WorldWideScience

Sample records for giemsa-stained blood smears

  1. Investigation of a novel approach to scoring Giemsa-stained malaria-infected thin blood films

    Scholzen Anja

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Daily assessment of the percentage of erythrocytes that are infected ('percent-parasitaemia' across a time-course is a necessary step in many experimental studies of malaria, but represents a time-consuming and unpopular task among researchers. The most common method is extensive microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained thin blood-films. This study explored a method for the assessment of percent-parasitaemia that does not require extended periods of microscopy and results in a descriptive and permanent record of parasitaemia data that is highly amenable to subsequent 'data-mining'. Digital photography was utilized in conjunction with a basic purpose-written computer programme to test the viability of the concept. Partial automation of the determination of percent parasitaemia was then explored, resulting in the successful customization of commercially available broad-spectrum image analysis software towards this aim. Lastly, automated discrimination between infected and uninfected RBCs based on analysis of digital parameters of individual cell images was explored in an effort to completely automate the calculation of an accurate percent-parasitaemia.

  2. Identification of causative Leishmania species in Giemsa-stained smears prepared from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in Peru using PCR-RFLP.

    Koarashi, Yu; Cáceres, Abraham G; Saca, Florencia Margarita Zúniga; Flores, Elsa Elvira Palacios; Trujillo, Adela Celis; Alvares, José Luis Abanto; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Arikawa, Jiro; Katakura, Ken; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Kato, Hirotomo

    2016-06-01

    A PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) targeting the mannose phosphate isomerase gene was established to differentiate Leishmania species distributed near the Department of Huanuco, Peru. The technique was applied to 267 DNA samples extracted from Giemsa-stained smears of cutaneous lesions taken from patients suspected for cutaneous leishmaniasis in the area, and the present status of causative Leishmania species was identified. Of 114 PCR-amplified samples, 22, 19, 24 and 49 samples were identified to be infected by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, L. (V.) peruviana, L. (V.) guyanensis, and a hybrid of L. (V.) braziliensis/L. (V.) peruviana, respectively, and the validity of PCR-RFLP was confirmed by sequence analysis. Since PCR-RFLP is simple and rapid, the technique will be a useful tool for the epidemiological study of leishmaniasis. PMID:26943992

  3. DNA comet Giemsa staining for conventional bright-field microscopy.

    Osipov, Andreyan; Arkhangelskaya, Ekaterina; Vinokurov, Alexei; Smetanin?, Nadezhda; Zhavoronkov, Alex; Klokov, Dmitry

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the compatibility of Giemsa staining protocol with the comet assay. We showed, for the first time, that DNA comets can be visualized and analyzed using Giemsa staining. We generated DNA damage dose response curves for human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to X-ray radiation using the comet assay with either SybrGreen I or Giemsa stain. The dose response curves were fitted by linear regressions (R2>0.977). The SybrGreen I results showed only ~1.2-fold higher slope coefficient (method sensitivity) compared to the Giemsa results. The unexpectedly high sensitivity of Giemsa staining for the comet assay is due to the Romanowsky-Giemsa effect, the stain photo-stability and the higher resolution of bright-field imaging compared to fluorescence imaging. Our results demonstrate that Giemsa staining can effectively be used for measuring DNA damage by the comet assay. The low cost and availability of Giemsa stain makes this method affordable for any low budget research and will facilitate new applications of the comet assay in biology and medicine. PMID:24727376

  4. DNA Comet Giemsa Staining for Conventional Bright-Field Microscopy

    Andreyan Osipov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate the compatibility of Giemsa staining protocol with the comet assay. We showed, for the first time, that DNA comets can be visualized and analyzed using Giemsa staining. We generated DNA damage dose response curves for human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to X-ray radiation using the comet assay with either SybrGreen I or Giemsa stain. The dose response curves were fitted by linear regressions (R2 > 0.977. The SybrGreen I results showed only ~1.2-fold higher slope coefficient (method sensitivity compared to the Giemsa results. The unexpectedly high sensitivity of Giemsa staining for the comet assay is due to the Romanowsky-Giemsa effect, the stain photo-stability and the higher resolution of bright-field imaging compared to fluorescence imaging. Our results demonstrate that Giemsa staining can effectively be used for measuring DNA damage by the comet assay. The low cost and availability of Giemsa stain makes this method affordable for any low budget research and will facilitate new applications of the comet assay in biology and medicine.

  5. External quality assessment of Giemsa-stained blood film microscopy for the diagnosis of malaria and sleeping sickness in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Pierre Mukadi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report the findings of a second external quality assessment of Giemsa-stained blood film microscopy in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, performed one year after the first. METHODS: A panel of four slides was delivered to diagnostic laboratories in all provinces of the country. The slides contained: (i Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes; (ii P. falciparum trophozoites (reference density: 113 530 per µl; (iii Trypanosoma brucei subspecies; and (iv no parasites. FINDINGS: Of 356 laboratories contacted, 277 (77.8% responded. Overall, 35.0% of the laboratories reported all four slides correctly but 14.1% reported correct results for 1 or 0 slides. Major errors included not diagnosing trypanosomiasis (50.4%, not recognizing P. falciparum gametocytes (17.5% and diagnosing malaria from the slide with no parasites (19.0%. The frequency of serious errors in assessing parasite density and in reporting false-positive results was lower than in the previous external quality assessment: 17.2% and 52.3%, respectively, (P < 0.001 for parasite density and 19.0% and 33.3%, respectively, (P < 0.001 for false-positive results. Laboratories that participated in the previous quality assessment performed better than first-time participants and laboratories in provinces with a high number of sleeping sickness cases recognized trypanosomes more frequently (57.0% versus 31.2%, P < 0.001. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests were used by 44.3% of laboratories, almost double the proportion observed in the previous quality assessment. CONCLUSION: The overall quality of blood film microscopy was poor but was improved by participation in external quality assessments. The failure to recognize trypanosomes in a country where sleeping sickness is endemic is a concern.

  6. Blood Smear

    ... red in color with a pale center after staining the blood smear. When the appearance of RBCs ( ... They can ingest particles such as cellular debris, bacteria , or other insoluble particles. Lymphocytes are smaller in ...

  7. Diagnosis and Characterization of Leishmania Species in Giemsa-Stained slides by PCR-RFLP

    E Kazemi-Rad

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Direct identification of Leishmania species in Giemsa-stained slides without parasite culturing in the areas where multiple species exist, is very helpful. This study was designed to isolate Leishmani spp. from Giemsa-stained smears and to characterize them by PCR technique.Methods: A total of 48 Giemsa-Stained slides from confirmed cases of leishmaniasis were examined under a light micro­scope at×1000 and classified based on grading of Leishmania parasites. DNA from each slide was extracted separately and sub­jected to PCR. The ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1 was amplified with specific primers and the PCR prod­ucts were digested with a restriction enzyme (HaeIII.Results: Of the 48 microscopy-positive slides, 43(89.6% were positive by PCR-RFLP and Leishmania species were identi­fied. A statistically significant difference was observed between the both methods (P< 0.05 and also a concordance was found between microscopy and PCR-RFLP (k= 0.55.Conclusion: PCR-RFLP seems to be an effective method to identify Leishmania species from Giemsa-stained smears which have been collected from both infected humans and animal reservoir hosts in Iran.

  8. Identifying different types of chromatin using Giemsa staining.

    Stockert, Juan C; Blázquez-Castro, Alfonso; Horobin, Richard W

    2014-01-01

    Mixtures of polychrome methylene blue-eosin Y (i.e., Giemsa stain) are widely used in biological staining. They induce a striking purple coloration of chromatin DNA (the Romanowsky-Giemsa effect), which contrasts with the blue-stained RNA-containing cytoplasm and nucleoli. After specific prestaining treatments that induce chromatin disorganization (giving banded or harlequin chromosomes), Giemsa staining produces a differential coloration, with C- and G-bands appearing in purple whereas remaining chromosome regions are blue. Unsubstituted (TT) and bromo-substituted (BT) DNAs also appear purple and blue, respectively. The same occurs in the case of BT and BB chromatids.In addition to discussing the use of Giemsa stain as a suitable method to reveal specific features of chromosome structure, some molecular processes and models are also described to explain Giemsa staining mechanisms of chromatin. PMID:24162977

  9. Blood smear

    ... of RBCs due to body destroying them ( immune hemolytic anemia ) Low number of RBCs due to some red ... of Heinz bodies may indicate: Alpha thalassemia Congenital hemolytic anemia Disorder in which red blood cells break down ...

  10. A Malaria Diagnostic Tool Based on Computer Vision Screening and Visualization of Plasmodium falciparum Candidate Areas in Digitized Blood Smears

    Linder, Nina; Turkki, Riku; Walliander, Margarita; Mårtensson, Andreas; Diwan, Vinod; Rahtu, Esa; Pietikäinen, Matti; Lundin, Mikael; Lundin, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Microscopy is the gold standard for diagnosis of malaria, however, manual evaluation of blood films is highly dependent on skilled personnel in a time-consuming, error-prone and repetitive process. In this study we propose a method using computer vision detection and visualization of only the diagnostically most relevant sample regions in digitized blood smears. Methods Giemsa-stained thin blood films with P. falciparum ring-stage trophozoites (n = 27) and uninfected controls (n ...

  11. A rapid method for counting nucleated erythrocytes on stained blood smears by digital image analysis

    Gering, E.; Atkinson, C.T.

    2004-01-01

    Measures of parasitemia by intraerythrocytic hematozoan parasites are normally expressed as the number of infected erythrocytes per n erythrocytes and are notoriously tedious and time consuming to measure. We describe a protocol for generating rapid counts of nucleated erythrocytes from digital micrographs of thin blood smears that can be used to estimate intensity of hematozoan infections in nonmammalian vertebrate hosts. This method takes advantage of the bold contrast and relatively uniform size and morphology of erythrocyte nuclei on Giemsa-stained blood smears and uses ImageJ, a java-based image analysis program developed at the U.S. National Institutes of Health and available on the internet, to recognize and count these nuclei. This technique makes feasible rapid and accurate counts of total erythrocytes in large numbers of microscope fields, which can be used in the calculation of peripheral parasitemias in low-intensity infections.

  12. Giemsa-stained wet mount based method for reticulocyte quantification: a viable alternative in resource limited or malaria endemic settings.

    Lee, Wenn-Chyau; Russell, Bruce; Lau, Yee-Ling; Fong, Mun-Yik; Chu, Cindy; Sriprawat, Kanlaya; Suwanarusk, Rossarin; Nosten, Francois; Renia, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    The quantity of circulating reticulocytes is an important indicator of erythropoietic activity in response to a wide range of haematological pathologies. While most modern laboratories use flow cytometry to quantify reticulocytes, most field laboratories still rely on 'subvital' staining. The specialist 'subvital' stains, New Methylene Blue (NMB) and Brilliant Crésyl Blue are often difficult to procure, toxic, and show inconsistencies between batches. Here we demonstrate the utility of Giemsa's stain (commonly used microbiology and parasitology) in a 'subvital' manner to provide an accurate method to visualize and count reticulocytes in blood samples from normal and malaria-infected individuals. PMID:23565221

  13. Comparative study of the efficacy of Wright-Giemsa stain and Liu's stain in the detection of Auer rods in acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    Yue, Qing Fang; Xiong, Bei; Chen, Wan Xin; Liu, Xin Yue

    2014-07-01

    In view of the importance of Auer rods in the rapid diagnosis of acute promyelocytic leukemia, we compared the results of Wright-Giemsa stain and Liu's stain (a rapid and simple stain, which is also a kind of modified Romanowsky stain) in the detection of Auer rods. This study was based on 53 cases of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Two staining methods were respectively performed on the bone marrow smears of these cases, and presence of Auer rods as well as nuclear features, cytoplasmic features and the degree of granularity of the cytoplasm were compared in each case. Our results showed that the occurrence of Auer rods as well as faggots in leukemic promyelocytes were significantly higher under Liu's stain than under Wright-Giemsa stain. Significant differences also existed in the occurrence of hypergranular cells and cytoplasmic protrusions between smears stained with Liu's stain and Wright-Giemsa stain. Liu's stain is important for the rapid diagnosis of suspicious APL, especially in recognizing Auer rods. PMID:24958342

  14. Reliable DNA Extraction on Historical Malaria Negative Smears Conducted to Nested PCR in South-East of Iran

    A. Ebrahimzadeh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of PCR depends on many factors, such as high quality DNA pellets obtained from fixed Giemsa-stained blood samples, good reagents and adequate conditions of amplification. In account of this limitations, a retrospective epidemiological study for malaria diagnosis was conducted in a hypoendemic area, Sistan and Baluchestan province of south-east of Iran. For the first time this research designed to perform a nested PCR protocol using new and modified method of DNA extraction from negative Fixed and Giemsa Stained smears. This study demonstrated 11.55% PCR positive for Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum which were undetectable by microscopy.

  15. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI, BIOPSY SAMPLES FROM DIFFERENT GASTRIC LESIONS WITH TRIPLE STAINING AND MODIFIED GIEMSA STAINING

    Pavan Kumar Pindi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori are associated with most of the disorders of gastro-duodenal tract, such as gastritis, gastric ulcers, dyspepsia and gastric carcinoma. Many staining methods have been developed for the detection of these bacteria from gastric biopsies. However most of the methods adopted were shown to be more expensive, less sensitive, time consuming with less background information. In view of this, the present study was carried out to check the validity of triple staining method against modified Giemsa staining. For this study, 60 biopsy specimens were selected from different gastric lesions as chronic gastritis (30, gastric ulcers (10 and gastric carcinoma (20. These specimens were subjected to modified Giemsa staining showed purple to dark purple bacteria with bluish background. The results showed 56.66, 40 and 15 percentage positivity for chronic gastritis, benign gastric ulcers and malignant gastric lesions, respectively. The stained sections of triple staining showed black to dark brown bacteria with pink colored background with 70, 50 and 10 percentage positivity for chronic gastritis, benign gastric ulcers and malignant gastric lesions, respectively. From the present study it is clear that triple staining method is more sensitive than the modified Giemsa staining.

  16. Improved techniques using Giemsa stained glycol methacrylate tissue sections to quantitate basophils and other leukocytes in inflammatory skin lesions.

    Vogt, R F; Hynes, N A; Dannenberg, A M; Castracane, S; Weiss, L

    1983-07-01

    Improved techniques were developed for processing inflammatory skin lesions in glycol methacrylate (JB-4, Polysciences, Inc.) and for quantitating their leukocyte infiltrates by light microscopy: (1) fixation of entire pelts from rabbits, guinea pigs, rats and mice bearing multiple lesions eliminated artifacts due to biopsy and produced uniformly oriented skin sections; (2) adding dimethylsulfoxide and hydrogen peroxide to the Karnovsky-type fixative increased the rate and effectiveness of fixation; (3) the presence of glycerol in the infiltrating methacrylate and the polymerized plastic block improved the sectionability of skin and other tissues; (4) coating slides with JB-4 Solution A prevented detachment of specimens; (5) Giemsa staining at a carefully selected pH provided optimal differentiation of leukocytes from the several species examined, including man. These techniques, which allowed an accurate histologic assessment of inflammatory skin lesions, were especially valuable for quantitating basophils. PMID:6197773

  17. External quality assessment of Giemsa-stained blood film microscopy for the diagnosis of malaria and sleeping sickness in the Democratic Republic of the Congo / valuation externe de la qualit de la microscopie de frottis sanguins colors au Giemsa pour le diagnostic du paludisme et de la maladie du sommeil en Rpublique dmocratique du Congo / Evaluacin de calidad externa de la microscopa en frotis de sangre con tincin de Giemsa para el diagnstico de la malaria y la enfermedad del sueo en la Repblica Democrtica del Congo

    Pierre, Mukadi; Philippe, Gillet; Albert, Lukuka; Benjamin, Atua; Nicole, Sheshe; Albert, Kanza; Jean Bosco, Mayunda; Briston, Mongita; Raphal, Senga; John, Ngoyi; Jean-Jacques, Muyembe; Jan, Jacobs; Veerle, Lejon.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Informar de los resultados de una segunda evaluacin de calidad externa de la microscopa en frotis de sangre con tincin de Giemsa en la Repblica Democrtica del Congo, llevada a cabo un ao despus de la primera. MTODOS: Se entreg un panel de cuatro muestras a laboratorios de diagnst [...] ico de todas las provincias del pas. Las muestras contenan: (i) gametocitos Plasmodium falciparum; (ii) trofozotos P. falciparum (densidad de referencia: 113 530 por l); (iii) subespecies de Trypanosoma brucei y (iv) ningn parsito. RESULTADOS: De los 356 laboratorios contactados, respondieron 277 (77,8%). En total, el 35,0% de los laboratorios inform de las cuatro muestras correctamente, pero el 14,1% inform de resultados correctos en una o ninguna de las muestras. Los principales errores consistieron en no diagnosticar la tripanosomiasis (50,4%), no reconocer los gametocitos P. falciparum (17,5%) y diagnosticar malaria en la muestra sin parsitos (19,0%). La frecuencia de errores graves en la evaluacin de la densidad de los parsitos y en informar de resultados con falsos positivos fue menor que en la evaluacin de calidad externa anterior. El 17,2% y el 52,3%, respectivamente (P Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To report the findings of a second external quality assessment of Giemsa-stained blood film microscopy in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, performed one year after the first. METHODS: A panel of four slides was delivered to diagnostic laboratories in all provinces of the country. The [...] slides contained: (i) Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes; (ii) P. falciparum trophozoites (reference density: 113 530 per l); (iii) Trypanosoma brucei subspecies; and (iv) no parasites. FINDINGS: Of 356 laboratories contacted, 277 (77.8%) responded. Overall, 35.0% of the laboratories reported all four slides correctly but 14.1% reported correct results for 1 or 0 slides. Major errors included not diagnosing trypanosomiasis (50.4%), not recognizing P. falciparum gametocytes (17.5%) and diagnosing malaria from the slide with no parasites (19.0%). The frequency of serious errors in assessing parasite density and in reporting false-positive results was lower than in the previous external quality assessment: 17.2% and 52.3%, respectively, (P

  18. Prevalence of theileriosis in cross-bred cattle: its detection through blood smear examination and polymerase chain reaction in Dehradun district, Uttarakhand, India

    Shweta Kohli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Theileriosis is a major threat to dairy and related industries. Theileria is a protozoan parasite that causes theileriosis, a fatal disease. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of theileriosis in crossbred cattle belonging to Dehradun district, Uttarakhand, India. Materials and Methods: We screened 301 blood samples each month from apparently normal/healthy crossbred cattle from various locations of Dehradun district. Samples were tested using Giemsa's staining technique and specific PCR test. Result: Microscopic examination of blood smears revealed 27.2% (82 overall prevalence of theileriosis. The highest prevalence was found in rainy season with a prevalence rate 45.4%. By Theileria genus specific PCR test, 98 samples (32.5 % were found to be positive for theileriosis. Conclusion: Our study suggests that theileriosis is spreading to even the temperate region in Uttarakhand and immediate screening norms/policies are needed to reduce the extent of spread. There is a need for further investigation using molecular technique.

  19. CENTRIFUGED BUFFY COAT SMEAR: AN ALTERNATIVE TO CONVENTIONAL PERIPHERAL BLOOD SMEAR FOR DIAGNOSIS OF MALARIA

    Neelam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Malaria continues to be a global public health challenge with more than 200 million deaths annually, specially in the tropical and subtropical countries.(1 In India malaria is endemic throughout the country, problem accounting for 1-2 million cases and 1100 deaths per year.(1 The commonly employed method for diagnosis of malaria involves the microscopic examination of Romanowsky stained blood films.(2 For decades light microscopy of blood smears has been the gold standard in the diagnosis of malaria.(3 It is labor intensive and requires considerable expertise for its interpretation, particularly at low level of parasitaemia.(4 The diagnostic modalities which are available for malaria range from conventional thick and thin smears, Quantitative buffy coat smears(QBC, to rapid and more reliable diagnostic modalities like antigen detection tests for detecting parasitic antigen like Histidine rich protein-2 (HRP-2, Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH and pan specific aldolase. These techniques have variable sensitivity and specificity.(5 Each of these methods have their own advantages and disadvantages. A previous study from India(6 had developed standardized and reported on using Centrifuged buffy coat smear (CBCS examination for diagnosis of malaria, in which wide bore 4 ml tube instead of a Wintrobes tube has been used to obtain a buffy coat. This technique has advantage over the existing method. The purpose of the present study was to assess the usefulness of CBCS technique in comparison to peripheral blood smear and antigen detection. AIMS: Detection of malarial parasite by Centrifuged buffy coat smear (CBCS was compared with conventional thin and thick peripheral smear and antigen detection by commercially available card test. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of CBCS in comparison to peripheral blood smear and antigen detection. METHODS, MATERIALS AND RESULTS: A total of 837 patients were tested for malaria by all the three techniques. The maximum number of cases were positive by antigen test (230, 37.9%, followed by CBCS (214, 35.3% and Peripheral smear (171, 28.2%. However, antigen test could not detect 04 cases, out of which one was picked up by both PS and CBCS and 3 by CBCS only. Antigen test was exclusively positive in 17 cases. A definite relationship was found with degree of parasitaemia. At high parasite level of >1000/microl, all the three tests detected malaria equally, but at lower level of parasitaemia (<200 parasites/microl PBS could not detect in comparison with CBCS and antigen test in 28 and 25 cases respectively. Similarly at moderate parasitaemia (200-1000 parasites/microl PS failed to detect 6 and 5 cases in comparison with CBCS and antigen test. The results of CBCS and antigen test correlated well. Thus by adding centrifugation to conventional PS, we could detect 43 more cases which included 26 with low level of parasitaemia. CONCLUSION: Though malaria antigen detection is considered gold standard for diagnosis of malaria, CBCS method has an advantage over peripheral blond smear in a country like India where antigen test and QBC are costly options.

  20. RBCs and Parasites Segmentation from Thin Smear Blood Cell Images

    Vishal V. Panchbhai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Manually examine the blood smear for the detection of malaria parasite consumes lot of time for trend pathologists. As the computational power increases, the role of automatic visual inspection becomes more important. An automated system is therefore needed to complete as much work as possible for the identification of malaria parasites. The given scheme based on used of RGB color space, G layer processing, and segmentation of Red Blood Cells (RBC as well as cell parasites by auto-thresholding with offset value and use of morphological processing. The work compare with the manual results obtained from the pathology lab, based on total RBC count and cells parasite count. The designed system successfully detects malaria parasites and RBC cells in thin smear image.

  1. [Technical recommendations and best practice guidelines for May-Grnwald-Giemsa staining: literature review and insights from the quality assurance].

    Piaton, Eric; Fabre, Monique; Goubin-Versini, Isabelle; Bretz-Grenier, Marie-Franoise; Courtade-Sadi, Monique; Vincent, Serge; Belleanne, Genevive; Thivolet, Franoise; Boutonnat, Jean; Debaque, Herv; Fleury-Feith, Jocelyne; Vielh, Philippe; Cochand-Priollet, Batrix; Egel, Caroline; Bellocq, Jean-Pierre; Michiels, Jean-Franois

    2015-08-01

    May-Grnwald-Giemsa (MGG) stain is a Romanowsky-type, polychromatic stain as those of Giemsa, Leishman and Wright. Apart being the reference method of haematology, it has become a routine stain of diagnostic cytopathology for the study of air-dried preparations (lymph node imprints, centrifuged body fluids and fine needle aspirations). In the context of their actions of promoting the principles of quality assurance in cytopathology, the French Association for Quality Assurance in Anatomic and Cytologic Pathology (AFAQAP) and the French Society of Clinical Cytology (SFCC) conducted a proficiency test on MGG stain in 2013. Results from the test, together with the review of literature data allow pre-analytical and analytical steps of MGG stain to be updated. Recommendations include rapid air-drying of cell preparations/imprints, fixation using either methanol or May-Grnwald alone for 3-10minutes, two-step staining: 50% May-Grnwald in buffer pH 6.8 v/v for 3-5minutes, followed by 10% buffered Giemsa solution for 10-30minutes, and running water for 1-3minutes. Quality evaluation must be performed on red blood cells (RBCs) and leukocytes, not on tumour cells. Under correct pH conditions, RBCs must appear pink-orange (acidophilic) or buff-coloured, neither green nor blue. Leukocyte cytoplasm must be almost transparent, with clearly delineated granules. However, staining may vary somewhat and testing is recommended for automated methods (slide stainers) which remain the standard for reproducibility. Though MGG stain remains the reference stain, Diff-Quik() stain can be used for the rapid evaluation of cell samples. PMID:26188673

  2. Can Sex Be Determined from a Blood Smear?

    Mohamed Brahimi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Originally, this blind study was designed to check whether blood smears constitute reliable tools to determine sex. However, when we analyzed our data some interesting findings immerged and in this paper we try to highlight them. Material and Methods: 74 blood smears (35 women and 39 men have been performed and then stained. 200 polynuclearneutrophils were examined for nuclear appendages and classified into four groups: neutrophils with form A, B or C appendages and neutrophils without any appendage.The difference (A-C was calculated for each slide. The “cytologic sex” was defined as a male in case of a negative value and as a female otherwise. Results: Neutrophils bear the same amount of appendages in both genders (p=0.37. But the number of form A is greater in females (p<0.0001 and form C is much more frequent in males (p<0.0001, that is why, the difference A-C is the best way to differentiate between both sexes.The distribution histogram of A-C in women shows a multimodal histogram contrary to men’s graphwhich is a bell-shaped curve. The menstrual cycle was incriminated in this feature. Conclusion: Blood smear is a reliable tool to determine gender.

  3. Can Sex Be Determined from a Blood Smear?

    Brahimi, Mohamed; Adda, Affaf; Lazreg, Hassiba; Beliali, Hadjer; Osmani, Soufi; Bekadja, Mohamed Amine

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Originally, this blind study was designed to check whether blood smears constitute reliable tools to determine sex. However, when we analyzed our data some interesting findings immerged and in this paper we try to highlight them. Material and Methods: 74 blood smears (35 women and 39 men) have been performed and then stained. 200 polynuclearneutrophils were examined for nuclear appendages and classified into four groups: neutrophils with form A, B or C appendages and neutrophils without any appendage.The difference (A-C) was calculated for each slide. The “cytologic sex” was defined as a male in case of a negative value and as a female otherwise. Results: Neutrophils bear the same amount of appendages in both genders (p=0.37). But the number of form A is greater in females (p<0.0001) and form C is much more frequent in males (p<0.0001), that is why, the difference A-C is the best way to differentiate between both sexes.The distribution histogram of A-C in women shows a multimodal histogram contrary to men’s graphwhich is a bell-shaped curve. The menstrual cycle was incriminated in this feature. Conclusion: Blood smear is a reliable tool to determine gender. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24385754

  4. Peripheral blood smear image analysis: A comprehensive review

    Emad A Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral blood smear image examination is a part of the routine work of every laboratory. The manual examination of these images is tedious, time-consuming and suffers from interobserver variation. This has motivated researchers to develop different algorithms and methods to automate peripheral blood smear image analysis. Image analysis itself consists of a sequence of steps consisting of image segmentation, features extraction and selection and pattern classification. The image segmentation step addresses the problem of extraction of the object or region of interest from the complicated peripheral blood smear image. Support vector machine (SVM and artificial neural networks (ANNs are two common approaches to image segmentation. Features extraction and selection aims to derive descriptive characteristics of the extracted object, which are similar within the same object class and different between different objects. This will facilitate the last step of the image analysis process: pattern classification. The goal of pattern classification is to assign a class to the selected features from a group of known classes. There are two types of classifier learning algorithms: supervised and unsupervised. Supervised learning algorithms predict the class of the object under test using training data of known classes. The training data have a predefined label for every class and the learning algorithm can utilize this data to predict the class of a test object. Unsupervised learning algorithms use unlabeled training data and divide them into groups using similarity measurements. Unsupervised learning algorithms predict the group to which a new test object belong to, based on the training data without giving an explicit class to that object. ANN, SVM, decision tree and K-nearest neighbor are possible approaches to classification algorithms. Increased discrimination may be obtained by combining several classifiers together.

  5. COMPARABLE CYTOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTIC OF BLOOD SMEARS ON BABESIA INFECTION

    Pokhyl S.І.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In last time Babesiosis as a tick-borne hemoprotozoans human disease have a very important role in differentil diagnostics of modern infectious medicine. It caused by protozon of the genus Babesia, which invade and destory erythrocytes. Babesiosis olso has been called tick fever. So, Babesia has been known by other genus names, including Nuttallia, Microbabesia, Babesialla, and Gonderia. Because all Babesia species are piroplasms, a more inclusive term for anthropozoonotic infections caused by these organisms would be piroplasmosis.They detective complicacy are bild that, tick-borne disease agents from prolongate life cycles involving arthropod and vertebrate host. The complexity is enhanced by the diversity of hosts in different biotopes, which depends on factors life type of vegetation, climate and/or human influence, such as restoration of former industrial sites, which leads to the development of new biotopes. So, on the one hand, new habitats for plants and animals including ticks, and nature are created. About the first case of babesiosis infection was reported as a cause of human sickness in 1969 in northeastern United State. Several hundred cases are now reported from this region each year. The disease is characterized by a grandual oncet of malaise with anorexia, fever, headaches, myalgia, and other vague symptoms, which may persist for long period. Occasionally dangerous fulminating infections occur particularly in immunocompromised or aged individuals. The purpose of the present research was to study of the cytological diagnostic of blood smears from object’s with the Babesia infection. Materials and methods. Blood smears (by Romanovsky- Gimze (standart, Wright’s standart and staining, the author’s modification, 2014 of domestic dogs (n = 31 of both sexes with Babesia infection at the age from 3 months to 6 years served as the material for the study. The preparations were fixed during 1-2 seconds with 96 % ethyl alcohol. Then warmed (t = 36.0 ± 2.0°С commercial matrix solutions of eosin, azure and methylene blue were applied one by one. The smears were rinsed (1-2 seconds in distilled water and dehydrated. The procedure ended with short-term drying in a diffused stream of warm dry air (Samsung house fan, power 220 W. The results were compared with intact control. Smears were contrasted and analysed under a microscope LOMU (LOMO, Russia: x 300; x400; x1000; x1350 and photographed with a digital camera “Canon EOS-3000”. Results. Blood samples infected with Babesia species were collected (may-october from naturally (promenade in forest-park tick-borne infected dogs (Canis familiaris in all Kharkov region and sity. All (experimental animals were monitored twice daily by veterinary doctors for clinical signs and had rectal temperatures taken (authors have a greate thankness for the cooperation and consolidation Chif -Mr. Yu. V. Al’okhin and veterinary personal of Kharkov Center of Clinical Veterinary. Blood was drawn daily for hematocrit determination and peripheral blood smear were made from ear vien blood to determine parasitemia status. As result of the analysis of blood smears it was found out that against a background of orange erythrocyte cytoplasm the preparation area easily revealed crimson- and red-lilac pyriform (n = 8-12 in the field of vision of the preparation, annular (n = 9-16 in the field of vision, amoebiform haemoparasites and those with other shapes (Σ=13, thereby indicating a high level of infection (81.8 %. Owing to their own chromatophilic feature, protozoan cells looked geometrically marked and clearly contrasted against a background of the saturated red-violet colour of nuclei. The developed technique of staining facilitated: a more qualitative analysis of ontogenetic staging (III of Babesia (trophozoites, merozoites, sporozoites; improvement of differential diagnosis of the haemoparasites with blood platelets (the latter were distinguished from cells of the causative agent by the presence of marked ovaloid azurophilic granules in the cytoplasm of young forms (Σ = 1-3 in the field of vision and azurophilic granularity in mature forms; better differential diagnosis with intracellular inclusions (intraerythrocytic Cabot rings, Howell–Jolly bodies; improved differential diagnosis with solid elements of sediments of used stains (the above artifacts were in a saturated dark blue or black colour and observed very seldom. Conclusions. By the results of the cytological diagnostic of blood smears it was revealed that domestic dogs with clinically detected Babesia infection had a high level of contaminaiton with parasites. In our studies this level was 81.8 %. Has been established that using of the blood smears by Romanovsky- Gimze in Wright’s the author’s modification (2014 are very effective to extrimal medecine and perspective for next clinical investigation.

  6. Detection of cryptococcosis in peripheral blood smear: A case report

    Nayal, Bhavna; Veena; Niveditha, S; Chethan, M

    2011-01-01

    Disseminated cryptococcosis is usually detected by cytological examination of fluids and histopathological examination of tissues and confirmed by fungal cultures. Here we report a case of unusual presence of cryptococcal organism engulfed by neutrophils and monocytes in the peripheral smear.

  7. Investigations of significance of blood smear results in diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases in dogs

    Potkonjak Aleksandar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The microscopic examination of stained smears of peripheral blood is of vital significance in the speedy diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases, in particular during the stage of infection when the cause is present in the blood, or blood cells. It is sometimes possible to make a definitive diagnosis of an infectious or parasitic disease following an examination of a stained smear of the peripheral blood. Since microscopic examinations of a peripheral blood smear are applied increasingly rarely in clinical practice, due to the development of other methods for the diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases in dogs, as well as the lack of knowledge of the morphology of the numerous causes that can be present in the blood, we carried out an investigation into the presence and spread of infections whose causes can be present in dog blood. The investigations covered 100 dogs from which peripheral blood smears were taken and then stained with a Giemsa solution according to the standard protocol and examined under a microscope with an immersion lens. The examination of peripheral blood smears stained according to Giemsa resulted in the identification of the presence of an Ehrlichia spp. morula in a neutrophil granulocyte in one dog. The presence of hemotropic mycoplasmas was established in erythrocytes of eleven dogs, while the presence of the protozoa Babesia canis in erythrocytes was identified in five dogs included in the investigations. A microscopic examination of dog peripheral blood smears stained according to Giemsa was shown as a speedy, practical, simple, and inexpensive method for making a definitive etiological diagnosis of these infections, and it should be included regularly in standard protocols for the diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases.

  8. Molecular Epidemiological Survey of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Two Highly Endemic Metropolises of Iran, Application of FTA Cards for DNA Extraction From Giemsa-Stained Slides

    Izadi, Shahrokh; Mirhendi, Hossein; Jalalizand, Niloufar; Khodadadi, Hossein; Mohebali, Mehdi; Nekoeian, Shahram; Jamshidi, Ali; Ghatee, Mohammad Amin

    2016-01-01

    Background: PCR has been used for confirmation of leishmaniasis in epidemiological studies, but complexity of DNA extraction and PCR approach has confined its routine use in developing countries. Objectives: In this study, recent epidemiological situation of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in two hyper-endemic metropolises of Shiraz and Isfahan in Iran was studied using DNA extraction by commercial FTA cards and kinetoplastid DNA (kDNA)-PCR amplification for detection/identification of Leishmania directly from stained skin scraping imprints. Patients and Methods: Fifty four and 30 samples were collected from clinically diagnosed CL patients referred to clinical laboratories of leishmaniasis control centers in Isfahan and Shiraz cities, respectively. The samples were examined by direct microscopy and then scrapings of the stained smears were applied to FTA cards and used directly as DNA source in a nested-PCR to amplify kDNA to detect and identify Leishmania species. Results: Fifty four of 84 (64.2%) slides obtained from patients had positive results microscopically, while 79/84 (94%) of slides had positive results by FTA card-nested-PCR. PCR and microscopy showed a sensitivity of 96.4% and 64.2% and specificity of 100% and 100%, respectively. Interestingly, Leishmania major as causative agent of zoonotic CL was identified in 100% and 90.7% of CL cases from Isfahan and Shiraz cities, respectively, but L. tropica was detected from only 9.3% of cases from Shiraz city. All cases from central regions of Shiraz were L. tropica and no CL case was found in Isfahan central areas. Conclusions: Filter paper-based DNA extraction can facilitate routine use of PCR for diagnosis of CL in research and diagnostic laboratories in Iran and countries with similar conditions. Epidemiologic changes including dominancy of L. major in suburbs of Shiraz and Isfahan metropolises where anthroponotic CL caused by L. tropica had been established, showed necessity of precise studies on CL epidemiology in old urban and newly added districts in the suburbs. PMID:27127596

  9. Comparison of PCR-Based Diagnosis with Centrifuged-Based Enrichment Method for Detection of Borrelia persica in Animal Blood Samples

    SR Naddaf

    2011-06-01

    Background: The mainstay of diagnosis of relapsing fever (RF is demonstration of the spirochetes in Giemsa-stained thick blood smears, but during non fever periods the bacteria are very scanty and rarely detected in blood smears by microscopy. This study is aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of different methods developed for detection of low-grade spirochetemia. Methods: Animal blood samples with low degrees of spirochetemia were tested with two PCRs and a nested PCR targeting flaB, GlpQ, and rrs genes. Also, a centrifuged-based enrichment method and Giemsa staining were performed on blood samples with various degrees of spirochetemia. Results: The flaB-PCR and nested rrs-PCR turned positive with various degrees of spirochetemia including the blood samples that turned negative with dark-field microscopy. The GlpQ-PCR was positive as far as at least one spirochete was seen in 5-10 microscopic fields. The sensitivity of GlpQ-PCR increased when DNA from Buffy Coat Layer (BCL was used as template. The centrifuged-based enrichment method turned positive with as low concentration as 50 bacteria/ml blood, while Giemsa thick staining detected bacteria with concentrations ? 25000 bacteria/ml. Conclusion: Centrifuged-based enrichment method appeared as much as 500-fold more sensitive than thick smears, which makes it even superior to some PCR assays. Due to simplicity and minimal laboratory requirements, this method can be considered a valuable tool for diagnosis of RF in rural health centers.

  10. Comparison of PCR-Based Diagnosis with Centrifuged-Based Enrichment Method for Detection of Borrelia Persica in Animal Blood Samples

    SR Naddaf

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mainstay of diagnosis of relapsing fever (RF is demonstration of the spirochetes in Giemsa-stained thick blood smears, but during non fever periods the bacteria are very scanty and rarely detected in blood smears by mi­cros­copy. This study is aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of different methods developed for detection of low-grade spi­ro­chetemia. Methods: Animal blood samples with low degrees of spirochetemia were tested with two PCRs and a nested PCR tar­get­ing flaB, GlpQ, and rrs genes. Also, a centrifuged-based enrichment method and Giemsa staining were per­formed on blood samples with various degrees of spirochetemia. Results: The flaB-PCR and nested rrs-PCR turned positive with various degrees of spirochetemia including the blood samples that turned negative with dark-field microscopy. The GlpQ-PCR was positive as far as at least one spi­ro­chete was seen in 5-10 microscopic fields. The sensitivity of GlpQ-PCR increased when DNA from Buffy Coat Layer (BCL was used as template. The centrifuged-based enrichment method turned positive with as low concentra­tion as 50 bacteria/ml blood, while Giemsa thick staining detected bacteria with concentrations ≥ 25000 bacteria/ml. Conclusion: Centrifuged-based enrichment method appeared as much as 500-fold more sensitive than thick smears, which makes it even superior to some PCR assays. Due to simplicity and minimal laboratory requirements, this method can be considered a valuable tool for diagnosis of RF in rural health centers.

  11. High throughput imaging of blood smears using white light diffraction phase microscopy

    Majeed, Hassaan; Kandel, Mikhail E.; Bhaduri, Basanta; Han, Kevin; Luo, Zelun; Tangella, Krishnarao; Popescu, Gabriel

    2015-03-01

    While automated blood cell counters have made great progress in detecting abnormalities in blood, the lack of specificity for a particular disease, limited information on single cell morphology and intrinsic uncertainly due to high throughput in these instruments often necessitates detailed inspection in the form of a peripheral blood smear. Such tests are relatively time consuming and frequently rely on medical professionals tally counting specific cell types. These assays rely on the contrast generated by chemical stains, with the signal intensity strongly related to staining and preparation techniques, frustrating machine learning algorithms that require consistent quantities to denote the features in question. Instead we opt to use quantitative phase imaging, understanding that the resulting image is entirely due to the structure (intrinsic contrast) rather than the complex interplay of stain and sample. We present here our first steps to automate peripheral blood smear scanning, in particular a method to generate the quantitative phase image of an entire blood smear at high throughput using white light diffraction phase microscopy (wDPM), a single shot and common path interferometric imaging technique.

  12. Erythrocyte dysplasia in peripheral blood smears from 5 thrombocytopenic dogs treated with vincristine sulfate.

    Collicutt, Nancy B; Garner, Bridget

    2013-12-01

    Secondary dyserythropoiesis has been associated with vincristine administration in dogs. Evaluation of bone marrow aspirates for the presence of morphologic abnormalities in the erythroid lineage aids in the diagnosis. However, morphologic features of circulating erythroid precursors in these cases have not been described previously. The purpose of this report was to describe the cytologic features of dyserythropoiesis in peripheral blood and also bone marrow smears in a case series of dogs with immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (IMT) treated with vincristine sulfate. Nineteen dogs receiving vincristine for treatment of IMT were identified by retrospectively searching a computerized medical record system. There were 5 dogs that had dysplastic erythroid precursors in peripheral blood smears within 7 days of vincristine treatment. Two of those 5 dogs also had evidence for erythrodysplasia in modified Wright's-stained bone marrow smears obtained postvincristine administration. Morphologic changes included bizarre or inappropriate mitotic figures, abnormal nuclear configurations (fragmentation, elongation, indentation, and binucleation), atypical nuclear remnants (Howell-Jolly bodies), or nuclear and cytoplasmic asynchrony within the erythroid precursors. A brief review of the literature with discussion of the etiologies for dyserythropoiesis is provided. The dyserythropoiesis was clinically insignificant in all 5 cases and resolved. However, pathologists and clinicians should be aware of these potential findings to prevent misdiagnosis of other conditions. PMID:24138476

  13. Evaluation of Peripheral Blood Smear for Myelodysplasia in Breast Cancer Patients who Received Adjuvant Antracycline

    Hasan Mutlu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN account for approximately 10% to 20% of all cases of AML (acute myeloid leukemia, MDS (myelodysplastic syndrome and MDS/MPN (myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasms, MDS, and MDS/MPN. In our study, we evaluated peripheral blood smear samples and hemogram values in breast cancer patients who were receiving adjuvant anthracycline regimens and were in remission. Materials and Methods: A total of 78 patients receiving anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy treatment from Kayseri Research and Training Hospital and Mersin State Hospital were enrolled in the study. Their adjuvant treatments had been completed at least 18 months prior to the study. Results: Two patients complained of anemia (2.2% (Hb<11 mg/dl, leukopenia was observed in seven patients (7.7% (leukocytes<4000/mm3, and thrombocytopenia was observed in four patients (4.4% (PLT<150.000/mm3. In the blood smear samples, the following were observed: ovalomacrocytes (14%, macrocytes (37%, acanthocytes (1%, stomatocytes (12%, teardrops (12%, nucleated erythrocytes (1%, basophilic stippling (14%, and Howell-Jolly bodies (1%. Additionally, hypo-granulation (38%, Pelger-Huet abnormalities (26%, hypersegmentation (20%, immature granulocytes (8%, and blasts (6% were observed. We also confirmed the presence of giant platelets (50% and platelet hypogranulation (19%. Conclusion: According to the peripheral blood smear assessments in our study, we suggest that breast cancer patients should be evaluated for MDS in the early stages, starting from month 18, even if the automated blood counts are normal.

  14. Detection of Theileria annulata in blood samples of native cattle by PCR and smear method in Southeast of Iran.

    Nourollahi-Fard, Saeid R; Khalili, Mohammad; Ghalekhani, Nima

    2015-06-01

    Theileria annulata, a protozoan parasite of cattle is causes tropical theileriosis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to assess the presence and the frequency of T. annulata infection in blood samples obtained from carrier cattle in Kerman, Southeast of Iran. Blood samples were collected in citrate solution from 150 native cattle with mean age of 1year which selected randomly. Primarily, a thin layer smear was prepared from their ear sublime vein blood and was fixed with methanol and stained with Giemsa dye. Blood smears were examined for the presence of parasites, and blood samples were analyzed by PCR. Piroplasmic forms of T. annulata were seen in 16 of 150 (10.66%) by examination the blood smears with light microscope, whereas 68 of 150 (45.33%) cattle were positive by PCR method. All animals that were positive by blood smears were also positive by PCR. Difference between these methods was significant (P<0.05). Our results demonstrate that this PCR assay in diagnosing T. annulata parasites in carrier cattle is more sensitive than method of smear preparation and can be used in epidemiological studies. PMID:26064010

  15. Labelling of T cell subsets under field conditions in tropical countries. Adaptation of the immuno-alkaline phosphatase staining method for blood smears

    Lisse, I M; Whittle, H; Aaby, P; Normark, M; Gyhrs, A; Ryder, L P

    1990-01-01

    Immuno-alkaline phosphatase (AP) staining for T cell subsets (CD4 and CD8) of smears from fingerprick blood functioned well under tropical climatic conditions when smears were stored frozen with silica gel before being labelled. Unlabelled smears were stored for up to 12 months and could be...

  16. Counting White Blood Cells from a Blood Smear Using Fourier Ptychographic Microscopy

    Chung, Jaebum; Ou, Xiaoze; Kulkarni, Rajan P.; Yang, Changhuei

    2015-01-01

    White blood cell (WBC) count is a valuable metric for assisting with diagnosis or prognosis of various diseases such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, or infection. Counting WBCs can be done either manually or automatically. Automatic methods are capable of counting a large number of cells to give a statistically more accurate reading of the WBC count of a sample, but the specialized equipment tends to be expensive. Manual methods are inexpensive since they only involve a convention...

  17. Concerted spatial-frequency and polarization-phase filtering of laser images of polycrystalline networks of blood plasma smears

    Ushenko, Yu A.

    2012-11-01

    The complex technique of concerted polarization-phase and spatial-frequency filtering of blood plasma laser images is suggested. The possibility of obtaining the coordinate distributions of phases of linearly and circularly birefringent protein networks of blood plasma separately is presented. The statistical (moments of the first to fourth orders) and scale self-similar (logarithmic dependences of power spectra) structure of phase maps of different types of birefringence of blood plasma of two groups of patients-healthy people (donors) and those suffering from rectal cancer-is investigated. The diagnostically sensitive parameters of a pathological change of the birefringence of blood plasma polycrystalline networks are determined. The effectiveness of this technique for detecting change in birefringence in the smears of other biological fluids in diagnosing the appearance of cholelithiasis (bile), operative differentiation of the acute and gangrenous appendicitis (exudate), and differentiation of inflammatory diseases of joints (synovial fluid) is shown.

  18. Production and validation of durable, high quality standardized malaria microscopy slides for teaching, testing and quality assurance during an era of declining diagnostic proficiency

    Sismadi Priyanto; Muth Sinuon; Duong Socheat; Jordon Robert G; O'Meara Wendy; Barcus Mazie J; Lederman Edith R; Maguire Jason D; Bangs Michael J; Prescott W Roy; Baird J Kevin; Wongsrichanalai Chansuda

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Sets of Giemsa-stained, blood smear slides with systematically verified composite diagnoses would contribute substantially to development of externally validated quality assurance systems for the microscopic diagnosis of malaria. Methods whole blood from Plasmodium-positive donors in Cambodia and Indonesia and individuals with no history of risk for malaria was collected. Using standard operating procedures, technicians prepared Giemsa-stained thick and thin smears from ea...

  19. Blood donors screening for malaria in non-endemic area in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Is it necessary to introduce immunological testing?

    Elyamany, Ghaleb; Al Gharawi, Ali; Alrasheed, Mohammed; Alsuhaibani, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In Saudi Arabia, where malaria is not endemic, the incidence is very low. However, malaria transmission cases have been reported, mainly in Asir and Jazan provinces along the Southwestern border with Yemen. Imported cases also have been reported. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of malaria in blood donors in a tertiary care hospital in the central area of Saudi Arabia and to assess the effectiveness of malaria screening methods used by transfusion services in Prince Sultan Military Medical City. Methods This study was conducted on 180,000 people who donated blood during 2006–2015. All blood smears from blood donors were screened for malaria infection using Giemsa staining, low power and high power microscopic examinations, and using oil immersion lens. The data were analyzed and reported in descriptive statistics and prevalence. Results From the total of 180,000 blood donors who were screened for malaria, 156,000 (87%) and 23.400 (13%) were Saudi Arabia citizens and non-Saudi residents, respectively. The mean age of the blood donors was 32 (ranging from 18 to 65), 97% and 3% were male and female, respectively. Using our current method for malaria screening, the prevalence of malaria in the study population was zero. Conclusion The current methods of malaria screening in blood donors is not suitable for screening low-level parasiotemia. Adding the immunoassay and molecular screening methods is suggested. PMID:27054011

  20. Prevalence of Oral Trichomoniasis in Patients with Periodontitis and Gingivitis Using PCR and Direct Smear

    A Athari

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichomonas tenax, a commensal flagellated protozoan, inhabits in human oral cavity. This parasite is cos-mopolitan and frequently found in patients with poor oral hygiene and advanced periodontal disease. There is only one published study that rebound the prevalence of this parasite in Iran. This PCR based study compared the prevalence of oral trichomoniasis in patients with oral diseases and a healthy control group.Methods: From May 2005 to April 2006, the subgingival dental plaques of 160 patients with gingivitis or periodontitis and 160 controls who attended to Dental School of Shaheed Beheshti Medical University, Iran were taken and examined by wet mount smear, and Giemsa staining. Likewise, a PCR protocol was developed for specific detection of T.tenax using a pair of primers designed for its 18S rRNA gene. Results: Thirty three (20.6% of patients were PCR positive while 28 (15.5% were diagnosed using wet preparation and Giemsa staining. In the other hand, 2 (1.9% of control group were identified positive by PCR procedure. The prevalence of oral trichomoniasis in our study (20.6% was compatible with many other published reports which mostly has ranged from 12%-32%. Conclusion: The study revealed dependence between the frequency of occurrence of T. tenax and the state of periodontitis. The present PCR procedure could provide a simple and rapid detection method of T. tenax in dental plague.

  1. A study of eosinophil count in nasal and blood smear in allergic respiratory diseases in a rural setup

    Naveen Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic respiratory disorders are fairly common visiting cases in pediatrics outpatient department (OPD. With an appropriate history and detailed examination, diagnosis may not be problematic. Routine investigation may not contribute much to the final diagnosis but may help in ruling out other possibilities. This study was done to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of blood or nasal eosinophilia in subjects suffering from allergic respiratory disorders and also to assess the feasibility of nasal cytogram which is a simple, economical and reliable investigation in allergic respiratory disorders. This is a prospective clinical correlation study of patients attending outpatient department. 100 subjects aged between 2-18 years of either sex were selected for the estimation of eosinophil count in nasal and peripheral smear in allergic respiratory disorders. All allergic respiratory cases based on eosinophillia. The nasal and blood eosinophilia were compared with each other and clinical findings of allergic rhinitis with or without asthma were studied. In this study peak age incidence was seen between 11-18 years and it was more common in males. Rhinorrhoea, pale mucosa and nasal obstruction were common findings in allergic rhinitis with bronchial asthma. Nasal eosinophilia was seen in 52.4% and 64.9% of cases of allergic rhinitis and allergic rhinitis with asthma respectively. Blood eosinophilia was seen in 54% and 56.8% of cases of allergic rhinitis with asthma respectively. Nasal cytogram which is a simple, economical and non- invasive procedure can be used as an alternative to invasive peripheral smear eosinophilia as both are equally efficacious in diagnosing allergic respiratory diseases.

  2. In search of the malarial parasite: biographical sketches of the blood stain contributors.

    Krafts, Kristine; Hempelmann, Ernst; Oleksyn, Barbara J

    2011-09-01

    Methylene blue was synthesized by Caro in 1876 at BASF, a chemical company. Six years later, Koch employed methylene blue when he discovered the tubercle bacillus. In 1880, Ehrlich described what he termed "neutral" dyes: mixtures of acidic and basic dyes for the differentiation of cells in peripheral blood smears. Bernthsen prepared in 1886 a relatively pure dye, obtained by decomposition of methylene blue, and called it methylene azure. In 1891, Malachowski developed a method which used mixtures of eosin and "ripened" methylene blue that not only differentiated blood cells, but also demonstrated the nuclei of malarial parasites. Romanowsky later performed the same feat with an unrepeatable method. A number of "ripening" (polychroming) techniques were investigated by different groups (Nocht 1899) but the aqueous dye solutions produced were unstable and precipitated rapidly. Subsequently, methanol was introduced as a solvent for the dye precipitate (Jenner 1899) and techniques were developed that utilized the fixative properties of the methanolic solution prior to aqueous dilution for staining (Wright 1902). Giemsa (1902) further improved these techniques by developing more precise methods of methylene blue demethylation and adding glycerol as a stabilizing agent to the methanol solvent. Today, the Malachowski-Wright-Giemsa stain continues to be regarded as the world's standard diagnostic technique for malaria. PMID:21660627

  3. Complete blood cell count in psittaciformes by using high-throughput image cytometry: a pilot study.

    Beaufrre, Hugues; Ammersbach, Mlanie; Tully, Thomas N

    2013-09-01

    The avian hemogram is usually performed in veterinary diagnostic laboratories by using manual cell counting techniques and differential counts determined by light microscopy. There is no standard automated technique for avian blood cell count and differentiation to date. These shortcomings in birds are primarily because erythrocytes and thrombocytes are nucleated, which precludes the use of automated analyzers programmed to perform mammal complete blood cell counts. In addition, there is no standard avian antibody panel, which would allow cell differentiation by immunophenotyping across all commonly seen bird species. We report an alternative hematologic approach for quantification and differentiation of avian blood cells by using high-throughput image cytometry on blood smears in psittacine bird species. A pilot study was designed with 70 blood smears of different psittacine bird species stained with a Wright-Giemsa stain. The slides were scanned at 0.23 microm/pixel. The open-source softwares CellProfiler and CellProfiler Analyst were used for analyzing and sorting each cell by image cytometry. A "pipeline" was constructed in the CellProfiler by using different modules to identify and export hundreds of measures per cell for shape, intensity, and texture. Rules for classifying the different blood cell phenotypes were then determined based on these measurements by iterative feedback and machine learning by using CellProfiler Analyst. Although this approach shows promises, avian Leukopet results could not be duplicated when using this technique as is. Further studies and more standardized prospective investigations may be needed to refine the "pipeline" strategy and the machine learning algorithm. PMID:24344512

  4. STUDY OF TZANCK SMEARS OVER A PERIOD OF SIX MONTHS

    Shailaja

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Cytology of cutaneous lesions can be used for preliminary and rapid diagnosis of many skin diseases. Though the gold standard is a biopsy with or without immunofluorescent studies, the use of simple Tzanck test gives reliable information in many varieties of skin lesions. It is especially useful for cutaneous herpetic lesions and also for early presumptive diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris. AIMS : The study was carried out to determine the usefulness of Tzanck test in herpetic lesions, pemphigus vulgaris and other cutaneous lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS : The present study was a prospective one, carried out over a six month period in the department of pathology at Kamineni Academy of Medical Sciences and Resear ch Centre, Hyderabad, from June 2014 to December 2014. A total of twenty - one Tzanck smears were studied. The material was collected in the Dermatology out - patient department by the dermatologist and sent to the laboratory. A Giemsa stain was used for all t he smears and examined under the microscope. RESULTS : There were total 21 cases ranging in age from 3 years to 62 years. There were 11 male and 10 female patients, the male to female ratio being 1.1:1. There were 8 cases of herpes zoster and Tzanck smear w as reported positive in 5 cases (62.5%. For pemphigus vulgaris, out of 4 cases, 2 (50% were reported positive on Tzanck smear. As biopsy was not available for all the cases the histopathological correlation could not be done. CONCLUSION : Tzanck smear is a rapid, simple, inexpensive and reliable test which is useful for the diagnosis of cutaneous viral infections like herpes zoster, varicella and molluscum contagiosum. It is also helpful for the presumptive diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris thereby facilitat ing early treatment of the patients

  5. Pap Smear

    ... page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Pap Smear; Cervical Smear; Cervical/Vaginal Cytology Formal name: Papanicolaou Test Related tests: HPV Test ; Trichomonas Testing All content on Lab Tests Online has ... I should know? How is it used? A Pap test is primarily used to screen for cervical ...

  6. Clonality and phenotyping of canine lymphomas before chemotherapy and during remission using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on lymph node cytologic smears and peripheral blood

    Thilakaratne, Dilini N.; Mayer, Monique N.; MacDonald, Valerie S.; Jackson, Marion L.; Trask, Brenda R.; Kidney, Beverly A.

    2010-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor genes were utilized to determine phenotype and clonality from lymph node cytologic smears and peripheral blood lymphocytes from 10 dogs with lymphoma, before chemotherapy and during remission. Results were compared with those from 13 dogs with a cytologic diagnosis of lymph node hyperplasia. Clonality was identified in 7 of the lymphomas on the basis of either lymph node cytology or peripheral blood lymphocytes ...

  7. Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Technique based Prevalence of Surra in Equines

    Ahsan Nadeem, Asim Aslam*, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary, Kamran Ashraf1, Khalid Saeed1, Nisar Ahmad1, Ishtiaq Ahmed and Habib ur Rehman2

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This project was carried out to find the prevalence of trypanosomiasis in equine in District Gujranwala by using indirect fluorescent antibody technique and thin smear method. Blood samples were collected from a total of 200 horses and donkeys of different ages and either sex. Duplicate thin blood smears were prepared from each sample and remaining blood samples were centrifuged to separate the serum. Smears from each animal were processed for giemsa staining and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT. Giemsa stained smears revealed Trypanosome infection in 4/200 (2.0% samples and IFAT in 12/200 (6.0% animals.

  8. Cytoplasm enhancement operator of peripheral blood smear images that are instable-stained and overexposed

    Zheng, Xin; Wang, Guoyou; Liu, Jianguo

    2015-12-01

    Nucleus and cytoplasm are both essential for white blood cell recognition but the edges of cytoplasm are too blurry to be detected because of instable staining and overexposure. This paper aims at proposing a cytoplasm enhancement operator (CEO) to achieve accurate convergence of the active contour model. The CEO contains two parts. First, a nonlinear over-exposure enhancer map is yielded to correct over-exposure, which suppresses background noise while preserving details and improving contrast. Second, the over-exposed regions of cytoplasm in particular is further enhanced by a tri- modal histogram specification based on the scale-space filtering. The experimental results show that the proposed CEO and its corresponding GVF snake is superior to other unsupervised segmentation approaches.

  9. Extraction of nucleolus candidate zone in white blood cells of peripheral blood smear images using curvelet transform.

    Soltanzadeh, Ramin; Rabbani, Hossein; Talebi, Ardeshir

    2012-01-01

    The main part of each white blood cell (WBC) is its nucleus which contains chromosomes. Although white blood cells (WBCs) with giant nuclei are the main symptom of leukemia, they are not sufficient to prove this disease and other symptoms must be investigated. For example another important symptom of leukemia is the existence of nucleolus in nucleus. The nucleus contains chromatin and a structure called the nucleolus. Chromatin is DNA in its active form while nucleolus is composed of protein and RNA, which are usually inactive. In this paper, to diagnose this symptom and in order to discriminate between nucleoli and chromatins, we employ curvelet transform, which is a multiresolution transform for detecting 2D singularities in images. For this reason, at first nuclei are extracted by means of K-means method, then curvelet transform is applied on extracted nuclei and the coefficients are modified, and finally reconstructed image is used to extract the candidate locations of chromatins and nucleoli. This method is applied on 100 microscopic images and succeeds with specificity of 80.2% and sensitivity of 84.3% to detect the nucleolus candidate zone. After nucleolus candidate zone detection, new features that can be used to classify atypical and blast cells such as gradient of saturation channel are extracted. PMID:22666305

  10. Laboratory diagnosis of malaria by conventional peripheral blood smear examination with Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC and Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT - A comparative study

    Bhat Sandhya K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Rapid diagnosis is prerequisite for effective treatment and reducing mortality and morbidity of malaria. Microscopy has been the Gold standard for malaria diagnosis for decades. Recently, many new rapid diagnostic tests like Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC examination and rapid antigen detection methods are being widely used. We made an attempt to compare peripheral smear, QBC and rapid antigen detection methods for the diagnosis of malaria. Materials and Methods: A total number of 500 samples were collected from patients presenting with classical symptoms of malaria. Thick and thin blood smears were prepared and stained with Leishman’s stain. QBC, Histidine Rich Protein-II antigen test and plasmodium Lactate Dehydrogenase tests were done using commercially available kits. Results: Taking thick smear as gold standard, thin smear had sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 90.9%, 100%, 100% and 98.6% respectively. QBC showed sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 95.45%, 100%, 100% and 99.31% respectively. HRP-II antigen detection showed sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 56.06%, 100%, 100% and 94.20%. pLDH showed sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of 95.45%, 100%, 100% and 99.40% respectively. Conclusion: In our study, QBC had highest sensitivity followed by pLDH assay. Leishman’s stained thick smear is cost effective but requires technical expertise to interpret the results, so if facilities are available, QBC can be used for routine diagnosis. In places where facilities are not available rapid diagnostic test devices can be used, especially in endemic areas.

  11. Evaluation of hematological profile, biochemical and peripheral blood smear with a view to the health profile in primates of the Cebus genre maintained in captivity

    David Baruc Cruvinel Lima

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-human primates serve as a model for studies on the dynamics of transmission routes and natural history of diseases shared between humans and animals. The captive environment is conducive the dissemination of zoonotic diseases. Many of these animals do not present clinical symptomatology, even when infected, which characterize them as an important source of infection for domestic animals and man. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sanity of non-human primates kept in captivity through hematological and biochemical analysis as well as peripheral blood smear, aiming to investigate the presence of zoonotic pathogens, serving as a model for future studies on the dynamics of routes of transmission of diseases shared between humans and animals. Were collected samples of blood from 15 nail monkeys (Cebus sp., adults, clinically healthy and belonging to Park Zoobotanic of Teresina. Were stained smear sanguine blades and obtained the haematological and biochemical profiles of each animal. The data analysis was based on basic statistics. Did not observed any haemoparasite present in peripheral blood. All animals were anemic, 46,7% thrombopenics and 87% of the animals showed some type of pathological process of chronic evolution, due to the high rate of monocytes found. All animals showed high rates of alkaline phosphatase, and transaminases AST and ALT, indicating injury of the hepatic parenchyma. New studies should be conducted to better elucidate of results, seeing that biochemical physiological data primate of the genus Cebus are scarce in literature.

  12. Use of Blood Smears and Dried Blood Spots for Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Detection and Quantification of Bacterial Infection and Plasmodium falciparum in Severely Ill Febrile African Children.

    Wihokhoen, Benchawan; Dondorp, Arjen M; Turner, Paul; Woodrow, Charles J; Imwong, Mallika

    2016-02-01

    Molecular approaches offer a means of testing archived samples stored as dried blood spots in settings where standard blood cultures are not possible. Peripheral blood films are one suggested source of material, although the sensitivity of this approach has not been well defined. Thin blood smears and dried blood spots from a severe pediatric malaria study were assessed using specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers to detect non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS; MisL gene), Streptococcus pneumoniae (lytA), and Plasmodium falciparum (18S rRNA). Of 16 cases of NTS and S. pneumoniae confirmed on blood culture, none were positive by PCR using DNA extracts from blood films or dried blood spots. In contrast, four of 36 dried blood spots and two of 178 plasma samples were PCR positive for S. pneumoniae, despite negative bacterial blood cultures, suggesting false positives. Quantitative assessment revealed that the effective concentration of P. falciparum DNA in blood films was three log orders of magnitude lower than for dried blood spots. The P. falciparum kelch13 gene could not be amplified from blood films. These findings question the value of blood PCR-based approaches for detection of NTS and S. pneumoniae, and show that stored blood films are an inefficient method of studying P. falciparum. PMID:26711525

  13. Use of Blood Smears and Dried Blood Spots for Polymerase Chain Reaction–Based Detection and Quantification of Bacterial Infection and Plasmodium falciparum in Severely Ill Febrile African Children

    Wihokhoen, Benchawan; Dondorp, Arjen M.; Turner, Paul; Woodrow, Charles J.; Imwong, Mallika

    2016-01-01

    Molecular approaches offer a means of testing archived samples stored as dried blood spots in settings where standard blood cultures are not possible. Peripheral blood films are one suggested source of material, although the sensitivity of this approach has not been well defined. Thin blood smears and dried blood spots from a severe pediatric malaria study were assessed using specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers to detect non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS; MisL gene), Streptococcus pneumoniae (lytA), and Plasmodium falciparum (18S rRNA). Of 16 cases of NTS and S. pneumoniae confirmed on blood culture, none were positive by PCR using DNA extracts from blood films or dried blood spots. In contrast, four of 36 dried blood spots and two of 178 plasma samples were PCR positive for S. pneumoniae, despite negative bacterial blood cultures, suggesting false positives. Quantitative assessment revealed that the effective concentration of P. falciparum DNA in blood films was three log orders of magnitude lower than for dried blood spots. The P. falciparum kelch13 gene could not be amplified from blood films. These findings question the value of blood PCR-based approaches for detection of NTS and S. pneumoniae, and show that stored blood films are an inefficient method of studying P. falciparum. PMID:26711525

  14. Blood and intestinal parasites of squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae) in Amazonian Brazil

    Ralph Lainson; Maria do Carmo de Oliveira Brígido; Fernando Tobias Silveira

    2004-01-01

    We report the result of an examination for blood and intestinal protozoa in 12 specimens of the red squirrel Sciurus spadiceus (Rodentia: Sciuridae) from Birroque, municipality of Plácido de Castro, state of Acre, Brazil. No parasites were detected in thin, Giemsa-stained blood films of the animals, but culture of the blood of three in Difco B45 medium blood-agar slants gave rise to isolates of epimastigotes. Inoculation of one isolate into laboratory mice resulted in the appearance of Trypan...

  15. Immunoglobulin and enzyme-conjugated dextran polymers enhance u-PAR staining intensity of carcinoma cells in peripheral blood smears

    Werther, K; Normark, M; Hansen, B F; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    The presence of disseminated carcinoma cells in bone marrow and peripheral blood has prognostic importance in patients with carcinomas. Much evidence indicates that dissemination of tumor cells may depend on activation of a variety of degradative enzymes. A strong positive correlation has been sh...

  16. Pap smear (image)

    During a Pap smear, cells from the outside and the canal of the cervix are retrieved by gently scraping the outside of the cervix. The Pap smear is performed to detect cancerous or precancerous conditions ...

  17. Smear layer in endodontics

    ivkovi? Slavoljub; Brkani? Tatjana; Da?i? Dragoslav; Opa?i? Vanja; Pavlovi? Violeta; Medojevi? Milica

    2005-01-01

    Modern methods of root canal cleaning and filing are causing formation of the smear layer on treated surfaces. The aim of this paper was to review clinical aspect of smear layer in endodontics. Smear layer is the consequence of instrumentation of root canal walls and is consisted of organic and inorganic particles of cut dentine, necrotic and/or vital pulp fragments, microorganisms and their products. Existence of smear layer is affecting permeability of the radicular dentine, thus decreasing...

  18. Florid Erythrophagocytosis on the Peripheral Smear

    Chandrashekar, Vani; Soni, Mamta

    2012-01-01

    Erythrophagocytosis is a relatively rare observation on blood smears. It has been reported in auto immune hemolytic anemias and sporadically in few other conditions. Here, we report a case of florid erythrophagocytosis with severe anemia following a viral infection in an 18-year-old girl. Her complete blood count (CBC) revealed hemoglobin of 3.6 gm/dl and a hematocrit of 10%. The peripheral smear showed erythrophagocytosis by neutrophils and rosetting of erythrocytes around neutrophils. The d...

  19. Intralesional autotherapy of cutaneous leishmaniasis with buffy coat cells: cytological findings

    Dabiri, S; Meymandi, S S; Hayes, M M; Soleimani, F; Kharazmi, A

    2000-01-01

    The skin lesions of five patient volunteers with dry-type cutaneous leishmaniasis were treated by intralesional injection of auto-leukocytes prepared from buffy coat of the patient's own blood. Giemsa stained, air-dried cytological smear preparations were prepared from scrapings taken from the...... the potential for intralesional autotherapy with buffy coat in dry-type cutaneous leishmaniasis....

  20. Prevalence of hemoprotozoan diseases in cattle population of chittagong division, Bangladesh

    Alim, Md. Abdul; Das, Shubhagata; Roy, Krisna; Masuduzzaman, Md.; Sikder, Suchandan; Hassan, Mohammad Mahmudul; Siddiki, A. Z.; Hossain, Mohammad Alamgir

    2012-01-01

    examined by Giemsa's stained blood smear method. The effect of topography, season, age and sex was observed in cattle during this study. The overall prevalence of hemoprotozoan diseases was 16.18 and 12.02% in crossbred and indigenous cattle, respectively where babesiosis and anaplasmosis were predominant...

  1. Filarial infections in domestic dogs in Lusaka, Zambia

    Siwila, Joyce; Mwase, Enala T.; Nejsum, Peter; Simonsen, Paul Erik

    Filariae are common parasites of dogs in many parts of the world, but little is known about the status of these infections in sub-Saharan Africa. A study was carried out to determine the occurrence and species of filariae among 272 dogs in Lusaka, Zambia. Giemsa stained blood smear and Knott...

  2. Smear layer in endodontics

    ivkovi? Slavoljub

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern methods of root canal cleaning and filing are causing formation of the smear layer on treated surfaces. The aim of this paper was to review clinical aspect of smear layer in endodontics. Smear layer is the consequence of instrumentation of root canal walls and is consisted of organic and inorganic particles of cut dentine, necrotic and/or vital pulp fragments, microorganisms and their products. Existence of smear layer is affecting permeability of the radicular dentine, thus decreasing effects of canal medicaments and impairing adhesion of obturation materials in root canal. Removal of the smear layer from canal walls is possible with use of various chemical agents, ultrasonic or laser techniques. Regardless to contradictory attitudes and opinions, removing the smear layer is required for possible bacterial contamination, compromised effects of root canal medication and in order to obtain better obturation of canals 'system. .

  3. Description of dogs naturally infected with Hepatozoon canis in the Aegean region of Turkey

    PAŞA, Serdar; KIRAL, Funda; Karagenç, Tülin; Atasoy, Abidin; SEYREK, Kamil

    2009-01-01

    Clinical and laboratory findings recorded in 10 dogs naturally infected with Hepatozoon canis in the Aegean region of Turkey were reported. The diagnosis was made by finding H. canis gamonts within leucocytes in Giemsa-stained blood smears. H. canis parasitaemia level was calculated manually by counting 500 neutrophils in blood smears. Parasitaemia varied from 1% to 23% of the circulating neutrophils. Anorexia, fever, depression, weight loss, and lymphadenopathy are the main clinical signs in...

  4. Prevalence of Congenital Malaria in Minna, North Central Nigeria

    Innocent Chukwuemeka James Omalu; Charles Mgbemena; Amaka Mgbemena; Victoria Ayanwale; Israel Kayode Olayemi; Adeniran Lateef; Victoria I. Chukwuemeka

    2012-01-01

    The study was designed to determine the true prevalence of congenital, cord, and placental malaria in General Hospital Minna, North Central Nigeria. Peripheral blood smears of near-term pregnant women, as well as the placental, cord, and peripheral blood smears of their newborn babies, were examined for malaria parasites, using the Giemsa staining technique. Out of 152 pregnant women screened, 21 (13.82%) of them were infected with malaria parasites. Of the 152 new born babies, 4 (2.63%) show...

  5. Comparao de nested-PCR com o diagnstico direto na deteco de Ehrlichia canis e Anaplasma platys em ces Comparison of nested-PCR with blood smear examination in detection of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in dogs

    Carlos A. N. Ramos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Os sinais clnicos das infeces por Ehrlichia canis e Anaplasma platys so similares, e o diagnstico desses patgenos feito por esfregaos sanguneos corados difcil devido sensibilidade e especificidade. Por outro lado, os diagnsticos moleculares so altamente sensveis e especficos, e nested-PCRs tm sido otimizadas para o diagnstico preciso desses patgenos em ces. Em um Hospital Veterinrio Escola, amostras de sangue total com EDTA foram obtidas de 100 ces, e esfregaos foram feitos das amostras de sangue para busca dos parasitos intracelulares. Para cada amostra, DNA foi extrado e submetido nPCR para deteco de E. canis e A. platys. Os resultados dos esfregaos sanguneos mostraram que 9% dos animais foram positivos para E. canis e 21% para A. platys. Com relao nPCR, 57 e 55% dos ces foram positivos para E. canis e A. platys, respectivamente. Quando comparados com a nPCR, os esfregaos sanguneos corados revelaram resultados falso-negativos para E. canis e A. platys. Os resultados indicam que a nPCR altamente sensvel e especfica para deteco de ambos os patgenos, e os diagnsticos moleculares podem ser mais teis nos Hospitais Veterinrios.The clinical signs of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys infection are similar, and the diagnosis of these pathogens made by stained blood smears is poor due sensibility and specificity. On the other hand, the molecular diagnosis is highly sensitive and specific and nested-PCR have been optimized for accurate diagnosis these pathogens in dogs. At the veterinary teaching hospital, whole-blood samples with EDTA were obtained from 100 dogs and smears were made from blood samples for evaluation for intracellular parasites. For each sample, DNA was extracted and submitted to nPCR analysis for detection of E. canis and A. platys. The results of stained blood smears showed 9% of the animals were positive for E. canis and 21% for A. platys. Regarding of nPCR analysis, 57 and 55% of dogs were positive for E. canis and A. platys respectively. As compared to a nested PCR, the stained blood smears revealed false-negative results for both E. canis and A. platys. The results indicate that the nPCR is highly sensitive and specific for detection of both pathogens and the molecular diagnosis could be more useful at veterinary hospital.

  6. Application of Giemsa stain for easy detection of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae.

    Ramírez-Melgar, Carmen; Gómez-Priego, Alberto; De-la-Rosa, Jorge-Luis

    2007-03-01

    The application of Giemsa technique to stain compressed diaphragm samples obtained from rodents experimentally infected with Trichinella spiralis is described. Diaphragm samples from rats heavily infected with 20 muscle larvae per gram of body weight (20 ML/gbw) were cut into several pieces and stained with Giemsa; on the other hand, whole diaphragms from slightly infected mice (1 ML/gbw) were also stained with Giemsa. Besides, muscle samples were also stained with Giemsa. Observation at 10 x magnification revealed that both ML and nurse cells (NC) look as bluish structures clearly contrasting with the pinkish color of the non-infected muscle fibers. NC in the diaphragms of mice could be easily observed at naked eye as blue points contrasting with the pink surrounding areas formed by the non-infected muscle fibers. Among NC observed in the diaphragms of rats infected with 20 ML/gbw, 4.4% was multiple infection. These findings were confirmed in sectioned and hematoxylin-eosin stained specimens. This data could be usefulness for a rapid diagnosis of trichinellosis in post-mortem mammals without magnification procedures. PMID:17374981

  7. Evaluation of buffalo semen by Trypan blue/Giemsa staining and related fertility in vitro

    B. Gasparrini; Mariotti, E.; L. Attanasio; de Rosa, A.; R. Di Palo; Boccia, L.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to verify the feasibility of an easy, quick double staining technique for evaluation of frozen-thawed semen to predict the fertilizing capability in vitro of buffalo bulls. In Experiment 1, frozen-thawed semen from 6 bulls was stained with double Trypan blue/ Giemsa and the incidence of acrosome-intact live (AIL), acrosome-intact dead (AID), acrosome-lost live (ALL) and acrosome-lost dead (ALD) sperm was recorded. In Experiment 2, sperm from the same bulls were used t...

  8. The use of fluorescence enhancement to improve the microscopic diagnosis of falciparum malaria

    Liu Paul

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giemsa staining of thick blood smears remains the "gold standard" for detecting malaria. However, this method is not very good for diagnosing low-level infections. A method for the simultaneous staining of Plasmodium-parasitized culture and blood smears for both bright field and fluorescence was developed and its ability to improve detection efficiency tested. Methods A total of 22 nucleic acid-specific fluorescent dyes were tested for their ability to provide easily observable staining of Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized red blood cells following Giemsa staining. Results Of the 14 dyes that demonstrated intense fluorescence staining, only SYBR Green 1, YOYO-1 and ethidum homodimer-2 could be detected using fluorescent microscopy, when cells were first stained with Giemsa. Giemsa staining was not effective when applied after the fluorescent dyes. SYBR Green 1 provided the best staining in the presence of Giemsa, as a very high percentage of the parasitized cells were simultaneously stained. When blood films were screened using fluorescence microscopy the parasites were more readily detectable due to the sharp contrast between the dark background and the specific, bright fluorescence produced by the parasites. Conclusion The dual staining method reported here allows fluorescence staining, which enhances the reader's ability to detect parasites under low parasitaemia conditions, coupled with the ability to examine the same cell under bright field conditions to detect the characteristic morphology of Plasmodium species that is observed with Giemsa staining.

  9. Laboratory diagnosis of malaria by conventional peripheral blood smear examination with Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC) and Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT) - A comparative study

    Bhat Sandhya K; Sastry Apurba S; Nagaraj E.R.; Sharadadevi Mannur; Sastry Anand S

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Rapid diagnosis is prerequisite for effective treatment and reducing mortality and morbidity of malaria. Microscopy has been the Gold standard for malaria diagnosis for decades. Recently, many new rapid diagnostic tests like Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC) examination and rapid antigen detection methods are being widely used. We made an attempt to compare peripheral smear, QBC and rapid antigen detection methods for the diagnosis of malaria. Materials and Methods: A total number of 500 sam...

  10. Blood parasites in passerine birds from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Hemoparasitos em passeriformes da Mata Atlântica Brasileira

    Fabiane Sebaio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Parasites may lead bird species to extinction, affect host temporal and spatial population dynamics, alter community structure and alter individuals’ social status. We evaluated blood parasite prevalence and intensity according to bird families and species, among 925 birds that were caught in 2000 and 2001, in the Atlantic Forest in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. We applied Giemsa staining to thin blood smears, to detect blood parasites. The birds (n = 15.8% in 11 families, were infected by at least one parasite genus, especially Muscicapidae (28.3% and Conopophagidae (25%. Among the 146 infected birds, Plasmodium was detected in all bird families and had the highest prevalence (54.8%. Trypanosoma, Haemoproteus and microfilaria had lower prevalence rates (23.3, 23.3 and 2.1%, respectively. Birds caught during the rainy season were more infected than birds caught during the dry season. The overall low prevalence of blood parasites in birds is similar to the patterns found elsewhere in the Neotropical region.Parasitos podem levar espécies de aves à extinção, afetar as dinâmicas temporais e espaciais dos hospedeiros, alterar a estrutura de comunidades e o status social de indivíduos. Avaliou-se a prevalência e a intensidade de parasitos em famílias e espécies de 925 aves capturadas, entre 2000 e 2001, na Mata Atlântica de Minas Gerais. Foram coradas com Giemsa extensões de sangue para detectar parasitos hematozoários. As aves (n= 15,8% 11 famílias estavam infectadas por pelo menos um gênero de parasito, especialmente Muscicapidae (28,3% e Conopophagidae (25%. Entre as 146 aves infectadas, Plasmodium foi detectado em todas as famílias e possuiu a maior prevalência (54,8%. Trypanosoma,Haemoproteus e microfilaria possuíram baixas prevalências (23,3, 23,3 e 2,1%, respectivamente. Aves capturadasdurante a estação chuvosa estavam mais infectadas do que aves capturadas durante a estação seca. A baixa prevalência geral de parasitos do sangue das aves é semelhante aos padrões encontrados em outras localidades da região Neotropical.

  11. Small bowel tissue smear

    Small bowel tissue smear is a lab test that checks for disease in a sample of tissue from the small intestine. ... A sample of tissue from the small intestine is removed during a ... sample is sent to a laboratory. There it is sliced, stained, and ...

  12. Comparison of results of the manual and automated scoring of micronucleus frequencies in 60Co-irradiated peripheral blood lymphocytes for triage dosimetry

    Scoring micronuclei in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of individuals exposed to ionizing radiation is a rapid biodosimetry assay. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from five individuals were exposed in vitro to 0–5 Gy of 60Co γ-radiation at a dose rate of 0.76 Gy/min. The blood cultures were initiated with RPMI-1640 (80%) supplemented with FBS (20%), stimulated with mitogen and incubated at 37 °C for 44 h. At the 44th hour, cytochalasin-B (6 µg/mL) was added, and the cultures were incubated for 28 h more. The cells were harvested with a pre-chilled hypotonic solution (0.075 M) and fixed with a Carnoy's solution (methanol/acetic acid 5:1). Giemsa- and propidium-iodide-stained cells affixed to slides for microscopy were scored manually and automatically with the micronucleus scoring software from MetaSystems. The micronucleus frequencies determined in the Giemsa-stained cells by manual and automated scoring were 23.6% different (P<0.0001) with an efficiency of 24.9%. Slides stained with propidium iodide are a better choice for automated scoring than Giemsa-stained ones. - Highlights: • Stains (Giemsa and PI) used did not influence the MN dose response. • No significant variation in the MN yield at lower doses between scoring methods. • Automated scoring of MN in PI stained cells would be the choice for triage

  13. Molecular Prevalence of Babesia bigemina and Trypanosoma evansi in Dairy Animals from Punjab, India, by Duplex PCR: A Step Forward to the Detection and Management of Concurrent Latent Infections

    Amrita Sharma; Lachhman Das Singla; Ashuma Tuli; Paramjit Kaur; Balwinder Kaur Batth; Mohammed Javed; Prayag Dutt Juyal

    2013-01-01

    Specific duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was employed on 411 (386 cattle and 25 buffaloes) blood samples of dairy animals from 9 districts of Punjab, India, for simultaneous detection of Babesia bigemina and Trypanosoma evansi. The results were compared and correlated with conventional Giemsa stained thin blood smear (GSTBS) examination and haematological alterations to know the clinical status and pathogenicity of infections. The Bg3/Bg4 and TR3/TR4 primers were used in duplex PCR for...

  14. Proprits statistiques des estimateurs de la densit parasitaire dans les tudes portant sur le paludisme et applications oprationnelles

    Hammami, Imen

    2013-01-01

    Malaria is a devastating global health problem that affected 219 million people and caused 660,000 deaths in 2010. Inaccurate estimation of the level of infection may have adverse clinical and therapeutic implications for patients, and for epidemiological endpoint measurements. The level of infection, expressed as the parasite density (PD), is classically defined as the number of asexual parasites relative to a microliter of blood. Microscopy of Giemsa-stained thick blood smears (TBSs) is the...

  15. Significado da presença de esquizócitos no sangue periférico de gestantes com pré-eclâmpsia Ming of the presence of schistocytes in blood smear of preeclamptic pregnat women

    Rosângela de Fátima do Nascimento e Silva

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o significado da presença de esquizócitos em esfregaço de sangue periférico de gestantes com pré-eclâmpsia, identificando-os e correlacionando-os com outros marcadores de hemólise e da gravidade da doença. MÉTODOS: foram avaliadas 76 lâminas de esfregaço de sangue periférico de gestantes portadoras de pré-eclâmpsia. Após a realização do esfregaço, as lâminas foram submetidas ao corante de Leishman e armazenadas até a leitura, feita em microscópio modelo DLMB, da marca Leica, com aumento de 40 vezes e imersão em óleo. O microscópio era dotado de software Qwin Lite 2.5, que permitia gravar as imagens dos campos escolhidos em CD-ROM. Em cada lâmina foram contados dez campos com aproximadamente 100 eritrócitos. Foi considerada presença de esquizócitos (fragmento irregular ou em forma de capacete, de mordida ou triângulo quando a porcentagem dos mesmos era maior ou igual que 0,2%. A presença de esquizócitos foi correlacionada com outros marcadores de hemólise (hemoglobina, bilirrubina total, desidrogenase lática e reticulócitos, marcadores da pré-eclâmpsia (proteinúria e número de plaquetas e com a gravidade da pré-eclâmpsia. Para análise estatística foi utilizado o programa Statistical Package in Social Science (SPSS, versão 10.0, com valor de pPURPOSE: to evaluate the significance of schizocytes presence in peripheral blood smear of pregnant women with pre-eclampsia, identifying and correlating them with other markers of hemolysis and of the disease severity. METHODS: Seventh six glass slides of peripheral blood smear of pregnant women with pre-eclampsia have been evaluated. After the smear, the slides have been stained with Leishman's dye and stored till they were examined with a Leica, model DLMB microscope, provided with the Qwin Lite 2.5 software that made it possible to record the images of selected fields in CD-ROM. Ten fields with approximately 100 erythrocytes were counted in each glass slide. Schizocytes (irregular fragment or helmet-shaped, bite-shaped or triangular were considered as present, when their percentage was equal or higher than 0.2%, their presence being correlated with other hemolysis markers (hemoglobin, total bilirubin, lactic desidrogenasis and reticulocytes, pre-eclampsia markers (proteinuria and platelet number. The Statistical Package in Social Science for Windows (SPSS, 10.0 version has been used for statistical analysis, at p<0.05. RESULTS: schizocytes have been present in 31.6% of the pregnant women with pre-eclampsia. In most (75% of the blood smears there have been three or four schizocytes. There has been no correlation between schizocyte presence and any other hemolysis marker, any pre-eclampsia marker or disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: schizocytes have been identified in a small number and in less than a third of the pregnant women with pre-eclampsia. There has been no correlation with other hemolysis marker parameters or with the disease severity. This way, the presence of schizocytes is not a marker of the clinical evolution of pre-eclampsia.

  16. A sensitive method for accurate estimation of radiation induced apoptosis on peripheral blood mononuclear cells by acridine orange stain

    A rapid and sensitive method for quantification of Apoptotic cells is presented. The value of the method is demonstrated on peripheral blood mononuclear cells, which constitutively undergo programmed cell death and which show an increase in the rate of apoptosis after exposure to the irradiation with 137 Cs ? -ray. After staining with Acridine orange post irradiation, three distinct cell populations (live, apoptosis, and necrosis) shown by analysis of fluorescence profiles. This Acridine orange stain method is directly compared with the stain method of Wright-Giemsa on duplicated slides and Apoptosis to quantify cell events following exposure to dose of in vitro ? -irradiation and post-irradiation incubation times. The apoptosis frequency of three healthy volunteers obtained with both stain methods was steep below 100cGy and flatter at high doses. A significantly higher number of radiation induced apoptotic cells were observed after stain with Acridine orange compared with Wright-Giemsa stain post irradiation. Our results demonstrated that the Acridine orange stain is superior methods with greater sensitivity and accuracy in comparison with the Wright-Giemsa stain tested. This method may be allows rapid measurement of a large number of cells for samples of radiation biological effect

  17. Diagnóstico presuntivo de histoplasmosis en un frotis sanguíneo Diagnóstico presuntivo de histoplasmose em um esfregaço de sangue Presumptive diagnosis of histoplasmosis in a blood smear

    Agustina Daniela Tkach

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se comunica el diagnóstico de un caso de histoplasmosis asociada al SIDA a partir de la microscopía de un extendido hemático realizado en oportunidad del procesamiento de una muestra enviada al laboratorio para un estudio hematológico. El extendido, fijado con metanol y teñido con solución de Giemsa al 10% reveló, con objetivo de 100X, estructuras levaduriformes de 2-4 µ de diámetro dentro de las células leucocitarias sanguíneas, con la típica tinción en casquete y la presencia de un halo claro periférico, que caracterizan microscópicamente a Histoplasma capsulatum. Luego, para confirmar el hallazgo micológico, se procedió a teñir el mismo preparado con la técnica de Grocott, la cual puso de manifiesto levaduras de color pardo, dentro de los leucocitos sanguíneos. El paciente, deteriorado clínica e inmunológicamente (Comunica-se o diagnóstico de um caso de histoplasmose associada à AIDS, de uma microscopia de extensão sanguínea realizada por ocasião do processamento de uma amostra enviada ao laboratório para um estudo hematológico. A extensão, fixada com metanol e corada com solução de Giemsa a 10%, revelou com objetivo de 100X, estruturas leveduriformes de 2-4 µ diâmetro dentro de células leucocitárias do sangue, com a típica coloração em tampão e a presença de um halo claro periférico, os quais caracterizam microscopicamente a Histoplasma capsulatum. Em seguida, para confirmar o achado micológico, foi corada a mesma preparação com a técnica de Grocott, que mostrou leveduras de cor parda, dentro dos leucócitos sanguíneos. O paciente clínica e imunologicamente deteriorado (A case of AIDS-associated histoplasmosis diagnosed by microscopy from a blood smear performed during a hematologic study was reported. The smear, fixed with methanol and stained with 10% Giemsa solution, revealed with a 100X objective, 2-4 µ-diameter yeast - like structures within the leuMicrobiología contakocytes, showing a typical staining in cap and a peripheral clear halo, characteristic of Histoplasma capsulatum. To confirm the mycological finding, the same smear was stained with the Grocott technique, showing brownish yeasts in the leucocytes. The patient, clinically deteriorated and with advanced immunological disorder (<50 T CD4+ lymphocytes/µL, died the next day after the diagnosis was made, in spite of the established treatments. This finding highlights the need to have operators trained in the recognition of microbiological structures of diagnostic importance in hematological smears in a Reference Center of Infectious Diseases, and even in the General Laboratory. The immediate diagnosis of this and other serious infections, as Malaria, enables the etiologic treatment and increases the possibilities of therapeutic success.

  18. A Case of Plasmodium ovale wallikeri Infection in a Chinese Worker Returning from West Africa

    LI, YUCHUN; Wang, Guangze; Sun, Dingwei; Meng, Feng; Lin, Shigan; Hu, XiMin; Wang, Shanqing

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to the gradual reduction in the number of locally transmitted malaria cases in China, the number of imported malaria cases has been increasing since 2008. Here, we report a case of a 39-year-old Chinese man who acquired Plasmodium ovale wallikeri infection while staying in Ghana, West Africa for 6 months in 2012. Microscopic examinations of Giemsa-stained thin and thick blood smears indicated Plasmodium vivax infection. However, the results of rapid diagnostic tests, which were co...

  19. Retrospective study (1991-2005), of canine babesiosis cases in Salvador city and Metropolitan Region, Bahia. Estudo retrospectivo dos casos de babesiose canina na cidade de Salvador e região metropolitana, Bahia, no período de 1991-2005

    Bárbara Maria Paraná da Silva Souza; Cyro de Moraes Barbosa Gomes Neto; Nivaldo de Jesus Souza Filho; Antônio Marcos Machado Régis; Alberto Conceição Bispo; Diana Velloso Vianna Bittencourt; José Eduardo Ungar de Sá; Márcia Falcão Modesto Ungar de Sá; Thereza Cristina Calmon de Bittencourt; Carlos Roberto Franke

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the frequencies of dogs infected by Babesia spp, based on suspicious clinical cases of hemoparasitosis recorded by veterinary doctors in the city of Salvador and Metropolitan Region, Bahia, from September 1991 to February 2005. 7243 record files from suspicious cases were analyzed for hemoparasites on Giemsa-stained blood smears, 33.95% of that showed positive result for the presence of Babesia spp. Higher frequencies of infection were detected in Akita In...

  20. Flow cytometric readout based on Mitotracker Red CMXRos staining of live asexual blood stage malarial parasites reliably assesses antibody dependent cellular inhibition

    Jogdand Prajakta S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional in vitro assays could provide insights into the efficacy of malaria vaccine candidates. For estimating the anti-parasite effect induced by a vaccine candidate, an accurate determination of live parasite count is an essential component of most in vitro bioassays. Although traditionally parasites are counted microscopically, a faster, more accurate and less subjective method for counting parasites is desirable. In this study mitochondrial dye (Mitotracker Red CMXRos was used for obtaining reliable live parasite counts through flow cytometry. Methods Both asynchronous and tightly synchronized asexual blood stage cultures of Plasmodium falciparum were stained with CMXRos and subjected to detection by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. The parasite counts obtained by flow cytometry were compared to standard microscopic counts obtained through examination of Giemsa-stained thin smears. A comparison of the ability of CMXRos to stain live and compromised parasites (induced by either medium starvation or by anti-malarial drug treatment was carried out. Finally, parasite counts obtained by CMXRos staining through flow cytometry were used to determine specific growth inhibition index (SGI in an antibody-dependent cellular inhibition (ADCI assay. Results Mitotracker Red CMXRos can reliably detect live intra-erythrocytic stages of P. falciparum. Comparison between staining of live with compromised parasites shows that CMXRos predominantly stains live parasites with functional mitochondria. Parasite counts obtained by CMXRos staining and flow cytometry were highly reproducible and can reliably determine the ability of IgG from hyper-immune individuals to inhibit parasite growth in presence of monocytes in ADCI assay. Further, a dose-dependent parasite growth inhibitory effect could be detected for both total IgG purified from hyper-immune sera and affinity purified IgGs against the N-terminal non-repeat region of GLURP in ADCI assays coupled with determination of parasite counts through CMXRos staining and flow cytometry. Conclusions A flow cytometry method based on CMXRos staining for detection of live parasite populations has been optimized. This is a rapid and sensitive method with high inter-assay reproducibility which can reliably determine the anti-parasite effect mediated by antibodies in functional in vitro assays such as ADCI assay.

  1. Parasites and vector-borne pathogens in client-owned dogs in Albania. Blood pathogens and seroprevalences of parasitic and other infectious agents.

    Hamel, Dietmar; Shukullari, Enstela; Rapti, Dhimitr; Silaghi, Cornelia; Pfister, Kurt; Rehbein, Steffen

    2016-02-01

    Knowledge on the epidemiology of parasitic and vector-borne infections is still very limited for Albania, a country located in the Balkan Peninsula in southeast Europe. Recent publications indicated prevalence rates of up to 52% for vector-borne infections in less-cared dogs in Albania. To provide data on the epidemiological situation in dogs under veterinary care, a total of 602 client-owned dogs presented to four small animal clinics between March 2010 and April 2011 in Tirana, Albania, were screened by examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears, PCR, and serological methods for the presence of arthropod-borne infections, as well as Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii. Eight different pathogens, namely Babesia vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, Leishmania infantum, Dirofilaria immitis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis, and Mycoplasma haemocanis, were detected by direct methods with prevalence rates ranging from 1 to 9%. Seroprevalence for Babesia spp., L. infantum, Anaplasma spp., and E. canis were 6.6, 5.1, 24.1, and 20.8%, respectively. Dogs >1year of age were positive for vector-borne infections significantly more often than younger dogs (p?=?0.003). More than half (51.7%) of the dogs were seroreactive to T. gondii and 18.3% to N. caninum. This is the first report on the detection of A. phagocytophilum, A. platys, E. canis, and M. haemocanis by PCR as well as the serological confirmation of exposure of dogs to N. caninum and T. gondii in Albania. The spectrum of pathogens and the seroprevalences for N. caninum and T. gondii in client-owned dogs from Tirana, Albania, are comparable to that reported in other countries in the Mediterranean Basin. The prevalence rates of vector-borne pathogens are at the lower range of that reported in studies from this geographical region. This is probably due to increased awareness of the owners of pet dogs, including better husbandry conditions and ectoparasiticidal treatment, thus limiting exposure of dogs to vectors. PMID:26453093

  2. Production and validation of durable, high quality standardized malaria microscopy slides for teaching, testing and quality assurance during an era of declining diagnostic proficiency

    Sismadi Priyanto

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sets of Giemsa-stained, blood smear slides with systematically verified composite diagnoses would contribute substantially to development of externally validated quality assurance systems for the microscopic diagnosis of malaria. Methods whole blood from Plasmodium-positive donors in Cambodia and Indonesia and individuals with no history of risk for malaria was collected. Using standard operating procedures, technicians prepared Giemsa-stained thick and thin smears from each donor. One slide from each of the first 35 donations was distributed to each of 28 individuals acknowledged by reputation as having expertise in the microscopic diagnosis of malaria. These reference readers recorded presence or absence of Plasmodium species and parasite density. A composite diagnosis for each donation was determined based on microscopic findings and species-specific small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssrRNA DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification. Results More than 12, 000 slides were generated from 124 donations. Reference readers correctly identified presence of parasites on 85% of slides with densities 350 parasites/?l. Percentages of agreement with composite diagnoses were highest for Plasmodium falciparum (99%, followed by Plasmodium vivax (86%. Conclusion Herein, a standardized method for producing large numbers of consistently high quality, durable Giemsa-stained blood smears and validating composite diagnoses for the purpose of creating a malaria slide repository in support of initiatives to improve training and competency assessment amidst a background of variability in diagnosis is described.

  3. Age, Dehydration, Respiratory Failure, Orientation Disturbance, and Blood Pressure Score Predicts In-hospital Mortality in HIV-negative Non-multidrug-resistant Smear-positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Japan.

    Nagai, Kenjiro; Horita, Nobuyuki; Sato, Takashi; Yamamoto, Masaki; Nagakura, Hideyuki; Kaneko, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    The A-DROP scoring system was originally designed to assess clinical severity of community acquired pneumonia using the following parameters: advanced Age, Dehydration, Respiratory failure, Orientation disturbance (confusion); and, low blood Pressure. Total A-DROP score ranges zero to five assigning one point for each component, wherein five indicates the poorest prognosis. The purpose of this single-center retrospective study was to determine whether A-DROP could predict the risk for death in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. We reviewed consecutive HIV-negative, non-multidrug-resistant smear-positive adult pulmonary tuberculosis patients. The cohort consisted of 134 men (38.8%), 211 women (61.2%), 272 who discharged alive (28.8%), and 73 who died in-hospital (21.2%) with a median age of 72 (IQR: 54-82) years. A one-point increase in the A-DROP score was associated with a higher risk for in-hospital mortality with odds ratio of 3.8 (95% confidence interval 2.8-5.2, P?1.5, sensitivity was 85% and specificity was 76%. Kaplan-Meier curve clearly indicated that in-hospital mortality increased with higher A-DROP scores (Log-rank test tuberculosis in-hospital mortality. PMID:26883886

  4. Differentiation analyses of adult suspension mononucleated peripheral blood cells of Mus musculus

    Yazid Muhammad

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to determine whether isolated suspension mouse peripheral mononucleated blood cells have the potential to differentiate into two distinct types of cells, i.e., osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Results Differentiation into osteoblast cells was concomitant with the activation of the Opn gene, increment of alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity and the existence of bone nodules, whereas osteoclast cells activated the Catk gene, increment of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP activity and showed resorption activities via resorption pits. Morphology analyses showed the morphology of osteoblast and osteoclast cells after von Kossa and May-Grunwald-Giemsa staining respectively. Conclusions In conclusion, suspension mononucleated cells have the potentiality to differentiate into mature osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and hence can be categorized as multipotent stem cells.

  5. Gauge action improvement and smearing

    Dürr, Stephan

    2004-01-01

    The effect of repeatedly smearing SU(3) gauge configurations is investigated. Six gauge actions (Wilson, Symanzik, Iwasaki, DBW2, Beinlich-Karsch-Laermann, Langfeld; combined with a direct SU(3)-overrelaxation step) and three smearings (APE, HYP, EXP) are compared. The impact on large Wilson loops is monitored, confirming the signal-to-noise prediction by Lepage. The fat-link definition of the ``naive'' topological charge proves most useful on improved action ensembles.

  6. Frequency of tumor diathesis in the smears of cervical carcinoma in a University Hospital

    Hakimi J.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tumor diathesis (TD refers to the granular proteinaceous precipitates on the slide surface of cytologic (Pap smears. Found in the background of smears from some, but not all, invasive carcinoma cases, TD is present in the majority of smears from large cell nonkeratinizing carcinoma. It is more pronounced than keratinizing SCC also is almost always present in small cell carcinoma. Smears from patients with adenocarcinoma are frequently associated with dense inflammatory and fresh blood exudates and less often there is a recognizable tumor diathesis. Methods: To determine the prevalence of TD in cervicovaginal smears from patients with uterine cervix carcinoma, cytologic smears and histologic slides of 46 patients with histologically-confirmed uterine cervix carcinoma were reviewed for the presence or absence of TD, red blood cells and neutrophils on cytologic smears, as well as depth of invasion, histologic types and grade of differentiation of tumor on histologic slides.Results: TD was identified in 28 smears (60.9%, 18 patients with squamous cell carcinoma (62.1%, seven patients with adenocarcinoma (58.3%, two patients with adenosquamous carcinoma (66.7% and one patient with endometrial carcinoma that involved the uterine cervix. TD was seen in smears from four (33.3% patients with uterine cervix carcinoma with invasion <5 mm and 17 (65.4% carcinomas with invasion >5mm. However, some of the patients with invasive carcinoma lacked TD on the cytologic smears. Red blood cells were identified on 16 (34.8% smears.Conclusions: Although TD is the hallmark of invasive carcinoma of the cervix on cytological smears, there have been few studies performed on it. We found that tumors with greater depth of invasion and reduced differentiation are associated with TD cytologic smears. TD was absent in some cases, particularly in micro-invasive carcinoma. This study reinforced what has been recognized from other studies.

  7. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI, BIOPSY SAMPLES FROM DIFFERENT GASTRIC LESIONS WITH TRIPLE STAINING AND MODIFIED GIEMSA STAINING

    Pavan Kumar Pindi

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori are associated with most of the disorders of gastro-duodenal tract, such as gastritis, gastric ulcers, dyspepsia and gastric carcinoma. Many staining methods have been developed for the detection of these bacteria from gastric biopsies. However most of the methods adopted were shown to be more expensive, less sensitive, time consuming with less background information. In view of this, the present study was carried out to check the validity of triple staining method against...

  8. Giemsa-Stained Wet Mount Based Method for Reticulocyte Quantification: A Viable Alternative in Resource Limited or Malaria Endemic Settings

    Lee, Wenn-Chyau; Russell, Bruce; Lau, Yee-Ling; Fong, Mun-Yik; Chu, Cindy; Sriprawat, Kanlaya; Suwanarusk, Rossarin; Nosten, Francois; Renia, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    The quantity of circulating reticulocytes is an important indicator of erythropoietic activity in response to a wide range of haematological pathologies. While most modern laboratories use flow cytometry to quantify reticulocytes, most field laboratories still rely on ‘subvital’ staining. The specialist ‘subvital’ stains, New Methylene Blue (NMB) and Brilliant Crésyl Blue are often difficult to procure, toxic, and show inconsistencies between batches. Here we demonstrate the utility of Giemsa...

  9. Hypercubic smeared links for dynamical fermions

    Hasenfratz, A.; Hoffmann, R. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Physics; Schaefer, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2007-02-15

    We investigate a variant of hypercubic gauge link smearing where the SU(3) projection is replaced with a normalization to the corresponding unitary group. This smearing is differentiable and thus suitable for use in dynamical fermion simulations using molecular dynamics type algorithms. We show that this smearing is as efficient as projected hypercubic smearing in removing ultraviolet noise from the gauge fields. We test the normalized hypercubic smearing in dynamical improved (clover) Wilson and valence overlap simulations. (orig.)

  10. Prevalance of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in Donkeys from Eastern Turkey in Winter Season

    I. Balkaya*, A. E. Utuk1 and F. C. Piskin1

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi by the examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears and c-ELISA method in donkeys, selected randomly from Erzurum, the largest province of Eastern Turkey. The specimens were consisted of 92 thin blood-smears and 75 sera during winter season. As result of microscopic examination no parasite was detected. Of the 75 sera, 3 (4%) and 1 (1.33%) samples were positive for the presence of T. equi and B. caballi ...

  11. UV Suppression by Smearing and Screening Correlators

    Gupta, Sourendu

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the mechanism of smearing in the APE, Stout, HYP and HEX schemes through their effect on glue and quark Fourier modes. Using this, we non-perturbatively tune the smearing parameters to their optimum values. Smearing causes a super-linear improvement in taste symmetry breaking in the high temperature phase of QCD. We use optimal smearing in the high temperature phase and find close agreement of meson screening masses with weak coupling predictions.

  12. Full blood count and haemozoin-containing leukocytes in children with malaria: diagnostic value and association with disease severity

    Lell Bertrand

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diligent and correct laboratory diagnosis and up-front identification of risk factors for progression to severe disease are the basis for optimal management of malaria. Methods Febrile children presenting to the Medical Research Unit at the Albert Schweitzer Hospital (HAS in Lambarn, Gabon, were assessed for malaria. Giemsa-stained thick films for qualitative and quantitative diagnosis and enumeration of malaria pigment, or haemozoin (Hz-containing leukocytes (PCL were performed, and full blood counts (FBC were generated with a Cell Dyn 3000 instrument. Results Compared to standard light microscopy of Giemsa-stained thick films, diagnosis by platelet count only, by malaria pigment-containing monocytes (PCM only, or by pigment-containing granulocytes (PCN only yielded sensitivities/specificities of 92%/93%; 96%/96%; and 85%/96%, respectively. The platelet count was significantly lower in children with malaria compared to those without (p instrument detected significantly more patients with PCL (p Conclusion In the age group examined in the Lambarn area, platelets are an excellent adjuvant tool to diagnose malaria. Pigment-containing leukocytes (PCL are more readily detected by automated scatter flow cytometry than by microscopy. Automated Hz detection by an instrument as used here is a reliable diagnostic tool and correlates with disease severity. However, clinical usefulness as a prognostic tool is limited due to an overlap of PCL numbers recorded in severe versus non-severe malaria. However, this is possibly because of the instrument detection algorithm was not geared towards this task, and data lost during processing; and thus adjusting the instrument's algorithm may allow to establish a meaningful cut-off value.

  13. The inadequate smear: does it matter?

    Bhaumik, J; Morris, P G; Beer, H R; Fielder, H; Coles, E C; Leeson, S

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the incidence of underlying cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) among women referred for colposcopy with three consecutive inadequate smears. The design was a retrospective cohort study analysing data from a regional colposcopy database at Cervical Screening Wales. Women who were referred to all the colposcopy clinics in Wales with three consecutive inadequate smears, the third inadequate smear being taken between 1 April 2001 and 31 March 2002 constituted the study population. The results of the fourth smear taken at the colposcopy clinic after three consecutive inadequate smears, the worst biopsy results from any of the subsequent colposcopies and the relationship between the result of the fourth smear taken at colposcopy clinic and any histology result were the main outcome measures. The accuracy of the colposcopic opinion was also examined. Of the 433 women identified as having been referred because of three consecutive inadequate smears, 302 were linked to either a subsequent smear and/or a biopsy result. An adequate smear result was available for 85% of these women when the smear was taken in the colposcopy clinic; 77% were reported as negative and 8% were abnormal. Of the 347 women seen in the colposcopy clinic, high-grade CIN was seen in 3% and low-grade lesion in 8%. The sensitivity and specificity of the fourth inadequate smear test in predicting underlying CIN were 15% and 84% respectively, with a positive predictive value of 8%. The sensitivity and specificity of colposcopy in predicting histological CIN among patients with three inadequate smears was 70% and 49%, respectively, and the positive predictive value was 44%. This study raises the question as to whether three consecutive inadequate smears should be considered as an indication for colposcopy, or merely for a further smear to be taken in circumstances where there is a greater likelihood getting an adequate result. PMID:15456415

  14. Simple method for culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes of Testudinidae.

    Silva, T L; Silva, M I A; Venancio, L P R; Zago, C E S; Moscheta, V A G; Lima, A V B; Vizotto, L D; Santos, J R; Bonini-Domingos, C R; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2011-01-01

    We developed and optimized a simple, efficient and inexpensive method for in vitro culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes from the Brazilian tortoise Chelonoidis carbonaria (Testudinidae), testing various parameters, including culture medium, mitogen concentration, mitotic index, culture volume, incubation time, and mitotic arrest. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from the costal vein of four couples. The conditions that gave a good mitotic index were lymphocytes cultured at 37C in minimum essential medium (7.5 mL), with phytohemagglutinin as a mitogen (0.375 mL), plus streptomycin/penicillin (0.1 mL), and an incubation period of 72 h. Mitotic arrest was induced by 2-h exposure to colchicine (0.1 mL), 70 h after establishing the culture. After mitotic arrest, the cells were hypotonized with 0.075 M KCl for 2 h and fixed with methanol/acetic acid (3:1). The non-banded mitotic chromosomes were visualized by Giemsa staining. The diploid chromosome number of C. carbonaria was found to be 52 in females and males, and sex chromosomes were not observed. We were able to culture peripheral blood lymphocytes of a Brazilian tortoise in vitro, for the preparation of mitotic chromosomes. PMID:22180035

  15. Shale Smear Quantification Using Well Logs

    Faults exert significant control on the migration, entrapment and subsequent compartmentalization of hydrocarbon in the Niger Delta. Some faults allow the passage of fluids across them, while other do not. Shale smear is a principal reason for the sealing effect of most of the faults in synsedimentary fault environment like the Niger Delta. Several different methods have been used to characterize shale smearing in previous studies. Wireline log data from several wells were used to quantify the shale smear properties of a particular fault in Okan Field, offshore Nigeria. Stratigraphic and structural correlation tools and concepts were used to identify and measure smeared shale thickness and fault offset values in wells penetrating fault zones. From the observations, shale smear thickness in the Niger Delta appears to show a decrease with increasing fault throw when a single shale source is involved. However, for smearing developed from multiple source units, smeared shale thicknesses appear not to show any regular trend with increase in fault throw.This study has demonstrated our ability to measure thicknesses of shale smear from common wireline data and proposed a procedure on how to interpret these data for the specific process and quantity of smearing with respect to original stratigraphy

  16. Prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi infections in horses belonging to resource-poor farmers in the north-eastern Free State Province, South Africa

    M. Y. Motloang; O M M Thekisoe; Alhassan, A.; Bakheit, M; M. P. Motheo; F. E.S. Masangane; M. L. Thibedi; Inoue, N.; Igarashi, I; Sugimoto, C.; P.A. Mbati

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi infections in the north-eastern Free State Province of South Africa was determined by examination of thin and thick Giemsa-stained blood smears, IFAT and PCR. No parasites were detected by microscopy from any blood samples collected at five study sites, Qwaqwa, Kestell, Harrismith, Vrede and Warden. Of the tested serum samples, 28/29 (96.5%), 20/21 (95.2%) nd 42/42( 100%) were positive by IFAT for T. equi infections in Harrismith, Kestell a...

  17. Clay smear: Review of mechanisms and applications

    Vrolijk, Peter J.; Urai, Janos L.; Kettermann, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Clay smear is a collection of fault processes and resulting fault structures that form when normal faults deform layered sedimentary sections. These elusive structures have attracted deep interest from researchers interested in subsurface fluid flow, particularly in the oil and gas industry. In the four decades since the association between clay-smear structures and oil and gas accumulations was introduced, there has been extensive research into the fault processes that create clay smear and the resulting effects of that clay smear on fluid flow. We undertake a critical review of the literature associated with outcrop studies, laboratory and numerical modeling, and subsurface field studies of clay smear and propose a comprehensive summary that encompasses all of these elements. Important fault processes that contribute to clay smear are defined in the context of the ratio of rock strength and in situ effective stresses, the geometric evolution of fault systems, and the composition of the faulted section. We find that although there has been progress in all avenues pursued, progress has been uneven, and the processes that disrupt clay smears are mostly overlooked. We highlight those research areas that we think will yield the greatest benefit and suggest that taking these emerging results within a more process-based framework presented here will lead to a new generation of clay smear models.

  18. PAP SMEAR FOR SCREENING T. VAGINALIS

    Sateesh. K

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Trichomonas vaginalis is sometimes seen in Papanico laou stained smears, but because emphasis is placed on malignant cells in Papanicolaou stained smears, not much is done to search for this parasite in smears. In this study, cervical and vaginal specimens were examined by conventional Papanicolaou method fo r the presence of Trichomonas vaginalis microscopically. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five hundred high vaginal swabs collected from gynaecology OPD were stained with Papanicolaou stain. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty (30% out of 500 Papanicolaou stained smea rs screened, were positive for Trichomonas vaginalis. Out of them 76.67% of positiv e smears were from asymptomatic females. Presumptive diagnosis based on perinuclear halo and complete T. vaginalis had the highest sensitivity of 69.33%, while diagnosis base d on perinuclear halo alone was 50.66% and 41.33% for diagnosis based on identification of com plete organisms in Pap smear

  19. Locally-smeared operator product expansions

    Monahan, Christopher; Orginos, Kostantinos

    2014-12-01

    We propose a "locally-smeared Operator Product Expansion" (sOPE) to decompose non-local operators in terms of a basis of locally-smeared operators. The sOPE formally connects nonperturbative matrix elements of smeared degrees of freedom, determined numerically using the gradient flow, to non-local operators in the continuum. The nonperturbative matrix elements do not suffer from power-divergent mixing on the lattice, provided the smearing scale is kept fixed in the continuum limit. The presence of this smearing scale prevents a simple connection to the standard operator product expansion and therefore requires the construction of a two-scale formalism. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach using the example of real scalar field theory.

  20. Blood and intestinal parasites of squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae in Amazonian Brazil

    Ralph Lainson

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available We report the result of an examination for blood and intestinal protozoa in 12 specimens of the red squirrel Sciurus spadiceus (Rodentia: Sciuridae from Birroque, municipality of Plácido de Castro, state of Acre, Brazil. No parasites were detected in thin, Giemsa-stained blood films of the animals, but culture of the blood of three in Difco B45 medium blood-agar slants gave rise to isolates of epimastigotes. Inoculation of one isolate into laboratory mice resulted in the appearance of Trypanosoma cruzi-like trypomastigotes in their peripheral blood, and the other two isolates gave rise to transient infections with a T. lewisi-like parasite in inoculated mice and hamsters. The failure of the latter parasite to develop in the triatomine bug Rhodnius robustus suggests that it is probably not T. rangeli. This appears to be the first record of a T. lewisi-like trypanosome in neotropical squirrels. Oocysts of an Eimeria sp., were detected in the faeces of 10 animals (83.3%. The parasite develops in the epithelial cells of the intestine, where it may cause severe damage and sometimes results in death of the animal. No oocysts were detected in bile.

  1. Occurrence of Babesia species in captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in Germany.

    Wiegmann, Lisa; Silaghi, Cornelia; Obiegala, Anna; Karnath, Carolin; Langer, Sandra; Ternes, Kerstin; Kmmerling, Jens; Osmann, Christine; Pfeffer, Martin

    2015-06-30

    Two cases of acute babesiosis in captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in two German zoos in 2009 and 2012 triggered this study to investigate the occurrence and species diversity of Babesia parasites infecting reindeer in different zoos and deer parks in Germany. Between June and December 2013, blood samples were taken from 123 clinically inapparent reindeer from 16 different facilities. Samples were tested for the presence of Babesia species DNA by conventional PCR and sequence analysis of part of the 18S rRNA gene. Also, Giemsa-stained smears of reindeer blood samples were examined for parasitaemia by light microscopy. The overall PCR-prevalence in blood samples was 23.6% (n=29). Comparison of sequenced amplicons with GenBank entries possibly revealed up to five different Babesia species: B. venatorum (n=19), B. capreoli (n=2) and B. capreoli-like (n=4), B. odocoilei-like (n=2) and B. divergens (n=1), while one sample turned out to be a Theileria sp. Out of the 16 facilities in the study, 12 housed at least one positive animal. In Giemsa-stained blood smears, intra-erythrocytic Babesia parasites were detected in samples of three reindeer from three locations. The high prevalence of Babesia infections implicates babesiosis to be a relevant infectious disease threat for captive reindeer in Germany. Consequently, reindeer with clinical signs compatible to those of acute babesiosis should either be tested for the presence of Babesia spp. DNA or blood smears should be examined for parasitaemia. PMID:25986326

  2. Effects of lithium heparin and tripotassium EDTA on hematologic values of Hermann's tortoises (Testudo hermanni).

    Muro, J; Cuenca, R; Pastor, J; Vinas, L; Lavin, S

    1998-03-01

    In an effort to define the effect(s) of lithium heparin and tripotassium EDTA on various hematologic parameters in Testudo hermanni, we collected blood samples from 29 clinically healthy adult individuals of both sexes. Portions of each blood sample were transferred to tubes containing either lithium heparin or tripotassium EDTA. The following determinations were made on samples of blood from each anticoagulant: red and white cell counts, packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, red cell indices, and differential white cell counts. Due to hemolysis, hematocrits could not be determined from blood samples in EDTA. Further, red blood cell counts were lower in the EDTA samples than in the heparin samples, again due to hemolysis associated with EDTA. However, EDTA did not appear to interfere with hemoglobin determinations. Heparin blood samples provided more optimal blood smears than did EDTA samples, thus differential leucocyte counts were determined only from smears taken from heparin blood samples. Further, thrombocyte and leucocyte aggregation was not observed with heparin use. Thus, heparin is considered the anticoagulant of choice in chelonians for determining red blood cell counts, erythrocyte indices, and hematocrits. When May-Grunwald-Giemsa stain was compared with Diff-Quick, thrombocytes could be more easily differentiated from lymphocytes using the May-Brunwald-Giemsa stain. Heterophil granules seemed to coalese more when Diff-Quick was used. Eosinophils, basophils, and monocytes were similar in appearance with both staining methods. PMID:9638624

  3. A Case of Plasmodium ovale Malaria Imported from West Africa

    Kang, Yunjung; Yang, Jinyoung

    2013-01-01

    Malaria is a parasitic infection caused by Plasmodium species. Most of the imported malaria in Korea are due to Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum, and Plasmodium ovale infections are very rare. Here, we report a case of a 24-year-old American woman who acquired P. ovale while staying in Ghana, West Africa for 5 months in 2010. The patient was diagnosed with P. ovale malaria based on a Wright-Giemsa stained peripheral blood smear, Plasmodium genus-specific real-time PCR, Plasmodium sp...

  4. Leishmaniasis Panamensis Masquerading as Myiasis and Sporotrichosis: A Clinical Pitfall.

    Pavlidakey, Peter G; Huynh, Thy; McKay, Kristopher Michael; Sami, Naveed

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of cutaneous leishmaniasis panamensis in nonendemic Costa Rica. A 19-year-old female presented with nonhealing, unilateral eruption of erythematous papules with superficial central ulceration in a sporotrichoid pattern on right upper arm and back. Given the clinical picture and geographic locale, the patient was initially diagnosed with myiasis or human botfly infestation; however, the sporotrichoid pattern of the bites is an unlikely finding in myiasis. Peripheral blood smear, Giemsa stain, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were consistent for Leishmania spp. Ulceration resolved with 20-day course of IV sodium stibogluconate. PMID:26413365

  5. Prevalence of parasitic infections in cattle of Ludhiana district, Punjab

    Singh, N. K.; Singh, Harkirat; Jyoti; Haque, M.; Rath, S. S.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 862 cattle were sampled for both haematological (703) and coprological (159) investigations at the Large Animal Clinics, GADVASU, Ludhiana, Punjab, India. Examination of Giemsa-stained peripheral blood smears exhibited that 22.9 % (161/703) of cattle were infected with haematozoa comprising Theileria annulata (14.65 %), Trypanosoma evansi (0.28 %), Babesia bigemina (1.56 %) and Anaplasma marginale (8.53 %) while mixed infection appeared in 2.13 % (15/703) animals. The prevalence of...

  6. Smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis and lymphocyte subsets

    Objective: To correlate and quantitate Iymphocyte subsets with clinically diagnosed smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis and severity of disease. Subjects and Methods: Freshly diagnosed, well-characterized smear-negative patients (n=15) of pulmonary tuberculosis were selected. Non-induced three-consecutive negative smears of sputum with simultaneous culture for AFB for 6-8 weeks, positive Mauntoux test (= or > 0 mm), blood complete picture with ESR and chest x-rays were done. Selected panel of monoclonal antibodies against specific CD markers were used. Statistical analysis done by student t-test or Mann-Whitney rank-sum test with the help of Sigma State software. Results: Hemoglobin and total lymphocyte counts were significantly reduced whereas total leukocyte counts with absolute neutrophil counts were increased. Fraction of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes with HLA-DR expression was reduced while no significant change in rest of the TB and NK lymphocytes. Conclusion: Low hemoglobin level, high neutrophil count and low total lymphocytes suggest possible direct relationship with extent of disease. The number of activated CD4+, CD8+, alpha beta and gamma delta TCR T cells have tendency to increase during Mycobacterium infection. This seems to have a potential of being a good, non-invasive prognostic indicator for patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. (author)

  7. Smudge cells in peripheral blood smears did not differentiate chronic lymphocytic leukemia from other B-cell chronic lymphoprolipherative diseases Sombras nucleares no esfregaço do sangue periférico não diferenciam a leucemia linfocítica crônica das outras doenças linfoproliferativas B crônicas

    Daniel M. Matos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Smudge cells has been classically associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, but they are found in peripheral blood tests for other chronic B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases (CLD. We investigated whether the percentage of smudge cells in peripheral blood smears can be used in the clinical practice to differentiate CLL from other B-cell CLD. The peripheral blood smears of 63 patients with the diagnosis of CLL and 62 with other B-cell CLD were analyzed. Three hundred cells (both lymphoid cells and smudge cells were counted for each peripheral blood smear. A comparison of the percentage of smudge cells between the two groups was performed and, subsequently, 5 cut-off values were fixed (10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of smudge cells with the aim of defining cases as "positive" or "negative" for smudge cells and verifying whether there are any differences between CLL and the other B-cell CLD. The percentage of smudge cells in patients with CLL (median 26%, 4%-86% was higher than in patients with B-cell CLD (median 14%, 1%-64%. However, none of the cut-off values tested presented suitable values of sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value to separate the two groups. As it is necessary to have a single cut-off value with high sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value to infer the diagnosis of CLL in the clinical practice, we concluded that smudge cells are not fitting to differentiate CLL from other B-cell CLD.As sombras nucleares têm sido classicamente associadasà leucemia linfocítica crônica (LLC, embora possam ser encontradas nos esfregaços do sangue periférico de outras doenças linfoproliferativas B crônicas (DLBC. Nesse estudo, nós investigamos se a porcentagem de sombras nucleares nos esfregaços do sangue periférico pode ser utilizada na prática clínica da hematologia para diferenciar a LLC das outras DLBC. Foram analisados os esfregaços do sangue periférico de 63 pacientes com o diagnóstico de LLC e 62 com outras DLPC. Trezentas células, entre células linfoides e sombras nucleares, foram contadas em cada esfregaço. A comparação da porcentagem de sombras nucleares entre os dois grupos foi realizada e, subsequentemente, foram fixados 5 cut-offs de mais de 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% e 50% de sombras nucleares com o propósito de definir um caso como "positivo para sombras nucleares" e verificar se havia diferenças entre a LLC e as outras DLBC. A porcentagem das sombras nucleares em pacientes com LLC (mediana 26%, 4%-86% foi maior do que em pacientes com DLBC (mediana 14%, 1%-64%. Entretanto, nenhum dos cut-offs testados apresentou valores apropriados de sensibilidade, especificidade e valor preditivo positivo para distinguir os dois grupos. Desde queé necessário se dispor de um único valor de cut-off com alta sensibilidade, especificidade e valor preditivo positivo para inferir o diagnóstico de CLL na prática clínica, conclui-se que as sombras nucleares não são úteis para diferenciar a LLC das outras DLBC.

  8. Smear layer on dentin in restorative dentistry

    Živković Slavoljub; Kolar Mila; Blažić Larisa; Vučetić Mirjana; Tošić Goran

    2004-01-01

    Adhesion to enamel has become a routine technique in restorative dentistry. Adhesion to dentin, however, is still under investigation. Except structural elements of the dentin, smear layer has been one of the reasons that the interaction between the adhesive system and this tissue is difficult. The smear layer tissue created by cutting a tooth. It varies in thickness, roughness, density and degree of attachment andoccludes tubules and reduces the dental permeabilita. Dentin adhesivesystems ca...

  9. Detection of Theileria annulata by PCR and its Comparison With Smear Method in Native Carrier Cows

    Hamidreza Azizi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During March and April 2007, 140 native cows with the mean age of more than one year were selected randomly and their age and sex were registered in the related papers. Primarily, a thin layer smear was prepared from their ear sublime vein blood and was fixed with methanol and then it stained with Gimsa dye. Also, 9 mL blood from the jagular vein of the same cow was taken and collected in autoclaved tubes (containing 1 mL of 3.2% buffered citrate solution conversely for extracting their DNA for PCR. Two primers were used: N516/N517 belonged to a huge gene (30 kDa which is responsible for coding the surface antigen of Theileria annulata merozoite. By detection of 140 prepared blood smear with light microscope and lens 100, piroplasmic forms of Theileria annulata were seen in 12 smear (8.57%. By PCR method, 56 DNA of Theileria annulata was separated from 140 samples (40%. Statistical comparison of PCR and smear methods in diagnosing of Theileria annulata carriers can explain a significant difference between these two methods (p<0.05. The results of this study shows that sensitivity and accuracy of PCR method in diagnosing of Theileria annulata carriers is more than common method of smear preparation and can be used in epidemiological studies for the sake of controlling, prevention and determining of immunological condition of cows in region.

  10. Blood parasites of wild and domestic animals from South Kalimantan (Borneo), Indonesia.

    Masbar, S; Palmieri, J R; Marwoto, H A; Purnomo; Darwis, F

    1981-03-01

    Wild and domestic animals trapped from forests, villages, and rice fields in South Kalimantan (3 degrees 20' S, 115 degrees 02' E, 25 m) were examined for blood parasites using Giemsa stained thick and thin blood films and Nuclepore filter preparations of peripheral vein and heart puncture blood. Presbytis cristatus (silvered leaf monkey) (25%) and Felis catus (domestic cat) (7%) were infected with Brugia malayi and B. pahangi. In addition, P. cristatus was infected with Wuchereria kalimantani (35%); Cardiofilaria sp. (1%) and Dirofilaria sp. (1%). Microfilariae of Cardiofilaria were also recovered from Callosciurus notatus (squirrel), Pitta sordida (bird), Pycnonotus goiavier (bird) and Gallus gallus (bird). Paradoxurus hermaphroditus (civet) and Muntiacus muncak (barking deer), were positive for Dirofilaria sp. Bos indicus (cow) for Onchocerca sp. and Nectarinia jugularis (bird) for Splendidofilaria sp. Plasmodium coatneyi was found in 22% of the P. cristatus examined. Plasmodium sp. was also recovered from Zaocys fuscus and Ahaetulla prasina (reptile); Muscicapa sp. Lonchura malacca, Orthotomus sericeus, Rhipidura javanica, Treron vernans, Pycnonotus melanoleucus and G. gallus (bird). In addition 39% of the Cynopterus brachyotis and 29% of C. horsfieldi (fruit bats) were infected with Hepatocystis pteropi. A single G. gallus was infected with Leucocytozoon sabrazesi and another with Trypanosoma sp. PMID:6789456

  11. Women's understanding of the term 'Pap smear'.

    Howard, David L; Hostetter, Sarah Smith; Hunter, Jennifer; Johnson, Nicole; Cooper, Saladin; Malnar, Gerard

    2015-07-01

    To assess the understanding of the term 'Pap smear' among women across the entire adult lifespan after recent changes to the guidelines on cervical cancer screening. Women attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology clinic at a large safety net teaching hospital in a Midwestern city were provided one of two versions of a confidential and anonymous survey to complete. The difference between the two versions was the way the primary research question was worded. There were 174 participants ranging in age from 15 to 69 (mean = 33.9) years. Of the 73 women who completed version A of the survey, 74 % were able to identify at least one correct descriptor for the term 'Pap smear.' Women who could identify at least one correct descriptor for the term 'Pap smear' were on average older than those who could not (mean = 36.9 vs. 28.7 years; p = 0.012). Of the 94 patients completing survey version B, 67 % could not differentiate a pelvic exam from a Pap smear. There was no association between age and ability to differentiate a pelvic exam from a Pap smear. The majority of women cannot distinguish a Pap smear from a pelvic exam. The unexpected finding of less understanding among younger women prompts a need for further research and invites discussion of whether more cervical cancer prevention education, with more emphasis on HPV vaccines in recent years, has neglected the importance of Pap smears-which is beginning to show up in knowledge of younger women. Both these findings suggest a need for increased patient education during female preventive health clinic visits. PMID:25630404

  12. Uso de paneles de láminas estandarizadas para la evaluación de competencias en el diagnóstico microscópico de malaria en la Amazonía Peruana Use of standardized blood smear slide sets for competency assessment in the malaria microscopic diagnosis in the Peruvian Amazon

    Ángel Rosas-Aguirre

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar la competencia de los microscopistas en el diagnóstico de la malaria mediante paneles de láminas estandarizados en la Amazonía peruana. Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal, realizado entre los meses de julio y septiembre de 2007, en 122 establecimientos de salud de primer nivel de atención de la Amazonía peruana. En el marco del Proyecto PAMAFRO, se evaluó las competencias en el diagnóstico de malaria en 68 microscopistas sin experiencia (un año, utilizando paneles estandarizados de 20 láminas siguiendo las recomendaciones de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS. Se definió concordancia como el porcentaje de aciertos que tuvo el microscopista en los diagnósticos (identificación de especie del parásito. Un microscopista con concordancia ≥90% (≥18 láminas acertadas fue definido como "experto", 80 a Objectives. To assess the competency of microscopists for malaria diagnosis using standardized slide sets in the Peruvian Amazon. Material and methods. Cross-sectional study carried out in 122 first level health facilities of the Peruvian Amazon, between July and September 2007. Within the frame of the project "Control Malaria in the border areas of the Andean Region: A community approach" (PAMAFRO, we evaluated the malaria diagnosis performance in 68 microscopists without expertise ( 1 year using standardized sets of 20 blood smear slides according to the World Health Organization (WHO recommendations. A correct diagnosis (correct species identification was defined as "agreement", a microscopist was qualified as an "expert" if they have an agreement ≥90% (≥ 18 slides with correct diagnosis, as a "referent" with an agreement between 80% and <90%, "competent" if they are between 70 and <80% and "in training" if they have <70%. Results. Microscopists with expertise (68.6% had more agreement than those without expertise (48.2%. The competency assessment was acceptable (competent, referent, or experts levels in 11.8% of the microscopists without expertise and in 52.6% from those with expertise. The agreement was lower using blood smear slides with P. falciparum with low parasitaemia, with P. malariae and with mixed infections. Conclusions. Is the first assessment, we found only one of three microscopists from the Peruvian Amazon is competent fro malaria diagnosis according to the WHO standards. From this baseline data, we have to continue working in order to improve the competency assessment of the microscopists within the frame of a quality assurance system

  13. Tzanck smear in diagnosing genital herpes.

    Folkers, E; Oranje, A P; Duivenvoorden, J N; van der Veen, J P; Rijlaarsdam, J U; Emsbroek, J A

    1988-01-01

    In 126 patients with anogenital lesions, in which herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection was suspected or included in the differential diagnosis, the results of cytodiagnosis of herpetic infection (Tzanck smear) were compared with virus culture. Cervical lesions were excluded from this study. HSV infection was proved by culture in 78 patients and was absent or non-active in 41 patients. Excluded from this study were seven patients who did not yield the virus on culture but had positive Tzanck smear results from three investigators. The characteristic cytopathic effect of herpetic infection was found in 78 patients who yielded HSV on culture. Tzanck smear sensitivity for skin lesions was 79% and for mucous membrane lesions was 81% in men and 52% in women. Tzanck smear specificity for the 41 patients without herpetic infection proved by virus culture was 93%. Differences in sensitivity and specificity between the results found by three investigators (double blind screening) were not significant. The Tzanck smear is reliable, inexpensive, and easy and quick to perform; it is suitable for office diagnosis because it does not require a specialised laboratory. Images PMID:3169755

  14. REHYDRATION OF AIR-DRIED CERVICAL SMEARS: AN ALTERNATIVE TO ROUTINE WET FIXATION

    A. Zare-Mirzaie

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available To prepare Pap smears, the routine practice is to fix the slides immediately in 95% ethanol. This study was performed to evaluate the possibility of routine use of alternative method of air-drying and rehydration prior to alcohol fixation instead of conventional method. Paired cervical smears with at least low cellularity were collected from 117 women who participated in the study. One set was labeled WF (wet fixed or fixed immediately in 95% ethanol and the other one ARF (air-dried, rehydrated and fixed. The latter further split into 3 subgroups based on the duration of air-drying. The staining quality of the slides was assessed with respect to chromatin, nuclear and cytoplasmic borders, cytolysis, cellularity, cytoplasmic staining, and red blood cells lysis. Then they were graded blindly. The results were analyzed by Chi square test to compare the defined parameters between the 2 groups and also the 3 subgroups. ARF slides were significantly better with regard to clearance of background due to the lysis of red blood cells (P value, 0.000, x2 test; kappa, -0.27. No statistically significant differences were noted between two groups in terms of other cytologic features. Cytologic features of ARF slides were statistically identical to WF smears. However, red blood cells lysis rendered clearer background in ARF slides. Air-drying and rehydration of slides is a superior method for heavily blood stained smears and can be used at least with identical quality for routine practice.

  15. Measurement of surface contamination by smear method

    Monitoring of surface contamination by smear method is considered in detail. It consists in determination of the activity sampled from the surface under control by a contact method with a sorbent (cotton fabric, gauze, cotton wool tampon, filter paper). The method of dry and wet smears is distinguished. The latter supposes sorbent wetting prior to sampling in diluted nitric acid or in ethylene alcohol. The method is applied in case of preferential estimation of unfixed contamination as well as when the ?-active substance contamination cannot be determined with devices because of a significant ?-background or when it is impossible to draw a transducer nearer to measured surface. The method of smears is preferentially to be used in case of measuring surface contamination by ?-active substances as a more accurate method. Attention is given to technical volume and procedure of monitoring as well as measurement periodicity

  16. First Molecular Identification and Genetic Characterization of Theileria lestoquardi in Sheep of the Maghreb Region.

    Rjeibi, M R; Darghouth, M A; Rekik, M; Amor, B; Sassi, L; Gharbi, M

    2016-06-01

    Theileria lestoquardi is the most prominent Theileria species in small ruminants that causes malignant theileriosis of sheep in Africa and Asia. In the present survey, blood samples and ticks were collected in Kebili (southern Tunisia) from 166 Queue Fine de l'Ouest sheep. Giemsa-stained blood smears, immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and PCR were performed. The DNA was extracted from blood and analysed by PCR targeting 18S rRNA gene of Theileria spp. and then sequenced. A total number of 140 ticks were collected from a total number of 166 sheep during the four seasons. The ticks belonged to two genera and 4 species; the most frequent tick was Hyalomma excavatum 84.3% (118/140) and then Rhipicephalus spp. 15.7% (22/140). Only two animals had positive Giemsa-stained blood smears, and they were also positive by IFAT. The amplicons had 99.3 and 99.6% homology with the BLAST published T. lestoquardi amplicons. To our knowledge, this is the first report of T. lestoquardi in small ruminants within the Maghreb region. PMID:25208526

  17. Papanicolaou smears and cervical inflammatory cytokine responses

    Shapiro Samual

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a case-control study among 2064 South African women to investigate the risk of clinically invasive cancer of the cervix, we found a marked reduction in the risk of cervical cancer among women who gave a history of ever having undergone even a single Pap smear, and a statistically significant decline in the HPV positivity rate correlated with the lifetime number of Pap smears received. HPV infections and their associated low-grade lesions commonly regress, indicating that most often there is an effective host immune response against HPV infection. We hypothesized that act of performing a Pap smear is associated with inflammatory responses at the site of trauma, the cervix, and that this inflammatory signalling may be an immunological factor initiating these productive anti-HPV responses. In the present study, a randomized controlled trial, we enrolled 80 healthy young women to investigate the impact of performing a Pap smear on cervical inflammation. Forty one women, in the intervention group, received a Pap smear at enrollment and cervicovaginal lavages (CVLs were collected at baseline and 2 weeks later. Thirty nine women received no intervention at enrollment (control group but CVLs were collected at enrolment and 2 weeks later. We assessed various markers of inflammation including IL-12 p70, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-1β in CVL specimens. While CVL levels of IL-8, IL-1β and IL-6 remained unchanged following a Pap smear, markers of cell mediated immunity (IL-12 p70 and TNF-α and T cell regulation (IL-10 were significantly elevated.

  18. Removal factor determination of some local smear papers for surface contamination smear test

    Removal factor determination of some local smear papers has been done, using dry smear test method. The aim of this research is to find removal values of local smear papers on some surfaces, to replace import smear papers. Smear test was done on the various surfaces i.e.: porcelain, formica, glass, stainless steel, steel and PVC, with the local smear papers I.e.: Padalarang, Diagonal, Concorde, Marga, Hard Cloth, and import smear paper. The artificial contaminant which used were I-131 and P-32. The removal factor values of Padalarang paper for surfaces: porcelain, formica, glass stainless steel, steel and PVC were: 24.5%, 20.0%, 27.0%, 6.8%, 4.9%, and 13.6% respectively. The removal factor values of Diagonal paper were:18.4%, 15.9%, 5.7%, 3.5%, and 9.1% respectively. The removal factor values of concord paper were: 18.5%, 20.3%, 23.1%, 6.6%, 3.8%, and 9.0% respectively. The removal factor values of Marga paper were: 16.7%, 13.5%, 21.1%, 4.2%, 4.1% and 8.1% respectively. The removal factor values of Hard Cloth were: 18.6%, 12.6%, 20.5%, 8.2%, and 10.1% respectively. The removal factor values of import smear paper were: 17.8%, 15.0%, 18.8%, 9.1%, 4.8%, and 14.4% respectively . Substitution alternative of import smear paper is Padalarang. (author)

  19. Immunohistochemical staining of human sperm cells in smears from sexual assault cases

    Christoffersen, S.

    2011-01-01

    In the routine clinical examination of sexual assault victims, apart from documenting physical evidence of abuse, securing evidence, typically DNA from blood, semen, or saliva, is an important part of the process. Often the presence of semen is considered a most interesting piece of evidence. Not...... only does it often contain enough DNA for DNA profiling, but it also strongly indicates that an actual sexual act has taken place. The examination of smear slides obtained in sexual assault cases is a time-consuming task especially for the less trained and in cases where the smear only contains few...

  20. Detection of theileriosis in cattle and buffaloes by polymerase chain reaction.

    Kundave, V R; Patel, A K; Patel, P V; Hasnani, J J; Joshi, C G

    2015-09-01

    Bovine tropical theileriosis caused by Theileriaannulata is a tick-borne disease of great economic importance in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The present study was undertaken to detect theilerosis in cattle and buffaloes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The diagnosis of theileriosis is usually carried out by blood smear staining technique, which is not sufficiently sensitive to detect the piroplasms in the carrier animals. In this study, a total of 116 samples were collected from infected as well as apparently healthy cattle and buffaloes. Screening of blood smears by Giemsa staining detected 15 samples (12.93%) positive for Theileria piroplasms out of 116 samples. However, the PCR based screening using the specific primers from the major merozoite-piroplasm surface antigen sequence of T.annulata (Tams1) gene detected 74 samples (63.79%) positive for T.annulata which included 59 samples found negative by Giemsa staining. Our study suggests that the PCR based screening is more sensitive and accurate method for diagnosis of tropical theileriosis in cattle and buffaloes. PMID:26345061

  1. Persistent inflammation on Pap smear: Does it warrant evaluation?

    K Bhutia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Due to the low sensitivity of Pap smear, premalignant lesions of the cervix can be missed in women with inflammatory Pap smears. However, it is not practically possible to subject all women with inflammatory Pap smear to colposcopy. This study was carried out with the aim to evaluate whether women with persistent inflammation on Pap smear need further evaluation with colposcopy. Materials and Methods: Four hundred and twenty women were screened at a tertiary level hospital with Pap smear. Women with inflammation on Pap smear were given treatment as per WHO guidelines and Pap smear was repeated at an interval of 6-12 weeks. Women with persistent inflammation on Pap smear were then subjected to colposcopy and directed biopsy if required. Results: Of the 420 women screened, 102 (24.3% women had a Pap smear showing inflammation. Thirty six women (8.6% had persistent inflammatory Pap smear. Thirty women were subjected to colposcopy and 16 (53.3% had abnormal findings on colposcopy. Five out of these 30 women (16.67% had Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN on biopsy. Conclusions: Nearly 16.67% women with persistent inflammation on Pap smear had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Hence, a large number of women with CIN would be missed if persistent inflammation on Pap smear is not evaluated further.

  2. Blood

    Bale, Anthony; Feldman, David

    2015-01-01

    Bale and Feldman collaborated with the Jewish Museum, Camden Town, in developing the exhibition Blood (5 November 2015 to 28 February 2016). The exhibition was curated by Joanne Rosenthal of the Jewish Museum; Bale and Feldman edited the accompanying book Blood: Reflections on what unites and divides us, and both the exhibition and book were conceived through the Pears Institute for the study of Antisemitism. Academic events accompanied the exhibition, including lectures by Roger Luckhurst (B...

  3. Dynamics at a smeared phase transition

    Fendler, B; Vojta, T; Fendler, Bernard; Sknepnek, Rastko; Vojta, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the effects of rare regions on the dynamics of Ising magnets with planar defects, i.e., disorder perfectly correlated in two dimensions. In these systems, the magnetic phase transition is smeared because static long-range order can develop on isolated rare regions. We first study an infinite-range model by numerically solving local dynamic mean-field equations. Then we use extremal statistics and scaling arguments to discuss the dynamics beyond mean-field theory. In the tail region of the smeared transition the dynamics is even slower than in a conventional Griffiths phase: the spin autocorrelation function decays like a stretched exponential at intermediate times before approaching the exponentially small equilibrium value following a power law at late times.

  4. Phenomenology with Wilson fermions using smeared sources

    We investigate the use of two types of nonlocal (''smeared'') sources for quark propagators in quenched lattice QCD at ?=6.0 using Wilson fermions at ?=0.154 and 0.155. We present results for the hadron mass spectrum, meson decay constants, quark masses, the chiral condensate, and the quark distribution amplitude of the pion. The use of smeared sources leads to a considerable improvement over previous results. We find a disturbing discrepancy between the baryon spectra obtained using Wuppertal and wall sources. We find good signals in the ratio of correlators used to calculate the quark mass and the chiral condensate and show that the extrapolation to the chiral limit is smooth

  5. Dynamics at a smeared phase transition

    We investigate the effects of rare regions on the dynamics of Ising magnets with planar defects, i.e., disorder perfectly correlated in two dimensions. In these systems, the magnetic phase transition is smeared because static long-range order can develop on isolated rare regions. We first study an infinite-range model by numerically solving local dynamic mean-field equations. Then we use extremal statistics and scaling arguments to discuss the dynamics beyond mean-field theory. In the tail region of the smeared transition the dynamics is even slower than in a conventional Griffiths phase: the spin autocorrelation function decays like a stretched exponential at intermediate times before approaching the exponentially small equilibrium value following a power law at late times

  6. Dynamics at a smeared phase transition

    Fendler, Bernard [Department of Physics, University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Sknepnek, Rastko [Department of Physics, University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Vojta, Thomas [Department of Physics, University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States)

    2005-03-18

    We investigate the effects of rare regions on the dynamics of Ising magnets with planar defects, i.e., disorder perfectly correlated in two dimensions. In these systems, the magnetic phase transition is smeared because static long-range order can develop on isolated rare regions. We first study an infinite-range model by numerically solving local dynamic mean-field equations. Then we use extremal statistics and scaling arguments to discuss the dynamics beyond mean-field theory. In the tail region of the smeared transition the dynamics is even slower than in a conventional Griffiths phase: the spin autocorrelation function decays like a stretched exponential at intermediate times before approaching the exponentially small equilibrium value following a power law at late times.

  7. Prevalence of congenital malaria in minna, north central Nigeria.

    Omalu, Innocent Chukwuemeka James; Mgbemena, Charles; Mgbemena, Amaka; Ayanwale, Victoria; Olayemi, Israel Kayode; Lateef, Adeniran; Chukwuemeka, Victoria I

    2012-01-01

    The study was designed to determine the true prevalence of congenital, cord, and placental malaria in General Hospital Minna, North Central Nigeria. Peripheral blood smears of near-term pregnant women, as well as the placental, cord, and peripheral blood smears of their newborn babies, were examined for malaria parasites, using the Giemsa staining technique. Out of 152 pregnant women screened, 21 (13.82%) of them were infected with malaria parasites. Of the 152 new born babies, 4 (2.63%) showed positive peripheral parasitaemia. Placental parasitaemia was 7/152 (4.61%), while cord blood parasitaemia was 9/152 (5.92%). There were strong associations between peripheral and cord malaria parasitaemia and congenital malaria (P 0.05). Malaria parasitaemia occurred more frequently in primigravidae than multigravidae. PMID:21876706

  8. Smeared and unsmeared chiral vertex operators

    Constantinescu, F; Constantinescu, Florin

    1999-01-01

    We prove unboundedness and boundedness of the unsmeared and smeared chiral vertex operators, respectively. We use elementary methods in bosonic Fock space, only. Possible applications to conformal two - dimensional quantum field theory, perturbation thereof, and to the perturbative construction of the sine-Gordon model by the Epstein-Glaser method are discussed. From another point of view the results of this paper can be looked at as a first step towards a Hilbert space interpretation of vertex operator algebras.

  9. Report: Nuclei segmentation of leukocytes in blood smear digital images.

    Abbas, Naveed; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Saba, Tanzila; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah

    2015-09-01

    The Leukocytes are differentiated from each other on the basis of their nuclei, demanded in many Medical studies, especially in all types of Leukemia by the Hematologists to note the disorder caused by specific type of Leukocyte. Leukemia is a life threatening disease. The work for diagnosing is manually carried out by the Hematologists involving much labor, time and human errors. The problems mentioned are easily addressed through computer vision techniques, but still accuracy and efficiency are demanded in terms of the basic and challenging step segmentation of Leukocyte's nuclei. The underlying study proposed better method in terms of accuracy and efficiency by designing a dynamic convolution filter for boosting low intensity values in the separated green channel of an RGB image and suppressing the high values in the same channel. The high values in the green channel become 255 (background) while the nuclei always have low values in the green channel and thus clearly appear as foreground. The proposed technique is tested on 365 images achieving an overall accuracy of 95.89%, while improving the efficiency by 10%. The proposed technique achieved its targets in a realistic way by improving the accuracy as well as the efficiency and both are highly required in the area. PMID:26408877

  10. The Shape of Covariantly Smeared Sources in Lattice QCD

    von Hippel, Georg M; Rae, Thomas D; Wittig, Hartmut

    2013-01-01

    Covariantly smeared sources are commonly used in lattice QCD to enhance the projection onto the ground state. Here we investigate the dependence of their shape on the gauge field background and find that the presence of localized concentrations of magnetic field can lead to strong distortions which reduce the smearing radii achievable by iterative smearing prescriptions. In particular, as $a\\to 0$, iterative procedures like Jacobi smearing require increasingly large iteration counts in order to reach physically-sized smearing radii $r_{sm}\\sim$ 0.5 fm, and the resulting sources are strongly distorted. To bypass this issue, we propose a covariant smearing procedure (``free-form smearing'') that allows us to create arbitrarily shaped sources, including in particular Gaussians of arbitrary radius.

  11. Evaluation of the effect of presence of blood in the stomach on endoscopic diagnostic tests for Helicobacter pylori infection

    S Mittal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Presence of blood in the stomach has been thought to affect the performance of diagnostic tests used in detecting Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori in the stomach. This study evaluated the effect of blood on the efficacy of rapid urease test (RUT and microscopic appearance of the biopsy after staining with Giemsa stain. Materials and Methods: Patients with bleeding oesophageal varices who met the inclusion criteria were tested for H. pylori by RUT and microscopic examination of the biopsy. A repeat endoscopy, RUT and histology were done one month following initial presentation. The performance of the diagnostic tests was evaluated with and without the presence of intraluminal blood. A combined result of the two tests, RUT and histology, carried out in presence or absence of blood for the diagnosis of H. pylori, when considered together was considered as the gold standard. Results: Thirty six patients included in the study were in the ages ranging between 15-60 years (mean age = 44.14 years ±2.1. The combination of tests at both visits showed 20/36 (55.6% patients were positive for H. pylori. The decrease in H. pylori positivity in the presence of blood was significant for RUT (8.3% vs. 38.9%; P=0.005 and combined test (19.4% vs. 47.2%; P=0.02 but the decrease in positivity for histology (11.1% vs 30.6% was not significant (P=0.08. In the presence of blood, the sensitivity of RUT, histology and combined tests were 15%, 20% and 35%, respectively. In the absence of blood, the sensitivity of RUT, histology and combination of tests was 70%, 55% and 85%, respectively. Conclusion: Blood in the stomach significantly decreased the sensitivity of RUT, histology and the combination of both. Negative results of these tests in acute upper gastro intestinal (GI bleeding should therefore be interpreted carefully.

  12. Prevalance of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in Donkeys from Eastern Turkey in Winter Season

    I. Balkaya*, A. E. Utuk1 and F. C. Piskin1

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi by the examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears and c-ELISA method in donkeys, selected randomly from Erzurum, the largest province of Eastern Turkey. The specimens were consisted of 92 thin blood-smears and 75 sera during winter season. As result of microscopic examination no parasite was detected. Of the 75 sera, 3 (4% and 1 (1.33% samples were positive for the presence of T. equi and B. caballi antibodies, respectively. We couldnt detect mix infection with both parasites. This study indicated the prevalence of T. equi and B. caballi in donkeys for the first time from Eastern Turkey in winter season.

  13. Molecular Diagnostic of Anaplasma marginale in Carrier Cattle

    Vahid Noaman

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Anaplasmosis belongs to the complex of several tick-borne diseases and can cause diseases in the livestock with high economical losses. Cattle that recover from acute infection become carriers and the parasite can persist most probably for the lifetime in the blood. The aim of the present study was the determination of the persistently infected cattle in a region of Iran with the previous history of acute anaplasmosis."nMethods: One hundred and fifty blood samples and corresponding blood smears of cattle without any signs of diseases were prepared from a region in Isfahan/ Iran with the previous history of acute anaplasmosis from March 2007 to July 2007 for cross sectional study of carriers of Anaplasma. The blood smears were first screened by Giemsa staining, the extracted DNA from blood cells were analyzed by Anaplasma marginale specific nested PCR, and PCR-RFLP using primers derived from 16S rRNA gene and restriction endonuclease Bst1107 I."nResults: Anaplasma like structures could be identified in the limited amount of erythrocytes of 75 blood smears. In these samples, the percentage of erythrocytes harboring Anaplasma like structures varied from 10-3% to 10-2%. Nested-PCR and PCR-RFLP analysis showed 58 A. marginale positive cases within 75 Anaplasma suspected blood samples. In 150 total blood samples, 50% were A. marinale positive."nConclusion: Our results revealed that the traditional Giemsa staining method is not applicable for the determination of the persistently infected cattle. In addition, the results showed that the carrier animals must be widespread in the Anaplasma endemic areas in Iran.

  14. Tuberculosis treatment among smear positive tuberculosis patients

    Tuberculosis is a major health problem in many parts of the world. Delay in initiation of the treatment may result in prolonged infectious state, drug resistance, relapse and death. Objectives: To determine the factors responsible for not starting tuberculosis treatment among smear positive tuberculosis patients. Study type, settings and duration: This cross sectional study was done at Pakistan Medical Research Council TB Research Center, King Edward Medical University, Lahore, from fifth March 2010 to fifth December 2010. Patients and Methods: Fifty sputum smear positive patients of tuberculosis who did not register themselves in treatment register and presumably did not initiate anti tuberculosis treatment were contacted using telephone or traced by their home addresses. Once contact was established, they were inquired about the reasons for not starting tuberculosis treatment. Results: Of 50 patients 38(76%)belonged to the lower socio economic class and 12(24%) to the lower middle class. Fourteen patients (28%) were illiterate and 23(46%) had only 8 years of education. Of the 50 cases 41(82%) were taking treatment from traditional healers and 4% did not go back to the DOTS program. Physical condition of the patient, social, domestic and religious issues also played some role in default. Conclusions: Lack of health education and poverty were the main factors responsible for non compliance from treatment. Policy message: Sputum testing sites should have a paramedic who should educate the patients about the benefits of treatment and the dangers of default or partial treatment. (author)

  15. The inflammatory cervical smear: a study in general practice.

    Kelly, B A; Black, A S

    1990-01-01

    This study set out to determine whether the term 'inflammatory' in a cervical smear report implies underlying infection or whether it could be masking cancerous or precancerous changes. Of 826 smears taken in one practice over one year, 42 demonstrated some degree of inflammatory change. Thirty four of these women presented for swabs and almost half (47%) had a microbiologically proven infection. This group was further subdivided, and of those whose smears were reported as simple 'inflammatio...

  16. Improving diagnosis of Trichomonas Vaginalis infection in resource limited health care settings in Sri Lanka

    Sumadhya D Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was designed to compare diagnosis of trichomoniasis by culture, wet smear examination, and Giemsa stain. A modified technique was used to transport and prepare the specimen to ensure parasite viability prior to Giemsa staining. Materials and Methods: A clinic-based prospective study was carried out in association with the National STD/AIDS Control Programme over a period of 18 months. Three swabs were collected from the posterior fornix of 346 newly registered female patients for diagnosis of trichomoniasis. A wet smear was prepared using the first swab. The second swab was placed in 5 mL of 0.9% saline with three drops of 5% glucose at room temperature and centrifuged twice at a low speed prior to preparation of a Giemsa stained smear. The third swab was for culture. The three tests were performed independently. The specificity and sensitivity of the wet smear and Giemsa stain were compared to culture. Results: With culture, the prevalence of trichomoniasis was 6.9% (95% CI: 4.1-9.3%. The Giemsa-stained smear was found to be highly sensitive (100%, 95% CI: 86.2-100% and specific (99.69%, 95% CI: 98.26-99.95% compared to culture. The wet smear was less sensitive (95.83%, 95% CI: 79.76-99.26% but equally specific (100%, 95% CI: 98.82-100%. Conclusion: In developing countries, facilities for using culture are limited and wet smear examination in the field is also difficult due to the immediate need for laboratory facilities. Our study demonstrated that, in this setting, using a transport medium prior to Giemsa staining is a feasible alternative, with a high-diagnostic yield.

  17. Interdisciplinary research at the SMEAR Estonia station

    Noe, Steffen M.; Niinemets, Ülo; Kangur, Ahto; Hõrrak, Urmas; Soosaar, Kaido; Mander, Ülo

    2014-05-01

    Interdisciplinary research on ecosystem-atmosphere relations has been an issue since many years in Estonia. Since 2008, these activities have been intensified and led to the build up of a SMEAR (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) type station in Estonia. It is part of the Estonian Environmental Observatory, a delocalized research infrastructure that is operated by several Estonian universities and research institutions. It's core is located in the experimental forestry district in Järvselja where a major portion of the ecosystem and atmospheric research activities take place. Here, we present an overview of the current state of research which especially takes care of the hemiboreal forest ecosystem. Continuous build up of comprehensive measurements at diverse sites has led to a network of stations over Estonia. It's location in the transition zone between boreal and temperate forest ecosystems allows for new and updated hypothesis regarding fluxes of energy and matter in a globally changing climate system.

  18. Sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis: sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic algorithm

    Mugusi Ferdinand M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV is complicated by the increased presence of sputum smear negative tuberculosis. Diagnosis of smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis is made by an algorithm recommended by the National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Programme that uses symptoms, signs and laboratory results. The objective of this study is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the tuberculosis treatment algorithm used for the diagnosis of sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods A cross-section study with prospective enrollment of patients was conducted in Dar-es-Salaam Tanzania. For patients with sputum smear negative, sputum was sent for culture. All consenting recruited patients were counseled and tested for HIV. Patients were evaluated using the National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Programme guidelines and those fulfilling the criteria of having active pulmonary tuberculosis were started on anti tuberculosis therapy. Remaining patients were provided appropriate therapy. A chest X-ray, mantoux test, and Full Blood Picture were done for each patient. The sensitivity and specificity of the recommended algorithm was calculated. Predictors of sputum culture positive were determined using multivariate analysis. Results During the study, 467 subjects were enrolled. Of those, 318 (68.1% were HIV positive, 127 (27.2% had sputum culture positive for Mycobacteria Tuberculosis, of whom 66 (51.9% were correctly treated with anti-Tuberculosis drugs and 61 (48.1% were missed and did not get anti-Tuberculosis drugs. Of the 286 subjects with sputum culture negative, 107 (37.4% were incorrectly treated with anti-Tuberculosis drugs. The diagnostic algorithm for smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis had a sensitivity and specificity of 38.1% and 74.5% respectively. The presence of a dry cough, a high respiratory rate, a low eosinophil count, a mixed type of anaemia and presence of a cavity were found to be predictive of smear negative but culture positive pulmonary tuberculosis. Conclusion The current practices of establishing pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis are not sensitive and specific enough to establish the diagnosis of Acid Fast Bacilli smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis and over treat people with no pulmonary tuberculosis.

  19. DIAGNOSTIC ACCURACY OF SQUASH SMEAR TECHNIQUE IN BR AIN TUMORS

    Sanjay Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Primary tumors of central nervous system constitute less than 2% of overall human cancers in adults how ever; they constitute second most common frequently encountered tumors in children after leu kaemia. Use of smear technique has been described for many years on specimens obtained with stereotactic devices, which allow multiple sampling for the diagnosis of deep seated lesions. Sq uash smear technique saves time and amount of tissue needed. METHODS: A total of 75 cases of intracranial space occupying lesions were studied. The squash smear technique was used t o diagnose the brain Tumors and was compared with histopathological examination of same t umor. RESULTS: Out of 75 cases in 8 (10.7% cases discordance was observed between squa sh smear diagnosis and histologic diagnosis. In 67 (89.3% cases squash smear diagnos is was in accordance with the final histologic diagnosis. Thus the diagnostic accuracy of squash smear technique in this study is 89.3%. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSIONS: Thus the value of squash smear technique in rapid preoperative diagnosis of neurosurgical biopsies is corroborated by above study and the accuracy of this study matched with the other studi es done in the past on squash smear technique and it should be used regularly for rapid intra-operative diagnosis of intracranial space occupying lesion.

  20. Optoelectronic hit/miss transform for screening cervical smear slides

    Narayanswamy, R.; Turner, R. M.; McKnight, D. J.; Johnson, K. M.; Sharpe, J. P.

    1995-06-01

    An optoelectronic morphological processor for detecting regions of interest (abnormal cells) on a cervical smear slide using the hit/miss transform is presented. Computer simulation of the algorithm tested on 184 Pap-smear images provided 95% detection and 5% false alarm. An optoelectronic implementation of the hit/miss transform is presented, along with preliminary experimental results.

  1. The Anal Pap Smear: Cytomorphology of squamous intraepithelial lesions

    Arain Shehla

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anal smears are increasingly being used as a screening test for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs. This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness and limitations of anal smears in screening for ASILs. Methods The cytomorphological features of 200 consecutive anal smears collected in liquid medium from 198 patients were studied and findings were correlated with results of surgical biopsies and/or repeat smears that became available for 71 patients within six months. Results Adequate cellularity was defined as an average of 6 or more nucleated squamous cells/hpf. A glandular/transitional component was not required for adequacy. Dysplastic cells, atypical parakeratotic cells and bi/multinucleated cells were frequent findings in ASIL while koilocytes were infrequent. Smears from LSIL cases most frequently showed mildly dysplastic and bi/multinucleate squamous cells followed by parakeratotic cells (PK, atypical parakeratotic cells (APK, and koilocytes. HSIL smears contained squamous cells with features of moderate/severe dysplasia and many APKs. Features of LSIL were also found in most HSIL smears. Conclusions In this study liquid based anal smears had a high sensitivity (98% for detection of ASIL but a low specificity (50% for predicting the severity of the abnormality in subsequent biopsy. Patients with cytologic diagnoses of ASC-US and LSIL had a significant risk (46–56% of HSIL at biopsy. We suggest that all patients with a diagnosis of ASC-US and above be recommended for high resolution anoscopy with biopsy.

  2. Who is getting Pap smears in urban Peru?

    Paz Soldan, Valerie A; Lee, Frank H; Carcamo, Cesar; Holmes, King K.; Garnett, Geoff P; Garcia, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer, although usually preventable by Pap smear screening, remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru. The percentages and characteristics of women in Peru who have or have not had a Pap smear have not been defined.

  3. A highly sensitive, PCR-based method for the detection of Plasmodium falciparum clones in microtiter plates

    Weissenbach Matthew E

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cloning of parasites by limiting dilution is an essential and rate-limiting step in many aspects of malaria research including genomic and genetic manipulation studies. The standard Giemsa-stained blood smears to detect parasites is time-consuming, whereas the more sensitive parasite lactate dehydrogenase assay involves multiple steps and requires fresh reagents. A simple PCR-based method was therefore tested for parasite detection that can be adapted to high throughput studies. Methods Approximately 1 ?L of packed erythrocytes from each well of a microtiter cloning plate was directly used as template DNA for a PCR reaction with primers for the parasite 18s rRNA gene. Positive wells containing parasites were identified after rapid separation of PCR products by gel electrophoresis. Results The PCR-based method can consistently detect a parasitaemia as low as 0.0005%, which is equivalent to 30 parasite genomes in a single well of a 96-well plate. Parasite clones were easily detected from cloning plates using this method and a comparison of PCR results with Giemsa-stained blood smears showed that PCR not only detected all the positive wells identified in smears, but also detected wells not identified otherwise, thereby confirming its sensitivity. Conclusion The PCR-based method reported here is a simple, sensitive and efficient method for detecting parasite clones in culture. This method requires very little manual labor and can be completely automated for high throughput studies. The method is sensitive enough to detect parasites a week before they can be seen in Giemsa smears and is highly effective in identifying slow growing parasite clones.

  4. Analysis of cervical smears in a Muslim population

    Screening for the cancer of the cervix remains a neglected health care issue in Pakistan. To provide baseline data for future efforts to improve screening, we conducted a retrospective analysis of cervical smears taken in the obstetrics and gynaecological clinics of the Agha Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. We collected data on cervical smear cytology for cervical smears taken from January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1996. We assessed risk factors for dysplasia, including age, age at first marriage, and number of pregnancies. The overall prevalence of abnormal smears in our study was 0.5%. Of 20,995 cervical smears, showed non-specific inflammation, 7302 (34.8%) were reported as normal, 809 (3.85%) showed monillial infection, 148 (0.71%) showed atypia, 105 (0.5%) had dyplastic cytology and 52 (0.25%) samples were inadequate. The highest incidence of dysplastic smears was seen in the age group 35 to 44 years. Of 105 patients with dysplasia 12 were pregnant, and all were asymptomatic. The low prevalence of abnormal smears, compared with the data from Western populations, could be due to the internet bias of health awareness in the women who attended our hospital. The results of this study may serve as baseline for for future comparisons. A large community-based study may establish the exact prevalence of malignant and premalignant lesions so as to plan for future screening. (author)

  5. Reliable enumeration of malaria parasites in thick blood films using digital image analysis

    Frean John A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitation of malaria parasite density is an important component of laboratory diagnosis of malaria. Microscopy of Giemsa-stained thick blood films is the conventional method for parasite enumeration. Accurate and reproducible parasite counts are difficult to achieve, because of inherent technical limitations and human inconsistency. Inaccurate parasite density estimation may have adverse clinical and therapeutic implications for patients, and for endpoints of clinical trials of anti-malarial vaccines or drugs. Digital image analysis provides an opportunity to improve performance of parasite density quantitation. Methods Accurate manual parasite counts were done on 497 images of a range of thick blood films with varying densities of malaria parasites, to establish a uniformly reliable standard against which to assess the digital technique. By utilizing descriptive statistical parameters of parasite size frequency distributions, particle counting algorithms of the digital image analysis programme were semi-automatically adapted to variations in parasite size, shape and staining characteristics, to produce optimum signal/noise ratios. Results A reliable counting process was developed that requires no operator decisions that might bias the outcome. Digital counts were highly correlated with manual counts for medium to high parasite densities, and slightly less well correlated with conventional counts. At low densities (fewer than 6 parasites per analysed image signal/noise ratios were compromised and correlation between digital and manual counts was poor. Conventional counts were consistently lower than both digital and manual counts. Conclusion Using open-access software and avoiding custom programming or any special operator intervention, accurate digital counts were obtained, particularly at high parasite densities that are difficult to count conventionally. The technique is potentially useful for laboratories that routinely perform malaria parasite enumeration. The requirements of a digital microscope camera, personal computer and good quality staining of slides are potentially reasonably easy to meet.

  6. First report of surra (Trypanosoma evansi infection in a Tunisian dog

    Rjeibi Mohamed Ridha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma evansi, the agent of surra, is a salivarian trypanosome, originating from Africa. Surra is a major disease in camels, equines and dogs, in which it can often be fatal in the absence of treatment. Animals exhibit nonspecific clinical signs (anaemia, loss of weight and abortion. In the present survey, a blood sample was collected in Sousse (Central Tunisia from a dog that presented clinical signs of trypanosomiasis. Giemsa-stained blood smears and PCR were performed. ITS1 sequences from blood had 99.8 and 99.5% homology with published T. evansi sequences from cattle and camels, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report of T. evansi in a Tunisian dog.

  7. Significance of a diagnosis of microorganisms on pap smear.

    Fitzhugh, Valerie A; Heller, Debra S

    2008-01-01

    The Pap smear has been in use for more than half a century as the primary screening test for preinvasive and invasive lesions of the uterine cervix. Although not the primary use and an imperfect test, it can be extremely useful in the diagnosis of some microorganisms. This review focuses on the use of the Pap smear in the diagnosis of several microorganisms including Actinomyces, Chlamydia trachomatis, Candida, Trichomonas vaginalis, Leptothrix vaginalis, Herpes Simplex Virus, the causative agents of bacterial vaginosis, and other rarer organisms. The accuracy of diagnosis using the smear varies among the different organisms in question. PMID:18162813

  8. [Disturbance of binocular vision by wiper smears on windshields].

    Reiner, J

    1989-01-01

    Sunlight or light from other sources can be scattered and refracted by the smears left on windshields by wipers. Under certain circumstances the resulting light phenomena can disturb binocular vision and distract the driver's attention. PMID:2709737

  9. Maternal cell contamination of buccal smear samples in nursing neonates.

    Babovic-Vuksanovic, D; Michels, V V; Law, M E; Lindor, N M; Jalal, S M

    1998-02-01

    Buccal smear analysis is a non-invasive method which is being popularized by new fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques. It is frequently used for gender identification and detection of sex chromosome aneuploidy in neonates. We attempted to determine whether or not buccal smears of nursing infants can be contaminated by maternal cells from breast feeding. FISH involving centromere specific directly labeled, multicolor probes for chromosomes X, Y and 18 were used for analysis of buccal smear samples. Buccal smear samples from 22 breast fed and 20 formula fed male neonates were analyzed in a blinded fashion. Twenty-seven percent of samples from breast fed infants had some (0.5-2.5%) XX signal pattern while the samples from formula fed infants had no XX signal pattern (difference statistically significant, p misinterpretation of results involving FISH analysis or other DNA based diagnostic studies. We have also modified the FISH technique to suit the neonates. PMID:9611071

  10. Smeared Wigner functions and quantum-mechanical histories

    We calculate the probability for a quantum-mechanical history consisting of imprecise samplings of position at two moments of time. In the limit of small time separation, this leads to an imprecise sampling of position together with a time-of-flight sampling of momentum. We also calculate the probability for the history consisting of direct momentum and position samplings a short time apart. In each case, we find that the resulting probability distribution on phase space is a smeared version of the Wigner function, and is positive. We show that these smearings belong to a class of smearings which make the Wigner function positive. In the case of the time-of-flight momentum sampling, it is more general than previously considered smearings, such as that of Husimi

  11. Neutron activation analysis of paint smears on cloth

    Methods for element concentration analysis of NAA and a comparison between the paint smears on cloth and paint fragments are introduced. Reduction to absurdity and statistic calculation are used to negate the suspected paint. Calculation steps are given and illustrated

  12. STUDY OF CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF PAP SMEAR IN STD CLINICS

    Parvathi; Guru Prasad; Rashmi; Divya Lekha

    2015-01-01

    AIM The objective of this study is to analyse the association between sexually transmitted diseases and cervical cytology by doing Papanicolaou (Pap) smear in the female patients attending Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Clinics. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was carried out on 200 female patients attending STD clinic Outpatient Department (OPD) in King George Hospital (KGH) for a period of 2 years. For all the patients Pap smears were taken. RES...

  13. Measurement of surface contamination using the smear method

    The authors propose an enchantment of the smear method used for measuring the surface contamination in rooms and facilities in the strict regime zone of the Kozloduy NPP. The existing procedure of smear taking has low accuracy, efficiency and reproducibility due to unsuitable filter materials. 30 new materials have been tested and two of them - textile fabrics TT and WH - have been found appropriate for the purpose. Application of these materials will considerably reduce the uncertainties of measurement

  14. Significant pathologic findings in 41 Atypical Glandular Cell pap smears

    Behtash N

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between atypical glandular cell (AGC on Pap smear and significant pathologic finding to tailor management protocols. Methods: Between 2002 and 2005, Among 26893 Pap smears 122 women with AGC Pap smears (prevalence=0.45% were referred to our colposcopy clinic. Forty one women underwent colposcopy directed biopsy, endocervical curettage, endometrial sampling and cervical conization to determine the cytologic and histologic correlations of AGC on pap smears. Results: A total of 122 women with AGC Pap smear were found. Only 41 women accepted to participate in the study and followed the workup procedures. The mean age of the patients was 46.92 ±11.48 years (range, 23-80 years. Of these patients 13 patients (31.7% were post menopause and 28 patients (68.2% were in reproductive age. We found 13 (31.7% significant pathologic findings including 4 (9.7% high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HG-SIL, 3(7.3% low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LG-SIL, 2(4.8% Endometrial hyperplasia, 1(2.4% Endometrial adenocarci-noma, 1(2.4% adenocarcinoma of cervix, 1(2.4% squamous cell carcinoma of cervix and 1(2.4% papillary serous tumor of ovary. There was not any significant difference in the prevalence of significant pathologic findings and subtype of squamous or adenomatous lesions between pre and postmenopausal group. Conclusion: AGC on Pap smear was associated with a clinically significant diagnosis in approximately one third of our cases. The women with a diagnosis of AGC on cervicovaginal smear are needed to be evaluated at least with colposcopy, endocervical and endometrial curettage. Clinicians should be careful about the significance of AGC in pap smears.

  15. Detection of abnormal cervical cytology in Papanicolaou smears

    Manjit Singh Bal; Rishu Goyal; Anil Kumar Suri; Manjit Kaur Mohi

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cervical cytology by Papanicolaou (Pap) smears is an effective means of screening for cervical premalignant and malignant conditions. Cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer remain important health problems for women worldwide. Aim: To study the role of Pap smear in detecting premalignant and malignant lesions of cervix; and to determine the prevalence of various lesions. Materials and Methods: This study is based on 300 patients who attended the out-...

  16. Detection of abnormal cervical cytology in Papanicolaou smears

    Bal, Manjit Singh; Goyal, Rishu; Suri, Anil Kumar; Mohi, Manjit Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cervical cytology by Papanicolaou (Pap) smears is an effective means of screening for cervical premalignant and malignant conditions. Cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer remain important health problems for women worldwide. Aim: To study the role of Pap smear in detecting premalignant and malignant lesions of cervix; and to determine the prevalence of various lesions. Materials and Methods: This study is based on 300 patients who attended the out-patient ...

  17. Attenuation of perceived motion smear during vergence and pursuit tracking*

    Bedell, Harold E.; CHUNG, SUSANA T. L.; Saumil S. Patel

    2004-01-01

    When the eyes move, the images of stationary objects sweep across the retina. Despite this motion of the retinal image and the substantial integration of visual signals across time, physically stationary objects typically do not appear to be smeared during eye movements. Previous studies indicated that the extent of perceived motion smear is smaller when a stationary target is presented during pursuit or saccadic eye movements than when comparable motion of the retinal image occurs during ste...

  18. The resurgence of trypanosomosis in Botswana : short communication

    S.P. Sharma

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available No sleeping sickness or nagana cases have been reported in Botswana since 1985. In view of several confirmed clinical cases of nagana and reports of heavy bovine mortality, a parasitological survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of trypanosome infection in cattle in Maun and Shakawe areas of Ngamiland district. Wet blood films, buffy coat and Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood smears were used to detect trypanosomes in animals. Overall,trypanosome infection rate was 15.98%, with 5.94% and 27.29% in Maun and Shakawe respectively. The urgent need to combat trypanosomosis in Ngamiland, particularly in the Shakawe area, is highlighted, and a 3-phase integrated tsetse control strategy for this disease problem is discussed.

  19. Shape-based nuclei area of digitized pap smear images

    Muhimmah, Izzati; Kurniawan, Rahadian

    2012-04-01

    Nuclei of the epithelial of Pap smear cells are important risk indicator of cervical cancers. Pathologist uses the changing of the area of the nuclei to determine whether cells are normal or abnormal. It means that having correct measurement of the area of nuclei is important on the pap smears assessment. Our paper present a novel approach to analyze the shape of nuclei in pap smear images and measuring the area of nuclei. We conducted a study to measure the area of nuclei automatically by calculating the number of pixels contained in each of the segmented nuclei. For comparison, we performed measurements of nuclei area using the ellipse area approximation. The result of the t-test confirmed that there were similarity between elliptical area approximation and automatic segmented nuclei-area at 0.5% level of significance.

  20. Drug resistance pattern among afb smear positive retreatment completed cases

    Worldwide, multidrug resistance (MDR TB) is a serious issue. It has increased over the last decade. Re-treatment completed sputum smear positive cases have much higher incidence of MDR- TB as compared to primary MDR - TB. Objective: To estimate the incidence of drug resistance pattern among AFB smear positive re-treatment completed cases. Study Design: Evidence based prospective study. Study Setting: Institute of Chest Medicine, Mayo Hospital Lahore, Tertiary care hospital affiliated with King Edward Medical University, Lahore, Pakistan. Methodology: A total 50 (Male 22, Female 28) pulmonary TB patients who had completed Re- treatment regimen in the past and are still sputum smear positive for acid fast Bacilli were included in the study. Three consecutive sputum specimens were collected at Aga Khan University collection center at Lahore. The specimen were sent to Aga Khan University Lab Karachi for AFB smear, culture and drug sensitivity both for essential and reserve drugs. Reports for AFB smear were received within a week, while culture and drug sensitivity' reports after 6 weeks. Reports data was analyzed for essential and reserve anti tuberculous drug sensitivity for mycobacterium tuberculosis. Results: Data Analysis revealed MDR TB in 31(62%) patients which include 11 males and 23 females. Individual drug resistance to essential drugs was INH - 62%, Rifampicin - 68%, Ethambutol - 24%, PZA - 25% and Streptomycin - 21 %. Poly drug resistance was determined in' 38% cases. Individual drug resistance to reserve drugs - kanamycin, Amikacin, ofloxacin, Ethionamide and PAS was 4%, 4%, 36%, 10% and 2% respectively. Conclusion: There is a very high proportion of MDR TB in sputum smear AFB positive retreatment cases. Suggestion: Comprehensive measures including DO- TS PLUS are needed to control MDR TB in Pakistan. (author)

  1. Severe human Babesia divergens infection in Norway

    K. Mørch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Human babesiosis is a rare but potentially life-threatening parasitic disease transmitted by ixodid ticks, and has not previously been reported in Norway. We report a case of severe babesiosis that occurred in Norway in 2007. The patient had previously undergone a splenectomy. He was frequently exposed to tick bites in an area endemic for bovine babesiosis in the west of Norway. The patient presented with severe haemolysis and multiorgan failure. Giemsa-stained blood smears revealed 30% parasitaemia with Babesia spp. He was treated with quinine in combination with clindamycin, apheresis, and supportive treatment with ventilatory support and haemofiltration, and made a complete recovery. This is the first case reported in Norway; however Babesia divergens seroprevalence in cattle in Norway is high, as is the risk of Ixodes ricinus tick bite in the general population. Babesiosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained febrile haemolytic disease.

  2. Saurian malaria in Kenya: epidemiological features of malarial infections in lizard populations of the West Pokot District.

    Mutinga, M J; Dipeolu, O O

    1990-04-01

    During investigations into the prevalence of malarial parasites among lizards in the West Pokot District in Kenya, 179 lizards comprising eight species were caught. Examination of the Giemsa-stained smears made from their blood showed that 34 lizards were infected with Plasmodium species. Fifteen lizards were infected with a single species of Plasmodium and 19 carried multiple infections, the maximum, in four lizards, was four species. There were 19 combinations of parasite infections. Seventeen Plasmodium species were identified, the commonest being P. icipeensis. Only two of the eight lizard species were infected: the skink Mabuya striata and the agamid Agama agama. Eight of the Plasmodium species infected both; another eight species infected M. striata only but three of these have been described from different lizard families elsewhere in Africa. P. robinsoni infected A. agama only, although it was first described from another lizard family in another part of Africa. The epidemiological significance of these results is discussed. PMID:2332274

  3. [The dentinal smear layer. Characteristics and interactions. 2].

    Negri, P L; Eramo, S; Lotito, M; De Pino, C

    1991-03-15

    The Authors, after the presentation (in the first part of the Dossier) of a large literature review about the physical, chemical and clinical characteristics of formation, interaction, remotion of "smear layer" during cavity preparation in hard tooth tissue, describe the results of a scanning microelectronic research about the action as cleanser (for the dentinal cavity wall) of the CK101 (Caridex) versus wather, Tubulicid and phosphoric acid. The experimental results obtained "in vitro" show that the substance has relative action, without removing the tubular portion of "smear layer". PMID:2070916

  4. Free-form smearing for bottomonium and B meson spectroscopy

    Wurtz, Mark; Woloshyn, R M

    2015-01-01

    To obtain high-quality results from lattice QCD, it is important to use operators that produce good signals for the quantities of interest. Free-form smearing is a powerful tool that helps to accomplish that goal. The present work introduces a new implementation of free-form smearing that maintains its usefulness and reduces its computational time dramatically. Applications to the mass spectrum of $B$, $B_s$, $B_c$ and bottomonium mesons show the effectiveness of the method. Results are compared with other lattice QCD studies and with experimental data where available. The present work includes the first lattice QCD exploration for some of these mesons.

  5. Cytological patterns of cervical pap smears with histopathological correlation

    Bhagya Lakshmi Atla

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: Pap smear is simple, inexpensive and can be performed in the outpatient department. Hence, it should be recommended routinely as a method of improving reproductive health, early detection of premalignant and malignant cervical lesions. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(8.000: 1911-1916

  6. [Is the PAP smear era coming to an end?].

    Nowak-Markwitz, Ewa; Spaczyński, Marek

    2015-12-01

    After the discovery of the role human papilloma virus (HPV) plays in the development of cervical cancer we are witnesses to a change in the conception and interpretation of cervical cancer prevention processes. Primary prevention gained a new tool in the form of HPV vaccines. Secondary prevention, i.e. detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (GIN), acquired a new diagnostic method--the HPV test. Studies were initiated in order to determine the usefulness of HPV tests in cervical cancer prevention and screening. They revealed that the DNA HPV test used in screening has higher sensitivity in CIN detection than PAP smear and that HPV-negative patients are better and longer protected against developing cervical cancer in comparison to women with normal PAP smear results. HPV tests also possess a predictive value, which detects women more susceptible to developing cervical cancer in the future. PAP smear does not have a predictive value. Instead, it only detects a presence or an absence of neoplasia at that particular time. These results clearly indicate that the era of classic PAP smear is indeed coming to an end, replaced by a new primary CIN screening tool--HPV test. The entire cervical cancer screening system must therefore be redefined and reorganized. PMID:26995946

  7. Missed Opportunities for Health Education on Pap Smears in Peru

    Bayer, Angela M.; Nussbaum, Lauren; Cabrera, Lilia; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite cervical cancer being one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru, cervical Pap smear coverage is low. This article uses findings from 185 direct clinician observations in four cities of Peru (representing the capital and each of the three main geographic regions of the country) to assess missed opportunities for…

  8. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis in a rural setup: Comparison of clinical algorithm, smear scoring and culture by semiquantitative technique

    Rao P

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs in a rural set up and compare the smear scoring system to that of culture by semiquantitative technique. A total of 505 married women, who were in sexually active age group of 15-44 years, were selected from three different villages. High vaginal swabs, endocervical swabs, vaginal discharge and blood were collected and processed in the laboratory. Overall prevalence of 29% reproductive tract infection was detected. Endogenous infection was commonly observed (27.92%, and very low prevalence of STIs (Trichomonas 1.18%, Syphilis 0%, Gonorrhea 0% was detected. Diagnosis of BV was possible in 104 (20.5% women by smear alone and 88 (17.42% women by semiquantitative culture.

  9. Evaluation of Smear Negative and Pozitive Pulmonary Tuberculosis Cases

    Fulsen Bozkus

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the relation between radiographic involvement and tuberculin skin test (TST and Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG results in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB. Material and Method: In 210 patients (%42,7 female, %57,6 male, mean age:40,5 ± 16,1 with smear positive and negative PTB we retrospectively analyzed the relation between radiographic findings, TST and BCG. We separated the patients into three groups as mild, moderate and severe according to their radiologic involvement and compared the radiologic extension with tuberculin skin test results. We also compared the degree of sputum smear positivity with tuberculin skin test results. Results: According to the evaluation of radiological findings of the patients, high risk is detected in 58(67,4% patients in smear-positive group and 28(32,6% patients in smear-negative group and statistically valuable relation between smear positivity and radiological findings of the patients is seen (p:0,001. According to the results of TST of the patients, high risk is detected radiologically in 53(61,6% cases of TST-negative group, 33(38,4% cases of TST-positive group and statistically valuable relation between TST results and radiological findings of the patients is seen (p:0,001. A valuable difference between BCG results and radiological findings is not seen. Discussion: It is concluded that radiology is beneficial for diagnosis especially in cases which are without bacilli and suspicious for tuberculosis and TST is shown that it can be beneficial for determining the immunity against to mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  10. Quantification of sickle cells in the peripheral smear as a marker of disease severity.

    Alvarez, Ofelia; Montague, Naomi S; Marin, Marta; O'Brien, Robert; Rodriguez, Maria Matilde

    2015-06-01

    Blinded readers examined peripheral smears of 108 children with steady sickle cell (SC) disease and controls by counting ten 100 microscope fields and calculating percent of irreversible and reversible SC from total red cell population SC index (SCI). SCI was correlated to disease severity, and transfusion, hydroxyurea, or neither. Controls had a mean of 0.28% SC (range 0-0.64). Children with hemoglobin SS had a mean SCI of 5.12% 5.37 (range 0-30). SCI increased 0.33% with each increasing year (p 0.64 were 3.32 times as likely to experience clinical complications (p = 0.0124). Although blood transfusions and hydroxyurea decreased percent of SC, 72% treated patients had SCI >0.64, correlating with persistent sickling. This standardized method quantifies SC in peripheral smears. Percent of SC increased with age and correlated with disease severity, especially hemolytic complications, providing readily available information with minimal or no extra cost. PMID:25517885

  11. No increased risk for cervical cancer after a broader definition of a negative pap smear

    Rebolj, Matejka; Van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; van Kemenade, Folkert; Looman, Caspar; Boer, Rob; Habbema, Dik

    2008-01-01

    The definition of minimal relevant Pap smear abnormality is crucial for balancing the beneficial effects of screening (prevented mortality) with negative side-effects (the high positivity rate). After inflammation ceased to be defined as a borderline abnormal smear outcome in The Netherlands in 1996, the proportion of these smears dropped from 10% to less than 2%. Because this may have caused a loss in smear sensitivity, we analysed the changes in the incidence of cervical cancer after a nega...

  12. Mycobacteria in stool specimens: the nonvalue of smears for predicting culture results.

    Morris, A.; Reller, L. B.; Salfinger, M; Jackson, K.; Sievers, A.; Dwyer, B

    1993-01-01

    A previous recommendation suggests that stool be cultured for mycobacteria only if the smear is positive. We have correlated smear and culture results of 2,176 stool specimens submitted for mycobacterial culture. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for smears to predict culture results are 34, 99, 90, and 87%, respectively. We recommend that the stool smear not be used as a screening technique to decide which specimens from at-risk patients should be cult...

  13. Combined analysis of cervical smears. Cytopathology, image cytometry and in situ hybridization

    Multhaupt, H; Bruder, E; Elit, L; Rothblat, I; Warhol, M

    1993-01-01

    This study was an attempt to correlate the Bethesda System of Papanicolaou smear classification with DNA content by image analysis and the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) as determined by in situ hybridization. DNA histograms were classified as normal diploid, diploid proliferative....... HPV infection correlated with DNA polyploidy but was seen in 15 of 29 smears classified as cytologically normal. Morphologically abnormal Papanicolaou smears correlated with aneuploid DNA content. Smears classified as intraepithelial neoplasia correlated with aneuploid DNA content in all 12 cases...

  14. Biogenic amines in smear and mould-ripened cheeses

    Pavel Pleva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was the monitoring of six biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, tryptamine, putrescine, and cadaverine and two polyamines (spermidine and spermine in 30 samples of dairy products purchased in the Czech Republic, namely in 15 samples of mould-ripened cheeses and in 15 samples of smear-ripened cheeses. A further goal was the microbiological analysis of the individual samples of cheeses (total count of microorganisms, number of enterobacteria, enterococci, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and moulds. The monitored biogenic amines were analyzed by a high performance liquid chromatography equipped with a UV/VIS DAD detector. The amount of enterobacteria in fresh cheese exceeded 105 CFU.g?1. In smear-ripened cheese flavourless (Romadur type, the amount was >103 CFU.g-1 and 104-105 CFU.g-1 in smear-ripened cheese with flavour. Biogenic amines were observed in two groups of blue cheeses (white veined cheese and blue veined cheese and smear-ripened cheeses. In both groups, there is a possibility of the presence of biogenic amines because the number of microorganisms and concentration of free amino acids increase during ripening. In ten samples of soft smear-ripening acid cheese and in smear-ripened cheese, the total content of biogenic amines were 22-1000 mg.kg-1 and in 5 samples of these cheeses, it was in range 1000-6000 mg.kg-1. The total amount of biogenic amines in the blue cheeses were in range 40-600 mg.kg-1. The presense of the tyramine was observed in the all analysed cheeses. The tyramine producing strains generated more than 900 mg.kg-1 of this biogenic amine. The production of tryptamine in the analysed cheeses was not proved by this study. The results of this study show that biogenic amines and polyamines are common in cheese. However, in some cases, they can pose a significant health danger for consumers. Any legislative control authority does not monitor them, as they are secondary metabolites even though they are potential health risks.

  15. Sputum Conversion Among Patients With Smear Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Soudbakhsh A R

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB bacteriologic assessment of sputum for detection of acid bacilli (AFB Has essential role. This evaluation is accomplished by direct sputum smear & sputum culture. These examinations must be done in regular and preferably monthly after beginning of treatment. These tests have two important aims, including, determining of treatment efficacy & duration of isolation."nMethods and Materials: Most of the studies have that classic six month regimen led to sputum smear conversion & negative sputum culture in 85% of patient. This treatment regimen has two phases, including, attack phase and maintenance phase. In the attack phase we use four drugs, including, Isoniazid (INH, Rifampin (RMP, Pyrazinamide (PZA and Ethambutol (EMB for the first 2 months and if necessary until the end of third month. In the maintenance phase we use INH and Rif for the remaining of treatment course. The main objectives of this study were to determine the time needed for smear conversion and assessment of probable factors which may influence the smear conversion until 4 months after beginning of therapy. The factors that were assessed, were, Age, nationality, sex, clinical symptoms, underlying diseases, chest radiography (number of cavities, smoking, drug abuse and concentration of AF13 in the sputum Generally, we did this cross sectional study on the patient's records, who had been observed in Imam Khomeni Hospital, west health service center and masih daneshvary hospital between."nResults: This study showed that from totally 218 patients, 138(74.6% patients had sputum conversion at the first 2 months of treatment and until the end of 3rd & 4th month this rate reached to 83.3% respectively. So in the end of fourth month only 32(14.7% patients did not show sputum smear conversion. On the other hand this study showed that two factors including presence of cavities in chest radiography & concentration of AFB in the sputum are influencing this rate strongly."nConclusion: Role of other factors such as age, nationality , Smoking, diabetes mellitus and weigh loss are controversial and another studies are necessary for confirming their roles. Other factors including sex, clinical symptoms has not been show to be important. Some factors such as drug abuse and immunosuppresive therapy has not been assessed in this study, because number of cases were not enough for statistical analysis.

  16. Conventional approach to the problem of the deuteron smearing corrections

    A comprehensive analysis of the problem of deuteron smearing corrections is given. Some problems of the usual approach (the conventional approach) are discussed. It is shown that the formalism adopted by this approach leads to (i) the existence of the so-called West β correction and (ii) the disagreement of the sum rules with the quark parton model expectations in leptonic scattering. It is also shown that in this formalism the electroproduction expression is not inconsistent. Following West for the identification of the wave function, it is found that the smearing correction sigma/sub s/ of the high-energy (50--370 GeV) pion and nucleon process is non-negligible, and hence, in contradiction with the usual expectations. Another test for this approach is suggested

  17. Comparative Study of Smeared Cracking Models for Concrete Structures

    Samuel Silva Penna

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article shows how the constitutive modeling of concrete has evolved since the initial attempts to characterize the medium cracked as continuous, moving from smeared cracking, damage and microplane models, until the current tendency to design different models according to a single theoretical framework. A generic formulation for smeared cracking models, including fixed and rotational models, as well as degradation in tension and in compression, is provided. Using this formulation, three models are generated by specifying the laws of degradation. A comparative study of models, based on computer simulations of a beam subjected to shear at four points, is presented. The results are compared, between themselves and with experimental results, providing a critical analysis of the models.

  18. The string tension from smeared Wilson loops at large N

    We present the results of a high statistics analysis of smeared Wilson loops in 4-dimensional SU(N) Yang–Mills theory for various values of N. The data is used to analyze the behavior of smeared Creutz ratios, extracting from them the value of the string tension and other asymptotic parameters. A scaling analysis allows us to extrapolate to the continuum limit for N=3,5,6 and 8. The results are consistent with a 1/N2 approach towards the large N limit. The same analysis is done for the TEK model (one-point lattice) for N=841 and a non-minimal symmetric twist with flux of k=9. The results match perfectly with the extrapolated large N values, confirming the validity of the reduction idea for this range of parameters.

  19. The string tension from smeared Wilson loops at large N

    González-Arroyo, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a high statistics analysis of smeared Wilson loops in 4 dimensional SU(N) Yang-Mills theory for various values of N. The data is used to analyze the behaviour of smeared Creutz ratios, extracting from them the value of the string tension and other asymptotic parameters. A scaling analysis allows us to extrapolate to the continuum limit for N=3,5,6 and 8. The results are consistent with a $1/N^2$ approach towards the large N limit. The same analysis is done for the TEK model (one-point lattice) for N=841 and a non-minimal symmetric twist with flux of $k=9$. The results match perfectly with the extrapolated large N values, confirming the validity of the reduction idea for this range of parameters.

  20. Delay in treatment seeking of smear positive tuberculous patients

    To assess and identify the causes and circumstances leading to delays in health seeking and diagnosis of tuberculosis patients as they often present with advance disease resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Settings Department of Tuberculosis, DOTS clinic DHQ Hospital, Vehari. Methodology One (author) inspiration diagnosed smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients were included. Information was gathered through interviews and from TB-01 card. Results Maximum patients were in age group of 16-40 years. Median patient delay was 4-6 months; jobless, homeless personnel had longer delay. The main reason for delay was that the symptoms were not considered serious enough. Delay in presentation of smear positive cases may be due to the lack of awareness of patients and the incompetence of some health workers. Training and supervision of staff and awareness campaigns targeted at the population and involvement of private sector will improve TB control in Vehari. (author)

  1. Cytokine responses of CD4+ T cells during a Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi (ER blood-stage infection in mice initiated by the natural route of infection

    Butcher Geoffrey

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigation of host responses to blood stages of Plasmodium spp, and the immunopathology associated with this phase of the life cycle are often performed on mice infected directly with infected red blood cells. Thus, the effects of mosquito bites and the pre-erythrocytic stages of the parasite, which would be present in natural infection, are ignored In this paper, Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi infections of mice injected directly with infected red blood cells were compared with those of mice infected by the bites of infected mosquitoes, in order to determine whether the courses of primary infection and splenic CD4 T cell responses are similar. Methods C57Bl/6 mice were injected with red blood cells infected with P. chabaudi (ER or infected via the bite of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. Parasitaemia were monitored by Giemsa-stained thin blood films. Total spleen cells, CD4+ T cells, and cytokine production (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 were analysed by flow cytometry. In some experiments, mice were subjected to bites of uninfected mosquitoes prior to infectious bites in order to determine whether mosquito bites per se could affect a subsequent P. chabaudi infection. Results P. chabaudi (ER infections initiated by mosquito bite were characterized by lower parasitaemia of shorter duration than those observed after direct blood challenge. However, splenomegaly was comparable suggesting that parasitaemia alone does not account for the increase in spleen size. Total numbers of CD4 T cells and those producing IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-2 were reduced in comparison to direct blood challenge. By contrast, the reduction in IL-4 producing cells was less marked suggesting that there is a proportionally lower Th1-like response in mice infected via infectious mosquitoes. Strikingly, pre-exposure to bites of uninfected mosquitoes reduced the magnitude and duration of the subsequent mosquito-transmitted infection still further, but enhanced the response of CD4 T cells producing IFN-γ and IL-4. Conclusion The data in this paper suggest that studying early host responses in blood stage malaria infections measured after direct blood challenge of mice may not completely reflect the natural situation, and more detailed investigations of blood-stage immunity after mosquito transmission in experimental models should be considered.

  2. Delay of diagnosis and treatment of new smear positive

    Mohammed, Ammar Salih

    2006-01-01

    DELAY OF DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF NEW SMEAR POSITIVE PULMONARY TB IN RURAL AREA; GAZIERA STATE, SUDAN Mohammed A. S.*, Bjune G. **, and El Sony A. I. *** *EpiLab, Khartoum, Sudan, MPhil International Community Health, University of Oslo, Norway; **Department of General Practice and Community Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Norway; *** EpiLab, Khartoum, Sudan. Background: The basics of TB control are based on early detection and treatment of infectious cases. Early detecti...

  3. TEMPORAL SMEARING OF TRANSIENT RADIO SOURCES BY THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM

    The temporal smearing of impulsive radio events at cosmological redshifts probes the properties of the ionized intergalactic medium (IGM). We relate the degree of temporal smearing and the profile of a scattered source to the evolution of a turbulent structure in the IGM as a function of redshift. We estimate the degree of scattering expected by analyzing the contributions to the scattering measure of the various components of baryonic matter embedded in the IGM, including the diffuse IGM, intervening galaxies, and intracluster gas. These estimates predict that the amount of temporal smearing expected at 300 MHz is typically as low as ∼1 ms and suggests that these bursts may be detectable with low-frequency widefield arrays. A generalization of the dispersion-measure-scattering-measure relation observed for Galactic scattering to the densities and turbulent conditions relevant to the IGM suggests that scattering measures on the order of 10–6 kpc m–20/3 would be expected at z ∼ 1. This scattering is sufficiently low enough that its effects would not, for most lines of sight, be manifested in existing observations of the scatter broadening in images of extragalactic compact sources. The redshift dependence on the temporal smearing discriminates between scattering that occurs in the host galaxy of the burst and the IGM, with τhost∝(1 + z)–3 if the scattering probes length scales below the inner scale of the turbulence or τhost∝(1 + z)–17/5 if the turbulence follows a Kolmogorov spectrum. This differs strongly from the expected IGM scaling τIGM ∼ z 2 for z ∼0.2–0.5 for z ∼> 1

  4. Cytological patterns of cervical pap smears with histopathological correlation

    Bhagya Lakshmi Atla; Prasad Uma; M. Shamili; Satish Kumar, S.(Lorentz Institute, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, Leiden, Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the most common, preventable cancer and does not develop suddenly from normal epithelium but is presented by a spectrum of intraepithelial neoplasia. Pap smear is an ideal screening and low cost effective test to detect intraepithelial neoplasia especially in developing countries but has limitations and needs confirmation by histopathology. The study aimed to determine the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnos...

  5. STUDY OF CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF PAP SMEAR IN STD CLINICS

    Parvathi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM The objective of this study is to analyse the association between sexually transmitted diseases and cervical cytology by doing Papanicolaou (Pap smear in the female patients attending Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD Clinics. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was carried out on 200 female patients attending STD clinic Outpatient Department (OPD in King George Hospital (KGH for a period of 2 years. For all the patients Pap smears were taken. RESULTS A 39% of the cases had normal cytology, 26% had inflammatory cytology, 16% had mild dysplasia, 13.5% had moderate dysplasia, 5.5% had severe dysplasia. Higher incidence of cervical dysplasia was seen in patients with Genital Herpes and Genital warts. Higher incidence of cervical dysplasia (42.6% in 20 to 30 years age group women in comparsion with diminished incidence in (28.7% in 30 to 40 years age group. A 44.6% in Commercial Sex workers and women with history of sexual promiscuity had cervical dysplasia and 28.7% women having normal marital life had cervical dysplasia. We found higher number of cervical dysplasia in lower income group (37.8% and (42.6% in illiterates. CONCLUSIONS Pap smear should be done as a routine screening procedure in all female patients attending STD Clinics to detect early cervical neoplasia, which will help to reduce morbidity and mortality due to cancer cervix in sexually active reproductive age group women

  6. ANALYSIS OF CELL BLOCK VS . CONVENTIONAL SMEAR IN FLUID CYTOLOGY

    Jyotsna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The cytological examination of aspirates of serous effusions is a routinely accepted , simple , safe and minimally invasive technique . Diagnosis in this investigation , especially in malignant effusions , helps in staging , prognosis and management of the patients . AIMS: To assess the utility and sensitivity of cell block method over conventional smear technique in cytodiagnosis of the serous effusions . METHODS: A total of 72 fluid specimens were subjected to simultaneous processing by conventional s mear and cell block technique . Each fluid specimen was divided into two equal parts and results compared for cellularity , cell architecture , cytoplasmic and nuclear features . Cell blocks were prepared using modified cell block technique using alcohol forma lin fixative . RESULTS: The utility of cell block technique in diagnosing malignant effusions is highly significant as compared to the conventional smear technique . Also , the technique using alcohol formalin fixative is simple , safe and these chemicals are routinely used in laboratory . CONCLUSION: Cell block technique is superior to conventional smear technique , especially for malignant effusions . It gives more information about the architectural arrangement and the likely source of primary . More important is that diagnostic material in cell blocks is available for special studies for . I mmunohistochemistry which can further supplement our knowledge about the primary source of metastasis

  7. Optoelectronic region of interest detection in monolayer cervical smear slides

    Metz, John L.; Narayanswamy, Ramkumar; Stewart, Rosemary J.; Johnson, Kristina M.

    1996-11-01

    An optoelectronic detection system using two electrically addressed spatial light modulators in an optical correlator has been constructed to find regions of interest in cervical smear slides using the hit/miss transform algorithm. The purpose of the detector is to locate abnormal cells in the cervical smear and mark the region of interest for further classification by a second stage to the overall system. In addition, an image database of characteristic monolayer cervical smear images has been constructed for testing the system. The optoelectronic processing of cytological specimens can in theory provide both an improvement in the speed of scanning a slide for a region of interest and also a decrease in current manual screening errors. Results of the optoelectronic correlator and corresponding computer simulations will be discussed as well as further means of improving the system. Conclusions about further steps in the implementation of a complete medical diagnostic system including classification of regions of interest and improvements for automation will also be addressed.

  8. Slit-skin smear in leprosy: lest we forget it!

    Mahajan, V K

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosing and classifying leprosy solely on the basis of skin lesions as per WHO operational classification may lead to over or under diagnosis and inadequate treatment particularly of pauci-lesional multibacillary cases with consequent risk of resistance, relapse and progressive horizontal transmission. Announcing elimination of leprosy as public health problem in India under NLEP was probably ambitious aspiration. However, such a strategy is perhaps not justified scientifically at the moment in view of new case detection rate not showing significant decline. The fact remains that it is still highly desirable to provide sustained quality leprosy services to all individuals through general health services and good referral system. Being nearly of 100% specificity when performed expertly, slit-skin smear remains the simplest diagnostic technique available until new cutting-edge diagnostic tools become available for routine bedside use. However, the interest has been declining for learning this simple test among all the persons involved in leprosy work even in the teaching/training institutes. This is perhaps due to confusion over number and sites of smears, and its declining usefulness in WHO recommendations/guidelines. Various technical aspects of slit-skin smear testing are reviewed here keeping in view the need of leprosy workers in referral/teaching institutes. PMID:24834639

  9. Lot Quality Assurance Sampling of Sputum Acid-Fast Bacillus Smears for Assessing Sputum Smear Microscopy Centers

    N Selvakumar; B. N. Murthy; Prabhakaran, E.; Sivagamasundari, S.; Vasanthan, Samuel; Perumal, M.; R. Govindaraju; Chauhan, L. S.; Wares, Fraser; Santha, T.; Narayanan, P R

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of 12 microscopy centers in a tuberculosis unit by blinded checking of eight sputum smears selected by using a lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) method and by unblinded checking of all positive and five negative slides, among the slides examined in a month in a microscopy centre, revealed that the LQAS method can be implemented in the field to monitor the performance of acid-fast bacillus microscopy centers in national tuberculosis control programs.

  10. Lot quality assurance sampling of sputum acid-fast bacillus smears for assessing sputum smear microscopy centers.

    Selvakumar, N; Murthy, B N; Prabhakaran, E; Sivagamasundari, S; Vasanthan, Samuel; Perumal, M; Govindaraju, R; Chauhan, L S; Wares, Fraser; Santha, T; Narayanan, P R

    2005-02-01

    Assessment of 12 microscopy centers in a tuberculosis unit by blinded checking of eight sputum smears selected by using a lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) method and by unblinded checking of all positive and five negative slides, among the slides examined in a month in a microscopy centre, revealed that the LQAS method can be implemented in the field to monitor the performance of acid-fast bacillus microscopy centers in national tuberculosis control programs. PMID:15695704

  11. Diagnostic accuracy of slit skin smears in leprosy

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of slit skin smears in clinically suspected patients of leprosy using histopathology as gold standard. Study Design: Validation study Place and Duration of Study: Study was carried out at Rawalpindi Leprosy Hospital, Dermatology Department Military Hospital (MH) and Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi from 18th August 2012 to 18 Feb 2013. Methods: Appropriate technical and ethical approval for the study and patient consent were obtained. All suspected patients of leprosy of any age and either gender having typical hypo-aesthetic or anesthetic, erythematous or hypo-pigmented scaly skin lesions on any part of body were included in this study. All patients who have already received treatment for leprosy, patients with pure neural leprosy, patient not giving their consent for skin biopsy and patients with lepra reactions were excluded from this study. Forty eight patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Sample size had been calculated by using WHO sample size calculator taking confidence level 95%, absolute precision required 14% and anticipated population proportion 40%. Non-probability consecutive sampling technique was used to collect sample. Results: The results of the study revealed that out of 48 clinically suspected patients of leprosy skin biopsy confirmed the diagnosis in 34 patients (70.8%) and the slit skin smear had diagnostic accuracy of 68.75% with sensitivity 55.8% and specificity and positive predictive value of 100%. Conclusion: Study suggested that although slit skin smears are rapid and inexpensive method of diagnosis but their diagnostic accuracy is low. (author)

  12. High incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in European red smear cheese.

    Rudol, M; Scherer, S

    2001-01-22

    The incidence of Listeria and Listeria monocytogenes in European red smear cheese was determined in order to assess whether the lack of recent outbreaks of listeriosis associated with cheese is due to improved hygenic conditions in the dairies. Out of European red-smear cheese samples of various types, 15.8% contained organisms of the genus Listeria, 6.4% of the samples were contaminated with L. monocytogenes, 10.6% with L. innocua, and 1.2% with L. seeligeri. Six cheese samples contained two or more Listeria species, including at least one L. monocytogenes isolate. The incidences of L. monocytogenes in cheeses from various countries were: Italy 17.4%, Germany 9.2%, Austria 10%, and France 3.3%. Listeria were found most frequently in soft and semi-soft cheese. Eight samples contained more than 100 L. monocytogenes cfu/cm2 cheese surface, 2 samples had counts above 10(4) cfu/cm2 cheese surface. Surprisingly, a higher incidence of L. monocytogenes was observed in cheeses made from pasteurized milk (8.0%) than in cheeses manufactured from raw milk (4.8%). Phage-typing of isolated Listeria strains clearly confirmed that (i) contaminations within dairy plants were persistent over a period of several weeks to months and (ii) that cross-contamination within the dairy plant is and important factor. Comparison of our data with past surveys seems to indicate that contamination of red smear soft cheese with L. monocytogenes has not decreased sufficiently over the past 15 years. It is therefore strongly recommended that these products are monitored carefully by cheese-making companies. PMID:11205958

  13. Plastic spatula with narrow long tip provides higher satisfactory smears for Pap test

    Pervinder Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ayre spatula for cervical smear collection is being used despite the suggestion that different modified spatulas provide more satisfactory sampling. Aims: To see whether the cytological pickup improves with the use of long tipped spatula. Setting and Design: Rurally based University Hospital; crossover study. Materials and Methods: Pap smear using Ayre spatula in 500 and with plastic narrow long tip (Szalay spatula in 500 clinic attending women was taken and analyzed. Crossover smears were taken with modified spatula in 163 and using Ayre spatula in 187 women after 2 weeks of initial smears. The same pathologist made cytological reporting for all smears and was unaware of the type of spatula used. Results: Smears from Ayre spatula had significantly higher reports of inadequate smears (94 of 500 vs. 68 of 500 for Ayre and Szalay, respectively; P = 0.032 and it remained so even after crossover (94 of 187 vs. 70 of 163 for Ayre and Szalay, respectively; P = 0.2. Cellular quality appeared better with smears taken using Szalay spatula, but the overall abnormal smear detection rate remained similar with either collection tool (χ2 = 1.5; P = 0.2. Conclusions: Proportion of satisfactory smears is higher when long tip plastic spatula is used for collection of sample.

  14. Pap-smear Benchmark Data For Pattern Classification

    Jantzen, Jan; Norup, Jonas; Dounias, Georgios; Bjerregaard, Beth

    This case study provides data and a baseline for comparing classification methods. The data consists of 917 images of Pap-smear cells, classified carefully by cyto-technicians and doctors. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and the cells fall into 7 classes. A basic data analysis...... includes scatter plots and linear classification results, in order to provide domain knowledge and lower bounds on the acceptable performance of future classifiers. Students and researchers can access the database on the Internet, and use it to test and compare their own classification methods....

  15. Association of Oral Contraceptives and Abnormal Pap Smear

    Sayedmohsen Sayednozadi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the hypothesis that combined Oral Contraceptive (OCs increase the risk of cervical neoplasia, we conducted a multicenter Case-Control study in Mashhad, the capital of Khorasan province. Seventy-eight women with moderate to severe dysplasia at Pap smear as case group and one hundred fifty nine women with normal Pap smear were selected as the control group for evaluation. The both case and control groups were matched by age, parity and socioeconomic status. All of the women in this study were single partner as husband and no smoker. 30 percent of cases and 64.8 percent of controls were used OCs. The duration of OCs use was the same in both. The odds ratio for OCs consumption was 0.2 with 95% confidence interval 0.11-0.4 in Logistic regression analysis. In contrast to some other studies, our findings showed an association between OCs and cervical dysplasia and there was a protective effect of OCs for cervical dysplasia.

  16. Extraction and detection of Mycobacterium leprae DNA from ZNCF-stained skin smear slides for better identification of negative skin smears

    Kamble R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Identification of Mycobacterium leprae, which causes leprosy, is done by Ziehl Neelsen Carbol Fuchsin (ZNCF stained slit skin smear microscopy that aids in the diagnosis and quantification of approximate bacterial load carried by the patient. We attempted M. leprae DNA extraction from 46 stained slit skin smear negative slides, using Proteinase K and SDS lysis, followed by ethanol precipitation. M. leprae specific primers (16SrRNA were used for PCR-based amplification of DNA. We could detect M. leprae DNA in 15 (32.6% samples. The method can be useful in the diagnosis of apparently slit skin smear negative leprosy cases.

  17. Blood parasites from California ducks and geese

    Herman, C.M.

    1951-01-01

    Blood smears were procured from 1,011 geese and ducks of 19 species from various locations in California. Parasites were found in 28 individuals. The parasites observed included Haemoproteus hermani, Leucocytozoon simondi, microfilaria, Plasmodium relictum (=P. biziurae), and Plasmodium sp. with elongate gametocytes. This is the first report of a natural infection with a Plasmodium in North American wild ducks.

  18. Pap smear screening in the primary health care setting: A study from Turkey

    Hande Celik Mehmetoglu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is one of the ten most frequent cancers in Turkey. It is well known that cervical cancer morbidity and mortality could be significantly reduced with an active cervical smear screening (Pap smear program. Aims: The aims of this study were: 1 to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of women about cervical smear testing; 2 to establish a cervical smear screening program and to evaluate the cervical cytological abnormalities that were found; 3 to determine the applicability, limitations and effectiveness of this screening in a primary health care unit. Patients and Methods : A total of 332 married women were included in our study. We collected data concerning socio-demographic and fertility characteristics, and knowledge about Pap smear testing was determined through printed questionnaires. A gynecological examination and Pap smear screening was performed on every woman in our study group. Results: Over ninety percent of our study group had never heard of and had not undergone Pap smear screening before. Of the 332 smears evaluated, 328 (98.8% were accepted as normal, whereas epithelial cell anomalies were seen in 4 (1.2%, infection in 59 (17.7%, and reactive cell differences in 223 (67.2% of the smears. Conclusions: The frequency of epithelial cell anomalies in our study group was less than the frequencies reported from Western countries. Knowledge regarding cervical cancer and Pap smear screening was very low. Pap smears can be easily taken and evaluated through a chain built between the primary health care unit and laboratory, and this kind of screening intervention is easily accepted by the population served.

  19. Pap smear screening in the primary health care setting: A study from Turkey

    Hande Celik Mehmetoglu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is one of the ten most frequent cancers in Turkey. It is well known that cervical cancer morbidity and mortality could be significantly reduced with an active cervical smear screening (Pap smear program. Aims: The aims of this study were: 1 to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of women about cervical smear testing; 2 to establish a cervical smear screening program and to evaluate the cervical cytological abnormalities that were found; 3 to determine the applicability, limitations and effectiveness of this screening in a primary health care unit. Patients and Methods: A total of 332 married women were included in our study. We collected data concerning socio-demographic and fertility characteristics, and knowledge about Pap smear testing was determined through printed questionnaires. A gynecological examination and Pap smear screening was performed on every woman in our study group. Results: Over ninety percent of our study group had never heard of and had not undergone Pap smear screening before. Of the 332 smears evaluated, 328 (98.8% were accepted as normal, whereas epithelial cell anomalies were seen in 4 (1.2%, infection in 59 (17.7%, and reactive cell differences in 223 (67.2% of the smears. Conclusions: The frequency of epithelial cell anomalies in our study group was less than the frequencies reported from Western countries. Knowledge regarding cervical cancer and Pap smear screening was very low. Pap smears can be easily taken and evaluated through a chain built between the primary health care unit and laboratory, and this kind of screening intervention is easily accepted by the population served.

  20. Pap smears for men: a vision of the future?

    Oon, S F

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) rarely receives as much publicity as its neighbouring orifice, the cervix. As in the cervix, intraepithelial neoplasias are precursors to cancer in the anal canal. AIN and cervical interstitial neoplasia (CIN) undergo dysplasia as a consequence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Since the advent of screening with the Pap smear in CIN, cervical cancer has plummeted to a fifth of its initial incidence. Anal cancer, however, has been rising, with a predilection for human immunodeficiency virus-infected men. HPV causes a squamous epithelial dysplasia and converts healthy tissue into AINs of increasing severity until anal cancer manifests. CLINICAL CASE: This article describes a clinical case of anogenital HPV infection refractory to medical and surgical therapy. It also describes an effective surgical excision technique associated with a good cosmetic outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The paper concludes by briefly discussing the implications of a national screening programme against AIN in the future.

  1. A STUDY OF SEX CHEROMATIN FORM BUCCAL SMEAR

    Shankar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The determination of sex of an individual is an important subject in Forensic Medicine and Criminology and in Civil Law. The determination of sex is necessary in both living and the dead bodies. The expert opinion of the medico legal specialist regarding positive identification of an individual will be required for the following reasons. For the identification of the sex of individual whether living or dead , For deciding cases relating to legitimacy, divorce, paternity, affiliation, marriage, education, im potence, right to disposal of property, and in intersex condition & in cases of concealed sex. Determination of sex will be done by presumptive, probable and certain signs of sex. Sex chromatin is a planoconvex mass of about 1 micron in diameter lying near nuclear membrane - Barr body. In the buccal smear the percentage of the nuclei containing chromatin body ranges from 0 to 4 in males & 20n to 80 in females . In females neutrophil leucocytes contain a small nuclear attachment of drum stick form - David son bo dy in up to 6% of cell . This is absent in males . Exact sex determination can be made by using a single specimen of buccal smear , saliva or hair follicle, by the combined treatment of quinacrinedi hydrochloride staining for Y chromosome which is seen as bright florescent body in the nuclei of male cell & florescent feulgen reaction using acriflavin Schiff reagent for X chromosomes , which is seen as bright yellow spot in the nuclei . The percentage of quanacrine positive bodies ranges from 45 to 80% in male s , and 0 to 4% in females . With feulgen reaction technique florescent bodies are found in 50 to 70 % of cell in females, and 0 to 2% in males. Determination of sex chromatin pattern was done by examination of oral smears technique on 50 males and 50 female s who have attended the Casualty of Government General Hospital, Ananthapuramu., A. P . , in the Dept . of forensic Medicine from 17 - 06 - 2012 to 30 - 12 - 2014. Slides were prepared and stained by Giemsastaining and studied under oil immersion microscope for the presence of Barr bodies. In all 50 female slides the sex chromatin was positive and it varied from 20 to 52% in the age group of 12 years to above 60 years. The mean frequency of sex chromatin positive cells was found 40.14% with the standard deviation of 6.596. In all male buccal smears the sex chromatin was negative. The frequency of incidence of sex chromatin also been studied in different age groups. The lowest count was scored in the 15 to 19 age group and the highest percent was scored in 10 to 14 age group. An attempt has also made to compare the present study findings with the available previous studies on Sex chromatin.

  2. Clumping of lymphoma cells in peripheral blood induced by EDTA.

    Juneja, S.; Wolf, M.; McLennan, R.

    1992-01-01

    A peripheral blood smear from a patient with probable splenic lymphoma with villous lymphocytes (SLVL) showed clumping of lymphoma cells. The clumping was not seen in films made from unanticoagulated blood, and has not been previously described in lymphomas. The patient also had metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma for 30 months before lymphoma was diagnosed and the clumped cells posed diagnostic problems.

  3. Papanicolaou Smear Screening of Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Taiwan

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Lin, Jin-Ding; Sung, Chang-Lin; Liu, Ta-Wen; Liu, Yi-Lian; Chen, Li-Mei; Chu, Cordia M.

    2010-01-01

    Although little is known about the incidence of cervical cancer in women with intellectual disabilities (ID), Pap smear screening is an effective public health program to prevent cervical cancer to this group of people. The purposes of this study were to identify and evaluate the factors regarding the utilization of the Pap smears in women with ID

  4. Frequency and patterns of abnormal Pap smears in Sudanese women with infertility: What are the perspectives?

    Ahmed O Almobarak

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Epithelial cell abnormalities are significantly higher in women with infertility as compared with fertile women. Importantly, inflammatory smears were reported two times more than in the controls. We recommend pap smear as a routine practice for all women assessed for infertility problems. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the incidence of human papilloma virus infections in infertile women with abnormal cervical cytology.

  5. Cytological features of choricarcinoma in a Pap smear: A case report and literature review.

    Chen, Xiaowei; Wright, Jason D; Abellar, Rosanna G; Koehne de Gonzalez, Anne; Collins, Nikosa; Wright, Thomas C; Hamele-Bena, Diane

    2016-04-01

    Choriocarcinoma is an aggressive malignant trophoblastic tumor that mostly occurs during reproductive years. Cytological features of choriocarcinoma in gynecologic Pap smears have not been described. Herein, we report a case of choriocarcinoma in a Pap smear of a patient who had a history of choriocarcinoma with metastatic disease. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:324-328. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26712464

  6. Papanicolaou Smear Screening of Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Taiwan

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Lin, Jin-Ding; Sung, Chang-Lin; Liu, Ta-Wen; Liu, Yi-Lian; Chen, Li-Mei; Chu, Cordia M.

    2010-01-01

    Although little is known about the incidence of cervical cancer in women with intellectual disabilities (ID), Pap smear screening is an effective public health program to prevent cervical cancer to this group of people. The purposes of this study were to identify and evaluate the factors regarding the utilization of the Pap smears in women with ID…

  7. No increased risk for cervical cancer after a broader definition of a negative Pap smear

    Rebolj, Matejka; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; van Kemenade, Folkert; Looman, Caspar; Boer, Rob; Habbema, J Dik F

    2008-01-01

    The definition of minimal relevant Pap smear abnormality is crucial for balancing the beneficial effects of screening (prevented mortality) with negative side-effects (the high positivity rate). After inflammation ceased to be defined as a borderline abnormal smear outcome in The Netherlands in...... 1996, the proportion of these smears dropped from 10% to less than 2%. Because this may have caused a loss in smear sensitivity, we analysed the changes in the incidence of cervical cancer after a negative Pap smear. All negative smears made at ages 30-64 in 1990-1995 (n = 1,546,252) and 1998-2006 (n...... = 3,552,716), registered in the national registry of histo- and cytopathology (PALGA), were followed for up to 9 years. During follow-up of the 1990-1995 smears, 377 women developed cervical cancer within 5,232,959 woman-years at risk, while during the follow-up of the 1998-2006 smears, 619 women...

  8. [Adhesion of sealer cements to dentin with and without smear layer].

    Gettleman, B H; Messer, H H; ElDeeb, M E

    1991-01-01

    The influence of a smear layer on the adhesion of sealer cements to dentin was assessed in recently extracted human anterior teeth. A total of 120 samples was tested, 40 per sealer; 20 each with and without the smear layer. The teeth were split longitudinally, and the internal surfaces were ground flat. One-half of each tooth was left with the smear layer intact, while the other half had the smear removed by washing for 3 min with 17% EDTA followed by 5.25% NaOCI. Evidence of the ability to remove the smear layer was verified by scanning electron microscopy. Using a specially designed jig, the sealer was placed into a 4-mm wide x 4 mm deep well which was then set onto the tooth. PMID:1659858

  9. Concomitant Aspergillus Species Infection and Squamous Cell Carcinoma Diagnosed on Pap Smear.

    Gupta, Prajwala; Goyal, Snigdha; Kaushal, Manju

    2016-01-01

    Concomitant infection with Aspergillus species and cervical squamous cell carcinoma in the female genital tract is a rare occurrence and attributed to the opportunistic nature of infection in the immunocompromised state due to the underlying malignancy. The contamination of smears with Aspergillus species should be excluded. The diagnosis of Aspergillus species infection along with squamous cell carcinoma was established on cervicovaginal pap smears in a 62-year-old female presented to gynecological clinic with complaints of stress urinary incontinence. Speculum examination revealed first-degree cervical descent. Smears showed features of squamous cell carcinoma along with fungal spores and fruiting body with hyphae of Aspergillus species. The presence of fruiting bodies and hyphae of Aspergillus species with coexisting squamous cell carcinoma is rare in routine pap smears. True infection needs to be distinguished from contamination by Aspergillus species. Early diagnosis can be established on routine cervicovaginal Pap smear examination. PMID:24272933

  10. Liquid-based cytology versus conventional cytology for evaluation of cervical Pap smears: Experience from the first 1000 split samples

    Vikrant Bhar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context and Aim: Screening programs using conventional cytology conventional Pap smear (CPS have successfully reduced cervical cancer, but newer tests like liquid-based cytology (LBC and human papillomavirus testing might enhance screening. The main aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of LBC versus CPS using "split samples." Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study comprising of 1000 consecutive cervical "split samples" over a period of 1 year. Split sample was obtained using cervex-brush. CPS was prepared from the brush and the brush head was suspended in the LBC vial and processed by SurePath™ LBC. Results: There were 4.3% unsatisfactory (U/S cases in CPS and 1.7% in LBC; the main cause is insufficient cells, and excess of blood in CPS. About 25/100 (2.5% split samples had epithelial abnormalities both in CPS and LBC (1.2%-atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance; 0.4%-low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; 0.2%-high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; 0.5%-squamous cell carcinoma; 0.1%-atypical glandular cells favouring neoplasia; 0.2%-adenocarcinoma. Inflammatory organisms were almost equally identified in both techniques but were better seen in LBC samples. Conclusions: LBC technique leads to significant reduction of U/S rate. LBC samples offered better clarity, uniform spread of smears, less time for screening and better handling of hemorrhagic and inflammatory samples. LBC had equivalent sensitivity and specificity to CPS.

  11. Prevalence of bovine theileriosis in North Central region of Algeria by real-time polymerase chain reaction with a note on its distribution.

    Ziam, Hocine; Kelanamer, Rabah; Aissi, Miriem; Ababou, Assia; Berkvens, Dirk; Geysen, Dirk

    2015-06-01

    To determine the presence and distribution of bovine theileriosis in the North Central region of Algeria, 358 DNA samples and 359 blood smears were analyzed from nine provinces. Theileria DNA extracted from cattle blood was amplified by fluorescence resonance energy transfer polymerase chain reaction (FRET-PCR). Blood smears were examined for Theileria piroplasms by microscopical examination (ME) of Giemsa-stained slides. While microscopical identification revealed only 42 animals being infected with Theileria piroplasms, PCR-positive amplification using Theileria genus-specific primers was obtained from 132 Theileria spp. (P?Theileria annulata, while 24 (18.2%) were found positive for Theileria sp. (P?Theileria sp1 and 52.5??0.5C for Theileria sp2. Cloning and sequencing of Theileria sp1 and Theileria sp2 using the Cox primers indicated that these species are very closely related to Theileria buffeli. There is a highly significant difference in the distribution of theileriosis between different provinces (P?

  12. Malaria control through impregnated bednets--a pilot project in selected villages in Lao PDR.

    Philavong, K; Phangmanixay, S; Phommavong, C; Kenesy, B; Nhayhiangon, K; Fungladda, W; Saowakontha, S; Merkle, A; Schelp, F P

    2000-01-01

    In 7 villages on the foothills of the Houayxai district of the Bokeo Province in Lao PDR between midyear 1995 to midyear 1997 an attempt was made to test the acceptability and use of DDT impregnated bed nets as well as environmental and behavioral risk factors. About 380 women between 15 to 45 years old and their children in the age range of 1 to 14 years had been studied. A pre-tested questionnaire had been applied and blood from women and children was taken from the finger prick and a conventional thick and thin blood smear was performed, fixed Giemsa stained and examined for malaria parasites. DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) impregnated mosquito nets were distributed in the intervention villages. The availability of mosquito nets increased statistically significant from approximately 50% to 70% for all family members in the intervention area between 1995 and 1997 and statistically significant decreased in the control area from 79% to 45.1%. There was a statistically significant decrease in malaria attacks as claimed by the females for the intervention area but not for the control villages. The proportion of positive blood smears did decrease overall for women and children in between 1995 to 1997. Occupation, location of the house and use of mosquito nets had been determined as the most important risk factors. PMID:11488443

  13. Prevalence of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae in cats in the south of Brazil: a molecular study

    Rodrigo Staggemeier

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Bartonella spp are the causative agent of cat scratch disease in humans. Cats are the natural reservoir of these bacteria and may infect humans through scratches, bites or fleas. Blood samples from 47 cats aged up to 12 months were collected for this study. All animals were lodged in municipal animal shelters in the Vale do Sinos region, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Bartonella spp were detected by genus-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR and when the PCR was positive, the species were determined by DNA sequencing. A Giemsa-stained blood smear was also examined for the presence of intraerythrocytic elements suggestive of Bartonella spp infection. Phylogenetic analysis was also performed for all positive samples. Using molecular detection methods, Bartonella spp were detected in 17.02% (8/47 of the samples. In seven out of eight samples confirmed to be positive for Bartonella spp, blood smear examination revealed the presence of intraerythrocytic elements suggestive of Bartonella spp. Phylogenetic analysis characterized positive samples as Bartonella henselae (5 or Bartonella clarridgeiae (3. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first molecular study demonstrating the presence of Bartonella spp in cats from the Southern Region of Brazil.

  14. Quantitative differences in sputum smear microscopy results for acid-fast bacilli by age and sex in four countries

    Rieder, H L; Lauritsen, Jens; Naranbat, N; Katamba, A; Laticevschi, D; Mabaera, B

    2009-01-01

    To examine the influence of age and sex on the grading of tuberculosis (TB) sputum smear microscopy results.......To examine the influence of age and sex on the grading of tuberculosis (TB) sputum smear microscopy results....

  15. Novel chromatin texture features for the classification of pap smears

    Bejnordi, Babak E.; Moshavegh, Ramin; Sujathan, K.; Malm, Patrik; Bengtsson, Ewert; Mehnert, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a set of novel structural texture features for quantifying nuclear chromatin patterns in cells on a conventional Pap smear. The features are derived from an initial segmentation of the chromatin into bloblike texture primitives. The results of a comprehensive feature selection experiment, including the set of proposed structural texture features and a range of different cytology features drawn from the literature, show that two of the four top ranking features are structural texture features. They also show that a combination of structural and conventional features yields a classification performance of 0.954±0.019 (AUC±SE) for the discrimination of normal (NILM) and abnormal (LSIL and HSIL) slides. The results of a second classification experiment, using only normal-appearing cells from both normal and abnormal slides, demonstrates that a single structural texture feature measuring chromatin margination yields a classification performance of 0.815±0.019. Overall the results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed structural approach and that it is possible to detect malignancy associated changes (MACs) in Papanicoloau stain.

  16. MMP-9 expression increases according to the grade of squamous intraepithelial lesion in cervical smears.

    Matheus, Erika R; Zonta, Marco A; Discacciati, Michelle G; Paruci, Priscila; Velame, Fernanda; Cardeal, Laura B S; Barros, Silvia B M; Pignatari, Antonio C; Maria-Engler, Silvya S

    2014-10-01

    Studies about cervical carcinogenesis have demonstrated the increased expression of matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP) according to the grade of cervical intraepithelial lesions. Considering the importance of innovative techniques to introduce noninvasive and rapid diagnoses for patients, this study aimed to perform MMP-9 immunocytochemistry in cervical smears according to the cytopathological diagnoses, in order to monitor MMP activity in cervical smears. This cross-sectional study investigated the expression of MMP-9 in normal cervical smears, inflammatory cervical smears, squamous intraepithelial lesions, and cervical carcinoma. Cervical smears from 630 women were collected for cytopathological diagnoses and immunocytochemistry. Women with squamous intraepithelial lesions showed an increase in MMP-9 expression, with moderate to intense staining occurring with increasing cervical lesion grade. The prevalence of moderate to intense MMP-9 staining was 9% in normal cervical smears, 12% in cervical inflammation, 24% in low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), 92% in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and 100% in cervical carcinoma cases. In the specific case of LSIL, we found that association with MMP-9 is more evident when there is the simultaneous presence of an infectious agent. Thus, the expression of MMP-9 in cervical smears increases according to the grade of cervical lesion and LSIL in the presence of infectious agents showed higher MMP-9 expression than women with LSIL without infectious agents. PMID:24578283

  17. Identification of mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum smear slide using automatic scanning microscope

    Rulaningtyas, Riries; Suksmono, Andriyan B.; Mengko, Tati L. R.; Saptawati, Putri

    2015-04-01

    Sputum smear observation has an important role in tuberculosis (TB) disease diagnosis, because it needs accurate identification to avoid high errors diagnosis. In development countries, sputum smear slide observation is commonly done with conventional light microscope from Ziehl-Neelsen stained tissue and it doesn't need high cost to maintain the microscope. The clinicians do manual screening process for sputum smear slide which is time consuming and needs highly training to detect the presence of TB bacilli (mycobacterium tuberculosis) accurately, especially for negative slide and slide with less number of TB bacilli. For helping the clinicians, we propose automatic scanning microscope with automatic identification of TB bacilli. The designed system modified the field movement of light microscope with stepper motor which was controlled by microcontroller. Every sputum smear field was captured by camera. After that some image processing techniques were done for the sputum smear images. The color threshold was used for background subtraction with hue canal in HSV color space. Sobel edge detection algorithm was used for TB bacilli image segmentation. We used feature extraction based on shape for bacilli analyzing and then neural network classified TB bacilli or not. The results indicated identification of TB bacilli that we have done worked well and detected TB bacilli accurately in sputum smear slide with normal staining, but not worked well in over staining and less staining tissue slide. However, overall the designed system can help the clinicians in sputum smear observation becomes more easily.

  18. COMPARISION AND CORRELATION OF PAP SMEAR WITH COLPOSCOPY AND HISTOPATHIOLOGY IN EVALUATION OF CERVIX

    Zainab S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : Correlate pap smear findings wi th colposcopic findings, To localize the lesion by colposcopy and obtain biopsy and to provide appropriate treatment wherever possible. MATERIAL AND METHODS : This was a prospective comparative study of 104 patients who attended the Gynecology OPD of KIMS f rom may2012 to may 2014. INCLUSION CRITERIA : 1. Women of age between 20 - 65 years. 2. Women with symptoms like vaginal discharge, post coital bleeding, postmenopausal bleeding, intermenstrual bleeding and persistent leucorrhoea . 3. Women with normal looking cervix but symptomatic. EXCLUSION CRITERIA : 1. Women with bleeding at the time of examination . 2. Women with frank lesions . 3. Women with clinical evidence of acute pelvic infection . 4. Women who was previously treated for carcinoma cervix . 5. Pregnant wome n. RESULTS : Sensitivity of pap smear was found to be very low which was 31.25% compared to its specificity which was 94.44%. Which means pap smear shows higher no. of false negative smears Colposcopy showed a high sensitivity 96.57% and a good specificity 88.55% compared to pap smear . CONCLUSIOS: It is evident that colposcopy is definitely more sensitive and accurate than pap smear. By combining pap smear with colposcopy, we can maximize the sensitivity and specificity of cancer cervix screening.

  19. Current approach of health employees in Turkey to pap smear test

    Hakan Yetimalar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Our primary aim was to detect how much importance is given to pap smear test by the health staff.Material and Methods: In this study inquiries including questions about age, marital status, occupation, attitude for applying to gynecology polyclinics as well as questions regarding their knowledge about and attitude to pap smear test and HPV vaccination were delivered to health staff as well as to a control group which was formed from patients applying to our polyclinics.Results: Neither of the groups applied for gynecologic control without having complaints.There was no significant difference between the groups when the rates of having smear test at least once were taken into consideration. In this study we detected that the smear test was not offered routinely to nearly half of the patients.Those patients who were offered the smear test had the test by significantly higher rates. 91,17% of the women in the study group had heard about HPV vaccination.Discussion: The awareness of health staff as well as the non-health staff population about pap smear test is far from adequate in Turkey. Furthermore, gynecologists do not offer smear tests to their patients efficiently.This situation may prevent the reduction of cervical malignancies in the near future.

  20. DIRECT SMEAR VS CELL BLOCK (PLASMA- THROMBIN CLOT METHOD: DIAGNOSTIC VALUE IN SEROSAL CAVITIES FLUIDS CYTOLOGY

    P MAHZOUNI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To improve testing sensitivity, most laboratories use two or more preparation methods but in our laboratories only one method is used which is "direct smear". In this study we tried to evaluate the diagnostic value of cell block as adjunct to direct smear in the cytologic investigation of serosal cavities fluids. Methods. In a clinical trial study 62 specimens of serosal cavity fluids were investigated in AL-Zahrapathology laboratory (Get. 1998 to Get. 1999. Cytologic slides from each specimens were prepared in two methods: direct smear and cell block (plasma- thrombin clot method. Smears and cell blocks were studied separately by the same cytopathologist. The diagnosis were categorized as positive, negative, suspicious or unsatisfactory. Also, the time required for studing of each slides were noted. Findings. The findings indicated that there are discrepancy between direct smear and cell block methods in the number of "suspicious" cases. Also there is significant difference between the mean time needed for studing of direct smear and cell block. Conclusion. It is recommended that the remainer of each specimen should be kept in refrigerator in order to prepare cell blocks in suspicious cases of direct smear. This method facilitates making a more definite diagnosis and reducing the number of suspicious cases.

  1. Pattern of epithelial cell abnormality in Pap smear: A clinicopathological and demographic correlation

    Urmila Banik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the low resource settings of a developing country, a conventional Papanicolaou (Pap test is the mainstay screening system for cervical cancer. In order to counsel women and to organize a public health system for cervical cancer screening by Pap smear examination, it is imperative to know the pattern of premalignant and malignant lesions. This study was undertaken to find out the prevalence of an abnormal Pap smear, in a tertiary hospital of a developing country, and to carry out a clinicopathological and demographical analysis for establishing the pattern of epithelial cell abnormality in a Pap smear. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in a total of 1699 patients who underwent Pap smear examination. The prevalence of epithelial cell abnormality in the Pap smear was calculated in proportions / percentages. Specimen adequacy and reporting was assessed according to the revised Bethesda system. Results: Among the total of 1699 patients who had their Pap smear done, 139 (8.18% revealed epithelial cell abnormality. Altogether 26 smears revealed high-grade lesions and malignancy, most of which were found to be in women belonging to the 30 - 39 and ≥ 45 age group. A total of 75 (53.96% women were in the 20 - 44 age group and 64 (46.04% were in the ≥ 45 age group. A bimodal age distribution was detected in the epithelial cell abnormality, with the bulk being diagnosed in patients aged 45 or above. Overall one-third of the patients with an abnormal Pap smear result showed healthy cervix in per vaginal examination. Conclusions: A raised prevalence of epithelial cell abnormality reflects the lack of awareness about cervical cancer screening. Women aged 45 or above harbor the bulk of premalignant and malignant lesions in the Pap smear, signifying that these women are among the under users of cytological screening.

  2. Smears and cultures for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in an asymptomatic immigrant population

    Assael R

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Roberto Assael, Joaquin Cervantes, Gerardo Barrera Clinica Medica Internacional, Ciudad Juarez, Mexico Background: The World Health Organization estimated in 2010 that 8.8 million new tuberculosis (TB cases. About one-third of the world's population is infected and 10% will develop active TB disease. While cultures remain the international gold standard for diagnosing TB disease, in many other low-income countries, sputum smears remain the only and most accessible tool with which to diagnose active TB disease. As a consequence, in patients with TB who have negative smears, their TB remains undetected. Aim: The objective of the study reported here was to demonstrate the proportion of smear-positive/culture-positive cases compared with smear-negative/culture-positive TB cases in Mexican immigrants bound for the USA. Methods: A retrospective study was undertaken of the medical records of 122 active TB cases diagnosed at a clinic in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, from 2009 to 2012. All cases were confirmed by culture, regardless of the sputum smear results. Results: Of the cases, 80% (97 active TB cases had negative sputum smears, while only 25 cases (20% had at least one positive smear. All of the cultures were confirmed as positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Conclusion: The fact that 80% of the TB cases were smear negative and 20% smear positive shows that there is a clear gap between the actual state of active TB disease within patients under screening conditions, meaning that eight out of ten actual cases are being missed when sputum smear is the only diagnostic tool in asymptomatic patients with abnormal chest X-rays. Based on these results, it is highly recommended that countries that have not standardized culturing as the gold standard for the diagnosis of active TB do so, so that TB cases – which may endanger global public health – are not missed. It is also recommended that further studies be undertaken to determine the clinical background of the patients diagnosed by smear and culture to identify a direct relationship between clinical signs and symptoms and the smear result. Keywords: TB, screening, Mexico, mycobacteria growth indicator tube, Löwenstein–Jensen agar

  3. Smears and cultures for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in an asymptomatic immigrant population

    Assael, Roberto; Cervantes, Joaquin; Barrera, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization estimated in 2010 that 8.8 million new tuberculosis (TB) cases. About one-third of the world’s population is infected and 10% will develop active TB disease. While cultures remain the international gold standard for diagnosing TB disease, in many other low-income countries, sputum smears remain the only and most accessible tool with which to diagnose active TB disease. As a consequence, in patients with TB who have negative smears, their TB remains undetected. Aim The objective of the study reported here was to demonstrate the proportion of smear-positive/culture-positive cases compared with smear-negative/culture-positive TB cases in Mexican immigrants bound for the USA. Methods A retrospective study was undertaken of the medical records of 122 active TB cases diagnosed at a clinic in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, from 2009 to 2012. All cases were confirmed by culture, regardless of the sputum smear results. Results Of the cases, 80% (97 active TB cases) had negative sputum smears, while only 25 cases (20%) had at least one positive smear. All of the cultures were confirmed as positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Conclusion The fact that 80% of the TB cases were smear negative and 20% smear positive shows that there is a clear gap between the actual state of active TB disease within patients under screening conditions, meaning that eight out of ten actual cases are being missed when sputum smear is the only diagnostic tool in asymptomatic patients with abnormal chest X-rays. Based on these results, it is highly recommended that countries that have not standardized culturing as the gold standard for the diagnosis of active TB do so, so that TB cases – which may endanger global public health – are not missed. It is also recommended that further studies be undertaken to determine the clinical background of the patients diagnosed by smear and culture to identify a direct relationship between clinical signs and symptoms and the smear result. PMID:24072976

  4. Thermodynamics of noncommutative geometry inspired black holes based on Maxwell-Boltzmann smeared mass distribution

    In order to further explore the effects of non-Gaussian smeared mass distribution on the thermodynamical properties of noncommutative black holes, we consider noncommutative black holes based on Maxwell-Boltzmann smeared mass distribution in (2+1)-dimensional spacetime. The thermodynamical properties of the black holes are investigated, including Hawking temperature, heat capacity, entropy and free energy. We find that multiple black holes with the same temperature do not exist, while there exists a possible decay of the noncommutative black hole based on Maxwell-Boltzmann smeared mass distribution into the rotating (commutative) BTZ black hole. (authors)

  5. Evaluation of the Phenol Ammonium Sulfate Sedimentation Smear Microscopy Method for Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    N Selvakumar; Rahman, Fathima; Garg, Renu; Rajasekaran, S.; Mohan, Nalini Sunder; Thyagarajan, K.; Sundaram, V.; Santha, T.; Frieden, Thomas R; Narayanan, P R

    2002-01-01

    We compared the sensitivity and specificity of the phenol ammonium sulfate (PhAS) sediment smear microscopy method for detection of acid-fast bacilli with those of direct smear microscopy, using culture results for Mycobacterium tuberculosis as the “gold standard.” The sensitivities of the PhAS and direct smear methods were 85% (465 of 547) and 83% (454 of 547), respectively, and the specificity of each method was 97%. The PhAS method was better accepted by the laboratory technicians and safe...

  6. Evaluation of the Phenol Ammonium Sulfate Sedimentation Smear Microscopy Method for Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Selvakumar, N.; Rahman, Fathima; Garg, Renu; Rajasekaran, S.; Mohan, Nalini Sunder; Thyagarajan, K.; Sundaram, V.; Santha, T.; Frieden, Thomas R.; Narayanan, P. R.

    2002-01-01

    We compared the sensitivity and specificity of the phenol ammonium sulfate (PhAS) sediment smear microscopy method for detection of acid-fast bacilli with those of direct smear microscopy, using culture results for Mycobacterium tuberculosis as the “gold standard.” The sensitivities of the PhAS and direct smear methods were 85% (465 of 547) and 83% (454 of 547), respectively, and the specificity of each method was 97%. The PhAS method was better accepted by the laboratory technicians and safer but necessitates an overnight sedimentation, which delays reporting of results until 1 day after sputum collection. PMID:12149368

  7. The smear layer created by scaling and root planing is physiologically eliminated in a biphasic process

    Fernanda Regina Godoy, ROCHA; Daniela Leal, ZANDIM-BARCELOS; Carlos, ROSSA JUNIOR; Jos Eduardo Cezar, SAMPAIO.

    Full Text Available Mechanical instrumentation of the root surface causes the formation of a smear layer, which is a physical barrier that can affect periodontal regeneration. Although different procedures have been proposed to remove the smear layer, there is no information concerning how long the smear layer persists [...] on root surfaces after instrumentation in vivo. This study assessed the presence of the smear layer on root surfaces over a 28-day period after subgingival instrumentation with hand instruments. Fifty human teeth that were referred for extraction because of advanced periodontal disease were scaled and root planed (SRP) by a single experienced operator. Ten teeth were randomly assigned to be extracted 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after SRP. Another 10 teeth were extracted immediately after instrumentation (Day 0, control group). The subgingival area of the instrumented roots was evaluated with scanning electron microscopy. Representative photomicrographs were assessed by a blinded and calibrated examiner according to a scoring system. A rapid and significant (p

  8. Validation of a simplified grading of Gram stained vaginal smears for use in genitourinary medicine clinics

    Ison, C.; Hay, P.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To validate a simplified grading scheme for Gram stained smears of vaginal fluid for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV) against the accepted "gold" standard of Amsel's composite criteria.

  9. A note on smeared branes in flux vacua and gauged supergravity

    In the known examples of flux vacua with calibrated spacetime-filling sources (branes or orientifold planes), one can smear the source in order to perform a standard KK reduction and obtain a lower-dimensional supergravity description. Furthermore, it is expected that the smeared and localized solution preserve equal amounts of supersymmetry. In this note we point out that the AdS7 solution discussed in http://arxiv.org/abs/1111.2605 and http://arxiv.org/abs/1309.2949 is a counterexample to this common lore. The solution is supersymmetric when the spacetime-filling D6-branes are localized but breaks supersymmetry in the smeared limit. By using the embedding tensor formalism we demonstrate that there is no gauged supergravity description for the solution, regardless of the source being smeared or not. We conjecture that for flux solutions with separation between the KK scale and AdS radius this cannot occur

  10. TTV and HPV co-infection in cervical smears of patients with cervical lesions

    Tachezy Ruth

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The female lower genital tract is a gateway for pathogens entering the host through the mucous membrane. One of the prevalent human viruses is Torque teno virus (TTV. The major reported routes of TTV transmission are fecal-oral and parenteral. Furthermore, other modes of transmission, e.g. sexual contact, are suggested. To investigate the sexual route of TTV transmission, cervical smears of healthy women and those with cervical lesions were screened for the presence of TTV DNA. Methods TTV DNA was studied in cervical smears of 95 patients with cervical lesions and 55 healthy women. Paired serum samples were available from 55 and 42 women, respectively. All healthy women had normal cytology while 44 patients had histologically confirmed low-grade lesion (LGL and 51 high-grade lesion (HGL. TTV DNA was detected with primers specific for the non-coding region. In 40 paired cervical smears and serum samples, the phylogenetic group of TTV isolates was determined. The presence of HPV DNA in cervical smears was detected by means of PCR with MY09/11 primers. Results The prevalence of TTV DNA in cervical smears of healthy women was 52.7% and was comparable with that in paired serum samples (50%. Symptomatic women had significantly higher prevalence of TTV DNA in cervical smears (74.7% than healthy controls. The TTV DNA prevalence in patient serum samples was 51%. The phylogenetic groups of TTV serum isolates were concordant with those of TTV from cervical smears of the same subjects. In cervical smears, a wider variety of TTV isolates was found. The viral loads in cervical smears were 10 to 1000 times as high as in sera. The HPV-positive study subjects had significantly higher TTV DNA prevalence than HPV negatives. The prevalence of TTV was not associated with disease severity. Conclusion High prevalence of TTV in cervical smears suggests that sexual transmission is another mode of expansion of TTV infection among the population. The higher viral load in cervical smears than in the respective serum samples might indicate active TTV replication in the female genital tract. Nevertheless, cooperation between TTV and HPV needs to be further investigated.

  11. Use of Schiller's test versus Pap smear to increase detection rate of cervical dysplasias

    Ramaraju H. E.; Nagaveni Y. C.; A. A. Khazi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Application of Lugols iodine to cervix (Schillers test) is named as Visual Inspection of cervix after applying Lugols Iodine (VILI). VILI improves the detection rate of suspicious area over the cervix. The objectives of the study was to screening for early carcinoma or Dysplasia cervix by Schiller's test and Pap smear and to compare the results of Schiller's test with Pap smear results. Methods: The present prospective randomized control trials study was undertaken among 500 ...

  12. External quality assessment for acid fast bacilli smear microscopy in eastern part of Ethiopia

    Ayana, Desalegn Admassu; Kidanemariam, Zelalem Teklemariam; Tesfaye, Habtamu Mitiku; Milashu, Fitsum Weldegebreal

    2015-01-01

    Background External quality assessment (EQA) of sputum smear microscopy is essential and indispensable component of any tuberculosis program. This study assessed the EQA of acid fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy through onsite evaluation, blinded rechecking and panel test. A one year study was conducted on eight health institution laboratories from December 2011 to December 2012. Onsite evaluation, blinded rechecking and panel tests were used to collect data. Data were analyzed using SPSS v...

  13. In-hospital contact investigation among health care workers after exposure to smear-negative tuberculosis

    Schultze-Werninghaus Gerhard; Schablon Anja; Nienhaus Albert; Schlösser Stephan; Ringshausen Felix C; Rohde Gernot

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) accounts for a considerable proportion of TB transmission, which especially endangers health care workers (HCW). Novel Mycobacterium-tuberculosis-specific interferon-γ release assays (IGRAs) may offer the chance to define the burden of TB in HCW more accurately than the Mantoux tuberculin skin test (TST), but the data that is available regarding their performance in tracing smear-negative TB in the low-incidence, in-hospital setti...

  14. Incidence of cervical cancer after several negative smear results by age 50: prospective observational study

    Rebolj, Matejka; Van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Lynge, Elsebeth; Looman, Caspar; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Boer, Rob; Habbema, Dik

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of cervical cancer after several negative cervical smear tests at different ages. DESIGN: Prospective observational study of incidence of cervical cancer after the third consecutive negative result based on individual level data in a national registry of histopathology and cytopathology (PALGA). SETTING: Netherlands, national data. Population 218,847 women aged 45-54 and 445,382 aged 30-44 at the time of the third negative smear test. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE...

  15. Comparison Between Pap Smear and Via As Screening For Cervical Lesions

    Harshini V 1, Amritha Bhandary 2, Suchithra Thunga 3

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An important reason for higher cervical cancer incidence in developing countries is lack of effectivescreening programs like pap smear, aimed at detecting precancerous conditions before they progress to invasivecancer. The potential difficulties in implementing cervical cytology based screening in low-resource settings haveprompted the investigation of accuracy of alternative low technology tests such as Visual inspection with acetic acidapplication [VIA], Visual inspection with acetic acid application with magnification [VIAM], visual inspection onLugol’s Iodine application [VILI] in early detection of cervical neoplasia .In our study we compared pap smear withVIA to study the accurarcy of VIA as it is simpler and easier technique to be used as screening in low resourcesettings. Aim: This is a hospital based descriptive, prospective study to evaluate validity of pap smear and VIAtechniques as screening tests in identifying cervical lesions. Materials And Methods: After general and systemicexamination as a routine,visual local pelvic examination including visualisation of cervix and vagina per speculumand the findings are documented in the proforma .Then VIA and pap smear are done in that order, if any of thesetests are positive then cervical biopsy will be taken and further advise to the subject is given. Results: A total of 313women were involved in the study. The sensitivity of pap smear is 54.5% specificity is 98.9% while that of VIA95.4% and 97.9%respectively. We found that VIA accuracy was comparatively more than that of pap smear.Conclusion: In low resource settings, usefulness of VIA is more than that of pap smear. We suggest to perform VIAin all the women inspite of having pap smear facility to improve detection rate of cervical lesions and provide betterpatient councelling and treatment.

  16. Actinomyces-like organisms in cervical smears: the association with intrauterine device and pelvic inflammatory diseases

    Kim, Yeo Joo; Youm, Jina; Kim, Jee Hyun; Jee, Byung Chul

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence of actinomyces-like organisms in routine cervical smears of Korean women and to evaluate its association with the development of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in these women. Methods The results of cervical smears between 2011 and 2012 at a single university hospital were searched. If positive for actinomyces-like organisms, the medical record of the patient was searched and development of PID was followed. If the data were not available in the medic...

  17. “Cannon Balls or Pus Balls” in Pap Smears: A Case Report

    Bodal, Vijay Kumar; Kaur, Sarbhjit; Bhagat, Ranjiv; Kaur, Rupinder; Bal, Manjit Singh

    2013-01-01

    A 50–year old female presented with the chief complaint of a discharge per vaginum, which was there for the past 15 days. A routine PAP smear was received in the Department of Pathology, Government Medical College, Patiala, India. After its fixation and staining, it was examined under the microscope. It showed the Trichomonas vaginalis infection, with the neutrophils forming cannon balls at places. Neutrophils in the PAP smear are a nonspecific finding, particularly if they are low in numbers...

  18. MIMO radar with broadband waveforms: Smearing filter banks and 2D virtual arrays

    Vaidyanathan, P.P.; Pal, Piya; Chen, Chun-Yang

    2009-01-01

    In this paper MIMO radars with broadband waveforms are considered. A time domain viewpoint is taken, which allows frequency invariant beamforming with a filter bank called the smearing filter bank. Motivated by recent work on two dimensional arrays to obtain frequency invariant one dimensional beams, the generation of two dimensional virtual arrays from one dimensional ULAs is also considered. It is also argued that when the smearing filter bank is appropriately used, ...

  19. Relationships between Self-Efficacy and Pap Smear Screening in Iranian Women.

    Majdfar, Zahra; Khodadost, Mahmoud; Majlesi, Freshteh; Rahimi, Abbas; Shams, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Gohar

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth common cancer among women worldwide. Pap smear screening has resulted in deceasing incidence of cervical cancer in developed countries but low uptake of Pap smear screening among women in developing countries is still a public health challenge. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the relationship between self-efficacy and timely uptake of Pap smear among Iranian women. A total of 580 married women referred to primary health care centers covered administratively by Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in Tehran were administered a questionnaire by trained staff. Data were analyzed with SPSS (version 16) software, using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. The mean age for participants was 33.1±8.8 years. There was a significant association between self-efficacy and Pap smear screening (PPap smear uptake (PPap smear uptake and level of self-efficacy (OR = 15.3 for intermediate and OR=7.4 for good level), duration of marriage (OR = 5.7 for 5-14 years and OR=10.4 for more than 15), age (OR =2.7 for 27-34 years and OR=7.4 for more than 35 years) and husband education level (OR=2.3 for more than 12 years of education). In multivariate analysis, significant associations persisted between Pap smear uptake and self-efficacy (OR = 23.8; 95% CI: 8.7, 65.5), duration of marriage (OR = 5.9; 95% CI: 2.8, 12.2), age (OR = 3.9; 95% CI: 1.2, 12.9) and husband's education (OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 2.0, 10.3). Efforts are needed to increase women's knowledge about cervical cancer and improve their self-efficacy and perceptions of the Pap smear screening in order to reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates. PMID:27165236

  20. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice about Pap Smear among Women Reffering to A Public Hospital

    Sedighe Rezaie-Chamani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Pap smear is a reliable, inexpensive and effective screening test for cervical cancer; thesecond most common cancer among women worldwide. We aimed to determine women’s knowledge,attitudes and practice towards Pap smear and barriers for the screening in a public hospital.Materials and methods: This study, was carried out on 350 outpatient married women reffering for avisit at the clinics of the Alzahra educational hospital, Rasht- Iran, 2011. A questionnaire includingdemographic characteristics (24 questions, knowledge (14 questions, attitudes (11 statments andpractice (10 questions towards Pap smear was completed by interview with the women. The data wereanalyzed using SPSS ver.13.Results: Mean age of participants was 32 (SD 12 years. Of the respondents, only 44.3% were aware ofthe Pap smear and 27.1% had had it at least once in their life. The most common reason for having thetest was physicians’ or other health workers’ advise and for not having the test was no recommendationby health providers and lack of knowledge about Pap smear. Embarrassing, fear of the test result oreconomic problems mentioned by only 12 (4.2% as the main barrier. Mean (±SD knowledge score ofthe women who had heard about the Pap smear was 59.4 (24.3 and attitudes score of all participantswas 48.5 (11.6 from possible range score of 0-100. Women with a history of Pap smear had had higherawareness and attitudes score.Conclusion: The knowledge and practice of the women was inadequate and need to be promoted.Considering the main reason mentioned by the participants for not having the test, all health providersshould educate and encourage women to do regular Pap smear.

  1. Determinants of Treatment Adherence Among Smear-Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Southern Ethiopia

    Shargie, Estifanos Biru; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2007-01-01

    Background: Defaulting from treatment remains a challenge for most tuberculosis control programmes. It may increase the risk of drug resistance, relapse, death, and prolonged infectiousness. The aim of this study was to determine factors predicting treatment adherence among smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Methods and Findings: A cohort of smear-positive tuberculosis patients diagnosed and registered in Hossana Hospital in southern Ethiopia from 1 September 2002 to 30 Apri...

  2. Smear positive extra pulmonary tuberculosis disease at University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    Zenebe Yohannes; Anagaw Belay; Tesfay Wogahta; Debebe Tewodros; Gelaw Baye

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background While pulmonary tuberculosis is the most common presentation, extra pulmonary tuberculosis is also an important clinical problem. However, no adequate information had been made available on the prevalence of smear positive extra pulmonary tuberculosis in Gondar. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and possible risk factors of smear positive extra pulmonary tuberculosis among suspected patients at University of Gondar Hospital. Methods A cross-sectional study...

  3. Diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis based on clinical signs in the Republic of Congo

    Linguissi, Laure Stella Ghoma; Vouvoungui, Christevy Jeannhey; Poulain, Pierre; Essassa, Gaston Bango; Kwedi, Sylvie; Ntoumi, Francine

    2015-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (SNPT) in resource-limited countries is often solely based on clinical signs, chest X-ray radiography and sputum smear microscopy. We investigated currently used methods for the routine diagnosis of SNPT in the Republic of Congo (RoC) among TB suspected patients. The specific case of HIV positive patients was also studied. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at the anti-tuberculosis ce...

  4. Smeared quantum phase transition in the dissipative random quantum Ising model

    Vojta, Thomas; Hoyos, José A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the quantum phase transition in the random transverse-field Ising model under the influence of Ohmic dissipation. To this end, we numerically implement a strong-disorder renormalization-group scheme. We find that Ohmic dissipation destroys the quantum critical point and the associated quantum Griffiths phase by smearing. Our results quantitatively confirm a recent theory [J.A. Hoyos, T. Vojta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 (2008) 240601] of smeared quantum phase transitions.

  5. Follow up of women with borderline cervical smears as defined by national guidelines.

    Heatley, M K

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To determine the proportion of women with abnormalities in cervical smears corresponding to borderline nuclear change, as defined by national guidelines, which return to normal or persist as cytological or histological abnormalities. METHODS: 313 women with borderline nuclear change diagnosed by a single pathologist using the national criteria were followed up for up to two years. RESULTS: On initial follow up, 45% of women had a negative smear or biopsy, 46.5% had a low grade cytologica...

  6. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in abnormal cervical smears in Malaysian patients.

    Sharifah, Noor Akmal; Seeni, A; Nurismah, M I; Clarence-Ko, C H; Hatta, A Z; Ho, Ng-Paul; Rafaee, T; Adeeb, N; Jamal, R

    2009-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common female malignancy in Malaysia. Despite advances in treatment, the overall survival for this disease has not changed in the last decade. Infection by certain types of HPV is recognized as a causal and necessary factor for its development. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of HPV infection in abnormal cervical smears in Malaysian patients using archival cervical smears retrieved from the Cytopathology Unit, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) between the years 1992-1995. DNA was extracted from 38 abnormal smears comprising 25 intraepithelial lesions and 13 cervical carcinomas and 10 normal smears. Amplification of HPV genes was carried out using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. HPV genotypes were determined using direct sequencing and the results were compared to the database from Genebank. DNA was successfully extracted from all 48 cervical smears. High-risk HPV (HR-HPV) genotypes were detected in 95% of the abnormal smears. Eight high-risk oncogenic types were identified: 16, 18, 31, 51, 52, 56, 58 and 66. All (100%) cervical cancer smears showed presence of HR-HPV compared to 92% of the cervical intraepithelial lesions. Among the eight HR-HPV genotypes identified, HPV 16 and 52 were the commonest (23.7% each) HPV genotypes encountered and among the CIN lesions, HPV 16 (28%) was the most frequent. We conclude that HPV 16 is the most prevalent HPV genotype present in abnormal cervical smears in Malaysian patients, and that the use of archival material to assess the presence of HPV is potentially worthwhile, and can be utilized for longitudinal studies of HPV presence and persistence. PMID:19537900

  7. Attitude Concerning the Pap Smear Test of Women Who Admitted to the Family Medicine Outpatient Clinic

    Ak M et al.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this trial, we evaluated women’s knowledge and behavior concerning the Pap smear test. Material and Method: Women attending to the family medicine outpatient clinic in between April 1 to May 30 irrespective of their complaints included in the study in Dogansehir, Malatya, Turkey. Sociodemographic data form was filled by trained personnel. Questions regarding whether they heard about the Pap smear test, have ever taken it, if not what were the reasons, what are the indications of the Pap smear test were asked. 139 women accepted to participate in the study. 46,8% had heard and 54,2 % didn’t hear about the Pap smear test. The source of information was 57% from health professionals 26% from the media, and 14% from the neighbors. Those who were informed about the Pap smear test from health professionals undertook it more than others. Media was the second effective source and neighbors were ineffective in context to Pap smear test being done Results: As a result preventive medicine has a distinct position in the primary care. Cervical malignancy of the urogenital tract is one of the rare preventable cancers by screening tests. In the primary care set up every effort should be supported in order to improve the awareness of women particularly who are at the risk group.

  8. Comparison of visual inspection of cervix and pap smear for cervical cancer screening

    Objective: To evaluate the performance of visual inspection of cervix (VIA) after application of 3% acetic acid in cervical cancer screening in comparison with PAP smear. Results: Out of 540 subjects, 356 were negative with both screening techniques. One hundred and fifty-six subjects were positive with VIA (28.9%) while PAP smear was positive in seventy-eight subjects (14.4%). The sensitivity of VIA was 93.9% and of PAP smear was 46.9%. Corresponding specificities were 30.4% and 69.5%. There was no significant difference between the positive predictive value (PPV) of both test (p<0.05). The accuracy of VIA was 77.5% compared to 52.8% of PAP smear. The difference was highly significant (p < 0.01). Conclusion: These results indicate that VIA is more sensitive and has a higher accuracy as compared to PAP smear. It could, therefore, be valuable in detection of precancerous lesions of cervix. Low cost, easy applicability and immediate results make VIA a useful screening test in developing countries like Pakistan as compared to PAP smear. (author)

  9. Agreement Between Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid and Papanicolaous Smear as Screening Methods for Cervical Cancer

    Objective: To determine degree of agreement between visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and Papanicolaous (Pap) smear as screening methods for cervical cancer. Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Lahore, from July to December 2012. Methodology: Two hundred and fifty women in reproductive age group presenting with various gynaecological complaints were included in the study. A Papanicolaous smear was taken and visual inspection with 5% acetic acid was done. VIA was reported as positive or negative according to acetowhite changes and cytology result was graded as CIN 1, 2, 3 and squamous carcinoma. Those women who showed positive result with either VIA or Pap smear or both were further subjected to colposcopic directed biopsy which was taken as gold standard. Results were computed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16 and statistical test used was kappa. Results: Out of 250 women, VIA was positive in 55 (22%) patients and Pap smear was abnormal in 27 (10.8%). Histological diagnosis of CIN/cancer was made in 36 out of a total 62 patients who underwent biopsy. Conclusion: There was a fair agreement between VIA and Pap smear, with VIA detecting more abnormalities than cytology. In the absence of Pap smear availability, VIA may be a reasonable cervical cancer screening method, especially in low resource settings. (author)

  10. A note on Rome-Southampton Renormalization with Smeared Gauge Fields

    Arthur, R; Hashimoto, S; Hudspith, R

    2013-01-01

    We have calculated continuum limit step scaling functions of bilinear and four-fermion operators renormalized in a Rome-Southampton scheme using various smearing prescriptions for the gauge field. Also, for the first time, we have calculated non-perturbative anomalous dimensions of operators renormalized in a Rome-Southampton scheme. The effect of such smearing first enters connected fermionic correlation functions via radiative corrections. We use off-shell renormalisation as a probe, and observe that the upper edge of the Rome-Southampton window is reduced by link smearing. This can be interpreted as arising due to the fermions decoupling from the high momentum gluons and we observe that the running of operators with the scale at large lattice momenta shows enhanced lattice artefacts. We find that the effect is greater for HEX smearing than for Stout smearing, but that in both cases additional care must be taken when using off-shell renormalisation with smeared gauge fields compared to thin link simulations...

  11. Incremental yield of bronchial washing for diagnosing smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis

    Alonso Soto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To assess the increased diagnostic yield for pulmonary tuberculosis using bronchial washing cultures compared with sputum cultures. METHODS Study conducted with 61 adults in Lima, Peru, from January 2006 to December 2007. The yield of sputum cultures was compared with the yield of acid-fast bacilli smears and cultures of bronchial washing for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis in suspected cases of clinical tuberculosis with negative acid fast bacilli sputum smears. RESULTS Twenty seven (95%CI 32;58 of the cases were eventually diagnosed with smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis. Bronchial washing samples detected 23 (95%CI 72;99 of the smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis cases compared with 15 (95%CI 37;74 for sputum cultures (p = 0.02. The incremental diagnostic yield of acid fast bacilli smear and culture of bronchial washing specimens over sputum culture was 44% (95%CI 25;65. CONCLUSIONS In function of the epidemiological context and the resources available, bronchoscopy should be deployed as part of a comprehensive work up that optimizes smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis and minimizes risk and costs.

  12. PRECANCEROUS AND CANCEROUS LESIONS OF CERVIX DIAGNOSED BY PAP’S SMEAR - A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY

    Komal Singh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cervical intra - epithelial neoplasia (CIN and cervical cancer remain important health problems for women worldwide. It is largely a preventable disease that is characterized by a long lead time. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of precancerous lesions of cervix by Pap smear screening. METHODS : A retrospective hospital based study was conducted at Department of Pathology, in a Tertiary Care Institute and associated hospital, Bhopal. Data was collected from the records of Pap’s smear testing done on 388 patients in years 2011 & 2012. Analysis was done by entering data in SPSS software and Chi - square test was applied to find statistical significance. RESULTS: Most common lesions on Pap’s smear was Low grade squamous intraepithelial les ion (LSIL in 104 (26.8% of cases and High grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL in 15 (3.9% of cases. 44 (11.3% were senile Atopic Changes, parasitic Infection in 27 (7% of cases and 2 (0.5% were carcinoma cervix cases. All the cervical lesion s were most common in age of 31 - 40 yrs. and were significantly associated with age. CONCLUSIONS: Pap’s smear examination information should be spread in community apart from hospitals. Especially the young women should be motivated for regular Pap’s smear. Pap’s smear is the single most important screening method for early detection of precancerous & cancerous cervical lesions

  13. DS Hepatic Coccidiosis in Angora Rabbits

    Zerrin Erdogmus S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical, pathological and parasitological findings were presented in casses of naturally occurring hepatic coccidiosis in 10 Angora rabbits aging 4 to 6 week-old. Macroscopical changes were characterized by mild ascites, multiple 1-3 mm diameter, discrete to colascing, yellow white nodules in the liver. Microgamates, macrogametes and oocysts were detected in Giemsa stained impression smears. Histological lesions were characterized by bile duct dilatation, bile duct epithelial hyperplasia and duct luminae were filled with numerous ovoid cysts.

  14. Theileria electrophorin.sp., a parasite of the electric eel Electrophorus electricus (Osteichthyes: Cypriniformes: Gymnotidae) from Amazonian Brazil

    Ralph Lainson

    2007-01-01

    The name Theileria electrophori n.sp. is proposed for a small parasite described in the erythrocytes of the electric eel, Electrophorus electricus, from Amazonian Brazil. Division of the organism in the erythrocyte produces only four bacilliform daughter cells which become scattered in the host cell, without a cruciform or rosette-shaped disposition. Exoerythrocytic meronts producing a large number of merozoites were encountered in Giemsa-stained impression smears of the internal organs, prin...

  15. Antigen detection of rabies virus in brain smear using direct Rapid Immunohistochemistry Test

    Damayanti R

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is zoonotic disease caused by a fatal, neurotropic virus. Rabies virus is classified into the Genus of Lyssavirus under the yang family of Rhabdoviridae. Rabies affecting hot- blooded animals, as well as human. Dogs, cats, monkeys are the vectors or reservoirs for rabies and the virus was transmitted through the saliva after infected animal’s bites. The aim of this study was to conduct rapid diagnosis to detect rabies viral antigen in brain smear using immunohistochemical (IHC method namely direct Rapid Immunohistochemical Test (dRIT. A total number of 119 brain samples were achieved from Bukittinggi Veterinary Laboratory, West Sumatra. Standardisation and validation of the method were compared to Fluorescent Antibody Test (FAT as a golden standard for rabies diagnosis. Results show that dRIT was a very good method, it can be performed within two hours without the need of fluorescent microscope. The samples were tested using FAT and from 119 samples tested, 80 (67.23% samples were positive for rabies and 39 (32.77% samples were negative for rabies whereas using dRIT showed that 78 (65.54% samples were positive for rabies and 41 (34.45% samples were negative for rabies. The dRIT results were validated by comparing them with FAT results as a golden standard for rabies. The relative sensitivity of dRIT to FAT was 97.5% and the relative specificity to FAT was 100% (with Kappa value of 0.976, stated as excellent. The achievement showed that dRIT is very potential diagnostic tool and is highly recommended to be used widely as a rapid diagnosis tool for rabies.

  16. Comparison of acridine orange, methylene blue, and Gram stains for blood cultures.

    Mirrett, S.; Lauer, B. A.; Miller, G. A.; Reller, L. B.

    1982-01-01

    Direct microscopic screening of blood cultures by Gram stain or methylene blue stain is time consuming and frequently insensitive. Therefore, we evaluated a fluorescent-staining procedure that uses acridine orange (AO) at pH 3.5 and compared it with the methylene blue and Gram stain procedures. All smears were prepared within 24 h of receiving the culture, fixed with methanol, and examined without the results of the companion smears being known. AO-stained smears were examined with incident-l...

  17. Diagnosis of malaria by acridine orange fluorescent microscopy in an endemic area of Venezuela

    Irene Bosch

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent (acridine orange microscopical examination of capillary centrifuged blood (quantitative buffy coat [QBC®] analysis and Giemsa stained thick blood smears (GTS were compared for diagnosis of malaria in blood specimens from adults living in malaria transmission areas of the States of Bolivar and Amazonas in southeastern and south Venezuela, respectively. Of a total of 198 GTS examined, 95 subjects (48% showed parasitaemia. Among the 95 blood films with a positive GTS, 94 were judged positive by the QBC. However, positive QBC tubes were found in 29 out of 103 blood specimens with a negative GTS. Thus, relative to a GTS standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the QBC-test was 99.2% and 72%, respectively. Young trophozoites of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum could not be distinguished with certainty. It is confirmed that the QBC offers many advantages compared with the standard diagnosis of malaria parasites, specifically in the speed of staining and ease of interpretation. However, in places where P. falciparum and P. vivax occur, species and stage differentiation should be confirmed with the GTS.

  18. Effect of the smear layer on salivary bacterial leakage in endodontically treated teeth

    Abasali Khademi, ,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: The success of endodontic treatment depends on the method and quality of cleaning, disinfection and three-dimensional sealing of the root canal. The smear layer can play an important role in the success or failure of endodontic treatment. There is controversy over the presence or removal of the smear layer in relation to the success or failure of endodontic treatment. This study used standard methods of endodontic treatment and whole human saliva to evaluate the effect of the smear layer on salivary bacterial leakage in endodontically treated teeth.Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 48 human single- and multiple-rooted teeth were randomly divided into two experimental groups of 20 and two negative and positive control groups of 4 teeth. After access cavity preparation the root canals were prepared with crown-down technique and irrigated with 10 mL of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution. The canals in one group were irrigated with 17% EDTA and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite to remove the smear layer and in the other only with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite to leave the smear layer in place. Then the teeth were sterilized by autoclave and obturated with gutta-percha sterilized with ethylene oxide and Tubliseal sealer under aseptic conditions. Two mL of human saliva were collected from two persons and injected into the coronal portion of the samples, which was repeated for four months. Leakage of the samples was examined twice daily. Data was analyzed with chi-squared test at a confidence interval of 95%. Results: Presence or absence of the smear layer had no significant effect on salivary bacterial leakage of different root canals filled with gutta-percha and Tubliseal sealer (p value = 0.515, although the number of cases with contamination and leakage of saliva in the group with the smear layer (55% was more than that in the group without the smear layer (44%.Conclusion: The results showed no significant effect of the smear layer on coronal leakage of human saliva into obturated canals. Key words: Bacterial microleakage, Root canal therapy, Saliva, Smear layer, Tooth.

  19. Interpretation of automated blood cell counts

    Zühre Kaya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Complete blood count (CBC tests are rapid, inexpensiveand universally available, and often aid primary clinicianswith decision making about patients with severaldisorders. Thus the rapid availability of the results of CBCcould provide considerable advantage for both patientsand clinicians. Furthermore, physicians can also avoidunnecessary peripheral blood smear examination usingCBC parameters. Many hematology analyzers, which enabledus simultaneously, measure several different CBCparameters, are available for early diagnosis. Herein theimpact of both pre and post analytic variations on the interpretationof the CBC results with case reports are reviewedin the light of the latest literature.Key words: Complete blood count, interpretation

  20. Detection and molecular characterization of a canine piroplasm from Brazil.

    Soares, Joo F; Girotto, Aline; Brando, Paulo E; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Frana, Raqueli T; Lopes, Sonia T A; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2011-08-25

    In the beginning of the 20th century, a new canine disease was reported in Brazil under the name "nambiuv", whose etiological agent was called Rangelia vitalii, a distinct piroplasm that was shown to parasitize not only erythrocytes, but also leucocytes and endothelial cells. In this new century, more publications on R. vitalii were reported from Brazil, including an extensive study on its ultrastructural analysis, in addition to clinical, pathological, and epidemiological data on nambiuv. However, a molecular analysis of R. vitalii has not been performed to date. In the present study, we performed molecular phylogenetic analyses of R. vitalii based on fragments of the genes 18S rRNA and the heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), amplified by PCR performed on blood samples derived from five clinical cases of dogs presumably infected with R. vitalii in southern Brazil. In addition, we examined Giemsa-stained thin blood smears from these same dogs. DNA sequences (604-bp) of the 18S rRNA gene obtained from the five dogs were identical to each other, and by Blast analysis, this sequence shared the highest degree of sequence identity (95%) with Babesia sp. China-BQ1. DNA sequences (1056-bp) of the hsp70 gene obtained from the five dogs were identical to each other, and by Blast analysis, this sequence shared the highest degree of sequence identity (87%) with Babesia bigemina. Phylogenetic analyses inferred from either of the two genes resulted in the newly genotype being placed in the Babesia spp. sensu stricto clade with very high bootstrap support (95-100%) in three analyses (Neighbor-Joining, Maximum parsimony, and Maximum likelihood). Giemsa-stained thin blood smears from the dogs were shown to contain piroplasm organisms within erythrocytes, monocytes and neutrophils (individual forms), and schizont-like forms within neutrophils, in accordance with literature reports of R. vitalii. Based on these results, we conclude that R. vitalii, the etiological agent of "nambiuv" in southern Brazil, is a valid species of piroplasm. Further studies are required to evaluate the validity of the genus Rangelia. PMID:21489694

  1. Molecular Study of Sheep Malignant Theileriosis at Barka Region in the Sultanate of Oman

    P Shayan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: We used the PCR technique based on the abovementioned primer pair and sequencing to demonstrate the Theileria infection in the sheep samples collected from Sultanate of Oman.Methods: According to the frame work of "integrated control of ticks and tick borne diseases in globalized world managed by EU-ICTTD-3 project, the samples from blood, liver, spleen, lymph node and lung were sent to the laboratory of Iranian Research Center for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases (IRCTTD. Samples from blood smear and impression smears from liver, spleen, lymph node, and lung were analyzed by Geimsa staining. The DNA was extracted from the abovementioned samples and analyzed by PCR technique using specific primers derived from the nucleotide sequences of 18S rRNA gene of T. lestoquardi, which can amplify the common region in other Theileria and Babesia spp. Subsequently the amplified DNA was sequenced.Results: The analysis of blood smears of the sheep was negative for piroplasmosis performed through the Giemsa staining. The impression smears prepared from liver, spleen, lymph node, and lung showed suspicious structures mimicking Theileria schizonts in some cells. The results showed an expected PCR product of 428 bp in length, which is specific for Theileria spp. The PCR products were subsequently sequenced. The corresponding nucleotide sequence is registered under accession number JF309152 in GenBank. The sequence alignment in GenBank showed that the PCR products had 99% homology to the known T. lestoquardi registered under accession number AF081135 in the GenBank. Conclusion: Oman sheep are highly susceptible for Theileria infection and the infected sheep mostly die before the microschizonts or erythrocytic form of Theileria appears in the nucleated or erytrocytic cells respectively.

  2. Comparison of amrad ICT test with microscopic examination for rapid diagnosis of malaria

    Objective: To assess the sensitivity and specificity of an alternate and easy technique to diagnose malaria. Design: A prospective study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of pathology, DHQ Hospital, Timergara District, Dir, North-west Frontier Province of Pakistan, from 19th September to 5th October 2000. Subjects and Methods: Smear positive 50 patients (27 males and 23 females, age ranging 2 years to 70 years) were included. Thick and thin smears were stained with Giemsa's stain and examined by the principal author. The ICT malaria test was performed according to the instruction sheet of the manufacturer. Results: on microscopy there were 29 cases of Plasmodium falciparum (P.f) and 21 of Plasmodiium vivax (P.v.). On ICT malaria P.f/P.v, there were 29 samples positive for P. Falciparum and 17 for P. vivax. These results demonstrated that the ICT malaria P.f/P.v test had sensitivity of 100% for P. falciparum and 81% for P. vivax and specificity of 100% for both, when compared to traditional blood films for the detection of P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria. Conclusion: The ICT malaria P.f/P.v test is an effective tool for the rapid diagnosis of malaria and may be used as a first line diagnostic tool. (author)

  3. The occurrence of blood protozoa in North American birds

    Herman, C.M.

    1957-01-01

    This report is based on review of literature and examination of a great number of blood smears from native birds in North America, particularly Passeriformes and Anseriformes. Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon occur most frequently, although various species of Plasmodium and, occasionally, other less known forms are recognized. Prevalence of these parasites in wild birds is related to season of year and age of host. Highest incidence occurs in spring and summer. Relapse of Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon is common in the spring. Blood smears of adult wood ducks, on the Atlantic flyway, in April and May show a high prevalence of Haemoproteus, while smears at other times are usually negative. Although the author (Herman, 1938) demonstrated that young redwings in Massachusetts primarily acquired Plasmodium infections after leaving the nest, in many cases infection is acquired by the nestling. Nestling magpies in northeastern California acquire a high incidence of infection with several parasites. The hypothesis, expressed by Manwell and Herman (1935), that a higher prevalence of infection can be expected in more southerly ranging species, is subject to question. Smears taken during the winter demonstrate higher parasite prevalence in birds at the southern limits of their range, such as juncos and white-throated sparrows, than do smears of other species with more southern range. Little is known of significance of these parasites to survival of the host, although O'Roke ( 1934) reported a high loss for ducklings from Leucocytozoon and there have been occasional reports of fatality in other species.

  4. CLINICAL ASSESSMENT AND CORRILATION OF PAP SMEAR AND LIQUID BASED CYTOLOGY IN BAD CERVIX

    Khushboo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Aim of our study to analyze the prevalence of premalignant lesion based on Pap smear and liquid based cytology in patients of bad cervix. OBJECTIVE: To compare sensitivity and specificity of two methods for screening of bad cervix and to know IDR (increase detection rate of cervical cancer by conventional Pap smear and liquid based cytology. MATERIAL AND METHOD: 200 women attending Gynaecology OPD were random selection on the basis of inclusion criteria. All 200 selected women were subjected for down staging through per speculum examination for identification of bad cervix. Pap smears of all 200 selected women were taken and ensured that no local douche, antiseptic cream and no local internal examination was done on the day of test. The prepared smears were then stained according to Papanicolaou's technique. Liquid based cytology smears preparing by using cervical brush 1-1.5cm were inserted into the cervical os until the large outer bristles of the brush touch ectocervix. Data collected for sociodemographic, parity, down staging clinical examination Pap smear and LBC was organised, interpreted and analysis on appropriate statistical software. P value < 0.05 is considered significant RESULT: Analysis revealed that the maximum number of women in our study are from middle age group(31-40yrs, low socioeconomic status, married before 18 yrs, multipara, do not use any contraceptive, uneducated, urban, Muslim population.in this study more abnormal smear is seen in LBC as compared to pap smear. Sensitivity and specificity for LBC is more as compare to pap smear. CONCLUSION: In low resource setting like ours were facilities for radiology, chemo- radiotherapy and supportive care are limited or unavailable. It is important to identify which resources fill healthcare need most effectively and to consider alternative approaches, LBC is strongly advocated in the best interest of public health, by improving the quality of the sample and reducing the likelihood of false negative cytology result. Thus it will significantly improve early detection and treatment of cervical lesions and reducing morbidity and mortality due to cancer cervix

  5. CYTOLOGY OF UTERINE CERVIX BY PAP SMEAR: A STUDY FROM SOUTH INDIA

    Preetha

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the most common form of cancer in women in developing countries and the second most common form of cancer in women in the world as a whole. Three quarters of these women who develop CA Cervix live in developing countries. The dramatic reduction in the incidence of cervical cancer in developed countries is because of wide use of an effective cytological screening test, the Papanicolaou smear which can identify the pre-invasive forms of cervical neoplasia. OBJECTIVE: A prospective study to find out the prevalence of cervical intra epithelial lesion in women of reproductive age group. SETTINGS: 1000 women attending a teaching hospital in South India are studied for a period of one & half years. Pap smear was taken from them and were reported as per the Bethesda System of classification. RESULTS: Papanicolaou smear of 1000 patients were reported. Normal smears were seen in 39.9%, inflammatory smears in 53.1%.Intra epithelial lesions were found to be 3.5%. Low grade squamous intra epithelial lesions in 2%, High grade squamous Intra epithelial lesion in 0.9%. ASCUS 0.3% AGCUS 0.3%, Squamous cell carcinoma 0.3% Adeno Carcinoma 0.1%.

  6. (AH-26,ROTH- 801, PURE ZOE PASTE IN PRESENCE OR ABSENCE OF SMEAR LAYER

    A.R FARHAD

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to assess the sealing ability of three sealers (AH-26,Roth-801, Pure ZOE paste using bacterial penetration method in static salivary system in the presence or absence of smear layer. Methods. The canals in 188 human extracted teeth were prepared and in half of the samples the smear layer was removed using EOTA- Naclo. Then, the samples were divided randomly and each experimental group was obturated with single cone gutta percha and of the mentioned sealers. Then the teeth were set up on vials which contained sterilled TSB cultural media. For 90 days the samples were exposed to artificial saliva bacterial suspension and the turbidity of the cultural media was checked twice a day. Results. The longest mean period of turbidity was seen in AH-26 smear layer absent group (59.21 days and the shortest mean period of turbidity was seen in pure ZOE paste smear layer present group (18.35 days. Discussion. The results of this study shows that removal of smear layer enhances the sealing sealers and AH-26 has the best sealing ability amongst the three sealers considered in this experiment.

  7. Acetylsalicylic acid and morphology of red blood cells

    Jacques Natan Grinapel Frydman; Adenilson de Souza da Fonseca; Vanessa Câmara da Rocha; Monica Oliveira Benarroz; Gabrielle de Souza Rocha; Marcia Oliveira Pereira; Mario José Pereira; Aldo Cunha Medeiros; Mario Bernardo-Filho

    2010-01-01

    This work evaluated the effect of in vitro and in vivo treatment with ASA on the morphology of the red blood cells. Blood samples or Wistar rats were treated with ASA for one hour. Blood samples or animals treated with saline were used as control group. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphology of red blood cells were evaluated under optical microscopy. Data showed that the in vitro treatment for one hour with ASA at higher dose used significan...

  8. Cytomorphological Analysis of Keratinocytes in Oral Smears from Tobacco Users and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Lesions — A Histochemical Approach

    Khandelwal, Suneet; Solomon, Monica Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Aim To analyse the cytomorphological features of keratinocytes in smears obtained from the oral mucosa of tobacco users and from oral squamous cell carcinoma lesions. Methodology Oral smears were obtained from clinically, normal appearing mucosa of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients (n=20) and from the mucosa of smokers (n=20), and apparently healthy individuals (n=20) were used as controls. The smears were histochemically stained and cytomorphological assessment of the keratinocytes was c...

  9. Slow dynamics at the smeared phase transition of randomly layered magnets

    Huether, S; Vojta, T; Huether, Shellie; Kinney, Ryan; Vojta, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    We investigate a model for randomly layered magnets, viz. a three-dimensional Ising model with planar defects. The magnetic phase transition in this system is smeared because static long-range order can develop on isolated rare spatial regions. Here, we report large-scale kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of the dynamical behavior close to the smeared phase transition which we characterize by the spin (time) autocorrelation function. In the paramagnetic phase, its behavior is dominated by Griffiths effects similar to those in magnets with point defects. In the tail region of the smeared transition the dynamics is even slower: the autocorrelation function decays like a stretched exponential at intermediate times before approaching the exponentially small asymptotic value following a power law at late times. Our Monte-Carlo results are in good agreement with recent theoretical predictions based on optimal fluctuation theory.

  10. Development of an automatic smear sampler and evaluation of surface contamination

    The surface contamination level of a radiation-controlled area is measured periodically according to atomic energy law and connection regulations. The measurement of surface contamination by an indirect method is subject to various kinds of error depending on the sampling person and consumes much time and effort in the sampling of large nuclear facilities. In this research, an automatic smear sampler is developed to solve these problems. The developed equipment is composed of a rotating sampling part, a sample transferring part, a power supply part a control part, and vacuum part. It improved the efficiency of estimation of the surface contamination level achieved periodically in a radiation-controlled area. Using an automatic smear sampler developed in this research, it is confirmed that radioactive contaminated materials are uniformly transferred to smear paper more than any sampling method by an operator. (authors)

  11. [The understanding of users of a Family Health Unit about the pap smear test].

    Andrade, Smalyanna Sgren da Costa; da Silva, Fernanda Maria Chianca; Sousa e Silva, Maria do Socorro; Oliveira, Simone Helena dos Santos; Leite, Kamila Nethielly Souza; de Sousa, Merifane Januário

    2013-08-01

    In the attempt to prevent cervical cancer, various preventive measures have been instituted, notable among which is the pap smear test, which fulfills the function of early detection of cancer cells or their precursors. Therefore, the objective was to investigate the discourse on the knowledge, feelings and expectations of women regarding the pap smear test. This is an exploratory qualitative approach, conducted with ten users of a Integrated Family Health Unit in the city of João Pessoa in the State of Paraíba. Data collection was conducted through recorded interviews in April 2011. Eight core ideas were identified: prevention of disease; self-motivated search, search recommended by another person; sense of shame and embarrassment, sensation of pain, feeling of satisfaction; conversations during the examination and exchange of knowledge about women's health. Based on the reports, there are many difficulties to be overcome to ensure greater adherence of women to the pap smear test. PMID:23896912

  12. HPV DNA and Pap smear test results in cases with and without cervical pathology

    Sabit Sinan Özalp

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the HPV prevalance and its relation to Pap smear, colposcopy and colposcopy directed biopsy in our region of Eskisehir, Turkey.Material and Methods: A total of 615 women who applied to the outpatient clinic between December 2009 and December 2010 constituted our study population. All patients underwent pelvic examination and Pap smear sampling. Patients who had pathological cervical appearance or Pap smear results of ASCUS, AGUS, LSIL or HSIL were referred to colposcopy. Cervical samples for HPV DNA were taken from the patients before Pap smear sampling during the routine examination or before the colposcopic evaluation. Results: Twenty six of 615 patients (4% were HPV positive. Of these 26 patients, 12 were positive for HPV type 16, 3 for type 18, 3 for type 51, 2 for type 6, 1 for type 52, 1 for type 33, 1 for type 16 and type 31, 1 for type 6 and 52, 1 for type 56 and 90, 1 for type 39 and 66. In 4 patients with cervical cancer, and in 3 of 4 CIN III cases both HPV DNA and Pap smear were positive. In the Pap smear examination of 615 patients, cytology revealed 35 ASCUS (5.6% 4 AGUS (0.6%, 2 CIN I (0.3% results who were negative for HPV DNA. These patients with abnormal cytology (n=41 underwent colposcopy directed biopsy, there were 3 CIN I and 1 CIN III and all the other cervical biopsy results of these patients were benign (inflammation, chronic cervicitis. Conclusion: HPV positivity in our hospital setting is low which is compatible with other studies in Turkey. In positive HPV cases there is a good correlation between HPV type and positive cervical biopsy results.

  13. Development of portable and automatic smear sampler for measuring surface contamination

    In measuring radioactive contamination in radiation controlled area of nuclear facility, the technical criteria to evaluate surface contamination level and to sample by indirect method was established in this paper. Radioactive materials always present on surface within operating nuclear facilities. Because of the presence of interfering radiation field, health physicists take smear samples to monitoring surface contamination according to routine monitoring program. But there are some problems like great errors and difference of personnel. Then, to solve them, The portable and automatic smear sampling apparatus was designed and fabricated

  14. Pap-smear Classification Using Efficient Second Order Neural Network Training Algorithms

    Ampazis, Nikolaos; Dounias, George; Jantzen, Jan

    In this paper we make use of two highly efficient second order neural network training algorithms, namely the LMAM (Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum) and OLMAM (Optimized Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum), for the construction of an efficient pap-smear test classifier. The...... problem. The classification results obtained from the application of the algorithms on a standard benchmark pap-smear data set reveal the power of the two methods to obtain excellent solutions in difficult classification problems whereas other standard computational intelligence techniques achieve...

  15. Evaluation of radioactive surface contamination using polystyrene smears grafted with acrylic acid

    This paper describes a method for obtaining expanded polystyrene smears having a hydrophilic surface, carried out by radioinduced grafting of acrylic acid. Acrylic acid grafting was performed using a 60 Co radiation source, which ensures a maximum of absorbed dose rate of 10 kGy/h. Variation of grafting radiochemical yields were calculated as a function of dose absorbed a dose absorbed rate. Grafting radiochemical yields were calculated with weighting and radiometric method using acrylic acid labeled with 3 H as grafting agent. Drawing coefficients and quenching processes were analysed in relation with the acrylic acid grafting degree on the expanded polystyrene smears

  16. A novel quark smearing for hadrons with high momenta in lattice QCD

    Bali, Gunnar S; Musch, Bernhard U; Schfer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Hadrons in lattice QCD are usually created employing smeared interpolators. We introduce a new quark smearing that allows us to maintain small statistical errors and good overlaps of hadronic wavefunctions with the respective ground states, also at high spatial momenta. The method is successfully tested for the pion and the nucleon at a pion mass $m_{\\pi}\\approx 295$ MeV and momenta as high as 2.8 GeV. We compare the results obtained to dispersion relations and suggest further optimizations.

  17. ROLE OF GENE-XPERT IN DIAGNOSIS OF SMEAR NEGATIVE PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS

    Deependra Kumar; Somesh; Abhishek,; Chinki; Asish; Shyama

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Tuberculosis continues to be a major public health problem worldwide, with 8 million cases and 1.3 million deaths each year. Sputum smears with chest X-ray (CXR), where available are the tests routinely applied for TB diagnosis. Gene-xpert has very high sensitivity in diagnosis of smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis and it has more roles especially in low to middle income country. The aim of the study to measure the role of gene-xpert in diagnosis of sputum negati...

  18. Smearing of the phase transition in Ising systems with planar defects

    Vojta, Thomas [Department of Physics, University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States)

    2003-10-31

    We show that phase transitions in Ising systems with planar defects, i.e., disorder perfectly correlated in two dimensions are destroyed by smearing. This is caused by effects similar to but stronger than the Griffiths phenomena: exponentially rare spatial regions can develop true static long-range order even when the bulk system is still in its disordered phase. Close to the smeared transition, the order parameter is very inhomogeneous in space, with the thermodynamic (average) order parameter depending exponentially on temperature. We determine the behaviour using extremal statistics, and we illustrate the results by computer simulations.

  19. Smearing of the phase transition in Ising systems with planar defects

    We show that phase transitions in Ising systems with planar defects, i.e., disorder perfectly correlated in two dimensions are destroyed by smearing. This is caused by effects similar to but stronger than the Griffiths phenomena: exponentially rare spatial regions can develop true static long-range order even when the bulk system is still in its disordered phase. Close to the smeared transition, the order parameter is very inhomogeneous in space, with the thermodynamic (average) order parameter depending exponentially on temperature. We determine the behaviour using extremal statistics, and we illustrate the results by computer simulations

  20. Monte Carlo simulations of the smeared phase transition in a contact process with extended defects

    We study the nonequilibrium phase transition in a contact process with extended quenched defects by means of Monte Carlo simulations. We find that the spatial disorder correlations dramatically increase the effects of the impurities. As a result, the sharp phase transition is completely destroyed by smearing. This is caused by effects similar to but stronger than the usual Griffiths phenomena, namely, rare strongly coupled spatial regions can undergo the phase transition independently from the bulk system. We determine both the stationary density in the vicinity of the smeared transition and its time evolution, and compare the simulation results to a recent theory based on extremal statistics

  1. Monte Carlo simulations of the smeared phase transition in a contact process with extended defects

    Dickison, Mark; Vojta, Thomas [Department of Physics, University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States)

    2005-02-11

    We study the nonequilibrium phase transition in a contact process with extended quenched defects by means of Monte Carlo simulations. We find that the spatial disorder correlations dramatically increase the effects of the impurities. As a result, the sharp phase transition is completely destroyed by smearing. This is caused by effects similar to but stronger than the usual Griffiths phenomena, namely, rare strongly coupled spatial regions can undergo the phase transition independently from the bulk system. We determine both the stationary density in the vicinity of the smeared transition and its time evolution, and compare the simulation results to a recent theory based on extremal statistics.

  2. Evidence for a role of the host-specific flea (Paraceras melis) in the transmission of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) pestanai to the European badger.

    Lizundia, Regina; Newman, Chris; Buesching, Christina D; Ngugi, Daniel; Blake, Damer; Sin, Yung Wa; Macdonald, David W; Wilson, Alan; McKeever, Declan

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the epidemiology of Trypanosoma pestanai infection in European badgers (Meles meles) from Wytham Woods (Oxfordshire, UK) to determine prevalence rates and to identify the arthropod vector responsible for transmission. A total of 245 badger blood samples was collected during September and November 2009 and examined by PCR using primers derived from the 18S rRNA of T. pestanai. The parasite was detected in blood from 31% of individuals tested. T. pestanai was isolated from primary cultures of Wytham badger peripheral blood mononuclear cells and propagated continually in vitro. This population was compared with cultures of two geographically distinct isolates of the parasite by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and PCR analysis of 18S rDNA and ITS1 sequences. High levels of genotypic polymorphism were observed between the isolates. PCR analysis of badger fleas (Paraceras melis) collected from infected individuals at Wytham indicated the presence of T. pestanai and this was confirmed by examination of dissected specimens. Wet smears and Giemsa-stained preparations from dissected fleas revealed large numbers of trypanosome-like forms in the hindgut, some of which were undergoing binary fission. We conclude that P. melis is the primary vector of T. pestanai in European badgers. PMID:21340028

  3. Morphology of peripheral blood cells from various Turkish snakes

    ARIKAN, Hseyin; Bayram GMEN; ATATR, Mehmet K.; Yusuf KUMLUTA?; ?EK, Kerim

    2009-01-01

    The present study is on the morphologies and sizes of peripheral blood cells (erythrocytes, leucocytes and thrombocytes) of thirty two Turkish snake species from blood smears, stained with Wrights stain. The investigated species and their families are as follows: Leptotyphlopidae [Leptotyphlops macrorhynchus (Jan 1861)], Typhlopidae [Typhlops vermicularis Merrem 1820], Boidae [Eryx jaculus (Linnaeus 1758)], Colubridae [Dolichophis jugularis (Linnaeus 1758), D. schmidti (Nikolsky 1909), D. ca...

  4. Evaluation of the relationship between smear positivity and high-resolution CT findings in children with pulmonary tuberculosis

    The aim of this study is to find a relationship between the radiological manifestations of childhood tuberculosis on a high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and the results of sputum smear. This study aims to propose an alternative indicator of infectivity in terms of prevention of disease transmission through selective isolation policy in children whose clinical condition is highly suggestive of tuberculosis. This retrospective comparative study was performed on 95 children under 15 years of age diagnosed with tuberculosis based on both WHO criteria and positive sputum culture for mycobacterium Tuberculosis. The children were admitted for TB screening in the pediatric department of national research institute of tuberculosis and lung disease (NRITLD) between 2008–2012. Direct smear collected from sputum or gastric lavage, as well as HRCT were performed in all children prior to administration of medical therapy. Children were divided into 2 groups based on positive and negative smear results. HRCT abnormalities, as well as their anatomical distribution were compared between these 2 groups using multivariate analytic model. The most prevalent abnormalities in the positive smear group were consolidation, tree-in-bud pattern, upper lobe nodular infiltration and cavitation. The negative smear group featured lymphadenopathy, consolidation, collapse and nodular infiltration in the upper lobe. Cavity, tree- in-bud pattern and upper lobe nodular infiltration were highly associated with smear positivity in children. Conversely, lymphadenopathy and collapse had significant association with a negative smear. This study revealed that cavity, tree-in-bud and upper lobe nodular infiltration has significant association with smear positivity in childhood tuberculosis. On the other hand, lymphadenopathy and collapse were closely associated with smear negativity in this age group. It was also demonstrated that children with a positive smear most likely presented with radiological features of post primary tuberculosis, while the negative smear group most often manifested with primary tuberculosis

  5. Prevalence, risk factors of human papillomavirus infection and papanicolaou smear pattern among women attending a tertiary health facility in south-west Nigeria

    Olatunji Mathew Kolawole

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Cervical cancer amongst Nigerian women has been on the increase in the past decade, and is regarded as the second highest cause of cancer deaths among Nigerian women. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence, risk factors of HPV infection, and Papanicolaou smear pattern amongst a cohort of women attending the Gynaecology clinic of a tertiary health facility in Ido-Ekiti, South west Nigeria. Method: This was a cross-sectional study involving the screening of women between the ages of 15-64 years for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia using Papanicolaou smear staining technique and serological diagnosis using IgG enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kits. Respondents were selected through convenience sampling of subjects, while interviewer- administered questionnaire and clinical report form were also used to collect data, and data was analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: Of the 200 blood samples examined for Human papillomavirus infection, 135 (67.5% were sero-positive while 65 (32.5% were sero-negative. For cervical cytology using Papanicolaou smear, 14 (7% were positive (had presence of cervical abnormality while 186 (93% were negative (had no cervical abnormality. Result showed a direct relationship between seropositivity, development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and Human papillomavirus infection. The risk factors for the development of HPV infection included age, type of marriage, parity, history of genital infection and tobacco usage. Non circumcision of male partner was also found to be a risk factor. Conclusion: The presence of abnormal cervical cytology and high level of serological positivity clearly showed why there is need for a holistic approach to the screening, vaccination methodologies and early detection of HPV infection in the country. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(6.000: 453-459

  6. A SEMI - AUTOMATED MORPHOMETRIC ASSESSMENT OF NUCLEI IN PAP SMEARS USING IMAGEJ

    Vijayashree

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Carcinoma of cervix is the fourth commonest malignancy in women. Its incidence is progressively falling due to the routine use of Pap smears to detect precancerous lesions. However, routine Pap smear examination is time consuming and, as it is based on de scriptive morphological assessment, false positive or negative reports are likely to occur. Using morphometric techniques, several attempts have been made to improve the accuracy of reports. In the present study, we have used Image morphometric software an d some of its plugins to create a macro to analyse large number of cells at a time . MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using Image and three of its plugins, namely, BEEPS, Kuwahara filter and Mexican Hat filter, we created a macro to morphometrically analyse normal, r eactive and neoplastic Pap smears. We also compared the macro measurements with manual measurements. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Results obtained with macro showed strong positive correlation with manual measurement. Although the neoplastic nuclei were on an average larger than reactive/normal nuclei, there was considerable overlap. More than the enlargement, anisonucleosis (variability in the size appeared to be a better indicator of neoplasia. The macro that we developed works rapidly and gives results comp arable to manual measurements provided the smears and the photographs are technically acceptable.

  7. Evaluation of smear layer removal from ultrasonically prepared retrocavities by three agents

    Raghu Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of 35% orthophosphoric acid, 24% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA and 10% citric acid in the removal of smear layer from retrocavities prepared with ultrasonic retro-tips using scanning electron microscopy. Materials and Methods: Root canals of fifty single-rooted teeth were cleaned, shaped, and obturated with gutta-percha and AH plus sealer. The apical 3 mm of each root was sectioned with a diamond disc and retrograde cavities were prepared with Kis # 1 ultrasonic retro-tips to a depth of 3 mm. Retro cavities in Group I were treated with a gel of 35% orthophosphoric acid for 15 seconds, Group II were treated with a gel of 24% EDTA at neutral pH for 2 minutes, and Group III were treated with a gel of 10% citric acid for 2 minutes, followed by 1 minute rinsing with distilled water for all groups. The samples were prepared for scanning electron microscopic observation. Scoring was performed for the presence of the smear layer on the walls of the retrocavity. Results: In the orthophosphoric acid group, it was observed that all dentinal tubules were open in 70% of the samples. The majority of analyzed samples in EDTA and citric acid group showed dentinal tubules covered with the smear layer. Conclusions: Application of 35% orthophosphoric acid gel for 15 seconds on retrocavities prepared with ultrasonic retro-tips is the most effective means for removal of smear layer.

  8. Surface micro-distributions of pigment and the relation between smearing and local mass distribution

    In this work, the process of smearing and its time evolution have been investigated. When smearing occurs, the print is removed from the printed paper and colours other parts of the paper or the printing press and destroys the final product. To study the re-distribution of ink, cyan ink with Cu as a tracer in the coloured pigment has been used. Non-printed paper has been pressed against the paper, 1 and 5 s after the printing. The micro-distributions of ink on both printed and non-printed papers have then been studied using particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Basis weight was measured with the off-axis scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) technique and this data was correlated with the data from the print. One conclusion is that the process of smearing is not dependent on the shape of the pigment distribution, i.e. copper, or the content of copper in a specific pixel. On the contrary, the smearing was found to be related to the structure of the paper and that it mainly occurs where the paper is thicker

  9. Self-Reports of Pap Smear Screening in Women with Physical Disabilities

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Chen, Shih-Fan; Lin, Lan-Ping; Sung, Chang-Lin

    2011-01-01

    We collected self reported rate of cervical smear testing to examine the affecting factors in women with physical disabilities in the study, to define the reproductive health care for this group of people. The study population recruited 521 women with physical disabilities aged more than 15 years who were officially registered as having physical…

  10. Herpes simplex virus in postradiation cervical smears. A morphologic and immunocytochemical study

    From January 1987 to August 1988, cytomorphologic criteria of both herpes simplex virus (HSV) and radiation effects were observed in Papanicolaou smears from 3 of 1,340 patients who had received radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase staining, using a rabbit IgG polyclonal HSV antibody, confirmed the presence of HSV antigen in those three postradiation smears. Both multinucleated molded cells and epithelial cells that lacked cytopathic effects were positive for HSV. Three other postradiation smears from these cases were similarly positive for HSV antigen; the one preradiation smear was negative. In situ hybridization and immunoperoxidase studies on sections from the preradiation biopsies were negative: severely altered neoplastic cells showed no reactivity. The absence of HSV markers in the preradiation specimens suggests that the HSV infections were secondary to the radiotherapy; further studies are needed to prove this association and to assess the possible mechanisms. These cases clearly indicate that the overlapping features of radiation and viral effects (such as multinucleation) may be present simultaneously

  11. Comparison of the quality of smears in transbronchial fine-needle aspirates using two staining methods for rapid on-site evaluation.

    Louw, Mercia; Brundyn, Karen; Schubert, Pawel T; Wright, Colleen A; Bolliger, Chris T; Diacon, Andreas H

    2012-09-01

    Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) via flexible bronchoscopy is a well-established sampling modality for lung masses. The procedure is useful in the diagnosis of neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions as well as for staging of bronchogenic carcinoma. Rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) adds value as it has the advantage of triaging material during the procedure so avoiding a battery of investigations. Frequently used rapid stains are the modified Wright-Giemsa water-based stain (WG-ROSE) and the alcohol-based modified Papanicolaou stain (Pap-ROSE). Final review of laboratory-based Giemsa and Pap stains supplemented by ancillary investigations is essential for quality assurance. To investigate whether and how ROSE influenced the quantity and quality of the material submitted to the laboratory we randomized 126 patients to WG-ROSE, requiring only one pathologist on-site, or combined WG- and Pap-ROSE, requiring an additional person on-site to assist with staining. In those patients with positive TBNA we graded the laboratory-based slides of the first pass containing diagnostic material into insufficient, suspicious, adequate and excellent. The first diagnostic pass was found after 3.06 1.94 (SD) passes and 3.13 2.16 passes with WG-ROSE and combined ROSE (P = 0.87), respectively. Following WG-ROSE and combined ROSE 69% and 71.1% (P = 0.509) of slides were diagnostic (adequate or excellent) on laboratory-based Giemsa stains, and 93.3% and 100% (P = 0.134) were scored adequate or excellent on laboratory-based Pap stains. We concluded that the less costly and labour intensive WG-ROSE procedure is adequate for TBNA. This has cost implications especially in resource poor settings. PMID:21322124

  12. THE ROLE OF TARGET ORGAN DIAGNOSTIC APPROACH IN SEASONAL ALLERGIC RHINITIS: NASAL SMEAR EOSINOPHILS

    Nurkic, Jasmina; Ahmad, Mona Al; Arifhodzic, Nermina; Jusufovic, Edin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Allergic rhinitis (AR) related to local weeds pollen sensitization (Chenopodiaceous family) is the most common cause of respiratory allergy in Kuwait. Local nasal accumulation of different cells typical of allergic inflammation is responsible for clinical symptoms of AR. Although nasal smear for Eosinophils (NSE) is one of the earliest included valuable test in diagnosis of AR, with time is underestimated. Aim: Explore possible correlation of natural pollen allergen stimulation with appearance and quantity of Eosinophils in nasal smear. Methods: A group of randomly selected patients with clinical history suggestive for seasonal AR (SAR), who came to Al Rashed Allergy Center in period from October 2014 to October 2015, obtain Nasal Smear for Eosinophils as a screening test before further diagnostic evaluation. Nasal samples were collected by passing a sterile swab, from each nasal cavity, along the medial surface of the inferior turbinate 2 to 3 times and the specimen smeared on a clear glass slide. Nasal smears were examined by light microscopy after staining with hematoxylin and eosin stain. Skin prick test is performed in all symptomatic patients with a battery of inhalant allergens that include local pollens. The control group was recruited, with their voluntary consent, from the medical stuff with a negative history of any allergic nasal symptoms. In this group we performed only nasal smear for Eosinophils. Air Biology Laboratory Kuwait provided us with daily pollen count. Results: From total 158 study participants, 132 had SAR symptoms and are divided in four groups. Fifth, control, group is non symptomatic. For 38.6% of symptomatic patients NSE were positive, while 45% of these patients have negative SPT. From 62.1% NSE negative patients, 37.8% have negative SPT. Our results showed expected positive correlation of NSE positive patients with pollen season in Kuwait, in SPT positive group. However, presence of Eosinophils in nasal smear was moderate to high also in patients with negative SPT during the highest peak of season, in contrast to control group. Conclusion: NES showed moderate sensitivity, relatively high specificity and importance as screening test in SPT negative patients. Evaluation of AR demand wide and improved diagnostic approach due to significant number of SPT negative patients with positive NSE based on natural allergen stimulation. Our results emphasize locale allergic response of nasal mucosa and importance of target organ diagnostic approach. PMID:27147919

  13. Blood differential

    Differential; White blood cell differential count ... The health care provider will take blood from your vein. The blood collects into an airtight container. In infants or a young child, blood will be taken from a ...

  14. Blood Thinners

    If you have some kinds of heart or blood vessel disease, or if you have poor blood flow to your brain, your doctor may recommend that you take a blood thinner. Blood thinners reduce the risk of heart ...

  15. Blood culture

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed. The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  16. Efficiency of final irrigation of root canal in removal of smear layer

    Mitić Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A smear layer forms on the root canal walls as the consequence of root instrumentation. The smear layer formed in such a way considerably influences the quality of root obturation and endodontic treatment outcome. Objective The aim of this study was to ultrastructurally analyze the surface of intracanal dentine after removal of the smear layer by the solution of doxycycline, citric acid and detergent Tween-80 (MTAD. Methods The study involved 60 single-rooted, extracted, human teeth divided into four groups. All samples were instrumented by a step-back technique and manual K-files, and rinsed during instrumentation by 2% CHX and H2O2. The first group of samples was exclusively rinsed by CHX and H2O2; in the second group, besides using CHX and H2O2, MTAD solution was used for the final irrigation. The samples which were rinsed by distilled water (+ control and the samples rinsed by 5.25% NaOCl and 17% Na EDTA (-control served as control groups. All samples were observed under the scanning electronic microscope JEOL-JSM-5300. The coronary, middle and apex thirds of the radix region were analyzed. Results The obtained results of the SEM analysis showed that the application of 2% chlorhexidine and hydrogen peroxide did not give clear dentine walls, and the smear layer could not be removed completely. The application of the same combination (CHX and H2O2, added by the final MTAD irrigation solution, led to the efficient removal of the smear layer, while the morphological structure of dentine surface remained unchanged. Statistical analysis showed that canal walls in the experimental group with MTAD as the final irrigation were significantly clearer compared to the control group (p<0.001. Conclusion Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that MTAD is an efficient solution for the final irrigation of the canal system.

  17. Micronuclei as prognostic indicators in oral cytological smears: A comparison between smokers and non-smokers

    Venkatesh Vishwanath Kamath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Micronucleus is a microscopically visible round or oval cytoplasmic chromatin mass in the extra nuclear vicinity, originated from aberrant mitosis, which consists of eccentric chromosomes that have failed to reach spindle poles during mitosis and are used as biomarkers for assessment of DNA damage. Micronuclei are characteristically seen in exfoliated cells of the buccal mucosa and urinary bladder wall in precancerous and cancerous conditions. Oral habits of smoking tobacco or chewing areca nut damage the oral tissues. An assessment of the damage is feasible by the detection of micronuclei in exfoliated cells of the oral tissues using smears. Objectives: The present study was designed to assess the presence or increase of micronuclei in buccal smears of individuals with tobacco habits against a control group of teetotalers. Materials and Methods: Two groups (smokers and non-smokers of 50 individuals each were examined. Buccal smears of all participants were taken using cytobrush and stained with standard Papanicolaou′s (PAP stain. Presence of micronuclei was assessed under Χ100 magnification and a count per 500 cells was determined. The results were analyzed statistically using t-test and Mann-Whitney test. Results: Smears of individuals with tobacco habits showed a significant increase in the total number of micronuclei per 500 cell counts. There was a definite correlation between the occurrence of micronuclei and the frequency and duration of smoking. A paradoxical age related increase in middle-aged groups was also observed. Conclusions: The genotoxic effects of tobacco smoke cause chromosomal damage in the epithelial cells of the oral mucosa and are reflected in the increased micronuclei in smokers. This is present even in the absence of clinically evident changes. This observation is vital in utilization of the micronuclei detection in smears as a prognostic, educational and interventional tool in the management of patients with smoking habits.

  18. High-resolution CT for identify patients with smear-positive, active pulmonary tuberculosis

    Purpose: This study evaluates the use of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) to differentiate smear-positive, active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) from other pulmonary infections in the emergency room (ER) setting. Methods: One hundred and eighty-three patients diagnosed with pulmonary infections in an ER were divided into an acid fast bacillus (AFB) smear-positive, active PTB group (G1 = 84) and a non-AFB smear-positive, pulmonary infection group (G2 = 99). HRCT images from a 64-Multidetector CT were analyzed, retrospectively, for the morphology, number, and segmental distribution of pulmonary lesions. Results: Utilizing multivariate analysis, five variables were found to be independent risk factors predictive of G1: (1) consolidation involving the apex segment of right upper lobe, posterior segment of the right upper lobe, or apico-posterior segment of the left upper lobe; (2) consolidation involving the superior segment of the right or left lower lobe; (3) presence of a cavitary lesion; (4) presence of clusters of nodules; (5) absence of centrilobular nodules. A G1 prediction score was generated based on these 5 criteria to help differentiate G1 from G2. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.96 ± 0.012 in our prediction model. With an ideal cut-off point score of 3, the specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) are 90.9%, 96.4%, 90.0% and 96.8%, respectively. Conclusion: The use of this AFB smear-positive, active PTB prediction model based on 5 key HRCT findings may help ER physicians determine whether or not isolation is required while awaiting serial sputum smear results in high risk patients.

  19. Van Mother-Child Health and Family Planning Center Pap Smear Clinics of Information, Evaluation of Applicants

    Sebahat Gucuk

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study of women admitted to our center with information on pap smear test, to evaluate the attitudes and behavior. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study of Van Mother-Child Health and Family Planning Center on a voluntary basis, women aged 15-49 were admitted to the control. The education level of participants, age at first marriage, before the presence of vaginal infection, the story, and motivations pap smear level of information availability, and a family history of cancer, administered a questionnaire asking the state to have a regular income. Results: The study included 362 women with age and hear the pap smear test was significantly increased (p = 0.01. Working women and pap smear level of knowledge (p = 0.04 and pap smears than women not working for International rates significantly higher (p = 0.02. Treatment of vaginal infection at least once before to get there was a significant relationship between the pap smear motivations (p>0.05. Family history of gynecologic cancer or non-gynecologic cancer smears have significantly increased the level of motivations (p = 0.0001. Pap smear information, regular the economic income of those levels, significantly higher than those without regular income (p = 0.0001. Conclusion: We serve the region, with low socio-economic characteristics that are considered, gynecological examination by health workers or women from the home visits, pap smear test for what purpose and how often you get the work done and the importance of explaining and giving more space to this issue suggest that the written and visual media. Keywords: Pap smears, health care, education [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(5.000: 527-532

  20. Blood Types

    ... The Process Risks and Complications History of Blood Transfusion Iron and Blood Donation Iron Info. for All Donors Iron Info. for ... Donation Student Donors Donation Process Eligibility Blood FAQs Blood Donor ... of Blood Transfusion Hosting a Blood Drive What to Expect Hosting ...

  1. Assessment of the First Commercial ELISA Kit for the Diagnosis of Theileria annulata

    Al-Hosary, Amira A. T.; Ahmed, Jabbar; Nordengrahn, Ann; Merza, Malik

    2015-01-01

    The present study assesses the efficacy of SVANOVIR Theileria annulata-Ab, the first commercial ELISA kit for the diagnosis of Theileria annulata infection in cattle based on a recombinant protein known as T. annulata surface protein (TaSp). As a reference test, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay depending on T. annulata merozoite surface antigen (Tams-1) was applied. A total of 468 blood samples as well as serum samples were randomly collected from cattle and tested in the PCR as well as in the ELISA developed in this study. Moreover, all samples were also analyzed by conventional Giemsa-stained blood smear. The results of this study revealed a good correlation between the results obtained by PCR and the ELISA, whereas all PCR positive samples scored correctly positive in the ELISA and 73 of the 125 PCR negative samples scored correctly negative. Taken together, a sensitivity of 91.25% and a specificity of 78.4% were recorded, when compared to the PCR data. In conclusion, the SVANOVIR Theileria annulata-Ab is a suitable diagnostic assay for use in the diagnosis and epidemiological surveys of Theileria annulata infection in chronic and carrier animals. PMID:26640700

  2. Molecular detection of Babesia bigemina infection in apparently healthy cattle of central plain zone of Punjab.

    Bhat, S A; Singh, Harkirat; Singh, N K; Rath, S S

    2015-12-01

    Bovine babesiosis is an important tick-borne disease caused by the parasites belonging to the genus Babesia, distributed worldwide and infecting a wide range of domesticated and wild cattle, occasionally man. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of B. bigemina infection in apparently healthy cattle from central plain zone of Punjab, India. Examination of Giemsa-stained peripheral thin blood smears revealed 2.45 % (5/204) animals to be positive for piroplasms of B. bigemina. However, genomic DNA isolated from these blood samples when subjected to primary PCR revealed a positivity of 7.35 % (15/204) as detected by the amplification of a 278-bp product in the agarose gel. PCR products obtained from the primary PCR of B. bigemina, when employed as template in nested PCR produced the amplicons of desired size (170 bp) was detected in 30.39 % (62/204) of the samples. It can thus be concluded that B. bigemina infection is prevalent in apparently healthy cattle population of this region and PCR assays can serve as a valuable tool for epidemiological studies in endemic areas. PMID:26688628

  3. A case of transplacental transmission of Theileria equi in a foal in Trinidad.

    Georges, Karla C; Ezeokoli, Chuckwudozi D; Sparagano, Olivier; Pargass, Indira; Campbell, Mervyn; D'Abadie, Roger; Yabsley, Michael J

    2011-02-10

    Equine piroplasmosis due to Theileria equi and Babesia caballi is endemic in Trinidad. A case of equine piroplasmosis due to T. equi was diagnosed in a thoroughbred foal at 10h post-partum. A high parasitaemia (63%) of piroplasms was observed in a Wright-Giemsa() stained thin blood smear from the foal. In addition, the 18S rRNA gene for Babesia/Theileria was amplified from DNA extracted from the blood of the foal and the mare. Amplified products were subjected to a reverse line blot hybridization assay (RLB), which confirmed the presence of T. equi DNA in the foal. The mare was negative by RLB but was positive for T. equi using a nested PCR and sequence analysis. In areas where equine piroplasmosis is endemic, severe jaundice in a post-partum foal may be easily misdiagnosed as neonatal isoerythrolysis. Foals with post-partum jaundice should be screened for equine piroplasmosis, which may be confirmed using molecular methods if available. PMID:21051152

  4. Prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi infections in horses belonging to resource-poor farmers in the north-eastern Free State Province, South Africa

    M. Y. Motloang

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi infections in the north-eastern Free State Province of South Africa was determined by examination of thin and thick Giemsa-stained blood smears, IFAT and PCR. No parasites were detected by microscopy from any blood samples collected at five study sites, Qwaqwa, Kestell, Harrismith, Vrede and Warden. Of the tested serum samples, 28/29 (96.5%, 20/21 (95.2% nd 42/42( 100% were positive by IFAT for T. equi infections in Harrismith, Kestell and Qwaqwa, respectively, and 5/29 (17.2%, 13/21 (61.9% and 30/42 (71.4% were sero-positive for B. caballi infections in Harrismith, Kestell and Qwaqwa, respectively A. ll DNA samples from the study sites were negative for B. caballi infections by PCR, but five samples, two from each of Kestell and Warden and one from Vrede, were PCR positive for T. equi infections. The high prevalence of antibodies against T. equi and B. caballiin the sampled horses indicates that the animals had been exposed to T. equi and B. caballi infections but the absence of parasitaemia and very low number of positive PCR samples, however, imply that T. equi and B. caballie are endemically stable in the north-eastern Free State Province.

  5. Prevalence and Significance of Haemoparasitic Infections of Cattle in North- Central, Nigeria

    J.Kamani.

    Full Text Available The prevalence and significance of hemoparasites of cattle from north-central Nigeria was determined using diagnostic records from Parasitology Division, National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI Vom, from May 2006 to April 2008. A total of 637 blood samples from cattle from four states (Plateau, Bauchi, Nasarawa and Kaduna of Nigeria in anticoagulant were submitted to the laboratory for parasitological diagnosis. Giemsa stained thin blood smears were examined for hemoparasites. Packed cell volume (PCV for each sample was determined and Hematocrit centrifuge technique (HCT was used to determine the presence of motile parasites. An overall prevalence of 25.7% was recorded for all samples examined. Babesia bigemina and B.bovis accounted for 16.0%, followed by Theileria mutans (3.1%, Trypanosoma spp (T.vivax and T. congolense (2.8%, Anaplasma marginale (1.9%, Microfilaria (1.4%. The hemoparasites identified alone or in combination with others had a significant (P<0.05 effect on the mean PCV of infected animals. Similarly, hemoparasites infection in young animals as well as during the dry season resulted in significant (P<0.05 reduction of PCV values. The result of this study shows these hemoparasites are endemic in cattle in the study area which may result in serious disease conditions when such animals are subjected to stressful condition. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(10.000: 445-448

  6. Multiple myeloma patients with low proportion of circulating plasma cells had similar survival with primary plasma cell leukemia patients.

    An, Gang; Qin, Xiaoqi; Acharya, Chirag; Xu, Yan; Deng, Shuhui; Shi, Lihui; Zang, Meirong; Sui, Weiwei; Yi, Shuhua; Li, Zengjun; Hao, Mu; Feng, Xiaoyan; Jin, Fengyan; Zou, Dehui; Qi, Junyuan; Zhao, Yaozhong; Tai, Yu-Tzu; Wang, Jianxing; Qiu, Lugui

    2015-02-01

    The common features shared by primary plasma cell leukemia (pPCL) and multiple myeloma (MM) with circulating plasma cells (CPCs) are peripheral blood invasion and expansion of plasma cells independent of the protective bone marrow (BM) microenvironment niche. However, few studies have addressed the relationship between pPCL and MM with CPCs. Here, we quantitated the number CPCs by conventional morphology in 767 patients with newly diagnosed MM; their clinic features were compared with those of 33 pPCL cases. When the presence of CPCs was defined as more than 2% plasma cells per 100 nucleated cells on Wright-Giemsa stained peripheral blood smears, the incidence of MM with CPCs was 14.1% in newly diagnosed MM. Patients with CPCs shared many clinical features with pPCL, especially clinical parameters related to tumor burden. However, no commonalities were found in immunophenotyping and cytogenetics. The prognosis of pPCL was poor, with a median progression free survival (PFS) of 12months and an overall survival (OS) of 15months. MM patients with CPCs had a clearly inferior PFS and OS as compared with the control cohort. Most interestingly, although the CPCs were not high enough to meet the diagnostic criteria for pPCL, the survival of MM patients with CPCs was comparable with that of pPCL, with a median PFS of 17months and an OS of 25months. PMID:25231928

  7. Prevalence of haemoparasitic infections in dairy cattle (Friesian breeds at nagari integrated dairy farms, Gauta-Nike village, Keffi local government area, Nasarawa state, north central of Nigeria

    S.M. Abdullahi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The of prevalence ofhaemoparasites of cattle located in Nagari Integrated Farms, Gauta-NikeVillage, Keffi Local Government Area, Nasarawa State, Nigeria was conducted inOctober 2012 where 50 Friesian cattle (male and females are kept on intensivesystem of management were randomly selected. Blood samples were collected in ananticoagulant sample bottle and submitted to the Parasitology Laboratory ofFaculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Kaduna state ofNigeria for parasitological examination. Giemsa stained thin blood smears wereexamined for hemoparasites and Hematocrit Centrifuge Technique (HCT was usedto determine the presence of motile parasites. An overall prevalence of 90%(82% female and 8% male was recorded for all samples examined, 21 (42% wereinfected with Anaplasma marginale, Theileria mutans shows 20 (40% prevalenceand 4 (8% were infected by Babesia bigemina. Mixed infection between Anaplasmamarginale and Babesia bigemina revealed 2 (4% while Anaplasma marginale andTheileria mutans was 7 (14%. There was a significant difference (P > 0.05in infections caused by Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina and Theileriamutans (Table 1 and also between sexes(Table 3,  but there was no significant difference  (P<0.05 between any of the mixedinfections observed (Table 2. The result of this study shows thesehemoparasites are endemic in the cattle under study which may result in seriousdisease conditions when such animals are subjected to stressful condition.

  8. Evaluation of DNA Recombinant Methodologies for the Diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum and their Comparison with the Microscopy Assay

    L Urdaneta

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 1984, DNA tests based on the highly repeated subtelomeric sequences of Plasmodium falciparum (rep 20 have been frequently used in malaria diagnosis. Rep 20 is very specific for this parasite, and is made of 21 bp units, organized in repeated blocks with direct and inverted orientation. Based in this particular organization, we selected a unique consensus oligonucleotide (pf-21 to drive a PCR reaction coupled to hybridization to non-radioactive labeled probes. The pf-21 unique oligo PCR (pf-21-I assay produced DNA amplification fingerprints when was applied on purified P. falciparum DNA samples (Brazil and Colombia, as well as in patient's blood samples from a large area of Venezuela. The performance of the Pf-21-I assay was compared against Giemsa stained thick blood smears from samples collected at a malaria endemic area of the Bolívar State, Venezuela, at the field station of Malariología in Tumeremo. Coupled to non-radioactive hybridization the pf-21-I performed better than the traditional microscopic method with a r=1.7:1. In the case of mixed infections the r value of P. falciparum detection increased to 2.5:1. The increased diagnostic sensitivity of the test produced with this homologous oligonucleotide could provide an alternative to the epidemiological diagnosis of P. falciparum being currently used in Venezuela endemic areas, where low parasitemia levels and asymptomatic malaria are frequent. In addition, the DNA fingerprint could be tested in molecular population studies

  9. Risk factors in patients with AFB smear-positive sputum who receive inappropriate antituberculous treatment

    Chang CY

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cheng-Yu Chang,1,* Jen-Yee Hong,2,* Mei-Kang Yuan,3,4 Shu-Ju Chang,5 Yuan-Ming Lee,6 Shih-Chieh Chang,2,4 Li-Cho Hsu,2,* Shin-Lung Cheng11Division of Chest Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 2Department of Internal Medicine, 3Department of Radiology, 4Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 5Department of Industrial Management and Enterprise Information, Aletheia University, Taipei, Taiwan; 6Department of Laboratory Medicine, National Yang-Ming University Hospital, Yilan, Taiwan *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Acid-fast bacilli (AFB smear-positive sputum is usually an initial clue in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB; however, the test is not disease-specific. Nontuberculous mycobacterium-related colonization or lung disease often has AFB smear-positive sputum results, and physicians may prescribe unnecessary antituberculous drugs for these patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics of patients with AFB smear-positive sputum who received unnecessary anti-TB treatment.Methods and patients: From January 2008 to July 2011, we retrospectively enrolled 97 patients with AFB smear-positive sputum who did not have pulmonary TB according to mycobacterial cultures and clinical judgment. We analyzed the clinical and radiographic features of the patients who received inappropriate and unnecessary anti-TB treatment. Preliminary analyses of chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were applied to determine factors unlikely to be associated with the independent variables. The relationship between independent covariates was then analyzed using multivariate logistic regression.Results: Of the 97 enrolled patients, 25 (25.8% were diagnosed with pulmonary TB and prescribed anti-TB drugs (mostly a combination of isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide. The other 72 (74.2% patients were not initially diagnosed with pulmonary TB and were classified as the control group. Compared to the control group, the patients who received inappropriate anti-TB treatment had more chronic cough as presentation symptom and heavy AFB ZiehlNeelsen staining in sputum (>10/100 fields, grading 2+ to 4+. There were no significant differences in the radiographic analysis between the two groups.Conclusion: Among the patients with AFB smear-positive sputum that did not have pulmonary TB, chronic cough and heavy AFB staining (2+ to 4+ were risk factors for the inappropriate administration of unnecessary anti-TB treatment.Keywords: AFB smear-positive sputum, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, antituberculous treatment

  10. XMLComparison of Molecular (PCR and Pap Smear Methods in Diagnosis of Human Papiloma Virus (HPV in Women with Genital Warts

    Bashi zadeh Fakhar, H. (MSc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Much research has shown that Human Papiloma Virus (HPV plays an important role in cervix cancer and it is the cause of 99% of cervix cancer worldwide. Lots of research has been done to find a proper method for HPV diagnosis and screening in patients with genital warts. This study aimed at comparing PCR method with Pap smear test in HPV screening. Material and Methods: Considering the presence of DNA of HPV, 45 vaginal and cervix swap samples of women with genital warts were tested by means of specific PCR and Pap smear from September 2010 to April 2011. Results: Out of 45 vaginal and cervix swap samples of women suffering genital warts, 37 samples (82.2% are positive. Of 45 Pap smear samples, 13 (29% are neoplasia and 32 (71% normal. Conclusion: The difference between the results of PCR and Pap smear is due to low specification and sensitivity of Pap smear. Thus it is recommended using diagnostic PCR method in addition to Pap smear in order to promote the quality of screening in individuals with genital warts. Keywords: Human Papiloma Virus (HPV; Genital Warts; Molecular (PCR; Pap Smear

  11. White Blood Cell Segmentation by Color-Space-Based K-Means Clustering

    Congcong Zhang; Xiaoyan Xiao; Xiaomei Li; Ying-Jie Chen; Wu Zhen; Jun Chang; Chengyun Zheng; Zhi Liu

    2014-01-01

    White blood cell (WBC) segmentation, which is important for cytometry, is a challenging issue because of the morphological diversity of WBCs and the complex and uncertain background of blood smear images. This paper proposes a novel method for the nucleus and cytoplasm segmentation of WBCs for cytometry. A color adjustment step was also introduced before segmentation. Color space decomposition and k-means clustering were combined for segmentation. A database including 300 microscopic blood sm...

  12. Isolation of Babesia divergens from carrier cattle blood using in vitro culture

    Malandrin, Laurence; L'Hostis, Monique; Chauvin, Alain

    2004-01-01

    - Babesia divergens, the main causative agent of bovine babesiosis in Western Europe, was isolated from naturally infected cattle. Ninety-six blood samples were examined by means of an in vitro culture technique in sheep erythrocytes: 19 of them were collected from animals in the acute phase of the disease with visible parasitemia on blood smears, while the 77 remaining animals showed no microscopically detectable parasites. B. divergens was cultured from the 19 first blood samples as well as...

  13. Associations of demographic variables and the Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana

    McFarl

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ditsapelo M McFarland College of Nursing and Public Health, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA Purpose: Papanicolaou (Pap smear services are available in most urban areas in Botswana. Yet most women in such areas do not screen regularly for cancer of the cervix. The purpose of this article is to present findings on the associations of demographic variables and Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana. Sample and methods: The study included a convenience sample of 353 asymptomatic women aged 30 years and older who were living in Gaborone, Botswana. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and items of the Health Belief Model. Data analysis included descriptive statistics for demographic variables and bivariate and ordinal (logit regression to determine the associations of demographic variables. Results: Having health insurance and having a regular health care provider were significant predictors of whether or not women had a Pap smear. Women with health insurance were more likely to have had a Pap smear test than women without health insurance (91% vs 36%. Similarly, women who had a regular health care provider were more likely to have had a Pap smear test than women without a regular health care provider (94% vs 42%. Major barriers to screening included what was described as "laziness" for women who had ever had a Pap smear (57% and limited information about Pap smear screening for women who had never had a Pap smear (44%. Conclusion: There is a need for more information about the importance of the Pap smear test and for increased access to screening services in Botswana. Keywords: cervical, screening, barriers, access, beliefs

  14. The crypto-Hermitian smeared-coordinate representation of wave functions

    In discrete-coordinate quantum models the kinematical observable of position need not necessarily be chosen local (i.e., diagonal). Its smearing is selected in the nearest-neighbor form of a real asymmetric (i.e., crypto-Hermitian) tridiagonal matrix Q-hat. Via Gauss-Hermite illustrative example we show how such an option restricts the class of admissible dynamical observables (sampled here just by the Hamiltonian). -- Highlights: → The new concept of hiddenly Hermitian grid-point-adapted observables proposed. → A new constructive smeared-coordinate approach to wave functions obtained. → A tractability of new, controllably non-local models achieved. → An explicit construction of metric-dependent inner-product spaces presented.

  15. The crypto-Hermitian smeared-coordinate representation of wave functions

    Znojil, Miloslav, E-mail: znojil@ujf.cas.cz [Nuclear Physics Institute ASCR, 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic)

    2011-08-22

    In discrete-coordinate quantum models the kinematical observable of position need not necessarily be chosen local (i.e., diagonal). Its smearing is selected in the nearest-neighbor form of a real asymmetric (i.e., crypto-Hermitian) tridiagonal matrix Q{sup -hat}. Via Gauss-Hermite illustrative example we show how such an option restricts the class of admissible dynamical observables (sampled here just by the Hamiltonian). -- Highlights: → The new concept of hiddenly Hermitian grid-point-adapted observables proposed. → A new constructive smeared-coordinate approach to wave functions obtained. → A tractability of new, controllably non-local models achieved. → An explicit construction of metric-dependent inner-product spaces presented.

  16. On the problem of the deuteron smearing corrections - 1: the conventional approach

    A comprehensive analysis to the problem of deuteron smearing corrections is given. Some problems of the usual approach (conventional approach) are discussed. It is shown that the formalism adopted by this approach leads to i) the existence of the so-called West #betta# corrections and ii) the disagreement of the sum rules with the quark parton model expectations in leptonic scattering. It is also shown that in this formalism the electroproduction expression is not inconsistent, and hence, in contradiction with Bodek's conclusion. Following West for the identification of the wave function, it is found that the smearing correction σsub(s) of the high-energy (50-370 GeV) pion - and nucleon - process is non-negligible, and hence, in contradiction with the usual expectation. Another test for this approach is suggested. (author)

  17. “Cannon Balls or Pus Balls” in Pap Smears: A Case Report

    Bodal, Vijay Kumar; Kaur, Sarbhjit; Bhagat, Ranjiv; Kaur, Rupinder; Bal, Manjit Singh

    2013-01-01

    A 50–year old female presented with the chief complaint of a discharge per vaginum, which was there for the past 15 days. A routine PAP smear was received in the Department of Pathology, Government Medical College, Patiala, India. After its fixation and staining, it was examined under the microscope. It showed the Trichomonas vaginalis infection, with the neutrophils forming cannon balls at places. Neutrophils in the PAP smear are a nonspecific finding, particularly if they are low in numbers or if they are seen in the premenstrual and the menstrual phases. The neutrophils which are adherent to the squamous cells are called “cannon balls” or “pus balls”, which are common in the Chlamydia infection. This case is being presented because of the presence of these rare morphological structures i.e. “cannon balls” or “pus balls”. PMID:24086888

  18. Incidence of cervical cancer after several negative smear results by age 50: prospective observational study

    Rebolj, Matejka; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Lynge, Elsebeth; Looman, Caspar; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Boer, Rob; Habbema, Dik

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of cervical cancer after several negative cervical smear tests at different ages. DESIGN: Prospective observational study of incidence of cervical cancer after the third consecutive negative result based on individual level data in a national registry of...... histopathology and cytopathology (PALGA). SETTING: Netherlands, national data. Population 218,847 women aged 45-54 and 445,382 aged 30-44 at the time of the third negative smear test. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 10 year cumulative incidence of interval cervical cancer. RESULTS: 105 women developed cervical cancer...... within 2 595,964 woman years at risk after the third negative result at age 30-44 and 42 within 1,278,532 woman years at risk after age 45-54. During follow-up, both age groups had similar levels of screening. After 10 years of follow-up, the cumulative incidence rate of cervical cancer was similar: 41...

  19. Cervix Cancer Diagnosis from Pap Smear Images Using Structure Based Segmentation and Shape Analysis

    Lipi B. Mahanta

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available his work presents an approach for analysis of P AP s mear images of cervical region based on cell nuclei distribution and shape and size analysis. PAP smear test is an efficient and easy procedure to detect any abnor mality in cervical cells. But human observation is not always satisfying and it is a tedious task to manually analyze a large number of PAP smear images. The purpose of this study is to automate the screening process and to provide specific statistical data which will be helpful for detecting abnormalities in cervical region. The proposed approach is implemented in MATLAB, a high level, interactive environment for data visualization/analysis/computation. The MATLAB Image Processing Toolbox was used to segment the digital images and calculate various statistical data. By comparing cell nuclei distribution and taking into account the shape and size features MATLAB can be programmed to distinguish normal cervical cell to questionable ones.

  20. Recognition of Pneumocystis carinii by gram stain in impression smears of lung tissue.

    Felegie, T P; Pasculle, A W; Dekker, A

    1984-01-01

    In 12 of 20 (60%) biopsy-proven cases of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, the diagnosis was first suggested by examination of routine Gram stains of impression smears made from infected lung tissue and later confirmed by methenamine-silver staining. The cysts appeared as 5- to 7-microns unstained spheres, each containing six to eight intracystic gram-negative bodies (sporozoites). Although the Gram stain does not appear to be as sensitive as more traditional staining techniques for the detecti...

  1. Comparison Between Pap Smear and Via As Screening For Cervical Lesions

    Harshini V 1, Amritha Bhandary 2, Suchithra Thunga 3

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: An important reason for higher cervical cancer incidence in developing countries is lack of effectivescreening programs like pap smear, aimed at detecting precancerous conditions before they progress to invasivecancer. The potential difficulties in implementing cervical cytology based screening in low-resource settings haveprompted the investigation of accuracy of alternative low technology tests such as Visual inspection with acetic acidapplication [VIA], Visual inspection with...

  2. The crypto-Hermitian smeared-coordinate representation of wave functions

    Znojil, Miloslav

    2011-08-01

    In discrete-coordinate quantum models the kinematical observable of position need not necessarily be chosen local (i.e., diagonal). Its smearing is selected in the nearest-neighbor form of a real asymmetric (i.e., crypto-Hermitian) tridiagonal matrix Qˆ. Via Gauss-Hermite illustrative example we show how such an option restricts the class of admissible dynamical observables (sampled here just by the Hamiltonian).

  3. Behavior of Dirac eigenmodes under cooling and smearing of lattice gauge fields

    Full text: Infrared structures in the gauge fields, such as instantons, are believed to play an important role in understanding QCD phenomenology. Before they can be analyzed on the lattice, the hard ultraviolet fluctuations have to be removed. Commonly used techniques are cooling or smearing procedures. In our presentation these are compared to recently developed filtering methods relying on the eigenmodes of the Dirac operator. (author)

  4. The Effect of Fragaria vesca Extract on Smear Layer Removal: A Scanning Electron Microscopic Evaluation

    Davoudi, Amin; Razavi, Sayed Alireza; Mosaddeghmehrjardi, Mohammad Hossein; Tabrizizadeh, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Successful endodontic treatment depends on elimination of the microorganisms through chemomechanical debridement. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Fragaria vesca (wild strawberry) extract (FVE) on the removal of smear layer (SL). Methods and Materials: In this analytical-observational study, 40 extracted mandibular and maxillary human teeth were selected. After canal preparation with standard step-back technique, the teeth were randomly divided...

  5. Effect of the smear layer in the removal of calcium hydroxide from root canal walls

    Hakan Arslan; H Sinan Topcuoglu; Ertugrul Karatas; Cagatay Barutcigil; Halit Aladag; K Meltem Topcu

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the smear layer influences the removal of calcium hydroxide from the root canal with manual or rotary instruments. Materials and Methods: The root canals of 48 freshly extracted single-rooted maxillary incisors were prepared to apical size 40 (n=40) and finally irrigated with sodium hypochlorite (group A), or ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) followed by sodium hypo chlorite (group B). 20 teeth were assigned to each grou...

  6. Enhanced tree-classifier performance by inversion with application to pap smear screening data

    Chen, E. T. Y.; Lee, James; Nelson, Alan C.

    1993-07-01

    In this paper, we present an inversion method to enhance a binary decision tree classifier using boundary search of training samples. We want to enhance the training at those points which are close to the boundaries. Selection of these points is based on the Euclidean distance from those centroids close to classification boundaries. The enhanced training using these selected data was compared with training using randomly selected samples. We also applied this method to improve the classification of pap smear screening data.

  7. Sources of long-lived atmospheric VOCs at the rural boreal forest site, SMEAR II

    Patokoski, J.; Ruuskanen, T.M.; M. K. Kajos; Taipale, R.; Rantala, P; Aalto, J.; T. Ryyppö; Nieminen, T.; Hakola, H.; Rinne, J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study a long-term volatile organic compound (VOCs) concentration data set, measured at the SMEAR II (Station for Measuring Ecosystem–Atmosphere Relations) boreal forest site in Hyytiälä, Finland during the years 2006–2011, was analyzed in order to identify source areas and profiles of the observed VOCs. VOC mixing ratios were measured using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry. Four-day HYSPLIT 4 (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) backward t...

  8. Sources of long-lived atmospheric VOCs at the rural boreal forest site, SMEAR II

    Patokoski, J.; Ruuskanen, T.M.; M. K. Kajos; Taipale, R.; Rantala, P; Aalto, J.; T. Ryyppö; Nieminen, T.; Hakola, H.; Rinne, J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study a long-term volatile organic compounds (VOCs) data set, measured at the SMEAR II (Station for measuring Ecosystem–Atmosphere Relations) boreal forest site at Hyytiälä, Finland during the years 2006–2011, was investigated. VOC mixing ratios were measured using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry. Four-day backward trajectories and the Unmix 6.0 receptor model were used ...

  9. TTV and HPV co-infection in cervical smears of patients with cervical lesions

    Tachezy Ruth; N?me?ek Vratislav; Salkov Martina

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The female lower genital tract is a gateway for pathogens entering the host through the mucous membrane. One of the prevalent human viruses is Torque teno virus (TTV). The major reported routes of TTV transmission are fecal-oral and parenteral. Furthermore, other modes of transmission, e.g. sexual contact, are suggested. To investigate the sexual route of TTV transmission, cervical smears of healthy women and those with cervical lesions were screened for the presence of TT...

  10. Galectin-1 is a useful marker for detecting neoplastic squamous cells in oral cytology smears.

    Noda, Yuri; Kondo, Yuko; Sakai, Manabu; Sato, Sunao; Kishino, Mitsunobu

    2016-06-01

    Cytologic diagnoses in the oral region are very difficult due to the small amount of cells in smears, which are also exposed to many stimulating factors and often show atypical changes. Galectin-1 (Gal1) is a β-galactoside binding protein that modulates tumor progression. Gal1 is very weakly expressed in normal cells, but is often overexpressed in neoplastic lesions. The aim of the present study was to determine whether it is possible to differentiate reactive changes from neoplastic changes in oral cytology smears based on the expression of Gal1. A total of 155 tissue biopsy specimens and 61 liquid-based cytology specimens were immunostained by an anti-Gal1 antibody, and Gal1 expression levels were subsequently evaluated. These samples consisted of oral squamous cell carcinomas, epithelial dysplasia, and oral mucosal diseases. The positive and negative expressions of Gal1 were examined in 37 specimens collected by scalpel and cytobrush biopsy. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of Gal1 were also evaluated in smears. In tissue sections, the positive ratio of Gal1 in neoplastic lesions was high (72.3%). In cytology specimens, the positive ratio of Gal1 was higher in neoplastic lesions (79.0%) than in those negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (22.2%). A correlation was found between immunocytochemical Gal1 expression and immunohistochemical Gal1 expression (P < .001). The sensitivity (75.0%), specificity (75.0%), and positive predictive value (91.3%) of Gal1 were also high in smears. In conclusion, Gal1 may be a useful marker for determining whether morphologic changes in cells are reactive or neoplastic. PMID:26980012

  11. ROLE OF GENE-XPERT IN DIAGNOSIS OF SMEAR NEGATIVE PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS

    Deependra Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Tuberculosis continues to be a major public health problem worldwide, with 8 million cases and 1.3 million deaths each year. Sputum smears with chest X-ray (CXR, where available are the tests routinely applied for TB diagnosis. Gene-xpert has very high sensitivity in diagnosis of smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis and it has more roles especially in low to middle income country. The aim of the study to measure the role of gene-xpert in diagnosis of sputum negative pulmonary tuberculosis. MATERIALS AND METHOD This was hospital based cross-sectional study conducted by department of pulmonary medicine, All India Institutes of Medical Sciences, Patna. All the pulmonary tuberculosis suspects’ patients with 2 negative Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN sputum smears were evaluated by Gene-xpert testing to diagnose pulmonary tuberculosis patients. RESULTS The total 106 sputum negative patients evaluated for gene-xpert. Gene-xpert was positive for Mtb in 37 (37/106, 34.9% patients. So 2.86 patients to be tested to detect one gene-xpert positive pulmonary tuberculosis case. The prevalence of MDR in our study patients was 13.20% and in gene-xpert positive patients was 37.83 percentage (14/37. Cough and Anorexia were more significantly associated with positive result in gen-xpert. Number needed to test was lowest (1.86 for combination of symptoms such as cough fever and anorexia. CONCLUSION Gene-xpert assay mainly indicated for early detection of MDR-TB, particularly when applied to high-risk groups in accordance with WHO recommendation. Our study shows that it is useful test to confirm tuberculosis even in smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis.

  12. Obese womens barriers to mammography and Pap smear: The possible role of personality

    Friedman, Asia M.; Hemler, Jennifer R.; Rossetti, Elisa; Clemow, Lynn P.; Ferrante, Jeanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Obese women are at increased risk of developing and dying from cancer, but are less likely than non-obese women to receive cancer screening examinations. Our qualitative study explores obese womens barriers to Pap smears and mammograms in greater depth than previous research. We also seek to understand why some obese women undergo screening while others do not. A purposive sample of moderately to severely obese women over age 40 was recruited from community-based organizations, health clinic...

  13. Direct-to-digital holography reduction of reference hologram noise and fourier space smearing

    Voelkl, Edgar

    2006-06-27

    Systems and methods are described for reduction of reference hologram noise and reduction of Fourier space smearing, especially in the context of direct-to-digital holography (off-axis interferometry). A method of reducing reference hologram noise includes: recording a plurality of reference holograms; processing the plurality of reference holograms into a corresponding plurality of reference image waves; and transforming the corresponding plurality of reference image waves into a reduced noise reference image wave. A method of reducing smearing in Fourier space includes: recording a plurality of reference holograms; processing the plurality of reference holograms into a corresponding plurality of reference complex image waves; transforming the corresponding plurality of reference image waves into a reduced noise reference complex image wave; recording a hologram of an object; processing the hologram of the object into an object complex image wave; and dividing the complex image wave of the object by the reduced noise reference complex image wave to obtain a reduced smearing object complex image wave.

  14. Air and smear sample calculational tool for Fluor Hanford Radiological control

    A spreadsheet calculation tool was developed to automate the calculations performed for determining the concentration of airborne radioactivity and smear counting as outlined in HNF--13536, Section 5.2.7, ''Analyzing Air and Smear Samples''. This document reports on the design and testing of the calculation tool. Radiological Control Technicians (RCTs) will save time and reduce hand written and calculation errors by using an electronic form for documenting and calculating work place air samples. Current expectations are RCTs will perform an air sample and collect the filter or perform a smear for surface contamination. RCTs will then survey the filter for gross alpha and beta/gamma radioactivity and with the gross counts utilize either hand calculation method or a calculator to determine activity on the filter. The electronic form will allow the RCT with a few key strokes to document the individual's name, payroll, gross counts, instrument identifiers; produce an error free record. This productivity gain is realized by the enhanced ability to perform mathematical calculations electronically (reducing errors) and at the same time, documenting the air sample

  15. Causes of non-useful Papanicolaou smear in two health areas. Cienfuegos, 2005.

    Miryam González González del Pino

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervicouterine cancer represents 10 % of all types of cancer, and it is one of the three main death causes in women. Objectives: to determine the factors that may influence in the diagnosis of non-useful Papanicolaou smear in health areas II and III of Cienfuegos municipality, Cuba. Method: An ambispective analytic study was carried out in the second semester of the year 2005, in Cienfuegos municipality, Cuba. 122 non-useful Papanicolaou smear from health areas II and III were collected and those carrier women of the above mentioned samples were dated to repeat the test. The variables were; requisites and conditions to perform the test, visualization of the cervix and presence of vaginal sepsis. Results: An inadequated sample taking was observed in 93 patients (76,2 %, as well as the bad conditions of the place where the samples were taken. There was also instrumentation deficiency. The interview in more than 50 % of women was not the adequate one. Conclusions: Yet, existing an acceptable index of non useful Papanicolaou smear in Cienfuegos province, the program to detect cervicouterine cancer confront difficulties in its application and results.

  16. [Factors associated with failure to take a Pap smear test among Quilombola women].

    Oliveira, Mrcio Vasconcelos; Guimares, Mark Drew Crosland; Frana, Elisabeth Barboza

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze factors associated with failure to take a Pap smear test among quilombola women living in Vitria da Conquista in the state of Bahia. A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted with women aged 18 to 64. Descriptive analysis and univariate and multivariate analysis using a multinomial logistic model was applied. Women who had never performed the test or had not had one for over three years were compared separately from those who were examined within the preceding three years. Of the 348 women included in the analysis, 27.3%, reported never having a Pap smear test. The following factors were independently associated with never having taken the test: age of 18 to 29 years and 50 to 59 years; lack of education; not having a partner; seeking care in health-related units/establishments other than their place of residence; and having a clinical breast examination three or more years ago or never having one. The findings indicate a need for reflection in order to combat factors that are associated with not having a Pap smear test among quilombola women, since it is important to implement actions for the prevention of cervical cancer. PMID:25351319

  17. Development of automatic smear testing sampler for radioactive contamination of floor in nuclear power plant

    The floor contamination with radioactive substances in the controlled area of nuclear power stations is strictly controlled, and it is tested by the smear method, wiping the contaminants on floors with filter papers or cloths and measuring the radioactive intensity to obtain contamination density. The works are very laborious, therefore the automatic smear sampler was developed. Simple operation, shortening of time required for wiping, constant and high efficiency of wiping, and easy numbering of samples were the aims in the development. The method of wiping, the mechanisms of wiping, cloth feeding and running, the surface pressure at the time of wiping, the number of times of wiping and required motor torque were studied. The outline of the developed sampler is explained. The performance of the sampler was compared with manual wiping. The efficiency of wiping with the sampler was 92%, assuming manual wiping as 100. Difference was not observed between careful manual wiping and the wiping with the sampler, therefore it was confirmed that this automatic floor smear sampler can be put in practical use. By conventional manual sampling, the maximum limit was about 400 samples/man-day, but when this sampler is used, about 1000 samples/sampler-day is possible. At present, this sampler is operated in Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station. (Kako, I.)

  18. Blood transfusions

    There are many reasons you may need a blood transfusion: After knee or hip replacement surgery, or other ... When your body cannot make enough blood A blood transfusion is a safe and common procedure during which ...

  19. Blood Types

    ... Your Best Self Smart Snacking Losing Weight Safely Blood Types KidsHealth > Teens > Cancer Center > Treatment & Prevention > Blood Types ... or straight hair instead of curly. ...Make Eight Blood Types The different markers that can be found in ...

  20. Vomiting blood

    ... the esophagus lining (esophagitis) or the stomach lining (gastritis) Swallowing blood (for example, after a nosebleed) Tumors ... a lot of blood, you may need emergency treatment. This may include: Administration of oxygen Blood transfusions ...

  1. Blood Transfusions

    ... TAHL-uh-gus) blood donation. Another option for blood transfusions is called directed donation . This is when a family member or friend donates blood specifically to be used by a designated patient. ...

  2. A scanning electron microscopy study of root surface smear layer removal after topical application of EDTA plus a detergent / Remoo de smear layer de superfcies radiculares com aplicao tpica de EDTA com detergente. Anlise em microscopia eletrnica de varredura

    Jos Eduardo Cezar, Sampaio; Flvia Pavan, Campos; Gibson Luiz, Pilatti; Letcia Helena, Theodoro; Fbio Renato Manzolli, Leite.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar, atravs de microscopia eletrnica de varredura, a remoo de smear layer de superfcies radiculares aps aplicao tpica de gel de EDTA com gel de EDTA-T (Texapon). Foram utilizados dentes humanos que foram submetidos a remoo de cemento radicular e rasp [...] agem. As amostras dos dentes foram divididas em 3 grupos: Grupo I- (controle) (n=20); Grupo II- gel de EDTA (pH 7,0) nas concentraes de 5%,10%,15%,20% e 24% (n=100); Grupo II -gel de EDTA-T (pH 7,0) nas concentraes acima descritas (n=100). As fotomicrografias foram avaliadas atravs de um ndice e os dados foram estatisticamente analisados. Ambos os tratamentos com EDTA foram efetivos na remoo de smear layer quando comparados ao grupo controle. O gel de EDTA a 5% demonstrou maior capacidade na remoo de smear layer quando comparado com as concentraes de 15%, 20% e 24% (p0,05). Os gis de EDTA foram mais efetivos que o EDTA-T nas concentraes de 5 e 10%. Os resultados sugerem que a aplicao tpica de EDTA ou EDTA-T efetiva na remoo de smear layer, principamente em baixas concentraes e a adio do Texapon no promove vantagens neste tratamento. Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to compare root surface smear layer removal following topical application of EDTA and EDTA-T (Texapon). Extracted human teeth had their cementum removed and were mechanically scaled. A total of 220 root specimens were obtained and were randomly assigned to the follow [...] ing groups: I-saline solution (control), II-EDTA; III-EDTA-T. Groups II and III specimens were assigned to different EDTA gel concentrations: 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 24%. Smear layer removal score was assessed for each specimen by scanning electron microscopy. The results demonstrated that EDTA and EDTA-T gel led to a higher root surface smear layer removal when compared to the control group. The 5% EDTA gel also showed a higher smear layer removal than the 15%, 20% and 24% EDTA gels (p0.05). EDTA gels had statistically significantly lower smear layer scores than the EDTA-T gels for the 5% and 10% concentrations. The results suggested that topical application of EDTA or EDTA-T gel led to significant smear layer removal of the mechanically treated root surfaces. The addition of a detergent to the EDTA gel formula did not improve smear layer removal of the root surface.

  3. A duplex PCR-based assay for simultaneous detection of Trypanosoma evansi and Theileria annulata infections in water buffaloes.

    Sudan, Vikrant; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Parashar, Rahul; Shanker, Daya

    2015-06-01

    Trypanosomosis and bovine tropical theileriosis are important vector-borne protozoan diseases imposing some of the serious constraints on the health and productivity of domestic cattle in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Following recovery from primary infection of both these conditions, animals become persistent carriers and act as reservoirs of infection thereby playing a critical role in disease epidemiology. The present study describes development and evaluation of duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for simultaneous detection of Trypanosoma evansi and Theileria annulata in buffaloes. Following in silico screening for candidate target genes representing each of the pathogens, an optimized duplex PCR assay was established using TBR F/R and TAMS F/R as primer sets encoding for products of 164 and 721bp for T. evansi and T. annulata, respectively. The results were compared and correlated with conventional Giemsa-stained thin blood smear examination and the single PCR assay. The duplex PCR detected each pathogen with the same level of sensitivity, irrespective of whether its DNA was amplified in isolation or together with DNA of another pathogen. Moreover, single and duplex PCRs were able to detect each species with equal sensitivity in serially diluted DNA representing mixtures of T. evansi and T. annulata, and no evidence of nonspecific amplification from nontarget species was observed. The developed assay may be seen as a good tool for epidemiological studies aiming at assessing the burden of dual infections and improving control of the associated diseases in endemic regions. PMID:25846571

  4. In vivo stimulation of granulopoiesis by recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor

    Osmotic pumps containing Escherichia coli-derived recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) were attached to indwelling jugular vein catheters and implanted subcutaneously into Golden Syrian hamsters. Within 3 days, peripheral granulocyte counts had increased > 10-fold with a concomitant 4-fold increase in total leukocytes. Microscopic examination of Wright-Giemsa-stained blood smears from rhG-CSF hamsters showed that only the neutrophil subpopulation of granulocytes had increased. After subcutaneous injection at 35S-labeled rhG-CSF doses of up to 10 μg x kg-1 x day-1 only granulocyte counts were affected. However, at higher dose levels, a transient thrombocytopenia was noted. Erythrocyte and lymphocyte/monocyte counts remained unaffected by rhG-CSF over the entire dose range studied. Total leukocyte counts increased 3-fold within 12 hr after a single s.c. injection of rhG-CSF. This early effect was associated with an increase in the total number of colony-forming cells and the percent of active cycling cells in the marrow. A sustained elevation of peripheral leukocyte and marrow progenitor counts was observed following seven daily s.c. injections of rhG-CSF. The ability of rhG-CSF to increase the production and release of granulocytes from the marrow may underlie the beneficial effect it produced on the restoration of peripheral leukocyte counts in hamsters made leukopenic by treatment with 5-fluorouracil

  5. Assessing the Parasight-F test in northeastern Papua, Indonesia, an area of mixed Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax transmission.

    Taylor, Walter R J; Widjaja, Hendra; Basri, Hasan; Fryauff, David J; Ohrt, Colin; Taufik; Tjitra, Emiliana; Hoffman, Stephen L; Baso, Samuel; Richie, Thomas L

    2002-06-01

    User-friendly, reliable, and inexpensive methods for diagnosing malaria are needed at the primary health care level. During a randomized treatment trial, the Parasight-F test was assessed on days 0, 3, 7, and 28 against standard light microscopy of Giemsa-stained thick blood smears for diagnosing Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia in patients with P. falciparum (n = 84) or P. vivax (n = 59) malaria. The median P. falciparum parasite count on day 0 was 2,373/microL (range = 20-74,432/microL). At the start of treatment, the Parasight-F test had a sensitivity of 95.2% (80 of 84; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 88.2-98.7), and a specificity of 94.9% (56 of 59; 95% CI = 85.8-98.9). On day 7, this test showed false-positive results in 17 (16.3%) of 104 patients (95% CI = 9.8-24.9). The Parasight-F test performed well when compared with light microscopy in detecting P. falciparum parasitemia in patients presenting with clinical malaria. However, the high false-positive rate on day 7 limits its use for patient follow-up. PMID:12224568

  6. Iridovirus-like viruses in erythrocytes of lacertids from Portugal.

    de Matos, Antnio P Alves; Caeiro, M Filomena; Vale, Filipa F; Crespo, Eduardo; Paperna, Ilan

    2013-10-01

    Icosahedral nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV)-like viruses, which forminclusions in the erythrocyte cytoplasm of reptiles, were previously presented as candidates for a new genus of the Iridoviridae family. The present work describes the distribution of infected lizard hosts and ultrastructural characteristics of the viral inclusions of NCLDV-like viruses from Portugal and adjacent locations in Spain. Giemsa-stained blood smears of 235 Lacerta schreiberi from Portugal and Spain, 571 Lacerta monticola from the mountain Serra da Estrela (Portugal), 794 Podarcis hispanica from several localities in Portugal and Spain, and 25 Lacerta dugesii from Madeira Island, were studied. Infection in L. schreiberi was only found in mountain populations, up to 30% in Serra da Estrela and 9-11% elsewhere. It was absent in lizards from lowlands. Prevalence of infection among L. monticola in Serra da Estrela was 10%; infected lizards were found during March to July and October but not in August and September. Infection in P. hispanica was below 3.3%. Only one infected specimen of L. dugesii was identified by light microscopy. Ultrastructural examination of infected samples revealed that the inclusions are virus assembly sites of icosahedral cytoplasmic iridovirus-like virions. Virions from different host species have different ultrastructural features and probably represent different related viruses. PMID:23806208

  7. Prevalence of parasitic infections in cattle of Ludhiana district, Punjab.

    Singh, N K; Singh, Harkirat; Jyoti; Haque, M; Rath, S S

    2012-10-01

    A total of 862 cattle were sampled for both haematological (703) and coprological (159) investigations at the Large Animal Clinics, GADVASU, Ludhiana, Punjab, India. Examination of Giemsa-stained peripheral blood smears exhibited that 22.9 % (161/703) of cattle were infected with haematozoa comprising Theileria annulata (14.65 %), Trypanosoma evansi (0.28 %), Babesia bigemina (1.56 %) and Anaplasma marginale (8.53 %) while mixed infection appeared in 2.13 % (15/703) animals. The prevalence of total haemoparasites and A. marginale infections were significantly higher (p Balantidium coli, strongyles and Trichuris spp. were detected from 3.77, 1.88, 3.77, 2.52, 10.69 and 1.26 % of examined animals. Except coccidiosis, there was no significant variation of GI parasitic infections in relation to sex as Eimeria spp. were found higher (p < 0.01) in males. The prevalence of Trichuris spp. was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in younger animals <6 months of age. The present work emphasized that strongyles and T. annulata were the most prevalent GI and haemoparasites, respectively. PMID:24082538

  8. Clinicopathological findings in dogs naturally infected dogs with Babesia

    Egon Andoni

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to describe the clinicopathological findings in dogs naturally infected with Babesia. During the period of February 2011-February 2012 twenty-nine cases of Babesia Canis were diagnosed in the clinic of Small Animal at the Veterinary Faculty of Tirana. The animal was considered infected when pear shaped babesia was observed inside infected erythrocytes in Wright-Giemsa stained blood smears. The animal stay for one week in our clinic and during this period we evaluated the canine babesiosis cases by means of clinical history, physical examination, hematological and biochemical tests. Based in the clinical sing of babesia the animal was divided in two groups with uncomplicated and complicate babesia. The duration of clinical signs ranged from 1 to 5 days prior to the arrival at the clinic and all the animals were positive with B. c. canis infections. The main clinical signs were dehydration and anemia in (79%, apathy (74%, anorexia or decrease appetite (70% and fever (68%. The anemia was present in the dogs and classified severe (13% as mild (45%, and moderate (52% of all the cases. In conclusion, the main clinicopathological findings were a mild to moderate hemolytic anemia and mild to severe thrombocytopenia.

  9. Experimental transmission of Anaplasma marginale by male Dermacentor reticulatus

    Kocan Katherine M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine anaplasmosis has been reported in several European countries, but the vector competency of tick species for Anaplasma marginale from these localities has not been determined. Because of the wide distributional range of Dermacentor reticulatus within Europe and the major role of Dermacentor spp. as a vector of A. marginale in the United States, we tested the vector competency of D. reticulatus for A. marginale. Results Male D. reticulatus were allowed to feed for 7 days on a calf persistently infected with a Zaria isolate of A. marginale, after which they were removed and held off-host for 7 days. The ticks were then allowed to feed a second time for 7 days on a susceptible tick-nave calf. Infection of calf No. 4291 was detected 20 days post exposure (p.i. and confirmed by msp4 PCR. Thirty percent of the dissected acquisition fed ticks was infected. In addition, A. marginale colonies were detected by light microscopy in the salivary glands of the acquisition fed ticks. Transmission of A. marginale to calf No. 9191 was confirmed by examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears and msp4 PCR. Ticks were dissected after transmission feeding and presence of A. marginale was confirmed in 18.5% of the dissected ticks. Conclusion This study demonstrates that D. reticulatus males are competent vectors of A. marginale. Further studies are needed to confirm the vector competency of D. reticulatus for other A. marginale strains from geographic areas in Europe.

  10. Search for Borrelia sp. in ticks collected from potential reservoirs in an urban forest reserve in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil: a short report

    IP da Costa

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 128 ticks of the genus Amblyomma were recovered from 5 marsupials (Didelphis albiventris - with 4 recaptures - and 17 rodents (16 Bolomys lasiurus and 1 Rattus norvegicus captured in an urban forest reserve in Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Of the ticks collected, 95 (78.9% were in larval form and 22 (21.1% were nymphs; the only adult (0.8% was identified as A. cajennense. Viewed under dark-field microscopy in the fourth month after seeding, 9 cultures prepared from spleens and livers of the rodents, blood of the marsupials, and macerates of Amblyomma sp. nymphs revealed spiral-shaped, spirochete-like structures resembling those of Borrelia sp. Some of them showed little motility, while others were non-motile. No such structures could be found either in positive Giemsa-stained culture smears or under electron microscopy. No PCR amplification of DNA from those cultures could be obtained by employing Leptospira sp., B. burgdorferi, and Borrelia sp. primers. These aspects suggest that the spirochete-like structures found in this study do not fit into the genera Borrelia or Leptospira, requiring instead to be isolated for proper identification.

  11. C-Reactive Protein (CRP in Early Diagnosis of Neonatal Septicemia

    Setal B Chauhan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Early diagnosis of sepsis in the neonate is often difficult because symptoms and signs are usually non-specific. A study was conducted to evaluate C-reactive protein (CRP as a screening tool for neonatal sepsis. Method: The prospective observational study was conducted at NICU, V. S. Hospital, Ahmedabad from January 2008 to June 2009. 75 neonates were included with the age group of first 28days (4week of life (infant age in study, all of which were suspected to have sepsis in clinical settings. All peripheral smear of neonate stained with Giemsa stain were reviewed .CRP performed by semi quantitative latex agglutination method. Positive cultures were the “gold standard” against which the performance of CRP , abnormal white blood cell counts (WBC & absolute neutrophil counts (ANC were compared. Results: Among 75 septic screens, 39 (52% patients had positive cultures. The sensitivity and specificity of CRP 0.6 mg/dL was 92.30% and 85.71% respectively. Abnormal platelet count had the lowest specificity(45% and sensitivity(23.07% among them. Conclusion: CRP assay using semi quantitative latex agglutination method is a valuable adjunct in screening for neonatal sepsis, complementing clinical decision-making. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(3.000: 276-278

  12. An Investigation on the Ecology of Triatoma vitticeps (Stal, 1859 and its Possible Role in the Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, in the Locality of Triunfo, Santa Maria Madalena Municipal District, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Gonalves Teresa Cristina M

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available From January 1989 to April 1995, 465 specimens of Triatoma vitticeps were collected in the locality of Triunfo, 2nd District of Santa Maria Madalena municipal district, State of Rio de Janeiro. The bugs were found indoors by local residents with predominance of adults. The flight activity was high in hot months when the incidence in the domicile also increased. Two hundred and two bugs (111 alive and 91 dead were examined for Trypanosoma cruzi infection. This was detected in 31 of the dead bugs (34% and 88 (79% of the live bugs examined. With a view to investigate the possible vertebrate hosts of the T. cruzi isolates, the blood of 122 mammals was examined through Giemsa-stained smears, hemocultures and xenodiagnosis. T. cruzi was detected in three specimens of Didelphis marsupialis and T. (M. theileri was detected in one specimen of Bos taurus. The parasites were isolated from triatomine feces, xenoculture and hemoculture. No evidence of human infection was detected in 58 inhabitants examined, as evaluated by indirect imunofluorescence technique using T. cruzi epimastigotes as antigens. These results show that T. vitticeps is still a sylvatic species although nymphs have been found inside the domicile. Thus, an epidemiological vigilance is necessary to know the behaviour of this species following the continuous modifications promoted by the presence of man.

  13. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis ... A blood sample is needed. For information on how this is done, see: Venipuncture

  14. Morphology of Peripheral Blood Cells from Various Species of Turkish Herpetofauna

    Hseyin ARIKAN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 In this study, measurements of morphological and size parameters of peripheral blood cells (erythrocyte, leucocyte, thrombocyte on blood smear preparation devices stained with Wrights stain were given for 87 species from Turkish herpetofauna (19 amphibian species including 7 urodeles and 12 anurans as well as 68 reptile species including 4 turtles, 30 lizards and 34 snakes. It was determined that erythrocyte and nucleus sizes showed great variations among the species of herpetofauna and even among the preparations of the same species; the largest blood cells (erythrocyte, leucocyte, thrombocyte were found in urodeles; aquatic and semiaquatic species had larger erythrocytes than terrestrials, and the largest erythrocytes were in turtles among the reptile species examined. Lymphocytes were determined as the predominant cells among the blood leucocytes in blood smears of all the examined species.

  15. Morphology of peripheral blood cells from various species of Turkish Herpetofauna

    Hseyin Ar?kan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, measurements of morphological and size parameters of peripheral blood cells (erythrocyte, leucocyte, thrombocyte on blood smear preparation devices stained with Wrights stain were given for 87 species from Turkish herpetofauna (19 amphibian species including 7 urodeles and 12 anurans as well as 68 reptile species including 4 turtles, 30 lizards and 34 snake.It was determined that erythrocyte and nucleus sizes showed great variations among the species of herpetofauna and even among the preparations of the same species; the largest blood cells (erythrocyte, leucocyte, thrombocyte were found in urodeles; aquatic and semiaquatic species had larger erythrocytes than terrestrials, and the largest erythrocytes were in turtles among the reptile species examined. Lymphocytes were determined as the predominant cells among the blood leucocytes in blood smears of all the examined species.

  16. Smear positive extra pulmonary tuberculosis disease at University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    Zenebe Yohannes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While pulmonary tuberculosis is the most common presentation, extra pulmonary tuberculosis is also an important clinical problem. However, no adequate information had been made available on the prevalence of smear positive extra pulmonary tuberculosis in Gondar. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and possible risk factors of smear positive extra pulmonary tuberculosis among suspected patients at University of Gondar Hospital. Methods A cross-sectional study on extra pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients was conducted at University of Gondar Hospital from January 2012 to April, 2012. Specimens of patients suspected of extra pulmonary tuberculosis were obtained from fine needle aspiration and body fluid samples collected by pathologist. Demographic characteristics and other variables were collected using a pretested semi-structured questionnaire. Smears were prepared from each sample and stained by Ziehel Neelson and Wright stain. The result of the study was analyzed with bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Result A total of 344 extra pulmonary tuberculosis suspected clients were included in the study and specimens were taken from lymph node aspirates and body fluids. The overall prevalence of smear positive extra pulmonary tuberculosis was 34 (9.9%. Of these cases of extra pulmonary tuberculosis, lymph node tuberculosis constituted the largest proportion (82.4%. Among the 34 extra pulmonary tuberculosis patients, over half of them (52.9% were positive for human immunodeficiency virus. The largest proportion of tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus cases occurred among persons with in the age group of 3140 years. Previous history of tuberculosis (OR?=?4.77, 95% CI 1.86-12.24, contact to a known tuberculosis cases (OR?=?6.67 95% CI 2.78-16.90, history of underlying diseases (OR?=?2.79 95% CI 1.15-6.78 and income (OR?=?12.9 95% CI 2.25-68.02 were significantly associated with extra pulmonary tuberculosis infection. Conclusion The prevalence of smear positive extra pulmonary tuberculosis infection in Gondar is high. Screening of lymph node and other body fluid specimens for extra pulmonary tuberculosis could help for treatment, control and prevention of the disease.

  17. Eesti SMEAR-jaama andmete kasutus jtkusuutliku biomassi tootmise jlgimisel / Steffen M. Noe, Alisa Krasnova, Dmitri Krasnov, Ahto Kangur

    2015-01-01

    Atmosfri ja biosfri vastastikuse mju uurimise jaama SMEAR-i abil on vimalik seirata ja pikaajaliselt koguda andmeid metsakossteemi ssinikuringet mjutavate tunnuste kohta erinevatel kossteemi tasanditel ja suure mtmissagedusega

  18. CERVICAL ACID PHOSPHATASE: EVALUATION AS AN ADJUVANT TO PAPANICOLAOU SMEAR SCREENING IN CERVICAL CANCER DETECTION

    Niranjan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Carcinoma of cervix accounts for 15% of all cancers diagnosed worldwide and is the second most common cancer in women. In the year 2000 there were over 4,71,000 new cases diagnosed and 2,88,000 deaths from cervical cancer. (1 Approximately 79% of these deaths occurred in developing countries. (2 Cervical cancer is preventable, but most women in poorer countries do not have access to effective screening programs. In India it is estimated that approximately 100,000 women develop cervical cancer each year. (3 Cancer cervix occupies either the top r ank or second among cancers in women in developing countries, whereas, in the developed countries cancer cervix does not find a place even in top five leading cancers in women. This is due to routine screening by cervical smear. Cervical smear cytology scr eening by Papanicolaou (Pap stained smears is the most efficacious and cost - effective method of cancer screening, decreasing the incidence and mortality from cervical cancer. (4 However, cervical smear screening has significant rates of false - positive and false - negative results, ranging from 10.3% for false positive cases to 5.6% for false negative cases. (5,6 To improve the detection and screening of cancerous and precancerous lesions of the cervix a number of sophisticated tests are available which are e xpensive and can be done only in a tertiary laboratory. To over - come this problems a cost effective cytochemical stain was introduced to measure the acid phosphatase activity in the cervical epithelium. (7 Since the description of the new Cervical Acid Phosphatase Test (CAP Test for visualization of cervical acid phosphatase activity (CAP inside abnormal cervical cells on smears, it has become possible to explore this enzyme as a biomarker for cervical dys plasia, and as a possible surrogate for PAP smear in detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To assess the utility of Cervical Acid Phosphatase stain as an adjuvant to Papanicolaou smear. BACKGROUND: Pap test is the most used and probably the most successful and economical cancer prevention measure currently available. It is recommended for prophylaxis of women. (8 The staining procedure was introduced by George Papanicolaou in the years 1940. (9 This procedure dramatical ly improved detection of cervical cancer in situ and, more important, cervical dysplasia. Both conditions were followed by aggressive treatment including surgery. As a result many lives were saved. (10 Pap test screening of healthy or oligosymptomatic wome n resulted in sharp reduction of cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates. Reported are reductions of 80% (Iceland, 70% (U.S., 50% (Finland and 34% (Sweden. The major obstacle for reaching this ultimate goal of every disease prevention is the high rate of false negative readings of the Pap test, during the primary screening. False negative rates in various literatures ranging from 1.1 to 69% have been reported. (11 Sampling and technical error, are under thorough investigation, and much effort has been given to improve techniques.(8 Also false positive cases were reported, with rates ranging from 10.3% to14.8%.(5 To minimize these a new histochemical stain is compared with PAP to being down the false negative and false positive cases

  19. CSF smear

    ... in the sample may be a sign of: Bacterial meningitis Fungal infections Tuberculosis Some bacteria or viruses can ... Saunders; 2011:chap 403. Swartz MN, Nath A. Meningitis: bacterial, viral, and other. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, ...

  20. Associations of demographic variables and the Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana

    McFarland, Ditsapelo M

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Papanicolaou (Pap) smear services are available in most urban areas in Botswana. Yet most women in such areas do not screen regularly for cancer of the cervix. The purpose of this article is to present findings on the associations of demographic variables and Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana. Sample and methods The study included a convenience sample of 353 asymptomatic women aged 30 years and older who were living in Gaborone, Bots...

  1. Performance of Clinical Algorithms for Smear-Negative Tuberculosis in HIV-Infected Persons in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    Nguyen, Duc T. M.; Nguyen, Hung Q.; R. Palmer Beasley; Ford, Charles E.; Lu-Yu Hwang; Edward A. Graviss

    2012-01-01

    Background. Tuberculosis (TB) disease diagnosis in Vietnam relies on symptom screening, chest radiography (CXR), and acid fast bacilli (AFB) sputum smear which have a poor sensitivity in HIV patients. We evaluated the performance of clinical algorithms in screening and diagnosing AFB smear-negative TB in HIV patients. Methods. We enrolled 399 HIV-positive patients seeking care at a HIV clinic in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. Participants' demographics, medical history, common TB symptoms,...

  2. Associations of demographic variables and the Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana

    McFarl; DM

    2013-01-01

    Ditsapelo M McFarland College of Nursing and Public Health, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA Purpose: Papanicolaou (Pap) smear services are available in most urban areas in Botswana. Yet most women in such areas do not screen regularly for cancer of the cervix. The purpose of this article is to present findings on the associations of demographic variables and Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana. Sample and methods: The study included a...

  3. The characteristics and relevant factors of Pap smear test use for women with intellectual disabilities in Taiwan

    Yen, Suh-May; Kung, Pei-Tseng; Tsai, Wen-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examines the Pap smear usage conditions and relevant influential factors for 18,204 women aged 30 years and above with intellectual disabilities, using nationwide data from 2008. Methods The research method of this study is secondary data analysis. The data was obtained from three nationwide databases from 2006 to 2008. This study employed descriptive statistics to analyze the use and rate of Pap smear testing by women with intellectual disabilities. Chi-square test was ...

  4. Identification of Novel RD1 Antigens and Their Combinations for Diagnosis of Sputum Smear?/Culture+ TB Patients

    Liu, Zhiqiang; Qie, Shuang; Li, Lili; Xiu, Bingshui; Yang, Xiqin; Dai, Zhenhua; Zhang, Xuhui; Duan, Cuimi; Que, Haiping; ZHAO, PING; Johnson, Heather; Zhang, Heqiu; Feng, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and accurate diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is an unresolved problem worldwide, especially for sputum smear? (S?) cases. In this study, five antigen genes including Rv3871, Rv3874, Rv3875, Rv3876, and Rv3879 were cloned from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) RD1 and overexpressed to generate antigen fragments. These antigens and their combinations were investigated for PTB serodiagnosis. 298 serum samples were collected from active PTB patients, including 117 sputum smear+ (S+...

  5. Has the ThinPrep method of cervical screening maintained its improvement over conventional smears in terms of specimen adequacy?

    Treacy, A

    2009-04-01

    Liquid-based cytology (LBC) has replaced conventional smear assessment in many centers over recent years. In our laboratory this transfer took place in 1999. At that time we performed a split sample study comparing the conventional method of cervical smear evaluation with the ThinPrep system. This split sample study identified a dramatic improvement in specimen adequacy with LBC. While 11% of conventional preparations were reported as unsatisfactory and almost 9% were reported as suboptimal, evaluation of the same cases using LBC saw this combined figure reduced to 2.3%. AIM: To evaluate whether this dramatic fall in unsatisfactory smears has been maintained with the use of LBC. The database for all smears reported for 2005 (100% LBC) was interrogated. The number of unsatisfactory reports was calculated. The reason for an unsatisfactory report was recorded for each case. The overall unsatisfactory rate was compared with that reported in the 1999 split sample study. A total of 41,312 smear tests were reported in 2005. 1,342 (3.25%) were reported as unsatisfactory. Our findings support the ongoing value of LBC in a routine cervical screening laboratory in terms of continuing to maintain a low rate of unsatisfactory smears.

  6. Effect of various chemical agents used in gingival retraction systems on smear layer: Scanning electron microscope study

    Krishna Shivraj Lahoti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemical agents used for gingival retraction affects the smear layer. Aim: To determine the effect of three different chemical agents used for gingival retraction systems on smear layer. Materials and Methods: Four human premolars were prepared using air-rotor with air-water spray to receive full crown restoration. Three of them were treated with 21.3% aluminum chloride for 10 min, 0.05% oxymetazoline hydrochloride for 10 min, and expasyl for 2 min, respectively. One sample was left untreated. Then, the tooth specimens were rinsed with tap water to remove any residue of test materials. All the samples (treated and untreated were processed by scanning electron microscope (SEM. Processed samples were examined under SEM at ×2400 to evaluate the effect of chemical agents on smear layer. Results: SEM examination revealed that 0.05% oxymetazoline hydrochloride for 10 min produced no alteration to smear layer followed by minimum alteration by expasyl for 2 min and complete removal of smear layer with etching of dentin with 21.3% aluminum chloride for 10 min. Conclusion: 0.05% oxymetazoline hydrochloride and expasyl are kind to smear layer.

  7. Now ICT malaria Pf/Pv versus microscopy (thick-smear, thin smear for diagnosis of malaria in Urab (Colombia Now ICT malaria Pf/Pv frente a microscopa (gota gruesa-extendido para diagnstico de malaria en Urab (Colombia

    Eliana Arango

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Problem: To date, there are only three reports from Colombia about the malaria diagnostic test Now ICT Malaria Pf / Pv (NowICT. The results from these studies showed major differences in sensitivity and specificity.

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of NowICT compared to thick smear for the diagnosis of Plasmodium infection in matched blood samples from mothers (maternal peripheral blood, umbilical cord and placenta.

    Methods: We used a closed (blinded/masked and parallel design for the evaluation of a diagnostic test. The sample size was calculated with statistical and epidemiological parameters; this consisted of 131 thick smears from maternal peripheral blood. Blood samples from placenta and umbilical cord were also studied (386 samples tested in total.

    Results: The sensitivity of Now ICT for detection of P. vivax was below 70% in any of the samples (maternal blood, placental blood or cord blood. The specificity was greater than 99%. Values for P. falciparum infection were not calculated since too few cases were detected.

  8. Blood Clots

    ... semi-solid masses of blood that can be stationary (thrombosis) and block blood flow or break loose (embolism) and travel to various ... When a blood clot forms, it can be stationary (called a thrombosis ) and block blood flow or break loose (called an embolism ) and travel ...

  9. EFFECTS OF SOME TRACE ELEMENTS ON THE BLOOD OF KUWAIT MULLETS 'LIZA MACROLEPS' (SMITH)

    Haemopathological changes attributed to heavy metal poisoning observed in blood smears of Liza macrolepis (Smith) taken after exposures of 96 h to graded doses (mg/l) of copper (0.11-1.80), lead (1.15-18.36), and mercury (0.04-0.59), in a flow-through marine bioassay system. In g...

  10. Borrelia sp. in naturally infected Didelphis aurita (Wied, 1826 (marsupialia: didelphidae

    Isis dos Santos Abel

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-six opossums (Didelphis aurita were captured on the campus of Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropdica county, Rio de Janeiro state, in order to investigate the occurrence of Borrelia sp among them in relation with the study of spirochaetemia and its ectoparasites. Blood tests were made through dark field and phase contrast microscopy, as well as the obtainment of blood smears. Smears were stained with Giemsa stain, which did not prove efficacy. There was no relation between results obtained through blood tests (13 opossum positive for Borreliasp., and this technique (two positive animals. Parasitaemia studies of 37 animals kept in captivity as well as of several recaptures in which animals once negative proved to be positive days later, showed that haemoscopical studies could be used as an effective diagnosis tool. Ectoparasites from nine animals were classified; with the occurrence of nymphal Amblyomma cajennense and adult Ctenocephalides sp..Cinquenta e seis gambs (Didelphis aurita foram capturados no campus da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropdica - Rio de Janeiro, com o intuito de se investigar a ocorrncia de Borrelia sp. entre eles, associada ao estudo da espiroquetemia e de seus ectoparasitos. Amostras de sangue dos animais foram examinadas microscopia de campo escuro e contraste de fase, alm deste ter se destinado obteno de esfregaos sanguneos, corados pelo mtodo de Giemsa. No houve relao entre os resultados obtidos atravs dos exames diretos do sangue (13 gambs positivos para Borrelia sp. e aqueles observados nos esfregaos sanguneos (dois animais positivos, o que demonstra a baixa eficcia desta tcnica. Estudos sobre a parasitemia de 37 animais mantidos em cativeiro, assim como as vrias recapturas nas quais animais uma vez negativos mostraram-se positivos dias mais tarde, revelaram que os estudos hemoscpicos podem ser utilizados eficientemente como ferramentas de diagnstico. Ectoparasitos colhidos de nove animais foram classificados. Houve ocorrncia de ninfas Amblyomma cajennense e adultos Ctenocephalides sp.

  11. Immunoglobulin and enzyme-conjugated dextran polymers enhance u-PAR staining intensity of carcinoma cells in peripheral blood smears

    Werther, K; Normark, M; Hansen, B F; Nielsen, Hans Jrgen

    1999-01-01

    color reaction was developed with diaminobenzidine as chromogen. In the second step, the cells were incubated with alkaline phosphatase-conjugated murine monoclonal antibodies against a common cytokeratin epitope and a red color reaction was developed with new fuchsin as substrate. This method allows...

  12. Correlation between Sex Chromatin and Female Breast Tumour in Paraffin Sections, Buccal Smears and Peripheral Blood Films

    Vijay Kumar, Bodal; Ravneet, Kalra; Manjit Singh, Bal; Ranjeev, Bhagat; Kalyan, Gurdeep Singh; Nishit, Gupta; Anil, Suri; Richika,

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Sex chromatin is a plano-convex to triangular DNA mass measuring approximately 1μm in size and lying adjacent to the inner side of nuclear membrane in the somatic cells of the females. There is consistent loss in the sex chromatin percentage in the carcinoma cases in comparison to benign lesions and normal individuals.

  13. The potential of bovine vaginal smear for biomarker development to trace the misuse of anabolic agents.

    Riedmaier, I; Reiter, M; Tichopad, A; Pfaffl, M W; Meyer, H H D

    2011-02-01

    In the European Union the use of anabolic hormones in meat production is forbidden since 1988 and this ban of anabolic agents in animal production is strictly controlled. New hormone cocktails passing the detection systems are attractive for the practice and so new approaches to discover their illegal use have to be developed steadily. Verifying physiological effects caused by anabolic steroids will be a new way to develop potential monitoring systems. One promising matrix in female animals will be vaginal smear containing vaginal epithelial cells, because the vaginal epithelium is a primary steroid hormone responsive organ. In this study we quantified the gene expression in vaginal smear of sexually mature cattle in order to observe physiological effects. Further we aimed to establish a new screening method by testing the effect of a combination of certain anabolic steroid hormones on physiological regulations of mRNA expression of selected genes. In an animal trial Nguni heifers were treated with the anabolic combination trenbolone acetate plus estradiol. Vaginal smear samples were taken at 4 different time points. Gene expression of 27 candidate genes, selected by screening the actual literature for steroidal effects on vaginal epithelial cells, were estimated using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. There were different expression changes observed at different time points. It could be shown that the applied anabolic combination significantly influenced the expression of the steroid receptor ERα, the keratinization factor CK8, the proinflammatory interleukins IL-1α and IL-1β, the growth factors FGF7, EGF, EGFR, IGF-1R, TGFα and LTF, the oncogen c-jun and other factors like actinβ and ubiquitin 3. Using biostatistical tools like principal components analysis or hierarchical cluster analysis, the potential to develop a gene expression pattern for targeting the illegal use of growth promoters could be demonstrated. PMID:21031338

  14. Studies on immunoglobulin containing cell in the vaginal smear during radiotherapy for cervical cancer

    In order to observe the immunological responce of the irradiated cervical cancer, vaginal smears were taken from 27 patients during radiotherapy and stained with fluorescent anti-IgG, anti-IgA, and anti-IgM sera by the direct method. The IgG-, IgA-, and IgM-containing cells increase significantly in the cervicitis and cervical cancer as compared with controls. There is no difference between cervicitis and cervical cancer in IgG and IgA, but IgM-containing cells increase significantly in cervical cancer. There is a highly significant correlation between IgM-containing cells in vaginal smear of cervical cancer and lymphoid cell infiltration of primary cancerous tissue. During radiotherapy, there are no changes of the mean percentage of IgM-containing cells in vaginal smears at 1,000 rad and 2,000 rad irradiation, but at 3,000 rad irradiation IgM-containing cells decrease significantly. On the changes of IgM-containing cells during radiotherapy, the patients are classified into three groups. Group A: IgM-containing cells increase in their population temporarity during radiotherapy (11 cases). Group B: IgM-containing cells decrease gradually in their population during radiotherapy (12 cases). Group C: The changes of IgM-Containing cells are irregular and/or show little deviation (4 cases). The three year survivals of group A is 9/12 (82.8%), group B is 6/12 (50.0%), and group C is 4/4. There is significant difference between group A and group B in survival rates, and group A is considered to be an immunoreactive group. (author)

  15. Does bleach processing increase the accuracy of sputum smear microscopy for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis?

    Cattamanchi, A; Davis, J L; Pai, M; Huang, L; Hopewell, P C; Steingart, K R

    2010-07-01

    Bleach digestion of sputum prior to smear preparation has been reported to increase the yield of microscopy for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis, even in high-HIV-prevalence settings. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of bleach microscopy, we updated a systematic review published in 2006 and applied the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation framework to rate the overall quality of the evidence. We searched multiple databases (as of January 2009) for primary studies in all languages comparing bleach and direct microscopy. We assessed study quality using a validated tool and heterogeneity by standard methods. We used hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC) analysis to calculate summary estimates of diagnostic accuracy and random-effects meta-analysis to pool sensitivity and specificity differences. Of 14 studies (11 papers) included, 9 evaluated bleach centrifugation and 5 evaluated bleach sedimentation. Overall, examination of bleach-processed versus direct smears led to small increases in sensitivity (for bleach centrifugation, 6% [95% confidence interval [CI] = 3 to 10%, P = 0.001]; for bleach sedimentation, 9% [95% CI = 4 to 14%, P = 0.001]) and small decreases in specificity (for bleach centrifugation, -3% [95% CI = -4% to -1%, P = 0.004]; for bleach sedimentation, -2% [95% CI = -5% to 0%, P = 0.05]). Similarly, analysis of HSROC curves suggested little or no improvement in diagnostic accuracy. The quality of evidence was rated very low for both bleach centrifugation and bleach sedimentation. This updated systematic review suggests that the benefits of bleach processing are less than those described previously. Further research should focus on alternative approaches to optimizing smear microscopy, such as light-emitting diode fluorescence microscopy and same-day sputum collection strategies. PMID:20421442

  16. Development of an automatic smear sampler and a polymer film for surface radioactive contamination assay

    Measurement of the surface contamination by an indirect method is subject to the various kinds of error according to the sampling person and needs much time and effort in the sampling and assay. In this research, an automatic smear sampler is developed. It improved efficiency for assay work of surface contamination level achieved periodically in a radiation controlled area. Using an automatic smear sampler developed, it is confirmed that radioactive contaminated materials are uniformly transferred to smear paper more than any sampling method by an operator. Also, Solid scintillation proximity membranes were prepared for measuring the amount of radioactive contamination in laboratories contaminated by the low energy beta-ray emitter, such as 3H and 14C. Polysulfone scintillation proximity membranes were prepared by impregnating Cerium Activated Yttrium Silicate (CAYS), an inorganic fluor, in a membrane structure. The inorganic fluor-impregnated membranes were applied to detect the radioactive surface contamination. The preparation of membranes was divided into two processes. A supporting polymer film was made of casting solutions consisting of polysulfone and solvent, their cast film being solidified by vacuum evaporation. CAYS-dispersed polymer solutions were cast over the first, solidified polymer films and coagulated either by evaporating solvent in the solution with non-solvent in a coagulation bath. The prepared membranes had two distinguished, but tightly attached, double layers : one is the supporting layer of dense polymer film and the other results revealed that the prepared membranes were efficient to monitor radioactive contamination with reliable counting ability. For enhancement of pick-up and measurement efficiency, the membrane was prepared with the condition of different membrane solidification. The scintillation produced by interaction with radiation and CAYS was measured with photomultiplier tube. The test results showed that the prepared membranes were efficient to monitor radionuclide-contaminated areas with the good counting ability. Treatment of the polymer film with DMF induced a change in surface morphology which allowed more radioactivity to be transferred from the surface.(author)

  17. Artificial blood

    Sarkar Suman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  18. Detection of helminth ova and larvae in trichrome-stained stool smears.

    Wood, J. C.; Friedly, G; de la Maza, L M

    1982-01-01

    The detection and identification of intestinal helminths were studied retrospectively by comparing the Formalin concentration technique with the trichrome-stained smear technique. A total of 3,997 stool samples from 1,570 patients were examined by both methods. Of the 3,997 samples, 31% (1,239 of 3,997) contained helminths or protozoans or both. A total of 11% (434 of 3,997) of the samples representing 14% (221 of 1,570) of the patients were positive for one or more helminth species. A total ...

  19. Scanning electron microscopy of root canal walls after removing the smear layer

    Gašić Jovanka; Dačić-Simonović Dragica; Radičević Goran; Mitić Aleksandar; Stojilković Goran; Daković Jelena

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate ultrastructurally the effect of smear layer removal by applying different root canal irrigances: 3% HO2, 4% NaOCl and 15% Na-EDTA (in combination with 3% HO2, 4% NaOCl) and establish the appearance of root canal dentine surface after treatment with 15% Na-EDTA for different time periods(1 min and 5 min) using additional irrigant 3% HOor 4% NaOCl. 22 22 Teeth with single and double canals extracted for orthodontic reasons, were used in this study. A...

  20. Effectiveness of EDTA and EDTA-T brushingm on the removal of root surface smear layer

    Sampaio José Eduardo Cezar; Rached Ricardo Samih Georges Abi; Pilatti Gibson Luiz; Theodoro Letícia Helena; Batista Luiz Henrique Carvalho

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the removal of root surface smear layer following active application of EDTA gel and EDTA-T (texapon) gel in different concentrations (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 24%), using scanning electron microscopy. A total of 220 dentin blocks obtained from the root surfaces of extracted teeth were divided into 3 groups: Group I - (control) application of saline solution (n = 20); Group II - EDTA gel (pH 7.0) was applied in the following concentrations: 5%, 10%, 15%, ...

  1. Pap Smear Screening Test and it’s Applications in Cervical Cancer Detection and Classification

    S.Athinarayanan; Dr.M.V.Srinath

    2013-01-01

    A large group of women population, in the world is affected by the cervical cancer in their different age groups. Hence, most of the researchers, pathologists and also more number of collegiate have provided more number of solutions, to identify this cancer from the test images of pap smear screening test. But their results represent, only to an extent, whether the patient is affected by cancer or not, and do not specially identify the exact nature and severity of the cancer. In this paper, i...

  2. Detection of mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical samples by smear and culture

    A retrospective study was carried out in order to compare the smear stained by ZN and Lowenstein-Jensen (U) medium for the detection of Mycobacterium in clinical samples from different categories. Study Design: Laboratory based, Retrospective. Place and Duration: Sir Ganga Ram Hospital Fatima Jinnah Medical College, Lahore over a 5 year period between Jan 2001 and June 2006. Material and Methods: A total of 798 clinical samples were collected from patients of both sexes and all ages with a provisional diagnosis of tuberculosis. A Ziehl-Neelsen stain (ZN) and culture on U medium was performed for the detection of Mycobacterium. The specimen categories were sputum, pus, lymph node aspirate, urine and endometrial curetting. Results: Out of 5 types of 798 specimens received over a period of five years, only 46.3%) (n=369) were respiratory whereas the remaining 53.7% (n=429) were non respiratory tract category samples including sputum, pus, lymph node aspirate, urine and endometrial curetting. All were examined for the presence of acid-fast-bacilli (AFB) in ZN smear. Among these 3.578% gave a positive ZN stain while 11.65% were positive on culture. Out of a total of 369 respiratory tract category samples, 38 (10.3%) sputum samples were positive for AFB on both ZN and culture. Among the non respiratory tract category, 47 (28.2%) pus, 26 (31%) LN aspirate, 5 (15.6%) urine, 5 (3.42%) endometrial curetting were reported positive. Only 15.16% of clinical samples belonging to 5 different categories of specimens received from patients of both sexes with a provisional diagnosis of tuberculosis, tested positive for Mycobacterium by both ZN stain smear and culture on U medium. Among these, 3.57% were positive for AFB on ZN smear and 11.65% were positive on culture on U medium. Conclusion: These conventional techniques have proved to be reliable testing tools for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in our settings but there is an urgent need to promote the use of Biotic and Pcr for early detection and drug susceptibility keeping in view the rise in the number of multi-drug resistant cases of tuberculosis in the last few years. (author)

  3. Bacterial vaginosis, aerobic vaginitis, vaginal inflammation and major Pap smear abnormalities.

    Vieira-Baptista, P; Lima-Silva, J; Pinto, C; Saldanha, C; Beires, J; Martinez-de-Oliveira, J; Donders, G

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the impact of the vaginal milieu on the presence of abnormal Pap smears and a positive human papilloma virus (HPV) test. A cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2014 and May 2015, evaluating the vaginal discharge by fresh wet mount microscopy and comparing these data with Pap smear findings. Wet mount slides were scored for bacterial vaginosis (BV), aerobic vaginitis (AV), presence of Candida and Trichomonas vaginalis. Cytologic evaluation was done on all Pap smears according to the Bethesda criteria. The cobas© HPV Test (Roche) was performed for HPV detection. A total of 622 cases were evaluated. The mean age of the patients was 41.6 ± 10.65 years (range 21-75). Eighty-three women (13.3 %) had a cytology result worse than low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). When comparing this group with the one with normal or minor [atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) or LSIL] Pap smear abnormalities, there were no differences in the presence of Candida (32.5 % vs. 33.2 %, p = 1.0), absence of lactobacilli (38.6 % vs. 32.5 %, p = 0.32) or BV (20.5 % vs. 13.2 %, p = 0.09). On the other hand, moderate or severe inflammation (msI) (41.0 % vs. 28.8 %, p = 0,04), moderate or severe AV (msAV) (16.9 % vs. 7.2 %, p = 0.009) and msAV/BV (37.3 % vs. 20.0 %, p = 0.001) were more common in women with such major cervical abnormalities. No significant association was found between deviations of the vaginal milieu and high-risk HPV infection. The presence of msI or msAV, but not BV, is independently associated with an increased risk of major cervical cytological abnormalities, but not with HPV infection. PMID:26810061

  4. Study of cervical pap smears in a tertiary care hospital of south Gujarat, India

    Hemali J. Tailor

    2016-01-01

    Results: Total 1425 patients were screened; there were 1034 (72.56% abnormal Pap smears, with 354 (24.84% normal cases and 37 (2.59% unsatisfactory or inadequate samples. Total 27 (1.89% cases showed epithelial cell abnormalities. ASCUS was the most commonly found (40.74% epithelial cell abnormality out of 27 cases. Conclusions: Incidence of invasive cervical malignancy can be prevented if Pap screening program is effectively implemented in target population. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(1.000: 286-288

  5. Noise reduction by combining smearing with multi-level integration methods

    Bakry, Ahmed S.; Chen, Xurong; Zhang, Pengming

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we propose an algorithm that combines the Lüscher-Weiss (LW) multi-level error reduction technique with three-dimensional gauge-field smoothing. The purpose of this algorithm is to reduce the noise and the computational time associated with measuring field correlators in the low temperature pure quantum chromodynamics (QCD), or the stringy regions of Yang-Mills theory in general. The simultaneous application of both link-blocking and path-integral factorization techniques is based on the observation that Monte Carlo updating of the three-dimensional smeared lattices preserves the key features of the long distance physics.

  6. Women who take pap smear in Fortaleza - social and sexual characterization. 

    Camila Félix Américo; Lydia Vieira Freitas; Levânia Maria Benevides Dias; Ana Carolina Maria Araújo Chagas; Thaís Marques Lima; Escolástica Rejane Ferreira Moura; Ana Karina Bezerra Pinheiro

    2009-01-01

    Considering the epidemiological relevance and the mortality of Uterine Cervix Cancer, the aim of this study is know the gynecological profile of women who take Pap smear in a basic unit of a metropolitan area. This is an exploratory study, with quantitative approach and traversal outlining which took place in a Center of Natural C...

  7. Use of Polyphosphate to Decrease Uranium Leaching in Hanford 300 Area Smear Zone Sediments

    Szecsody, James E.; Zhong, Lirong; Oostrom, Martinus; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Williams, Mark D.

    2012-09-30

    The primary objective of this study is to summarize the laboratory investigations performed to evaluate short- and long-term effects of phosphate treatment on uranium leaching from 300 area smear zone sediments. Column studies were used to compare uranium leaching in phosphate-treated to untreated sediments over a year with multiple stop flow events to evaluate longevity of the uranium leaching rate and mass. A secondary objective was to compare polyphosphate injection, polyphosphate/xanthan injection, and polyphosphate infiltration technologies that deliver phosphate to sediment.

  8. Instructional guidelines on sampling from metal, dyed and other smooth and solid surfaces (by 'smear' method)

    Instructional guidelines was elaborated in the frame of International Scientific Technic Centre project T-1082.3 and directed on arrangement of radiation environment investigations on the territory of the Republic waste disposal site. Instructional guidelines put requirements on sampling by 'smear' method, tampon preparation, packing, marking, transportation, samples preparation to investigation and storage of samples in laboratory conditions. The aim of investigations is revelation of polluted objects on the territory of the Republic waste disposal site, determination of pollution intensity level, pollution dynamics, determination of pollution impact and elaboration measures in order to eliminate their harmful effect on human body and environment.

  9. Determining the interobserver reproducibility of Pap smears in the diagnosis of epithelial cell abnormalities

    Izadi-Mood N

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Cancer of uterine cervix is the second cause of death in women in the world and the most common cause in developing countries. Because the majority of women with invasive cervical cancer of the uterine have not previously undergone screening, many clinicians assume that Pap smear has a high degree of accuracy; but problems such as false positive and false negative interpretations, as well as interobserver variability have questioned its validity."n"nMethods : We retrieved 162 positive cervical smears that had been originally interpreted as ASC-US, ASC-H, LSIL, HSIL, SCC, AGC and adenocarcinoma from the cytology archives of Women's Hospital in Tehran, Iran. The slides were rescreened by an experienced pathologist and reclassified in the mentioned categories. All the 162 slides were reviewed by three more pathologists in a blind study using interpretative criteria utilized in their daily routine to evaluate interobserver reproducibility. To increase the level of interobserver agreement, the diagnostic categories were reduced to squamous Vs. glandular abnormalities and invasive (SCC and adenocarcinoma Vs. non-invasive abnormalities."n"nResults : The results obtained in this study indicated slight interobserver agreement (k=0.26. The most reproducible category was the invasive category (SCC in addition to adenocarcinoma and the least agreement was seen for HSIL (k=0.19. "n"nConclusion: This study showed that reproducibility of cytological interpretation of conventional Pap smears varies among interpretive categories and the overall interobserver agreement is slight. Since convening on the reduction of interobserver discrepancy in Pap smear interpretations necessitates more reliable information of interpretative variability, larger studies need to be undertaken.

  10. Blood gases

    Blood gases are a measurement of how much oxygen and carbon dioxide are in your blood. They also determine ... The test also provides information about the body's acid/base balance, which can reveal important clues about ...

  11. BLOOD DONATION

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Franais du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

  12. AdS black holes, the bulk-boundary dictionary, and smearing functions

    Leichenauer, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    In Lorentzian AdS/CFT there exists a mapping between local bulk operators and nonlocal CFT operators. In global AdS this mapping can be found through use of bulk equations of motion and allows the nonlocal CFT operator to be expressed as a local operator smeared over a range of positions and times. We argue that such a construction is not possible if there are bulk normal modes with exponentially small near boundary imprint. We show that the AdS-Schwarzschild background is such a case, with the horizon introducing modes with angular momentum much larger than frequency, causing them to be trapped by the centrifugal barrier. More generally, we argue that any barrier in the radial effective potential which prevents null geodesics from reaching the boundary will lead to modes with vanishingly small near boundary imprint, thereby obstructing the existence of a smearing function. While one may have thought the bulk-boundary dictionary for low curvature regions, such as the exterior of a black hole, should be as in ...

  13. Vacuum Energy Density Fluctuations in Minkowski and Casimir States via Smeared Quantum Fields and Point Separation

    Phillips, N G; Phillips, Nicholas. G.

    2000-01-01

    We present calculations of the variance of fluctuations and of the mean of the energy momentum tensor of a massless scalar field for the Minkowski and Casimir vacua as a function of an intrinsic scale defined by a smeared field or by point separation. We point out that contrary to prior claims, the ratio of variance to mean-squared being of the order unity is not necessarily a good criterion for measuring the invalidity of semiclassical gravity. For the Casimir topology we obtain expressions for the variance to mean-squared ratio as a function of the intrinsic scale (defined by a smeared field) compared to the extrinsic scale (defined by the separation of the plates, or the periodicity of space). Our results make it possible to identify the spatial extent where negative energy density prevails which could be useful for studying quantum field effects in worm holes and baby universe, and for examining the design feasibility of real-life `time-machines'. For the Minkowski vacuum we find that the ratio of the var...

  14. Performance of Low Smeared Density Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor Metal Fuel

    Porter, D. L.; H. J. M. Chichester; Medvedev, P. G.; Hayes, S. L.; Teague, M. C.

    2015-10-01

    An experiment was performed in the Experimental Breeder Rector-II (EBR-II) in the 1990s to show that metallic fast reactor fuel could be used in reactors with a single, once-through core. To prove the long duration, high burnup, high neutron exposure capability an experiment where the fuel pin was designed with a very large fission gas plenum and very low fuel smeared density (SD). The experiment, X496, operated to only 8.3 at. % burnup because the EBR-II reactor was scheduled for shut-down at that time. Many of the examinations of the fuel pins only funded recently with the resurgence of reactor designs using very high-burnup fuel. The results showed that, despite the low smeared density of 59% the fuel swelled radially to contact the cladding, fission gas release appeared to be slightly higher than demonstrated in conventional 75%SD fuel tests and axial growth was about the same as 75% SD fuel. There were axial positions in some of the fuel pins which showed evidence of fuel restructuring and an absence of fission products with low metaling points and gaseous precursors (Cs and Rb). A model to investigate whether these areas may have overheated due to a loss of bond sodium indicates that it is a possible explanation for the fuel restructuring and something to be considered for fuel performance modeling of low SD fuel.

  15. Photometry of very bright stars with Kepler and K2 smear data

    Pope, B. J. S.; White, T. R.; Huber, D.; Murphy, S. J.; Bedding, T. R.; Caldwell, D. A.; Sarai, A.; Aigrain, S.; Barclay, T.

    2016-01-01

    High-precision time series photometry with the Kepler satellite has been crucial to our understanding both of exoplanets, and via asteroseismology, of stellar physics. After the failure of two reaction wheels, the Kepler satellite has been repurposed as Kepler-2 (K2), observing fields close to the ecliptic plane. As these fields contain many more bright stars than the original Kepler field, K2 provides an unprecedented opportunity to study nearby objects amenable to detailed follow-up with ground-based instruments. Due to bandwidth constraints, only a small fraction of pixels can be downloaded, with the result that most bright stars which saturate the detector are not observed. We show that engineering data acquired for photometric calibration, consisting of collateral `smear' measurements, can be used to reconstruct light curves for bright targets not otherwise observable with Kepler/K2. Here we present some examples from Kepler Quarter 6 and K2 Campaign 3, including the δ Scuti variables HD 178875 and 70 Aqr, and the red giant HR 8500 displaying solar-like oscillations. We compare aperture and smear photometry where possible, and also study targets not previously observed. These encouraging results suggest this new method can be applied to most Kepler and K2 fields.

  16. Effect of the smear layer in the removal of calcium hydroxide from root canal walls

    Hakan Arslan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the smear layer influences the removal of calcium hydroxide from the root canal with manual or rotary instruments. Materials and Methods: The root canals of 48 freshly extracted single-rooted maxillary incisors were prepared to apical size 40 (n=40 and finally irrigated with sodium hypochlorite (group A, or ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA followed by sodium hypo chlorite (group B. 20 teeth were assigned to each group, while the remaining eight teeth served as positive and negative controls. Each group was divided into two subgroups of 10 teeth (subgroup I - calcium hydroxide was removed with master apical file; subgroup II - with profile file; and, in all removal procedures, citric acid was used for irrigation. The percentage of calcium hydroxide-[Ca(OH [Ca(OH 2 ] coated surface area was calculated by image processing analysis. Results: Considering the root canal as a whole, the removal of Ca(OH 2 from the dentinal walls in group B showed significantly better results (P<0.05 as compared to group A. Conclusions: Under the conditions of this study, it can be concluded that the smear layer is important in the removal of calcium hydroxide.

  17. Morphology of peripheral blood cells from various species of Turkish Herpetofauna

    Hseyin Ar?kan; Kerim iek

    2010-01-01

    In this study, measurements of morphological and size parameters of peripheral blood cells (erythrocyte, leucocyte, thrombocyte) on blood smear preparation devices stained with Wrights stain were given for 87 species from Turkish herpetofauna (19 amphibian species including 7 urodeles and 12 anurans as well as 68 reptile species including 4 turtles, 30 lizards and 34 snake.It was determined that erythrocyte and nucleus sizes showed great variations among the species of herpetofau...

  18. Morphology of Peripheral Blood Cells from Various Species of Turkish Herpetofauna

    ARIKAN, Hseyin; Kerim CICEK

    2010-01-01

    In this study, measurements of morphological and size parameters of peripheral blood cells (erythrocyte, leucocyte, thrombocyte) on blood smear preparation devices stained with Wrights stain were given for 87 species from Turkish herpetofauna (19 amphibian species including 7 urodeles and 12 anurans as well as 68 reptile species including 4 turtles, 30 lizards and 34 snakes). It was determined that erythrocyte and nucleus sizes showed great variations among the species of herpetofauna...

  19. KAJIAN KEBIJAKAN PENGGUNAAN DATA PAP-SMEAR IBU RUMAH TANGGA DALAM SURVEILANS INFEKSI MENULAR SEKSUAL PADA KELOMPOK RISIKO RENDAH

    Arief Hargono

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Latar Belakang: Kasus Infeksi Menular Seksual (IMS pada kelompok risiko rendah mengalami peningkatan. Analisisdata PKBI Jawa Timur 2004–2009 menunjukkan peningkatan kasus IMS melalui pemeriksaan pap-smear pada ibu rumahtangga. Kajian kebijakan penggunaan data pap-smear dilakukan sebagai bahan pengembangan surveilans IMS padakelompok risiko rendah. Metode: Riset kualitatif dengan kaidah analisis kebijakan dari Walt dan Gilson yang meliputiaktor, konteks, isi dan proses. Penelitian dilakukan di Jakarta, Jawa Barat, Jawa Timur, Kepulauan Riau dan Bali. Informanadalah pelaksana surveilans IMS dan pap-smear dinas kesehatan propinsi, dinas kesehatan kota, rumah sakit, puskesmas,balai pengobatan dan LSM. Pengumpulan data menggunakan Focus Group Disscussion (FGD dan study dokumen. Datadianalisis dengan cara content analysis. Hasil: Aktor yang berperan dalam surveilans adalah unit surveilans epidemiologipusat hingga di daerah. Unit tersebut didukung oleh institusi pelaksana surveilans IMS dan pap-smear yang meliputipemerintah, swasta dan masyarakat. Faktor situasional data kesehatan dan penelitian memperlihatkan meningkatnyakejadian IMS pada ibu rumah tangga. Faktor struktural di masyarakat menunjukkan surveilans IMS sudah dilaksanakandan masyarakat merasakan pentingnya informasi kejadian IMS pada kelompok risiko rendah. Isi kebijakan meliputi fokusdeteksi dini dan pencegahan IMS pada ibu rumah tangga, penggunaan data dan informasi kegiatan pemeriksaan ibu rumahtangga dan pengembangan surveilans IMS menggunakan data pap-smear. Saran: Fokus pencegahan dan mengatasi penyebaran penyakit IMS diperluas pada kelompok risiko rendah yaitu ibu rumah tangga. Memperkuat sistem dan jejaringsurveilans epidemiologi IMS dan HIV/AIDS sebagai upaya pemantauan terus menerus pada masalah IMS.

  20. Blood Sugar

    ... range. You may need to check your blood sugar several times each day. Your health care provider will also do a blood test called an A1C. It checks your average blood sugar level over the past three months. If your ...

  1. Decline in overall, smear-negative and HIV-positive TB incidence while smear-positive incidence stays stable in Guinea-Bissau 2004-2011

    Lemvik, G; Rudolf, F; Vieira, F; Sodemann, Morten; Østergaard, Lars Jørgen; Rodrigues, A; Gomes, V; Aaby, P; Wejse, C

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To calculate Tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates in Guinea-Bissau over an 8-year period. METHODS: Since 2003, a surveillance system has registered all TB cases in six suburban districts of Bissau. In this population-based prospective follow-up study, 1205 cases of pulmonary TB were ident......-positive TB cases, probably due to antiretroviral treatment. Smear-positive TB incidence remains stable over the period.......OBJECTIVE: To calculate Tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates in Guinea-Bissau over an 8-year period. METHODS: Since 2003, a surveillance system has registered all TB cases in six suburban districts of Bissau. In this population-based prospective follow-up study, 1205 cases of pulmonary TB were...... identified between January 2004 and December 2011. Incidence rates were calculated using census data from the Bandim Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). RESULTS: The overall incidence of pulmonary TB was 279 per 100 000 person-years of observation; the male incidence being 385, and the female...

  2. Fault transmissibility in clastic-argillaceous sequences controlled by clay smear evolution

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The mechanical entrainment of clays and shales in fault zones of sedimentary sequences can exert fundamental control on fault-permeability. To estimate the influence of entrained clay bands on fluid flow, semi-empirical fault-seal algorithms are being used for hydrocarbon exploration (e.g. Yielding et al., 1997) and CO2 storage assessment (e.g. Bretan et al., 2011). To estimate clay distribution in the fault zone, these algorithms do not consider material properties or deformation conditions at the time of faulting, but rather they rely on the simplified assumption that fault gouge composition at any point along the fault reflects the 'mean' clay fraction of the slipped interval. Whether individual clay bands are breached or are continuous is not evaluated, yet this could have a dramatic effect on fault transmissibility. In this study, the sealing capacity of clay smears evolving in sealed direct shear experiments of initially intact sandstone-clay-stone sequences was quantified to large displacements up to more than ten times the thickness of the clay layer. A new type of direct shear cell was specifically designed for these experiments (Giger et al., 2011). The sample blocks consisted of a pre-consolidated clay-rich 'seal' layer, which was embedded and synthetically cemented in 'reservoir' quartz sand. The mineralogy and mechanical properties of the clay layer and the reservoir sandstones were constrained in geomechanical tests. Discrete element modelling (DEM) was carried out in parallel to investigate a wider range of deformation conditions, and to explore the possibility to upscale the analogue test results. The fluid flow response across the fault zone could be monitored continuously during deformation. A tracer was also added to the clay layer, and the finite 3D smear structure could be resolved (using a medical CT scanner) and related to the flow response (Ciftci et al., 2011). Displacement at which seals break down is closely linked to the clay content in the seal layer. Contrary to expectations, softer seal layers do not seal better than stiff seal layers for given clay content. In the testing range between 4 - 24 MPa covering maximum burial depth conditions of ∼800 m to ∼4 km (assuming normal fault tectonics), a systematic trend is also observed indicating better smear continuity by increasing the effective normal stress. Predominantly brittle processes such as slicing and wear, and not ductile drag or plastic flow appear to be responsible for the generation of clay smears. The test results offer the prospect of incorporating critical shale smear factors (i.e. normalized displacement at which seal breakdown occurs) into probabilistic fault seal algorithms that take into account important properties that can be measured or estimated, namely, layer clay content, and fault normal effective stress. Such mechanistically improved fault seal algorithms are also relevant for the safety assessment of sediment formations above and below a potential radioactive waste repository. (authors)

  3. Kinetics of viral load and erythrocytic inclusion body formation in pacific herring artificially infected with erythrocytic necrosis virus

    Glenn, Jolene A.; Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Grady, Courtney A.; Roon, Sean R.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Conway, Carla M.; Winton, James R.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2012-01-01

    Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a condition that affects marine and anadromous fish species, including herrings and salmonids, in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Infection is frequently associated with severe anemia and causes episodic mortality among wild and hatchery fish when accompanied by additional stressors; VEN can be presumptively diagnosed by (1) light microscopic identification of a single characteristic-a round, magenta-colored, 0.8-μm-diameter inclusion body (IB) within the cytoplasm of erythrocytes and their precursors on Giemsa-stained blood films; or (2) observation (via transmission electron microscopy [TEM]) of the causative iridovirus, erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), within erythrocytes or their precursors. To better understand the kinetics of VEN, specific-pathogen-free Pacific herring Clupea pallasii were infected with ENV by intraperitoneal injection. At 1, 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 d postexposure, samples of blood, spleen, and kidney were collected and assessed (1) via light microscopy for the number of intracytoplasmic IBs in blood smears and (2) via TEM for the number of virions within erythrocytes. The mean prevalence of intracytoplasmic IBs in the blood cells increased from 0% at 0-4 d postexposure to 94% at 28 d postexposure. Viral load within circulating red blood cells peaked at 7 d postexposure, fell slightly, and then reached a plateau. However, blood cells observed within the kidney and spleen tissues demonstrated high levels of ENV between 14 and 28 d postexposure. The results indicate that the viral load within erythrocytes does not correlate well with IB prevalence and that the virus can persist in infected fish for more than 28 d.

  4. Effectiveness of EDTA and EDTA-T brushingm on the removal of root surface smear layer / Efeito do EDTA e EDTA-T aplicado de forma ativa na remoo de "smear layer" de superfcies radiculares

    Jos Eduardo Cezar, Sampaio; Ricardo Samih Georges Abi, Rached; Gibson Luiz, Pilatti; Letcia Helena, Theodoro; Luiz Henrique Carvalho, Batista.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar, atravs de microscopia eletrnica de varredura, o efeito da aplicao de gel de EDTA e de EDTA-T (texapon) em diferentes concentraes (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% e 24%) na remoo de "smear layer" de superfcies radiculares previamente raspadas com instrumentos ma [...] nuais. Duzentos e vinte espcimes de superfcies radiculares submetidas raspagem foram divididos em 3 grupos. Grupo I - (controle) soluo salina (n = 20); Grupo II - gel de EDTA (pH 7,0) nas concentraes de 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% e 24% (n = 100); Grupo III - gel de EDTA-T (pH 7,0) nas concentraes acima descritas (n = 100). As fotomicrografias obtidas foram avaliadas por um examinador calibrado atravs da aplicao de um ndice de remoo de "smear layer", e os dados foram analisados atravs de anlise estatstica (teste de Kruskal-Wallis). Os resultados demonstraram que todos os tratamentos com EDTA e EDTA-T foram mais efetivos na remoo de "smear layer" quando comparados com o grupo controle (p 0,05). Dentro dos limites deste estudo, pode-se concluir que todas as modalidades de tratamento foram efetivas na remoo de "smear layer" e a adio de texapon ao gel de EDTA no aumentou a efetividade do tratamento. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to compare the removal of root surface smear layer following active application of EDTA gel and EDTA-T (texapon) gel in different concentrations (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 24%), using scanning electron microscopy. A total of 220 dentin blocks obtained from the root surfaces [...] of extracted teeth were divided into 3 groups: Group I - (control) application of saline solution (n = 20); Group II - EDTA gel (pH 7.0) was applied in the following concentrations: 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 24% (n = 100); Group III - EDTA-T gel (pH 7.0) applied in the same concentrations described above (n = 100). The photomicrographs were evaluated by one calibrated examiner using a smear layer removal index and following statistical analysis (Kruskal-Wallis test). The results demonstrated that the specimens treated with EDTA and EDTA-T gel presented a better smear layer removal than the control group (p 0.05). Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that all treatment modalities effectively removed the smear layer from the root surface. The addition of texapon into the EDTA gel formulation did not increase its effectiveness.

  5. Thermodynamics of noncommutative high-dimensional AdS black holes with non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions

    Miao, Yan-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Considering non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions, we investigate thermodynamic behaviors of the noncommutative high-dimensional Schwarzschild-Tangherlini anti-de Sitter black hole, and obtain the condition for the existence of extreme black holes. We indicate that the Gaussian smeared matter distribution, which is a special case of non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions, is not applicable for the 6- and higher-dimensional black holes due to the hoop conjecture. In particular, the phase transition is analyzed in detail. Moreover, we point out that the Maxwell equal area law maintains for the noncommutative black hole with the Hawking temperature within a specific range, but fails with the Hawking temperature beyond this range.

  6. Vacuum structure revealed by over-improved stout-link smearing compared with the overlap analysis for quenched QCD

    Ilgenfritz, E.M.; Leinweber, D.; Moran, P. [Adelaide Univ., SA (AU). Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter (CSSM); Koller, K. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Sektion Physik; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Weinberg, V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2008-01-11

    A detailed comparison is made between the topological structure of quenched QCD as revealed by the recently proposed over-improved stout-link smearing in conjunction with an improved gluonic definition of the topological density on one hand and a similar analysis made possible by the overlap-fermionic topological charge density both with and without variable ultraviolet cutoff {lambda}{sub cut}. The matching is twofold, provided by fitting the density-density two-point functions on one hand and by a point-by-point fitting of the topological densities according to the two methods. We point out the similar cluster structure of the topological density for moderate smearing and 200 MeV<{lambda}{sub cut}<600 MeV, respectively. We demonstrate the relation of the gluonic topological density for extensive smearing to the location of the overlap zero modes and the lowest overlap non-zero mode as found for the unsmeared configurations. (orig.)

  7. Cord Blood

    Saeed Abroun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord blood is a sample of blood taken from a newborn baby's umbilical cord. It is a rich source of stem cells, umbilical cord blood and tissue are collected from material that normally has no use following a child’s birth. Umbilical cord blood and tissue cells are rich sources of stem cells, which have been used in the treatment of over 80 diseases including leukemia, lymphoma and anemia as bone marrow stem cell potency.  The most common disease category has been leukemia. The next largest group is inherited diseases. Patients with lymphoma, myelodysplasia and severe aplastic anemia have also been successfully transplanted with cord blood. Cord blood is obtained by syringing out the placenta through the umbilical cord at the time of childbirth, after the cord has been detached from the newborn. Collecting stem cells from umbilical blood and tissue is ethical, pain-free, safe and simple. When they are needed to treat your child later in life, there will be no rejection or incompatibility issues, as the procedure will be using their own cells. In contrast, stem cells from donors do have these potential problems. By consider about cord blood potency, cord blood banks (familial or public were established. In IRAN, four cord blood banks has activity, Shariati BMT center cord blood bank, Royan familial cord blood banks, Royan public cord blood banks and Iranian Blood Transfusion Organ cord blood banks. Despite 50,000 sample which storage in these banks, but the user centers are few, we hope in all providence the transplantation center will establish by good activity to improve social welfare. Key words: Bone marrow, Cord blood, Peripheral blood.

  8. Frequencies of X-ray induced chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes of xeroderma pigmentosum and Fanconi anemia patients estimated by Giemsa and fluorescence in situ hybridization staining techniques

    Saraswathy Radha; Natarajan A.T.

    2000-01-01

    Blood lymphocytes from xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Fanconi anemia (FA) patients were assessed for their sensitivity to ionizing radiation by estimating the frequency of X-ray (1 and 2 Gy)-induced chromosome aberrations (CA). The frequencies of aberrations in the whole genome were estimated in Giemsa-stained preparations of lymphocytes irradiated at G0 or G2 stages. The frequencies of translocations and dicentrics involving chromosomes 1 and 3 as well as the X-chromosome were determined in ...

  9. An investigation of enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) infection by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID), enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests and hematological applications on the dairy cows in the

    Kale M.; Öztürk F.

    2004-01-01

    Haematological tests (alfa nafthyl acetate esterase ANAE activity, May Grünwald Giemsa staining and total leucocyte counts) were applied to 469 dairy cows, where the enzootic form of bovine leucosis was investigated. In the same 469 dairy cows, a search for antibodies directed against bovine leucosis virus (BLV) was carried out using agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) in blood samples and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in milk samples. Among the 469 animals screened, 90 were positive ...

  10. Hematochezia before the First Feeding in a Newborn with Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome

    Masanori Mizuno; Hiroshi Masaki; Ryoko Yoshinare; Yujun Ito; Hideyuki Morita; Hiroyuki Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence and incidence of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) are clearly not known; its onset before first feeding at birth especially has been rarely reported. A female newborn was referred to our institution due to blood-stained diarrhea before her first feeding at birth. Examination of the stool with Wright-Giemsa staining on day 6 revealed numerous fecal eosinophils, including Charcot-Leyden crystals. Lymphocyte stimulation test (LST) against cow's milk protein also...

  11. Influence of Helicobacter pylori Colonization on Histological Grading of Chronic Gastritis in Korean Patients with Peptic Ulcer

    Park, Joongwon; Kim, Mi Kyung; Park, Sill Moo

    1995-01-01

    Objectives: We conducted an analysis of correlation between histological grading of chronic gastritis and the presence of H. pylori infection to investigate if H. pylori influences histological severity of chronic gastritis in Korean patients with peptic ulcers. Methods: Gastroscopic antral biopsy specimens and peripheral venous blood were taken from 80 patients with gastric or duodenal ulcers. H. pylori was identified microscopically in sections with Giemsa staining and quantitative grading ...

  12. Trichomonas tenax empyema in an immunocompromised patient with advanced cancer.

    Shiota, T; Arizono, N; Morimoto, T; Shimatsu, A; Nakao, K

    1998-12-01

    A 53-year-old male acromegalic patient with advanced rectal adenocarcinoma developed pleuritis in the course of cobalt irradiation, steroid treatment and chemotherapy. Examination of drained pleural fluid demonstrated numerous motile organisms, which were identified as Trichomonas tenax by Giemsa staining. Peptostreptococcus micros was also detected in the cultures of pleural fluid and blood. Treatment with metronidazole successfully eliminated the protozoa and cured the pyothorax. PMID:9879561

  13. New Method for the Quantitative Analysis of Smear Slides in Pelagic and Hemi-Pelagic Sediments of the Bering Sea

    Drake, M. K.; Aiello, I. W.; Ravelo, A. C.

    2014-12-01

    Petrographic microscopy of smear slides is the standard method to initially investigate marine sediments in core sediment studies (e.g. IODP expeditions). The technique is not commonly used in more complex analysis due to concerns over the subjectivity of the method and variability in operator training and experience. Two initiatives sponsored by Ocean Leadership, a sedimentology training workshop and a digital reference of smear slide components (Marsaglia et al., 2013) have been implemented to address the need for advanced training. While the influence of subjectivity on the quality of data has yet to be rigorously tested, the lack of standardization in the current method of smear slide analysis (SSA) remains a concern. The relative abundance of the three main components, (total diatoms, silt-to-sand sized siliciclastics, and clay minerals) of high and low density Bering Sea hemi-pelagic sediments from the ocean margin (Site U144; Site U1339) and pelagic sediments from the open-ocean (Site U1340) were analyzed. Our analyses show visual estimation is a reproducible method to quantify the relative abundance of the main sediment components. Furthermore, we present a modified method for SSA, with procedural changes objectively guided by statistical analyses, including constraints to increase randomness and precision in both the preparation and analysis of the smear slide. For example, repeated measure ANOVAs found a smear slide could be accurately quantified by counting three fields of view. Similarly, the use of replicate smear slides to quantify a sample was analyzed. Finally, the data produced from this modified SSA shows a strong correlation to continuously logged physical parameters of sediment such as gamma ray attenuation (Site U1339 r2= 0.41; Site U1340 r2= 0.36). Therefore, the modified SSA combined with other independent methods (e.g. laser particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and physical properties) can be a very effective tool for the interpretation and the quantitative analysis of lithologic variability in marine sediments.

  14. Survival of smear-positive multidrug resistant tuberculosis patients in Witbank, South Africa: A retrospective cohort study.

    Olaleye, Abiola O; Beke, Andy K

    2016-06-01

    Background A retrospective cohort study was carried out to compare the survival between smear-positive patients and smear-negative multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients hospitalised in a specialised TB hospital in Witbank, South Africa. Methods A review of medical records of MDR-TB patients treated from 2001 to 2010 was carried out. Survival time was measured from a patient's date of hospitalisation to the date when the patient died, was last treated at the hospital or the end of the study (whichever came first). All patients who were alive until the end of the study period or lost to follow-up were censored and those who died were considered as failures. Survival patterns were estimated using Kaplan Meier plots, log rank tests and life tables. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were also conducted. Results The mean age of the 442 MDR-TB patients in the study was 37.7 ± 11.2 years. The incidence rates of mortality were 13.4 and 43.9 per 1000 person-months for smear-negative and smear-positive MDR-TB patients, respectively. Cox proportional hazard regression showed that the predictors of death among MDR-TB patients include HIV co-infection (adjusted Hazard Rate, aHR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.02-3.52), old age (above 60 years) (aHR = 2.05, 95% CI = 1.04-3.60) and smear positivity at diagnosis (aHR = 3.29, 95% CI = 2.39-4.64). Conclusion The study showed that the probability of survival during the treatment is reduced in MDR-TB patients, who are smear-positive, HIV positive or older than 60 years. Special care should be given to these patients to improve survival. PMID:26954520

  15. Clinico-pathological profile and treatment outcome in smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis patients at a teaching hospital

    Tuberculosis remains the single highest contributor to the world's morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is essential to prevent its transmission. To see the treatment response of anti tuberculosis drugs in smear negative patients and study the predictors of culture positive among smear negative tuberculosis patients. Ninety four sputum smear negative patients clinically and radiologically suggestive of tuberculosis were selected. These patients were put on anti tuberculosis drugs without waiting for their culture results. They were then followed for 8 months to see their treatment outcome. A total of 94 smear negative patients were selected and given anti tuberculosis treatment. Of these 37(39%) were culture positive and 57(61%) were culture negative. Of the 37 culture positive patients 36(97%) showed clinical or radiological improvement as compared to 46(81%) out of 57 in culture negative cases. Symptoms of cough with sputum production was significantly associated with culture positivity. On x-ray chest moderate lesion with diffuse infiltration was more common finding in 64% while extensive and cavitatory lesion was seen in 24% of all cases. Association of extensive and cavitatory lesion were seen in culture positive group. Response to anti tuberculosis drugs in sputum smear negative tubercolosis suspects was found to be effective in majority of the patients. Cough, sputum and extensive cavitatory lung lesion were the predictors of culture positive cases. There is need to train physicians on the use of anti tuberculosis therapy in smear negative suspected pulmonary tuberculosis cases, especially if they have productive cough and cavitatory lung lesions. (author)

  16. Antimicrobial Effect of Citrus Aurantifolia Extract on Enterococcus Faecalis Within the Dentinal Tubules in The Presence of Smear Layer

    Sharifian MR

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Instrumentation of the root canals results in formation of smear layer which covers the dentinal tubules. In infected teeth, it is ideal to achieve a material that has the ability to remove the smear layer besides antimicrobial activity. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of Citrus aurantifolia extracts (lime juice and rind extract on Enterococcus faecalis within dentinal tubules in the presence of smear layer.Materials and Methods: One-hundred and forty dentin tubes were prepared from bovine incisors. After removal the smear layer, the specimens were infected with Enterococcus faecalis. Then, the smear layer was reformed. Test solutions were used as the irrigants in study roups as follows: group 1: 5.25% NaOCl; group 2: 17% EDTA; group 3: NaOCl+EDTA; group 4: Lime juice; group 5: ethanolic rind extract of C.aurantifolia; group 6: 96% ethanol. Dentin chips were collected from inner and outer layers of dentinal walls and optical density was measured. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tamhane tests.Results: In outer layer of dentin, the efficacy of rind extract was less than that of NaOCl+EDTA (P<0.05. Also Lime juice was less effective than EDTA, NaOCl and NaOCl+EDTA (P<0.05. In inner layer of dentin, Lime juice was significantly less effective than NaOCl and NaOCl+EDTA (P<0.05. The efficacy of rind extract was less than that of NaOCl+EDTA (P<0.05.Conclusion: In the presence of smear layer, the antimicrobial activity of Lime juice was less than that of NaOCl but the efficacy of rind extract was similar to that of NaOCl.

  17. A Framework for White Blood Cell Segmentation in Microscopic Blood Images Using Digital Image Processing

    Sadeghian Farnoosh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evaluation of blood smear is a commonly clinical test these days. Most of the time, the hematologists are interested on white blood cells (WBCs only. Digital image processing techniques can help them in their analysis and diagnosis. For example, disease like acute leukemia is detected based on the amount and condition of the WBC. The main objective of this paper is to segment the WBC to its two dominant elements: nucleus and cytoplasm. The segmentation is conducted using a proposed segmentation framework that consists of an integration of several digital image processing algorithms. Twenty microscopic blood images were tested, and the proposed framework managed to obtain 92% accuracy for nucleus segmentation and 78% for cytoplasm segmentation. The results indicate that the proposed framework is able to extract the nucleus and cytoplasm region in a WBC image sample.

  18. A Framework for White Blood Cell Segmentation in Microscopic Blood Images Using Digital Image Processing

    Seman Zainina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evaluation of blood smear is a commonly clinical test these days. Most of the time, the hematologists are interested on white blood cells (WBCs only. Digital image processing techniques can help them in their analysis and diagnosis. For example, disease like acute leukemia is detected based on the amount and condition of the WBC. The main objective of this paper is to segment the WBC to its two dominant elements: nucleus and cytoplasm. The segmentation is conducted using a proposed segmentation framework that consists of an integration of several digital image processing algorithms. Twenty microscopic blood images were tested, and the proposed framework managed to obtain 92% accuracy for nucleus segmentation and 78% for cytoplasm segmentation. The results indicate that the proposed framework is able to extract the nucleus and cytoplasm region in a WBC image sample.

  19. In-hospital contact investigation among health care workers after exposure to smear-negative tuberculosis

    Schultze-Werninghaus Gerhard

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (TB accounts for a considerable proportion of TB transmission, which especially endangers health care workers (HCW. Novel Mycobacterium-tuberculosis-specific interferon-γ release assays (IGRAs may offer the chance to define the burden of TB in HCW more accurately than the Mantoux tuberculin skin test (TST, but the data that is available regarding their performance in tracing smear-negative TB in the low-incidence, in-hospital setting, is limited. We conducted a large-scale, in-hospital contact investigation among HCW of a German university hospital after exposure to a single case of extensive smear-negative, culture-positive TB with pulmonary involvement. The objective of the present study was to evaluate an IGRA in comparison to the TST and to identify risk factors for test positivity. Methods Contacts were prospectively enrolled, evaluated using a standardized questionnaire, the IGRA QuantiFERON®-TB Gold in Tube (QFT-GIT and the TST, and followed-up for two years. Active TB was ruled out by chest x-ray in QFT-GIT-positive subjects. Independent predictors of test positivity were established through the use of logistic regression analysis. Results Out of the 143 subjects analyzed, 82 (57.3% had close contact, but only four (2.8% experienced cumulative exposure to the index case >40 hours. QFT-GIT results were positive in 13 subjects (9.1%, while TST results were positive in 40 subjects (28.0% at an induration >5 mm. Overall agreement was poor between both tests (kappa = 0.15. Age was the only predictor of QFT-GIT-positivity (Odds ratio 2.7, 95% confidence interval 1.32–5.46, while TST-positivity was significantly related to Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination and foreign origin. Logistic regression analysis showed no relation between test results and exposure. No secondary cases of active TB were detected over an observational period of two years. Conclusion Our findings suggest a low contagiosity of the particular index case. The frequency of positive QFT-GIT results may in fact reflect the pre-existing prevalence of latent TB infection among the study population. TB transmission seems unlikely and contact tracing not generally warranted after cumulative exposure

  20. Radiologic Manifestations of Patients with Smear Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Zabol

    Masoud Sajadi Nassab

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nIntroduction:Tuberculosis (TB is one of the most important causes of mortality in the world. If not treated, this disease will kill 50 – 65% of the patients in five years. Chest X ray has an important role in the diagnosis of TB. Diagnosis of this disease and starting the appropriate treatment interrupts tuberculosis transmission by rendering patients noninfectious. In this study, we evaluated the radiologic manifestations of patients with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Zabol. "nMaterials and Methods: In this cross–sectional study, 325 patients with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis from March 2004 to March 2005 were evaluated. Data were collected and analyzed using SPSS ver 15 software. "nResults: Of 325 patients with a smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis, 116 (35.7% were male and 209 (64.3% were female. The left upper lobe was the most frequent site involved 175 (53.8% and the second was the right upper lobe 134 (41.2%. The most frequently observed pulmonary involved form was bronchopneumonia 242 (74.4%. Patchy consolidation was detected in 99 (30.4% patients. Cavitary lesions and pleural effusion were observed in 68 (20.9% and 35 (10.7% patients, respectively. In 8 cases (2.4% the CXR was normal. After six months treatment, the CXR of the patients were evaluated. In 90 (27.7% patients CXRs were resolved entirely. In 169 (52% cases CXRs were resolved slightly and in 66 (20.3% patients, CXR did not show any changes. "nConclusion: Tuberculosis, one of the oldest diseases known to affect humans, is a major cause of death worldwide. HIV infection and other immunodeficiency states increase the prevalence of TB. It is one of the most important infectious diseases in Afghanistan (in the east border of Iran and immigration of Afghans causes TB to become a health problem. Pulmonary TB has different radiological manifestations and CXR has an important role in the diagnosis of TB. Consolidation, cavitations and other radiological manifestations especially in the upper lobes help the diagnosis of TB. This disease is one of the most important differential diagnoses of these changes.   

  1. PAX8/PPARG and RET/PTC rearrangement detection is feasible in routine air dried fine needle aspiration (FNA) smears

    Ferraz, Carolina; Rehfeld, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise; Precht Jensen, Eva; Bösenberg, Eileen; Narz, Frank; Hegedus, Laszlo; Paschke, Ralf; Eszlinger, Markus

    2012-01-01

    generally not suitable for testing these rearrangements in a clinical setting. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of extracting RNA from routine-air-dried FNA smears for the detection of these rearrangements with RT-PCR. Methods: A new method for RNA extraction......). Similarly, RET/PTC was found in 3 of 96 FFPEs and in 4 of 96 FNAs. Two of 21 PTC samples and 3 of 42 FA samples carried this rearrangement. Conclusion: These data are the first to show the feasibility of extracting RNA from routine air dried FNA smears for the detection of PAX8/PPARG and RET...

  2. Knowledge and practice of breast self examination and Pap smear screening among a group of electronics women workers.

    Chee, H L; Rashidah, S; Shamsuddin, K; Zainiyah, S Y

    2003-08-01

    A total of 486 Malaysian women electronics workers participated in a study of reproductive health knowledge and cancer screening. The practice of Breast Self Examination (BSE) was found to be related to educational attainment; while ever having had a Pap smear was found to be related to being older than 30 years old, being ever married, living with family or relatives, and not staying in hostels. Knowledge on reproductive health was found to be higher for older women, married women, living with family or relatives, not staying in hostels, ever having done BSE and ever having had a Pap smear. PMID:14750370

  3. Group B Streptococcal Septic Arthritis of the Shoulder and Potential Association with Pelvic Examination and PAP Smear

    Daner, William E.; Meeks, Brett D.; Foster, William C.; Boardman, Norman D.

    2016-01-01

    Group B streptococcal (GBS) infection of a native joint in a nonpregnant adult is uncommon. While many women are colonized with this flora, it rarely becomes pathogenic in its adult host. GBS associated joint infections have been reported, most of which have been related to hematogenous seeding from unknown sources. To our knowledge, there are no published case reports of a GBS joint infection in association with a pelvic exam and Papanicolaou (PAP) smear. In this case report, we present a case of GBS sepsis of a native shoulder, possibly resulting from a routine pelvic exam and PAP smear. PMID:26981299

  4. Group B Streptococcal Septic Arthritis of the Shoulder and Potential Association with Pelvic Examination and PAP Smear.

    Daner, William E; Meeks, Brett D; Foster, William C; Boardman, Norman D

    2016-01-01

    Group B streptococcal (GBS) infection of a native joint in a nonpregnant adult is uncommon. While many women are colonized with this flora, it rarely becomes pathogenic in its adult host. GBS associated joint infections have been reported, most of which have been related to hematogenous seeding from unknown sources. To our knowledge, there are no published case reports of a GBS joint infection in association with a pelvic exam and Papanicolaou (PAP) smear. In this case report, we present a case of GBS sepsis of a native shoulder, possibly resulting from a routine pelvic exam and PAP smear. PMID:26981299

  5. Sensitivity of the Quantiferon-Gold In-Tube Assay in Sputum Smear Positive TB Cases in Indonesia

    Rutherford, Merrin; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Maharani, Winni; Sampurno, Hedy; van Crevel, Reinout; Hill, Philip C.

    2010-01-01

    Background As part of a formal evaluation of the Quantiferon-Gold in-tube assay (QFT-IT) for latent TB infection we compared its sensitivity to the tuberculin skin test (TST) in confirmed adult TB cases in Indonesia. Smear-positive TB disease was used as a proxy gold standard for latent TB infection. Methods and Findings We compared the sensitivity of QFT-IT and TST in 98 sputum smear and chest x-ray positive TB cases and investigated risk factors for negative and discordant results in both t...

  6. An Improved Computer Vision Method for White Blood Cells Detection

    Cuevas, Erik; Daz, Margarita; Manzanares, Miguel; Zaldivar, Daniel; Perez-Cisneros, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The automatic detection of white blood cells (WBCs) still remains as an unsolved issue in medical imaging. The analysis of WBC images has engaged researchers from fields of medicine and computer vision alike. Since WBC can be approximated by an ellipsoid form, an ellipse detector algorithm may be successfully applied in order to recognize such elements. This paper presents an algorithm for the automatic detection of WBC embedded in complicated and cluttered smear images that considers the complete process as a multiellipse detection problem. The approach, which is based on the differential evolution (DE) algorithm, transforms the detection task into an optimization problem whose individuals represent candidate ellipses. An objective function evaluates if such candidate ellipses are actually present in the edge map of the smear image. Guided by the values of such function, the set of encoded candidate ellipses (individuals) are evolved using the DE algorithm so that they can fit into the WBCs which are enclosed within the edge map of the smear image. Experimental results from white blood cell images with a varying range of complexity are included to validate the efficiency of the proposed technique in terms of its accuracy and robustness. PMID:23762178

  7. Effect of Smeared 4He-Core in 6He + p Elastic Scattering

    The elastic scattering data of p+4,6He, available in the 40A-45A MeV energy range have been analyzed in a microscopic framework using an isospin, density and momentum-dependent finite-range effective interaction in a single folding model. The folded potentials explain the p+4He angular distribution data. For 6He, several density prescriptions of varied rms radii are employed. All these prescriptions lead to almost same fit to the 6He + p elastic angular distribution data with slight variations of the imaginary strength. Microscopic calculations assuming proton scattering from the smeared 4He-core in 6He, ignoring the halo, can also reproduce the experimental data if the strength of the imaginary part of the microscopic potential is enhanced. Implications of these results are discussed. (author)

  8. Tuning for three flavors of anisotropic clover fermions with stout-link smearing

    In this work we perform the parameter tuning of three flavors of dynamical clover quarks on anisotropic lattices. The fermion action uses three-dimensional spatial stout-link smearing. The gauge anisotropy is determined in a small box with Schroedinger background using Wilson-loop ratios. The fermion anisotropy is obtained from studying the meson dispersion relation with antiperiodic boundary conditions in the time direction. The spatial and temporal clover coefficients are fixed to the tree-level tadpole-improved values, and we demonstrate that they satisfy the nonperturbative conditions as determined by the Schroedinger-functional method. For the desired lattice spacing as≅0.12 fm and renormalized anisotropy ξ=3.5, we find the gauge and fermionic anisotropies can be fixed to quark mass independent values up through the strange quark mass. This work lays the foundation needed for further studies of the excited-state hadron spectrum.

  9. Optimization of liquid scintillation measurements applied to smears and aqueous samples collected in industrial environments

    Chapon, Arnaud; Pigrée, Gilbert; Putmans, Valérie; Rogel, Gwendal

    Search for low-energy β contaminations in industrial environments requires using Liquid Scintillation Counting. This indirect measurement method supposes a fine control from sampling to measurement itself. Thus, in this paper, we focus on the definition of a measurement method, as generic as possible, for both smears and aqueous samples' characterization. That includes choice of consumables, sampling methods, optimization of counting parameters and definition of energy windows, using the maximization of a Figure of Merit. Detection limits are then calculated considering these optimized parameters. For this purpose, we used PerkinElmer Tri-Carb counters. Nevertheless, except those relative to some parameters specific to PerkinElmer, most of the results presented here can be extended to other counters.

  10. On a general class of regular rotating black holes based on a smeared mass distribution

    Alexis Larranaga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigate the behavior of a new general class of rotating regular black holes based on a non-Gaussian smeared mass distribution. It is shown that the existence of a fundamental minimal length cures the well-known problems in the terminal phase of black hole evaporation, since we find that there is a finite maximum temperature that the black hole reaches before cooling down to absolute zero, so that the evaporation ends up in a zero temperature extremal black hole whose mass and size depends on the value of the fundamental length and on the rotation parameter of the black hole. We also study the geodesic structure in these spacetimes and calculate the shadows that these black holes produce.

  11. Relative depletion rates of MTBE, benzene, and xylene from smear zone LNAPL

    Smear zone light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPL) depletion rates of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), benzene, and xylene were studied from UST release sites where groundwater analyses had been performed for several years. A first-order decay function was fitted to time series analytical data sets from 15 non-remediation sites and eight remediation sites to calculate the initial concentration (CO) and decay constant (k) for each. Mean k's are similar for all analytes in both site groups, despite significant differences in predicted depletion rates assuming equilibrium partitioning. These data suggest mass transfer limitations can slow down the overall source depletion process considerably and effect the observed MTBE plume shape and length under conditions of natural attenuation, as well as limit the rate of MTBE removal during remediation

  12. Fluorescence Spectrum and Decay Measurement for Hsil VS Normal Cytology Differentiation in Liquid Pap Smear Supernatant

    Vaitkuviene, A.; Gegzna, V.; Juodkazis, S.; Jursenas, S.; Miasojedovas, S.; Kurtinaitiene, R.; Rimiene, J.; Vaitkus, J.

    2009-06-01

    Cervical smear material contains endo and exocervical cells, mucus and inflammative, immune cells in cases of pathology. Just not destroyed keratinocytes lay on the glass for microscopy. Liquid cytology supernatant apart other diagnostics could be used for photodiagnostic. The spectroscopic parameters suitable for Normal and HSIL cytology groups supernatant differentiation are demonstrated. The dried liquid PAP supernatant fractions—sediment and liquid were investigated. Excitation and emission matrices (EEM), supernatant fluorescence decay measured under 280 nm diode short pulse excitation and fluorescence spectroscopy by excitation with 355 nm laser light were analyzed. The differences between Normal and HSIL groups were statistically proven in the certain spectral regions. Fluorescence decay peculiarities show spectral regions consisting of few fluorophores. Obtained results on fluorescence differences in Normal and HSIL groups' supernatant shows the potency of photodiagnosis application in cervical screening.

  13. Rates and independent correlates of Pap smear testing among Korean-American women.

    Wismer, B A; Moskowitz, J M; Chen, A M; Kang, S H; Novotny, T E; Min, K; Lew, R; Tager, I B

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study reports population estimates of Pap smear testing among Korean-American women and evaluates correlates of testing. METHODS: Korean Americans in 2 California counties were surveyed by telephone. Frequencies were age-adjusted to the 1990 census to produce population estimates of testing. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate independent correlates of testing RESULTS: Only 50% of the Korean-American women surveyed had a Pap test in the previous 2 years. The strongest independent correlate was having had a regular check-up in the previous 2 years (odds ratio 7.2, 95% confidence interval 4.2, 12.1). CONCLUSIONS: Rates of Pap testing among Korean-American women are well below national objectives. Collaboration and community-sensitive research are essential to collect data and design programs to improve the health of ethnic minority communities. PMID:9551013

  14. Two-Color Schrodinger Functional with Six-Flavors of Stout-Smeared Wilson Fermions

    Voronov, Gennady

    2012-01-01

    We study the Schr\\"odinger functional running coupling in the SU(2) gauge theory with six-flavors of massless fermions. The aim is to determine whether the above theory has an infrared fixed point (IRFP). We use the standard Wilson gauge action and the stout-smeared Wilson fermion action. Here we present a determination of the critical mass as a function of the bare coupling and a preliminary study of the phase diagram of this lattice action. We also find preliminary indication that this theory has no IRFP. While this conclusion is not yet definite, we also show that with this approach we will be able to take a proper continuum limit and clearly determine the status of this theory with a reasonable amount of computer time.

  15. Amelanotic malignant melanoma of the uterine cervix diagnosed by cervical smear.

    Arık, Deniz; Öge, Tufan; Kabukçuoğlu, Sare; Yalçın, Ömer Tarık; Özalp, Sinan

    2016-06-01

    The melanocytic cells of the cervical epithelium are capable of forming the complete spectrum of melanocytic lesions, from benign lentigines to melanoma. Primary malignant melanoma of the uterine cervix is a rare neoplasm with aggressive behavior. The absence of melanin pigment can lead to misdiagnosis as carcinomas, sarcomas, or lymphoma. Immunohistochemical studies should be used for confirmation. In order to consent the cervix as a primary site, exclusion of any other probable primary sites of melanoma is needed. Here, we present a 61-year-old female patient with postmenopausal vaginal bleeding. After cervical smear, diagnosis was confirmed by cervical punch biopsy. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:535-537. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26991516

  16. Deconvolving out indicator smearing in the right ventricle facilitates left-to-right shunt quantitation

    A simple algorithm is developed to enhance the resolution of components of multimodal pulmonary radiohistograms. Based on the assessed right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF), it deconvolves out the effect of indicator smearing in the right ventricle on the heart rate samples of the pulmonary radiohistogram, ck. The output is the ideal curve, c'k = ck/RVEF -(1-RVEF).ck-1/RVEF, that would be obtained if RVEF equalled unity. Since the formula is not a recursive one, it does not suffer from error propagation pertinent to numerical deconvolution. One RVEF is known, implementation of the algorithm is simple. If RVEF is not known accurately it may be replaced with its upper estimate, RVEFup > RVEF, yielding a partial deconvolution of the curve. When applied to studies of patients with left-to-right shunt the method improves the accuracy and lessens the interobserver variation of the Maltz-Treves method. (orig.)

  17. Segmentation of touching mycobacterium tuberculosis from Ziehl-Neelsen stained sputum smear images

    Xu, Chao; Zhou, Dongxiang; Liu, Yunhui

    2015-12-01

    Touching Mycobacterium tuberculosis objects in the Ziehl-Neelsen stained sputum smear images present different shapes and invisible boundaries in the adhesion areas, which increases the difficulty in objects recognition and counting. In this paper, we present a segmentation method of combining the hierarchy tree analysis with gradient vector flow snake to address this problem. The skeletons of the objects are used for structure analysis based on the hierarchy tree. The gradient vector flow snake is used to estimate the object edge. Experimental results show that the single objects composing the touching objects are successfully segmented by the proposed method. This work will improve the accuracy and practicability of the computer-aided diagnosis of tuberculosis.

  18. Blood money

    Strong, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Marilyn Strathern has argued that "nature" in Euro-American culture has appeared as constraint; it has figured the givens of existence on which human artifice is seen to construct "society" or "culture."(5) Among those givens is the notion that human beings are naturally individuals. And blood, too, images individuality: "The very thought of blood, individual blood, touches the deepest feelings in man about life and death" ([RIchard Titmuss] 16.) Transfusion medicine, then, draws on a series ...

  19. Vacuum energy density fluctuations in Minkowski and Casimir states via smeared quantum fields and point separation

    Phillips, Nicholas G.; Hu, B. L.

    2000-10-01

    We present calculations of the variance of fluctuations and of the mean of the energy momentum tensor of a massless scalar field for the Minkowski and Casimir vacua as a function of an intrinsic scale defined by a smeared field or by point separation. We point out that, contrary to prior claims, the ratio of variance to mean-squared being of the order unity is not necessarily a good criterion for measuring the invalidity of semiclassical gravity. For the Casimir topology we obtain expressions for the variance to mean-squared ratio as a function of the intrinsic scale (defined by a smeared field) compared to the extrinsic scale (defined by the separation of the plates, or the periodicity of space). Our results make it possible to identify the spatial extent where negative energy density prevails which could be useful for studying quantum field effects in worm holes and baby universes, and for examining the design feasibility of real-life ``time machines.'' For the Minkowski vacuum we find that the ratio of the variance to the mean-squared, calculated from the coincidence limit, is identical to the value of the Casimir case at the same limit for spatial point separation while identical to the value of a hot flat space result with a temporal point separation. We analyze the origin of divergences in the fluctuations of the energy density and discuss choices in formulating a procedure for their removal, thus raising new questions about the uniqueness and even the very meaning of regularization of the energy momentum tensor for quantum fields in curved or even flat spacetimes when spacetime is viewed as having an extended structure.

  20. Awareness and uptake of the Pap smear among market women in Lagos, Nigeria

    Kikelomo O. Wright

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Our study evaluates the effect of an educational programme on awareness and uptake of the cervical cancer screening test (Pap smear by women in a model market in Lagos Nigeria. This was a quasi-experimental study using a multistage sampling technique. A total of 350 women were divided into two groups. A baseline survey on awareness of the Pap test and screening practices was carried out using pre-tested, interviewer administered, structured questionnaires. Participants in the intervention group received sessions of community based health information on cervical cancer screening tests while participants in the control group received health information on hypertension. Subsequently, participants in both groups were reassessed to evaluate the effect of the educational programme on the Pap test and cervical screening uptake. Data were analysed with the Epi-info version 6.04. Awareness about the Pap test was low at baseline; only 6.9% and 12.0% of participants in the intervention and control groups, respectively, had heard of Pap smears. Furthermore, less than 10% had correct information on the use of the Pap test. Post-intervention, there was a significant and proportional increase in the knowledge of the Pap test in the intervention group (p<0.05. However, uptake of the test was quite low in the intervention and control groups both pre- and post-intervention and there was no significant change in uptake. We concluded that essential schemes are required to enhance access to screening, as knowledge alone is insufficient to promote acceptance and use of cervical cytological screening tests.

  1. A novel scheme for abnormal cell detection in Pap smear images

    Zhao, Tong; Wachman, Elliot S.; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2004-07-01

    Finding malignant cells in Pap smear images is a "needle in a haystack"-type problem, tedious, labor-intensive and error-prone. It is therefore desirable to have an automatic screening tool in order that human experts can concentrate on the evaluation of the more difficult cases. Most research on automatic cervical screening tries to extract morphometric and texture features at the cell level, in accordance with the NIH "The Bethesda System" rules. Due to variances in image quality and features, such as brightness, magnification and focus, morphometric and texture analysis is insufficient to provide robust cervical cancer detection. Using a microscopic spectral imaging system, we have produced a set of multispectral Pap smear images with wavelengths from 400 nm to 690 nm, containing both spectral signatures and spatial attributes. We describe a novel scheme that combines spatial information (including texture and morphometric features) with spectral information to significantly improve abnormal cell detection. Three kinds of wavelet features, orthogonal, bi-orthogonal and non-orthogonal, are carefully chosen to optimize recognition performance. Multispectral feature sets are then extracted in the wavelet domain. Using a Back-Propagation Neural Network classifier that greatly decreases the influence of spurious events, we obtain a classification error rate of 5%. Cell morphometric features, such as area and shape, are then used to eliminate most remaining small artifacts. We report initial results from 149 cells from 40 separate image sets, in which only one abnormal cell was missed (TPR = 97.6%) and one normal cell was falsely classified as cancerous (FPR = 1%).

  2. Pacientes con Giardia lamblia diagnosticada por frotis duodenal / Patients with Giardia lamblia diagnosed through duodenal smear

    Hidelisa, Herrero Aguirre; Jess, Fernndez Duharte; Suleidy, Vega Sam; Jos Antonio, Candel Herrero.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se efectu un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 105 pacientes mayores de 15 aos con infeccin por Giardia lamblia, diagnosticada por frotis duodenal mediante endoscopia en el Servicio de Gastroenterologa del Policlnico de Especialidades del Hospital Provincial Docente Clinicoquirrgico "Saturn [...] ino Lora Torres" de Santiago de Cuba, desde enero hasta diciembre del 2012, con vistas a caracterizarles. Entre las variables analizadas figuraron: edad, sexo, sntomas digestivos referidos, positividad del frotis e imagen endoscpica. Se utiliz el porcentaje como medida de resumen. Predominaron el sexo femenino (58,0 %), el grupo etario de 29-39 aos (38,0 %), la epigastralgia como sntoma principal (66,6 %) y las imgenes endoscpicas grados I y II como las ms frecuentes (68,4 y 41,3 %, respectivamente). El ndice de positividad a la giardiasis fue relevante Abstract in english A descriptive and cross sectional study of 105 patients older than 15 years with infection by Giardia lamblia, diagnosed through duodenal smear by means of endoscopy was carried out in the Gastroenterology Service of the Specialties Polyclinic from "Saturnino Lora Torres" Teaching Provincial Clinica [...] l Surgical Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, from January to December, 2012, with the objective of characterizing them. Among the analyzed variables there were: age, sex, referred digestive symptoms, positivity of the smear and endoscopic image. The percentage was used as summary measure. Female sex (58.0%), the age group 29-39 years (38.0%), the epigastralgia as main symptom (66.6%) and the endoscopic images grades I and II prevailed as the most frequent (68.4 and 41.3%, respectively). The positivity index for giardiasis was relevant

  3. Quality and liability issues with the Papanicolaou smear: lessons from the science of error prevention.

    Derman, H

    1997-03-01

    The pathologists and cytologists who study Papanicolaou smears perform a highly successful cancer screening test in a low-prevalence population. This leads to a mathematically inevitable false-negative error rate even in the most competent professional hands. The US judicial system supports a public expectation of perfect performance by civil and, recently, criminal punishment of error. Lessons are sought from a considerable industrial experience with accident prevention for possible insights into process improvement that might mitigate the risk of false-negative errors. The elements that, by system analysis, contribute to accidents are reviewed, and the conditions that enhance the accident potential are outlined. The cognitive functions and aberrations that are involved in the operator component of error analysis are described. As a result of pathologists' activities in the systematic measurement of laboratory performance for the last half century, the College of American Pathologists' accreditation program and its derivative Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act requirements have already laid out the avenues of error minimalization. There are no lessons from the science of error prevention that can affect the public expectation of zero error in a screening test and the consequent punishment of cytology professionals. A thesis is offered that the problem is society's if its goal is eradication of cervical cancer mortality. A call is made for leadership by a prestigious, nonpathologist, national organization to make the public understand that the current cytology liability issue is primarily a threat to women and the public health. To initiate public dialogue, a mechanism is suggested to protect simultaneously a patient's right of access to the judicial system and the general availability of the Papanicolaou smear to reduce cervical cancer mortality and morbidity. PMID:9111120

  4. Sources of long-lived atmospheric VOCs at the rural boreal forest site, SMEAR II

    Patokoski, J.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Kajos, M. K.; Taipale, R.; Rantala, P.; Aalto, J.; Ryyppö, T.; Nieminen, T.; Hakola, H.; Rinne, J.

    2015-12-01

    In this study a long-term volatile organic compound (VOCs) concentration data set, measured at the SMEAR II (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) boreal forest site in Hyytiälä, Finland during the years 2006-2011, was analyzed in order to identify source areas and profiles of the observed VOCs. VOC mixing ratios were measured using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry. Four-day HYSPLIT 4 (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) backward trajectories and the Unmix 6.0 receptor model were used for source area and source composition analysis. Two major forest fire events in Russia took place during the measurement period. The effect of these fires was clearly visible in the trajectory analysis, lending confidence to the method employed with this data set. Elevated volume mixing ratios (VMRs) of non-biogenic VOCs related to forest fires, e.g. acetonitrile and aromatic VOCs, were observed. Ten major source areas for long-lived VOCs (methanol, acetonitrile, acetaldehyde, acetone, benzene, and toluene) observed at the SMEAR II site were identified. The main source areas for all the targeted VOCs were western Russia, northern Poland, Kaliningrad, and the Baltic countries. Industrial areas in northern continental Europe were also found to be source areas for certain VOCs. Both trajectory and receptor analysis showed that air masses from northern Fennoscandia were less polluted with respect to both the VOCs studied and other trace gases (CO, SO2 and NOx), compared to areas of eastern and western continental Europe, western Russia, and southern Fennoscandia.

  5. Pregnancy-related changes: a retrospective review of 278 cervical smears.

    Michael, C W; Esfahani, F M

    1997-08-01

    Pregnancy-related physiologic changes are well recognized. However, the normal range of changes as reflected in the cervical smear have not been adequately described. Review of 278 abnormal cervical smears from 153 pregnant/preabortal and 125 postpartum/ abortal patients revealed the following: 21 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL) cases, 46 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LGSIL) cases, 185 atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) cases, and 26 atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS) cases. Surgical correlation (excluding 18 products of conception and 153 placentas) was available in 98 (35%) of the cases. Dysplasia was confirmed on biopsy of 11 cases cytologically diagnosed as HGSIL (7 CINII/III and 4 CIN I), 19 cases cytologically diagnosed as LGSIL (6 CIN II/III and 13 CIN I), 35 cases of ASCUS (4 CIN II/III and 31 CIN I), and 2 cases of AGUS (1 CIN III and 1 CIN I). Decidualization was present in six cervical and three endometrial biopsies. The remaining 180 cases revealed pregnancy-related changes in most of the atypical groups and a few in the dysplasia groups. With pregnancy, both cervical glands and stroma undergo physiologic changes. These result in squamous metaplasia due to ectropion and cells with hypervacuolated cytoplasm and atypical nuclei reflecting endocervical gland hyperplasia and/or Arias-Stella reaction. The decidual cells are large, with variably staining cytoplasm and a large nucleus. Degenerated decidual or trophoblastic cells can also shed from the endometrium and mimic HGSIL. Despite the caution required in this population, dysplastic changes should not be underestimated. PMID:9258616

  6. Pulmonary trichomoniasis: improved diagnosis by using polymerase chain reaction targeting Trichomonas tenax 18S rRNA gene in sputum specimens.

    Mahmoud, Manal S E; Rahman, Gamal A

    2004-04-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting species-specific region in 18 small subunit ribosomal RNA gene of Trichomonas tenax was used to examine sputum specimens in order to diagnose pulmonary trichomoniasis caused by T. tenax. It was compared with wet mount preparation, Giemsa-stained smear, and Kupferberg Trichononas broth culture for detection of T. tenax trophozoites in sputum. The study included 250 individuals; 100 immunocompromised patients with chest complaints (group I) and 100 patients with chronic pulmonary diseases (group II), and 50 healthy individuals as controls (group III). 20 cases among all examined were positive in one or more method giving for pulmonary trichomniasis a total prevalence of 8%; 12 cases (12%) in group I, 8 cases (8%) in group II, and none in group III, with no significant difference between groups I & II. Pulmonary trichomoniasis was prevalent at age ranged between 31 to 50 years, and in total males (10%) than females (5.5%) with no significant difference. Among the 200 examined patients, pulmonary trichomoniasis had a prevalence of 3% by wet mount, 2.5% by Giemsa-stained smear, 7% by culture, compared to 10% by PCR. Culture was used as reference standard. All culture positive specimens were PCR positive showing a product at 0.8 Kb long by agarose gel electrophoresis, and giving a 100% sensitivity. Wet mount, Giemsa-stained smear, and culture had a sensitivity of 43%, 35.7%, and 70%, respectively. No PCR negative specimens were positive by any of the other methods. 6 specimens were culture negative PCR positive and remained PCR positive when retested 3 times. The calculated specificity of PCR was 97%. NO PCR target product was amplified with DNAs of T. vaginalis and various pulmonary pathogens. The results are discussed. PMID:15125527

  7. An investigation of enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL infection by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA tests and hematological applications on the dairy cows in the

    Kale M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Haematological tests (alfa nafthyl acetate esterase ANAE activity, May Grünwald Giemsa staining and total leucocyte counts were applied to 469 dairy cows, where the enzootic form of bovine leucosis was investigated. In the same 469 dairy cows, a search for antibodies directed against bovine leucosis virus (BLV was carried out using agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID in blood samples and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA in milk samples. Among the 469 animals screened, 90 were positive by ELISA and the haematological tests, while 23 were positive by the AGID test. From these results we would advise heavily infected farms to be eliminated. ELISA and haematological methods, in which ANAE activity, May-Grünwald Giemsa staining and total leucocyte counts were used together, were more reliable and sensitive than the AGID test for detecting EBL.

  8. Myxobolus sp. (Myxozoa) in the circulating blood of Colossoma macropomum (Osteichthyes, Characidae).

    Maciel, Patricia Oliveira; Affonso, Elizabeth Gusmão; Boijink, Cheila de Lima; Tavares-Dias, Marcos; Inoue, Luis Antonio Kioshi Aoki

    2011-01-01

    Myxosporea parasitize many organs in fresh and saltwater fish. Species of the genus Myxobolus parasitizing the gills and other organs of the tambaqui Colossoma macropomum have been described. In the present study, blood smears were made from juvenile tambaqui and were stained with May Grunwald-Giemsa-Wright in order to identify myxozoan parasites. Out of a total of 36 fish examined, one specimen (2.7%) that was reared in a cage presented spores that were identified as M. colossomatis, whereas fish kept in 250 L tanks showed prevalence of 5.5%. This is the first report of M. colossomatis in the blood of farmed tambaqui in the Amazon region. These results indicate that myxozoan parasites should also be investigated in fish blood smears. Some myxosporean species may cause diseases in fish, and these species need to be identified so that adequate preventive sanitary control can be instituted. PMID:21439240

  9. Blood cell lineage in the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus (Pisces: Petromyzontidae)

    Piavis, George W.; Hiatt, James L.

    1971-01-01

    Blood cell types of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, are described and identified and the lineage of mature circulating cells in peripheral blood is traced to blast cells in the hematopoietic fat body. The fat body appears to be the phylogenetic precursor of bone marrow in higher forms, since blood cells originate and begin maturation in this tissue. Experimental animals were injected first with a hematopoietic stimulant and then (at an experimentally determined time) with pertussis vaccine to release proliferated blood cells into peripheral blood. Peripheral blood for smears was collected by cardiac exsanguination; hematopoietic tissue was extirpated for imprints; and leucocyte preparations were made by a special technique. Blood cells of the sea lamprey are apparently products of at least four distinct blast cells, each of which has a 'one end' maturation process. Results of this investigation support the polyphyletic theory of blood cell formation.

  10. Effects of a food supplement rich in arginine in patients with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis--a randomised trial

    Schön, T; Idh, J; Westman, A; Elias, D; Abate, E; Diro, E; Moges, F; Kassu, A; Ayele, B; Forslund, T; Getachew, A; Britton, S; Stendahl, O; Sundqvist, T

    2011-01-01

    In tuberculosis (TB), the production of nitric oxide (NO) is confirmed but its importance in host defense is debated. Our aim was to investigate whether a food supplement rich in arginine could enhance clinical improvement in TB patients by increased NO production. Smear positive TB patients from...

  11. Smearing the Opposition: Implicit and Explicit Stigmatization of the 2008 U. S. Presidential Candidates and the Current U. S. President

    Kosloff, Spee; Greenberg, Jeff; Schmader, Toni; Dechesne, Mark; Weise, David

    2010-01-01

    Four studies investigated whether political allegiance and salience of outgroup membership contribute to the phenomenon of acceptance of false, stigmatizing information (smears) about political candidates. Studies 1-3 were conducted in the month prior to the 2008 U.S. Presidential election and together demonstrated that pre-standing opposition to…

  12. COBAS() TaqMan() MTB, smear positivity grade and MGIT culture; correlation analyses of three methods for bacillary quantification.

    Chikamatsu, Kinuyo; Aono, Akio; Kato, Tomoko; Takaki, Akiko; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Yuka; Izumi, Kiyohiko; Yi, Lina; Mitarai, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the correlation between the cycle threshold (Ct) value of the COBAS() TaqMan() MTB (TaqMan MTB), the mycobacterial smear positivity grade, and the time to detection (TTD) in the Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) for quantification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). For 57 sputum samples, significant correlations were observed between the Ct value, the smear positivity grade, and the MGIT TTD (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient: rs=-0.940, P<0.001 and Pearson's correlation coefficient: rp=0.737, P<0.001). In addition, a correlation was observed between the number of bacteria estimated based on the smear positivity grade and the number of MTB bacilli calculated by the Ct value (rs=0.930, P<0.001). This study has demonstrated the possible estimation of the smear positivity grade and MGIT TTD using the Ct value of TaqMan MTB, which is based on a real-time PCR system, for diagnostic samples. PMID:26527538

  13. Pap Smear Diagnosis Using a Hybrid Intelligent Scheme Focusing on Genetic Algorithm Based Feature Selection and Nearest Neighbor Classification

    Marinakis, Yannis; Dounias, Georgios; Jantzen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The term pap-smear refers to samples of human cells stained by the so-called Papanicolaou method. The purpose of the Papanicolaou method is to diagnose pre-cancerous cell changes before they progress to invasive carcinoma. In this paper a metaheuristic algorithm is proposed in order to classify t...... other previously applied intelligent approaches....

  14. Awareness of cervical cancer and Pap smear among nursing staff at a rural tertiary care hospital in Central India

    S M Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer cervix is the leading cause of cancer deaths in females in developing countries and one in five women suffering from cervical cancer lives in India. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the awareness about cervical cancer and Pap smear among nurses working in a tertiary care institute. Study Setting and Design: Cross-sectional survey in a tertiary care institute. Materials and Methods: Nurses working at our institute excluding those who have worked or working in the Obstetrics and Gynecology department were provided with a pre-designed questionnaire testing their knowledge about cervical cancer. Results: Approximately, 86% were aware about cancer cervix and 69% were aware of a pre-cancerous stage. 42.3% were not aware of any risk factor and 27.6% were not aware of any symptom of cancer cervix. 86.2% were aware about Pap smear, but only 58.6% were aware that facilities of Pap smear were available at our hospital. Conclusions: Knowledge about cervical cancer and awareness of Pap smear as screening test was inadequate in nursing staff. Awareness programs about cervical cancer and screening are needed to increase awareness for this preventable condition. Recommendation: There is a need to arrange reorientation programs to sensitize nurses and establish cytology clinics to offer facilities for easily accessible and affordable screening.

  15. Perception and Experience of Primary Care Physicians on Pap Smear Screening for Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Preliminary Finding

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Sung, Chang-Lin; Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Ta-Wen; Lin, Pei-Ying; Chen, Li-Mei; Chu, Cordia M.; Wu, Jia-Ling

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to establish evidence-based data to explore the perceptions and experience of primary care physicians in the Pap smear screening provision for women with intellectual disabilities (ID), and to analyze the associated factors in the delivery of screening services to women with ID in Taiwan. Data obtained by a cross-sectional survey…

  16. Potential use of buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of autosomal trisomy or chromosomal sex in newborn infants using DNA probes

    Harris, C.; Clark, K.; Lazarski, K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Wilkerson, C. [Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI (United States); Meisner, L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)]|[Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Buccal smears from 3 women and 1 man were probed with alpha satellite DNA probes for chromosomes 8, 18, X, and Y. Buccal smears were also collected from an adolescent phenotypic female with uterine agenesis, as well as from newborn infants with suspected trisomy 18 and trisomy 21. The clinical cases were confirmed with conventional cytogenetic studies of peripheral lymphocytes. Overall probe efficiency at detecting expected chromosome number in interphase cells was found to be 71% {+-} 6.8%. Higher than expected n-1 signal numbers may be due to karyopyknotic intermediate epithelial cells present in all collected samples. Overall probe efficiency was found to be consistent using alpha satellite and cosmid probes, both of which accurately reflected the modal copy number of the target chromosomes. False trisomy was less than 1%. This study suggests DNA probes can be used in buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of trisomies and chromosomal sex in newborns, but because of high rates of false hydropoploid signals, probed buccal smear specimens may not be accurate at diagnosing mosaicism. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Effect of the smear layer on apical seals produced by two calcium silicate-based endodontic sealers.

    Bidar, Maryam; Sadeghalhoseini, Niloufar; Forghani, Maryam; Attaran, Negin

    2014-09-01

    We compared the apical seals of two new calcium silicate-based sealers (iRoot SP and MTA Fillapex) in the presence and absence of a smear layer. Eighty-two human premolars were prepared and randomly divided into four groups. In groups 1 and 3, the smear layer was retained. In groups 2 and 4, the root canals were irrigated with EDTA to remove the smear layer. Canals were filled using gutta-percha/iRoot SP (in groups 1 and 2) or obturated with gutta-percha/MTA Fillapex (in groups 3 and 4). Fluid filtration was used to evaluate apical microleakage. The presence of the smear layer had no significant effect on the sealing properties of the filling materials, except for iRoot SP at 2 weeks (P = 0.007). There was significantly less microleakage with iRoot SP than with MTA Fillapex (P = 0.025 at 2 weeks; P based sealers. In addition, the sealing ability of iRoot SP was superior to that of MTA Fillapex. PMID:25231148

  18. Characteristics of Patients with Smear-Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis (TB) in a Region with High TB and HIV Prevalence

    Campos, Leandro Cruz; Rocha, Marcos Vincius Vieira; Willers, Denise Maria Cunha; Silva, Denise Rossato

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smear-negative pulmonary TB (SNPT) represents 3060% of all pulmonary TB cases. The mortality of these patients can reach 25% in populations with high prevalence of HIV infection, and 1020% of TB transmission at the population level are attributable to SNPT cases. Methods We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate epidemiological, clinical, and radiological characteristics of patients with SNPT and to compare these with patients who were diagnosed as having smear-positive pulmonary TB (SPPT). All adult patients (? 18 years old) with a positive culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and a diagnosis of pulmonary TB were included in the study. Results 198 patients met the inclusion criteria (positive culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and were included in the analysis. Of these patients, 69 (34.8%) were smear positive (SPPT) and 129 (65.2%) were smear negative (SNPT). In univariate analysis, cough, dyspnea, and hemoptysis were less frequent in SNPT patients in comparison with SPPT patients. In a multivariate model, having no cough and no radiographic pattern typical of TB were the characteristics independently associated with a diagnosis of SNPT. Conclusions We found a very high prevalence of SNPT among patients with TB in a setting with high TB and HIV prevalence. The absence of cough in the presence of other symptoms suggestive of TB, and having no radiographic pattern typical of TB where independent predictors of SNPT. PMID:26808299

  19. On the uncertainties in the shell correction by Strutinsky smearing procedure for certain shapes relevant in fission

    It is found that for level schemes obtained from a folded Yukawa potential, the Strutinsky smearing procedure for the evaluation of the shell correction to the total potential energy of nuclei does not lead to a unique value for nuclear shapes near and beyond the outer fission barrier deformations and consequently introduces uncertainties in the relative fission barrier heights. (author)

  20. Comparison of a radiometric (BACTEC) and conventional culture method for recovery and identification of mycobacteria from smear-negative specimens

    This study was carried out to evaluate the BACTEC system and conventional methods for detecting mycobacteria in specimens with a negative acid-fast smear and a positive culture. In addition, the study evaluates p-nitro-a-acetyl-amino-b-hydroxypropiophenone (NAP), 8-azaguanine (8-AZG) and para-nitrobenzoic acid (PNB) inhibition for the rapid differentiation of TB from MOTT bacilli. (Auth.)

  1. Artificial Blood

    Umit Yasar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The problems and additional cost factor involved in collecting and storing human blood, as well as the pending worldwide shortages are the main driving forces in the development of blood substitutes. Studies on artificial blood basically aim to develop oxygen carrying compounds, produce stem cell-based erythrocyte cells in vitro and, implement the functions and movements of natural hemoglobin molecules found in erythrocyte cells through artificial erythrocyte cells. Consequently, major areas of research in artificial blood studies are haemoglobin-based oxygen carriers, perfluorochemicals, respirocytes and stem cells. Even though these artificial erythrocyte cells do not qualify as perfect red blood cell substitutes yet, they have many potential clinical and non clinical uses. Studies are being carried out on the elimination of side effects of blood substitutes and extensive clinical trials are being conducted to test their safety and efficacy. Artificial blood substitutes could only be used clinically for patient management following clinical trials and approvals, and will be the ultimate global solution to the problems associated with donor scarcity, blood collection and transfusion-mediated diseases. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(2.000: 95-108

  2. BLOOD DONATION

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

  3. Blood Transfusions

    ... Children Special Issues Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) What is MDS? iPad App Causes Symptoms Diagnosis Types Treatment Wait and Watch Blood ... Basics Aplastic Anemia Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) What is MDS? iPad App Causes Symptoms Diagnosis Types Treatment Wait and Watch Blood ...

  4. Blood donation

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A blood donation is organised by the Cantonal Hospital of Geneva On Thursday 19 March 2009 from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT 2 Number of donations during the last blood donations :135 donors in July 2008 122 donors in November 2008 Let’s do better in 2009 !!! Give 30 minutes of your time to save lives...

  5. Tainted blood

    Deleuran, Ida; Sheikh, Zainab Afshan; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    study of the historical rise and current workings of safety practices in the Danish blood system. Here, we identify a strong focus on contamination in order to avoid 'tainted blood', at the expense of working with risks that could be avoided through enhanced blood monitoring practices. Of further...... significance to this focus are the social dynamics found at the heart of safety practices aimed at avoiding contamination. We argue that such dynamics need more attention, in order to achieve good health outcomes in transfusion medicine. Thus, we conclude that, to ensure continuously safe blood systems, we...... need to move beyond the bifurcation of the social and medical aspects of blood supply as two separate issues and approach social dynamics as key medical safety questions....

  6. Establishing a protocol for immunocytochemical staining and chromogenic in situ hybridization of Giemsa and Diff-Quick prestained cytological smears

    Elsa Beraki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Protocols for immunocytochemical staining (ICC and in situ hybridization (ISH of air-dried Diff-Quick or May-Grünwald Giemsa (MGG-stained smears have been difficult to establish. An increasing need to be able to use prestained slides for ICC and ISH in specific cases led to this study, aiming at finding a robust protocol for both methods. Materials and Methods: The material consisted of MGG- and Diff-Quick-stained smears. After diagnosis, one to two diagnostic smears were stored in the department. Any additional smear(s containing diagnostic material were used for this study. The majority were fine needle aspirates (FNAC from the breast, comprising materials from fibroadenomas, fibrocystic disease, and carcinomas. A few were metastatic lesions (carcinomas and malignant melanomas. There were 64 prestained smears. Ten smears were Diff-Quick stained, and 54 were MGG stained. The antibodies used for testing ICC were Ki-67, ER, and PgR, CK MNF116 (pancytokeratin and E-cadherin. HER-2 Dual SISH was used to test ISH. Citrate, TRS, and TE buffers at pH6 and pH9 were tested, as well as, different heating times, microwave powers and antibody concentrations. The ICC was done on the Dako Autostainer (Dako®, Glostrup, Denmark, and HER-2 Dual SISH was done on the Ventana XT-machine (Ventana / Roche® , Strasbourg, France. Results: Optimal results were obtained with the TE buffer at pH 9, for both ICC and ISH. Antibody concentrations generally had to be higher than in the immunohistochemistry (IHC. The optimal microwave heat treatment included an initial high power boiling followed by low power boiling. No post fixation was necessary for ICC, whereas, 20 minutes post fixation in formalin (4% was necessary for ISH. Conclusions: Microwave heat treatment, with initial boiling at high power followed by boiling at low power and TE buffer at pH 9 were the key steps in the procedure. Antibody concentrations has to be adapted for each ICC marker. Post fixation in formalin is necessary for ISH.

  7. DETECTION OF ABNORMAL CERVICAL CYTOLOGY BY PAP’S SMEAR AND COMPARISON BETWEEN RURAL AND URBAN WOMEN

    Neelam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : BACKGROUND: This study was carried out in department of ob stetrics and gynaecology G.R. Medical College Gwalior (MP. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study the incidence of malignant and pre malignant cases of cancer cervix in women attending outdoor patient department of G R medical college Gwalior. To find out the role of PAP's smear in early detection of premalignant and early carcinoma cervix and to compare the results between urban and rural women. MATERIAL AND METHOD: a total of 400 subjects were selected attending outdoor patient department of G R medical college G walior with equal number of urban and rural areas. Information about age, parity, age at marriage, complaints, clinical findings, Pap’s smears were prepared and histological interpretations were recorded. RESULTS : Maximum number of patients was in the age group of 31 - 40 years. Mean age at marriage was 17.5 years for woman of rural areas and that for urban woman was 21.5 years. In the rural patients highest number were P2 - P4 (53% followed by > P4 (46.5%. In urban patients too maximum number of patients had parity between P2 - P4 (69.5% followed by > P4 (28.5%. Grand multiparity was seen in 20.5% among rural women as compared to 1.5 % among urban women. Among the rural patients use of barrier method of contraception was only 12% while in urban areas it was 3 0%. Percentage of couples who were not using any contraception was 47.5% in rural area and 33% in urban area. The most common presenting complaint was white discharge among both rural and urban groups (75% vs. 72%. The most common clinical finding was cer vical erosion (57.5% Histopathological interpretation of Pap’s smear revealed cervical squamous epithelial lesions (LSIL and HSIL in 10.5% smears of rural and 4.5% smears of urban women. A total of 4% smears were found positive for malignancy in rural wo men as compared to 1.5% smears in urban women

  8. Theileria parva: effects of irradiation on a culture of parasitized bovine lymphoid cells. [Gamma radiation

    Irvin, A.D.; Brown, C.G.D.; Stagg, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    Aliquots of a culture of Theileria parva-infected bovine lymphoid cells were irradiated at 0, 300, 600, 900, and 1200 rads. The short-term effects of irradiation were evaluated on examination of Giemsa-stained smears and on autoradiography of cells labeled with (/sup 3/H)thymidine. Irradiation inhibited cell division but parasite division did not appear to be inhibited and macroschizont nuclear particles increased in number, frequently to several hundred per schizont. There was no evidence of an increased percentage switch from macro- to microschizont. Apparently viable cells were still present in all cultures 4 days after irradiation.

  9. Emergence of oriental theileriosis in cattle and its transmission through Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in Assam, India

    Parikshit Kakati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of Theileria in blood samples of crossbred and indigenous adult cows raised under unorganized small scale farming system in a Babesia and Anaplasma endemic geographical area from Assam, India and to see its transmission through Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus ticks. Materials and Methods: For the present study, 57 clinical cases of cattle suspected to be of hemoparasitic infections were taken into consideration. The parasites were identified based on morphology in giemsa stained blood smear followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Sera samples were tested for T. annulata antibodies in plate and Dot-ELISA. PCR was also conducted in eggs of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus tick collected from a Theileria orientalis positive animal. Results: PCR amplified 1124, 776, and 160 bp DNA fragments of B. bigemina (64.91%,T. orientalis(21.05% and A. marginale (14.03%, respectively. This assay further conducted in 12 T. orientalis positive blood samples with primers of Buffeli, Chitose, and Ikeda variants of T. orientalis showed 3 samples positive to Ikeda type and none for Buffeli and Chitose. Babesia bovis and Theileria annulata specific primers also did not amplify any fragment during the PCR assay of the blood samples. Further, all sera samples tested negative to T. annulata antibodies in Plate and Dot-ELISA. PCR conducted in eggs of R (B.microplus tick collected from a T. orientalis positive animal revealed presence of the parasite DNA. Gradual improvement in physical condition leading to complete recovery in 10 out of 12 T. orientalis infected clinical cases treated with buparvaquone(at 2.5mg/kg.b.wt I/M was the feedback obtained from field veterinarians and the cattle owners. Conclusion: The present investigation represents the first report of occurrence of T. orientalis in cattle of Assam with involvement of pathogenic Ikeda strain in clinical outbreaks and its possible natural transmission by R (B. microplus through the transovarian mode.

  10. Utility of high-resolution computed tomography for predicting risk of sputum smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis

    Nakanishi, Masanori [Departments of Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23 Shimoaizuki Eiheizi-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan)], E-mail: mnakanishi@nifty.ne.jp; Demura, Yoshiki; Ameshima, Shingo [Departments of Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23 Shimoaizuki Eiheizi-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Kosaka, Nobuyuki [Departments of Radiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23 Shimoaizuki Eiheizi-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Chiba, Yukio [Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Hospital Organization, Fukui Hospital, Tsuruga, Fukui 914-0195 (Japan); Nishikawa, Satoshi [Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization, Fukui Hospital, Tsuruga, Fukui 914-0195 (Japan); Itoh, Harumi [Departments of Radiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23 Shimoaizuki Eiheizi-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Ishizaki, Takeshi [Departments of Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23 Shimoaizuki Eiheizi-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    Background: To diagnose sputum smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is difficult and the ability of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for diagnosing PTB has remained unclear in the sputum smear-negative setting. We retrospectively investigated whether or not this imaging modality can predict risk for sputum smear-negative PTB. Methods: We used HRCT to examine the findings of 116 patients with suspected PTB despite negative sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). We investigated their clinical features and HRCT-findings to predict the risk for PTB by multivariate analysis and a combination of HRCT findings by stepwise regression analysis. We then designed provisional HRCT diagnostic criteria based on these results to rank the risk of PTB and blinded observers assessed the validity and reliability of these criteria. Results: A positive tuberculin skin test alone among clinical laboratory findings was significantly associated with an increase of risk of PTB. Multivariate regression analysis showed that large nodules, tree-in-bud appearance, lobular consolidation and the main lesion being located in S1, S2, and S6 were significantly associated with an increased risk of PTB. Stepwise regression analysis showed that coexistence of the above 4 factors was most significantly associated with an increase in the risk for PTB. Ranking of the results using our HRCT diagnostic criteria by blinded observers revealed good utility and agreement for predicting PTB risk. Conclusions: Even in the sputum smear-negative setting, HRCT can predict the risk of PTB with good reproducibility and can select patients having a high probability of PTB.

  11. Comparison of Visual Inspection with acetic acid and Pap smear in cervical cancer screening at a tertiary care hospital

    Objective: To determine the accuracy of visual inspection with acetic acid in comparison with Pap smear against colposcopic directed biopsy, for detection of pre-cancerous lesion. Methods: The comparative cross-sectional study was conducted at the Maternal and Child Health Centre (MCHC), Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad, from January to December 2010. Every married women with age range 19 to 51 years underwent conventional cytology and visual inspection with 5% acetic acid. Distinct acetowhite areas were taken as positive, while cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia on cytology was labelled as Pap smear positive. Colposcopic directed biopsy was taken as the gold standard. SPSS 13 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of 519 subjects, 70(13.4%) were screened positive and 29(5.6%) were biopsy positive for cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia. Of these, 26(37.1 %) were positive on visual inspection; 14 (20 %) on cytology; and 30 (42.8%) on combined test. The sensitivity of visual inspection was 78.5% vs 61.1% for Pap smear (p<0.001). The specificity of visual inspection was 99.3% vs 99.4% for cytology (p<0.1). Significantly higher sensitivity and specificity was found for the combined test than either of the two alone; 93.1% and 99.1% respectively (p<0.001). The positive predictive value of visual inspection vs pap was 84.6% vs 78.5% (p<0.001) and negative predictive value was 98.6% vs 96.5% (p<0.1). Both values of combined test were significantly higher than either of the two tests alone (p<0.01). Conclusion: Visual inspection with acetic acid has significantly higher sensitivity than Pap smear and may replace pap smear as a primary screening tool for universal screening. Combined test with higher predictive accuracy may be used for opportunistic screening. (author)

  12. A comparative scanning electron microscopy evaluation of smear layer removal with apple vinegar and sodium hypochlorite associated with EDTA

    George Táccio de Miranda Candeiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate by scanning electron microscopy (SEM the removal of smear layer from the middle and apical root thirds after use of different irrigating solutions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty roots of permanent human teeth had their canals instrumented and were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n=10, according to the irrigating solution: apple vinegar (group A, apple vinegar finished with 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA (group B, 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl finished with 17% EDTA (group C and saline (group D - control. After chemomechanical preparation, the roots were cleaved longitudinally and their middle and apical thirds were examined by SEM at ×1,000 magnification. Two calibrated examiners (kappa=0.92 analyzed the SEM micrographs qualitatively attributing scores that indicated the efficacy of the solutions in removing the smear layer from the surface of the dentin tubules (1 - poor, 2 - good and 3 - excellent. Data from the control and experimental groups were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's test, while the Wilcoxon test was used to compare the middle and apical thirds of the canals within the same group (a=0.05. RESULTS: The middle third presented less amount of smear layer than the apical third, regardless of the irrigant. There was statistically significant difference (p=0.0402 among the groups in the middle third. In the apical third, the apple vinegar/EDTA group showed the greatest removal of smear layer (p=0.0373. CONCLUSION: Apple vinegar associated or not with EDTA was effective in removing smear layer when used as an endodontic irrigant.

  13. Blood Type Game

    ... Donation Student Donors Donation Process Eligibility Blood FAQs Blood Donor Community Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity History of Blood Transfusion Hosting a Blood Drive What to Expect Hosting ...

  14. Detection of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi in Blood from Equines from Four Indigenous Communities in Costa Rica

    Mara Fernanda Posada-Guzmn; Gaby Dolz; Juan Jos Romero-Ziga; Ana Eugenia Jimnez-Rocha

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in four indigenous communities of Costa Rica to detect presence and prevalence of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi and to investigate factors associated with presence of these hemoparasites. General condition of horses (n = 285) was evaluated, and hematocrits and hemoglobin were determined from blood samples of 130 horses, which were also analyzed using blood smears, nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA). The genera...

  15. THE VALUE OF FLUORESCENT MICROSCOPY AND BLEACH SEDIMENTATION METHOD FOR DETECTION OF SMEAR NEGATIVE TUBERCULOSIS

    KASSU D.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of tuberculosis in developing countries has been done by direct microscopic examination which has low sensitivity. Most of the patients with TB are detected as free of TB. For the low sensitivity of the directed microscopy, a new high sensitive fluorescent microscope was developed. In addition bleach sedimentation technique increased the sensitivity of both direct and fluorescent techniques. This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the value of fluorescent microscopy and bleach sedimentation method for the detection of smear negative tuberculosis cases in sputum sample in comparison with direct microscopy.A total of 132 sputum samples from patients aged 7 to 75 years were examined during the study period. Culture (Gold standard result identified 75 subjects as positive. Among 75 cultures positive sputum samples direct Ziehl Neilson technique identified 50 samples as positive with sensitivity of 66% and specificity of 98.2%. In fluorescent microscopy 55 of them were identified as positive with sensitivity of 78.6% and specificity of 80.7% in comparison with culture. On the other hand over night bleach sedimentation in Ziehl Neilson technique has increased the sensitivity to 76% and resulted in specificity of 91.2%. Bleach fluorescent microscopy has increased the sensitivity to 82.7% and resulted in specificity of 80.7% in comparison with culture. From the total of 132 samples 81 were smear negative samples as confirmed by direct microscopy. From these 81 samples direct fluorescent microscopy has identified 12 samples as positive out of 25 culture positive samples with sensitivity of 48% and specificity of 80.3%. Bleach direct microscopy has identified 8 positive with sensitivity of 32% and specificity of 89.3%. Bleach fluorescent microscopy identified 13 as positive with sensitivity of 52% and specificity of 82%. Therefore, the combination of bleach sedimentation and florescent microscopy can be used as a diagnostic tool for the reduction of morbidity and mortality occurring from Tuberculosis and can be used for early diagnosis and treatment of the disease.

  16. Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract on the radiolabelling of blood constituents and the morphometry of red blood cells: In vitro assay

    Benarroz, M.O. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Avenida General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, 59010-180 Natal, RN (Brazil); Fonseca, A.S. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: adenilso@uerj.br; Rocha, G.S. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Frydman, J.N.G. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Avenida General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, 59010-180 Natal, RN (Brazil); Rocha, V.C.; Pereira, M.O. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)] (and others)

    2008-02-15

    Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) on the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99 m({sup 99m}Tc) and on the morphology of red blood cells were studied. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with cinnamon extract for 1hour or with 0.9% NaCl, as control. Labelling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc was performed. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC), soluble (SF-P and SF-BC) and insoluble (IF-P and IF-BC) fractions were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity incorporated (%ATI) was calculated. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphological analysis of the red blood cells was evaluated. The data showed that the cinnamon extract decreased significantly (p<0.05) the %ATI on BC, IF-P and IF-BC. No modifications were verified on shape of red blood cells. Cinnamon extracts could alter the labelling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc, and although our results were obtained with animals, precaution is suggested in interpretations of nuclear medicine examinations involving the labelling of blood constituents in patients who are using cinnamon.

  17. Amylase - blood

    Amylase is an enzyme that helps digest carbohydrates. It is made in the pancreas and the glands ... saliva. When the pancreas is diseased or inflamed, amylase releases into the blood. A test can be ...

  18. Donating Blood

    ... And be sure to drink plenty of water, milk, or other liquids. Before donating, you'll need to answer some questions about your medical history, and have your temperature, pulse, blood pressure, and ...

  19. What's Blood?

    ... cells need to do their work and keep you healthy. Hormones carry messages throughout your body, telling it ... t get the oxygen and energy it needs. Healthy blood also protects you from germs and other invaders. Now that you ...

  20. Moving blood.

    Pelis, K

    1997-01-01

    Our internationally acclaimed journalist Sanguinia has returned safely from her historic assignment. Travelling from Homeric Greece to British Romanticism, she was witness to blood drinking, letting, bathing, and transfusion. In this report, she explores connections between the symbolic and the sadistic; the mythic and the medical--all in an effort to appreciate the layered meanings our culture has given to the movement of blood between our bodies. PMID:9407636

  1. Blood (For Parents)

    ... Kids Deal With Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect Blood KidsHealth > Parents > General Health > Body Basics > Blood Print ... about the mysterious, life-sustaining fluid called blood. Blood Basics Two types of blood vessels carry blood ...

  2. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Full Text Available ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  3. Types of Blood Transfusions

    ... Home Health Information for the Public Health Topics Blood Transfusion Types of Blood Transfusions Explore Blood Transfusion What Is... ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Blood Transfusions Blood is transfused either as whole blood ( ...

  4. Biology of Blood

    ... Mail Facebook TwitterTitle Google+ LinkedIn Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Medical Dictionary Also ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  5. Blood (For Parents)

    ... Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies Blood KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Print A A A ... about the mysterious, life-sustaining fluid called blood. Blood Basics Two types of blood vessels carry blood ...

  6. Catecholamine blood test

    Norepinephrine -- blood; Epinephrine -- blood; Adrenalin -- blood; Dopamine -- blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... the test. This is especially true if both blood and urine catecholamines are to be measured. You ...

  7. Rapid diagnosis of severe malaria based on the detection of Pf-Hrp-2 antigen.

    Birku, Y; Welday, D; Ayele, D; Shepherd, A

    1999-07-01

    Blood samples collected from 34 patients with severe malaria who were involved in antimalarial treatment studies were tested with rapid dipstick assay (Rapid Test Malaria, RTM from Quorum Diagnostics Inc., Vancouver, BC, Canada), based on the detection of Histidine Rich Protein (HRP-2) of Plasmodium falciparum. This was compared with the conventional Giemsa stained thin and thick blood smears. The study was done from March 1998 to May 1998, at the Basic Research Laboratory of the Faculty of Medicine, Addis Ababa University. Comparable number of patients (n = 32) with various diagnosis other than falciparum malaria were used as controls. The rapid dip-stick assay was positive in 31 among 34 of the severe malaria cases with sensitivity of 91.2%, specificity of 93.7%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 93.9% and negative predictive value (NPV) of 90.9%. The three cases missed by the RTM, had parasitemia of 66,000, 44,000, and 40,000/microL of blood which might be due to genetic heterogeneity of the HPR-2 expression. Among the controls, there were 2 false positive cases which may be as a result of persistent HPR-2 antigen after the clearance of peripheral parasitemia. The dip-stick method is a very quick, sensitive and specific diagnostic tool with limits of detection comparable or better than those provided by the light microscopy. The simplicity of the technique makes this method more applicable in the resource deprived laboratories of developing countries provided the kit is affordable for large scale use. PMID:11957314

  8. Prevalence and diversity of Hepatozoon canis in naturally infected dogs in Japanese islands and peninsulas.

    El-Dakhly, Khaled Mohamed; Goto, Minami; Noishiki, Kaori; El-Nahass, El-Shaymaa; Hirata, Akihiro; Sakai, Hiroki; Takashima, Yasuhiro; El-Morsey, Ahmed; Yanai, Tokuma

    2013-09-01

    Canine hepatozoonosis is a worldwide protozoal disease caused by Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon americanum and is transmitted by ixodid ticks, Rhipicephalus and Amblyomma spp., respectively. H. canis infection is widespread in Africa, Europe, South America, and Asia, including Japan. The objective of this study was to study the distribution pattern and diversity of H. canis in naturally infected dogs in nine Japanese islands and peninsulas. Therefore, 196 hunting dogs were randomly sampled during the period from March to September 2011 and the ages and sexes were identified. Direct microscopy using Giemsa-stained blood smears revealed H. canis gametocytes in the peripheral blood of 45 (23.6%) dogs. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on EDTA-anticoagulated blood, initially with the common primer set (B18S-F and B18S-R) amplifying the 1,665-bp portion of the 18S rRNA gene, and then with the specific primer set (HepF and HepR) amplifying about 660 bp fragments of the same gene. Based on PCR, 84 (42.9%) dogs were positive using the common primer and 81 (41.3%) were positive using the specific primer. The current investigation indicated that all screened areas, except for Sado Island and Atsumi Peninsula, were infected. Yaku Island had the highest infection rate (84.6% in males and 100.0% in females), while Ishigaki Island showed the lowest infection rates (8.3% in males and 17.7% in females). Both sexes were infected with no significant difference. However, diversity of infection among the surveyed islands and peninsulas was significantly different (P dogs in Japan, the higher infection rate described in the current study and the diversity of infection in a wide range of islands strongly encourage prospective studies dealing with the prevention and treatment of the infection in dogs, as well as control of ticks. PMID:23812601

  9. Van Hove singularities and spectral smearing in high-temperature superconducting H3S

    Quan, Yundi; Pickett, Warren E.

    2016-03-01

    The superconducting phase of hydrogen sulfide at Tc=200 K observed by Drozdov and collaborators at pressures around 200 GPa is simple bcc I m 3 ¯m H3S from a combination of theoretical and experimental confirmation. The various "extremes" that are involved—high pressure implying extreme reduction of volume, extremely high H phonon energy scale around 1400 K, extremely high temperature for a superconductor—necessitates a close look at new issues raised by these characteristics in relation to high Tc itself. First principles methods are applied to analyze the H3S electronic structure, beginning with the effect of sulfur and then focusing on the origin and implications of the two van Hove singularities (vHs) providing an impressive peak in the density of states near the Fermi energy. Implications arising from strong coupling Migdal-Eliashberg theory are studied. It becomes evident that electron spectral density smearing due to virtual phonon emission and absorption must be accounted for in a correct understanding of this unusual material and to obtain accurate theoretical predictions. Means for increasing Tc in H3S -like materials are noted.

  10. VOICE RECOGNITION BASED SECURE ANDROID MODEL FOR INPUTTING SMEAR TEST RESULTS

    Teenu Therese Paul

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Voice recognition technology is the process of identifying and understanding the voice signals of a user, which is converted into text or commands for a program. In this work the voice recognition technology is applied into a laboratory information system for identifying each technician's voice. i.e. By using the user's voice sample, a secure authentication system is developed where the unique features of the user's voice are extracted and stored at the time of registration. Afterwards during the login stage, unique features of the user's new voice sample are extracted. Then compare the features with all the stored features rather than the just previous one. For this, a unique username is set to all the users. The comparison operation is performed with all voice samples under that particular user name. The voice feature comparison process is done by using Fast Fourier Transform techniques. After a successful login the user can enter the results of smear test through his voice rather than typing into the system. The system mainly consists of two parts - a client system and a server system. The client system is developed using Android and the server system is implemented in Java.

  11. Role of AgNORs in thyroid lesions on fine needle aspiration cytology smears

    Asotra Sarita

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fine needle aspiration has an important role in diagnosis of thyroid neoplasm. However, it is difficult to differentiate between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma by cytology alone. Recently, silver staining has been performed for nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs to differentiate various tumors. Aims: The present study was undertaken to see if the AgNOR technique could distinguish between benign and malignant lesions, particularly, follicular neoplasm. Materials and Methods: One hundred forty cases of thyroid lesions were examined, which included colloid goiter (n = 36, multinodular goiter (n = 38, subacute thyroiditis (n = 6, Hashimoto′s thyroiditis (n = 17, lymphocytic thyroiditis (n = 3, follicular neoplasm (n = 18, Hurthle cell neoplasm (n = 3, papillary carcinoma (n = 16, and medullary carcinoma (n = 3. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology in 80 cases. The usual one-step silver colloidal reaction was performed at room temperature for 35 minutes and intranuclear dots of silver deposits were counted in 100 cells. Results: AgNOR counts of benign and malignant lesions were compared and were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.001. The mean AgNOR counts were higher in neoplastic lesions. Conclusions: AgNOR counting in fine needle aspiration smears is a simple, sensitive, and cost-effective method for differentiating benign from malignant thyroid follicular neoplasms.

  12. Predicting smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis with classification trees and logistic regression: a cross-sectional study

    Kritski Afrnio

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis (SNPT accounts for 30% of pulmonary tuberculosis cases reported yearly in Brazil. This study aimed to develop a prediction model for SNPT for outpatients in areas with scarce resources. Methods The study enrolled 551 patients with clinical-radiological suspicion of SNPT, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The original data was divided into two equivalent samples for generation and validation of the prediction models. Symptoms, physical signs and chest X-rays were used for constructing logistic regression and classification and regression tree models. From the logistic regression, we generated a clinical and radiological prediction score. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve, sensitivity, and specificity were used to evaluate the model's performance in both generation and validation samples. Results It was possible to generate predictive models for SNPT with sensitivity ranging from 64% to 71% and specificity ranging from 58% to 76%. Conclusion The results suggest that those models might be useful as screening tools for estimating the risk of SNPT, optimizing the utilization of more expensive tests, and avoiding costs of unnecessary anti-tuberculosis treatment. Those models might be cost-effective tools in a health care network with hierarchical distribution of scarce resources.

  13. Keeping the edge: A numerical method that avoids knickpoint smearing when solving the stream power law

    Campforts, Benjamin; Govers, Gerard

    2015-07-01

    The stream power equation is commonly used to model river incision into bedrock. Although specific conditions allow an analytical approach, finite difference methods (FDMs) are most frequently used to solve this equation. FDMs inevitably suffer from numerical smearing which may affect their suitability for transient river incision modeling. We propose the use of a finite volume method (FVM) which is total variation diminishing (TVD) to simulate river incision in a more accurate way. The TVD_FVM is designed to simulate sharp discontinuities, making it very suitable to simulate river incision pulses. We show that the TVD_FVM is much better capable of preserving propagating knickpoints than FDMs, using Niagara Falls as an example. Comparison of numerical results obtained using the TVD_FVM with analytical solutions shows a very good agreement. Furthermore, the uncertainty associated with parameter calibration is dramatically reduced when the TVD_FVM is applied. The high accuracy of the TVD_FDM allows correct simulation of transient incision waves as a consequence of older uplift pulses. This implies that the TVD_FVM is much more suitable than FDMs to reconstruct regional uplift histories from current river profile morphology and to simulate river incision processes in general.

  14. Rapid monitoring of soil, smears, and air dusts by direct large-area alpha spectrometry

    Experimental conditions to permit rapid monitoring of soils, smears, and air dusts for transuranic (TRU) radionuclides under field conditions are described. The monitoring technique involves direct measurement of alpha emitters by alpha spectrometry using a large-area detector to identify and quantify the radionuclides present. The direct alpha spectrometry employs a circular gridded ionization chamber 35 cm in diameter which accommodates either a circular sample holder 25 cm in diameter or a rectangular one 20 by 25 cm (8 by 10 in.). Soils or settled dusts are finely ground, suspended in 30% ethanol, and sprayed onto a 25-cm stainless steel dish. Air dusts are collected with a high-volume sampler onto 20- by 25-cm membrane filters. Removable contamination is collected from surfaces onto a 20- by 25-cm filter using an 18-cm (7-in.) paint roller to hold the large filter in contact with the surface during sample collection. All three types of samples are then counted directly in the alpha spectrometer and no other sample preparation is necessary. Some results obtained are described

  15. Comparison of predicted far-field temperatures for discrete and smeared heat sources

    A fundamental concern in the design of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is the response of the host rock to the emplacement of heat-generating waste. The thermal perturbation of the rock mass has implications regarding the structural hydrologic, and geochemical performance of the potential repository. The phenomenological coupling of many of these performance aspects makes repository thermal modeling a difficult task. For many of the more complex, coupled models, it is often necessary to reduce the geometry of the potential repository to a smeared heat-source approximation. Such simplifications have impacts on induced thermal profiles that in turn may influence other predicted responses through one- or two-way thermal couplings. The effect of waste emplacement layout on host-rock thermal response was chosen as the primary emphasis of this study. Using a consistent set of modeling and input assumptions, far-field thermal response predictions were made for discrete-source as well as plate source approximations of the repository geometry. Input values used in the simulations are consistent with a design-basis areal power density (APD) of 80 kW/acre as would be achieved assuming a 2010 emplacement start date, a levelized receipt schedule, and a limitation on available area as published in previous design studies. It was found that edge effects resulting from general repository layout have a significant influence on the shapes and extents of isothermal profiles, and should be accounted for in far-field modeling efforts

  16. [WHIM syndrome: presumptive diagnosis based on myelokathexis on bone marrow smear].

    Bock, Isabelle; Dugué, Franck; Loppinet, Elena; Bellanné-Chantelot, Christine; Bénet, Blandine

    2014-01-01

    The WHIM syndrome is a rare congenital immunodeficiency disorder characterized by human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, bacterial infections and myelokathexis. Myelokathexis refers to abnormal retention of mature neutrophils in the bone marrow leading to severe neutropenia. We report the case of a 20 year old man presenting with chronic and severe neutropenia since early childhood without established diagnosis. He was addressed for chronic parodontal disease treatment. Examination of bone marrow smear showed morphological abnormalities of mature neutrophils strongly suggestive of myelokathexis. Diagnosis of WHIM syndrome was confirmed by molecular analysis: a nonsense mutation was identified in the gene encoding CXCR4, the CXCL12 (or SDF-1) chemokine receptor which notably controls cell adhesion to the marrow stroma and thereby regulates mature leukocytes release from the bone marrow. Treatment of the disease usually consists in prophylactic anti-infective measures including intravenous immunoglobulins administration, oral antibiotic prophylaxis and more recently HPV vaccination. Long term G-CSF therapy did not show any significant efficiency in preventing recurrent infections. The use of specific CXCR4 antagonist is being currently evaluated. PMID:24492099

  17. Photometry of Very Bright Stars with Kepler and K2 Smear Data

    Pope, Benjamin; Huber, Daniel; Murphy, Simon; Bedding, Tim; Caldwell, Douglas; Sarai, Aleksa; Aigrain, Suzanne; Barclay, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    High-precision time series photometry with the Kepler satellite has been crucial to our understanding both of exoplanets, and via asteroseismology, of stellar physics. After the failure of two reaction wheels, the Kepler satellite has been repurposed as Kepler-2 (K2), observing fields close to the ecliptic plane. As these fields contain many more bright stars than the original Kepler field, K2 provides an unprecedented opportunity to study nearby objects amenable to detailed follow-up with ground-based instruments. Due to bandwidth constraints, only a small fraction of pixels can be downloaded, with the result that most bright stars which saturate the detector are not observed. We show that engineering data acquired for photometric calibration, consisting of collateral `smear' measurements, can be used to reconstruct light curves for bright targets not otherwise observable with Kepler/K2. Here we present some examples from Kepler Quarter 6 and K2 Campaign 3, including the delta Scuti variables HD 178875 and 7...

  18. A recursive spectral selection scheme for unsupervised segmentation of multispectral Pap smear image sets

    Zhao, Tong; Wachman, Elliot S.; Geyer, Stanley J.; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2004-07-01

    Efficient computer-aided cervical cancer detection can improve both the accuracy and the productivity of cytotechnologists and pathologists. Nuclear segmentation is essential to automated screening, and is still a challenge. We propose and demonstrate a novel approach to improving segmentation performance by multispectral imaging followed by unsupervised nuclear segmentation relying on selecting a useful subset of spectral or derived image features. In the absence of prior knowledge, feature selection can be negatively affected by the bias, present in most unsupervised segmentation, to erroneously segment out small objects, yielding ill-balanced class samples. To address this issue, we first introduce a new measurement, Criterion Vector (CV), measuring the distances between the segmentation result and the original data. This efficiently reduces the bias generated by feature selection. Second, we apply a novel recursive feature selection scheme, to generate a new feature subset based on the corresponding CV, ensuring that the correct part of the initial segmentation results is used to obtain better feature subsets. We studied the speed and accuracy of our two-step algorithm in analyzing a number of multispectral Pap smear image sets. The results show high accuracy of segmentation, as well as great reduction of spectral redundancy. The nuclear segmentation accuracy can reach over 90%, by selecting as few as 4 distinct spectra out of 30.

  19. Prevalence of HPV Infection and Its Association with Cytological Abnormalities of Pap Smears in Tehran

    M Jamali Zavarei Jamali Zavarei

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human papillomavirus infection is one of the most common genital infections. More than 100 types of this virus have been identified, and most of them are capable of infecting the genital mucosa. Human papillomavirus is in association with cancerous and precancerous lesions of the cervix; some types like HPV 16 and 18 are highly carcinogenic, some types like HPV 31 and 33 are moderately and some types like HPV 6 and 11 are mildly carcinogenic. In this research, the relationship between cytological changes of the squamous epithelial cells and the presence of HPV infections in our cases has been assessed."nMethods: In this prospective study, we collected 681 samples from women admitted to different hospitals and private gynecological clinics in Tehran, during the years 2003-2005. Two specimens were collected from each patient; one for a Pap smear study and the other for PCR assay in order to detect HPV."nResults: Out of our 681 samples, 600 specimens were suitable for PCR assay, and 34 cases were HPV positive in PCR assay. This means that 5.7 percent of our patients were infected with HPV."nConclusion: HPV infection is common in Iran and is nearly identical to European countries such as Germany, and Spain. Also, we found that using PCR assay in order to detect the presence of HPV viruses in vaginal discharges can be very helpful.

  20. Nonlinear Analysis of Concrete Structural Components Using Co-axial Rotating Smeared Crack Model

    Masoud Heshmati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulation of concrete behavior in structural components and estimation of real crack profile under static and dynamic loads is one of the most interesting fields in structural engineering. In the present study, a co-axial rotating smeared crack model is proposed for mass concrete in 3D space. The advantages of this model are using variable shear transfer coefficient which is updated in each load step; utilizing an advanced failure criterion for concrete and ability of modeling concrete cracking in tension and also crushing in compression. The proposed model is verified considering concrete beams under concentrated loads and comparing the results with those available in the literature. In addition, a finite element model of prototype gravity dam-reservoir-foundation system is provided in order to investigation the nonlinear dynamic behavior of large concrete specimens considering fluid-structure-interaction. The responses of the dam as well as crack profiles are compared for constant and variable shear transfer coefficients under various types of dynamic loads. Results show great compatibility of numerical modeling and experimental tests. In addition, results confirm importance of shear transfer coefficients in dynamic analysis of concrete gravity dams.