravity description for the solution, regardless of the source being smeared or not. We conjecture that for flux solutions with separation between the KK scale and AdS radius this cannot occur.

Danielsson, U. H.; Dibitetto, G.; Fazzi, M.; Van Riet, T.

2014-04-01

218

Measurement of DNA content in single cells morphologically identified on smears.  

Science.gov (United States)

A method was developed for measuring the nuclear DNA content in single cells previously identified on a bone marrow smear stained by the Wright-Giemsa method. The smear was first photographed and the location of individual cells, identified by morphology, was recorded on a cell map. The smear was then bleached with 50% acid ethanol and absolute methanol, and re-stained by the Feulgen method in 0.05% pararosaniline Schiff's reagent (pH 2.3) at 7 degrees C for 10 min. Nuclear red fluorescence was observed and the intensity of this fluorescence was proportional to the amount of DNA after prior irradiation of smears with green light for 9 hr. The method is useful for measuring cell DNA content in heterogeneous cell populations when morphological cell identification is required. PMID:3745905

Maruo, N; Nakabo, T; Kondo, M

1986-10-01

219

Validation of a simplified grading of Gram stained vaginal smears for use in genitourinary medicine clinics  

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Objectives: To validate a simplified grading scheme for Gram stained smears of vaginal fluid for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV) against the accepted "gold" standard of Amsel's composite criteria.

Ison, C.; Hay, P.

2002-01-01

220

Blood parameters changes in cord blood of newborns of hypertensive mothers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the peripheral blood of newborns of hypertensive mothers. The umbilical cord blood from newborns of 31 hypertensive mothers and 32 healthy mothers were examined. In all subjects, complete blood count, peripheral blood smear, reticulocyte count, vitamin B12, folate, ferritin levels and hemoglobin electrophoresis were performed. The subjects were followed up on for 1 year in terms of infections. RBC, hemoglobin, reticulocyte count and normoblast count were higher in the newborns of hypertensive mothers compared to the control group, and total leukocytes, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, and thrombocyte counts were lower. The number of neutropenic and thrombocytopenic subjects in newborns of hypertensive mothers was higher compared to the control group. On peripheral smears, dysplastic changes in neutrophils and erythrocytes were observed with a higher rate in newborns of hypertensive mothers compared to the control group. HbF levels were found to be higher in newborns of hypertensive mothers compared to the control group. During the follow-up period of 1 year, the number of infections in newborns of hypertensive mothers was found to be higher than the control group. Conclusion: Newborns of hypertensive mothers should be carefully evaluated and monitored in terms of hematologic abnormalities. Complete blood counts and peripheral blood smears can be used as significant parameters for early diagnosis of possible complications. PMID:23812509

Bolat, Ahmet; Gursel, Orhan; Kurekci, Emin; Atay, Avni; Ozcan, Okan

2013-11-01

 
 
 
 
221

Improvements of the smearing technique for cross-stiffened thin rectangular plates  

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New developments in the simplified smearing technique for modeling vibrations of cross-stiffened, thin rectangular plates are presented. The computationally efficient smearing technique has been known for many years, but so far the accuracy of, say, predicted natural frequencies has been inadequate. The reason is that only the stiffeners at a right angle to the axis of angular motion are taken into account when calculating the bending stiffness, whereas the stiffeners that are parallel to thi...

Luan, Yu; Ohlrich, Mogens; Jacobsen, Finn

2011-01-01

222

Cooling, smearing and Dirac eigenmodes - A comparison of filtering methods in lattice gauge theory  

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Starting from thermalized quenched SU(2) configurations we apply cooling or iterated smearing, respectively, to produce sequences of gauge configurations with less and less fluctuations. We compute the low lying spectrum and eigenmodes of the lattice Dirac operator and compare them for the two types of smoothing. Many characteristic properties of the eigensystem remain invariant for all configurations in our sequences. We also find that cooling and smearing produce surprisin...

Gattringer, Christof; Ilgenfritz, E. -m; Solbrig, Stefan

2006-01-01

223

In-hospital contact investigation among health care workers after exposure to smear-negative tuberculosis  

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Abstract Background Smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) accounts for a considerable proportion of TB transmission, which especially endangers health care workers (HCW). Novel Mycobacterium-tuberculosis-specific interferon-? release assays (IGRAs) may offer the chance to define the burden of TB in HCW more accurately than the Mantoux tuberculin skin test (TST), but the data that is available regarding their performance in tracing smear-negative TB in the low-incidence,...

Ringshausen Felix C; Schlösser Stephan; Nienhaus Albert; Schablon Anja; Schultze-Werninghaus Gerhard; Rohde Gernot

2009-01-01

224

Biodiversity of the Bacterial Flora on the Surface of a Smear Cheese  

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The bacteria on the surface of a farmhouse smear-ripened cheese at four stages of ripening (4, 16, 23, and 37 days) from inoculated (i.e., deliberately inoculated with Brevibacterium linens BL2) and noninoculated (not deliberately inoculated with B. linens BL2) cheese were investigated. The results show that, contrary to accepted belief, B. linens is not a significant member of the surface flora of smear cheese and no microbial succession of species occurred during the ripening of the cheeses...

Brennan, Noelle M.; Ward, Alan C.; Beresford, Thomas P.; Fox, Patrick F.; Goodfellow, Michael; Cogan, Timothy M.

2002-01-01

225

Critical appraisal of current recommendations and practices for tuberculosis sputum smear microscopy [workshop report  

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This report is the consensus-based, agreed position of the participants in a workshop for experts in sputum smear microscopy organised in August 2005 by the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union), and as such reflects their views, but not necessarily those of their respective organisations. The group reviewed current practices in sputum smear microscopy for tuberculosis (TB) and suggests considering certain changes in standard guidelines for the sputum collectio...

Gilpin, C.; Kim, S. J.; Lumb, R.; Rieder, H. L.; Deun, A.

2007-01-01

226

Can health education increase uptake of cervical smear testing among Asian women?  

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OBJECTIVES--To determine the effects of three different methods of providing health education on the uptake of cervical smear testing among Asian women, and to evaluate the acceptability of different health education materials. DESIGN--Prospective cohort study over one year of effects of written materials by post, personal visit to give written materials, and personal visit to show a video on the uptake of smear testing. Techniques included a personally administered questionnaire. SETTING--Le...

1991-01-01

227

Cervical cancer: developments in screening and evaluation of the abnormal Pap smear.  

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Of the more than 50 million Pap smears performed annually in the United States, about 5% of them are abnormal. Although the need for treatment of high-grade lesions is clear, the appropriate management of low-grade lesions remains controversial. New methods of screening for cervical cancer have become available, including testing for the human papilloma virus and improved methods of administering and evaluating the Pap smear. This review addresses new developments in cervical cancer screening...

Walsh, J. M.

1998-01-01

228

Sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis: sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic algorithm  

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Abstract Background The diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is complicated by the increased presence of sputum smear negative tuberculosis. Diagnosis of smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis is made by an algorithm recommended by the National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Programme that uses symptoms, signs and laboratory results. The objective of this study is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the tuberculos...

2011-01-01

229

Incidence of cytological abnormalities within 24 months of a normal cervical smear in Soweto, South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: A screening programme for cervical cancer has been implemented in South Africa (SA) with intervals of 10 years after a normal cytological result. There are no studies that evaluate repeat screening at a shorter interval in SA. OBJECTIVES: (i) To find the incidence of cytological abnormal [...] ities on a repeat test after a report of normal cytology or an inadequate Pap smear; and (ii) to explore the factors associated with an abnormal cytology on repeat testing. METHODS: This was a secondary data analysis of a randomised controlled trial of diaphragm, lubricant gel and condoms v. condoms in the prevention of HIV infection. HIV-negative women were recruited between November 2003 and December 2005, with a normal Pap smear at entry. Observation time was from the first Pap smear to the date of the repeat Pap smear. Explanatory variables used were baseline, excepting any new HIV infection. RESULTS: The incidence of cytological abnormalities was 6.48% yearly in women with a previously normal Pap smear and 11.71% yearly in women with an inadequate smear result (p=0.03). The incidence of high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (HSILs) was

Y, Adam; J A, McIntyre; G, de Bruyn.

230

An In Vitro SEM Study on the Effectiveness of Smear Layer Removal of Four Different Irrigations  

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Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this study was to compare the smear layer removal efficacies of 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, 17% Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA, SmearClear and BioPure MTAD using a common irrigation protocol. Materials and Methods: Fifty freshly extracted human single rooted maxillary and mandibular teeth were prepared by a ProTaper rotary system up to an apical preparation file size F3. Prepared teeth were randomly divided into five groups (n=10; distilled water (Group A; negative control, EDTA (Group B, SmearClear (Group C, BioPure MTAD (Group D and NaOCl (Group E. After final irrigation with tested irrigants the teeth were decoronated, split into two halves longitudinally and observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM for removal of the smear layer. The SEM images were then analyzed for the amount of smear layer present using a three score system. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Intergroup comparison of groups B, C, and D showed no statistical significant differences in the coronal and middle thirds, however, in the apical third the canal surfaces were cleaner in samples from group D (P<0.05. Conclusion: BioPure MTAD was the most effective agent for the purpose of smear layer removal in the apical third of the root canals.

ASHOK KUMAR

2012-10-01

231

Agreement Between Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid and Papanicolaous Smear as Screening Methods for Cervical Cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To determine degree of agreement between visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and Papanicolaous (Pap) smear as screening methods for cervical cancer. Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Lahore, from July to December 2012. Methodology: Two hundred and fifty women in reproductive age group presenting with various gynaecological complaints were included in the study. A Papanicolaous smear was taken and visual inspection with 5% acetic acid was done. VIA was reported as positive or negative according to acetowhite changes and cytology result was graded as CIN 1, 2, 3 and squamous carcinoma. Those women who showed positive result with either VIA or Pap smear or both were further subjected to colposcopic directed biopsy which was taken as gold standard. Results were computed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16 and statistical test used was kappa. Results: Out of 250 women, VIA was positive in 55 (22%) patients and Pap smear was abnormal in 27 (10.8%). Histological diagnosis of CIN/cancer was made in 36 out of a total 62 patients who underwent biopsy. Conclusion: There was a fair agreement between VIA and Pap smear, with VIA detecting more abnormalities than cytology. In the absence of Pap smear availability, VIA may be a reasonable cervical cancer screening method, especially in low resource settings. (author)

2014-04-01

232

A note on Rome-Southampton Renormalization with Smeared Gauge Fields  

CERN Document Server

We have calculated continuum limit step scaling functions of bilinear and four-fermion operators renormalized in a Rome-Southampton scheme using various smearing prescriptions for the gauge field. Also, for the first time, we have calculated non-perturbative anomalous dimensions of operators renormalized in a Rome-Southampton scheme. The effect of such smearing first enters connected fermionic correlation functions via radiative corrections. We use off-shell renormalisation as a probe, and observe that the upper edge of the Rome-Southampton window is reduced by link smearing. This can be interpreted as arising due to the fermions decoupling from the high momentum gluons and we observe that the running of operators with the scale at large lattice momenta shows enhanced lattice artefacts. We find that the effect is greater for HEX smearing than for Stout smearing, but that in both cases additional care must be taken when using off-shell renormalisation with smeared gauge fields compared to thin link simulations...

Arthur, R; Hashimoto, S; Hudspith, R

2013-01-01

233

Effects of different irrigation solutions on root dentine microhardness, smear layer removal and erosion.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to compare the effects of different irrigants on root dentine microhardness, erosion and smear layer removal. A total of 72 root dentine slices were divided into six groups, according to the final irrigants used: Group 1: 17% ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) + 2.5% NaOCl, Group 2: 7% maleic acid (MA) + 2.5% sodium hypochloride (NaOCl), Group 3: 1.3% NaOCl + mixture of tetracycline, acid and detergent (MTAD), Group 4: Smear Clear + 2.5% NaOCl, Group 5: 5% NaOCl, Group 6: saline. Vickers microhardness values were measured before and after treatment. In total, 42 root-halves were prepared for scanning electron microscope to evaluate the amount of smear and erosion in the coronal, middle and apical thirds. Data were analysed using two-way anova, Duncan and two-proportion z-tests. Maleic acid showed the greatest reduction in dentine microhardness (P Smear Clear removed smear layer efficiently in the coronal and middle thirds of root canal. However, in the apical region, maleic acid showed more efficient removal of the smear layer than the other irrigants (P < 0.05). PMID:23890262

Ulusoy, Özgür ? A; Görgül, Güliz

2013-08-01

234

Effect of the smear layer on salivary bacterial leakage in endodontically treated teeth  

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Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: The success of endodontic treatment depends on the method and quality of cleaning, disinfection and three-dimensional sealing of the root canal. The smear layer can play an important role in the success or failure of endodontic treatment. There is controversy over the presence or removal of the smear layer in relation to the success or failure of endodontic treatment. This study used standard methods of endodontic treatment and whole human saliva to evaluate the effect of the smear layer on salivary bacterial leakage in endodontically treated teeth.Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 48 human single- and multiple-rooted teeth were randomly divided into two experimental groups of 20 and two negative and positive control groups of 4 teeth. After access cavity preparation the root canals were prepared with crown-down technique and irrigated with 10 mL of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution. The canals in one group were irrigated with 17% EDTA and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite to remove the smear layer and in the other only with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite to leave the smear layer in place. Then the teeth were sterilized by autoclave and obturated with gutta-percha sterilized with ethylene oxide and Tubliseal sealer under aseptic conditions. Two mL of human saliva were collected from two persons and injected into the coronal portion of the samples, which was repeated for four months. Leakage of the samples was examined twice daily. Data was analyzed with chi-squared test at a confidence interval of 95%. Results: Presence or absence of the smear layer had no significant effect on salivary bacterial leakage of different root canals filled with gutta-percha and Tubliseal sealer (p value = 0.515, although the number of cases with contamination and leakage of saliva in the group with the smear layer (55% was more than that in the group without the smear layer (44%.Conclusion: The results showed no significant effect of the smear layer on coronal leakage of human saliva into obturated canals. Key words: Bacterial microleakage, Root canal therapy, Saliva, Smear layer, Tooth.

Abasali Khademi, ,

2012-01-01

235

Interpretation of automated blood cell counts  

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Full Text Available Complete blood count (CBC tests are rapid, inexpensiveand universally available, and often aid primary clinicianswith decision making about patients with severaldisorders. Thus the rapid availability of the results of CBCcould provide considerable advantage for both patientsand clinicians. Furthermore, physicians can also avoidunnecessary peripheral blood smear examination usingCBC parameters. Many hematology analyzers, which enabledus simultaneously, measure several different CBCparameters, are available for early diagnosis. Herein theimpact of both pre and post analytic variations on the interpretationof the CBC results with case reports are reviewedin the light of the latest literature.Key words: Complete blood count, interpretation

Zühre Kaya

2013-09-01

236

Improvements of the smearing technique for cross-stiffened thin rectangular plates  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

New developments in the simplified smearing technique for modeling vibrations of cross-stiffened, thin rectangular plates are presented. The computationally efficient smearing technique has been known for many years, but so far the accuracy of, say, predicted natural frequencies has been inadequate. The reason is that only the stiffeners at a right angle to the axis of angular motion are taken into account when calculating the bending stiffness, whereas the stiffeners that are parallel to this axis of angular motion are neglected. To improve predictions, the parallel stiffeners are taken into account in this paper. The improved smearing technique results in better accuracy for predicted natural frequencies of flat stiffened plates, as demonstrated for both simply supported and clamped boundary conditions. The improved prediction accuracy is demonstrated by comparing results from a numerical model based on the current development with results from finite element (FE) simulations that include the exact cross-sectional geometries of the stiffened panel. In order to demonstrate applications of the improved smearing technique, the predicted forced response is compared with both experimental and FE results. Another improvement concerns the orientation of the stiffeners. The original smearing technique presupposes that the stiffeners are parallel to the edges of the plate, but simple considerations make it possible to relax this requirement. To test the validity of the resulting technique a series of plates are examined for stiffeners angled relative to the plate edges.

Luan, Yu; Ohlrich, Mogens

2011-01-01

237

Assessing the Efficacy of Citrus Aurantifolia Extract on Smear Layer Removal with Scanning Electron Microscope  

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Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of citrus aurantifolia (CA extract on smear layer removal in different parts of root canals. Materials and Methods: Thirty-nine single-rooted human teeth were randomly divided into three experimental (n=12 and one control (n=3 groups. Teeth were instrumented using MTwo rotary instruments. Root canals were irrigated with NaOCl during instrumentation. The canals in each group were irrigated with one of the following: completed mixture of citrus aurantifolia extracts, 17% EDTA, and alcoholic extract of CA. Distilled water was used for the control group. The irrigants were left within the canal for 20 minutes, and then rinsed with normal saline solution. Teeth were subsequently split longitudinally into 2 halves, and the canals were examined by a scanning electron-microscope. Cleanliness was evaluated using a five point scoring system. Results: Statistical significant difference was found between groups (P<0.05. The smear layer was more effectively removed with 17% EDTA compared to alcoholic CA extract. However, they were both able to remove the smear layer in the coronal segment. Completed CA extract removed more smear layer in coronal and middle parts compared with the alcoholic extract (P=0.001; however, there was no significant difference in the apical part. Conclusion: Both of the alcoholic and completed mixtures of citrus aurantifolia extracts were not able to effectively remove smear layer compared with 17% EDTA during root canal therapy.

Behnam Bolhari

2012-05-01

238

Improving follow-up after an abnormal Pap smear: a randomized controlled trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

Less than 60% of women diagnosed with cervical abnormalities on Pap smears return for proper surveillance and timely treatment. Previous tactics used to motivate these women to return have mainly relied on costly intensive recall efforts. Using a framework based on psychological value expectancy theory, a pamphlet was designed to motivate women with abnormal Pap smears to return for a repeat Pap smear. The effect of this pamphlet was tested in a randomized controlled trial. A total of 161 women with abnormal Pap smears were randomized and received either the pamphlet plus a notification letter or the letter only. The compliance rate was 64.2% in the intervention group and 51.3% in the comparison group (P = 0.10; two-tailed). In addition, subgroups of women who do not practice health-related behaviors were identified as groups where more intensive interventions may be needed. These results have implications for future strategies used to recall women with abnormal Pap smears. PMID:2263574

Paskett, E D; White, E; Carter, W B; Chu, J

1990-11-01

239

The Pathogenic Microorganisms in Papanicolaou Vaginal Smears and Correlation with Inflammation  

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Full Text Available Objective: Non-specific cervicitis or inflammatory changes in a smear report are common which are usually unclear for clinical approaches. To investigate the frequency of inflammation and pathogenic vaginal microorganisms in cervical smears among an Iranian population sample.Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on Pap smear samples of women referred to gynecological clinic of Taleghani Hospital in Tehran, Iran, between October 2008 and March 2009. This study was conducted on 528 conventional Papanicolaou cervical smears. The frequency and severity of inflammation and prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV, Trichomonas vaginalis (TV, and vaginal candidiasis (VC was determined in the samples. Also co-infection of the microorganisms in Pap samples was evaluated. percentage, mean±standard deviation of the outcome parameters were calculated. The comparison between data was performed with the Pearson’s chi square or Fisher’s exact test.Results: The prevalence of BV, VC, and TV in Pap samples was 17%, 11%, and 0.4% respectively. Overall, the prevalence of these microorganisms in women of reproductive age was higher than menopausal women. There was a significant association between VC and the presence of inflammation in our samples.Conclusion: Based on our results, inflammation in the Pap smears can suggest an infection of VC and the patients should be considered for proper VC treatment.

Esmat Barouti

2013-03-01

240

Detecting the Aspergillus Spp. In(BAL Fluid Samples by Nested PCR, Culture and Direct Smear  

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Full Text Available Background and Aim: Aspergillosis are the most prevalent cause of the respiratory infections. These fungi show invasive aspergillosis(IA in immunocompromised patients. The number of immunocompromised patients are increasing due to immunodisorder illnesses, grafts and immunosuppressor drugs, so, rapid identification methods are very important. The aim of this study was to detect the Aspergillus spp. In fluid samples by nested PCR, and compare with culture and direct smear. Materials and Methods: Conventional detection methods such as culture and direct smear are unsensitive and time consuming. Some methods such as immunodetecting methods have high false positive and are unreliable. Nowadays, molecular methos and PCR are very helpful. These methods are both sensitive and reliable and very rapid. In this study, we used Nested PCR, culture and direct smear to detect Aspergillus spp in BAL fluid samples. Results: This research is a descriptive-comparative study and has been done for rapid identification of fungi related to Aspergillosis such as culture, direct smear and nested- PCR. Findings of this study show that positive results by nested-PCR were more effective and sensitive than culture and direct smear.Conclusions: We found that positive results by PCR were more effective and sensitive than two other methods.

Sanam Afshar Moghaddam

2012-03-01

 
 
 
 
241

Comparison of two methods used to prepare smears of mouse lung tissue for detection of Pneumocystis carinii.  

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The laboratory diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in humans includes the identification of cysts in stained lung tissue impression smears. By using a mouse model, we compared the number of cysts in lung tissue impression smears with those contained in a concentrate of homogenized lung tissue. Eleven C3H/HEN mice developed P. carinii infection after corticosteroid injections, a low protein (8%) diet, and tetracycline administered in drinking water. Impression smears were prepared with...

Thomson, R. B.; Smith, T. F.; Wilson, W. R.

1982-01-01

242

Predicting results of mycobacterial culture on sputum smear reversion after anti-tuberculous treatment: a case control study  

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Abstract Background Little is currently known regarding sputum smear reversion (acid-fast smear becomes positive again after negative conversion) during anti-tuberculous treatment. This study aimed to evaluate its occurrence in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and identify factors predicting results of mycobacterial culture for smear-reversion of sputum samples. Methods The retrospective review was performed in a tertiary referral center and a local tea...

Shu Chin-Chung; Wang Jann-Tay; Lee Chih-Hsin; Wang Jann-Yuan; Lee Li-Na; Yu Chong-Jen

2010-01-01

243

A HOME MONITORING APPLICATION FOR COUNTING RED BLOOD CELLS USING A MORPHOMETRIC CONTOUR ALGORITHM  

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Full Text Available Home monitoring of the personal health is becoming increasingly popular. This article describes the development of a Windows Store application that takes images of a blood smear on a slide from a connected consumer grade USB microscope, removes the cytoplasm background, and uses a morphometric contour algorithm on the cell rim to count blood cells. Thus, a person can test his blood on a regular basis. Experiments show that the application can count blood cells with an accuracy of 96%.

HANS HENRIK HANSEN

2014-03-01

244

Detection and molecular characterization of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi isolates from endemic areas of Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Blood samples were collected from 487 adult horses, including 83 pregnant mares, at a slaughterhouse located in Araguari, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. For each blood sample, the packed cell volume (PCV) was determined, and Giemsa-stained smears were microscopically examined for the presence of hemoparasites. The plasma was examined by the indirect fluorescent antibody test for detection of antibodies against Babesia caballi and Theileria equi. In addition, DNA was extracted and analyzed by a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), specific for B. caballi and T. equi. Products of PCR were sequenced and compared with each other and with known sequences. The serological results showed a total prevalence of 91.0% for T. equi and 83.0% for B. caballi, while by PCR, prevalences of 59.7% for T. equi and 12.5% for B. caballi were observed. However, no correlations were seen between positivity (neither by serology nor by PCR) and PCV values. As expected, the microscopic examination of blood smears showed low sensitivity in detecting the infections when compared to the PCR. Only 35 out of 570 blood smears were positive, with parasitemias below 0.1%. No congenital transmission was detectable. As far as sequencing is concerned, no differences were seen among the isolates of each species nor among them and known sequences available. These results confirm, by molecular methods, the high prevalence rates of T. equi and B. caballi infections in carrier horses in Brazil. However, no diversity was observed among the isolates within the studied regions. PMID:17828553

Heim, Alexandra; Passos, Lygia M F; Ribeiro, Múcio F B; Costa-Júnior, Lívio M; Bastos, Camila V; Cabral, Dagmar D; Hirzmann, Jörg; Pfister, Kurt

2007-12-01

245

Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Trypanosoma evansi in Iranian dromedary camels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Whole blood samples were collected from 117 male clinically healthy Camelus dromedarius aged between 6 months to 18 years from several farms in Yazd Province of Iran. Trypanosoma evansi-affected camels were detected by Giemsa-stained blood smears, and the positive blood samples (4 out of 117) were submitted to PCR examination and phylogenetic analysis. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool data of the obtained complete internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences revealed that they corresponded to those of T. evansi, Thailand cattle isolate (AY912276) with the homology of 99 %. Both phylogenetic trees generated by ITS1 and complete ITS were unable to clearly show inter- and intraspecific genetic diversity of Trypanosoma spp. isolates. The phylogenetic tree inferred from the ITS2 nucleotide sequences (569 bp) clearly showed the genetic diversity of the parasites. Phylogenetic and molecular analyses of this region showed that two distinct genotypes of T. evansi in Iranian dromedary camels are present. In contrast to the ITS1 and ITS2 regions, multiple alignment of the nucleotide sequence of the 5.8S rRNA showed a high degree of sequence conservation during evolution in various Trypanosoma spp. PMID:23007725

Pourjafar, Mehrdad; Badiei, Khalil; Sharifiyazdi, Hassan; Chalmeh, Aliasghar; Naghib, Mojtaba; Babazadeh, Marzieh; Mootabi Alavi, Amir; Hosseini Joshani-Zadeh, Narges

2013-02-01

246

Interactions between yeasts and bacteria in the smear surface-ripened cheeses.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the initial phase of ripening, the microflora of bacterial smear surface-ripened cheeses such as Limburger, Taleggio, Brick, Münster and Saint-Paulin and that of surface mould-ripened cheeses such as Camembert and Brie may be similar, but at the end of the ripening, bacteria such as Brevibacterium spp., Arthrobacter spp., Micrococcus spp., Corynebacterium spp. and moulds such as Penicillium camemberti are, respectively, the dominant microorganisms. Yeasts such as Candida spp., Cryptococcus spp., Debaryomyces spp., Geotrichum candidum, Pichia spp., Rhodotorula spp., Saccharomyces spp. and Yarrowia lipolytica are often and variably isolated from the smear surface-ripened cheeses. Although not dominant within the microorganisms of the smear surface-ripened cheeses, yeasts establish significant interactions with moulds and especially bacteria, including surface bacteria and lactic acid bacteria. Some aspects of the interactions between yeasts and bacteria in such type of cheeses are considered in this paper. PMID:11589547

Corsetti, A; Rossi, J; Gobbetti, M

2001-09-19

247

HPV DNA and Pap smear test results in cases with and without cervical pathology  

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Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the HPV prevalance and its relation to Pap smear, colposcopy and colposcopy directed biopsy in our region of Eskisehir, Turkey.Material and Methods: A total of 615 women who applied to the outpatient clinic between December 2009 and December 2010 constituted our study population. All patients underwent pelvic examination and Pap smear sampling. Patients who had pathological cervical appearance or Pap smear results of ASCUS, AGUS, LSIL or HSIL were referred to colposcopy. Cervical samples for HPV DNA were taken from the patients before Pap smear sampling during the routine examination or before the colposcopic evaluation. Results: Twenty six of 615 patients (4% were HPV positive. Of these 26 patients, 12 were positive for HPV type 16, 3 for type 18, 3 for type 51, 2 for type 6, 1 for type 52, 1 for type 33, 1 for type 16 and type 31, 1 for type 6 and 52, 1 for type 56 and 90, 1 for type 39 and 66. In 4 patients with cervical cancer, and in 3 of 4 CIN III cases both HPV DNA and Pap smear were positive. In the Pap smear examination of 615 patients, cytology revealed 35 ASCUS (5.6% 4 AGUS (0.6%, 2 CIN I (0.3% results who were negative for HPV DNA. These patients with abnormal cytology (n=41 underwent colposcopy directed biopsy, there were 3 CIN I and 1 CIN III and all the other cervical biopsy results of these patients were benign (inflammation, chronic cervicitis. Conclusion: HPV positivity in our hospital setting is low which is compatible with other studies in Turkey. In positive HPV cases there is a good correlation between HPV type and positive cervical biopsy results.

Sabit Sinan Özalp

2012-03-01

248

Prevalence of abnormal Papanicolaou smears in female sex workers in Hong Kong.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE. To investigate the prevalence of pre-cancerous uterine cervix lesions as detected in Papanicolaou (Pap) smears from female sex workers in Hong Kong. DESIGN. Retrospective analysis of laboratory records. SETTING. Private anatomical pathology laboratory, Hong Kong. PATIENTS. Female sex workers undergoing Pap smear examinations at two non-governmental organisations between 2006 and 2012. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES. Detection of pre-cancerous uterine cervical conditions and their management. RESULTS. A total of 2697 satisfactory Pap smears from female sex workers were performed during the study period from 2006 to 2012. In these subjects, the point prevalence of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and atypical squamous cells of unknown significance was 10.12% (compared with 3.92% for the general population during the same period), whereas that of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and atypical squamous cells of unknown significance with or without high-grade intraepithelial lesions was 2.22% (compared with 0.54% in the general population). For both categories of lesions, the higher prevalence among female sex workers than in the general population was statistically significant. Most patients who had abnormal Pap smears received proper referrals and follow-up management according to recommended guidelines. CONCLUSIONS. Female sex workers in Hong Kong as a group had a significantly higher prevalence of abnormal Pap smears than the general population. Non-governmental organisations providing free-of-charge screening services to these women helped early detection and proper follow-up for those who had abnormal Pap smears, whilst also increasing their awareness of women's health issues. PMID:23650200

Leung, K M; Yeoh, Gary P S; Cheung, H N; Fong, François Y; Chan, K W

2013-06-01

249

Establishment of an adherent cell layer from human umbilical cord blood  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese As células-mãe são encontradas no sangue do cordão umbilical humano (HUCB), além de na medula óssea e no sangue periférico, e há um crescente interesse no uso desse material como uma fonte alternativa para transplante de medula óssea e terapia gênica. A hematopoiese in vitro tem sido mantida por até [...] 16 semanas em culturas de HUCB, mas o estabelecimento de uma camada estromal aderente tem invariavelmente falhado. Precursores de células aderentes foram pesquisados entre células mononucleares do HUCB em culturas a longo prazo. Células mononucleares obtidas do sangue do cordão depois de partos normais a termo foram cultivadas em diferentes concentrações em meio Dulbecco modificado por Iscove, com alimentação semanal. Uma camada aderente foi detectada em 16 de 30 culturas, 12 das quais em concentrações celulares maiores que 2 x 10(6) células/ml. Ao contrário das culturas de medula óssea, em que o estroma é detectado precocemente, na maioria (10/16) das culturas positivas do HUCB a camada aderente foi identificada apenas depois da quarta semana de cultura. As células nunca atingiram a confluência e se destacaram da placa aproximadamente quatro semanas após sua detecção. A coloração de culturas positivas por May-Grünwald-Giemsa revelou células aderentes semelhantes a fibroblastos ou semelhantes a células endoteliais em um arranjo diferente daquele do estroma da medula óssea em 13 amostras. Em duas dessas, as células aderentes estavam organizadas em cordões característicos e delimitados de células. Ao contrário das culturas de medula óssea, células gordurosas nunca foram observadas nas camadas aderentes. Um rápido desenvolvimento de grandes células mielóides na primeira semana de cultura foi característico de culturas negativas e essas células mantiveram-se por até 12 semanas. HUCB contém precursores de células aderentes que ocorrem em números menores do que na medula óssea e podem estar em um estágio diferente (possivelmente menos maduro) de diferenciação. Abstract in english In addition to bone marrow and peripheral blood, stem cells also occur in human umbilical cord blood (HUCB), and there is an increasing interest in the use of this material as an alternative source for bone marrow transplantation and gene therapy. In vitro hematopoiesis has been maintained for up to [...] 16 weeks in HUCB cultures, but the establishment of an adherent, stromal layer has consistently failed. Adherent cell precursors among mononuclear cells from HUCB were sought for in long-term cultures. Mononuclear cells obtained from cord blood after full term, normal deliveries were cultivated at different concentrations in Iscove's modified Dulbecco's medium (IMDM) with weekly feeding. An adherent layer was detected in 16 of 30 cultures, 12 of which were plated at cell concentrations higher than 2 x 10(6) cells/ml. In contrast to bone marrow cultures, in which the stroma is detected early, in most (10/16) positive cultures from HUCB the adherent layer was identified only after the fourth week of culture. The cells never reached confluence and detached from the plate approximately four weeks after detection. May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining of positive cultures revealed fibroblast- or endothelial-like adherent cells in an arrangement different from that of bone marrow stroma in 13 samples. In two of these, the adherent cells were organized into characteristic, delimited cords of cells. Unlike bone marrow cultures, fat cells were never observed in the adherent layers. A rapid development of large myeloid cells in the first week of culture was characteristic of negative cultures and these cells were maintained for up to 12 weeks. HUCB contains adherent cell precursors which occur in lower numbers than in bone marrow and may be at a different (possibly less mature) stage of differentiation.

Zeni Z.C., Alfonso; Eduardo D., Forneck; Waldir F., Allebrandt; Nance B., Nardi.

250

Chlamydia trachomatis in cervico vaginal smears of irradiated uteri: cytologic and immune cytochemical aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cervico vaginal smears of women with uterine carcinoma treated with radiotherapy are analyzed in the present work. A series of such smears showed morphological changes suggestive of Chlamydia infection with the Papanicolaou stain. Confirmation of the presence of such agent was done using an avidin-biotin peroxidase technique. A higher prevalence of Chlamydia in the group of patients with carcinoma of the uterus treated with irradiation than in the population without ionizing treatment was verified. The presence of cells with radiotherapic changes infected by Chlamydia is a new finding in cytology. (author)

1989-01-01

251

Formulation of an improved smeared stiffener theory for buckling analysis of grid-stiffened composite panels  

Science.gov (United States)

A smeared stiffener theory for stiffened panels is presented that includes skin-stiffener interaction effects. The neutral surface profile of the skin-stiffener combination is developed analytically using the minimum potential energy principle and statics conditions. The skin-stiffener interaction is accounted for by computing the stiffness due to the stiffener and the skin in the skin-stiffener region about the neutral axis at the stiffener. Buckling load results for axially stiffened, orthogrid, and general grid-stiffened panels are obtained using the smeared stiffness combined with a Rayleigh-Ritz method and are compared with results from detailed finite element analyses.

Jaunky, Navin; Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Ambur, Damodar R.

1995-01-01

252

Four and a half year follow up of women with dyskaryotic cervical smears.  

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OBJECTIVE--To determine the proportion of women with mild or moderate dyskaryosis in cervical smears who (a) progress to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade III or worse or (b) regress. DESIGN--Four and a half year cytological follow up study of women with mild or moderate dyskaryosis in cervical smears. SETTING--666 Women (mean age 28 (SD 8) years; range 14-74) found to have borderline, mild, or moderate dyskaryosis on routine screening. RESULTS--45 Women (6.8%) had a cone biopsy recomm...

Fletcher, A.; Metaxas, N.; Grubb, C.; Chamberlain, J.

1990-01-01

253

Comparison of leaf smearing and wick feeding techniques for root distribution studies of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wick feeding and leaf smearing methods have been compared for their relative efficiencies for root distribution studies with tobacco plant. The applied radioactivity gets equilibrated within 3 days in the tobacco plant. Root sections of the plants fed through the wick contained higher quantity for the radioactivity over those of the leaf smeared ones. Because of the case of application and better translocation of applied radioactivity the wick-feeding method appears to have good utility for root distribution studies with hard stemmed plants. (author)

1976-12-01

254

Development of portable and automatic smear sampler for measuring surface contamination  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In measuring radioactive contamination in radiation controlled area of nuclear facility, the technical criteria to evaluate surface contamination level and to sample by indirect method was established in this paper. Radioactive materials always present on surface within operating nuclear facilities. Because of the presence of interfering radiation field, health physicists take smear samples to monitoring surface contamination according to routine monitoring program. But there are some problems like great errors and difference of personnel. Then, to solve them, The portable and automatic smear sampling apparatus was designed and fabricated.

Lee, Bong Jae; Chang, S. Y.; Kim, B. H.; Kim, J. S.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, C. K.; Swol, C. W

2000-12-01

255

Evaluation of the relationship between smear positivity and high-resolution CT findings in children with pulmonary tuberculosis  

Science.gov (United States)

Summary Background The aim of this study is to find a relationship between the radiological manifestations of childhood tuberculosis on a high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and the results of sputum smear. This study aims to propose an alternative indicator of infectivity in terms of prevention of disease transmission through selective isolation policy in children whose clinical condition is highly suggestive of tuberculosis. Material/Methods This retrospective comparative study was performed on 95 children under 15 years of age diagnosed with tuberculosis based on both WHO criteria and positive sputum culture for mycobacterium Tuberculosis. The children were admitted for TB screening in the pediatric department of national research institute of tuberculosis and lung disease (NRITLD) between 2008–2012. Direct smear collected from sputum or gastric lavage, as well as HRCT were performed in all children prior to administration of medical therapy. Children were divided into 2 groups based on positive and negative smear results. HRCT abnormalities, as well as their anatomical distribution were compared between these 2 groups using multivariate analytic model. Results The most prevalent abnormalities in the positive smear group were consolidation, tree-in-bud pattern, upper lobe nodular infiltration and cavitation. The negative smear group featured lymphadenopathy, consolidation, collapse and nodular infiltration in the upper lobe. Cavity, tree- in-bud pattern and upper lobe nodular infiltration were highly associated with smear positivity in children. Conversely, lymphadenopathy and collapse had significant association with a negative smear. Conclusions This study revealed that cavity, tree-in-bud and upper lobe nodular infiltration has significant association with smear positivity in childhood tuberculosis. On the other hand, lymphadenopathy and collapse were closely associated with smear negativity in this age group. It was also demonstrated that children with a positive smear most likely presented with radiological features of post primary tuberculosis, while the negative smear group most often manifested with primary tuberculosis.

Bolursaz, Mohammad Reza; Mehrian, Payam; Aghahosseini, Farahnaz; Lotfian, Ferial; Khalilzadeh, Soheila; Baghaie, Nooshin; Hassanzad, Maryam; Velayati, Ali Akbar

2014-01-01

256

Extraction and Genotyping of Cryptosporidium parvum DNA from Fecal Smears on Glass Slides Stained Conventionally for Direct Microscope Examination  

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A method was developed for extracting cryptosporidial DNA from stained fecal smears on glass microscope slides. The correct genotype of Cryptosporidium parvum was amplified by PCR from 89 (85%) of 105 smears following conventional staining but not from negative controls. This technique may have applications for analysis of other infectious agents.

Amar, C.; Pedraza-di?az, S.; Mclauchlin, J.

2001-01-01

257

Effect of phytic acid used as etchant on bond strength, smear layer, and pulpal cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of phytic acid (IP6), used as etchant, on resin-dentin bond strength, smear layer removal, and the viability of pulpal cells. Flat dentin surfaces with smear layer were etched with 1% IP6 for 60, 30, or 15 s; in the control group 37% phosphoric acid (PA) was used. Dentin surfaces were rinsed, blot-dried, and bonded with an etch-and-rinse adhesive, followed by composite build-ups. The specimens were subjected to tensile testing after 24 h of water storage at 37°C, and failure modes were determined using scanning electron microscopy. The effectiveness of IP6 to remove the smear layer was observed using scanning electron microscopy. To evaluate the effect on pulpal cells, solutions of 0.1 and 0.01% IP6 and of 3.7 and 0.37% PA were prepared and rat pulpal cells were treated with these solutions for 6 and 24 h. Cell viability was measured using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results demonstrated that all application times of IP6 produced bond-strength values that were significantly higher than that of the control. Phytic acid effectively removed the smear layer and plugs, thus exposing the collagen network. Phytic acid had a minimal effect on pulpal cells, whereas PA resulted in a marked decrease in their viability. PMID:23879874

Nassar, Mohannad; Hiraishi, Noriko; Islam, Md Sofiqul; Aizawa, Mamoru; Tamura, Yukihiko; Otsuki, Masayuki; Kasugai, Shohei; Ohya, Keiichi; Tagami, Junji

2013-10-01

258

Surface micro-distributions of pigment and the relation between smearing and local mass distribution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, the process of smearing and its time evolution have been investigated. When smearing occurs, the print is removed from the printed paper and colours other parts of the paper or the printing press and destroys the final product. To study the re-distribution of ink, cyan ink with Cu as a tracer in the coloured pigment has been used. Non-printed paper has been pressed against the paper, 1 and 5 s after the printing. The micro-distributions of ink on both printed and non-printed papers have then been studied using particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Basis weight was measured with the off-axis scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) technique and this data was correlated with the data from the print. One conclusion is that the process of smearing is not dependent on the shape of the pigment distribution, i.e. copper, or the content of copper in a specific pixel. On the contrary, the smearing was found to be related to the structure of the paper and that it mainly occurs where the paper is thicker

2001-07-01

259

A Study on the Nucleolar Organizer Regions-As a Tumour Proliferative Marker in Cervical Smears  

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Aim: To study the Argyrophilic Nucleolar Organizer Regions (AgNOR) as a cell proliferative marker in cervical smears and to assess its counts with the severity of the lesions on Papanicolaou (PAP) stained cervical smears. Material and Method: The present study was a prospective experimental study which was carried out at Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College in a span of 2 years. 50 high risk cases were selected from the Gynaecological OPD. The cervical smears were collected in pairs, one for the conventional PAP staining and the other one for the specialized AgNOR staining. Statistical Analysis: The Student’s unpaired ‘t’ test was used. Observation: There was a progressive rise in the AgNOR counts with the severity of the lesions [normal cervixcervicitislesion (LSIL)Lesion (HSIL) carcinoma cervix i.e. 1.75 lesion had a significant AgNOR value which helped in differentiating it from its precursor lesion. Conclusion: The AgNOR counts have been immensely helpful as they behave as a cell proliferative marker, aiding the diagnosis which is made through the cervical PAP stained smears and letting the cytopathologist understand the exact stage of the cervical lesion.

Shukla, Samarth; Rajput, Devendra; Acharya, Sourya; Acharya, Neema; Grover, Shobha; Samal, Narendra; Vagha, Sunita

2013-01-01

260

Herpes simplex virus in postradiation cervical smears. A morphologic and immunocytochemical study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From January 1987 to August 1988, cytomorphologic criteria of both herpes simplex virus (HSV) and radiation effects were observed in Papanicolaou smears from 3 of 1,340 patients who had received radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase staining, using a rabbit IgG polyclonal HSV antibody, confirmed the presence of HSV antigen in those three postradiation smears. Both multinucleated molded cells and epithelial cells that lacked cytopathic effects were positive for HSV. Three other postradiation smears from these cases were similarly positive for HSV antigen; the one preradiation smear was negative. In situ hybridization and immunoperoxidase studies on sections from the preradiation biopsies were negative: severely altered neoplastic cells showed no reactivity. The absence of HSV markers in the preradiation specimens suggests that the HSV infections were secondary to the radiotherapy; further studies are needed to prove this association and to assess the possible mechanisms. These cases clearly indicate that the overlapping features of radiation and viral effects (such as multinucleation) may be present simultaneously

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

"SPECIMEN ADEQUACY AND EFFECT OF HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS IN CERVICOVAGINAL SMEARS WITH SQUAMOUS INTRAEPITHELIAL ABNORMALITY"  

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Full Text Available Abstract-Cervicovaginal cytology is still a widely used cancer screening method that is well established in most countries. The present study aims at detecting and classifying squamous intraepithelial abnormalities and effects of certain infectious agents, particularly the cytopathic effects of human papillomavirus (HPV in a series of cervicovaginal smears, according to the Bethesda system (TBS. The significance of specimen adequacy in revealing squamous intraepithelial abnormalities (SIEA was also evaluated. Overall, 9066 smears were examined according to TBS. For interpretation of atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance (ASCUS, certain quality control (QC guidelines were considered. While stressing on koilocytic atypia, the full spectrum of cytologic alterations due to HPV was investigated. Of all smears, 79% were satisfactory for evaluation and 15% were inadequately satisfactory due to absence of the endocervical/transformation zone (EC/TZ component. The proportion of SIEA was significantly (P< 0.05 higher in smears having such a component. Of 246 cases with SIEA, 173 (1.90% cases were classified as ASCUS, 46 (0.50% as low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL, and 27 (0.26% as high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL. Of the latter, 19 cases demonstrated HPV effects. ASCUS was the most frequent diagnosis for which QC criteria were fulfilled. On the basis of our study the adequacy of specimen is of paramount significance, with particular emphasis on the presence of EC/TZ component.

N. Izadi Mood T. Hacopian

2004-08-01

262

Development of manipulator system for decontamination and surface contamination monitering with smear method of recycled dram  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In nuclear power plants, drums are used in carrying out volume reduction treatment of low-level combustible solid wastes. After the treatment process, these drums are decontaminated, subjected to smear testing, and then reutilized. Shikoku Electric Power Co., Ltd. and Meidensha Electric Mfg. Co., Ltd. worked jointly to develop an automatic manipulator system to perform decontamination operation and smear testing for surface contamination of these recycled drums. The system consists of a drum feeder, drum handling equipment, decontamination/testing robot, wiping paper feeder, radioactive ray measuring apparatus, drum conveyor and control system. Major features of the system are as follows: 1) both sides of the lid as well as the body and bottom plate of a drum is decontaminated automatically; 2) liquid secondary wastes are not generated since decontamination is performed by wiping the drum with paper; 3) smear testing is carried out automatically (unaccepted drums are sent back to the decontamination process); 4) three manipulating arms for wet and dry decontamination and smear testing are changed automatically; and 5) several drums are processed continuously. (Nogami, K.)

1987-01-01

263

Pap smear brochures, misogyny and language: a discourse analysis and feminist critique.  

Science.gov (United States)

Text from a public health brochure on pap smears was analysed with particular reference to ways in which the language used conveys particular messages about women and their bodies. In the text, 'humans' were found to be excluded as such. Both the pap smear service provider and the women who are the recipients of this service--and at whom such brochures are targeted--are objectified and their characteristics of human existence (i.e. ontological capacities) were restricted. The language of the pamphlet invokes an image for women associated with vaginal (penile penetrative) sex. The discourse also is found to be didactic, biomedical and written in the voice of the service provider. Further, the encounter of pap smear events is contextualized as procedural such that not only is the woman 'done to' in the process of having a cervical smear test but the woman's and provider's experiences of the encounter are silenced. It is concluded that the texts may be viewed as misogynist and that such texts do not take account of the complexity of women's decisions to 'submit to' or comply with cervical cancer screening. PMID:9437963

Lane, V; Lawler, J

1997-12-01

264

Relationship between canine visceral leishmaniosis and the Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi burden in dermal inflammatory foci.  

Science.gov (United States)

The skin is the first point of contact with organisms of the genus Leishmania from sand fly vectors, and apparently normal skin of sick dogs harbours amastigote forms of Leishmania chagasi. In relation to canine visceral leishmaniosis (CVL), the ear skin was examined in 10 uninfected dogs (UDs) and in 31 dogs dogs naturally infected with L. chagasi. The infected animals consisted of 10 symptomless dogs (SLDs), 12 mildly affected dogs (MADs) and nine affected dogs (ADs). A higher parasite burden was demonstrated in ADs than in SLDs by anti-Leishmania immunohistochemistry (P<0.01), and by Leishman Donivan Unit (LDU) indices (P=0.0024) obtained from Giemsa-stained impression smears. Sections stained with haematoxylin and eosin demonstrated a higher intensity of inflammatory changes in ADs than in SLDs (P<0.05), and in the latter group flow cytometry demonstrated a correlation (P=0.05/r=0.7454) between the percentage of CD14(+) monocytes in peripheral blood and chronic dermal inflammation. Extracellular matrix assessment for reticular fibres by staining of sections with Masson trichrome and Gomori ammoniacal silver demonstrated a decrease in collagen type I and an increase in collagen type III as the clinical signs increased. The data on correlation between cellular phenotypes and histological changes seemed to reflect cellular activation and migration from peripheral blood to the skin, mediated by antigenic stimulation. The results suggested that chronic dermal inflammation and cutaneous parasitism were directly related to the severity of clinical disease. PMID:16959259

Giunchetti, R C; Mayrink, W; Genaro, O; Carneiro, C M; Corrêa-Oliveira, R; Martins-Filho, O A; Marques, M J; Tafuri, W L; Reis, A B

2006-01-01

265

Malignancy-associated changes in monocytes and lymphocytes in acute leukemias measured by high-resolution image processing.  

Science.gov (United States)

A number of methods are available for classifying lymphoid and myeloid leukemias in peripheral blood and bone marrow. However, in clinical diagnosis an initial and particularly important step is morphologic analysis. All the cells in this investigation were classified by two hematologic experts. In most cases, immunophenotyping and immunocytochemical analyses were performed. Routinely prepared Romanowsky-Giemsa-stained peripheral blood smears (approximately 23,000 cells) were scanned by a high-resolution color TV/microscope system and analyzed by color and texture algorithms. In addition to blast cells, lymphocytes and monocytes exhibited a leukemia-associated change in morphology. The calculated texture and color features were most significant for the subtyping performed by the statistical program. With multivariate statistical analysis, seven mathematical subtypes of lymphocytes and five of monocytes could be found over all the specimens. Acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML, M1-M2), acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AMMOL, M4) and acute monocytic leukemia (AMOL, M5) could be differentiated by their distributions of monocyte subtypes. However, this was impossible for the lymphocyte subtypes. Acute lymphoblastic leukemias (B-ALL and T-ALL) were discernible with the aid of lymphocyte subtypes and acute myeloid conditions from viral infections, such as with the Epstein-Barr virus. The method increased the relevance of image processing in clinical diagnosis of acute leukemias and showed that the "normal" cell populations were not really normal in malignant leukemias. PMID:8297427

Harms, H; Gunzer, U; Baumann, I; Serbouti, S

1993-12-01

266

Prevalence of Hemoprotozoan Diseases in Cattle Population of Chittagong Division, Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available A one year (2009-10 prevalence study on hemoprotozoan diseases was conducted in crossbred and indigenous cattle, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Blood samples were collected randomly from 216 crossbred and 432 indigenous cattle of four representative areas in three consecutive seasons. Samples were examined by Giemsa's stained blood smear method. The effect of topography, season, age and sex was observed in cattle during this study. The overall prevalence of hemoprotozoan diseases was 16.18 and 12.02% in crossbred and indigenous cattle, respectively where babesiosis and anaplasmosis were predominant. Babesiosis was found to be consistent in all the four different areas but highest prevalence (9.25% was found in hilly area. Hemoprotozoan diseases were predominant in summer season followed by rainy and winter seasons. Adult cattle were significantly (P<0.05 susceptible to babesiosis than younger. Female animals were more susceptible to hemoprotozoan infections than male where babesiosis in crossbred cattle was statistically significant (P<0.05. It could be stated that breed and season were the important predictor of hemoprotozoan diseases. We recommended further studies for molecular detection of such diseases and identification of tick vectors in the study areas which will assist to take necessary preventive measures.

Md. Abdul Alim*, Shubhagata Das, Krisna Roy§, Md. Masuduzzaman, Suchandan Sikder1, Mohammad Mahmudul Hassan2, A. Z. Siddiki and Mohammad Alamgir Hossain

2012-05-01

267

Molecular prevalence of Babesia bigemina and Trypanosoma evansi in dairy animals from Punjab, India, by duplex PCR: a step forward to the detection and management of concurrent latent infections.  

Science.gov (United States)

Specific duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was employed on 411 (386 cattle and 25 buffaloes) blood samples of dairy animals from 9 districts of Punjab, India, for simultaneous detection of Babesia bigemina and Trypanosoma evansi. The results were compared and correlated with conventional Giemsa stained thin blood smear (GSTBS) examination and haematological alterations to know the clinical status and pathogenicity of infections. The Bg3/Bg4 and TR3/TR4 primers were used in duplex PCR for B. bigemina and T. evansi amplified products of 689 bp and 257 bp, respectively. The overall prevalence by duplex PCR was found to be 36.49, 2.43, and 3.41% for T. evansi, B. bigemina, and dual infection, respectively. A more significant difference was observed for dual infection status (P ? 0.005) as compared to T. evansi (P ? 0.05) and B. bigemina (P ? 0.01) among various districts under study. A very low prevalence of T. evansi (0.73%) and B. bigemina (0.48%) was seen by GSTBS. The highly sensitive, specific, and cost-effective duplex PCR was able to detect latent T. evansi and B. bigemina infection in cattle and buffaloes. Haematological evaluation revealed marked pathology in B. bigemina infected group and in dual infected group in contrast to that infected with T. evansi alone. PMID:24069605

Sharma, Amrita; Das Singla, Lachhman; Tuli, Ashuma; Kaur, Paramjit; Batth, Balwinder Kaur; Javed, Mohammed; Juyal, Prayag Dutt

2013-01-01

268

Scanning electron microscopy of root canal walls after removing the smear layer  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate ultrastructurally the effect of smear layer removal by applying different root canal irrigances: 3% HO2, 4% NaOCl and 15% Na-EDTA (in combination with 3% HO2, 4% NaOCl and establish the appearance of root canal dentine surface after treatment with 15% Na-EDTA for different time periods(1 min and 5 min using additional irrigant 3% HOor 4% NaOCl. 22 22 Teeth with single and double canals extracted for orthodontic reasons, were used in this study. After instrumentation, coronal and apical parts were removed. Middle parts were cut longitudinally into two equal segments. The specimens were grouped and treated: with HO2, NaOCl, and with combination of Na-EDTA+ HO2 and Na-EDTA+NaOCl where the irrigation with 2 Na-EDTA lasted 1 or 5 minutes. Control segments were enlarged and irrigated with distillate water to obtain the smear layer. The results obtained showed that irrigation with HOand NaOCl did 22 not remove the smear layer, one-minute application of 15% Na-EDTA followed by 4% NaOCl showed that the smear layer was completely removed. Using of 3% HOafter Na-EDTA over the same period of time obtained 22 less "clear" surfaces. Five-minute application of Na-EDTA caused excessive peritubular and intertubular dentinal erosion. It is concluded that for effective removal of smear layer with Na- EDTA, this procedure should not last longer than 1 minute and should be followed by NaOCl.

Gaši? Jovanka

2003-01-01

269

High-resolution CT for identify patients with smear-positive, active pulmonary tuberculosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: This study evaluates the use of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) to differentiate smear-positive, active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) from other pulmonary infections in the emergency room (ER) setting. Methods: One hundred and eighty-three patients diagnosed with pulmonary infections in an ER were divided into an acid fast bacillus (AFB) smear-positive, active PTB group (G1 = 84) and a non-AFB smear-positive, pulmonary infection group (G2 = 99). HRCT images from a 64-Multidetector CT were analyzed, retrospectively, for the morphology, number, and segmental distribution of pulmonary lesions. Results: Utilizing multivariate analysis, five variables were found to be independent risk factors predictive of G1: (1) consolidation involving the apex segment of right upper lobe, posterior segment of the right upper lobe, or apico-posterior segment of the left upper lobe; (2) consolidation involving the superior segment of the right or left lower lobe; (3) presence of a cavitary lesion; (4) presence of clusters of nodules; (5) absence of centrilobular nodules. A G1 prediction score was generated based on these 5 criteria to help differentiate G1 from G2. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.96 ± 0.012 in our prediction model. With an ideal cut-off point score of 3, the specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) are 90.9%, 96.4%, 90.0% and 96.8%, respectively. Conclusion: The use of this AFB smear-positive, active PTB prediction model based on 5 key HRCT findings may help ER physicians determine whether or not isolation is required while awaiting serial sputum smear results in high risk patients.

2012-01-01

270

Van Mother-Child Health and Family Planning Center Pap Smear Clinics of Information, Evaluation of Applicants  

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Full Text Available Objective: In this study of women admitted to our center with information on pap smear test, to evaluate the attitudes and behavior. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study of Van Mother-Child Health and Family Planning Center on a voluntary basis, women aged 15-49 were admitted to the control. The education level of participants, age at first marriage, before the presence of vaginal infection, the story, and motivations pap smear level of information availability, and a family history of cancer, administered a questionnaire asking the state to have a regular income. Results: The study included 362 women with age and hear the pap smear test was significantly increased (p = 0.01. Working women and pap smear level of knowledge (p = 0.04 and pap smears than women not working for International rates significantly higher (p = 0.02. Treatment of vaginal infection at least once before to get there was a significant relationship between the pap smear motivations (p>0.05. Family history of gynecologic cancer or non-gynecologic cancer smears have significantly increased the level of motivations (p = 0.0001. Pap smear information, regular the economic income of those levels, significantly higher than those without regular income (p = 0.0001. Conclusion: We serve the region, with low socio-economic characteristics that are considered, gynecological examination by health workers or women from the home visits, pap smear test for what purpose and how often you get the work done and the importance of explaining and giving more space to this issue suggest that the written and visual media. Keywords: Pap smears, health care, education [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(5.000: 527-532

Sebahat Gucuk

2011-10-01

271

Comparación de las coloraciones de Giemsa y Grocott en el diagnóstico de la histoplasmosis / Comparison of Giemsa and Grocott stains in the diagnosis of histoplasmosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El diagnóstico de histoplasmosis se realiza tradicionalmente mediante el reconocimiento de típicas levaduras intracelulares de Histoplasma capsulatum en preparaciones microscópicas teñidas con Giemsa. Se comparó la eficacia de una modificación rápida de la técnica de Grocott (MRG) y la tradicional d [...] e Giemsa para el diagnóstico de la histoplasmosis, a partir de la aplicación de ambas a 10 secreciones respiratorias, 8 escarificaciones de lesiones cutáneas y una biopsia ganglionar, pertenecientes todas a pacientes con sospecha clínica de esta micosis. En 15 de las 19 muestras no se encontraron diferencias significativas en la capacidad y rapidez para arribar al diagnóstico, mientras que en las 4 restantes, fueron reconocidas con la MRG estructuras que pasaron desapercibidas con la coloración de Giemsa. La modificación rápida permitió un reconocimiento más rápido del H. capsulatum en materiales donde este hongo se observó en escaso número y permitió además identificar con seguridad otros patógenos fúngicos diferentes de H. capsulatum, como Pneumocystis jiroveci, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis y Cryptococcus neoformans, difíciles de observar con la coloración de Giemsa. Se propone la técnica de Grocott o su modificación rápida para el diagnóstico de la histoplasmosis, especialmente cuando el empleo de la coloración de Giemsa da lugar a resultados negativos o dudosos. Abstract in english The diagnosis of histoplasmosis is traditionally achieved by recognizing the typical intracellular yeasts of Histoplasma capsulatum, in smears stained with Giemsa stain. The usefulness of a rapid modification of Grocott and of traditional Giemsa stains for the diagnosis of histoplasmosis was compare [...] d applying both techniques in 10 respiratory secretions, 8 cutaneous lesions scrapings and 1 adenomegaly biopsy, all of them belonging to patients with clinically suspected histoplasmosis. In 15 out of the 19 evaluated samples, no significant differences were found in the ability or speed to reach the diagnosis with the applied techniques; while in the remaining 4 samples, structures that had not been observed with Giemsa stain were recognized with the rapid modification. The modification enabled quicker recognition of H. capsulatum than Giemsa stain in those clinical samples where the number of these fungal pathogens was scant. Additionally, the rapid modification also enabled the recognition of fungal pathogens other than H. capsulatum, as Pneumocystis jiroveci, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Cryptococcus neoformans, difficult to observe with the Giemsa stain. Use of Grocott technique or rapid modification stain is proposed for the diagnosis of histoplasmosis, when the result obtained with the Giemsa stain is doubtful or negative.

Bava, Amadeo Javier; Zuiani, María Fernanda.

272

Pattern of abnormal Pap smears in developing countries : A report from a large referral hospital in Saudi Arabia using the revised 2001 Bethesda System  

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Background: Reports describing the frequency and pattern of abnormal Pap smears in developing countries using the revised Bethesda system for Pap smear are few. We studied the pattern of cervical intraepithelial le--sions and carcinoma detected in Pap smears of Saudi females in the western region of Saudi Arabia using the revised system. Methods: All cervical Pap smears reported in the Department of Pathology of King Abdulaziz Medical City, Jeddah, from 1 January 1998 to 31 A...

Abdullah Layla

2007-01-01

273

Comparative study of shape, intensity and texture features and support vector machine for white blood cell classification  

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The complete blood count (CBC) is widely used test for counting and categorizing various peripheral particles in the blood. The main goal of the paper is to count and classify white blood cells (leukocytes) in microscopic images into five major categories using features such as shape, intensity and texture features. The first critical step of counting and classification procedure involves segmentation of individual cells in cytological images of thin blood smears. The quality of segmentation ...

Mehdi Habibzadeh; Adam Krzy?ak; Thomas Fevens

2013-01-01

274

Radiographic evaluation of destructive periodontal disease in blue mink in relation to age and blood morphology  

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In this study, blood samples and jaws were collected from 2 genotypes of blue mink (n = 289) in order to examine phenotypic expression of specific characteristics of Chediak-Higashi Syndrome (C-HS). Blood samples were subjected to differential counts to assess the proportion of abnormal polymorphonuclear leukocytes characteristic for CH-S (C-HS-leukocytes). Abnormal leukocytes with characteristic signs of C-HS were found in blood smears from all mink included in this study. Four teeth in one ...

Hammer, Anne Sofie; Andersen, Thomas Holmen; Eriksen, Thomas; Kortegaard, Hanne E.; Dietz, Hans Henrik; Chrie?l, Mariann

2005-01-01

275

Measuring the accuracy of a point system to diagnose tuberculosis in children with a negative smear or with no smear or culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Brazil, a scoring system was adopted to diagnose tuberculosis in childhood. This study determined the accuracy in diagnosing tuberculosis in children with either a negative smear or with no smear or culture conducted in a reference center in João Pessoa Paraíba - Brazil. It is a phase III validation study, using a cross-section design. The study population consisted of 167 patients attending the outpatient clinics suspected of having tuberculosis. The reference standard for the diagnosis of tuberculosis was a blind and independent review of the medical records, radiology and tuberculin test by two experts. Of the 167 patients, 60 were considered to have tuberculosis (by the reference standard diagnostics). The results for the scoring system with the cut-off of 30 points were: sensitivity 78.57% (95%-CI: 65.56-88.41%), specificity 69.16% (95%-CI: 59.50-77.73%), positive predictive value (PPV): 57.14% (95%-CI: 45.35-68.37%), negative predictive value (NPV): 86.05% (95%-CI: 76.89-92.58%), likelihood ratio (+): 2,55, pre-test probability: 34.36%, and post-test probability (+): 57.14%. This supports the current recommendation for the use of this scoring system in Brazil and similar sites with the cut-off of 30 points. However, as the discriminatory power of the point scoring system may vary across settings, it would be advisable to replicate this phase III study in different settings. PMID:24534333

Cartaxo, Constantino Giovani Braga; Rodrigues, Laura C; Braga, Carolina Pinheiro; Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar

2014-03-01

276

Comparison of a radiometric method (BACTEC) and conventional culture media for recovery of mycobacteria from smear-negative specimens.  

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The BACTEC system and three conventional media (Middlebrook 7H10, selective Middlebrook 7H11 [S7H11], and Lowenstein-Jensen [LJ] were compared for their mean recovery times and recovery rates of mycobacteria from acid-fast, smear-negative clinical specimens. Of the 71 smear-negative, culture-positive specimens recovered from 2,165 submitted smear-negative cultures, the BACTEC system detected 71.8%, compared with 88.7% for the conventional three-medium system. When media were individually comp...

Morgan, M. A.; Horstmeier, C. D.; Deyoung, D. R.; Roberts, G. D.

1983-01-01

277

Utility of Universal Sample Processing Methodology, Combining Smear Microscopy, Culture, and PCR, for Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis  

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The universal sample processing (USP) multipurpose methodology was developed for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) and other mycobacterial diseases by using smear microscopy, culture, and PCR (S. Chakravorty and J. S. Tyagi, J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:2697-2702, 2005). Its performance was evaluated in a blinded study of 571 sputa and compared with that of the direct and N-acetyl l-cysteine (NALC)-NaOH methods of smear microscopy and culture. With culture used as the gold standard, USP smear micr...

Chakravorty, Soumitesh; Dudeja, Mridu; Hanif, M.; Tyagi, Jaya Sivaswami

2005-01-01

278

Yield of Smear Microscopy and Radiological Findings of Male and Female Patients with Tuberculosis in Abuja, Nigeria  

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Objective. To describe the yield of smear-microscopy and radiological findings by male and female patients with symptoms of tuberculosis in Abuja, Nigeria. Methods. Patients ?15 years old with cough for >3 weeks submitted 3 sputum samples for smear microscopy. One specimen was cultured using MGIT-960. All patients had lung X-rays and screened for HIV. Results. were more likely to be smear-positive than females (262/774 [34%] and 137/547 [25%], P < .01), but similar proportions of males and ...

Lawson, Lovett; Yassin, Mohammed A.; Onuoha, Alex N.; Ramsay, Andrew; Anderson Cuevas, Rachel R. M.; Theobald, Sally; Davies, Peter D. O.; Cuevas, Luis E.

2010-01-01

279

Comparison of coronal leakage after smear layer removal with EDTA or Er:YAG laser  

Science.gov (United States)

This study determine, in vitro, the coronal leakage of root canals evaluating the effect of smear layer removal by either EDTA or laser. Two sealers were also compared. Sixty- four canines were instrumented with the step-back technique and irrigated with 10 ml of 1% sodium hypochlorite. In Group 1, 10 teeth were sealed with Sealer 26 and 10 teeth were sealed with Grossman cement with no attempt of smear layer removal. Group 2 received a final irrigation of 15 ml of 15% ETA, and was sealed as in group 1. Group 3 received Er:YAG laser application (2940 nm, 140 mJ, 15 Hz and 42 J, 300 pulses, 500milli-sec pulse duration), and sealed as in group 1. Root canals sealed with Sealer 26 has significantly less coronal leakage than Grossman cement (p0.01).

Pecora, Jesus D.; Mamere de Almeida, Yasmine; Marchesan, Melissa A.; Zanin, Fatima A.; Brugnera, Aldo

2002-06-01

280

Aspergillus in a cervico-vaginal smear of an adult postmenopausal female: An unusual case  

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Full Text Available There are several case reports documenting opportunistic fungal infection in the female genital tract, with Aspergillus spp being a rarely reported causative organism. We hereby report a case of Aspergillus infection in a 48 year-old, postmenopausal female with carcinoma of the cervix. She presented with features of pelvic inflammatory disease, and an initial routine cervico-vaginal smear revealed severe inflammation along with fungal bodies. The features were consistent with the presence of Aspergillus spp, while the background epithelial cells were negative for intraepithelial malignancy. She was offered therapy for pelvic inflammatory disease. A repeat Papanicolaou smear after two weeks was negative for intraepithelial organisms, but showed the evidence of a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, with biopsy confirming squamous cell carcinoma.

Deb Prabal

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Bandwidth smearing in optical interferometry: Analytic model of the transition to the double fringe packet  

CERN Multimedia

Bandwidth smearing is a chromatic aberration due to the finite frequency bandwidth. In long-baseline optical interferometry terms, it is when the angular extension of the source is greater than the coherence length of the interferogram. As a consequence, separated parts of the source will contribute to fringe packets that are not fully overlapping; it is a transition from the classical interferometric regime to a double or multiple fringe packet. While studied in radio interferometry, there has been little work on the matter in the optical, where observables are measured and derived in a different manner, and are more strongly impacted by the turbulent atmosphere. We provide here the formalism and a set of usable equations to model and correct for the impact of smearing on the fringe contrast and phase, with the case of multiple stellar systems in mind. The atmosphere is briefly modeled and discussed.

Lachaume, Régis

2012-01-01

282

Cervix Cancer Diagnosis from Pap Smear Images Using Structure Based Segmentation and Shape Analysis  

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Full Text Available his work presents an approach for analysis of P AP s mear images of cervical region based on cell nuclei distribution and shape and size analysis. PAP smear test is an efficient and easy procedure to detect any abnor mality in cervical cells. But human observation is not always satisfying and it is a tedious task to manually analyze a large number of PAP smear images. The purpose of this study is to automate the screening process and to provide specific statistical data which will be helpful for detecting abnormalities in cervical region. The proposed approach is implemented in MATLAB®, a high level, interactive environment for data visualization/analysis/computation. The MATLAB® Image Processing Toolbox was used to segment the digital images and calculate various statistical data. By comparing cell nuclei distribution and taking into account the shape and size features MATLAB® can be programmed to distinguish normal cervical cell to questionable ones.

Lipi B. Mahanta

2012-02-01

283

The crypto-Hermitian smeared-coordinate representation of wave functions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In discrete-coordinate quantum models the kinematical observable of position need not necessarily be chosen local (i.e., diagonal). Its smearing is selected in the nearest-neighbor form of a real asymmetric (i.e., crypto-Hermitian) tridiagonal matrix Q{sup -hat}. Via Gauss-Hermite illustrative example we show how such an option restricts the class of admissible dynamical observables (sampled here just by the Hamiltonian). -- Highlights: ? The new concept of hiddenly Hermitian grid-point-adapted observables proposed. ? A new constructive smeared-coordinate approach to wave functions obtained. ? A tractability of new, controllably non-local models achieved. ? An explicit construction of metric-dependent inner-product spaces presented.

Znojil, Miloslav, E-mail: znojil@ujf.cas.cz [Nuclear Physics Institute ASCR, 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic)

2011-08-22

284

The crypto-Hermitian smeared-coordinate representation of wave functions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In discrete-coordinate quantum models the kinematical observable of position need not necessarily be chosen local (i.e., diagonal). Its smearing is selected in the nearest-neighbor form of a real asymmetric (i.e., crypto-Hermitian) tridiagonal matrix Q-hat. Via Gauss-Hermite illustrative example we show how such an option restricts the class of admissible dynamical observables (sampled here just by the Hamiltonian). -- Highlights: ? The new concept of hiddenly Hermitian grid-point-adapted observables proposed. ? A new constructive smeared-coordinate approach to wave functions obtained. ? A tractability of new, controllably non-local models achieved. ? An explicit construction of metric-dependent inner-product spaces presented.

2011-08-22

285

Pap-smear Classification Using Efficient Second Order Neural Network Training Algorithms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we make use of two highly efficient second order neural network training algorithms, namely the LMAM (Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum) and OLMAM (Optimized Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum), for the construction of an efficient pap-smear test classifier. The algorithms are methodologically similar, and are based on iterations of the form employed in the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method for non-linear least squares problems with the inclusion of an additional adaptive momentum term arising from the formulation of the training task as a constrained optimization problem. The classification results obtained from the application of the algorithms on a standard benchmark pap-smear data set reveal the power of the two methods to obtain excellent solutions in difficult classification problems whereas other standard computational intelligence techniques achieve inferior performances.

Ampazis, Nikolaos; Dounias, George

2004-01-01

286

C-Reactive Protein (CRP in Early Diagnosis of Neonatal Septicemia  

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Full Text Available Aim: Early diagnosis of sepsis in the neonate is often difficult because symptoms and signs are usually non-specific. A study was conducted to evaluate C-reactive protein (CRP as a screening tool for neonatal sepsis. Method: The prospective observational study was conducted at NICU, V. S. Hospital, Ahmedabad from January 2008 to June 2009. 75 neonates were included with the age group of first 28days (4week of life (infant age in study, all of which were suspected to have sepsis in clinical settings. All peripheral smear of neonate stained with Giemsa stain were reviewed .CRP performed by semi quantitative latex agglutination method. Positive cultures were the “gold standard” against which the performance of CRP , abnormal white blood cell counts (WBC & absolute neutrophil counts (ANC were compared. Results: Among 75 septic screens, 39 (52% patients had positive cultures. The sensitivity and specificity of CRP 0.6 mg/dL was 92.30% and 85.71% respectively. Abnormal platelet count had the lowest specificity(45% and sensitivity(23.07% among them. Conclusion: CRP assay using semi quantitative latex agglutination method is a valuable adjunct in screening for neonatal sepsis, complementing clinical decision-making. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(3.000: 276-278

Setal B Chauhan

2012-06-01

287

The morphology of ovine Trypanosoma melophagium (zoomastigophorea: kinetoplastida).  

Science.gov (United States)

Morphologic and biometric data on bloodstream stages of Trypanosoma melophagium are presented. An increasing parasitemia with 111 trypomastigote stages of T. melophagium were found in Giemsa-stained thin blood smears taken from a splenectomized, cortisone-treated sheep recently infested with Melophagus ovinus infected with T. melophagium . The arithmetic mean and standard deviation in micron of the distances between posterior end and kinetoplast were 14.7 and 2.9, from the kinetoplastic to the center of the nucleus 5.1 and 1.1, and from there to the anterior end 19.5 and 1.9. The free flagellum measured 6.0 microns +/- 1.6 microns. The median and the range of the central 70% of values (median +/- 35%) of the nuclear index were 1.1 and 0.9-1.2 and of the kinetoplastic index 3.8 and 3.3-4.9. The same data in microns for the maximal width were 3.1 and 2.1-4.6, and for the width at the level of the nucleus 2.9 and 2.2-4.6. The larger and smaller diameters of the nucleus measured 2.6 (2.2-3.7) micron and 1.7 (1.3-1.7) micron, respectively. The corresponding kinetoplast diameters were 1.1 (0.9-1.3) microns and 0.9 (0.6-0.9) micron, respectively. PMID:6737322

Büscher, G; Friedhoff, K T

1984-02-01

288

Enhanced detection of gametocytes by magnetic deposition microscopy predicts higher potential for Plasmodium falciparum transmission  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Aggregated haemozoin crystals within malaria-infected erythrocytes confer susceptibility of parasitized cells to a magnetic field. Here the utility of this method for diagnosis of human malaria is evaluated in a malaria-endemic region of Papua New Guinea (PNG. Methods and findings Individuals with Plasmodium falciparum malaria symptoms (n = 55 provided samples for conventional blood smear (CBS and magnetic deposition microscopy (MDM diagnosis. Standard Giemsa staining and light microscopy was performed to evaluate all preparations. Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia observed on MDM slides was consistently higher than parasitaemia observed by (CBS for ring (CBS = 2.6 vs. MDM = 3.4%; t-test P-value = 0.13, trophozoite (CBS = 0.5 vs. MDM = 1.6%; t-test P-value = 0.01, schizont (CBS = 0.003 vs. MDM = 0.1%; t-test P-value = 0.08 and gametocyte (CBS = 0.001 vs. MDM = 0.4%; t-test P-value = 0.0002 parasitaemias. Gametocyte prevalence determined by CBS compared to MDM increased from 7.3% to 45%, respectively. Conclusion MDM increased detection sensitivity of P. falciparum-infected, haemozoin-containing erythrocytes from infected humans while maintaining detection of ring-stage parasites. Gametocyte prevalence five-fold higher than observed by CBS suggests higher malaria transmission potential in PNG endemic sites compared to previous estimates.

Zborowski Maciej

2008-04-01

289

Iridovirus-like viruses in erythrocytes of lacertids from Portugal.  

Science.gov (United States)

Icosahedral nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV)-like viruses, which forminclusions in the erythrocyte cytoplasm of reptiles, were previously presented as candidates for a new genus of the Iridoviridae family. The present work describes the distribution of infected lizard hosts and ultrastructural characteristics of the viral inclusions of NCLDV-like viruses from Portugal and adjacent locations in Spain. Giemsa-stained blood smears of 235 Lacerta schreiberi from Portugal and Spain, 571 Lacerta monticola from the mountain Serra da Estrela (Portugal), 794 Podarcis hispanica from several localities in Portugal and Spain, and 25 Lacerta dugesii from Madeira Island, were studied. Infection in L. schreiberi was only found in mountain populations, up to 30% in Serra da Estrela and 9-11% elsewhere. It was absent in lizards from lowlands. Prevalence of infection among L. monticola in Serra da Estrela was 10%; infected lizards were found during March to July and October but not in August and September. Infection in P. hispanica was below 3.3%. Only one infected specimen of L. dugesii was identified by light microscopy. Ultrastructural examination of infected samples revealed that the inclusions are virus assembly sites of icosahedral cytoplasmic iridovirus-like virions. Virions from different host species have different ultrastructural features and probably represent different related viruses. PMID:23806208

de Matos, António P Alves; Caeiro, M Filomena; Vale, Filipa F; Crespo, Eduardo; Paperna, Ilan

2013-10-01

290

PARASITISMO DE LEUCOCITOS Y TROMBOCITOS DE Gallus gallus L. POR Plasmodium (Novyella juxtanucleare (APICOMPLEXA: PLASMODIIDAE  

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Full Text Available RESUMEN Se realizó una investigación del parasitismo de Plasmodium juxtanucleare en gallinas sin raza definida, provenientes de criaderos rústicos en el município de Seropédica, estado de Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Se realizaron frotis sanguineos periféricos, los cuales fueron coloreados con Giemsa diluído en tampon sorensen pH6,8. En el exámen hemoscópico se puede observar en aves con alto índice de parasitemia (>10% formas parasitarias de trofozoítas y esquizontes en el citoplasma de células de la linea leucocítica y trofozoítas en células de la linea trombocítica. Las observaciones en el presente estudio hacen inferir que la cepa de P. juxtanucleare que ocurre en Seropédica realiza esquizogonia fanerozóica. Este trabajo constituye el primer hallazgo de formas parasitárias de P. juxtanucleare en leucocitosPARASITISM OF LEUKOCYTES AND THROMBOCYTES OF Gallus gallus L. BY Plasmodium (Novyella juxtanucleare (APICOMPLEXA: PLASMODIIDAE A research about parasitism of the Plasmodium juxtanucleare in crossbred fowls from Seropédica municipality, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, were done. Blood smear were done, and stained by Giemsa stain diluted in sorensen buffer pH6.8. The hemoscopical exam of fowls with high parasitaemia (>10% showed trophozoite and meront forms in the cytoplasm of leukocytic cells; and trophozoite forms in the cytoplasm of the thrombocytic cells. These observation do conclude that P. juxtanucleare strain from Seropédica produce phanerozoic meronts. This report constitutes the first finding of P. juxtanucleare forms in the leukocytes.

CLEBER O SOARES

1999-01-01

291

First case of Plasmodium knowlesi infection in a Japanese traveller returning from Malaysia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the first case of Plasmodium knowlesi infection in a Japanese traveller returning from Malaysia. In September 2012, a previously healthy 35-year-old Japanese man presented to National Center for Global Health and Medicine in Tokyo with a two-day history of daily fever, mild headaches and mild arthralgia. Malaria parasites were found in the Giemsa-stained thin blood smear, which showed band forms similar to Plasmodium malariae. Although a nested PCR showed the amplification of the primer of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi, he was finally diagnosed with P. knowlesi mono-infection by DNA sequencing. He was treated with mefloquine, and recovered without any complications. DNA sequencing of the PCR products is indispensable to confirm P. knowlesi infection, however there is limited access to DNA sequencing procedures in endemic areas. The extent of P. knowlesi transmission in Asia has not been clearly defined. There is limited availability of diagnostic tests and routine surveillance system for reporting an accurate diagnosis in the Asian endemic regions. Thus, reporting accurately diagnosed cases of P. knowlesi infection in travellers would be important for assessing the true nature of this emerging human infection. PMID:23587117

Tanizaki, Ryutaro; Ujiie, Mugen; Kato, Yasuyuki; Iwagami, Moritoshi; Hashimoto, Aki; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Takeshita, Nozomi; Hayakawa, Kyoko; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Kano, Shigeyuki; Ohmagari, Norio

2013-01-01

292

In vivo stimulation of granulopoiesis by recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Osmotic pumps containing Escherichia coli-derived recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) were attached to indwelling jugular vein catheters and implanted subcutaneously into Golden Syrian hamsters. Within 3 days, peripheral granulocyte counts had increased > 10-fold with a concomitant 4-fold increase in total leukocytes. Microscopic examination of Wright-Giemsa-stained blood smears from rhG-CSF hamsters showed that only the neutrophil subpopulation of granulocytes had increased. After subcutaneous injection at 35S-labeled rhG-CSF doses of up to 10 ?g x kg-1 x day-1 only granulocyte counts were affected. However, at higher dose levels, a transient thrombocytopenia was noted. Erythrocyte and lymphocyte/monocyte counts remained unaffected by rhG-CSF over the entire dose range studied. Total leukocyte counts increased 3-fold within 12 hr after a single s.c. injection of rhG-CSF. This early effect was associated with an increase in the total number of colony-forming cells and the percent of active cycling cells in the marrow. A sustained elevation of peripheral leukocyte and marrow progenitor counts was observed following seven daily s.c. injections of rhG-CSF. The ability of rhG-CSF to increase the production and release of granulocytes from the marrow may underlie the beneficial effect it produced on the restoration of peripheral leukocyte counts in hamsters made leukopenic by treatment with 5-fluorouracil

1987-01-01

293

Enhanced detection of gametocytes by magnetic deposition microscopy predicts higher potential for Plasmodium falciparum transmission  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Aggregated haemozoin crystals within malaria-infected erythrocytes confer susceptibility of parasitized cells to a magnetic field. Here the utility of this method for diagnosis of human malaria is evaluated in a malaria-endemic region of Papua New Guinea (PNG). Methods and findings Individuals with Plasmodium falciparum malaria symptoms (n = 55) provided samples for conventional blood smear (CBS) and magnetic deposition microscopy (MDM) diagnosis. Standard Giemsa staining and light microscopy was performed to evaluate all preparations. Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia observed on MDM slides was consistently higher than parasitaemia observed by (CBS) for ring (CBS = 2.6 vs. MDM = 3.4%; t-test P-value = 0.13), trophozoite (CBS = 0.5 vs. MDM = 1.6%; t-test P-value = 0.01), schizont (CBS = 0.003 vs. MDM = 0.1%; t-test P-value = 0.08) and gametocyte (CBS = 0.001 vs. MDM = 0.4%; t-test P-value = 0.0002) parasitaemias. Gametocyte prevalence determined by CBS compared to MDM increased from 7.3% to 45%, respectively. Conclusion MDM increased detection sensitivity of P. falciparum-infected, haemozoin-containing erythrocytes from infected humans while maintaining detection of ring-stage parasites. Gametocyte prevalence five-fold higher than observed by CBS suggests higher malaria transmission potential in PNG endemic sites compared to previous estimates.

Karl, Stephan; David, Makindi; Moore, Lee; Grimberg, Brian T; Michon, Pascal; Mueller, Ivo; Zborowski, Maciej; Zimmerman, Peter A

2008-01-01

294

Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Leontopithecus rosalia at the Reserva Biológica de Poço das Antas, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Wild golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) -- endangered primates that are native to the Brazilian Atlantic coastal forest -- were surveyed for the presence of Trypanosoma cruzi with the use of Giemsa-stained blood smears, hemocultures and an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFAT). Positiv [...] e IFAT with titers ranging from 1:20 to 1:1280 were observed in 52% of the 118 wild tamarins examined and the parasite was isolated from 38 tamarins. No patent parasitemia was observed among the tamarins from which T. cruzi was isolated. Serum conversion and positive hemoculture was observed for three animals that had yielded negative results some months earlier, which indicates that T. cruzi is actively transmitted among tamarins. In contrast to observations with other sylvatic isolates, those from the tamarins were significantly more virulent and most of them produced mortality in experimentally infected Swiss mice. Some variation in the kDNA restriction profiles among the isolates was observed. Electrophoresis with GPI, G6PDH, IDH, MDH and ME enzymes showed a Z2 profile.

Lisboa, Cristiane V; Dietz, James; Baker, Andrew J; Russel, Nédia N; Jansen, Ana M.

295

An Investigation on the Ecology of Triatoma vitticeps (Stal, 1859 and its Possible Role in the Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, in the Locality of Triunfo, Santa Maria Madalena Municipal District, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

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Full Text Available From January 1989 to April 1995, 465 specimens of Triatoma vitticeps were collected in the locality of Triunfo, 2nd District of Santa Maria Madalena municipal district, State of Rio de Janeiro. The bugs were found indoors by local residents with predominance of adults. The flight activity was high in hot months when the incidence in the domicile also increased. Two hundred and two bugs (111 alive and 91 dead were examined for Trypanosoma cruzi infection. This was detected in 31 of the dead bugs (34% and 88 (79% of the live bugs examined. With a view to investigate the possible vertebrate hosts of the T. cruzi isolates, the blood of 122 mammals was examined through Giemsa-stained smears, hemocultures and xenodiagnosis. T. cruzi was detected in three specimens of Didelphis marsupialis and T. (M. theileri was detected in one specimen of Bos taurus. The parasites were isolated from triatomine feces, xenoculture and hemoculture. No evidence of human infection was detected in 58 inhabitants examined, as evaluated by indirect imunofluorescence technique using T. cruzi epimastigotes as antigens. These results show that T. vitticeps is still a sylvatic species although nymphs have been found inside the domicile. Thus, an epidemiological vigilance is necessary to know the behaviour of this species following the continuous modifications promoted by the presence of man.

Teresa Cristina M Gonçalves

1998-11-01

296

Prevalence of parasitic infections in cattle of Ludhiana district, Punjab.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 862 cattle were sampled for both haematological (703) and coprological (159) investigations at the Large Animal Clinics, GADVASU, Ludhiana, Punjab, India. Examination of Giemsa-stained peripheral blood smears exhibited that 22.9 % (161/703) of cattle were infected with haematozoa comprising Theileria annulata (14.65 %), Trypanosoma evansi (0.28 %), Babesia bigemina (1.56 %) and Anaplasma marginale (8.53 %) while mixed infection appeared in 2.13 % (15/703) animals. The prevalence of total haemoparasites and A. marginale infections were significantly higher (p evansi and A. marginale infections were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in males. Coprological examination revealed that the overall prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) parasitic infection was 16.98 % (27/159). Among the revealed parasites, amphistomes, Fasciola spp., Eimeria spp., Balantidium coli, strongyles and Trichuris spp. were detected from 3.77, 1.88, 3.77, 2.52, 10.69 and 1.26 % of examined animals. Except coccidiosis, there was no significant variation of GI parasitic infections in relation to sex as Eimeria spp. were found higher (p < 0.01) in males. The prevalence of Trichuris spp. was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in younger animals <6 months of age. The present work emphasized that strongyles and T. annulata were the most prevalent GI and haemoparasites, respectively. PMID:24082538

Singh, N K; Singh, Harkirat; Jyoti; Haque, M; Rath, S S

2012-10-01

297

Epidemiological studies (parasitological, serological and molecular techniques of Trypanosoma evansi infection in camels (Camelus dromedarius in Egypt  

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Full Text Available Trypanosomosis in camel caused by Trypanosoma evansi is still a serious problem in camel husbandry causes considerable economic losses in many camel-rearing regions of the world. In the present study 193 camels clinically suspected for surra were examined parasitologically by Giemsa stained blood smear (GSBS and haematocrit centrifugation technique, serologically for detection of anti-trypanosomal antibodies by card agglutination test for trypanosomes (CATT, and for DNA amplification, by Polymerase chain reaction (PCR, with primers yielding a 177 bp PCR product for the specific detection of Trypanozoan parasites. Out of 193, eight camels were positive by GSBS (4.1% while 12 were positive with haematocrit centrifugation technique (6.2%. Detection of anti-trypanosomal antibodies with CATT yielded 84 positive samples (43.5%. Using PCR 110 out of 193 were positive (56.9 %. PCR technique is accurate, more sensitive and specific method for diagnosis of trypanosome infected camels than parasitological techniques; it overcomes the problem of specificity and can detect low parasitemic camels in chronic cases. The PCR proved to be the best test used for detection of camel trypanosomosis in Egypt. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(11.000: 325-328

Ahmed Abdel-Rady

298

Does Bleach Processing Increase the Accuracy of Sputum Smear Microscopy for Diagnosing Pulmonary Tuberculosis??  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bleach digestion of sputum prior to smear preparation has been reported to increase the yield of microscopy for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis, even in high-HIV-prevalence settings. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of bleach microscopy, we updated a systematic review published in 2006 and applied the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation framework to rate the overall quality of the evidence. We searched multiple databases (as of January 2009) for primary st...

Cattamanchi, A.; Davis, J. L.; Pai, M.; Huang, L.; Hopewell, P. C.; Steingart, K. R.

2010-01-01

299

The Costs of an Outreach Intervention for Low-Income Women With Abnormal Pap Smears  

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Full Text Available IntroductionFollow-up among women who have had an abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap smear is often poor in public hospitals that serve women at increased risk for cervical cancer. This randomized controlled trial evaluated and compared the total cost and cost per follow-up of a tailored outreach intervention plus usual care with the total cost and cost per follow-up of usual care alone.MethodsWomen with an abnormal Pap smear (n = 348 receiving care at Alameda County Medical Center (Alameda County, California were randomized to intervention or usual care. The intervention used trained community health advisors to complement the clinic’s protocol for usual care. We assessed the costs of the intervention and the cost per follow-up within 6 months of the abnormal Pap smear test result.ResultsThe intervention increased the rate of 6-month follow-up by 29 percentage points, and the incremental cost per follow-up was $959 (2005 dollars. The cost per follow-up varied by the severity of the abnormality. The cost per follow-up for the most severe abnormality (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion was $681, while the cost per follow-up for less severe abnormalities was higher.ConclusionIn a health care system in which many women fail to get follow-up care for an abnormal Pap smear, outreach workers were more effective than usual care (mail or telephone reminders at increasing follow-up rates. The results suggest that outreach workers should manage their effort based on the degree of abnormality; most effort should be placed on women with the most severe abnormality (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.

Todd H. Wagner, PhD

2007-01-01

300

Non-perturbative improvement of nHYP smeared Wilson fermions  

CERN Multimedia

Using Schroedinger functional techniques, we determine the coefficient of the clover term necessary for non-perturbative O(a) improvement of hypercubic smeared Wilson fermions on a quenched plaquette action background. Unlike for unsmeared Wilson fermions, the resulting clover coefficients are close to the tree-level value even at coarse lattice spacings, indicating the absence of large cutoff effects. A number of exploratory tests are also performed with the improved action.

Hoffmann, R; Schäfer, S

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Incidence of Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida sp and human papilloma virus in cytological smears  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

CONTEXT: In spite of the wide-ranging literature on the microbiology of normal and abnormal flora of the vagina, there are few studies on the relationship between human papilloma virus (HPV) and other vaginal microorganisms. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the frequency of infection by human papilloma virus (HPV) and other agents like Candida sp., Gardnerella vaginalis and Trichomonas vaginalis in cytological smears. DESIGN STUDY: Retrospective study SETTING: A public tertiary referral center. SAMPLE: ...

Eddie Fernando Candido Murta; Maria Azniv Hazarabedian de Souza; Eduardo Araújo Júnior; Sheila Jorge Adad

2000-01-01

302

Interferon release does not add discriminatory value to smear-negative HIV-tuberculosis algorithms  

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Clinical algorithms for evaluating HIV-infected individuals for tuberculosis (TB) prior to isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) perform poorly, and interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) have moderate accuracy for active TB. It is unclear whether, when used as adjunct tests, IGRAs add any clinical discriminatory value for active TB diagnosis in the pre-IPT assessment. 779 sputum smear-negative HIV-infected persons, established on or about to commence combined antiretroviral therapy (ART), were...

Rangaka, M. X.; Gideon, H. P.; Wilkinson, K. A.; Pai, M.; Mwansa-kambafwile, J.; Maartens, G.; Glynn, J. R.; Boulle, A.; Fielding, K.; Goliath, R.; Titus, R.; Mathee, S.; Wilkinson, R. J.

2012-01-01

303

Assessing the Efficacy of Citrus Aurantifolia Extract on Smear Layer Removal with Scanning Electron Microscope  

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Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of citrus aurantifolia (CA) extract on smear layer removal in different parts of root canals. Materials and Methods: Thirty-nine single-rooted human teeth were randomly divided into three experimental (n=12) and one control (n=3) groups. Teeth were instrumented using MTwo rotary instruments. Root canals were irrigated with NaOCl during instrumentation. The canals in each group were irrigated with one of the following: comple...

Behnam Bolhari; Mohammad Reza Sharifian; Mohsen Aminsobhani; Hamid Reza Monsef Esfehani; Pardis Tavakolian

2012-01-01

304

Calorons and monopoles from smeared SU(2) lattice fields at non-zero temperature  

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In equilibrium, at finite temperature below and above the deconfining phase transition, we have generated lattice SU(2) gauge fields and have exposed them to smearing in order to investigate the emerging clusters of topological charge. Analysing in addition the monopole clusters according to the maximally Abelian gauge, we have been able to characterize part of the topological clusters to correspond either to non-static calorons or static dyons in the context of Kraan-van Ba...

Ilgenfritz, E. -m; Martemyanov, B. V.; Mu?ller-preussker, M.; Veselov, A. I.

2006-01-01

305

Smear preparation of intracranial lesions: a retrospective study of 306 cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cytohistological correlation with determination of accuracy rate of smear preparation result was done in a retrospective study of 306 cases of intracranial tumors. Cytomorphology of few new entities of CNS tumors are described. The cytological features and WHO grading of the tumors were described on smear preparation. The cases with discrepancy in cytological and histological diagnosis were reviewed again and a final possible diagnosis on smear preparation which should have been given is discussed. The clinical details like the age, sex, and site of the tumors were analyzed. The age range of the patients was from 3 years to 63 years with male:female ratio of 1.5:1. Of the total 306 cases, a cytohistological correlation was seen in 93% cases. Twenty-two (7.3%) cases showed discrepancy between the crush preparation diagnosis and final histopathological diagnosis. Majority of the tumors were located in the cerebral hemisphere (56%) and the most frequently diagnosed tumor was astrocytoma, in particular, pilocytic astrocytoma (18.5%) followed by meningioma (11.9%), medulloblastoma (7.3%), anaplastic oligodendroglioma (5%), ependymoma (4.3%), pituitary adenoma (3.3%), schwannoma (3.3%), etc. A few rarer tumors, in central nervous system like differentiating neuroblastoma, pineocytoma, atypical choroid plexus papilloma, piloxmyxoid astrocytoma, rosette forming glioneuronal tumor, etc. are also described, Smear/crush preparation is a very effective, simple, rapid and reliable technique for the diagnosis and WHO grading of central nervous system tumors. Diagnostic accuracy of cytology with final histopathological report is established with accuracy rate of 93%. PMID:21761576

Ghosal, Nandita; Hegde, A S; Murthy, Ganesh; Furtado, Sunil V

2011-08-01

306

Performance of variations of carbolfuchsin staining of sputum smears for AFB under field conditions  

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SETTING: A field project in Bangladesh. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of commonly used carbolfuchsin staining variations. DESIGN: Routine hot Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) 1% basic fuchsin staining for 15 min in 75 field clinics. Blind reading of duplicate smears stained by ZN 1% vs. 0.3% basic fuchsin applied for 5 min, or by ZN 1% 5 min vs. Kinyoun cold staining. Rechecking of discordant series. RESULTS: For comparable numbers of false positives, sensitivity was significantly lower with Kiny...

Deun, A.; Salim, A. H.; Aung, K. J. M.; Hossain, M. A.; Chambugonj, N.; Hye, M. A.; Kawria, A.; Declercq, E.

2005-01-01

307

Recognition of Pneumocystis carinii by gram stain in impression smears of lung tissue.  

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In 12 of 20 (60%) biopsy-proven cases of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, the diagnosis was first suggested by examination of routine Gram stains of impression smears made from infected lung tissue and later confirmed by methenamine-silver staining. The cysts appeared as 5- to 7-microns unstained spheres, each containing six to eight intracystic gram-negative bodies (sporozoites). Although the Gram stain does not appear to be as sensitive as more traditional staining techniques for the detecti...

Felegie, T. P.; Pasculle, A. W.; Dekker, A.

1984-01-01

308

Characteristics of inflammatory cells in urethral smears from men with non-gonococcal urethritis.  

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Differential cell counts in inflammatory exudates were undertaken in urethral smears from men with non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) for the first time, recurrent NGU (presumably reinfection) after a new sexual contact, or persistent NGU (in patients with no recent history of sexual exposure). Patients experiencing first episodes of NGU had significantly higher macrophage counts, both in relative and absolute terms, than the other two groups, regardless of the presence or absence of Chlamydia t...

Shahmanesh, M.

1989-01-01

309

Validation of candidate smear microscope quality indicators, extracted from tuberculosis laboratory registers  

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SETTING: Kinshasa Province, Democratic Republic of Congo. OBJECTIVE: To identify and validate register-based indicators of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) microscopy quality. DESIGN: Selection of laboratories based on reliability and variation in routine smear rechecking results. Calculation of relative sensitivity (RS) compared to recheckers and its correlation coefficient (R) with candidate indicators based on a fully probabilistic analysis incorporating vague prior information using WinBUGS. RESUL...

Deun, A.; Zwahlen, M.; Bola, V.; Lebeke, R.; Bahati, E.; Lubamba, P.; Rieder, H. L.

2007-01-01

310

Cryptococcus neoformans: pitfalls in diagnosis through evaluation of gram-stained smears of purulent exudates.  

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The recognition of Cryptococcus neoformans in Gram-stained smears of purulent exudates may be hampered by the presence of the large gelatinous capsule which apparently prevents definitive staining of the yeast-like cells. In such stained preparations, C. neoformans may appear either as round cells with gram-positive granular inclusions impressed upon a pale lavender cytoplasmic background or as gram-negative lipoid bodies.

Bottone, E. J.

1980-01-01

311

Monte-Carlo simulations of the smeared phase transition in a contact process with extended defects  

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We study the nonequilibrium phase transition in a contact process with extended quenched defects by means of Monte-Carlo simulations. We find that the spatial disorder correlations dramatically increase the effects of the impurities. As a result, the sharp phase transition is completely destroyed by smearing. This is caused by effects similar to but stronger than the usual Griffiths phenomena, viz., rare strongly coupled spatial regions can undergo the phase transition indep...

Dickison, Mark; Vojta, Thomas

2004-01-01

312

The mildly abnormal cervical smear: patient anxiety and choice of management.  

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Argument continues over the best management of women with a first mildly dyskaryotic cervical smear: should they be referred for prompt colposcopy, or should they be kept under cytological review, with recourse to colposcopy if the abnormality persists? One consideration is the amount of anxiety generated. We measured anxiety, retrospectively, in two groups of women who had been managed by one or other method. Colposcopy caused more anxiety than cytological surveillance. When told that their ...

Jones, M. H.; Singer, A.; Jenkins, D.

1996-01-01

313

Evaluation of autofocus functions of conventional sputum smear microscopy for tuberculosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents a systematic analysis of focus functions in conventional sputum smear microscopy for tuberculosis. This is the first step in the development of automatic microscopy. Nine autofocus functions are analyzed in a set of 1200 images with varying degrees of content density. These functions were evaluated using quantitative procedures. The main accomplishment of this work was to show that an autofocus function based on variance measures produced the best results for tuberculosis images. PMID:21095730

Kimura Junior, Almir; Costa, Marly G F; Costa Filho, Cicero F F; Fujimoto, Luciana B M; Salem, Julia

2010-01-01

314

Nonlinear Analysis of Concrete Structural Components Using Co-axial Rotating Smeared Crack Model  

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Simulation of concrete behavior in structural components and estimation of real crack profile under static and dynamic loads is one of the most interesting fields in structural engineering. In the present study, a co-axial rotating smeared crack model is proposed for mass concrete in 3D space. The advantages of this model are using variable shear transfer coefficient which is updated in each load step; utilizing an advanced failure criterion for concrete and ability of modeling concrete crack...

Mohammad Amin Hariri Ardebili; Kolbadi, S. Mahdi S.; Masoud Heshmati; Hasan Mirzabozorg

2012-01-01

315

Clinical management of patients with invasive cervical cancer following a negative Pap smear.  

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Among 535 patients with invasive cervical carcinoma seen between January 1975 and June 1986, 26 were found to have developed the disease within six months (65 percent), 35 within 12 months (88 percent), 37 within 13 months (93 percent), and three developed the disease within 17 months after a negative Pap smear. Eighty-eight percent of these 40 patients were under age 40 at diagnosis. Rapidly progressive cancers are highly resistant to radiation therapy. Seven stage IB patients treated only w...

Schwartz, P. E.; Merino, M. J.; Mccrea Curnen, M. G.

1988-01-01

316

PROFILE OF CERVICAL SMEAR CYTOLOGY IN WOMEN ATTENDING HEALTH CENTER IN RURAL AREA OF WESTERN MAHARASHTRA  

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Background: Cervical cancer caused by infection with a sexually transmitted agent human papillomavirus (HPV), can be readily prevented by identifying and treating women with HPV-induced precancerous lesions of the cervix.

Objective: To study the profile of cervical smear cytology in rural women in western Maharashtra.

Methods: The study was designed to look at th...

Deshpande, Jayant D.; Phalke, Deepak B.; Phalke, Vaishali D.

2012-01-01

317

The characteristics of false negative cervical smears--implications for the UK cervical cancer screening programme.  

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OBJECTIVE: To accurately determine whether there are any features of an abnormal cervical smear that predispose to the production of a false negative report, in order to gain insight into why false negative reports are issued, and to establish whether there are steps that can be taken to reduce them. DESIGN: A quantitative retrospective analysis using the AxioHOME microscope of the number, size, and spatial distribution of abnormal cells in a set of 50 slides comprising a mixture of false neg...

Baker, R. W.; O Sullivan, J. P.; Hanley, J.; Coleman, D. V.

1999-01-01

318

Antibodies against Mycobacterial Proteins as Biomarkers for HIV-Associated Smear-Negative Tuberculosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Serology data are limited for patients with sputum smear-negative HIV-associated active tuberculosis (TB). We evaluated the serum antibody responses against the mycobacterial proteins MPT51, MS, and echA1 and the 38-kDa protein via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in South African (S.A.) HIV-positive (HIV(+)) smear-negative TB patients (n = 56), U.S. HIV(+) controls with a positive tuberculin skin test (TST(+); n = 21), and S.A. HIV-negative (HIV(-)) (n = 18) and HIV(+) (n = 24) controls. TB patients had positive antibody reactivity against MPT51 (73%), echA1 (59%), MS (36%), and the 38-kDa protein (11%). Little reactivity against MPT51 and echA1 was observed in control groups at low risk for TB, i.e., S.A. HIV(-) (0% and 6%, respectively), and at moderate risk for TB development, i.e., U.S. HIV(+) TST(+) controls (14% and 10%, respectively). By contrast, more reactivity was detected in the S.A. HIV(+) control group at higher risk for TB (25% and 45%, respectively). Our data hold promise that antibody detection against MPT51 and echA1 might have adjunctive value in the detection of HIV(+) smear-negative TB and might reflect increasing Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection activity in asymptomatic HIV(+) individuals. PMID:24671553

Siev, Michael; Wilson, Douglas; Kainth, Supreet; Kasprowicz, Victoria O; Feintuch, Catherine M; Jenny-Avital, Elizabeth R; Achkar, Jacqueline M

2014-06-01

319

The effect of pH of the sodium hypochlorite on smear layer removal  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Canal irrigation is an important segment of endodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of 0.5% NaOCl solutions of different pH values on smear layer removal. Material and Methods. Thirty-two freshly extracted single rooted teeth with gangrenous pulp were used in the study. The samples were divided into four groups of eight teeth in each. Four solutions of 0.5% NaOCl having pH values 5, 7, 9 and 12 respectively, were used during chemomechanical instrumentation with hand instruments and using step back technique. SEM analysis was done to assess the quality of smear layer removal in apical, middle and coronal part of root canal. Presence and quantity of smear layer and detritus was quantified using the scale from 1 to 5. Results. SEM analysis results showed similar results for 0.5% NaOCl solutions of different pH values in root canal cleaning with no statistically significant differences. Conclusion. The most effective cleaning root canal was achieved with 0.5% NaOCl solution of pH 5.

Karadži? Branislav

2010-01-01

320

Dentine hypersensitivity--effects of some proprietary mouthwashes on the dentine smear layer: a SEM study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposed dentine may be sensitive to stimuli depending on the patency of the dentinal tubules. Most abrasive elements tend to produce a smear layer which obturates the dentinal tubules. This layer is easily removed by a number of erosive agents, particularly dietary acids. Mouthwashes are increasingly used and largely investigated for possible benefits to dental health. Rarely do studies assess potential detrimental activity. The aim of the present study was to examine effects of mouthwashes on dentine. Smear layers artificially produced on dentine sections were exposed, for time periods ranging from 3 to 300 min, to mouthrinses alone, or with subsequent brushing for 2 min using water or a fluoride toothpaste. Assessments were made by scanning electron microscopy. Of the nine rinses tested, six produced no consistently observable changes compared to water treated controls at any time period with or without brushing. A hexetidine rinse and a fluoride/antiseptic rinse both exposed tubules after exposure times of 2 h and longer, an effect enhanced by post-treatment brushing. A phenolic antiseptic rinse consistently removed the smear layer from specimens, an effect enhanced by brushing such that after 10 min exposure and 2 min brushing many tubules were open at the surface. The results indicate that the use of some mouthrinses could predispose to excessive tooth substance loss and dentine hypersensitivity, particularly if used prior to toothbrushing. There is a need to determine whether the intermittent use of some mouthrinses produces cumulative effects on dentine. PMID:1939814

Addy, M; Loyn, T; Adams, D

1991-06-01

 
 
 
 
321

Development of automatic smear testing sampler for radioactive contamination of floor in nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The floor contamination with radioactive substances in the controlled area of nuclear power stations is strictly controlled, and it is tested by the smear method, wiping the contaminants on floors with filter papers or cloths and measuring the radioactive intensity to obtain contamination density. The works are very laborious, therefore the automatic smear sampler was developed. Simple operation, shortening of time required for wiping, constant and high efficiency of wiping, and easy numbering of samples were the aims in the development. The method of wiping, the mechanisms of wiping, cloth feeding and running, the surface pressure at the time of wiping, the number of times of wiping and required motor torque were studied. The outline of the developed sampler is explained. The performance of the sampler was compared with manual wiping. The efficiency of wiping with the sampler was 92%, assuming manual wiping as 100. Difference was not observed between careful manual wiping and the wiping with the sampler, therefore it was confirmed that this automatic floor smear sampler can be put in practical use. By conventional manual sampling, the maximum limit was about 400 samples/man-day, but when this sampler is used, about 1000 samples/sampler-day is possible. At present, this sampler is operated in Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station. (Kako, I.)

1980-01-01

322

The Usage of Sputum Smear Specimens in the Diagnosis of 117 Pulmonary Tuberculosis Cases  

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Full Text Available Sputum specimens are of essential importance in the diagnosis to pulmonary tuberculosis. In this study, we decided to investigate the usage of sputum smear in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in a Chest Diseases Hospital. The 117 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis are investigated retrospectively who were treated in the hospital in 2004 year. The cases were grouped according to the history of diseases and the definitions of cases (new / old. Seventy nine of our patients were male, 38 were female, and the mean age was 31 ±14 year. The diagnostic methods were sputum smear examination in 96 patients and clinical-radiological in 21 patients. Sputum smear positivity is %83.3 in new cases and %76.2 in retreatment patients. Invas?ve or non ?nvas?ve procedures were not applied for evaluation of tuberculosis in any patients who were not spontaneously producing sputum. Our results suggest that for patients who are unable to spontaneously produce sputum, invasive and noninvasive next level technics should be considered.

Güngör Ate?

2007-01-01

323

A scanning electron microscopy study of root surface smear layer removal after topical application of EDTA plus a detergent Remoção de smear layer de superfícies radiculares com aplicação tópica de EDTA com detergente. Análise em microscopia eletrônica de varredura  

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Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare root surface smear layer removal following topical application of EDTA and EDTA-T (Texapon. Extracted human teeth had their cementum removed and were mechanically scaled. A total of 220 root specimens were obtained and were randomly assigned to the following groups: I-saline solution (control, II-EDTA; III-EDTA-T. Groups II and III specimens were assigned to different EDTA gel concentrations: 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 24%. Smear layer removal score was assessed for each specimen by scanning electron microscopy. The results demonstrated that EDTA and EDTA-T gel led to a higher root surface smear layer removal when compared to the control group. The 5% EDTA gel also showed a higher smear layer removal than the 15%, 20% and 24% EDTA gels (p0.05. EDTA gels had statistically significantly lower smear layer scores than the EDTA-T gels for the 5% and 10% concentrations. The results suggested that topical application of EDTA or EDTA-T gel led to significant smear layer removal of the mechanically treated root surfaces. The addition of a detergent to the EDTA gel formula did not improve smear layer removal of the root surface.O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar, através de microscopia eletrônica de varredura, a remoção de smear layer de superfícies radiculares após aplicação tópica de gel de EDTA com gel de EDTA-T (Texapon. Foram utilizados dentes humanos que foram submetidos a remoção de cemento radicular e raspagem. As amostras dos dentes foram divididas em 3 grupos: Grupo I- (controle (n=20; Grupo II- gel de EDTA (pH 7,0 nas concentrações de 5%,10%,15%,20% e 24% (n=100; Grupo II -gel de EDTA-T (pH 7,0 nas concentrações acima descritas (n=100. As fotomicrografias foram avaliadas através de um índice e os dados foram estatisticamente analisados. Ambos os tratamentos com EDTA foram efetivos na remoção de smear layer quando comparados ao grupo controle. O gel de EDTA a 5% demonstrou maior capacidade na remoção de smear layer quando comparado com as concentrações de 15%, 20% e 24% (p0,05. Os géis de EDTA foram mais efetivos que o EDTA-T nas concentrações de 5 e 10%. Os resultados sugerem que a aplicação tópica de EDTA ou EDTA-T é efetiva na remoção de smear layer, principamente em baixas concentrações e a adição do Texapon não promove vantagens neste tratamento.

José Eduardo Cezar Sampaio

2005-09-01

324

A scanning electron microscopy study of root surface smear layer removal after topical application of EDTA plus a detergent / Remoção de smear layer de superfícies radiculares com aplicação tópica de EDTA com detergente. Análise em microscopia eletrônica de varredura  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar, através de microscopia eletrônica de varredura, a remoção de smear layer de superfícies radiculares após aplicação tópica de gel de EDTA com gel de EDTA-T (Texapon). Foram utilizados dentes humanos que foram submetidos a remoção de cemento radicular e rasp [...] agem. As amostras dos dentes foram divididas em 3 grupos: Grupo I- (controle) (n=20); Grupo II- gel de EDTA (pH 7,0) nas concentrações de 5%,10%,15%,20% e 24% (n=100); Grupo II -gel de EDTA-T (pH 7,0) nas concentrações acima descritas (n=100). As fotomicrografias foram avaliadas através de um índice e os dados foram estatisticamente analisados. Ambos os tratamentos com EDTA foram efetivos na remoção de smear layer quando comparados ao grupo controle. O gel de EDTA a 5% demonstrou maior capacidade na remoção de smear layer quando comparado com as concentrações de 15%, 20% e 24% (p0,05). Os géis de EDTA foram mais efetivos que o EDTA-T nas concentrações de 5 e 10%. Os resultados sugerem que a aplicação tópica de EDTA ou EDTA-T é efetiva na remoção de smear layer, principamente em baixas concentrações e a adição do Texapon não promove vantagens neste tratamento. Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to compare root surface smear layer removal following topical application of EDTA and EDTA-T (Texapon). Extracted human teeth had their cementum removed and were mechanically scaled. A total of 220 root specimens were obtained and were randomly assigned to the follow [...] ing groups: I-saline solution (control), II-EDTA; III-EDTA-T. Groups II and III specimens were assigned to different EDTA gel concentrations: 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 24%. Smear layer removal score was assessed for each specimen by scanning electron microscopy. The results demonstrated that EDTA and EDTA-T gel led to a higher root surface smear layer removal when compared to the control group. The 5% EDTA gel also showed a higher smear layer removal than the 15%, 20% and 24% EDTA gels (p0.05). EDTA gels had statistically significantly lower smear layer scores than the EDTA-T gels for the 5% and 10% concentrations. The results suggested that topical application of EDTA or EDTA-T gel led to significant smear layer removal of the mechanically treated root surfaces. The addition of a detergent to the EDTA gel formula did not improve smear layer removal of the root surface.

Sampaio, José Eduardo Cezar; Campos, Flávia Pavan; Pilatti, Gibson Luiz; Theodoro, Letícia Helena; Leite, Fábio Renato Manzolli.

325

Morphology of Peripheral Blood Cells from Various Species of Turkish Herpetofauna  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 In this study, measurements of morphological and size parameters of peripheral blood cells (erythrocyte, leucocyte, thrombocyte on blood smear preparation devices stained with Wright’s stain were given for 87 species from Turkish herpetofauna (19 amphibian species including 7 urodeles and 12 anurans as well as 68 reptile species including 4 turtles, 30 lizards and 34 snakes. It was determined that erythrocyte and nucleus sizes showed great variations among the species of herpetofauna and even among the preparations of the same species; the largest blood cells (erythrocyte, leucocyte, thrombocyte were found in urodeles; aquatic and semiaquatic species had larger erythrocytes than terrestrials, and the largest erythrocytes were in turtles among the reptile species examined. Lymphocytes were determined as the predominant cells among the blood leucocytes in blood smears of all the examined species.

Hüseyin ARIKAN

2010-12-01

326

Artificial blood  

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Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search...

Sarkar Suman

2008-01-01

327

Effect of MTAD as a final rinse on removal of smear layer in ten-minute preparation time  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of MTAD as final rinse on removal of the smear layer subsequent to primary irrigation with 1.3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) during 10-minute instrumentation periods.

Lotfi, Mehrdad; Vosoughhosseini, Sepideh

2012-01-01

328

Smear positive extra pulmonary tuberculosis disease at University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background While pulmonary tuberculosis is the most common presentation, extra pulmonary tuberculosis is also an important clinical problem. However, no adequate information had been made available on the prevalence of smear positive extra pulmonary tuberculosis in Gondar. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and possible risk factors of smear positive extra pulmonary tuberculosis among suspected patients at University of Gondar Hospital. Methods A cross-sectional study on extra pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients was conducted at University of Gondar Hospital from January 2012 to April, 2012. Specimens of patients suspected of extra pulmonary tuberculosis were obtained from fine needle aspiration and body fluid samples collected by pathologist. Demographic characteristics and other variables were collected using a pretested semi-structured questionnaire. Smears were prepared from each sample and stained by Ziehel Neelson and Wright stain. The result of the study was analyzed with bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Result A total of 344 extra pulmonary tuberculosis suspected clients were included in the study and specimens were taken from lymph node aspirates and body fluids. The overall prevalence of smear positive extra pulmonary tuberculosis was 34 (9.9%. Of these cases of extra pulmonary tuberculosis, lymph node tuberculosis constituted the largest proportion (82.4%. Among the 34 extra pulmonary tuberculosis patients, over half of them (52.9% were positive for human immunodeficiency virus. The largest proportion of tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus cases occurred among persons with in the age group of 31–40 years. Previous history of tuberculosis (OR?=?4.77, 95% CI 1.86-12.24, contact to a known tuberculosis cases (OR?=?6.67 95% CI 2.78-16.90, history of underlying diseases (OR?=?2.79 95% CI 1.15-6.78 and income (OR?=?12.9 95% CI 2.25-68.02 were significantly associated with extra pulmonary tuberculosis infection. Conclusion The prevalence of smear positive extra pulmonary tuberculosis infection in Gondar is high. Screening of lymph node and other body fluid specimens for extra pulmonary tuberculosis could help for treatment, control and prevention of the disease.

Zenebe Yohannes

2013-01-01

329

Trends in treatment outcome of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Southeastern Nigeria, 1999 – 2008  

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Full Text Available

Background: the Directly Observed Treatment Short Course (DOTS strategy was introduced into the tuberculosis control programme of Ebonyi, Southeastern, Nigeria in 1996. The impact of the programme on the treatment outcomes for smear-positive tuberculosis has not been assessed ever since. We assessed the trends in treatment outcome for new smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis between 1999 and 2008.

Methods: we conducted a retrospective analysis of the Ebonyi state Ministry of Health quarterly smear-positive tuberculosis statistical returns. Patients were treated and treatment outcome categories computed according to the WHO/National Tuberculosis Control Programme’s guidelines. Chi-square for trends was used to determine significance.

Results: the number of smear-positive cases who registered for treatment fell from 1 361 patients in 1999 to 977 in 2008 (Trend ?2=349; P<0.001. The follow-up smear results at month two were not available for 16% of the patients in 1999; this unavailability decreased to 1.7% in 2008. The negative conversion rate at month two increased from 77.5% in 1999 to 95.9% in 2008 (Trend ?2=16.5; P<0.001. Treatment success rose from 74.9% in 1999 to 88.7% in 2008 (Trend ?2=12.8; P<0.001, whilst default rate declined from 12% to 4.3% (Trend ?2=55.6; P<0.001. Though decreasing (Trend ?2=4.64; P=0.031, the annual death rate remained at around 5% during the study period.

Conclusions: monitoring, supervision and home visits have improved, and our DOTS programme has achieved an 85% treatment success and declining default rates. However, with the current low case notification and high mortality rates, alternative mechanisms are needed to achieve global stop-TB targets in the State.

Kingsley Nnanna Ukwaja

2012-11-01

330

Interobserver variation in the diagnosis and grading of dyskaryosis in cervical smears: specialist cytopathologists compared with non-specialists.  

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AIMS--To compare the assessment of dyskaryosis in cervical smears made by specialist consultant cytopathologists and consultant general histopathologists. METHODS--One hundred and ten cervical smears were circulated to 10 observers from five district general hospital histopathology departments and five major departments of cytopathology. Their responses were analysed by five consultant general histopathologists and five consultant specialist cytopathologists. In 54 of the 110 cases, the histo...

O Sullivan, J. P.; Ismail, S. M.; Barnes, W. S.; Deery, A. R.; Gradwell, E.; Harvey, J. A.; Husain, O. A.; Kocjan, G.; Mckee, G.; Olafsdottir, R.

1994-01-01

331

A comparative study for the detection of mycobacteria by bactec MGIT 960, lowenstein jensen media and direct AFB smear examination  

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Purpose: To compare BACTEC MGIT 960 (M960) with conventional culture on Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) media and direct acid fast bacilli (AFB) smear examination for the detection of Mycobacteria in clinical samples obtained from suspected cases of pulmonary and extra pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Methods: A total of 500 samples were processed for direct AFB smear examination, and culture on M960 and LJ media. Results: Two hundred fifty-eight out of 500 (51.6%...

Rishi S; Sinha P; Malhotra B; Pal N

2007-01-01

332

Sensitivity of direct versus concentrated sputum smear microscopy in HIV-infected patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis  

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Abstract Background Sputum concentration increases the sensitivity of smear microscopy for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB), but few studies have investigated this method in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Methods We performed a prospective, blinded evaluation of direct and concentrated Ziehl-Neelsen smear microscopy on a single early-morning sputum sample in HIV-infected patients with > 2 weeks of cough hospitalized in Kampala, Uganda...

Cattamanchi Adithya; Dowdy David W; Lucian, Davis J.; Worodria William; Yoo Samuel; Joloba Moses; Matovu John; Hopewell Philip C; Huang Laurence

2009-01-01

333

Demonstration of Actinomyces and Arachnia species in cervicovaginal smears by direct staining with species-specific fluorescent-antibody conjugate.  

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For direct observation of microaerophilic actinomycetes by fluorescent antibody, a procedure was developed in which pepsin treatment and rhodamine conjugate of normal serum were used to reduce nonspecific staining in cervicovaginal smears. Actinomyces israelii, Actinomyces naeslundii, and Arachnia propionica were observed in cervicovaginal smears from women who did use and who did not use an intrauterine contraceptive device. A. israelii was found more commonly in women with an intrauterine c...

1981-01-01

334

Characterisation of extensional faults in carbonate rocks (Suez Rift, Egypt); with particular focus on the role of shale smear  

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The distribution, composition and flow-properties of fault core and shale smear along faults in carbonate reservoirs is less well understood compared to faults in siliciclastic rocks. This study uses field data to characterize and quantify fault zone properties that are critical for understanding structural heterogeneity in carbonate reservoirs. The study focus on; (1) variability and co-dependence of displacement, shale smear, fault- thickness, -composition and -geometry; (2) the effect of s...

Elvik, Lillian

2012-01-01

335

Characterisation of extensional faults in carbonate rocks (Suez Rift, Egypt); with particular focus on the role of shale smear  

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The distribution, composition and flow-properties of fault core and shale smear along faults in carbonate reservoirs is less well understood compared to faults in siliciclastic rocks. This study uses field data to characterize and quantify fault zone properties that are critical for understanding structural heterogeneity in carbonate reservoirs. The study focus on; (1) variability and co-dependence of displacement, shale smear, fault- thickness, -composition and -geometry; (2) the effect o...

Elvik, Lillian

2012-01-01

336

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... make sure to ask your doctor about it. Smoking has also been linked to cervical cancer. This ... an excellent reason to refrain from or stop smoking! This document is for informational purposes and is ...

337

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... extremely helpful in preventing sexually transmitted diseases. A vaccine against some types of the human papilloma viruses ... to the development of cervical cancer. Taking the vaccine helps prevent cervical cancer. If you have not ...

338

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... doctor or healthcare professional or a recommendation for any particular treatment plan. Like any printed material, it may become out of date ... doctor or healthcare professional or a recommendation for any particular treatment plan. Like any printed material, it ...

339

Pap smear  

Science.gov (United States)

... lead to cancer LSIL (low-grade dysplasia) or HSIL (high-grade dysplasia): This means precancerous changes are ... The risk of cervical cancer is greater with HSIL Carcinoma in situ (CIS): This result usually means ...

340

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Some sexually transmitted diseases are associated with the development of cancer of the cervix, also called cervical ... available. These viruses have been linked to the development of cervical cancer. Taking the vaccine helps prevent ...

 
 
 
 
341

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... why it is beneficial. Ovaries Fallopian Tubes Uterus Vagina Anatomy This document is for informational purposes and ... 2012 1 The female reproductive organs include: • The vagina • The uterus • The Fallopian tubes • The ovaries These ...

342

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... be able to put your clothes back on. Results In the lab, a specialized doctor known as ... or cancer in the specimen. Next, the test results are sent to your doctor. He or she ...

343

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... are located in the pelvis, between the urinary bladder and the rectum. The ovaries have 2 main ... body between the urethra, which is the urinary bladder opening, and the rectum. Diseases of the Cervix ...

344

Smearing technique for vibration analysis of simply supported cross-stiffened and doubly curved thin rectangular shells  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Plates stiffened with ribs can be modeled as equivalent homogeneous isotropic or orthotropic plates. Modeling such an equivalent smeared plate numerically, say, with the finite element method requires far less computer resources than modeling the complete stiffened plate. This may be important when a number of stiffened plates are combined in a complicated assembly composed of many plate panels. However, whereas the equivalent smeared plate technique is well established and recently improved for flat panels, there is no similar established technique for doubly curved stiffened shells. In this paper the improved smeared plate technique is combined with the equation of motion for a doubly curved thin rectangular shell, and a solution is offered for using the smearing technique for stiffened shell structures. The developed prediction technique is validated by comparing natural frequencies and mode shapes as well as forced responses from simulations based on the smeared theory with results from experiments with adoubly curved cross-stiffened shell. Moreover, natural frequencies of cross-stiffened panels determined by finite element simulations that include the exact cross-sectional geometries of panels with cross-stiffeners are compared with predictions based on the smeared theory for a range of different panel curvatures. Good agreement is found.

Luan, Yu; Ohlrich, Mogens

2011-01-01

345

Has the ThinPrep method of cervical screening maintained its improvement over conventional smears in terms of specimen adequacy?  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Liquid-based cytology (LBC) has replaced conventional smear assessment in many centers over recent years. In our laboratory this transfer took place in 1999. At that time we performed a split sample study comparing the conventional method of cervical smear evaluation with the ThinPrep system. This split sample study identified a dramatic improvement in specimen adequacy with LBC. While 11% of conventional preparations were reported as unsatisfactory and almost 9% were reported as suboptimal, evaluation of the same cases using LBC saw this combined figure reduced to 2.3%. AIM: To evaluate whether this dramatic fall in unsatisfactory smears has been maintained with the use of LBC. The database for all smears reported for 2005 (100% LBC) was interrogated. The number of unsatisfactory reports was calculated. The reason for an unsatisfactory report was recorded for each case. The overall unsatisfactory rate was compared with that reported in the 1999 split sample study. A total of 41,312 smear tests were reported in 2005. 1,342 (3.25%) were reported as unsatisfactory. Our findings support the ongoing value of LBC in a routine cervical screening laboratory in terms of continuing to maintain a low rate of unsatisfactory smears.

Treacy, A

2009-04-01

346

Borrelia sp. in naturally infected Didelphis aurita (Wied, 1826 (marsupialia: didelphidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fifty-six opossums (Didelphis aurita were captured on the campus of Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica county, Rio de Janeiro state, in order to investigate the occurrence of Borrelia sp among them in relation with the study of spirochaetemia and its ectoparasites. Blood tests were made through dark field and phase contrast microscopy, as well as the obtainment of blood smears. Smears were stained with Giemsa stain, which did not prove efficacy. There was no relation between results obtained through blood tests (13 opossum positive for Borreliasp., and this technique (two positive animals. Parasitaemia studies of 37 animals kept in captivity as well as of several recaptures in which animals once negative proved to be positive days later, showed that haemoscopical studies could be used as an effective diagnosis tool. Ectoparasites from nine animals were classified; with the occurrence of nymphal Amblyomma cajennense and adult Ctenocephalides sp..Cinquenta e seis gambás (Didelphis aurita foram capturados no campus da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica - Rio de Janeiro, com o intuito de se investigar a ocorrência de Borrelia sp. entre eles, associada ao estudo da espiroquetemia e de seus ectoparasitos. Amostras de sangue dos animais foram examinadas à microscopia de campo escuro e contraste de fase, além deste ter se destinado à obtenção de esfregaços sanguíneos, corados pelo método de Giemsa. Não houve relação entre os resultados obtidos através dos exames diretos do sangue (13 gambás positivos para Borrelia sp. e aqueles observados nos esfregaços sanguíneos (dois animais positivos, o que demonstra a baixa eficácia desta técnica. Estudos sobre a parasitemia de 37 animais mantidos em cativeiro, assim como as várias recapturas nas quais animais uma vez negativos mostraram-se positivos dias mais tarde, revelaram que os estudos hemoscópicos podem ser utilizados eficientemente como ferramentas de diagnóstico. Ectoparasitos colhidos de nove animais foram classificados. Houve ocorrência de ninfas Amblyomma cajennense e adultos Ctenocephalides sp.

Isis dos Santos Abel

2000-01-01

347

EFFECTS OF SOME TRACE ELEMENTS ON THE BLOOD OF KUWAIT MULLETS 'LIZA MACROLEPS' (SMITH)  

Science.gov (United States)

Haemopathological changes attributed to heavy metal poisoning observed in blood smears of Liza macrolepis (Smith) taken after exposures of 96 h to graded doses (mg/l) of copper (0.11-1.80), lead (1.15-18.36), and mercury (0.04-0.59), in a flow-through marine bioassay system. In g...

348

Rapid molecular diagnosis of tuberculosis and other mycobacteriosis in smear-negative clinical specimens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Delay in diagnosis of pulmonary and other forms of tuberculosis (TB can be fatal, particularly in HIV-infected patients. Hence, techniques based on nucleic acid amplification, which are both rapid and of high specificity and sensitivity, are now widely used and recommended for laboratories that diagnose TB. In the present study, diagnostic methods based on mycobacterial DNA amplification were evaluated in comparative trials alongside tradicional bacterial methods, using negative smear samples from patients with clinically-suspected TB (sputum samples from 25 patients with suspected pulmonary TB, urine samples from two patients with suspected renal TB and cerebrospinal fluid samples from one patient with suspected meningeal TB. A specificity of 100% was achieved with DNA amplification methods and tradicional culture/identification methods, in relation to clinical findings and treatment results. For the smear-negative sputa, conventional PCR for M. tuberculosis was positive in 62% of suspected lung TB case, showing the same sensitivity as bacterial identification. Both techniques failed in the detection of extra-pulmonary samples. Nested PCR showed, after species-specific amplification, a sensitivity of 100% for M. avium and 85% for M. tuberculosis. For extra-pulmonary smear-negative samples, only Nested PCR detected M. tuberculosis and all cases were confirmed clinically. Nested PCR, in which two-step amplification reactions are performed, can identify the two most important mycobacteria in human pathology quickly and directly from clinical spicimens. Keywords: tuberculosis; M. avium; Nested PCR; Smearnegative specimens

S. R.A. LEITE

2009-01-01

349

Studies on immunoglobulin containing cell in the vaginal smear during radiotherapy for cervical cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to observe the immunological responce of the irradiated cervical cancer, vaginal smears were taken from 27 patients during radiotherapy and stained with fluorescent anti-IgG, anti-IgA, and anti-IgM sera by the direct method. The IgG-, IgA-, and IgM-containing cells increase significantly in the cervicitis and cervical cancer as compared with controls. There is no difference between cervicitis and cervical cancer in IgG and IgA, but IgM-containing cells increase significantly in cervical cancer. There is a highly significant correlation between IgM-containing cells in vaginal smear of cervical cancer and lymphoid cell infiltration of primary cancerous tissue. During radiotherapy, there are no changes of the mean percentage of IgM-containing cells in vaginal smears at 1,000 rad and 2,000 rad irradiation, but at 3,000 rad irradiation IgM-containing cells decrease significantly. On the changes of IgM-containing cells during radiotherapy, the patients are classified into three groups. Group A: IgM-containing cells increase in their population temporarity during radiotherapy (11 cases). Group B: IgM-containing cells decrease gradually in their population during radiotherapy (12 cases). Group C: The changes of IgM-Containing cells are irregular and/or show little deviation (4 cases). The three year survivals of group A is 9/12 (82.8%), group B is 6/12 (50.0%), and group C is 4/4. There is significant difference between group A and group B in survival rates, and group A is considered to be an immunoreactive group. (author)

1979-01-01

350

Non-perturbative improvement of stout-smeared three flavour clover fermions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We discuss a 3-flavour lattice QCD action with clover improvement in which the fermion matrix has single level stout smearing for the hopping terms together with unsmeared links for the clover term. With the (tree-level) Symanzik improved gluon action this constitutes the Stout Link Non-perturbative Clover or SLiNC action. To cancel O(a) terms the clover term coefficient has to be tuned. We present here results of a non-perturbative determination of this coefficient using the Schroedinger functional and as a by-product a determination of the critical hopping parameter. Comparisons of the results are made with lowest order perturbation theory. (orig.)

Cundy, N.; Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (GB). School of Physics and Astronomy] (and others)

2009-01-15

351

Nonperturbative improvement of stout-smeared three-flavor clover fermions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We discuss a three-flavor lattice QCD action with clover improvement in which the fermion matrix has single level stout smearing for the hopping terms together with unsmeared links for the clover term. With the (tree-level) Symanzik improved gluon action this constitutes the stout link nonperturbative clover or SLiNC action. To cancel O(a) terms the clover term coefficient has to be tuned. We present here results of a nonperturbative determination of this coefficient using the Schroedinger functional and as a by-product a determination of the critical hopping parameter. Comparisons of the results are made with lowest order perturbation theory.

2009-05-01

352

Non-perturbative improvement of stout-smeared three flavour clover fermions  

CERN Multimedia

We discuss a 3-flavour lattice QCD action with clover improvement in which the fermion matrix has single level stout smearing for the hopping terms together with unsmeared links for the clover term. With the (tree-level) Symanzik improved gluon action this constitutes the Stout Link Non-perturbative Clover or SLiNC action. To cancel O(a) terms the clover term coefficient has to be tuned. We present here results of a non-perturbative determination of this coefficient using the Schroedinger functional and as a by-product a determination of the critical hopping parameter. Comparisons of the results are made with lowest order perturbation theory.

Cundy, N; Horsley, R; Kaltenbrunner, T; Kennedy, A D; Nakamura, Y; Perlt, H; Pleiter, D; Rakow, P E L; Schäfer, A; Schierholz, G; Schiller, A; Stüben, H; Zanotti, J M

2009-01-01

353

Perturbative determination of $c_{SW}$ with Symanzik improved gauge action and stout smearing  

CERN Document Server

We determine the improvement factor $c_{SW}$ in one-loop lattice perturbation theory for the plaquette and Symanzik improved gauge actions. The fermionic action is ${\\mathcal{O}(a)}$ clover improved with one-time stout smearing. $c_{SW}$ is derived from the one-loop correction to the quark-quark-gluon vertex in the off-shell regime. We give a first numerical value for the one-loop contribution to the non gauge-invariant improvement coefficient $c_{NGI}$ for the quark field using the plaquette action. A discussion of mean field improvement is included.

Horsley, R; Rakow, P E L; Schierholz, G; Schiller, A

2007-01-01

354

Use of Polyphosphate to Decrease Uranium Leaching in Hanford 300 Area Smear Zone Sediments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The primary objective of this study is to summarize the laboratory investigations performed to evaluate short- and long-term effects of phosphate treatment on uranium leaching from 300 area smear zone sediments. Column studies were used to compare uranium leaching in phosphate-treated to untreated sediments over a year with multiple stop flow events to evaluate longevity of the uranium leaching rate and mass. A secondary objective was to compare polyphosphate injection, polyphosphate/xanthan injection, and polyphosphate infiltration technologies that deliver phosphate to sediment.

Szecsody, James E.; Zhong, Lirong; Oostrom, Martinus; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Williams, Mark D.

2012-09-30

355

Perturbative determination of cSW with Symanzik improved gauge action and stout smearing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We determine the improvement factor cSW in one-loop lattice perturbation theory for the plaquette and Symanzik improved gauge actions. The fermionic action is O(a) clover improved with one-time stout smearing. cSW is derived from the one-loop correction to the quark-quark-gluon vertex in the off-shell regime. We give a first numerical value for the one-loop contribution to the non gauge-invariant improvement coefficient cNGI for the quark field using the plaquette action. A discussion of mean field improvement is included. (orig.)

2007-08-04

356

Buckling Analysis of Composite Hexagonal Lattice Cylindrical Shell using Smeared Stiffener Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hexagonal lattice pattern formed by helical and circumferential ribs is the most common among different possible lattice patterns. An energy-based smeared stiffener model (SSM is developed to obtain equivalent stiffness coefficients of a composite lattice cylindrical shell with such hexagonal lattice patterns. Using the equivalent stiffness coefficients, Ritz buckling analysis was carried out. Extensive finite element modeling covering different representative sizes have been carried out. SSM is validated by comparing the estimated buckling loads. Variation of material properties of rib unidirectional composites from those of normal unidirectional composites is accounted for in the energy formulations.

M. Buragohain

2009-05-01

357

Perturbative determination of c{sub SW} with Symanzik improved gauge action and stout smearing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We determine the improvement factor c{sub SW} in one-loop lattice perturbation theory for the plaquette and Symanzik improved gauge actions. The fermionic action is O(a) clover improved with one-time stout smearing. c{sub SW} is derived from the one-loop correction to the quark-quark-gluon vertex in the off-shell regime. We give a first numerical value for the one-loop contribution to the non gauge-invariant improvement coefficient c{sub NGI} for the quark field using the plaquette action. A discussion of mean field improvement is included. (orig.)

Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics; Perlt, H.; Schiller, A. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Dept., Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

2007-10-15

358

Determining the interobserver reproducibility of Pap smears in the diagnosis of epithelial cell abnormalities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Cancer of uterine cervix is the second cause of death in women in the world and the most common cause in developing countries. Because the majority of women with invasive cervical cancer of the uterine have not previously undergone screening, many clinicians assume that Pap smear has a high degree of accuracy; but problems such as false positive and false negative interpretations, as well as interobserver variability have questioned its validity."n"nMethods : We retrieved 162 positive cervical smears that had been originally interpreted as ASC-US, ASC-H, LSIL, HSIL, SCC, AGC and adenocarcinoma from the cytology archives of Women's Hospital in Tehran, Iran. The slides were rescreened by an experienced pathologist and reclassified in the mentioned categories. All the 162 slides were reviewed by three more pathologists in a blind study using interpretative criteria utilized in their daily routine to evaluate interobserver reproducibility. To increase the level of interobserver agreement, the diagnostic categories were reduced to squamous Vs. glandular abnormalities and invasive (SCC and adenocarcinoma Vs. non-invasive abnormalities."n"nResults : The results obtained in this study indicated slight interobserver agreement (k=0.26. The most reproducible category was the invasive category (SCC in addition to adenocarcinoma and the least agreement was seen for HSIL (k=0.19. "n"nConclusion: This study showed that reproducibility of cytological interpretation of conventional Pap smears varies among interpretive categories and the overall interobserver agreement is slight. Since convening on the reduction of interobserver discrepancy in Pap smear interpretations necessitates more reliable information of interpretative variability, larger studies need to be undertaken.

Izadi-Mood N

2011-07-01

359

Adenosine deaminase activity in bronchoalveolar lavage in Turkish patients with smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The sputum smear-negative patients have been a diagnostic challenge for health professionals. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity has been shown to rise in various body fluids of patients with tuberculosis (Tb). A prospective clinical trial was conducted to determine the diagnostic value of ADA activity in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in sputum smear-negative subjects highly suggestive for pulmonary Tb. Nineteen (M/F: 15/4, mean age 46.8 +/- 16.5 years) sputum smear-negative patients highly suggestive for pulmonary Tb constituted Group I. Acid fast bacilli (AFB) grew on sputum and/or BAL culture of all subjects in this group. Twenty-nine patients (M/F: 19/10, mean age 55.7 +/- 8.0 years) with non-tuberculous pulmonary diseases constituted Group II. Ten of them had interstitial lung disease, nine lung cancer, five pneumonia and five COPD. Twelve subjects (M/F: 7/5, mean age 48.4 +/- 12.8 years) constituted the controls (Group III) undergoing fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) for various indications and the lungs were found to be normal eventually. Albumin and ADA activity levels were measured in plasma and BAL in all the subjects. LocalADA was calculated. PlasmaADA and BALADA of Group I was significantly higher (P < 0.001) than that of the other groups. LocalADA was also the highest in Group I when compared with the others (P < 0.001) but that of Group II was also higher (P < 0.01) when compared with controls. With a cut-off value derived from the control subjects, sensitivity of BALADA was 100% and specificity 85.3%. Sputum PCR results are available in a couple of days whereas that of BALADA are available in a couple of hours and BALADA costs cheaper than PCR in our country. Therefore, we conclude that BALADA may be a useful, cheaper and faster diagnostic test in sputum smear-negative patients highly suggestive for pulmonary Tb. LocalADA need not be calculated as it is also significantly higher in Group II subjects and thus not as reliable as BALADA. PMID:12194640

Kayacan, O; Karnak, D; Delibalta, M; Beder, S; Karaca, L; Tutkak, H

2002-07-01

360

Origin of the $k_{T}$ smearing in direct photon production  

CERN Document Server

We show that the Sudakov factor from the resummation of double logarithms $k_T$ smearing mechanism employed in the next-to-leading-order QCD ($\\alpha\\alpha_s^2$) calculations of direct photon production. $s$ is the center-of-mass energy, and $k_T$ the transverse momentum carried by a parton in a colliding hadron. This factor exhibits the appropriate $s$-dependent Gaussian width in $k_T$, such that our predictions are in good agreement with experimental data.

Lai, H L; Lai, Hung-Liang; Li, Hsiang-nan

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

AdS black holes, the bulk-boundary dictionary, and smearing functions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Lorentzian AdS/CFT there exists a mapping between local bulk operators and nonlocal CFT operators. In global AdS this mapping can be found through use of bulk equations of motion and allows the nonlocal CFT operator to be expressed as a local operator smeared over a range of positions and times. We argue that such a construction is not possible if there are bulk normal modes with exponentially small near boundary imprint. We show that the AdS-Schwarzschild background is s...

Leichenauer, Stefan; Rosenhaus, Vladimir

2013-01-01

362

Role of re-screening of cervical smears in internal quality control.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIMS--To investigate the use of rapid re-screening as a quality control method for previously screened cervical slides; to compare this method with 10% random re-screening and clinically indicated double screening. METHODS--Between June 1990 and December 1994, 117,890 negative smears were subjected to rapid re-screening. RESULTS--This study shows that rapid re-screening detects far greater numbers of false negative cases when compared with both 10% random re-screening and clinically indicated...

Baker, A.; Melcher, D.; Smith, R.

1995-01-01

363

External quality assessment of smear microscopy by the National Reference Laboratory in nine states of India.  

Science.gov (United States)

The quality of sputum smear microscopy in nine Intermediate Reference Laboratories (IRLs) was assessed based on onsite evaluation conducted by the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) in India, which supervises the IRLs for external quality assessment. The IRLs were evaluated, problems were identified, causes were explored and remedial actions were suggested. The NRL reports and feedback from the states were evaluated. Of the corrective actions recommended during the initial NRL evaluation visits, 65% were implemented within a month. Subsequent visits to seven IRLs showed 80% improvement. The NRL suggestions resulted in immediate corrective actions and had a sustained impact. PMID:19723411

Kumar, V; Raghavan, R; Nagamiah, S; Chauhan, L S

2009-09-01

364

Calibration of Smearing and Cooling Algorithms in SU(3)-Color Gauge Theory  

CERN Multimedia

The action and topological charge are used to determine the relative rates of standard cooling and smearing algorithms in pure SU(3)-color gauge theory. We consider representative gauge field configurations on 16^3 x 32 lattices at beta=5.70 and 24^3 x 36 lattices at beta=6.00. We find the relative rate of variation in the action and topological charge under various algorithms may be succinctly described in terms of simple formulae. The results are in accord with recent suggestions from fat-link perturbation theory.

Bonnet, F D R; Leinweber, D B; Stanford, M R; Williams, A G; Bonnet, Frederic D.R.; Fitzhenry, Patrick; Leinweber, Derek B.; Stanford, Mark R.; Williams, Anthony G.

2000-01-01

365

Instructional guidelines on sampling from metal, dyed and other smooth and solid surfaces (by 'smear' method)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Instructional guidelines was elaborated in the frame of International Scientific Technic Centre project T-1082.3 and directed on arrangement of radiation environment investigations on the territory of the Republic waste disposal site. Instructional guidelines put requirements on sampling by 'smear' method, tampon preparation, packing, marking, transportation, samples preparation to investigation and storage of samples in laboratory conditions. The aim of investigations is revelation of polluted objects on the territory of the Republic waste disposal site, determination of pollution intensity level, pollution dynamics, determination of pollution impact and elaboration measures in order to eliminate their harmful effect on human body and environment.

2009-01-01

366

Early Bactericidal Activity of Paromomycin (Aminosidine) in Patients with Smear-Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The early bactericidal activity of the aminoglycoside paromomycin (aminosidine) in doses of 7.5 and 15 mg/kg of body weight was measured in 22 patients with previously untreated smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis. The fall in log10 CFU per milliliter of sputum per day during the first 2 days of treatment for 7 patients receiving a paromomycin dosage of 7.5 mg/kg/day was 0.066, with a standard deviation (SD) of 0.216 and confidence limits from ?0.134 to 0.266, and that for 15 patients rec...

Donald, P. R.; Sirgel, F. A.; Kanyok, T. P.; Danziger, L. H.; Venter, A.; Botha, F. J.; Parkin, D. P.; Seifart, H. I.; Wal, B. W.; Maritz, J. S.; Mitchison, D. A.

2000-01-01

367

Scanning electron microscopy of root canal walls after removing the smear layer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study was to investigate ultrastructurally the effect of smear layer removal by applying different root canal irrigances: 3% HO2, 4% NaOCl and 15% Na-EDTA (in combination with 3% HO2, 4% NaOCl) and establish the appearance of root canal dentine surface after treatment with 15% Na-EDTA for different time periods(1 min and 5 min) using additional irrigant 3% HOor 4% NaOCl. 22 22 Teeth with single and double canals extracted for orthodontic reasons, were used in this study. A...

Gaši? Jovanka; Da?i?-Simonovi? Dragica; Radi?evi? Goran; Miti? Aleksandar; Stojilkovi? Goran; Dakovi? Jelena

2003-01-01

368

Artificial blood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

Sarkar Suman

2008-01-01

369

The Nasal Smear for Eosinophils, Its Value, and Its Relation to Nasal Mucosal Eosinophilia in Allergic Rhinitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: There is no single test as a gold standard for the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis (AR. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness and validity of nasal smear as a quick, easy and inexpensive diagnostic method for diagnosis of allergic rhinitis. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in a university hospital setting. Nasal smears were taken from 39 patients with a clinical history of nasal allergy and a positive skin prick test to at least one aeroallergen as well as 26 controls without any history and negative test. Biopsy specimens from the inferior turbinate as well as nasal smears of 19 cases including 9 patients and 10 controls with the same criteria were taken. Nasal smears and biopsy slides were stained with Giemsa and Hematoxilin-Eosin and were examined blindly by two separate pathologists. Results: Fifty one percents of the patients and 11.5% of the controls showed eosinophilia in their nasal smear (?10% eosinophils, P=0.001. The sensitivity of nasal eosinophil count as a diagnostic test for AR was 51.3% with a specificity of 88.5%, a positive predictive value of 87% and a negative predictive value of 54%. Eosinophilia in nasal biopsies was found in 44% and 30% of allergic patients and controls respectively. There was no significant correlation between symptoms or positive skin tests with either smear eosinophilia or tissue eosinophilia. Conclusion: Evaluation of eosinophils in nasal smear is an insensitive but fairly specific test for the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis. It seems that the nasal secretions and nasal tissue represent two distinct cellular compartments.

Mehdi Bakhshaee

2010-07-01

370

Selective staining reactions of involved blood cells prior to symptoms of lymphatic leukemia in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

After inoculation with lymphatic leukemia virus, blood smears were obtained daily from young Balb/c mice. When the smears were stained with silver nitrate, a cytoplasmic granular deposition was first observed in the circulating polymorphs with a subsequent abrupt disappearance of any staining reaction in the cytoplasm. No further cytoplasmic reaction was noted in these cells. The mononuclear cells demonstrated a gradually increasing intracytoplasmic concentration of granules. Prior to the appearance of leukemic symptoms, the lymphoid cells showed extensive vacuolization. It is suggested that this staining procedure affords a means for identifying cells undergoing malignant transformation before symptoms are discernible in the host. PMID:2582328

Lavenda, N

1985-01-01

371

Plasma histamine concentration and histamine detection in peripheral blood eosinophils in cats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasma histamine levels were measured in 11 clinically healthy cats and 15 cats with allergic dermatitis. Histamine levels were markedly elevated in 5/15 allergic cats. A calcium ionophore, A23187, stimulates histamine release from feline peripheral blood cells. Immunostaining of blood smears from clinically healthy cats revealed that approximately 10% of eosinophils possessed histamine-containing granules. These results indicate that some peripheral eosinophils in cats contain histamine and can release histamine by appropriate stimulation. PMID:16650786

Kadoya, Michiyo; Momoi, Yasuyuki; Iwasaki, Toshiroh

2006-10-01

372

Morphology of peripheral blood cells from various species of Turkish Herpetofauna  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, measurements of morphological and size parameters of peripheral blood cells (erythrocyte, leucocyte, thrombocyte) on blood smear preparation devices stained with Wright’s stain were given for 87 species from Turkish herpetofauna (19 amphibian species including 7 urodeles and 12 anurans as well as 68 reptile species including 4 turtles, 30 lizards and 34 snake. It was determined that erythrocyte and nucleus sizes showed great variations among the species of h...

Hüseyin Ar?kan; Kerim Çiçek

2010-01-01

373

Blood Basics  

Science.gov (United States)

... of blood is called plasma, a mixture of water, sugar, fat, protein, and salts. The main job of the plasma is to transport blood cells throughout your body along with nutrients, waste products, antibodies, clotting proteins, chemical messengers such as ...

374

BLOOD DONATION  

CERN Document Server

A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

SC Unit

2008-01-01

375

Sensitivity of direct versus concentrated sputum smear microscopy in HIV-infected patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Sputum concentration increases the sensitivity of smear microscopy for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB, but few studies have investigated this method in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected individuals. Methods We performed a prospective, blinded evaluation of direct and concentrated Ziehl-Neelsen smear microscopy on a single early-morning sputum sample in HIV-infected patients with > 2 weeks of cough hospitalized in Kampala, Uganda. Direct and concentrated smear results were compared with results of Lowenstein-Jensen culture. Results Of 279 participants, 170 (61% had culture-confirmed TB. The sensitivity of direct and concentrated smear microscopy was not significantly different (51% vs. 52%, difference 1%, 95% confidence interval (CI: [-7%, 10%], p = 0.88. However, when results of both direct and concentrated smears were considered together, sensitivity was significantly increased compared with either method alone (64%, 95% CI: [56%, 72%], p Conclusion Sputum concentration did not increase the sensitivity of light microscopy for TB diagnosis in this HIV-infected population. Given the resource requirements for sputum concentration, additional studies using maximal blinding, high-quality direct microscopy, and a rigorous gold standard should be conducted before universally recommending this technique.

Worodria William

2009-05-01

376

Comparison of two methods used to prepare smears of mouse lung tissue for detection of Pneumocystis carinii.  

Science.gov (United States)

The laboratory diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in humans includes the identification of cysts in stained lung tissue impression smears. By using a mouse model, we compared the number of cysts in lung tissue impression smears with those contained in a concentrate of homogenized lung tissue. Eleven C3H/HEN mice developed P. carinii infection after corticosteroid injections, a low protein (8%) diet, and tetracycline administered in drinking water. Impression smears were prepared with freshly bisected lung tissue. Smears of concentrates were prepared with sediment from centrifuged lung tissue homogenates. All smears were made in duplicate, stained with toluidine blue O or methenamine silver, coded, randomized, and examined. The concentrate preparations contained more cysts per microscopic field than the impression preparations (P less than 0.01). Concentrates prepared by grinding with a mortar and pestle contained more cysts than concentrates prepared by blending with a Stomacher (P less than 0.05). Cysts were detected equally well with either the toluidine blue O or silver stain (not significant). Lung tissue concentrates were superior to lung tissue impressions for detecting P. carinii cysts in mice. Use of lung tissue concentrates should be considered for the diagnosis of human P. carinii infection.

Thomson, R B; Smith, T F; Wilson, W R

1982-01-01

377

Effect of sealers on fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth with and without smear layer removal: An in vitro study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim : The present study involved the in vitro comparison of root reinforcing abilities of two sealers, i.e., Ketac-Endo and Acroseal, in endodontically treated teeth in the presence and absence of smear layer. Materials and Methods : Fifty teeth were taken and sectioned at the cementoenamel junction. The teeth with faults were discarded and a total of 36 teeth were used for study. The samples were biomechanically prepared using step-back technique. In 10 teeth, the smear layer was preserved using sodium hypochlorite. Smear layers were removed from 10 teeth using 17% EDTA, and in another 10 samples, the smear layers were eliminated using 17% EGTA. The remaining samples served as controls. Samples were obturated with sealers using the lateral condensation technique. Ketac-Endo (3M is a glass ionomer based root canal sealer, and Acroseal (Septodont sealers were used. The teeth were then tested by using an Instron testing machine. Results : Ketac-Endo shows higher fracture resistance values in comparison to Acroseal. Other factors as the amount of tooth structure remaining, the agents used for the removal of smear layer and instrumentation techniques may alter the tooth resistance to fracture. Conclusion : Ketac-Endo shows higher fracture resistance values in comparison to Acroseal.

Jhamb Swaty

2009-01-01

378

Development of floor smear sampler (floor radioactive contamination measuring instrument) for nuclear facilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The control of the floor contamination with radioactive substances in nuclear facilities is strictly carried out by smear method, in which the contaminants on floor surfaces are wiped off with filter papers or cloths, and the contamination density on the floor surfaces is measured through their intensity of radioactivity. This wiping work is laborious since it is carried out in leaning-over posture when many samples must be taken in wide floor area. Therefore, to achieve labor saving in this work, an automatic sampler was developed. In the floor smear sampler developed, samples are taken on long band type wiping cloths only by handle operation, and the sample numbers are printed. When many samples are taken in wide floor area, this is especially effective, and the labor saving by 1/3 to 1/2 can be achieved. At present, this sampler is put in practical use in Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station. At the time of trial manufacture, the method of wiping, the mechanisms of wiping, cloth feeding and running, the contact pressure and the number of times of wiping affecting wiping efficiency and the required torque of a motor were examined. The developed sampler is that of constant contact pressure, vibration wiping type, and the rate of sampling is 10 sec per one sample. 100 samples can be taken on one roll of wiping cloth. The results of performance test are reported.

Miyagawa, M.; Ito, H.; Nozawa, K.; Shinohara, Y. (Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan)); Hashimoto, H.

1980-03-01

379

Improved tuberculosis smear detection in resource-limited settings: Combined bleach concentration and LED fluorescence microscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Improved diagnostics for tuberculosis is a high priority in resource-limited settings (RLS). Sputum concentration and fluorescence microscopy (FM) are standard techniques in developed countries where appropriate biosafety precautions are possible. Recently, inexpensive fluorescent lenses using LED light sources have made auramine-based FM more feasible in RLS. Sterilization of sputum with bleach protects lab personnel and, combined with concentration, increases the sensitivity of microscopic detection. We compared the effect of both bleach concentration and FM with LED based lenses to culture for the detection of tuberculosis in military medical hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Three sputum specimens were obtained from 409 patients (1227 total). Standard Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) or auramine staining were compared with direct or bleach-concentrated specimens. The prevalence by culture was 26%. Sensitivity of microscopic diagnosis was increased both by bleach concentration (14%) and auramine staining (5%). The overall yield of smear positivity varied from 21% for direct ZN to 27% for auramine after concentration (P<0.00001, Cochran test for matched proportions). Twenty-nine HIV+ patients were diagnosed with TB, but ten (34%), would have been missed with direct ZN staining. Bleach concentration and auramine staining with new LED fluorescent systems are cost-effective and safe methods to increase the diagnostic yield of smears, including in HIV-infected patients. PMID:24038365

Reed, Sharon L; Mamo, Girmachew; Gossa, Elias; Jasura, Michele; Getahun, Muluwork; Lemma, Eshetu; Mathews, Christopher; McCutchan, J Allen

2011-09-01

380

Benign Pairs: A Significant Entity in Aspiration Cytology Smears From Breast Lesions  

Science.gov (United States)

INTRODUCTION Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a reliable diagnostic tool used to diagnose breast lesions preoperatively. However, FNAC is also associated with diagnostic pitfalls. Further studies are needed to improve its diagnostic efficacy. We noticed ovoid, bare nuclei arranged in closely touching diads (benign pairs) in a significant number of cytology smears. This prompted us to assess their diagnostic utility. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a prospective study conducted in Sarojini NaiduMedical College, Agra, India. Quantitative estimation of benign pairs per 1000 ductal cells in at least 20 high power field was attempted in cytology smears of 128 cases. RESULTS The average number of pairs in benign and malignant lesions was calculated as 7.07 + 5.96 and 0.28 + 0.78, respectively. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference between the number of pairs in benign and malignant cases (P < 0.0005). CONCLUSIONS Quantitative estimation of benign pairs is helpful in distinguishing benign from malignant cases.

Rathi, Monika; Kala, Pooja; Gupta, Atul; Budania, Satish Kumar; Ahuja, Harshkiran

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

A quality control system involving peer review of abnormal cervical smears.  

Science.gov (United States)

An internal quality control system which is used in the centralized cytology laboratory of a population-based cervical cancer screening programme in Florence is described. It includes a peer review procedure. Abnormal cervical smears are circulated among all the cytologists and a consensus on the final diagnosis is reached. This daily procedure is designed to evaluate the performance of each cytologist and of the laboratory as a whole but can also be considered a valuable training opportunity. During an 18-month period 1197 smears were reviewed by 15 readers using a reporting form with six main categories of reporting (from 'negative' to 'invasive carcinoma'), plus an 'unsatisfactory' category. Overall the concordance between the 15 cytologists, assessed using the kappa statistic (range 0.46-0.71; median 0.60), was good. The level of agreement increased when a weighted kappa statistic (range 0.55-0.78; median 0.68) was used. Kappa values were also calculated for specific categories and suggested an increasing concordance with increasing severity of the lesions, the categories of 'severe dysplasia' and 'invasive carcinoma' showing the highest agreement. The poor results for the 'moderate dysplasia' confirmed the need for combining this group with the 'severe dysplasia', as proposed in the Bethesda system. PMID:8453014

Palli, D; Confortini, M; Biggeri, A; Russo, A; Cariaggi, P; Carozzi, F; Minuti, P A

1993-01-01

382

Vacuum Energy Density Fluctuations in Minkowski and Casimir States via Smeared Quantum Fields and Point Separation  

CERN Document Server

We present calculations of the variance of fluctuations and of the mean of the energy momentum tensor of a massless scalar field for the Minkowski and Casimir vacua as a function of an intrinsic scale defined by a smeared field or by point separation. We point out that contrary to prior claims, the ratio of variance to mean-squared being of the order unity is not necessarily a good criterion for measuring the invalidity of semiclassical gravity. For the Casimir topology we obtain expressions for the variance to mean-squared ratio as a function of the intrinsic scale (defined by a smeared field) compared to the extrinsic scale (defined by the separation of the plates, or the periodicity of space). Our results make it possible to identify the spatial extent where negative energy density prevails which could be useful for studying quantum field effects in worm holes and baby universe, and for examining the design feasibility of real-life `time-machines'. For the Minkowski vacuum we find that the ratio of the var...

Phillips, N G; Phillips, Nicholas. G.

2000-01-01

383

Comparative evaluation of bone marrow aspirate particle smears, imprints and biopsy sections.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Comparative evaluation of bone marrow aspirate particle smears, imprints and biopsy sections was done on 30 haematological problems. Core needle biopsy of the bone marrow is a safe and useful procedure. It is a valuable diagnostic aid for measurement of marrow cellularity, metastatic tumours and fibrosis. It should not be taken as a substitute for examination of the marrow by aspiration smear but is a complementary procedure which affords several advantages. Bone marrow biopsy was of maximum utility in myelofibrosis which was diagnosed on biopsy alone. There were three additional cases with normal bone marrow aspiration in which specific diagnosis could only be made from bone marrow biopsy sections. New methodologies i.e. plastic embedding and semi thin sections of undecalcified bone marrow, can be expected to improve the cytological details of tissue obtained by biopsy. Imprint preparations obtained from biopsy can be useful in patients of malignancy but we have found them to be of limited value except in cases of dry tap.

Sabharwal B

1990-10-01

384

AdS black holes, the bulk-boundary dictionary, and smearing functions  

CERN Document Server

In Lorentzian AdS/CFT there exists a mapping between local bulk operators and nonlocal CFT operators. In global AdS this mapping can be found through use of bulk equations of motion and allows the nonlocal CFT operator to be expressed as a local operator smeared over a range of positions and times. We argue that such a construction is not possible if there are bulk normal modes with exponentially small near boundary imprint. We show that the AdS-Schwarzschild background is such a case, with the horizon introducing modes with angular momentum much larger than frequency, causing them to be trapped by the centrifugal barrier. More generally, we argue that any barrier in the radial effective potential which prevents null geodesics from reaching the boundary will lead to modes with vanishingly small near boundary imprint, thereby obstructing the existence of a smearing function. While one may have thought the bulk-boundary dictionary for low curvature regions, such as the exterior of a black hole, should be as in ...

Leichenauer, Stefan

2013-01-01

385

Autoinducer-2 activity produced by bacteria found in smear of surface ripened cheeses  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bacterial strains of the species Arthrobacter nicotianae, Corynebacterium ammoniagenes, Corynebacterium casei, Microbacterium barkeri, Microbacterium gubbeenense and Staphylococcus equorum subsp. linens, all isolated from the smear of surface ripened cheeses, were found to possess autoinducer-2 (AI-2) activity using the Vibrio harveyi (BB170) bioluminescence assay. In contrast, Brevibacterium casei and Brevibacterium linens strains were not found to have AI-2 activity. When exposed to low pH and high NaCl concentrations, AI-2 activities increased between 5.0 and 11.6Ã? for C. casei 44701, M. gubbeenense 15944 and S. equorum subsp. linens 15097, whereas AI-2 activities did not increase for A. nicotianae 20123, C. ammoniagenes 20305, C. ammoniagenes 20306 and M. barkeri 20145. The fact that AI-2 activity is produced by bacterial strains found in the smear of surface ripened cheeses, and also increased by dairy-relevant stress conditions, indicates that AI-2 signalling might be important in regulation of microbial succession during ripening of surface ripened cheeses.

Gori, Klaus; Moslehi Jenabian, Saloomeh

2011-01-01

386

Frequencies of X-ray induced chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes of xeroderma pigmentosum and Fanconi anemia patients estimated by Giemsa and fluorescence in situ hybridization staining techniques  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Blood lymphocytes from xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Fanconi anemia (FA) patients were assessed for their sensitivity to ionizing radiation by estimating the frequency of X-ray (1 and 2 Gy)-induced chromosome aberrations (CA). The frequencies of aberrations in the whole genome were estimated in Giemsa-stained preparations of lymphocytes irradiated at G0 or G2 stages. The frequencies of translocations and dicentrics involving chromosomes 1 and 3 as well as the X-chromosome were determined in ...

2000-01-01

387

Hematochezia before the First Feeding in a Newborn with Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The prevalence and incidence of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) are clearly not known; its onset before first feeding at birth especially has been rarely reported. A female newborn was referred to our institution due to blood-stained diarrhea before her first feeding at birth. Examination of the stool with Wright-Giemsa staining on day 6 revealed numerous fecal eosinophils, including Charcot-Leyden crystals. Lymphocyte stimulation test (LST) against cow's milk protein also...

Mizuno, Masanori; Masaki, Hiroshi; Yoshinare, Ryoko; Ito, Yujun; Morita, Hideyuki; Yoshio, Hiroyuki

2011-01-01

388

Isolation of an Anaplasma sp. Organism from White-Tailed Deer by Tick Cell Culture  

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We used tick cell culture to isolate a bacterium previously referred to as the “white-tailed deer (WTD) agent” from two captive fawns inoculated with blood from wild WTD (Odocoileus virginianus). Buffy coat cells were added to ISE6 tick cell cultures and incubated at 34°C, and 8 days later, Anaplasma-like inclusions were demonstrated in Giemsa-stained culture samples. The microbes became established and could be continuously passaged in tick cells. The identity of a culture isolate desig...

Munderloh, Ulrike G.; Tate, Cynthia M.; Lynch, Meghan J.; Howerth, Elizabeth W.; Kurtti, Timothy J.; Davidson, William R.

2003-01-01

389

Trypanosoma evansi isolated from capybara (Hidrochaeris hidrochaeris  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the morphological and biometric characteristics of Trypanosoma isolated from 50 capybaras animals, raised in captivity in the Peruvian Amazon. Trypanosoma was found in 14 blood samples using the microhaematocrit, wide drop, and Giemsa-stain methods and T. evansi was identified through morphological details in all 14 positive samples (the subterminal kinetoplast, the developed undulating membrane, and a long free flagellum were used for the identification of the agent.

Karina Muñoz

2001-10-01

390

Fault transmissibility in clastic-argillaceous sequences controlled by clay smear evolution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Document available in extended abstract form only. The mechanical entrainment of clays and shales in fault zones of sedimentary sequences can exert fundamental control on fault-permeability. To estimate the influence of entrained clay bands on fluid flow, semi-empirical fault-seal algorithms are being used for hydrocarbon exploration (e.g. Yielding et al., 1997) and CO2 storage assessment (e.g. Bretan et al., 2011). To estimate clay distribution in the fault zone, these algorithms do not consider material properties or deformation conditions at the time of faulting, but rather they rely on the simplified assumption that fault gouge composition at any point along the fault reflects the 'mean' clay fraction of the slipped interval. Whether individual clay bands are breached or are continuous is not evaluated, yet this could have a dramatic effect on fault transmissibility. In this study, the sealing capacity of clay smears evolving in sealed direct shear experiments of initially intact sandstone-clay-stone sequences was quantified to large displacements up to more than ten times the thickness of the clay layer. A new type of direct shear cell was specifically designed for these experiments (Giger et al., 2011). The sample blocks consisted of a pre-consolidated clay-rich 'seal' layer, which was embedded and synthetically cemented in 'reservoir' quartz sand. The mineralogy and mechanical properties of the clay layer and the reservoir sandstones were constrained in geomechanical tests. Discrete element modelling (DEM) was carried out in parallel to investigate a wider range of deformation conditions, and to explore the possibility to upscale the analogue test results. The fluid flow response across the fault zone could be monitored continuously during deformation. A tracer was also added to the clay layer, and the finite 3D smear structure could be resolved (using a medical CT scanner) and related to the flow response (Ciftci et al., 2011). Displacement at which seals break down is closely linked to the clay content in the seal layer. Contrary to expectations, softer seal layers do not seal better than stiff seal layers for given clay content. In the testing range between 4 - 24 MPa covering maximum burial depth conditions of ?800 m to ?4 km (assuming normal fault tectonics), a systematic trend is also observed indicating better smear continuity by increasing the effective normal stress. Predominantly brittle processes such as slicing and wear, and not ductile drag or plastic flow appear to be responsible for the generation of clay smears. The test results offer the prospect of incorporating critical shale smear factors (i.e. normalized displacement at which seal breakdown occurs) into probabilistic fault seal algorithms that take into account important properties that can be measured or estimated, namely, layer clay content, and fault normal effective stress. Such mechanistically improved fault seal algorithms are also relevant for the safety assessment of sediment formations above and below a potential radioactive waste repository. (authors)

2012-10-01

391

Sputum Smear Microscopy: Evaluation of Impact of Training, Microscope Distribution, and Use of External Quality Assessment Guidelines for Resource-Poor Settings?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sputum smear microscopy is the main and often only laboratory technique used for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in resource-poor countries, making quality assurance (QA) of smear microscopy an important activity. We evaluated the effects of a 5-day refresher training course for laboratory technicians and the distribution of new microscopes on the quality of smear microscopy in 13 primary health care laboratories in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. The 2002 external QA guidelines for aci...

Rie, A.; Fitzgerald, D.; Kabuya, G.; Deun, A.; Tabala, M.; Jarret, N.; Behets, F.; Bahati, E.

2008-01-01

392

Sputum smear microscopy: evaluation of impact of training, microscope distribution, and use of external quality assessment guidelines for resource-poor settings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sputum smear microscopy is the main and often only laboratory technique used for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in resource-poor countries, making quality assurance (QA) of smear microscopy an important activity. We evaluated the effects of a 5-day refresher training course for laboratory technicians and the distribution of new microscopes on the quality of smear microscopy in 13 primary health care laboratories in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. The 2002 external QA guidelines for aci...

Rie, A.; Fitzgerald, D.; Kabuya, G.; Deun, A.; Tabala, M.; Jarret, N.; Behets, F.; Bahati, E.

2008-01-01

393

A scanning electron microscopy study of root surface smear layer removal after topical application of EDTA plus a detergent Remoção de smear layer de superfícies radiculares com aplicação tópica de EDTA com detergente. Análise em microscopia eletrônica de varredura  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the present study was to compare root surface smear layer removal following topical application of EDTA and EDTA-T (Texapon). Extracted human teeth had their cementum removed and were mechanically scaled. A total of 220 root specimens were obtained and were randomly assigned to the following groups: I-saline solution (control), II-EDTA; III-EDTA-T. Groups II and III specimens were assigned to different EDTA gel concentrations: 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 24%. Smear layer removal score wa...

José Eduardo Cezar Sampaio; Flávia Pavan Campos; Gibson Luiz Pilatti; Letícia Helena Theodoro; Fábio Renato Manzolli Leite

2005-01-01

394

Effectiveness of EDTA and EDTA-T brushingm on the removal of root surface smear layer Efeito do EDTA e EDTA-T aplicado de forma ativa na remoção de "smear layer" de superfícies radiculares  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the removal of root surface smear layer following active application of EDTA gel and EDTA-T (texapon gel in different concentrations (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 24%, using scanning electron microscopy. A total of 220 dentin blocks obtained from the root surfaces of extracted teeth were divided into 3 groups: Group I - (control application of saline solution (n = 20; Group II - EDTA gel (pH 7.0 was applied in the following concentrations: 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 24% (n = 100; Group III - EDTA-T gel (pH 7.0 applied in the same concentrations described above (n = 100. The photomicrographs were evaluated by one calibrated examiner using a smear layer removal index and following statistical analysis (Kruskal-Wallis test. The results demonstrated that the specimens treated with EDTA and EDTA-T gel presented a better smear layer removal than the control group (p 0.05. Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that all treatment modalities effectively removed the smear layer from the root surface. The addition of texapon into the EDTA gel formulation did not increase its effectiveness.O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar, através de microscopia eletrônica de varredura, o efeito da aplicação de gel de EDTA e de EDTA-T (texapon em diferentes concentrações (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% e 24% na remoção de "smear layer" de superfícies radiculares previamente raspadas com instrumentos manuais. Duzentos e vinte espécimes de superfícies radiculares submetidas à raspagem foram divididos em 3 grupos. Grupo I - (controle solução salina (n = 20; Grupo II - gel de EDTA (pH 7,0 nas concentrações de 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% e 24% (n = 100; Grupo III - gel de EDTA-T (pH 7,0 nas concentrações acima descritas (n = 100. As fotomicrografias obtidas foram avaliadas por um examinador calibrado através da aplicação de um índice de remoção de "smear layer", e os dados foram analisados através de análise estatística (teste de Kruskal-Wallis. Os resultados demonstraram que todos os tratamentos com EDTA e EDTA-T foram mais efetivos na remoção de "smear layer" quando comparados com o grupo controle (p 0,05. Dentro dos limites deste estudo, pode-se concluir que todas as modalidades de tratamento foram efetivas na remoção de "smear layer" e a adição de texapon ao gel de EDTA não aumentou a efetividade do tratamento.

José Eduardo Cezar Sampaio

2003-12-01

395

Effectiveness of EDTA and EDTA-T brushingm on the removal of root surface smear layer / Efeito do EDTA e EDTA-T aplicado de forma ativa na remoção de "smear layer" de superfícies radiculares  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar, através de microscopia eletrônica de varredura, o efeito da aplicação de gel de EDTA e de EDTA-T (texapon) em diferentes concentrações (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% e 24%) na remoção de "smear layer" de superfícies radiculares previamente raspadas com instrumentos ma [...] nuais. Duzentos e vinte espécimes de superfícies radiculares submetidas à raspagem foram divididos em 3 grupos. Grupo I - (controle) solução salina (n = 20); Grupo II - gel de EDTA (pH 7,0) nas concentrações de 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% e 24% (n = 100); Grupo III - gel de EDTA-T (pH 7,0) nas concentrações acima descritas (n = 100). As fotomicrografias obtidas foram avaliadas por um examinador calibrado através da aplicação de um índice de remoção de "smear layer", e os dados foram analisados através de análise estatística (teste de Kruskal-Wallis). Os resultados demonstraram que todos os tratamentos com EDTA e EDTA-T foram mais efetivos na remoção de "smear layer" quando comparados com o grupo controle (p 0,05). Dentro dos limites deste estudo, pode-se concluir que todas as modalidades de tratamento foram efetivas na remoção de "smear layer" e a adição de texapon ao gel de EDTA não aumentou a efetividade do tratamento. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to compare the removal of root surface smear layer following active application of EDTA gel and EDTA-T (texapon) gel in different concentrations (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 24%), using scanning electron microscopy. A total of 220 dentin blocks obtained from the root surfaces [...] of extracted teeth were divided into 3 groups: Group I - (control) application of saline solution (n = 20); Group II - EDTA gel (pH 7.0) was applied in the following concentrations: 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 24% (n = 100); Group III - EDTA-T gel (pH 7.0) applied in the same concentrations described above (n = 100). The photomicrographs were evaluated by one calibrated examiner using a smear layer removal index and following statistical analysis (Kruskal-Wallis test). The results demonstrated that the specimens treated with EDTA and EDTA-T gel presented a better smear layer removal than the control group (p 0.05). Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that all treatment modalities effectively removed the smear layer from the root surface. The addition of texapon into the EDTA gel formulation did not increase its effectiveness.

Sampaio, José Eduardo Cezar; Rached, Ricardo Samih Georges Abi; Pilatti, Gibson Luiz; Theodoro, Letícia Helena; Batista, Luiz Henrique Carvalho.

396

Vacuum structure revealed by over-improved stout-link smearing compared with the overlap analysis for quenched QCD  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A detailed comparison is made between the topological structure of quenched QCD as revealed by the recently proposed over-improved stout-link smearing in conjunction with an improved gluonic definition of the topological density on one hand and a similar analysis made possible by the overlap-fermionic topological charge density both with and without variable ultraviolet cutoff {lambda}{sub cut}. The matching is twofold, provided by fitting the density-density two-point functions on one hand and by a point-by-point fitting of the topological densities according to the two methods. We point out the similar cluster structure of the topological density for moderate smearing and 200 MeV<{lambda}{sub cut}<600 MeV, respectively. We demonstrate the relation of the gluonic topological density for extensive smearing to the location of the overlap zero modes and the lowest overlap non-zero mode as found for the unsmeared configurations. (orig.)

Ilgenfritz, E.M.; Leinweber, D.; Moran, P. [Adelaide Univ., SA (AU). Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter (CSSM); Koller, K. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Sektion Physik; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Weinberg, V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

2008-01-11

397

Vacuum structure revealed by over-improved stout-link smearing compared with the overlap analysis for quenched QCD  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A detailed comparison is made between the topological structure of quenched QCD as revealed by the recently proposed over-improved stout-link smearing in conjunction with an improved gluonic definition of the topological density on one hand and a similar analysis made possible by the overlap-fermionic topological charge density both with and without variable ultraviolet cutoff ?cut. The matching is twofold, provided by fitting the density-density two-point functions on one hand and by a point-by-point fitting of the topological densities according to the two methods. We point out the similar cluster structure of the topological density for moderate smearing and 200 MeVcut<600 MeV, respectively. We demonstrate the relation of the gluonic topological density for extensive smearing to the location of the overlap zero modes and the lowest overlap non-zero mode as found for the unsmeared configurations. (orig.)

2008-01-01

398

Smear biopsies: a cause of negative follow-up biopsies in patients with premalignant conditions of the uterine cervix.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cervical scrape technique used in diagnostic cytology may strip off epithelial sheets larger than 0.5 mm. We call them smear biopsies. We followed with cytological, histopathological and clinical examinations 28 nonpregnant women whose smear biopsies showed severe dysplasia or carcinoma in situ. All of them were followed for at least 4 years. In only two of them was atypical epithelium discovered. Our study shows that a cervical scraping may result in negative follow-up histology due to removal of all premalignant epithelium. The cytology findings in these cases should not be considered wrong by either the histopathologists or the clinicans, and the patient should be followed closely with cytological smears to detect recurrences or progression to carcinoma at an early stage. PMID:7439010

Berner, A; Høeg, K; Oppedal, B R

1980-01-01

399

Comparison of plant injection and leaf smearing techniques with 32P for root distribution studies of bajra (Pennisetum typhoids stapf)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The investigation was carried out to find the applicability of 32P plant injection and leaf smearing techniques for root distribution studies of bajra. In sand culture studies with two bajra varieties, K-559 and D-356 at two stages (50 and 70 days after sowing) and 3 periods of sampling (2, 5 and 8 days after application of the 32P activity), specific activity values of different root sections showed an unequal distribution of activity upto 5 days. The equilibrium was attained after 8 days period in all the treatments. 32P plant injection technique was found better than leaf smearing technique in respect to percentage of activity transported to the roots. However, the leaf smearing technique offers some advantages in the root kinetic studies. (author)

1973-01-01

400

Vacuum structure revealed by over-improved stout-link smearing compared with the overlap analysis for quenched QCD  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A detailed comparison is made between the topological structure of quenched QCD as revealed by the recently proposed over-improved stout-link smearing in conjunction with an improved gluonic definition of the topological density on one hand and a similar analysis made possible by the overlap-fermionic topological charge density both with and without variable ultraviolet cutoff ?cut. The matching is twofold, provided by fitting the density-density two-point functions on one hand and by a point-by-point fitting of the topological densities according to the two methods. We point out the similar cluster structure of the topological density for moderate smearing and 200 MeVcut<600 MeV, respectively. We demonstrate the relation of the gluonic topological density for extensive smearing to the location of the overlap zero modes and the lowest overlap nonzero mode as found for the unsmeared configurations.

2008-04-01