Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria parasitemia is commonly used as a measurement of the amount of parasites in the patient's blood and a crucial indicator for the degree of infection. Manual evaluation of Giemsa-stained thin blood smears under the microscope is onerous, time consuming and subject to human error. Although automatic assessments can overcome some of these problems the available methods are currently limited by their inability to evaluate cases that deviate from a chosen "standard" model. Results In this study reliable parasitemia counts were achieved even for sub-standard smear and image quality. The outcome was assessed through comparisons with manual evaluations of more than 200 sample smears and related to the complexity of cell overlaps. On average an estimation error of less than 1% with respect to the average of manually obtained parasitemia counts was achieved. In particular the results from the proposed approach are generally within one standard deviation of the counts provided by a comparison group of malariologists yielding a correlation of 0.97. Variations occur mainly for blurred out-of-focus imagery exhibiting larger degrees of cell overlaps in clusters of erythrocytes. The assessment was also carried out in terms of precision and recall and combined in the F-measure providing results generally in the range of 92% to 97% for a variety of smears. In this context the observed trade-off relation between precision and recall guaranteed stable results. Finally, relating the F-measure with the degree of cell overlaps, showed that up to 50% total cell overlap can be tolerated if the smear image is well-focused and the smear itself adequately stained. Conclusion The automatic analysis has proven to be comparable with manual evaluations in terms of accuracy. Moreover, the test results have shown that the proposed comparison-based approach, by exploiting the interrelation between different images and color channels, has successfully overcome most of the inherent limitations possibly occurring during the sample preparation and image acquisition phase. Eventually, this can be seen as an opportunity for developing low-cost solutions for mass screening.
Background Malaria parasitemia is commonly used as a measurement of the amount of parasites in the patient's blood and a crucial indicator for the degree of infection. Manual evaluation of Giemsa-stained thin blood smears under the microscope is onerous, time consuming and subject to human error. Although automatic assessments can overcome some of these problems the available methods are currently limited by their inability to evaluate cases that deviate from a chosen "standard" model. Results In this study reliable parasitemia counts were achieved even for sub-standard smear and image quality. The outcome was assessed through comparisons with manual evaluations of more than 200 sample smears and related to the complexity of cell overlaps. On average an estimation error of less than 1% with respect to the average of manually obtained parasitemia counts was achieved. In particular the results from the proposed approach are generally within one standard deviation of the counts provided by a comparison group of malariologists yielding a correlation of 0.97. Variations occur mainly for blurred out-of-focus imagery exhibiting larger degrees of cell overlaps in clusters of erythrocytes. The assessment was also carried out in terms of precision and recall and combined in the F-measure providing results generally in the range of 92% to 97% for a variety of smears. In this context the observed trade-off relation between precision and recall guaranteed stable results. Finally, relating the F-measure with the degree of cell overlaps, showed that up to 50% total cell overlap can be tolerated if the smear image is well-focused and the smear itself adequately stained. Conclusion The automatic analysis has proven to be comparable with manual evaluations in terms of accuracy. Moreover, the test results have shown that the proposed comparison-based approach, by exploiting the interrelation between different images and color channels, has successfully overcome most of the inherent limitations possibly occurring during the sample preparation and image acquisition phase. Eventually, this can be seen as an opportunity for developing low-cost solutions for mass screening. PMID:18373862
Le, Minh-Tam; Bretschneider, Timo R; Kuss, Claudia; Preiser, Peter R
Full Text Available Abstract Daily assessment of the percentage of erythrocytes that are infected ('percent-parasitaemia' across a time-course is a necessary step in many experimental studies of malaria, but represents a time-consuming and unpopular task among researchers. The most common method is extensive microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained thin blood-films. This study explored a method for the assessment of percent-parasitaemia that does not require extended periods of microscopy and results in a descriptive and permanent record of parasitaemia data that is highly amenable to subsequent 'data-mining'. Digital photography was utilized in conjunction with a basic purpose-written computer programme to test the viability of the concept. Partial automation of the determination of percent parasitaemia was then explored, resulting in the successful customization of commercially available broad-spectrum image analysis software towards this aim. Lastly, automated discrimination between infected and uninfected RBCs based on analysis of digital parameters of individual cell images was explored in an effort to completely automate the calculation of an accurate percent-parasitaemia.
This study was undertaken to evaluate the compatibility of Giemsa staining protocol with the comet assay. We showed, for the first time, that DNA comets can be visualized and analyzed using Giemsa staining. We generated DNA damage dose response curves for human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to X-ray radiation using the comet assay with either SybrGreen I or Giemsa stain. The dose response curves were fitted by linear regressions (R2 > 0.977). The SybrGreen I results showed only ~1.2...
Andreyan Osipov; Ekaterina Arkhangelskaya; Alexei Vinokurov; Nadezhda Smetanin?; Alex Zhavoronkov; Dmitry Klokov
Although Giemsa staining has been routinely used for the detection of trophozoites and intracystic bodies in smears of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) from patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, it does not normally stain the cyst wall. For detection of the cysts other stains such as toluidine Blue 'O' and methenamine silver must be used as well. Sulphation of smears before staining with Giemsa allows cysts to be visualised, thus enabling a single stain to be used to show all the st...
Walker, J.; Conner, G.; Ho, J.; Hunt, C.; Pickering, L.
Full Text Available Background: Direct identification of Leishmania species in Giemsa-stained slides without parasite culturing in the areas where multiple species exist, is very helpful. This study was designed to isolate Leishmani spp. from Giemsa-stained smears and to characterize them by PCR technique.Methods: A total of 48 Giemsa-Stained slides from confirmed cases of leishmaniasis were examined under a light microscope at×1000 and classified based on grading of Leishmania parasites. DNA from each slide was extracted separately and subjected to PCR. The ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1 was amplified with specific primers and the PCR products were digested with a restriction enzyme (HaeIII.Results: Of the 48 microscopy-positive slides, 43(89.6% were positive by PCR-RFLP and Leishmania species were identified. A statistically significant difference was observed between the both methods (P< 0.05 and also a concordance was found between microscopy and PCR-RFLP (k= 0.55.Conclusion: PCR-RFLP seems to be an effective method to identify Leishmania species from Giemsa-stained smears which have been collected from both infected humans and animal reservoir hosts in Iran.
Mixtures of polychrome methylene blue-eosin Y (i.e., Giemsa stain) are widely used in biological staining. They induce a striking purple coloration of chromatin DNA (the Romanowsky-Giemsa effect), which contrasts with the blue-stained RNA-containing cytoplasm and nucleoli. After specific prestaining treatments that induce chromatin disorganization (giving banded or harlequin chromosomes), Giemsa staining produces a differential coloration, with C- and G-bands appearing in purple whereas remaining chromosome regions are blue. Unsubstituted (TT) and bromo-substituted (BT) DNAs also appear purple and blue, respectively. The same occurs in the case of BT and BB chromatids.In addition to discussing the use of Giemsa stain as a suitable method to reveal specific features of chromosome structure, some molecular processes and models are also described to explain Giemsa staining mechanisms of chromatin.
Stockert, Juan C; Blazquez-Castro, Alfonso
Measures of parasitemia by intraerythrocytic hematozoan parasites are normally expressed as the number of infected erythrocytes per n erythrocytes and are notoriously tedious and time consuming to measure. We describe a protocol for generating rapid counts of nucleated erythrocytes from digital micrographs of thin blood smears that can be used to estimate intensity of hematozoan infections in nonmammalian vertebrate hosts. This method takes advantage of the bold contrast and relatively uniform size and morphology of erythrocyte nuclei on Giemsa-stained blood smears and uses ImageJ, a java-based image analysis program developed at the U.S. National Institutes of Health and available on the internet, to recognize and count these nuclei. This technique makes feasible rapid and accurate counts of total erythrocytes in large numbers of microscope fields, which can be used in the calculation of peripheral parasitemias in low-intensity infections.
Gering, E.; Atkinson, C.T.
Background: Leishmaniasis is a group of diseases that are created by intracellular parasites of Leishmania. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is considered as one of the health problems in some provinces of Iran.Methods: In this study, a total of 178 Giemsa-stained slides from confirmed cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were examined. The slides were prepared from the patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis that referred to health centers and infected during the epidemic of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Pold...
Farnaz Kheirandish; Ali Chegeni Sharafi; Bahram Kazemi; Mehdi Mohebali; Amanollah Sarlak; Mohamad Javad Tarahi; Kourosh Holakouee; Homa Hajaran
Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori are associated with most of the disorders of gastro-duodenal tract, such as gastritis, gastric ulcers, dyspepsia and gastric carcinoma. Many staining methods have been developed for the detection of these bacteria from gastric biopsies. However most of the methods adopted were shown to be more expensive, less sensitive, time consuming with less background information. In view of this, the present study was carried out to check the validity of triple staining method against modified Giemsa staining. For this study, 60 biopsy specimens were selected from different gastric lesions as chronic gastritis (30, gastric ulcers (10 and gastric carcinoma (20. These specimens were subjected to modified Giemsa staining showed purple to dark purple bacteria with bluish background. The results showed 56.66, 40 and 15 percentage positivity for chronic gastritis, benign gastric ulcers and malignant gastric lesions, respectively. The stained sections of triple staining showed black to dark brown bacteria with pink colored background with 70, 50 and 10 percentage positivity for chronic gastritis, benign gastric ulcers and malignant gastric lesions, respectively. From the present study it is clear that triple staining method is more sensitive than the modified Giemsa staining.
Pavan Kumar Pindi
Full Text Available Background: Leishmaniasis is a group of diseases that are created by intracellular parasites of Leishmania. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is considered as one of the health problems in some provinces of Iran.Methods: In this study, a total of 178 Giemsa-stained slides from confirmed cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were examined. The slides were prepared from the patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis that referred to health centers and infected during the epidemic of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Poldokhtar city, Lorestan Province, Iran in 2006.Genomic DNA from each slide was extracted. After DNA extraction, ITS-PCR was used.Results: Out of 178 slides, 129 (72.47% samples had a band in the range of 485 bp and 49 (27.53% samples 626 bp that matched L. tropica and L. major standard samples, respectively.Conclusion: This study showed that Leishmania DNA could be efficiently extracted and amplified even from old Giemsa-stained microscopic slides that were stored more than 6 yr. In this study was shown that both L. tropica and L. major species exist in Lorestan Province.
Parasites may lead bird species to extinction, affect host temporal and spatial population dynamics, alter community structure and alter individuals’ social status. We evaluated blood parasite prevalence and intensity according to bird families and species, among 925 birds that were caught in 2000 and 2001, in the Atlantic Forest in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. We applied Giemsa staining to thin blood smears, to detect blood parasites. The birds (n = 15.8%) in 11 families, were infect...
Fabiane Sebaio; Érika Martins Braga; Felipe Branquinho; Alan Fecchio; Miguel Ângelo Marini
External quality assessment of Giemsa-stained blood film microscopy for the diagnosis of malaria and sleeping sickness in the Democratic Republic of the Congo / Évaluation externe de la qualité de la microscopie de frottis sanguins colorés au Giemsa pour le diagnostic du paludisme et de la maladie du sommeil en République démocratique du Congo / Evaluación de calidad externa de la microscopía en frotis de sangre con tinción de Giemsa para el diagnóstico de la malaria y la enfermedad del sueño en la República Democrática del Congo
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Informar de los resultados de una segunda evaluación de calidad externa de la microscopía en frotis de sangre con tinción de Giemsa en la República Democrática del Congo, llevada a cabo un año después de la primera. MÉTODOS: Se entregó un panel de cuatro muestras a laboratorios de diagnóst [...] ico de todas las provincias del país. Las muestras contenían: (i) gametocitos Plasmodium falciparum; (ii) trofozoítos P. falciparum (densidad de referencia: 113 530 por µl); (iii) subespecies de Trypanosoma brucei y (iv) ningún parásito. RESULTADOS: De los 356 laboratorios contactados, respondieron 277 (77,8%). En total, el 35,0% de los laboratorios informó de las cuatro muestras correctamente, pero el 14,1% informó de resultados correctos en una o ninguna de las muestras. Los principales errores consistieron en no diagnosticar la tripanosomiasis (50,4%), no reconocer los gametocitos P. falciparum (17,5%) y diagnosticar malaria en la muestra sin parásitos (19,0%). La frecuencia de errores graves en la evaluación de la densidad de los parásitos y en informar de resultados con falsos positivos fue menor que en la evaluación de calidad externa anterior. El 17,2% y el 52,3%, respectivamente (P Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To report the findings of a second external quality assessment of Giemsa-stained blood film microscopy in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, performed one year after the first. METHODS: A panel of four slides was delivered to diagnostic laboratories in all provinces of the country. The [...] slides contained: (i) Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes; (ii) P. falciparum trophozoites (reference density: 113 530 per µl); (iii) Trypanosoma brucei subspecies; and (iv) no parasites. FINDINGS: Of 356 laboratories contacted, 277 (77.8%) responded. Overall, 35.0% of the laboratories reported all four slides correctly but 14.1% reported correct results for 1 or 0 slides. Major errors included not diagnosing trypanosomiasis (50.4%), not recognizing P. falciparum gametocytes (17.5%) and diagnosing malaria from the slide with no parasites (19.0%). The frequency of serious errors in assessing parasite density and in reporting false-positive results was lower than in the previous external quality assessment: 17.2% and 52.3%, respectively, (P
Pierre, Mukadi; Philippe, Gillet; Albert, Lukuka; Benjamin, Atua; Nicole, Sheshe; Albert, Kanza; Jean Bosco, Mayunda; Briston, Mongita; Raphaël, Senga; John, Ngoyi; Jean-Jacques, Muyembe; Jan, Jacobs; Veerle, Lejon.
Seventy-seven bronchoalveolar lavages from human immunosuppressive virus infected patients with pulmonary symptoms were examined routinely for the presence of Pneumocystis carinii, using Giemsa stain to detect trophozoites and methenamine silver nitrate to detect cysts. Thirty-seven samples were found positive with both methods, but a further 10 were diagnosed with Giemsa indicating that the trophozoite stain is more sensitive. As Giemsa stain is simple, quick, cheap and familiar to most microbiological laboratories it should be used for screening of samples to be examined for Pneumocystis carinii. In cases where trophozoites are not detected by Giemsa a supplementary cyst stain may be performed in order to rule out the presumably few cases where cysts are present as the only evidence of Pneumocystis carinii infection.
Holten-Andersen, W; Kolmos, H J
Full Text Available Aim: Theileriosis is a major threat to dairy and related industries. Theileria is a protozoan parasite that causes theileriosis, a fatal disease. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of theileriosis in crossbred cattle belonging to Dehradun district, Uttarakhand, India. Materials and Methods: We screened 301 blood samples each month from apparently normal/healthy crossbred cattle from various locations of Dehradun district. Samples were tested using Giemsa's staining technique and specific PCR test. Result: Microscopic examination of blood smears revealed 27.2% (82 overall prevalence of theileriosis. The highest prevalence was found in rainy season with a prevalence rate 45.4%. By Theileria genus specific PCR test, 98 samples (32.5 % were found to be positive for theileriosis. Conclusion: Our study suggests that theileriosis is spreading to even the temperate region in Uttarakhand and immediate screening norms/policies are needed to reduce the extent of spread. There is a need for further investigation using molecular technique.
Background: The International Consensus Group for Hematology Review recommends manual blood smears for new findings from automated complete blood cell (CBC) tests. However, in outpatients, the rate of peripheral manual blood smear reviews is uncertain, as is the effect of historical results on this rate. Methods: In a prospective cohort study of 687,955 members of a health maintenance organization, we extracted 39,759 consecutive automated CBC test results and determined the rate of manual p...
Froom, Paul; Havis, Rosa; Barak, Mira
Candida spp are the fourth most common group of nosocomial pathogens isolated from patients on medical, surgical, and intensive care wards. Polymicrobial candidaemia has rarely been described. The diagnosis of candidaemia from peripheral blood smears has not been widely reported. This report describes the case of a young woman suffering from Ewing’s sarcoma who developed a syndrome of septic shock. Deep fungal infection was diagnosed from a systematic peripheral blood smear and yeasts were ...
Yera, H.; Poulain, D.; Lefebvre, A.; Camus, D.; Sendid, B.
Assessment of platelet count is an important diagnostic parameter in haematology. Automated blood cell counters have largely replaced the manual method. However, all abnormal platelet counts are verified in Leishman's stained peripheral blood smear. Platelets also can be identified in the unstained blood smears. The objective of this study is to compare the unstained peripheral blood smears with the stained smears and determination of the effectiveness of unstained smears in the estimation of platelet count. 250 Venous blood samples sent for blood cell counts were analyzed. Platelets were counted in the unstained smear under 100× objective in 10 fields without placing immersion oil and the average number of platelets was calculated. Same smear was stained by Leishman's stain and platelets were counted under 100× objective after placing a drop of immersion oil. Collected data were analyzed for intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). ICC showed excellent agreement (ICC > 0.85). The unstained smears were found to be as effective as stained smears for platelet count in most of the cases. However, in case of doubt a stained preparation has to be made to confirm the count. The turnaround time was 3-5 minutes compared to 15-20 minutes by stained smear technique, thus this technique may be used as an initial screening method whenever there is large sample load. PMID:25500519
Umashankar, T; Thomas, B M; Sahana, P
Neutral lipid storage disease (Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of lipid metabolism, characterized by systemic accumulation of neutral lipids in multiple tissues. We report a case of a 14-year-old girl with generalized ichthyosis, liver cirrhosis, and a hearing impairment. A peripheral blood smear demonstrated marked cytoplasmatic vacuoles in most polymorphonuclear cells (Jordan's anomaly). Bone marrow examination revealed vacuoles in myeloid precursors. Genetic analysis showed that the patient was homozygous for the p.Arg312Ter mutation in the CGI-58 gene, a key enzyme in lipid metabolism. The peripheral blood smear is diagnostic, and should be performed in any patient with ichthyosis. PMID:23042024
Elitzur, Sarah; Yacobovich, Joanne; Dgany, Orly; Krasnov, Tatyana; Rosenbach, Yoram; Tamary, Hannah
Low sensitivity of nested PCR using
Abstract Background The success of PCR technique depends on many factors, such as high quality DNA pellets obtained from blood samples, good reagents and adequate conditions of amplification. Taking these limitations into account, a retrospective epidemiological study for malaria diagnosis was conducted in a mesoendemic area in the Brazilian Amazon. Methods A nested PCR protocol with DNA extracted from two blood storage devices obtained from Giemsa-stained thick...
Horta Maria; Nunes Álvaro C; Jf, Fontes Cor; Kg, Scopel Ke?zia; Braga Érika M
Full Text Available Malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in tropical and subtropical countries. Conventional microscopy is the Gold standard in the diagnosis of the disease. However, it is prone to some shortcomings which include time consumption and difficultness in reproducing results. Alternative diagnosis techniques which yield superior results are quite expensive and hence inaccessible to developing countries where the disease is prevalent. Thus in this work, an accurate, speedy and affordable system of malaria detection using stained thin blood smear images was developed. The method uses Artificial Neural Network (ANN to test for the presence of plasmodium parasites in thin blood smear images. Images of infected and non-infected erythrocytes were acquired, pre-processed, relevant features extracted from them and eventually diagnosis was made based on the features extracted from the images. Diagnosis entailed detection of plasmodium parasites. Classification accuracy of 95.0% in detection of infected erythrocyte was achieved with respect to results obtained by expert microscopists. The study revealed that artificial neural network (ANN classifiers trained with colour features of infected stained thin blood smear images are suitable for detection. It was further shown that ANN classifiers can be trained to perform image segmentation.
Daniel Maitethia Memeu
Blinded comparison of a direct immunofluorescent monoclonal antibody staining method and a Giemsa staining method for identification of Pneumocystis carinii in induced sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage specimens of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.
A new direct immunofluorescence monoclonal antibody (DFA) method (Genetic Systems, Inc., Seattle, Wash.) for identification of Pneumocystis carinii in induced sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage specimens was compared in a blinded study with an established Giemsa stain method. We evaluated 148 consecutive clinical specimens from 104 patients with the following results. For the 67 patients (64%) infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 49 were initially negative by both the DFA and ...
Wolfson, J. S.; Waldron, M. A.; Sierra, L. S.
A 4-year-old neutered female crossbred Shepherd was referred for a history of 10 days of anorexia, polyuria, polydipsia, polyadenomegaly, and diarrhea. On physical examination, the dog appeared quiet, responsive, and apyretic, with generalized and severe lymphadenomegaly. Hematologic abnormalities included neutrophilic leukocytosis with left shift, and lymphopenia. Blood smears revealed intracytoplasmic bacilli negatively stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa in neutrophils and monocytes. Lymph node smears revealed pyogranulomatous adenitis with calcified deposits and many negative-staining rod structures, both within the cytoplasm of neutrophils and macrophages, and free in the background. An acid-fast stain (Ziehl-Neelsen) confirmed the diagnosis of mycobacterial infection. The dog was euthanized for public health and ethical reasons, and the postmortem examination revealed severe and generalized granulomatous and necrotizing lymphadenitis, panniculitis, and hepatitis, and infiltration of epithelioid macrophages in the lungs, colon, and spleen. Numerous acid-fast bacilli, consistent with mycobacterial infection, were observed both in the cytoplasm of epithelioid macrophages and giant cells, and free in the background. Mycobacterium bovis was first confirmed by conventional PCR of organ extracts. Mycobacterium avium was detected in a culture of the same organs. Further PCR amplifications and sequencing revealed a coinfection with 2 different species of mycobacterium, one belonging to the Mycobacterium avium complex and the other to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. PMID:24320783
Etienne, Claire-Lise; Granat, Fanny; Trumel, Catherine; Raymond-Letron, Isabelle; Lucas, Marie-Noëlle; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Pingret, Jean-Luc; Magne, Laurent; Delverdier, Maxence
Full Text Available Background: The mainstay of diagnosis of relapsing fever (RF is demonstration of the spirochetes in Giemsa-stained thick blood smears, but during non fever periods the bacteria are very scanty and rarely detected in blood smears by microscopy. This study is aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of different methods developed for detection of low-grade spirochetemia. Methods: Animal blood samples with low degrees of spirochetemia were tested with two PCRs and a nested PCR targeting flaB, GlpQ, and rrs genes. Also, a centrifuged-based enrichment method and Giemsa staining were performed on blood samples with various degrees of spirochetemia. Results: The flaB-PCR and nested rrs-PCR turned positive with various degrees of spirochetemia including the blood samples that turned negative with dark-field microscopy. The GlpQ-PCR was positive as far as at least one spirochete was seen in 5-10 microscopic fields. The sensitivity of GlpQ-PCR increased when DNA from Buffy Coat Layer (BCL was used as template. The centrifuged-based enrichment method turned positive with as low concentration as 50 bacteria/ml blood, while Giemsa thick staining detected bacteria with concentrations ? 25000 bacteria/ml. Conclusion: Centrifuged-based enrichment method appeared as much as 500-fold more sensitive than thick smears, which makes it even superior to some PCR assays. Due to simplicity and minimal laboratory requirements, this method can be considered a valuable tool for diagnosis of RF in rural health centers.
Full Text Available The microscopic examination of stained smears of peripheral blood is of vital significance in the speedy diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases, in particular during the stage of infection when the cause is present in the blood, or blood cells. It is sometimes possible to make a definitive diagnosis of an infectious or parasitic disease following an examination of a stained smear of the peripheral blood. Since microscopic examinations of a peripheral blood smear are applied increasingly rarely in clinical practice, due to the development of other methods for the diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases in dogs, as well as the lack of knowledge of the morphology of the numerous causes that can be present in the blood, we carried out an investigation into the presence and spread of infections whose causes can be present in dog blood. The investigations covered 100 dogs from which peripheral blood smears were taken and then stained with a Giemsa solution according to the standard protocol and examined under a microscope with an immersion lens. The examination of peripheral blood smears stained according to Giemsa resulted in the identification of the presence of an Ehrlichia spp. morula in a neutrophil granulocyte in one dog. The presence of hemotropic mycoplasmas was established in erythrocytes of eleven dogs, while the presence of the protozoa Babesia canis in erythrocytes was identified in five dogs included in the investigations. A microscopic examination of dog peripheral blood smears stained according to Giemsa was shown as a speedy, practical, simple, and inexpensive method for making a definitive etiological diagnosis of these infections, and it should be included regularly in standard protocols for the diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases.
A Romanowsky type (Diff-3) stain was used for identifying Helicobacter pylori in gastric biopsy specimens from 50 patients with ulcer and non-ulcer dyspepsia. Air dried smears were prepared from fresh biopsy tissue and histological sections were prepared from paraffin wax processed tissue. The Diff-3 technique is accomplished in five steps and takes about 30 seconds. Results using the Diff-3 stain correlated 100% with those using the Giemsa stain. The Diff-3 stain is reliable, simple, rapid, ...
Zaitoun, A. M.
The 23 cases of malignant melanoma diagnosed by fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology from the years 1974 to 1983 were reviewed. The smears showed an abundance of melanin pigment overshadowing the tumor cells in six cases, a pleomorphic cytology in six, a round-cell morphology in four, an epithelial-like appearance in six and a spindle-cell pattern in one. Melanin pigment was readily seen in the May-Grünwald-Giemsa-stained smears in all cases except two, in one of which it was apparent after use of the Schmorl stain for melanin. An interesting observation was the presence of multiple, well-defined clear vacuoles in the cytoplasm of many cells and similar nuclear vacuolization in some cells in smears from ten cases. These cells could be regarded as intermediate forms between the nonvacuolated cells and the hypervacuolated balloon cells. The cause of this vacuolization is probably the result of degeneration and coalescence of melanosomes due to abnormal melanogenesis. These vacuoles were prominent in May-Grünwald-Giemsa-stained smears but were only faintly visible in Papanicolaou-stained smears, which may be the reason why this observation had not received emphasis in earlier reports of the FNA cytologic diagnosis of melanoma, in which the Papanicolaou stain was primarily used. PMID:3866463
Gupta, S K; Rajwanshi, A K; Das, D K
Full Text Available Tropical malaria is a disease caused by protozoan parasites of genus Plasmodium that infect red blood cells of patients. Tropical malaria falciparum is the most severe form of malaria. Process is performed by physicians to diagnosing tropical malaria diseases in blood smear with directly observed using a microscope. This procedure is certainly not effective. Purpose of research is to develop a software that can automatically detect tropical malaria of blood smear image as a diagnostic aid. This study consists of three steps. First step is to create a user interface. Second step is to develop software to perform segmentation of blood smears image using active contour method, and the third step is development of software for malaria detection by classification of blood smears images suspected containing plasmodium malaria using support vector machine (SVM. The results of testing that has been done for normal blood obtained accuracy 100 % , thropozoit phase with accuracy 100 %, Schizont phase with accuracy 85 %, and gamethozit phase with accuracy 95%.
Sri Widodo * ,
An injured juvenile red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) was evaluated at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital at the University of California, Davis. The hawk was quiet, alert, and emaciated, and had a closed comminuted, mid-diaphyseal ulnar fracture. CBC results included heterophilia with a left shift, monocytosis, and increased plasma fibrinogen concentration. The blood smear included rare heterophils containing small, dark blue inclusions approximately 1-2 mum in diameter that ranged from round to coccobacillary in shape and formed variably shaped aggregates; the morphology of the inclusions was suspicious for Chlamydophila or Ehrlichia spp. pathogens. The hawk died, and histopathologic examination of tissues obtained at necropsy found severe multifocal histiocytic and heterophilic splenitis in addition to chronic hepatitis, myocarditis and epicarditis, meningoencephalitis, and airsacculitis. Using immunohistochemistry the presence of Chlamydia/Chlamydophila spp. antigen within multiple tissues was confirmed. Chlamydophila psittaci DNA was demonstrated in whole blood and fresh splenic tissue via real-time PCR. Direct fluorescent antibody staining of air-dried blood smears was positive in rare leukocytes for Chlamydia/Chlamydophila spp. antigen, and immunocytochemical staining of blood smears for Chlamydia/Chlamydophila spp. antigen was focally positive in rare heterophils. These findings may represent the first reported diagnosis of natural avian C. psittaci infection by visualization of organisms in peripheral blood heterophils. Immunocytochemical evaluation of blood smears was valuable in confirming the diagnosis and may be a useful antemortem test to discriminate between bacteria and other inclusions within heterophils. PMID:19228359
Johns, Jennifer L; Luff, Jennifer A; Shooshtari, Mahrokh P; Zehnder, Ashley M; Borjesson, Dori L
Bartonella bacilliformis is the etiologic agent of Carrion's disease. This disease has two well established phases, the most relevant being the so called Oroya Fever, in which B. bacilliformis infect the erythrocytes resulting in severe anemia and transient immunosuppression, with a high lethality in the absence of adequate antibiotic treatment. The presence of B. bacilliformis was studied in 113 blood samples suspected of Carrion's disease based on clinical criteria, despite the absence of a positive thin blood smear, by two different PCR techniques (using Bartonella-specific and universal 16S rRNA gene primers), and by bacterial culture. The specific 16S rRNA gene primers revealed the presence of 21 B. bacilliformis and 1 Bartonella elizabethae, while universal primers showed both the presence of 3 coinfections in which a concomitant pathogen was detected plus Bartonella, in addition to the presence of infections by other microorganisms such as Agrobacterium or Bacillus firmus. These data support the need to implement molecular tools to diagnose Carrion's disease. PMID:24651298
del Valle Mendoza, Juana; Silva Caso, Wilmer; Tinco Valdez, Carmen; Pons, Maria J; del Valle, Luis J; Oré, Verónica Casabona; Michelena, Denisse Champin; Mayra, Jorge Bazán; Gavidea, Víctor Zavaleta; Vargas, Martha; Ruiz, Joaquim
Most of the erythrocyte related diseases are detectable by hematology images analysis. At the first step of this analysis, segmentation and detection of blood cells are inevitable. In this study, a novel method using a line operator and watershed algorithm is rendered for erythrocyte detection and segmentation in blood smear images, as well as reducing over-segmentation in watershed algorithm that is useful for segmentation of different types of blood cells having partial overlap. This method uses gray scale structure of blood cell, which is obtained by exertion of Euclidian distance transform on binary images. Applying this transform, the gray intensity of cell images gradually reduces from the center of cells to their margins. For detecting this intensity variation structure, a line operator measuring gray level variations along several directional line segments is applied. Line segments have maximum and minimum gray level variations has a special pattern that is applicable for detections of the central regions of cells. Intersection of these regions with the signs which are obtained by calculating of local maxima in the watershed algorithm was applied for cells’ centers detection, as well as a reduction in over-segmentation of watershed algorithm. This method creates 1300 sign in segmentation of 1274 erythrocytes available in 25 blood smear images. Accuracy and sensitivity of the proposed method are equal to 95.9% and 97.99%, respectively. The results show the proposed method's capability in detection of erythrocytes in blood smear images. PMID:24672764
Khajehpour, Hassan; Dehnavi, Alireza Mehri; Taghizad, Hossein; Khajehpour, Esmat; Naeemabadi, Mohammadreza
Full Text Available Rapid diagnosis is prerequisite for effective treatment and reducing mortality and morbidity of malaria. This study was taken up to compare the efficacy of various methods available, i.e., thick and thin smear, quantitative buffy coat (QBC, plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase and aldolase in blood of patient. A total of 411 samples were collected from patients presenting with classic symptoms of malaria. For traditional microscopy; thick and thin smears were prepared and stained with Leishman?s stain, taking thick smear as gold standard, thin smear had a sensitivity and specificity of 54.8% and 100%, respectively. QBC and antigen detection was done using commercially available kits; out of 411 samples, QBC and Malariagen were positive in 66 and 62 cases, with a sensitivity of 78% and 75%, respectively. Leishman?s thick smear, although cost effective, is difficult to interpret for inexperienced microscopists; so if facilities are available, QBC should be used for routine diagnosis. In places where facilities are not available, rapid, simple and easy to interpret antigen detection test can be used despite low sensitivity.
This paper reports one case of atypical falciparum malaria imported from Africa, whose blood smear contains many large trophozoites, with punctiform or massive brown pigment granules, the body shape of the plasmodium is similar to that of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale. After the gene detection by PCR, the case was diagnosed as falciparum malaria. As large trophozoites were rarely seen in the peripheral blood of non-severe falciparum malaria cases, much attention should be paid to the identification of Plasmodium falciparum and other plasmodia in microscopic examinations. PMID:25345178
Wang, Yong-bin; Kong, Xiang-li; Xu, Yan; Zhang, Ying; Li, Jin; Zhao, Chang-lei; Miao, Feng; Chen, Xi-xin
Full Text Available Objective: Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN account for approximately 10% to 20% of all cases of AML (acute myeloid leukemia, MDS (myelodysplastic syndrome and MDS/MPN (myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasms, MDS, and MDS/MPN. In our study, we evaluated peripheral blood smear samples and hemogram values in breast cancer patients who were receiving adjuvant anthracycline regimens and were in remission. Materials and Methods: A total of 78 patients receiving anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy treatment from Kayseri Research and Training Hospital and Mersin State Hospital were enrolled in the study. Their adjuvant treatments had been completed at least 18 months prior to the study. Results: Two patients complained of anemia (2.2% (Hb<11 mg/dl, leukopenia was observed in seven patients (7.7% (leukocytes<4000/mm3, and thrombocytopenia was observed in four patients (4.4% (PLT<150.000/mm3. In the blood smear samples, the following were observed: ovalomacrocytes (14%, macrocytes (37%, acanthocytes (1%, stomatocytes (12%, teardrops (12%, nucleated erythrocytes (1%, basophilic stippling (14%, and Howell-Jolly bodies (1%. Additionally, hypo-granulation (38%, Pelger-Huet abnormalities (26%, hypersegmentation (20%, immature granulocytes (8%, and blasts (6% were observed. We also confirmed the presence of giant platelets (50% and platelet hypogranulation (19%. Conclusion: According to the peripheral blood smear assessments in our study, we suggest that breast cancer patients should be evaluated for MDS in the early stages, starting from month 18, even if the automated blood counts are normal.
In the paper, we deal with the analysis of blood and bone marrow smears. The main aim of this long term project is to obtain a relative frequency histogram of the white blood cells of different lineage and maturity. Especially for clinical application, a proper image normalization and segmentation of the color images of blood and bone marrow smears are necessary. For the image normalization, two approaches were adopted: a) active image processing for pre acquisition standardization and b) a histogram based method for post acquisition standardization. Both methods are based on the HSI (Hue Saturation Intensity) Transform. We have developed a robust method for the declustering of the inevitable clusters of white blood cells based on a thresholded distance transform and an extended region growing algorithm that in contrast to active contours does not need any parameterization. For a successful classification, medical morphologic features are translated into feature extraction operators: the mesh structure of the cells' nucleus is analyzed using watershed transform and Gabor features, the shape of cell and nucleus is analyzed using a set of rotational invariant contour based features. The color and granularity of the cytoplasm yield further features for classification. Current work is focused on classification using the presented features.
Hengen, Heiko; Spoor, Susanne L.; Pandit, Madhukar C.
Automatic differential counting of leukocytes provides invaluable information to pathologist for diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. The main objective of this paper is to detect leukocytes from a blood smear microscopic image and classify them into their types: Neutrophil, Eosinophil, Basophil, Lymphocyte and Monocyte using features that pathologists consider to differentiate leukocytes. Features contain color, geometric and texture features. Colors of nucleus and cytoplasm vary among the leukocytes. Lymphocytes have single, large, round or oval and Monocytes have singular convoluted shape nucleus. Nucleus of Eosinophils is divided into 2 segments and nucleus of Neutrophils into 2 to 5 segments. Lymphocytes often have no granules, Monocytes have tiny granules, Neutrophils have fine granules and Eosinophils have large granules in cytoplasm. Six color features is extracted from both nucleus and cytoplasm, 6 geometric features only from nucleus and 6 statistical features and 7 moment invariants features only from cytoplasm of leukocytes. These features are fed to support vector machine (SVM) classifiers with one to one architecture. The results obtained by applying the proposed method on blood smear microscopic image of 10 patients including 149 white blood cells (WBCs) indicate that correct rate for all classifiers are above 93% which is in a higher level in comparison with previous literatures.
Sarrafzadeh, Omid; Rabbani, Hossein; Talebi, Ardeshir; Banaem, Hossein Usefi
The presence of unusual two RBCs patterns (so-called "quatrefoil RBCs," qRBCs) on canine blood smears at Optical Microscope (OM) was seen during routine evaluation of CBCs. Two consecutive retrospective investigations were arranged including about 7,000 CBCs and clinical records and laboratory data from dogs showing qRBCs. Few samples with qRBCs were prepared for Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). qRBCs were found in 6.89% (139 of 2016) and 8.47% (133 of 1569) of dogs and in 3.89% (154 of 3,958) and 4.47% (138 of 3,081) of CBCs (some dogs were tested more than once). Statistical analysis was significant for age groups (Chi squared, P < 0.0001), decreased total leukocyte and neutrophil counts (ANOVA, P < 0.0001), RBCs anisocytosis, polychromasia, and Howell-Jolly bodies (ANOVA, P < 0.018, <0.005, and <0.003, respectively). qRBCs were distributed in the area of feathered edge and at the smear side of body-feathered edge area in blood films. SEM ruled out the possibility of an optical illusion or an accidental overlap. qRBCs are associated with ageing of dogs, total leukocyte and neutrophil counts, and RBC anisocytosis, polychromasia, and Howell-Jolly bodies. Few hypotheses were discussed to explain the origin and meaning of this RBC arrangement. PMID:24511413
Gavazza, Alessandra; Ricci, Marianna; Brettoni, Martina; Gugliucci, Biancaurora; Pasquini, Anna; Rispoli, Daniela; Bernabò, Nicola; Lubas, George
The presence of unusual two RBCs patterns (so-called “quatrefoil RBCs,” qRBCs) on canine blood smears at Optical Microscope (OM) was seen during routine evaluation of CBCs. Two consecutive retrospective investigations were arranged including about 7,000 CBCs and clinical records and laboratory data from dogs showing qRBCs. Few samples with qRBCs were prepared for Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). qRBCs were found in 6.89% (139 of 2016) and 8.47% (133 of 1569) of dogs and in 3.89% (154 of 3,958) and 4.47% (138 of 3,081) of CBCs (some dogs were tested more than once). Statistical analysis was significant for age groups (Chi squared, P < 0.0001), decreased total leukocyte and neutrophil counts (ANOVA, P < 0.0001), RBCs anisocytosis, polychromasia, and Howell-Jolly bodies (ANOVA, P < 0.018, <0.005, and <0.003, respectively). qRBCs were distributed in the area of feathered edge and at the smear side of body-feathered edge area in blood films. SEM ruled out the possibility of an optical illusion or an accidental overlap. qRBCs are associated with ageing of dogs, total leukocyte and neutrophil counts, and RBC anisocytosis, polychromasia, and Howell-Jolly bodies. Few hypotheses were discussed to explain the origin and meaning of this RBC arrangement. PMID:24511413
Gavazza, Alessandra; Ricci, Marianna; Brettoni, Martina; Gugliucci, Biancaurora; Pasquini, Anna; Rispoli, Daniela; Bernabò, Nicola; Lubas, George
A 63-year-old woman presented to our hospital with fever, purpura and pain in both legs and died 4 days after admission. Her blood smear and skin biopsy showed cylinder-like bodies (20×120 ?m). She was diagnosed to have monoclonal gammopathy (IgG, lambda type). An autopsy revealed cylinder-like bodies in the vasculature of various organs. We noted a proliferation of atypical plasma cells in her bone marrow, suggesting pre-existing myeloma. Crystalglobulinemia is a rare manifestation of hypergammaglobulinemia that can cause multiple embolisms of the small vessels, and this resulted in the patient's fulminant course. The identification of cylinder-like bodies in the peripheral blood may help in reaching a diagnosis in such cases. PMID:25130123
Kawaguchi, Takeshi; Kariya, Yumi; Matsuda, Motohiro; Kubo, Kazuyoshi; Miyauchi, Syunichi; Kusumoto, Norio; Ueno, Shiro; Takajo, Ichiro; Nagatomo, Yasuhiro; Tahira, Yuki; Yamamoto, Syoko; Yorita, Kenji; Kataoka, Hiroaki; Okayama, Akihiko
Atypical Herpes simplex keratitis (HSK presenting as a perforated corneal ulcer with a large infiltrate in a contact lens wearer: multinucleated giant cells in the Giemsa smear offered a clue to the diagnosis
Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To report a case of atypical herpes simplex keratitis initially diagnosed as bacterial keratitis, in a contact lens wearer. Results Case report of an 18-year-old woman using contact lenses who presented with pain, redness and gradual decrease in vision in the right eye. Examination revealed a paracentral large stromal infiltrate with a central 2-mm perforation. Corneal and conjunctival scrapings were collected for microbiological investigations. Corneal tissue was obtained following penetrating keratoplasty. Corneal scraping revealed no microorganisms. Giemsa stained smear showed multinucleated giant cells. Conjunctival, corneal scrapings and tissue were positive for herpes simplex virus - 1 (HSV antigen. Corneal tissue was positive for HSV DNA by PCR. Conclusions Atypical HSV keratitis can occur in contact lens wearers. A simple investigation like Giemsa stain may offer a clue to the diagnosis.
Vemuganti Geeta K
Full Text Available A survey to determine the incidence of parasites in cattle (n = 386 was conducted in the north eastern Free State between August 1999 and July 2000. Giemsa-stained blood smears were negative for blood parasites. A total of 94 % of the cattle were sero-positive for Babesia bigemina by indirect fluorescent antibody test while 87 % were sero-positive for Anaplasma by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The observation of negative blood smears but high incidence of positive serological results for Anaplasma and Babesia for the same group of cattle indicates that this area is endemic for these diseases but with a stable disease situation. All the animals were sero-negative for B. bovis and this is probably because the tick vector (Boophilus microplus which transmits the disease is not present in the Free State Province. Two tick species belonging to the family Ixodidae were found on cattle, namely Boophilus decoloratus and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi. In the present study significant differences in seasonal burdens of B. decoloratus occurred, with the highest infestations recorded from February to June. The presence of R. evertsi evertsi throughout the year without any or with small fluctuations in winter months was observed, with a peak from February to May
Bartonella bacilliformis is the etiologic agent of Carrion's disease. This disease has two well established phases, the most relevant being the so called Oroya Fever, in which B. bacilliformis infect the erythrocytes resulting in severe anemia and transient immunosuppression, with a high lethality in the absence of adequate antibiotic treatment. The presence of B. bacilliformis was studied in 113 blood samples suspected of Carrion’s disease based on clinical criteria, despite the absence of...
Del Valle Mendoza, Juana; Silva Caso, Wilmer; Tinco Valdez, Carmen; Pons, Maria J.; Del Valle, Luis J.; Ore?, Vero?nica Casabona; Michelena, Denisse Champin; Mayra, Jorge Baza?n; Gavidea, Vi?ctor Zavaleta; Vargas, Martha; Ruiz, Joaquim
Abstract Background Quantitation of malaria parasite density is an important component of laboratory diagnosis of malaria. Microscopy of Giemsa-stained thick blood films is the conventional method for parasite enumeration. Accurate and reproducible parasite counts are difficult to achieve, because of inherent technical limitations and human inconsistency. Inaccurate parasite density estimation may have adverse clinical and therapeutic implications for patients, and for endpoi...
Frean John A
Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a mature B-cell neoplasm characterized by malignant lymphoid cells within the lumina of blood vessels and capillaries. Given its varied and nonspecific clinical manifestation, this aggressive disease is often not diagnosed until an advanced clinical stage or even at autopsy. This case highlights a patient presenting with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) and fevers. Atypical circulating cells on a screening peripheral smear lead to flow cytometric studies highlighting an increase in large, light chain restricted CD20 positive cells. A diagnostic bone marrow biopsy was performed and trephine cores demonstrated predominantly intrasinusoidal lymphoma cells. In conjunction with additional immunophenotypic data, these studies strongly supported a diagnosis of IVLBCL. Judicious use of flow cytometry and morphology resulted in an early-stage diagnosis and likely contributed to the patient's current complete remission status following anti-CD20 therapy. Differential diagnoses for this presentation are discussed in light of serologic, immunophenotypic, histologic, and cytogenetic findings. PMID:25051078
Patel, Sagar S; Aasen, Garth A; Dolan, Michelle M; Linden, Michael A; McKenna, Robert W; Rudrapatna, Venkatesh K; Trottier, Bryan J; Drawz, Sarah M
Objective: The estimation of platelet count from blood smears is a daily routine laboratory test, which should be systematic each time the automated count is erroneous.In our laboratory, we estimate the platelet count indirectly by using the automated red blood cell (RBC) and calculating the platelet count on the basis of the red cell: platelet ratio in a stained blood film. In this study, we attempted to verify the reliability of this technique.Material and Methods: One hundred ninety-one pl...
Mohamed Brahimi; Soufi Osmani; Abdessamad Arabi; Badra Enta-Soltan; Zohra Taghezout; Belkheir Smain Elkahili; Mohamed Amine Bekadja
Estudio de la infección de Leishmanias del complejo Viannia mediante citometría de flujo y coloración de Giemsa empleando líneas de macrófagos humanos y murinos (U-937 y J-774) / Study of Leishmania Viannia infection by means of flow cytometry and Giemsa stain using human and murine macrophage lines (U-937 and J-774)
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Ante las dificultades frente al tratamiento de la leishmaniasis, es importante buscar alternativas terapéuticas que deben ser analizadas empleando modelos in vitro e in vivo adecuadamente estandarizados. Con este propósito, se implementó un modelo de infección in vitro de Leishmania conmacrófagos U- [...] 937 y J-774, para evaluar la internalización de promastigotes a distintos puntos tiempo (2 a 6 horas) y por dos técnicas: coloración de Giemsa (CG) y citometría de flujo (CF). En el análisis por CF, se evaluó la invasión teniendo en cuenta la emisión de fluorescencia de los parásitos transfectados con la proteína verde de fluorescencia (GFP) y el aumento de la densidad citoplasmática de los macrófagos debida a los parásitos internalizados, lo cual fue verificado con el recuento microscópico realizado con CG; se encontró que a una proporción 1:35 (células:parásitos) se pueden establecer cambios densitométricos asociados con la infección empleando cepas de parásitos no transfectadas. También se describe que las J774 internalizan más eficientemente promastigotes de Leishmania que las células U937 (P valor: 0,0006), y se observa a su vez para la línea murina un aumento del número de parásitos por célula, respecto a los macrófagos humanos empleados en este ensayo (P valor 0,0038). Este estudio nos permite concluir: (i) que los cambios en la densidad citoplasmática evidenciados por CF son suficientes para establecer el porcentaje de infección parasitaria, aun para aquellos parásitos no transfectados; (ii) que la CG es menos costosa que el uso de la CF para evaluar infección parasitaria, aunque por su carácter semicuantitativo, la variabilidad intra- e inter-observadores la hace menos precisa; (iii) que los resultados cuantitativos obtenidos por la CF se correlacionan con los observados en la CG, y permiten sugerir que estas dos técnicas resultan complementarias; y (iv) que el porcentaje de infección y el número de parásitos internalizados para la J-774 son mayores que lo encontrado para la U-937, lo cual puede deberse a que un mayor número de receptores de complemento sobre la línea murina favorece la internalización de patógenos intracelulares, proceso menos favorecido en la línea humana por los niveles reducidos de este tipo de receptores en su membrana celular. Abstract in english The treatment for Leishmaniasis has presented some difficulties related with adverse effects and resistance. For these reasons it is important to search therapeutic alternatives which must be analyzed using adequately standardized in vitro and in vivo models. With this purpose, we implemented an in [...] vitro model for leishmania infection using U-937 and J-774macrophages, and evaluating promastigote internalization at consecutive time spans (from 2 to 6 hours). The first approximation assayed involves the flow cytometric (CF) analysis for invasion quantification by measuring the fluorescence emitted by parasites previously transfected with green fluorescence protein (GFP). In the alternative strategy, parasitized cells were subjected to Giemsa stain and CF was applied to measure the increase of macrophages cytoplasm density owed to internalized parasites. Giemsa stain also allowed us to estimate the number of parasites within each cell. We report that the presence of 35 parasites per macrophage produces an increase in cytoplasmic density enough to be detected by CF so that infection can be clearly reported. We also found that J-774 macrophages internalize Leishmania promastigotes more efficiently than U-937 cells (P value: 0.0006). Cells of the murine line were infected by a higher number of parasites than the human counterparts used in this study (P value 0.0038). From the resultas, we conclude: (i) the change in macrophage cytoplasm density demonstrated by CF after Giemsa stain are sufficient to estimate the percentage of infection. (ii) Giemsa stain provides a less expensive strategy to evaluate Leishmania infection tha
Yuly Andrea, Gamboa Marín; Gabriela, Delgado Murcia.
Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL is a parasitic skin disease. Diagnosis primarily is based on clinical signs and microscopic observation of parasite on direct stained smears or tissue sections. Sensitivity of direct smear is not as high as molecular methods. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize Leishmania species among the negative direct smears obtained from skin ulcers suspected to CL by PCR method.Methods: Among 81 patients with suspicious skin lesions to CL referred to the Parasitology lab, negative Giemsa stained smears were collected. DNA extraction performed by scraping stained smears, then PCR was performed.Results: Among the DNA extracted from smears, L. tropica was isolated from 9 (11.1% of the smears and L.major was not isolated from any samples.Conclusion: Direct microscopy on stained smears for diagnosis of leishmaniasis is not enough accurate. PCR is recommended for clinically suspected lesions with negative result of direct smear.
Northern Italy is a habitat for many species of viper; Vipera aspis is responsible for most reported bites of humans and animals. Five dogs of different breeds and ages were presented by their owners to a veterinary clinic in northern Italy between September 2004 and August 2007 with a history of being bitten by a viper within the past 2 hours. On physical examination, all of the dogs were depressed, had pale mucous membranes, and had a painful area consistent with a recent viper bite wound on the nose (2), distal front leg (2), or lip (1). Hemoglobinemia and hemoglobinuria were observed in plasma and urine from all dogs. CBCs were done at the time of presentation, daily for 4 days, and 10 days after presentation in all dogs with the exception of one dog that died after 2 days. All dogs had an acute decrease in HCT within 24 hours of presentation; all dogs had neutrophilia, 3/5 had a mildly toxic left shift, and 4/5 had thrombocytopenia. On Diff-Quik-stained blood smears, moderate numbers of echinocytes, spherocytes, and erythrocyte ghosts were observed. In addition, moderate numbers of unusual erythrocyte membrane-like structures ("erythroid loops") were observed. The loops were annular in shape and sometimes disrupted, appearing as thin pale blue bands. Erythrocyte morphologic abnormalities decreased by day 3 and were no longer observed on day 10. The unique appearance of the erythroid loops together with evidence for intravascular hemolysis and other erythrocyte morphologic changes suggest they may be a consequence of erythrocyte lysis. Echinocytes, spherocytes, and erythrocyte ghosts are known to result from the action of phospholipase in viper venom; however, erythroid loops have not been reported previously and their exact mechanism of formation is unknown. PMID:19392755
The complex technique of concerted polarization-phase and spatial-frequency filtering of blood plasma laser images is suggested. The possibility of obtaining the coordinate distributions of phases of linearly and circularly birefringent protein networks of blood plasma separately is presented. The statistical (moments of the first to fourth orders) and scale self-similar (logarithmic dependences of power spectra) structure of phase maps of different types of birefringence of blood plasma of two groups of patients-healthy people (donors) and those suffering from rectal cancer-is investigated. The diagnostically sensitive parameters of a pathological change of the birefringence of blood plasma polycrystalline networks are determined. The effectiveness of this technique for detecting change in birefringence in the smears of other biological fluids in diagnosing the appearance of cholelithiasis (bile), operative differentiation of the acute and gangrenous appendicitis (exudate), and differentiation of inflammatory diseases of joints (synovial fluid) is shown.
Ushenko, Yu A.
Full Text Available Background: Trichomonas tenax, a commensal flagellated protozoan, inhabits in human oral cavity. This parasite is cos-mopolitan and frequently found in patients with poor oral hygiene and advanced periodontal disease. There is only one published study that rebound the prevalence of this parasite in Iran. This PCR based study compared the prevalence of oral trichomoniasis in patients with oral diseases and a healthy control group.Methods: From May 2005 to April 2006, the subgingival dental plaques of 160 patients with gingivitis or periodontitis and 160 controls who attended to Dental School of Shaheed Beheshti Medical University, Iran were taken and examined by wet mount smear, and Giemsa staining. Likewise, a PCR protocol was developed for specific detection of T.tenax using a pair of primers designed for its 18S rRNA gene. Results: Thirty three (20.6% of patients were PCR positive while 28 (15.5% were diagnosed using wet preparation and Giemsa staining. In the other hand, 2 (1.9% of control group were identified positive by PCR procedure. The prevalence of oral trichomoniasis in our study (20.6% was compatible with many other published reports which mostly has ranged from 12%-32%. Conclusion: The study revealed dependence between the frequency of occurrence of T. tenax and the state of periodontitis. The present PCR procedure could provide a simple and rapid detection method of T. tenax in dental plague.
Full Text Available Objective: The estimation of platelet count from blood smears is a daily routine laboratory test, which should be systematic each time the automated count is erroneous.In our laboratory, we estimate the platelet count indirectly by using the automated red blood cell (RBC and calculating the platelet count on the basis of the red cell: platelet ratio in a stained blood film. In this study, we attempted to verify the reliability of this technique.Material and Methods: One hundred ninety-one platelet counts were executed by two laboratory methods: an automated count using an impedance cell counter and then a manual method by reviewing microscopic blood smears. The number of platelets per 1000 erythrocytes was multiplied by the automated RBC (x106 cells/µl to give an approximate manual count (x103 cells/µl. Two paired t-test was used for comparison of the two methods.Results: The regression analyses for the entire data set collected in our study with the two laboratory methods gave the following least squares equation by comparing the automated (y to the manual method (x: y=0.8548x + 12.013 (r=0.908. The paired t-test showed no significant difference between the two methods (p>0.05 and the Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC was equal to 0.905.The plot of the differences between the automated and manual values against their means according to Band and Altman design showed that the difference mean was 3.209 with a standard deviation SD=46.331.We noticed that 93% of the differences were within the agreement limits (mean±2SD, and that 77% of the differences were less than 20,000 platelets/µl.Conclusion: Estimating platelet count on the basis of the red cell: platelet ratio is a reliable technique and it should be proposed as a method of reference.
Full Text Available This project was carried out to find the prevalence of trypanosomiasis in equine in District Gujranwala by using indirect fluorescent antibody technique and thin smear method. Blood samples were collected from a total of 200 horses and donkeys of different ages and either sex. Duplicate thin blood smears were prepared from each sample and remaining blood samples were centrifuged to separate the serum. Smears from each animal were processed for giemsa staining and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT. Giemsa stained smears revealed Trypanosome infection in 4/200 (2.0% samples and IFAT in 12/200 (6.0% animals.
Ahsan Nadeem, Asim Aslam*, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary, Kamran Ashraf1, Khalid Saeed1, Nisar Ahmad1, Ishtiaq Ahmed and Habib ur Rehman2
Despite significant technological and conceptual advances over the last century, evaluation of the efficacy of anti-malarial vaccines or drugs continues to rely principally on direct microscopic visualisation of parasites on thick and/or thin Giemsa-stained blood smears. This requires technical expertise of the microscopist, is highly subjective and error-prone, and does not account for aberrations such as anaemia. Many published methods have shown that flow cytometric analysis of blood is a highly versatile method that can readily detect nucleic acid-stained parasitised red blood cells within cultured cell populations and in ex-vivo samples. However several impediments, including the difficulty in distinguishing reticulocytes from infected red blood cells and the fickle nature of red blood cells, have precluded the development and universal adoption of flow-cytometric based assays for ex-vivo sample analysis. We have developed a novel high-throughput assay for the flow cytometric assessment of blood that overcomes these impediments by utilising the unique properties of the nucleic acid stain DAPI to differentially stain RNA and DNA, combined with novel fixation and analysis protocols. The assay allows the rapid and reliable analysis of multiple parameters from micro-volumes of blood, including: parasitaemia, platelet count, reticulocyte count, normocyte count, white blood cell count and delineation of subsets and phenotypic markers including, but not limited to, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, and the expression of phenotypic markers such as PD-L1 or intracellular cytokines. The assay requires less than one drop of blood and is therefore suitable for short interval time-course experiments and allows the progression of infection and immune responses to be closely monitored in the laboratory or cytometer-equipped field locations. Herein, we describe the technique and demonstrate its application in vaccinology and with a range of rodent and human parasite species including Plasmodium yoelii, Plasmodium chabaudi, Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium falciparum. PMID:21907206
Apte, Simon H; Groves, Penny L; Roddick, Joanne S; P da Hora, Vanusa; Doolan, Denise L
In this paper, we propose a comprehensive image characterization cum classification framework for malaria-infected stage detection using microscopic images of thin blood smears. The methodology mainly includes microscopic imaging of Leishman stained blood slides, noise reduction and illumination correction, erythrocyte segmentation, feature selection followed by machine classification. Amongst three-image segmentation algorithms (namely, rule-based, Chan-Vese-based and marker-controlled watershed methods), marker-controlled watershed technique provides better boundary detection of erythrocytes specially in overlapping situations. Microscopic features at intensity, texture and morphology levels are extracted to discriminate infected and noninfected erythrocytes. In order to achieve subgroup of potential features, feature selection techniques, namely, F-statistic and information gain criteria are considered here for ranking. Finally, five different classifiers, namely, Naive Bayes, multilayer perceptron neural network, logistic regression, classification and regression tree (CART), RBF neural network have been trained and tested by 888 erythrocytes (infected and noninfected) for each features' subset. Performance evaluation of the proposed methodology shows that multilayer perceptron network provides higher accuracy for malaria-infected erythrocytes recognition and infected stage classification. Results show that top 90 features ranked by F-statistic (specificity: 98.64%, sensitivity: 100%, PPV: 99.73% and overall accuracy: 96.84%) and top 60 features ranked by information gain provides better results (specificity: 97.29%, sensitivity: 100%, PPV: 99.46% and overall accuracy: 96.73%) for malaria-infected stage classification. PMID:25523795
DAS, D K; Maiti, A K; Chakraborty, C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Murine myeloid leukemia (ML provides a good animal model to study the mechanisms of radiation-induced leukemia in humans. This disease has been cytogenetically characterized by a partial deletion of chromosome 2 with G-banding. For the rapid diagnosis of ML, this study reports a FISH method using spleen cells and peripheral blood smears from ML mice exposed to gamma rays and neutrons with PU.1, a candidate ML tumor suppressor, as a probe. Results Among mice that were tentatively diagnosed with ML by clinical findings and blood smear examination, 85% carried spleen cells showing the loss of PU.1 although the frequency of these abnormal cells varied among individuals. Mice with very low frequencies of cells showing the loss of one copy of PU.1 (one-PU.1 frequency were later diagnosed pathologically not with ML but with blastic or eosinophilic leukemia. Some neutron-irradiated mice had cells showing translocated PU.1, although no pathological features differentiated these ML mice from ML mice expressing the simple loss of PU.1. The one-PU.1 frequency can be detected from spleen metaphase cells, spleen interphase cells, and blood smears. There was a good correlation between the one-PU.1 frequency in spleen metaphase cells and that in spleen interphase cells (r = 0.96 and between one-PU.1 frequency in spleen interphase cells and that in blood cells (r = 0.83. Conclusion The FISH method was capable of detecting aberration of copy number of the PU.1 gene on murine chromosome 2, and using a peripheral blood smear is more practical and less invasive than conventional pathological diagnosis or the cytogenetic examination of spleen cells.
Histoplasmosis is endemic in the American continent and also in Sub-Saharan Africa, coexisting with the African histoplasmosis. Immunosuppressed patients, especially those with advanced HIV infection develop a severe disseminated histoplasmosis with fatal prognosis. The definitive diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis is based on the detection of Histoplasma capsulatum from patient' tissues samples or body fluids. Among the diagnostic tests peripheral blood smear staining is not commonly u...
Christine Mandengue Ebenye
Full Text Available Aim: Rapid diagnosis is prerequisite for effective treatment and reducing mortality and morbidity of malaria. Microscopy has been the Gold standard for malaria diagnosis for decades. Recently, many new rapid diagnostic tests like Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC examination and rapid antigen detection methods are being widely used. We made an attempt to compare peripheral smear, QBC and rapid antigen detection methods for the diagnosis of malaria. Materials and Methods: A total number of 500 samples were collected from patients presenting with classical symptoms of malaria. Thick and thin blood smears were prepared and stained with Leishman’s stain. QBC, Histidine Rich Protein-II antigen test and plasmodium Lactate Dehydrogenase tests were done using commercially available kits. Results: Taking thick smear as gold standard, thin smear had sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 90.9%, 100%, 100% and 98.6% respectively. QBC showed sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 95.45%, 100%, 100% and 99.31% respectively. HRP-II antigen detection showed sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 56.06%, 100%, 100% and 94.20%. pLDH showed sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of 95.45%, 100%, 100% and 99.40% respectively. Conclusion: In our study, QBC had highest sensitivity followed by pLDH assay. Leishman’s stained thick smear is cost effective but requires technical expertise to interpret the results, so if facilities are available, QBC can be used for routine diagnosis. In places where facilities are not available rapid diagnostic test devices can be used, especially in endemic areas.
Bhat Sandhya K
Malaria is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Over the past years, the disease has been consistently reported as the first leading cause of outpatient visits, hospitalization and death in health facilities across the country. Thus, a retrospective study was conducted to determine the prevalence of malaria from peripheral blood smear examination from the Serbo Health Center of Ethiopia. The case notes of all malaria cases treated between July 2007 and June 2008 were carefully reviewed and analyzed. Of the total 6863 smears, 3009 were found to be positive and contribute 43.8% of diagnostic yield. Plasmodium falciparum constituted the most predominant [64.6% (1946/3009 cases)], while Plasmodium vivax confirmed with 34.9% (1052/3009) cases. Among patients who underwent diagnostic testing and treatment for malaria, males [63.8% (1918/3009 cases)] were more prone to have a positive malaria smear than females [36.2% (1091/3009 cases)]. Chi-square statistical analysis shown that there was a statistically significant association found between male cases and number of positive blood smear (chi(2)=28.1; df=7; p-value=0.001). The present study results clearly suggest that the catchment area of Serbo Health Center is prone for epidemic malaria and the situation is quite deteriorating. At the moment, although we are not equipped with magic bullet for malaria effective low-cost strategies are available for its treatment, prevention, and control. Therefore, creating awareness by active health education campaigns and applying integrated malaria control strategy could bring the constructive outcome in the near future. PMID:20701879
Karunamoorthi, Kaliyaperumal; Bekele, Mammo
In this study, the prevalence of piroplasms in sheep and goats was assessed with Giemsa-stained blood smear examination, PCR and nested PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to identify Babesia and Theileria species, respectively, in 338 small ruminants (172 sheep and 166 goats) from three sites in North-West Tunisia during the 2011 summer season. The overall infection prevalence of piroplasms in Giemsa-stained blood smears was 3.2% (11/338), with a parasitaemia ranging from 0.0...
Rjeibi, Mohamed Ridha; Gharbi, Mohamed; Mhadhbi, Moez; Mabrouk, Wiem; Ayari, Bouthei?na; Nasfi, Ines; Jedidi, Mohamed; Sassi, Limam; Rekik, Mourad; Darghouth, Mohamed Aziz
This project was carried out to find the prevalence of trypanosomiasis in equine in District Gujranwala by using indirect fluorescent antibody technique and thin smear method. Blood samples were collected from a total of 200 horses and donkeys of different ages and either sex. Duplicate thin blood smears were prepared from each sample and remaining blood samples were centrifuged to separate the serum. Smears from each animal were processed for giemsa staining and indirect fluorescent antibod...
Ahsan Nadeem, Asim Aslam
Full Text Available Se comunica el diagnóstico de un caso de histoplasmosis asociada al SIDA a partir de la microscopía de un extendido hemático realizado en oportunidad del procesamiento de una muestra enviada al laboratorio para un estudio hematológico. El extendido, fijado con metanol y teñido con solución de Giemsa al 10% reveló, con objetivo de 100X, estructuras levaduriformes de 2-4 µ de diámetro dentro de las células leucocitarias sanguíneas, con la típica tinción en casquete y la presencia de un halo claro periférico, que caracterizan microscópicamente a Histoplasma capsulatum. Luego, para confirmar el hallazgo micológico, se procedió a teñir el mismo preparado con la técnica de Grocott, la cual puso de manifiesto levaduras de color pardo, dentro de los leucocitos sanguíneos. El paciente, deteriorado clínica e inmunológicamente (Comunica-se o diagnóstico de um caso de histoplasmose associada à AIDS, de uma microscopia de extensão sanguínea realizada por ocasião do processamento de uma amostra enviada ao laboratório para um estudo hematológico. A extensão, fixada com metanol e corada com solução de Giemsa a 10%, revelou com objetivo de 100X, estruturas leveduriformes de 2-4 µ diâmetro dentro de células leucocitárias do sangue, com a típica coloração em tampão e a presença de um halo claro periférico, os quais caracterizam microscopicamente a Histoplasma capsulatum. Em seguida, para confirmar o achado micológico, foi corada a mesma preparação com a técnica de Grocott, que mostrou leveduras de cor parda, dentro dos leucócitos sanguíneos. O paciente clínica e imunologicamente deteriorado (A case of AIDS-associated histoplasmosis diagnosed by microscopy from a blood smear performed during a hematologic study was reported. The smear, fixed with methanol and stained with 10% Giemsa solution, revealed with a 100X objective, 2-4 µ-diameter yeast - like structures within the leuMicrobiología contakocytes, showing a typical staining in cap and a peripheral clear halo, characteristic of Histoplasma capsulatum. To confirm the mycological finding, the same smear was stained with the Grocott technique, showing brownish yeasts in the leucocytes. The patient, clinically deteriorated and with advanced immunological disorder (<50 T CD4+ lymphocytes/µL, died the next day after the diagnosis was made, in spite of the established treatments. This finding highlights the need to have operators trained in the recognition of microbiological structures of diagnostic importance in hematological smears in a Reference Center of Infectious Diseases, and even in the General Laboratory. The immediate diagnosis of this and other serious infections, as Malaria, enables the etiologic treatment and increases the possibilities of therapeutic success.
Agustina Daniela Tkach
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: avaliar o significado da presença de esquizócitos em esfregaço de sangue periférico de gestantes com pré-eclâmpsia, identificando-os e correlacionando-os com outros marcadores de hemólise e da gravidade da doença. MÉTODOS: foram avaliadas 76 lâminas de esfregaço de sangue periférico de ges [...] tantes portadoras de pré-eclâmpsia. Após a realização do esfregaço, as lâminas foram submetidas ao corante de Leishman e armazenadas até a leitura, feita em microscópio modelo DLMB, da marca Leica, com aumento de 40 vezes e imersão em óleo. O microscópio era dotado de software Qwin Lite 2.5, que permitia gravar as imagens dos campos escolhidos em CD-ROM. Em cada lâmina foram contados dez campos com aproximadamente 100 eritrócitos. Foi considerada presença de esquizócitos (fragmento irregular ou em forma de capacete, de mordida ou triângulo) quando a porcentagem dos mesmos era maior ou igual que 0,2%. A presença de esquizócitos foi correlacionada com outros marcadores de hemólise (hemoglobina, bilirrubina total, desidrogenase lática e reticulócitos), marcadores da pré-eclâmpsia (proteinúria e número de plaquetas) e com a gravidade da pré-eclâmpsia. Para análise estatística foi utilizado o programa Statistical Package in Social Science (SPSS), versão 10.0, com valor de p Abstract in english PURPOSE: to evaluate the significance of schizocytes presence in peripheral blood smear of pregnant women with pre-eclampsia, identifying and correlating them with other markers of hemolysis and of the disease severity. METHODS: Seventh six glass slides of peripheral blood smear of pregnant women wi [...] th pre-eclampsia have been evaluated. After the smear, the slides have been stained with Leishman's dye and stored till they were examined with a Leica, model DLMB microscope, provided with the Qwin Lite 2.5 software that made it possible to record the images of selected fields in CD-ROM. Ten fields with approximately 100 erythrocytes were counted in each glass slide. Schizocytes (irregular fragment or helmet-shaped, bite-shaped or triangular) were considered as present, when their percentage was equal or higher than 0.2%, their presence being correlated with other hemolysis markers (hemoglobin, total bilirubin, lactic desidrogenasis and reticulocytes), pre-eclampsia markers (proteinuria and platelet number). The Statistical Package in Social Science for Windows (SPSS), 10.0 version has been used for statistical analysis, at p
Rosângela de Fátima do Nascimento e, Silva; Lucilene Silva Ruiz e, Resende; Bruno Rabelo, Cardoso; Joélcio Francisco, Abbade; José Carlos, Peraçoli.
Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Comunica-se o diagnóstico de um caso de histoplasmose associada à AIDS, de uma microscopia de extensão sanguínea realizada por ocasião do processamento de uma amostra enviada ao laboratório para um estudo hematológico. A extensão, fixada com metanol e corada com solução de Giemsa a 10%, revelou com [...] objetivo de 100X, estruturas leveduriformes de 2-4 µ diâmetro dentro de células leucocitárias do sangue, com a típica coloração em tampão e a presença de um halo claro periférico, os quais caracterizam microscopicamente a Histoplasma capsulatum. Em seguida, para confirmar o achado micológico, foi corada a mesma preparação com a técnica de Grocott, que mostrou leveduras de cor parda, dentro dos leucócitos sanguíneos. O paciente clínica e imunologicamente deteriorado ( Abstract in spanish Se comunica el diagnóstico de un caso de histoplasmosis asociada al SIDA a partir de la microscopía de un extendido hemático realizado en oportunidad del procesamiento de una muestra enviada al laboratorio para un estudio hematológico. El extendido, fijado con metanol y teñido con solución de Giemsa [...] al 10% reveló, con objetivo de 100X, estructuras levaduriformes de 2-4 µ de diámetro dentro de las células leucocitarias sanguíneas, con la típica tinción en casquete y la presencia de un halo claro periférico, que caracterizan microscópicamente a Histoplasma capsulatum. Luego, para confirmar el hallazgo micológico, se procedió a teñir el mismo preparado con la técnica de Grocott, la cual puso de manifiesto levaduras de color pardo, dentro de los leucocitos sanguíneos. El paciente, deteriorado clínica e inmunológicamente ( Abstract in english A case of AIDS-associated histoplasmosis diagnosed by microscopy from a blood smear performed during a hematologic study was reported. The smear, fixed with methanol and stained with 10% Giemsa solution, revealed with a 100X objective, 2-4 µ-diameter yeast - like structures within the leuMicrobiolog [...] ía contakocytes, showing a typical staining in cap and a peripheral clear halo, characteristic of Histoplasma capsulatum. To confirm the mycological finding, the same smear was stained with the Grocott technique, showing brownish yeasts in the leucocytes. The patient, clinically deteriorated and with advanced immunological disorder (
Agustina Daniela, Tkach; Jorge Daniel, Moreno; Amadeo Javier, Bava.
Full Text Available Context: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is endemic in India and may simulate and cause many hematological disorders like pancytopenia, myelofibrosis, myelodysplasia and hemophagocytosis. Aims: The study aims to investigate the hematological manifestation of Visceral Leishmaniasis and associated changes that may be observed in bone marrow aspirate smears and biopsy which may warn a pathologist of possible infections. Settings and Design: This is a retrospective study of 18 VL cases on B (b one marrow aspirate and biopsy in the department of Pathology in a tertiary care teaching hospital in New Delhi. Methods and Material: Giemsa stained slides of bone marrow aspirates and hematoxylin and Eosin stained biopsy slides were reviewed in detail by two competent pathologists. All the findings were tabulated and discussed and comparisons made with the previous similar studies. Results: Hyper cellular marrow, increased lymphocytes and plasma cells, marrow granulomas, hemophagocytosis, myelofibrosis, myelodysplasia and gelatinous transformation of the marrow were notable features the presence of which together or individually should caution a pathologist to search for Leishman Donovan (LD bodies in patients especially in a non-endemic zone in a tropical country.
A 3-year-old male with oculocutaneous albinism presented with lymphadenopathy and fever. Serological testing revealed Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and a diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis was made. A complete blood count and peripheral blood smear demonstrated mild anemia, thrombocytopenia, and neutropenia with leukocytes that contained large azurophilic and eosinophilic granules. Bone marrow examination demonstrated increased hemophagocytic histiocytes along with granulocytes that contained large eosinophilic granules. In addition to hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, presumably due to acute EBV infection, the patient was diagnosed with Chediak-Higashi syndrome based on the pathognomonic granules within peripheral leukocytes and precursors. The differential diagnosis of a young patient with oculocutaneous albinism presenting with an acute viral infection includes a relatively narrow range of genetic syndromes based solely on the history of albinism. This case demonstrates the application of clinical laboratory data to presumptively diagnose Chediak-Higashi syndrome in the midst of a presentation of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis secondary to acute EBV infection. PMID:25051077
McCoy, Morgan H; Mast, Kelley; Relich, Ryan F; Girgis, George; Nassiri, Mehdi
Comparative study between the Red Blood Cell Distribution Width (RDW) and Packed Volume Cell (PVC), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MVC) and the anisocytosis in blood’s smear rameters in dogs/
Estudo comparativo entre a amplitude de variação dos eritrócitos (RDW – Red Blood Cell Distribution Width) e o Volume Globular (VG), Volume Globular Médio (VGM) e a presença de anisocitose em extensão sangüínea em cães
The objective was to evaluate the red blood cell distribution width (RDW) in dogs with different packed volume cell (PVC) and to correlate with the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and the anisocytosis in blood’s smears. The had been analysed the information from complete blood counts from dogs presented in Veterinary Hospital from Universidade Estadual de Londrina in the period between October 4th until December 20th of 2002. The informations had been separated in four groups according to the...
Mara Regina Stipp Balarin; Karina Keller Marques da Costa Flaiban
In order to identify a quick and reliable technique for accurate diagnosis of malaria, study of the efficiency of the tests such as Parahit total (HRPII & aldolase Ag), Advantage mal card (parasite specific LDH), and modified QBC was done in comparison with conventional blood smear microscopy. One hundred patients infected with P. vivax and 101 infected with P. falciparum were included in this study. The sensitivity of Parahit total, Advantage mal card, and modified QBC for P. falciparum detection was 70.3, 95%, and 98%, and specificity was 98%, 98%, and 96%, respectively. The sensitivity of Parahit total, Advantage mal card, and modified QBC for P. vivax detection was 73%, 97.0%, and 98%, respectively, and specificity of all the tests was 98%. On day 15, in falciparum arm, Advantage mal card and Parahit total showed 8 (7.92%) and 59 (58.41%) false positives. On day 15, in vivax arm, Parahit total revealed 52% false positives. The study indicated that modified QBC could be only used where appropriate facilities are available. Advantage mal card was a better follow-up tool than Parahit total. PMID:24800057
Kocharekar, Manali M; Sarkar, Sougat S; Dasgupta, Debjani
Erythrophagocytosis is a relatively rare observation on blood smears. It has been reported in auto immune hemolytic anemias and sporadically in few other conditions. Here, we report a case of florid erythrophagocytosis with severe anemia following a viral infection in an 18-year-old girl. Her complete blood count (CBC) revealed hemoglobin of 3.6 gm/dl and a hematocrit of 10%. The peripheral smear showed erythrophagocytosis by neutrophils and rosetting of erythrocytes around neutrophils. The d...
Chandrashekar, Vani; Soni, Mamta
Full Text Available Abstract Background Giemsa staining of thick blood smears remains the "gold standard" for detecting malaria. However, this method is not very good for diagnosing low-level infections. A method for the simultaneous staining of Plasmodium-parasitized culture and blood smears for both bright field and fluorescence was developed and its ability to improve detection efficiency tested. Methods A total of 22 nucleic acid-specific fluorescent dyes were tested for their ability to provide easily observable staining of Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized red blood cells following Giemsa staining. Results Of the 14 dyes that demonstrated intense fluorescence staining, only SYBR Green 1, YOYO-1 and ethidum homodimer-2 could be detected using fluorescent microscopy, when cells were first stained with Giemsa. Giemsa staining was not effective when applied after the fluorescent dyes. SYBR Green 1 provided the best staining in the presence of Giemsa, as a very high percentage of the parasitized cells were simultaneously stained. When blood films were screened using fluorescence microscopy the parasites were more readily detectable due to the sharp contrast between the dark background and the specific, bright fluorescence produced by the parasites. Conclusion The dual staining method reported here allows fluorescence staining, which enhances the reader's ability to detect parasites under low parasitaemia conditions, coupled with the ability to examine the same cell under bright field conditions to detect the characteristic morphology of Plasmodium species that is observed with Giemsa staining.
Full Text Available Parasites may lead bird species to extinction, affect host temporal and spatial population dynamics, alter community structure and alter individuals’ social status. We evaluated blood parasite prevalence and intensity according to bird families and species, among 925 birds that were caught in 2000 and 2001, in the Atlantic Forest in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. We applied Giemsa staining to thin blood smears, to detect blood parasites. The birds (n = 15.8% in 11 families, were infected by at least one parasite genus, especially Muscicapidae (28.3% and Conopophagidae (25%. Among the 146 infected birds, Plasmodium was detected in all bird families and had the highest prevalence (54.8%. Trypanosoma, Haemoproteus and microfilaria had lower prevalence rates (23.3, 23.3 and 2.1%, respectively. Birds caught during the rainy season were more infected than birds caught during the dry season. The overall low prevalence of blood parasites in birds is similar to the patterns found elsewhere in the Neotropical region.Parasitos podem levar espécies de aves à extinção, afetar as dinâmicas temporais e espaciais dos hospedeiros, alterar a estrutura de comunidades e o status social de indivíduos. Avaliou-se a prevalência e a intensidade de parasitos em famílias e espécies de 925 aves capturadas, entre 2000 e 2001, na Mata Atlântica de Minas Gerais. Foram coradas com Giemsa extensões de sangue para detectar parasitos hematozoários. As aves (n= 15,8% 11 famílias estavam infectadas por pelo menos um gênero de parasito, especialmente Muscicapidae (28,3% e Conopophagidae (25%. Entre as 146 aves infectadas, Plasmodium foi detectado em todas as famílias e possuiu a maior prevalência (54,8%. Trypanosoma,Haemoproteus e microfilaria possuíram baixas prevalências (23,3, 23,3 e 2,1%, respectivamente. Aves capturadasdurante a estação chuvosa estavam mais infectadas do que aves capturadas durante a estação seca. A baixa prevalência geral de parasitos do sangue das aves é semelhante aos padrões encontrados em outras localidades da região Neotropical.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Parasitos podem levar espécies de aves à extinção, afetar as dinâmicas temporais e espaciais dos hospedeiros, alterar a estrutura de comunidades e o status social de indivíduos. Avaliou-se a prevalência e a intensidade de parasitos em famílias e espécies de 925 aves capturadas, entre 2000 e 2001, na [...] Mata Atlântica de Minas Gerais. Foram coradas com Giemsa extensões de sangue para detectar parasitos hematozoários. As aves (n= 15,8%) 11 famílias estavam infectadas por pelo menos um gênero de parasito, especialmente Muscicapidae (28,3%) e Conopophagidae (25%). Entre as 146 aves infectadas, Plasmodium foi detectado em todas as famílias e possuiu a maior prevalência (54,8%). Trypanosoma,Haemoproteus e microfilaria possuíram baixas prevalências (23,3, 23,3 e 2,1%, respectivamente). Aves capturadasdurante a estação chuvosa estavam mais infectadas do que aves capturadas durante a estação seca. A baixa prevalência geral de parasitos do sangue das aves é semelhante aos padrões encontrados em outras localidades da região Neotropical. Abstract in english Parasites may lead bird species to extinction, affect host temporal and spatial population dynamics, alter community structure and alter individuals’ social status. We evaluated blood parasite prevalence and intensity according to bird families and species, among 925 birds that were caught in 2000 a [...] nd 2001, in the Atlantic Forest in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. We applied Giemsa staining to thin blood smears, to detect blood parasites. The birds (n = 15.8%) in 11 families, were infected by at least one parasite genus, especially Muscicapidae (28.3%) and Conopophagidae (25%). Among the 146 infected birds, Plasmodium was detected in all bird families and had the highest prevalence (54.8%). Trypanosoma, Haemoproteus and microfilaria had lower prevalence rates (23.3, 23.3 and 2.1%, respectively). Birds caught during the rainy season were more infected than birds caught during the dry season. The overall low prevalence of blood parasites in birds is similar to the patterns found elsewhere in the Neotropical region.
Fabiane, Sebaio; Érika Martins, Braga; Felipe, Branquinho; Alan, Fecchio; Miguel Ângelo, Marini.
Full Text Available Background & objectives: The present study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of malariaparasitaemia among blood donors and to determine the possible risk of transmission of malaria parasiteto recipients of blood in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Anambra State.Methods: Four hundred and forty-four subjects were selected randomly and EDTA added blood wascollected for screening malaria parasites using Giemsa stain. The data were subjected to ? 2 analysis.Results: Prevalence of malaria was 30.2% among blood donors and showed bimodal distribution withsignificant variation in different months.Interpretation & conclusion: Due to high prevalence of asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia in thisregion, all blood samples should be screened for malaria parasites (post-donor screening andadministered with a curative dose of antimalarials prophylactically to all patients transfused withmalaria parasite positive blood.
E.C. Okocha, C.C. Ibeh, P.U. Ele & N.C. Ibeh
Full Text Available The aim of this work was to verify the feasibility of an easy, quick double staining technique for evaluation of frozen-thawed semen to predict the fertilizing capability in vitro of buffalo bulls. In Experiment 1, frozen-thawed semen from 6 bulls was stained with double Trypan blue/ Giemsa and the incidence of acrosome-intact live (AIL, acrosome-intact dead (AID, acrosome-lost live (ALL and acrosome-lost dead (ALD sperm was recorded. In Experiment 2, sperm from the same bulls were used to fertilize in vitro matured oocytes. The data obtained confirm that there is a strong “bull effect” in buffalo species, with differences in the percentage of AIL sperm at thawing, in cleavage and blastocyst rates among bulls. Interestingly, it was found that this staining technique can be used for a preliminary screening to select semen to use for IVF, as shown by the correlation existent between the percentages of acrosome-intact viable sperm cells at thawing and the blastocyst yields for 4/6 bulls.
A rapid and sensitive method for quantification of Apoptotic cells is presented. The value of the method is demonstrated on peripheral blood mononuclear cells, which constitutively undergo programmed cell death and which show an increase in the rate of apoptosis after exposure to the irradiation with 137 Cs ? -ray. After staining with Acridine orange post irradiation, three distinct cell populations (live, apoptosis, and necrosis) shown by analysis of fluorescence profiles. This Acridine orange stain method is directly compared with the stain method of Wright-Giemsa on duplicated slides and Apoptosis to quantify cell events following exposure to dose of in vitro ? -irradiation and post-irradiation incubation times. The apoptosis frequency of three healthy volunteers obtained with both stain methods was steep below 100cGy and flatter at high doses. A significantly higher number of radiation induced apoptotic cells were observed after stain with Acridine orange compared with Wright-Giemsa stain post irradiation. Our results demonstrated that the Acridine orange stain is superior methods with greater sensitivity and accuracy in comparison with the Wright-Giemsa stain tested. This method may be allows rapid measurement of a large number of cells for samples of radiation biological effect
Specific duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was employed on 411 (386 cattle and 25 buffaloes) blood samples of dairy animals from 9 districts of Punjab, India, for simultaneous detection of Babesia bigemina and Trypanosoma evansi. The results were compared and correlated with conventional Giemsa stained thin blood smear (GSTBS) examination and haematological alterations to know the clinical status and pathogenicity of infections. The Bg3/Bg4 and TR3/TR4 primers were used in duplex PCR for...
Amrita Sharma; Lachhman Das Singla; Ashuma Tuli; Paramjit Kaur; Balwinder Kaur Batth; Mohammed Javed; Prayag Dutt Juyal
Concordancia entre gota gruesa, inmunocromatografía y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa para el diagnóstico de malaria / Concordance between thick blood smear, immunochromatography and polymerase chain reaction for malaria diagnosis
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. El diagnóstico oportuno y efectivo del paludismo, o malaria, son condiciones determinantes para hacer un tratamiento adecuado de la enfermedad y un control de la misma. Objetivo. Se evaluó la concordancia de la sensibilidad, especificidad, valor diagnóstico positivo y negativo de una p [...] rueba rápida y de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR), con la prueba estándar, la gota gruesa, para el diagnóstico de la malaria. Materiales y métodos. Se analizó una población de 100 pacientes con signos y síntomas indicativos de paludismo, procedentes de las zonas de Urabá, Córdoba, Bajo Cauca y de otras regiones de Colombia, como Valle, Chocó y Vichada, todas áreas endémicas de la enfermedad. A cada paciente se le practicó una gota gruesa, la prueba rápida OptiMAL® y la amplificación a través de una PCR de secuencias de ADN específicas para género y para Plasmodium falciparum y Plasmodium vivax. Resultados. La sensibilidad de la prueba rápida frente a la gota gruesa, para el diagnóstico de ambas especies de Plasmodium fue de 93,85% (IC95% 87,23-100) y la especificidad de 94,29% (IC95% 85,17-100). La PCR comparada con la gota gruesa mostró una sensibilidad de 100% (IC95% 99,23-100) y una especificidad de 97,14% (IC95% 90,19-100). Conclusiones. Estos hallazgos muestran que la sensibilidad y especificidad de la prueba rápida y la PCR para el diagnóstico de malaria son comparables con el examen al microscopio de la gota gruesa, recomendada por su eficacia y bajo costo. Abstract in english Introduction. The rapid and effective diagnosis of malaria is the determining condition for an appropriate treatment and control of the disease. Objective. The sensitivity, specificity and the positive and negative predictive values were evaluated in cases of suspected malaria in Colombia in a compa [...] rison of a rapid diagnostic test. the PCR test and the thick blood smear-the traditional ‘gold standard.’ Materials and methods. A group of 100 patients with symptoms compatible with malaria, were included in the study. They were selected from the following Colombian regions: Urabá, Córdoba, lower Cauca, and relatively fewer from other malaria endemic areas of Colombia including the provinces of Valle, Chocó in the central west of Colombia and Vichada to the east. To each patient the following three tests were performed: the rapid OptiMAL® test, the PCR identification and the thick blood smear. The PCR amplified specific DNA sequences with primers designed to identify the genus Plasmodium, and the two species present in Colombia, P. falciparum and P. vivax. Results. The sensitivity of the rapid test versus the thick smear, for the diagnosis of both species of Plasmodium was 93.9% (95% CI: 87-100%) and the specificity was 94.3% (95% CI:.253 85-100%). The PCR compared with the thick smear showed a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 99-100%) and a specificity of 97.1% (95% CI: 90-100%). Conclusions. The sensitivity and specificity of the three tests did not present statistically significant differences. However, the thick blood smear was recommended as the standard test, mainly due to its low cost.
Astrid Elena, Montoya; José, Menco; Natalia, Osorio; María Alejandra, Zuluaga; Juliana, Duque; Giovanny, Torres; Marcos, Restrepo.
Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Mediante un clasificador k-NN en combinación con la primera métrica de Minkowski y técnicas de procesamiento digital de imágenes, se desarrolló un sistema computacional independiente de la plataforma, capaz de identificar, clasificar y contar cinco formas normales de leucocitos: neutrófilos, eosinóf [...] ilos, basófilos, monocitos y linfocitos. Es importante enfatizar que este trabajo no intenta diferenciar entre muestras de leucocitos provenientes de gente sana y enferma, debido a que la mayoría de las enfermedades se detectan principalmente por un cambio en el conteo diferencial de leucocitos más que por cambios en su forma. Finalmente, el contador de leucocitos puede ser usado en áreas emergentes como la hematología topográfica y la cronobiología. Abstract in english Using the k-NN classifier in combination with the first Minkowski metric, in addition to techniques of digital image processing, we developed a computational system platform-independent, which is able to identify, to classify and to count five normal types of leukocytes: neutrophils, eosinophils, ba [...] sophils, monocytes and lymphocytes. It is important to emphasize that this work does not attempt to diferentiate between smears of leukocytes coming from healthy and sick people; this is because most diseases produce a change in the differential count of leukocytes rather than in theirs forms. In the other side, the system could be used in emerging areas such as the topographic hematology and the chronobiology.
J., Martínez-Castro; S., Reyes-Cadena; E., Felipe-Riverón.
An examination was made of Giemsa-stained microfilariae in thin blood films from (n = 9) dogs naturally or experimentally infected with Dirofilaria immitis or Dirofilaria repens. Morphological measurements (total length, length of cephalic space, anterior end to nerve ring and last body nucleus, and nucleus-free tail tip) were made on 2-6 microfilariae from each dog with the use of digitally captured images and imaging software. The microfilariae of D. repens were significantly greater (P microfilaria. The cephalic space of the smaller microfilaria of D. immitis was longer and did not have the distinct nuclei separated from the somatic column nuclei near the anterior end. The character of the cephalic space seems to be a criterion that could be routinely used for the easy differentiation of these 2 microfilariae in stained blood films. PMID:23146115
Liotta, Janice L; Sandhu, Gursimrat K; Rishniw, Mark; Bowman, Dwight D
Wild golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) -- endangered primates that are native to the Brazilian Atlantic coastal forest -- were surveyed for the presence of Trypanosoma cruzi with the use of Giemsa-stained blood smears, hemocultures and an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFAT). Positive IFAT with titers ranging from 1:20 to 1:1280 were observed in 52% of the 118 wild tamarins examined and the parasite was isolated from 38 tamarins. No patent parasitemia was observed among the ta...
Lisboa Cristiane V; Dietz James; Baker Andrew J; Russel Nédia N; Jansen Ana M
Full Text Available Relapsing fever is an acute febrile illness caused by spirochetes of the genus Borrelia. The high fevers of presenting patients spontaneously abate and then recur. Here we report a 50-year-old woman having relapsing fever associated with thrombocytopenia. Giemsa staining of peripheral blood smear revealed spiral organisms morphologically resembling Borrelia. A rare case of relapsing fever which was successfully treated with doxycycline is discussed.
Abstract Background Cloning of parasites by limiting dilution is an essential and rate-limiting step in many aspects of malaria research including genomic and genetic manipulation studies. The standard Giemsa-stained blood smears to detect parasites is time-consuming, whereas the more sensitive parasite lactate dehydrogenase assay involves multiple steps and requires fresh reagents. A simple PCR-based method was therefore tested for parasite detection that can be adapted to h...
Weissenbach Matthew E; Shoue Doug A; Balu Bharath; Maher Steven P; Adams John H
The aim of the study was to describe the clinicopathological findings in dogs naturally infected with Babesia. During the period of February 2011-February 2012 twenty-nine cases of Babesia Canis were diagnosed in the clinic of Small Animal at the Veterinary Faculty of Tirana. The animal was considered infected when pear shaped babesia was observed inside infected erythrocytes in Wright-Giemsa stained blood smears. The animal stay for one week in our clinic and during this period we evaluated ...
Egon Andoni; Dhimiter Rapti; Rezart Postoli; Elenica Dimco; Jeta Abeshi
Abstract Background Rapid and accurate diagnosis of malaria is central to clinical management and the prevention of drug-overuse, which may lead to resistance development, toxicity and economic losses. So far, light microscopy (LM) of Giemsa-stained thick blood smears is the gold standard. Under optimal conditions the procedure is fast and reliable; nevertheless a gain in speed would be a great advantage. Rapid diagnosis tests are an alternative, although they cost more and g...
Biallas Barbara; Lell Bertrand; Kremsner Peter G; Lenz Dominic; Boettcher Michael; Mordmüller Benjamin; Adegnika Ayola A
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Functional in vitro assays could provide insights into the efficacy of malaria vaccine candidates. For estimating the anti-parasite effect induced by a vaccine candidate, an accurate determination of live parasite count is an essential component of most in vitro bioassays. Although traditionally parasites are counted microscopically, a faster, more accurate and less subjective method for counting parasites is desirable. In this study mitochondrial dye (Mitotracker Red CMXRos) was used for obtaining reliable live parasite counts through flow cytometry. METHODS: Both asynchronous and tightly synchronized asexual blood stage cultures of Plasmodium falciparum were stained with CMXRos and subjected to detection by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. The parasite counts obtained by flow cytometry were compared to standard microscopic counts obtained through examination of Giemsa-stained thin smears. A comparison of the ability of CMXRos to stain live and compromised parasites (induced by either medium starvation or by anti-malarial drug treatment) was carried out. Finally, parasite counts obtained by CMXRos staining through flow cytometry were used to determine specific growth inhibition index (SGI) in an antibody-dependent cellular inhibition (ADCI) assay. RESULTS: Mitotracker Red CMXRos can reliably detect live intra-erythrocytic stages of P. falciparum. Comparison between staining of live with compromised parasites shows that CMXRos predominantly stains live parasites with functional mitochondria. Parasite counts obtained by CMXRos staining and flow cytometry were highly reproducible and can reliably determine the ability of IgG from hyper-immune individuals to inhibit parasite growth in presence of monocytes in ADCI assay. Further, a dose-dependent parasite growth inhibitory effect could be detected for both total IgG purified from hyper-immune sera and affinity purified IgGs against the N-terminal non-repeat region of GLURP in ADCI assays coupled with determination of parasite counts through CMXRos staining and flow cytometry. CONCLUSIONS: A flow cytometry method based on CMXRos staining for detection of live parasite populations has been optimized. This is a rapid and sensitive method with high inter-assay reproducibility which can reliably determine the anti-parasite effect mediated by antibodies in functional in vitro assays such as ADCI assay.
Jogdand, Prajakta S; Singh, Susheel K
Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional in vitro assays could provide insights into the efficacy of malaria vaccine candidates. For estimating the anti-parasite effect induced by a vaccine candidate, an accurate determination of live parasite count is an essential component of most in vitro bioassays. Although traditionally parasites are counted microscopically, a faster, more accurate and less subjective method for counting parasites is desirable. In this study mitochondrial dye (Mitotracker Red CMXRos was used for obtaining reliable live parasite counts through flow cytometry. Methods Both asynchronous and tightly synchronized asexual blood stage cultures of Plasmodium falciparum were stained with CMXRos and subjected to detection by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. The parasite counts obtained by flow cytometry were compared to standard microscopic counts obtained through examination of Giemsa-stained thin smears. A comparison of the ability of CMXRos to stain live and compromised parasites (induced by either medium starvation or by anti-malarial drug treatment was carried out. Finally, parasite counts obtained by CMXRos staining through flow cytometry were used to determine specific growth inhibition index (SGI in an antibody-dependent cellular inhibition (ADCI assay. Results Mitotracker Red CMXRos can reliably detect live intra-erythrocytic stages of P. falciparum. Comparison between staining of live with compromised parasites shows that CMXRos predominantly stains live parasites with functional mitochondria. Parasite counts obtained by CMXRos staining and flow cytometry were highly reproducible and can reliably determine the ability of IgG from hyper-immune individuals to inhibit parasite growth in presence of monocytes in ADCI assay. Further, a dose-dependent parasite growth inhibitory effect could be detected for both total IgG purified from hyper-immune sera and affinity purified IgGs against the N-terminal non-repeat region of GLURP in ADCI assays coupled with determination of parasite counts through CMXRos staining and flow cytometry. Conclusions A flow cytometry method based on CMXRos staining for detection of live parasite populations has been optimized. This is a rapid and sensitive method with high inter-assay reproducibility which can reliably determine the anti-parasite effect mediated by antibodies in functional in vitro assays such as ADCI assay.
Jogdand Prajakta S
Collection of cervical secretions for local immunological assessment requires that the secretions be collected prior to the Pap smear to avoid contamination with blood. The objective of the present study was to determine whether gentle collection of cervical secretions prior to a Pap smear collection influences the quality of the Pap smear. A total of 266 women were recruited. Half of the participants were assigned to collection of cervical secretions prior to Pap smear collection with Weck-c...
Hildesheim, Allan; Bratti, M. Concepcion; Edwards, Robert P.; Schiffman, Mark; Rodriguez, Ana C.; Herrero, Rolando; Alfaro, Mario; Morera, Lidia A.; Ermatinger, Susan V.; Miller, Barbara T.; Crowley-nowick, Peggy A.
Full Text Available Introduction: Cervical cancer is the second most important cancer in women worldwide, and the second cause of cancer death in women. It has been shown that the process of cervical carcinogenesis presents as genetic and epigenetic components as environmental issues. At present, many studies are addressed in searching for molecular markers such as mutations in oncogenes and/or tumor suppressor genes that are associated with the progression of this disease, the most studied candidate genes in cervical cancer in different populations have been H-ras, K-ras, EGFR among others.Objective: The present study identified human papilloma virus (HPV generic and specific in DNA-free plasma and cervical smears of invasive cervical cancer patients and patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN III in addition to assessing genetic alterations, such as mutations in the genes H-ras, EGFR and K-ras.Methods: To do so generic HPV was detected by PCR with primers GP5+/GP6+, and specific HPV 16 and 18 in E6/E7 region; to detect mutations in codon 12 of H-ras, codons 12 and 13 of K-ras and EGFR exon 21 was conducted by direct sequencing of PCR products of these gene fragments.Results: Getting a good correlation between samples of blood plasma and cervical smears for both; the findings of HPV p=0.0374 and evaluated mutations p=0. In general, for EGFR in exon 21 mutations were not found, as for codons 12 and 13 in K-ras and codon 12 in H-ras.Conclusion: The use of DNA in plasma may be relevant to the analysis of mutations and the presences of tumor markers are not available from other samples.
Dabeiba Adriana García
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to determine whether isolated suspension mouse peripheral mononucleated blood cells have the potential to differentiate into two distinct types of cells, i.e., osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Results Differentiation into osteoblast cells was concomitant with the activation of the Opn gene, increment of alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity and the existence of bone nodules, whereas osteoclast cells activated the Catk gene, increment of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP activity and showed resorption activities via resorption pits. Morphology analyses showed the morphology of osteoblast and osteoclast cells after von Kossa and May-Grunwald-Giemsa staining respectively. Conclusions In conclusion, suspension mononucleated cells have the potentiality to differentiate into mature osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and hence can be categorized as multipotent stem cells.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between stable and unstable chromosome aberration frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes using Giemsa staining and FISH chromosome analysis. 15 Nuclear Power Plant's workers occupationally exposed to external radiation, with high (> 500 mSv) and intermediate lifetime cumulative doses and 15 healthy individuals, not occupationally exposed to radiation from administrative staff of Kozloduy NPP have been selected. The cytogenetic results in 10 years following systematic investigations by conventional analysis are shown. A total 14 610 metaphases was scored from 15 NPP workers and 15 controls. Mean frequency of dicentrics in workers group was 1,25 x 10-3 dic/cell. The mean frequency was 0,27 x 10-3 dic/cell in controls. It was observed 5 times lower dicentric frequency in controls then in workers, but it is not significant. It is known that dicentrics are unstable type of aberrations and their persistence depends on lymphocytes life time (about 3 years). The results are consistent with recent findings for Nuclear power workers by Giemsa staining. Dose-response dependence, genome frequency of translocations and dicentrics per 100 cells in NPP workers and controls are presented. The overall mean total translocation frequency for control group was 1.7x10-3 tr/cell and 5.4x10-3 tr/cell. When compared to unexposed controls the yields of translocations were significantly higher, but no dose dependence was apparent. Chromosome analysis of radiation exposed populations, using techniques to identify stable aberrations, offers the opportunity to examine the relative effectiveness of different exposure conditions and is of particular relevance since chromosome rearrangements are of prime importance in process of carcinogenesis. Such studies should therefore aid the understanding of risks associated with radiation exposure
In view of the problem of transfusional malaria, the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia in transfused donor blood was assessed. Blood film examination for malaria parasites on Giemsa-stained donor blood which was used for transfusion to neonates in Benin City, Nigeria was carried out over a 6-month period. Blood group O was the dominant blood type (17%). A high malarial parasite prevalence rate of 40% was noted in the transfused donor blood and Plasmodium falciparum was the dominant infecting species. All blood groups and rhesus factor types were infected with malarial parasites. There was no significantly increased malarial infection rate in any particular blood group type. The neonate, who is known to be immunologically naive, is at high risk of symptomatic malaria acquired through blood transfusion. All neonates who require blood transfusion should be given chloroquine sulphate soon after transfusion, at a dose of 5 mg/kg/day for 3 days, when the parasites are chloroquine-sensitive. In cases of chloroquine resistance, quinine sulphate or halofantrine hydrochloride is an acceptable alternative. Where feasible, donor blood screening for malaria should be carried out before transfusion to any neonate. PMID:8790671
Ibhanesebhor, S E; Otobo, E S; Ladipo, O A
Full Text Available Background: Tumor diathesis (TD refers to the granular proteinaceous precipitates on the slide surface of cytologic (Pap smears. Found in the background of smears from some, but not all, invasive carcinoma cases, TD is present in the majority of smears from large cell nonkeratinizing carcinoma. It is more pronounced than keratinizing SCC also is almost always present in small cell carcinoma. Smears from patients with adenocarcinoma are frequently associated with dense inflammatory and fresh blood exudates and less often there is a recognizable tumor diathesis. Methods: To determine the prevalence of TD in cervicovaginal smears from patients with uterine cervix carcinoma, cytologic smears and histologic slides of 46 patients with histologically-confirmed uterine cervix carcinoma were reviewed for the presence or absence of TD, red blood cells and neutrophils on cytologic smears, as well as depth of invasion, histologic types and grade of differentiation of tumor on histologic slides.Results: TD was identified in 28 smears (60.9%, 18 patients with squamous cell carcinoma (62.1%, seven patients with adenocarcinoma (58.3%, two patients with adenosquamous carcinoma (66.7% and one patient with endometrial carcinoma that involved the uterine cervix. TD was seen in smears from four (33.3% patients with uterine cervix carcinoma with invasion <5 mm and 17 (65.4% carcinomas with invasion >5mm. However, some of the patients with invasive carcinoma lacked TD on the cytologic smears. Red blood cells were identified on 16 (34.8% smears.Conclusions: Although TD is the hallmark of invasive carcinoma of the cervix on cytological smears, there have been few studies performed on it. We found that tumors with greater depth of invasion and reduced differentiation are associated with TD cytologic smears. TD was absent in some cases, particularly in micro-invasive carcinoma. This study reinforced what has been recognized from other studies.
Microscopic examination of a peripheral blood smear revealed ookinetes of Plasmodium vivax. This unusual finding was probably due to an excessive delay between blood collection and smear preparation. Ookinete formation normally occurs in the mosquito gut. When seen in blood smears, it can cause confusion and misidentification of the parasite.
Hummert, B. A.
Atypical glandular cells (AGC) in Papanicolaou (Pap) smears can be associated with premalignant and malignant cervical and endometrial lesions. AGC is difficult to diagnose in pregnancy due to confusion with normal cellular changes that accompany graviditas. While guidelines have been established for management of AGC cases in the non-pregnant patient, special considerations are required when this is discovered during a pregnancy. A routine Pap smear performed on a 29-year-old woman being see...
Connolly, Thomas P.; Evans, A. C.
Criteria for peripheral smear review are designed to include those samples with results outside the reference interval and can be more extreme based on what is considered to have clinical utility. However, we are unaware of previous studies that reported the distributions of various complete blood cell count (CBC) parameters in infants. In the following study we reviewed screening CBC results of 692 infants aged 9-15 months in order to determine the proportion of peripheral smear reviews recommended according to consensus criteria and that after adjusting for the observed distributions of the various parameters. According to consensus criteria the recommended reflex peripheral smear review rate was 39.7% (95% CI 36.1-43.4) whereas after adjustment for the observed distributions, the rate fell to 5.6% (95% CI 3.9-7.3) (p 7 × 10(9)/L (17.5%), the presence of a plus one blast flag (4.3%), and a large unstained cell count of ? 5% (26.2%) (equivalent to + 1 atypical flag). We found that international consensus criteria for reflex peripheral smear review results in a very high peripheral smear review rate in well infants, and might be inappropriate. PMID:24650178
Froom, Paul; Isakov, Elada; Barak, Mira
Gauge-invariant sources with a hydrogen wave function shape are constructed for bottomonium two-point correlation functions using the free-form smearing technique. The bottomonium spectrum, including a first lattice result for the D-wave first-excited state, is extracted from free-form smeared correlation functions. Results are compared with conventional smearing techniques and free-form smearing is found to have the advantage of reduced statistical errors.
Wurtz, Mark; Woloshyn, R M
A new Lie-algebra based recipe for analytic link smearing in lattice QCD is presented. It is more efficient in suppressing UV-noise than the standard ``stout'' smearing, roughly comparable to traditional APE smearing. It may be used together with the hypercubic nesting trick, and the advantage is that this LOG/HYL smearing yields differentiable ``fat'' links, which makes it attractive for a HMC approach to full QCD.
The prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi infections in the north-eastern Free State Province of South Africa was determined by examination of thin and thick Giemsa-stained blood smears, IFAT and PCR. No parasites were detected by microscopy from any blood samples collected at five study sites, Qwaqwa, Kestell, Harrismith, Vrede and Warden. Of the tested serum samples, 28/29 (96.5%), 20/21 (95.2%) nd 42/42( 100%) were positive by IFAT for T. equi infections in ...
Sugimoto, C.; Igarashi, I.; Inoue, N.; Thibedi, M. L.; Masangane, F. E. S.; Motheo, M. P.; Bakheit, M.; Alhassan, A.; Thekisoe, O. M. M.; Motloang, M. Y.; Mbati, P. A.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We report the result of an examination for blood and intestinal protozoa in 12 specimens of the red squirrel Sciurus spadiceus (Rodentia: Sciuridae) from Birroque, municipality of Plácido de Castro, state of Acre, Brazil. No parasites were detected in thin, Giemsa-stained blood films of the animals, [...] but culture of the blood of three in Difco B45 medium blood-agar slants gave rise to isolates of epimastigotes. Inoculation of one isolate into laboratory mice resulted in the appearance of Trypanosoma cruzi-like trypomastigotes in their peripheral blood, and the other two isolates gave rise to transient infections with a T. lewisi-like parasite in inoculated mice and hamsters. The failure of the latter parasite to develop in the triatomine bug Rhodnius robustus suggests that it is probably not T. rangeli. This appears to be the first record of a T. lewisi-like trypanosome in neotropical squirrels. Oocysts of an Eimeria sp., were detected in the faeces of 10 animals (83.3%). The parasite develops in the epithelial cells of the intestine, where it may cause severe damage and sometimes results in death of the animal. No oocysts were detected in bile.
Ralph, Lainson; Maria do Carmo de Oliveira, Brígido; Fernando Tobias, Silveira.
In this paper we show and clarify further the consistency (which in the conventional, non-relativistic approach is lacking) of the recent, simple, spinless and relativistic approach (the nucleon-parton approach) to Fermi motion effects on deuterium targets. In analysing the recent high-energy cross-section data of ?D, ?N and ND, NN processes, we find that the conventional approach leads to a non-negligible smearing correction sigmasub(s). On the other hand, the nucleon-parton approach, by using a simple ansatz for the truncated n-p-d relativistic vertex function, leads to a vanishing sigmasub(s). We show, also, that the inclusion of a spin degree of freedom in the formalism for leptonic scattering, where smearing effects are very important, does not affect the previous (spinless) results. (orig.)
SETTING: A tuberculosis control project in Bangladesh. OBJECTIVE: To document the frequency and diagnostic value of smears with scanty acid-fast bacilli (AFB) (IUATLD/WHO scale, < 10/100 high power fields), and to assess the appropriateness of the current positivity threshold. DESIGN: Analysis of databases of laboratory registers, patient records and the diagnostic yield of sputum collection strategies. RESULTS: Scanty smears constituted about 10% of suspect and almost 50% of follow-up smears...
Deun, A.; Salim, A. H.; Cooreman, E.; Daru, P.; Das, A. P. K.; Aung, K. J. M.; Rieder, H. L.
Faults exert significant control on the migration, entrapment and subsequent compartmentalization of hydrocarbon in the Niger Delta. Some faults allow the passage of fluids across them, while other do not. Shale smear is a principal reason for the sealing effect of most of the faults in synsedimentary fault environment like the Niger Delta. Several different methods have been used to characterize shale smearing in previous studies. Wireline log data from several wells were used to quantify the shale smear properties of a particular fault in Okan Field, offshore Nigeria. Stratigraphic and structural correlation tools and concepts were used to identify and measure smeared shale thickness and fault offset values in wells penetrating fault zones. From the observations, shale smear thickness in the Niger Delta appears to show a decrease with increasing fault throw when a single shale source is involved. However, for smearing developed from multiple source units, smeared shale thicknesses appear not to show any regular trend with increase in fault throw.This study has demonstrated our ability to measure thicknesses of shale smear from common wireline data and proposed a procedure on how to interpret these data for the specific process and quantity of smearing with respect to original stratigraphy
A new study presented by Annekathryn Goodman of Massachusetts General Hospital indicates that HIV positive women should receive annual colposcopies, along with Pap smears, to detect abnormal cell growth early. The recommendation is due to the fact that HIV positive women are more likely to have false-negative Pap smears than HIV negative women. In a related development, the FDA approved a new DNA-based blood test to detect human papillomavirus, which is associated with cervical and anal cancer. In addition, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) notified physicians that it has changed its recommendation for cervical cancer treatment. NCI now recommends both chemotherapy and radiation therapy for women with metastasized cervical cancer. PMID:11366700
Theileria lestoquardi is the most prominent Theileria species in small ruminants that causes malignant theileriosis of sheep in Africa and Asia. In the present survey, blood samples and ticks were collected in Kebili (southern Tunisia) from 166 Queue Fine de l'Ouest sheep. Giemsa-stained blood smears, immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and PCR were performed. The DNA was extracted from blood and analysed by PCR targeting 18S rRNA gene of Theileria spp. and then sequenced. A total number of 140 ticks were collected from a total number of 166 sheep during the four seasons. The ticks belonged to two genera and 4 species; the most frequent tick was Hyalomma excavatum 84.3% (118/140) and then Rhipicephalus spp. 15.7% (22/140). Only two animals had positive Giemsa-stained blood smears, and they were also positive by IFAT. The amplicons had 99.3 and 99.6% homology with the BLAST published T. lestoquardi amplicons. To our knowledge, this is the first report of T. lestoquardi in small ruminants within the Maghreb region. PMID:25208526
Rjeibi, M R; Darghouth, M A; Rekik, M; Amor, B; Sassi, L; Gharbi, M
Objective: To correlate and quantitate Iymphocyte subsets with clinically diagnosed smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis and severity of disease. Subjects and Methods: Freshly diagnosed, well-characterized smear-negative patients (n=15) of pulmonary tuberculosis were selected. Non-induced three-consecutive negative smears of sputum with simultaneous culture for AFB for 6-8 weeks, positive Mauntoux test (= or > 0 mm), blood complete picture with ESR and chest x-rays were done. Selected panel of monoclonal antibodies against specific CD markers were used. Statistical analysis done by student t-test or Mann-Whitney rank-sum test with the help of Sigma State software. Results: Hemoglobin and total lymphocyte counts were significantly reduced whereas total leukocyte counts with absolute neutrophil counts were increased. Fraction of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes with HLA-DR expression was reduced while no significant change in rest of the TB and NK lymphocytes. Conclusion: Low hemoglobin level, high neutrophil count and low total lymphocytes suggest possible direct relationship with extent of disease. The number of activated CD4+, CD8+, alpha beta and gamma delta TCR T cells have tendency to increase during Mycobacterium infection. This seems to have a potential of being a good, non-invasive prognostic indicator for patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. (author)
A clay- or shale-rich fault gouge can significantly reduce faultpermeability. Therefore, predictions of the volume of clay orshale that may be smeared along a fault trace are importantfor estimating the fluid connectivity of groundwater and hydrocarbonreservoir systems. Here, we show how fault smears develop spontaneouslyin layered soil systems with varying friction coefficients,and we present a quantitative dynamic model for such behavior.The model is based on Mohr-Coulomb failure theory, and usingdiscrete element computations, we demonstrate how the modelframework can predict the fault smear potential from soil frictionangles and layer thicknesses.
Egholm, D. L.; Clausen, O. R.; Sandiford, M.; Kristensen, M. B.; Korstgård, J. A.
Full Text Available During March and April 2007, 140 native cows with the mean age of more than one year were selected randomly and their age and sex were registered in the related papers. Primarily, a thin layer smear was prepared from their ear sublime vein blood and was fixed with methanol and then it stained with Gimsa dye. Also, 9 mL blood from the jagular vein of the same cow was taken and collected in autoclaved tubes (containing 1 mL of 3.2% buffered citrate solution conversely for extracting their DNA for PCR. Two primers were used: N516/N517 belonged to a huge gene (30 kDa which is responsible for coding the surface antigen of Theileria annulata merozoite. By detection of 140 prepared blood smear with light microscope and lens 100, piroplasmic forms of Theileria annulata were seen in 12 smear (8.57%. By PCR method, 56 DNA of Theileria annulata was separated from 140 samples (40%. Statistical comparison of PCR and smear methods in diagnosing of Theileria annulata carriers can explain a significant difference between these two methods (p<0.05. The results of this study shows that sensitivity and accuracy of PCR method in diagnosing of Theileria annulata carriers is more than common method of smear preparation and can be used in epidemiological studies for the sake of controlling, prevention and determining of immunological condition of cows in region.
Full Text Available The 1991 Bethesda System for cervical/vaginal cytology reporting has defined adequacy criteria, including unsatisfactory designation. Most laboratories in USA and a few laboratories in Iran have implemented these criteria, but only few studies about clinical implications have been performed. All unsatisfactory Papanicolaou (Pap smears taken between August 2000 and March 2002 were retrieved from the file of cytologic reports of Mirza Koochak Khan Hospital's Department of Pathology. Of 4,598 total Pap smears 204 (4.4% were unsatisfactory (corresponding atypical rate of 2.5% and a SIL/carcinoma rate of 0.97%. About 20.2% of unsatisfactory Pap smears were from patients with a history of epithelial abnormalities. The majority (71 of 204 specimens; 35% of follow-up Pap smears or biopsies occurred within 6 months,12% within 6-12 months,1% within 12-18 months and 1% after 18 months. Approximately 59% had no follow-up. The first repeat Pap smear or histologic specimen in 83 patients with follow-up was negative in 71 (85%, unsatisfactory in 2(2.4%, epithelial cell abnormality in 11 (13.2% and atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance in 4(4.8%. Nonmalignant conditions contributing to the unsatisfactory smears on histologic specimens (23% included cervicitis, endocervical polyp and endometritis. Majority of patients with unsatisfactory Pap smears were followed up within 6 months. A significant number(13.2% of those with follow-up had eventual diagnosis of epithelial cell abnormality. Benign pathologic conditions also contributed to unsatisfactory smears. These patients were more likely to have a history of abnormalities. Unsatisfactory specimens are associated with benign as well as preneoplastic/neoplastic conditions. Clinical correlation should be the first step in delineating the cause of the unsatisfactory diagnosis.
N. Izadi Mood
Clay- or shale-rich smears developed along faults in interlayered clay and sand sediments are known to significantly change the hydraulic properties of the formation. Predicting the volume of clay or shale smeared along faults is therefore important for estimating the fluid connectivity in groundwater and hydrocarbon systems as well for the integrity of artificially sequestered CO2 reservoirs. Here we show how fault smears develop spontaneously in deforming layered systems, where the interlayered clay and sand have varying friction coefficients, and we present a quantitative dynamic model for this behavior. The model is based on Mohr-Coulomb failure theory, and with discrete element computations we demonstrate, how the model framework can be used for predicting the fault smear potential from soil friction angles and layer thicknesses. The modeled results show how friction angle variations not only control the amount of clay available for smearing, but also the along-bed offsetting of the fault planes - a phenomenon often recognized in outcrops. The modeled results are compared to observations of both the external and internal geometry of naturally formed clay smears in order to prove the validity of the dynamic model.
Clausen, O. R.; Egholm, D. L.; Korstgård, J. A.
In this study, the prevalence of piroplasms in sheep and goats was assessed with Giemsa-stained blood smear examination, PCR and nested PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to identify Babesia and Theileria species, respectively, in 338 small ruminants (172 sheep and 166 goats) from three sites in North-West Tunisia during the 2011 summer season. The overall infection prevalence of piroplasms in Giemsa-stained blood smears was 3.2% (11/338), with a parasitaemia ranging from 0.01 to 0.05%. PCR detected two species, namely Babesia ovis (in sheep and goats) and Theileria ovis (in sheep), with an overall prevalence of 16.3%. The molecular prevalence of B. ovis was significantly higher in sheep than in goats (17.4% and 9%, respectively, p = 0.034). The same trend was observed for T. ovis in sheep and goats (5.8% and 0%, respectively, p = 0.004). Comparison of the partial sequences of the 18S ssu rRNA gene revealed 100% similarity amongst Babesia from sheep and goats. The single Theileria sequence in this study showed 100% similarity to T. ovis. A high similarity with all the blasted genotypes was reported for Theileria and Babesia sequences. This is the first molecular detection of B. ovis and genetic characterisation of small ruminants' piroplasms in Africa. PMID:24849588
Rjeibi, Mohamed Ridha; Gharbi, Mohamed; Mhadhbi, Moez; Mabrouk, Wiem; Ayari, Boutheïna; Nasfi, Ines; Jedidi, Mohamed; Sassi, Limam; Rekik, Mourad; Darghouth, Mohamed Aziz
The smear taking practices of departments of genitourinary medicine were investigated by telephone inquiry. Departments seem to be broadly and equally divided into those where the smear is taken before the cervix is wiped or endocervical specimens are taken for microbiology, and those where the smear is taken afterwards. In the unit at Guy's Hospital we compared cervical smears taken in both of these sequences and concluded that, to diagnose more cases of premalignant cervical disease, smears...
Griffiths, M.; Sanderson, D.; Penna, L.
For enumeration of intracellular organisms (ICO) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples, the May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG) stain displayed higher interobserver agreement than the acridine orange and Gram stains. The MGG stain offered a reliable enumeration of ICO when 200 cells were counted by one observer.
Brauwer, Els; Jacobs, Jan; Nieman, Fred; Bruggeman, Cathrien; Drent, Marjolein
We present an analytical strong-disorder renormalization group theory of the quantum phase transition in the dissipative random transverse-field Ising chain. For Ohmic dissipation, we solve the renormalization flow equations analytically, yielding asymptotically exact results for the low-temperature properties of the system. We find that the interplay between quantum fluctuations and Ohmic dissipation destroys the quantum critical point by smearing. We also determine the phase diagram and the behavior of observables in the vicinity of the smeared quantum phase transition. PMID:18643562
Hoyos, José A; Vojta, Thomas
Normalized hypercubic smearing improves the behavior of dynamical Wilson-clover fermions, but has the unwanted side effect that it can occasionally produce spikes in the fermion force. These spikes originate in the chain rule connecting the derivative with respect to the smeared links to the derivative with respect to the dynamical links, and are associated with the presence of dislocations in the dynamical gauge field. We propose and study an action designed to suppress these dislocations. We present evidence for improved performance of the hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm. A side benefit is improvement in the properties of valence chiral fermions.
DeGrand, Thomas; Shamir, Yigal; Svetitsky, Benjamin
Normalized hypercubic smearing improves the behavior of dynamical Wilson-clover fermions, but has the unwanted side effect that it can occasionally produce spikes in the fermion force. These spikes originate in the chain rule connecting the derivative with respect to the smeared links to the derivative with respect to the dynamical links, and are associated with the presence of dislocations in the dynamical gauge field. We propose and study an action designed to suppress these dislocations. We present evidence for improved performance of the hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm. A side benefit is improvement in the properties of valence chiral fermions.
DeGrand, Thomas; Svetitsky, Benjamin
A Lie-algebra based recipe for smoothing gauge links in lattice field theory is presented, building on the matrix logarithm. With or without hypercubic nesting, this LOG/HYL smearing yields fat links which are differentiable w.r.t. the original ones. This is essential for defining UV-filtered ("fat link") fermion actions which may be simulated with a HMC-type algorithm. The effect of this smearing on the distribution of plaquettes and on the residual mass of tree-level O(a)-...
Ehrlichia canis is a small pleomorphic gram-negative, coccoid, obligatory intracellular bacterium and the cause of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. A real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer polymerase chain reaction (real-time FRET PCR) coupled with melting curve analysis was established for detection of E. canis infection in canine blood samples. The VirB9 gene was amplified using one pair of primers and the melting curve analysis was generated by heating the hybridizing probes and amplified products. Eight E. canis-infected dog blood samples were initially identified using the Giemsa staining/microscopic method followed by conventional PCR (cPCR)/Sanger sequencing for confirmation. The sensitivity and specificity of the real-time FRET PCR detection were 87.5% and 100%, respectively and the limit of detection was 6.6 x 10(3) copies of positive E. canis control plasmids. The real-time FRET PCR with melting curve analysis reported here is better than microscopic visualization or cPCR because the method is not affected by the false bias inherent in the microscopic method. Furthermore, many samples can be processed rapidly at the same time. This convenient tool is beneficial as an alternative assay for the epidemiologic study of canine ehrlichiosis as well as for eradication of these organisms in prevention and control programs in endemic areas. PMID:25507246
Kongklieng, Amornmas; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Intapan, Pewpan M; Boonmars, Thidarut; Janwan, Penchom; Sanpool, Oranuch; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Taweethavonsawat, Piyanan; Chungpivat, Sudchit; Morakote, Nimit; Maleewong, Wanchai
The Savannah River Site (SRS) is evaluating the variables of the remote smearing process for monitoring transferable contamination on the waste glass canisters at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Smearing for transferable contamination is typically done by hand, but in this case, due to the nature of the high level waste within the canisters, remote smearing is required. The effectiveness of the smear pad was determined under varying conditions (distance traveled, force applied, and canister surface), as well as the relative importance of these factors. It was concluded that the remote smear is more reliable than the hand smear
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi by the examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears and c-ELISA method in donkeys, selected randomly from Erzurum, the largest province of Eastern Turkey. The specimens were consisted of 92 thin blood-smears and 75 sera during winter season. As result of microscopic examination no parasite was detected. Of the 75 sera, 3 (4% and 1 (1.33% samples were positive for the presence of T. equi and B. caballi antibodies, respectively. We couldn’t detect mix infection with both parasites. This study indicated the prevalence of T. equi and B. caballi in donkeys for the first time from Eastern Turkey in winter season.
I. Balkaya*, A. E. Utuk1 and F. C. Piskin1
In a recent article, Sastry has proposed a quantum mechanics of smeared particles. We show that the effects induced by the modification of the Heisenberg algebra, proposed to take into account the delocalization of a particle defined via its Compton wavelength, are important enough to be excluded experimentally.
Gram staining is one of the most simple and inexpensive methods for the rapid diagnosis of bacterial and fungal infections. It yields results much faster than culture, and provides important data for the patient's treatment and prognosis. However, a difference exists in the quality and quantity of information yielded by Gram staining smears based on the experience and knowledge of those conducting the tests. Therefore, a risk of misdiagnosis based on the information obtained from Gram staining smears is also present. The Gram staining conditions and morphology of bacteria sometimes change due to antimicrobial therapy. Species of Gram-negative rods sometimes become filamentous and pleomorphic. Gram-positive bacteria may become gram variable (change in staining condition) after antimicrobial therapy. Even bacteria that are easy to mis-identify exist, because the morphology of bacteria may be similar. Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive diplococcus, forming Gram-positive clustered cocci in specimens from blood culture bottles, resembling Streptococcus pneumoniae. Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative diplococcus in sputum, resembling Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis. Pasteurella multocida is a small-sized, Gram-negative short rod in the sputum, resembling Haemophilus influenzae. Prevotella intermedia is a small-sized, Gram-negative short rod in sputum, resembling Haemophilus influenzae. Capnocytophaga sp. is a Gram-negative fusiform (thin needle shape) rod present in clinical specimens, resembling Fusobacterium nucleatum. PMID:20560458
Nagata, Kuniaki; Mino, Hirotoshi; Yoshida, Shunsuke
Tubercle bacilli, which survived heat fixation, were detected with a slide culture technique which allowed the entire smear to be examined. Both conventional flame fixation and the use of a controlled hot-plate failed to render tuberculous sputum smears safe for further handling. Smears which were stained with the phenol-auramine method failed to yield growth on culture. If delay between preparation and staining is unavoidable, it is recommended that smears are given additional treatment to ...
Allen, B. W.
We investigate the effects of rare regions on the dynamics of Ising magnets with planar defects, i.e., disorder perfectly correlated in two dimensions. In these systems, the magnetic phase transition is smeared because static long-range order can develop on isolated rare regions. We first study an infinite-range model by numerically solving local dynamic mean-field equations. Then we use extremal statistics and scaling arguments to discuss the dynamics beyond mean-field theory. In the tail region of the smeared transition the dynamics is even slower than in a conventional Griffiths phase: the spin autocorrelation function decays like a stretched exponential at intermediate times before approaching the exponentially small equilibrium value following a power law at late times.
Fendler, Bernard [Department of Physics, University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Sknepnek, Rastko [Department of Physics, University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Vojta, Thomas [Department of Physics, University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States)
We investigate the effects of rare regions on the dynamics of Ising magnets with planar defects, i.e., disorder perfectly correlated in two dimensions. In these systems, the magnetic phase transition is smeared because static long-range order can develop on isolated rare regions. We first study an infinite-range model by numerically solving local dynamic mean-field equations. Then we use extremal statistics and scaling arguments to discuss the dynamics beyond mean-field theory. In the tail region of the smeared transition the dynamics is even slower than in a conventional Griffiths phase: the spin autocorrelation function decays like a stretched exponential at intermediate times before approaching the exponentially small equilibrium value following a power law at late times.
Fendler, B; Vojta, T; Fendler, Bernard; Sknepnek, Rastko; Vojta, Thomas
We investigate the effects of rare regions on the dynamics of Ising magnets with planar defects, i.e., disorder perfectly correlated in two dimensions. In these systems, the magnetic phase transition is smeared because static long-range order can develop on isolated rare regions. We first study an infinite-range model by numerically solving local dynamic mean-field equations. Then we use extremal statistics and scaling arguments to discuss the dynamics beyond mean-field theory. In the tail region of the smeared transition the dynamics is even slower than in a conventional Griffiths phase: the spin autocorrelation function decays like a stretched exponential at intermediate times before approaching the exponentially small equilibrium value following a power law at late times
We present an analytical strong-disorder renormalization group theory of the quantum phase transition in the dissipative random transverse-field Ising chain. For Ohmic dissipation, we solve the renormalization flow equations analytically, yielding asymptotically exact results for the low-temperature properties of the system. We find that the interplay between quantum fluctuations and Ohmic dissipation destroys the quantum critical point by smearing. We also determine the pha...
Hoyos, J. A.; Vojta, Thomas
We prove unboundedness and boundedness of the unsmeared and smeared chiral vertex operators, respectively. We use elementary methods in bosonic Fock space, only. Possible applications to conformal two - dimensional quantum field theory, perturbation thereof, and to the perturbative construction of the sine-Gordon model by the Epstein-Glaser method are discussed. From another point of view the results of this paper can be looked at as a first step towards a Hilbert space interpretation of vertex operator algebras.
Constantinescu, F; Constantinescu, Florin
Evaluation of platelet count by automatic blood counter QBC Vet Autoread® compared with blood smear estimative and count by hemocytometer Avaliação da contagem plaquetária pelo contador automático QBC Vet Autoread® comparado com estimativa em esfregaço sanguíneo e contagem em hemocitômetro
The platelet blood count in laboratorial routine provides to the clinician important information about the hemostasis of the patient. There are many techniques described, however the gold standard techniques realized in hemocytometer spent a lot of time, making this technique impracticable in great routines. This research had the intent to evaluate if the automatic veterinary blood counter QBC Vet Autoread®, whose results get five minutes to be ready, is capable to offer a trustworthy platel...
Denise Tabacchi Fantoni; Fábio Hosoi Rezende; Augusto Schweirgert; Ludmila Rodrigues Moroz
Smart-SMEAR is an interface to visualize the data measured at the SMEAR 2 station in Hyytiaelae, Finland. It is designed to be an additional tool for data mining and a simple tool for working together with trace gas and aerosol data, meteorological parameters and air mass back-trajectories, including numerous point sources. The web tool acts as an interface to the station database which can be reached with only few mouse clicks. The tool provides an overview of such a complicated dataset. The database contains all the data from the start of continuous SMEAR 2 measurements in 1996 until today. Here, we present also some examples of how to use Smart-SMEAR. We present examples of one typical atmospheric nucleation event day, one local pollution event with low photochemical activity, and one long-range-transport pollution day coupled with local pollution events with strong solar radiation. Smart-SMEAR, together with its search engine Smart-Search, has proven to be an efficient tool for studying atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric aerosol dynamics. (orig.)
Junninen, H.; Lauri, A.; Keronen, P.; Aalto, P.; Kulmala, M. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)); Hiltunen, V. (Hyytiaelae Foresty Field Station, Univ. of Helsinki, Korkeakoski (Finland)); Hari, P. (Dept. of Forest Ecology, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland))
The purpose of this lesson is to teach students about blood and its components while instilling an appreciation of its importance for survival. The lesson takes a step-by-step approach to determining the "recipe" for blood while introducing students to important laboratory techniques like centrifugation and microscopy, as well as some diseases of cell types found in blood. It also highlights the importance of donating blood by explaining basic physiological concepts and the blood donation procedure. There are no formal prerequisites, but students should be comfortable with converting weight units. The only materials needed are a calculator and paper, and it would be helpful to print the downloadable color PDF files of blood smear images. During the breaks, students are asked to estimate and then calculate the amount of blood in their body, identify cell types in a blood smear, and discuss the composition of blood with their neighbor. The lesson can be completed within a 50-minute class session.
In the routine clinical examination of sexual assault victims, apart from documenting physical evidence of abuse, securing evidence, typically DNA from blood, semen, or saliva, is an important part of the process. Often the presence of semen is considered a most interesting piece of evidence. Not only does it often contain enough DNA for DNA profiling, but it also strongly indicates that an actual sexual act has taken place. The examination of smear slides obtained in sexual assault cases is a time-consuming task especially for the less trained and in cases where the smear only contains few sperm cells. In this work the goal was to develop a procedure to rapidly visualize human sperm cells in smear slides with the use of bright-field microscopy. Using SPERM HY-LITER (TM) by Independent Forensics, human sperm cells are visualized using a fluorescently labeled mouse antibody which significantly decreases the time used to screen smears. By further using an EnVision+ (DAKO) protocol, it was possible to create an immunohistochemical staining method to visualize sperm cells in bright-field microscopy with the same level of certainty as when using SPERM HY-LITER (TM).
We study the Coulomb blockade in a grain coupled to a lead via a resonant impurity level. We show that the strong energy dependence of the transmission coefficient through the impurity level can have a dramatic effect on the quantization of the grain charge. In particular, if the resonance is sufficiently narrow, the Coulomb staircase shows very sharp steps even if the transmission through the impurity at the Fermi energy is perfect. This is in contrast to the naive expectation that perfect transmission should completely smear charging effects.
Gramespacher, T; Gramespacher, Thomas
This article describes a simple laboratory exercise for examining the effect of stress on the immune system in mice. Mice are subjected to confinement stress for 1 h, after which a sample of blood is collected via the caudal vein. Blood samples are smeared onto microscope slides, air dried, and stained with Wright's Giemsa stain. When differential white blood cell counts are performed, there are noticeable differences between the neutrophil and lymphocyte counts of stressed versus control mice. The protocol is simple enough for students to perform, and the entire experiment can be completed within 3 h. Examples of ways in which the basic protocol can be modified to accommodate a shorter laboratory class are provided. This hands-on laboratory experiment provides students with experience using the scientific method to investigate the interaction between the endocrine and immune systems in response to stress.
Jacqueline Brehe (Carroll College Biology); Amy L. Way (Lock Haven University of Pennsylvania Clearfield Campus)
Although immunostained cervical Pap smears are not yet FDA approved for clinical use, it is very likely that they will become widely employed in the near future to identify neoplastic squamous and iendocervical glandular cells when screening liquid-based cytological preparations (i.e., SurePath™ or ThinPrep™). The current problem with cytology complemented by high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is poor specificity. HPV testing provides superior sensitivity, but many women are infected with the virus, while very few have had persistent infections leading to carcinoma. Pathologists routinely use antibodies directed against the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16 (p16(INK4a)) or a combination of antibodies directed against topoisomerase-2-alpha and minichromosome maintenance protein-2 (as in ProEx™ C) to improve diagnostic precision and accuracy in cervical tissue biopsies. This chapter will describe the immunocytochemical methods used by our group to immunostain cervical Pap smears and provide significantly improved positive predictive value when screening for cervical cancer. PMID:25348308
Morgan, Terry K; Berlin, Michelle
A Cytospin slide centrifuge was used to concentrate 0.05- to 0.5-ml samples of cerebrospinal and other body fluids for Gram stain. Trials with cerebrospinal fluid containing known numbers of microorganisms indicated that the Cytospin increased the sensitivity of cerebrospinal fluid Gram stains by up to 2 logs compared with unconcentrated and conventional centrifuge smears. Cytospin-concentrated smears were prospectively compared with unconcentrated Gram-stained smears and bacteriological cult...
Shanholtzer, C. J.; Schaper, P. J.; Peterson, L. R.
In this study quantitative techniques have been applied to smears collected from the buccal mucosa and floor of the mouth. The results display an encouraging success rate for identifying premalignant and malignant lesions. 'Intrapatient' normal smears provide a satisfactory control for comparison with pathological smears. Early results indicate that quantitative cytology could be of great value for monitoring and follow-up of suspicious lesions and provide an excellent additional diagnostic t...
Cowpe, J. G.; Longmore, R. B.; Green, M. W.
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between atypical glandular cell (AGC) on Pap smear and significant pathologic finding to tailor management protocols. Methods: Between 2002 and 2005, Among 26893 Pap smears 122 women with AGC Pap smears (prevalence=0.45%) were referred to our colposcopy clinic. Forty one women underwent colposcopy directed biopsy, endocervical curettage, endometrial sampling and cervical conization to determine the cytologic and histologic corr...
Behtash N "; Fakhrejahani F; Khafaf A; Ghayouri Azar E
Despite a theoretical risk of transfer of bacilli from a positive to a negative smear, bulk staining is routinely performed in many laboratories. To assess this risk in our laboratory, two smears were made from each sputum specimen and stained with auramine: one smear was stained on a rack and the second using the bulk method. Smears were read blind using a fluorescence microscope. A total of 811 sputum specimens were analysed. No acid-fast bacilli transfer was observed even when staining sol...
Affolabi, D.; Odoun, M.; Sanoussi, C. N.; Tanimomo-kledjo, B.; Sai?zonou, D.; Soumai?la, K.; Kestens, L.; Anagonou, S. Y.; Portaels, F.
To discover the early subjective experience of women affected by abnormal Papanicolaou smear, a qualitative study was undertaken with 8 North Carolina women, 4 to 12 months postnotification of their first abnormal result. Data were analyzed via grounded theory methodology to identify a core theory that could guide interventions to improve follow-up for cancer prevention. This theoretical process is described as a labyrinth journey-an imperative healing process undertaken by all participants, who undertook the following tasks: evaluating peril, seeking refuge, obtaining information, and reframing their self-image. Women who also learned they were infected with the human papillomavirus faced a prolonged sense of threat to their sense of sexual well-being. Their additional tasks related to reevaluating their sexual self-image, and they continued to work on these reframing tasks throughout their 1st year's journey. Progress through the labyrinth depended upon emotional or spiritual support, nonjudgmental acceptance and access to accurate information. PMID:19349430
Mitchell, Susan; Hall, Vincent P
Interdisciplinary research on ecosystem-atmosphere relations has been an issue since many years in Estonia. Since 2008, these activities have been intensified and led to the build up of a SMEAR (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) type station in Estonia. It is part of the Estonian Environmental Observatory, a delocalized research infrastructure that is operated by several Estonian universities and research institutions. It's core is located in the experimental forestry district in Järvselja where a major portion of the ecosystem and atmospheric research activities take place. Here, we present an overview of the current state of research which especially takes care of the hemiboreal forest ecosystem. Continuous build up of comprehensive measurements at diverse sites has led to a network of stations over Estonia. It's location in the transition zone between boreal and temperate forest ecosystems allows for new and updated hypothesis regarding fluxes of energy and matter in a globally changing climate system.
Noe, Steffen M.; Niinemets, Ülo; Kangur, Ahto; Hõrrak, Urmas; Soosaar, Kaido; Mander, Ülo
Tuberculosis is a major health problem in many parts of the world. Delay in initiation of the treatment may result in prolonged infectious state, drug resistance, relapse and death. Objectives: To determine the factors responsible for not starting tuberculosis treatment among smear positive tuberculosis patients. Study type, settings and duration: This cross sectional study was done at Pakistan Medical Research Council TB Research Center, King Edward Medical University, Lahore, from fifth March 2010 to fifth December 2010. Patients and Methods: Fifty sputum smear positive patients of tuberculosis who did not register themselves in treatment register and presumably did not initiate anti tuberculosis treatment were contacted using telephone or traced by their home addresses. Once contact was established, they were inquired about the reasons for not starting tuberculosis treatment. Results: Of 50 patients 38(76%)belonged to the lower socio economic class and 12(24%) to the lower middle class. Fourteen patients (28%) were illiterate and 23(46%) had only 8 years of education. Of the 50 cases 41(82%) were taking treatment from traditional healers and 4% did not go back to the DOTS program. Physical condition of the patient, social, domestic and religious issues also played some role in default. Conclusions: Lack of health education and poverty were the main factors responsible for non compliance from treatment. Policy message: Sputum testing sites should have a paramedic whm testing sites should have a paramedic who should educate the patients about the benefits of treatment and the dangers of default or partial treatment. (author)
A one year (2009-10) prevalence study on hemoprotozoan diseases was conducted in crossbred and indigenous cattle, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Blood samples were collected randomly from 216 crossbred and 432 indigenous cattle of four representative areas in three consecutive seasons. Samples were examined by Giemsa's stained blood smear method. The effect of topography, season, age and sex was observed in cattle during this study. The overall prevalence of hemoprotozoan diseases was 16.18 and 12.02% in crossbred and indigenous cattle, respectively where babesiosis and anaplasmosis were predominant. Babesiosis was found to be consistent in all the four different areas but highest prevalence (9.25%)was found in hilly area. Hemoprotozoan diseases were predominant in summer season followed by rainy and winter seasons. Adult cattle were significantly (P
Alim, Md. Abdul; Das, Shubhagata
A five-year-old female dog was presented with a four-week history of inappetence, weight loss, and skin and gait abnormalities. Physical examination revealed weakness, depression, incoordination of the posterior limbs, emaciation, skin and hair coat alterations, peripheral lymphadenopathy, pale mucous membranes and fever. Laboratory analysis of samples revealed abnormalities which included anaemia, neutrophilic leucocytosis, thrombocytopenia, low serum glucose and albumin concentrations, and increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity. The diagnosis was confirmed microscopically, by demonstrating the presence of Hepatozoon canis gametocytes within neutrophils in Giemsa-stained peripheral blood smears. Treatment consisting of toltrazuril and a trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole combination was effective in relieving the clinical signs and clearing the blood of H. canis gametocytes. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first detailed clinical description of H. canis infection in a dog in Turkey. PMID:15600273
Voyvoda, H; Pasa, S; Uner, A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Anal smears are increasingly being used as a screening test for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs. This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness and limitations of anal smears in screening for ASILs. Methods The cytomorphological features of 200 consecutive anal smears collected in liquid medium from 198 patients were studied and findings were correlated with results of surgical biopsies and/or repeat smears that became available for 71 patients within six months. Results Adequate cellularity was defined as an average of 6 or more nucleated squamous cells/hpf. A glandular/transitional component was not required for adequacy. Dysplastic cells, atypical parakeratotic cells and bi/multinucleated cells were frequent findings in ASIL while koilocytes were infrequent. Smears from LSIL cases most frequently showed mildly dysplastic and bi/multinucleate squamous cells followed by parakeratotic cells (PK, atypical parakeratotic cells (APK, and koilocytes. HSIL smears contained squamous cells with features of moderate/severe dysplasia and many APKs. Features of LSIL were also found in most HSIL smears. Conclusions In this study liquid based anal smears had a high sensitivity (98% for detection of ASIL but a low specificity (50% for predicting the severity of the abnormality in subsequent biopsy. Patients with cytologic diagnoses of ASC-US and LSIL had a significant risk (46–56% of HSIL at biopsy. We suggest that all patients with a diagnosis of ASC-US and above be recommended for high resolution anoscopy with biopsy.
Background Cervical cancer, although usually preventable by Pap smear screening, remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru. The percentages and characteristics of women in Peru who have or have not had a Pap smear have not been defined.
Paz Soldan, Valerie A.; Lee, Frank H.; Carcamo, Cesar; Holmes, King K.; Garnett, Geoff P.; Garcia, Patricia
Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to review Papanicolaou (Pap smears in patients of Shohada hospital in Tehran.Materials and methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out and a database search of all Pap smear reports from 1995 to 2005 at cytopathology department was reviewed. The abnormal Pap smear reports based on the Bethesda System were assessed.Results: A total of 13315 Pap smear reports were reviewed from patients aging 20 to 79 years old. Totally 6065 (45.55% cases had diagnosis of ‘negative', 293(2.21% smears were labeled as ‘inadequate', and 6799 (51.06% reports had ‘Benign cellular changes'. There were 158(1.18% abnormal Pap smears consisting of 84 (53.18% SIL with undetermined grade (ASC-US, 28(17.73% low grade SIL (LSIL, 17(10.75% high grade SIL (HSIL, 27(17.08% carcinoma and 2(1.26% atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS. Overall incidence of the cervical cancer among these samples was 0.2%. Benign cellular changes numbered 6799(51.06%, of which 5365 (78.9% smears demonstrated infectious processes.Conclusion: The number of abnormal pap smears in this study is less than western countries, but is comparable with Middle East and Islamic regions. More prospective studies are recommended.
The study presents a comparative profile of AgNOR dot counting in different types of breast lesions in histopathological (HP) sections and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) smears. The breast lesions chosen were non-neoplastic lesion like fibroadenosis, benign neoplastic lesion like fibroadenoma and malignant neoplastic lesion like infiltrating duct carcinoma-grade 2. The AgNOR counts of non-neoplastic lesion were significantly less in number than the neoplastic lesions--both benign and malignant, in both the HP section and FNAC smear. But the counts did not show significant difference in the two neoplastic lesions eg, fibroadenoma and infiltrating duct carcinoma-grade 2, in both the HP section and FNAC smear. The appearance of the dots, as felt by the observers, were more discriminating between the three lesions, eg, uniform small compact centrally placed in fibroadenosis; mostly uniform small compact but occasional large irregular in fibroadenoma and large irregular marginally located in infiltrating duct carcinoma. Counting was easier and the appearance of the dots more easily discernible in FNAC smear than the HP section as the smear was monolayer and the malignant cells were easily detected from macrophages and stromal cells. But the tissue fluid or secretions or blood when present in the smear gave the smear a dirty background which was disturbing to the observers. Thus this AgNOR technique, when applied in HP section or FNAC smear, appears cost ineffective, lengthy and tedious procedure; did not offer absolute histochemical discriminant for malignancy from benignancy. But the shape and size distribution and appearance of the dots showing much variability in FNAC smear than the HP section, might be of some help in the diagnosis of malignancy and discriminating from benignancy. PMID:9492450
Basu, A; Sanyal, S; Bhattacharyya, A; Bhattacharyya, S; Dasgupta, S
To evaluate accuracy of intraoperative crush smears diagnosis of neurosurgical biopsies. One hundred, neurosurgical biopsies were received for intraoperative consultation over a period of one year. Clinical information regarding age, gender, history, and CT scan or MRI findings were recorded. Crush smears were prepared, fixed in 95% alcohol and stained with rapid haemotoxylin and eosin (H and E) stains. Diagnosis was categorized into inflammatory, benign and malignant tumours. Remaining tissue was fixed overnight in 10% formalin for histological sections. Permanent H and E sections were used as the gold standard. The average time required for intraoperative cytological diagnosis was 8 minutes. Out of 100 neurosurgical biopsies, crush smears of 94 were considered suitable for interpretation. There were 8 inflammatory, 41 benign and 41 malignant tumours, including 4 inconclusive. Eighty-four of the crush smears diagnosis agreed with the histological diagnosis. Overall diagnostic accuracy of crush smears was 93.3%. Diagnosis of inflammatory, benign and malignant tumours showed specificity of 98.7%, 96% and 94%, and a sensitivity of 70%, 97.5% and 95% respectively. Crush smears are useful in the intraoperative diagnosis of space occupying lesions of central nervous system. The crush smears cytology was found highly reliable, rapid and inexpensive mode of intraoperative diagnosis. (author)
Screening for the cancer of the cervix remains a neglected health care issue in Pakistan. To provide baseline data for future efforts to improve screening, we conducted a retrospective analysis of cervical smears taken in the obstetrics and gynaecological clinics of the Agha Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. We collected data on cervical smear cytology for cervical smears taken from January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1996. We assessed risk factors for dysplasia, including age, age at first marriage, and number of pregnancies. The overall prevalence of abnormal smears in our study was 0.5%. Of 20,995 cervical smears, showed non-specific inflammation, 7302 (34.8%) were reported as normal, 809 (3.85%) showed monillial infection, 148 (0.71%) showed atypia, 105 (0.5%) had dyplastic cytology and 52 (0.25%) samples were inadequate. The highest incidence of dysplastic smears was seen in the age group 35 to 44 years. Of 105 patients with dysplasia 12 were pregnant, and all were asymptomatic. The low prevalence of abnormal smears, compared with the data from Western populations, could be due to the internet bias of health awareness in the women who attended our hospital. The results of this study may serve as baseline for for future comparisons. A large community-based study may establish the exact prevalence of malignant and premalignant lesions so as to plan for future screening. (author)
In the recent literature it has been questioned whether the local backreaction of antibranes in flux throats can induce a perturbative brane-flux decay. Most evidence for this can be gathered for D6 branes and Dp branes smeared over 6-p compact directions, in line with the absence of finite temperature solutions for these cases. The solutions in the literature have flat worldvolume geometries and non-compact transversal spaces. In this paper we consider what happens when the worldvolume is AdS and the transversal space is compact. We show that in these circumstances brane polarisation smoothens out the flux singularity, which is an indication that brane-flux decay is prevented. This is consistent with the fact that the cosmological constant would be less negative after brane-flux decay. Our results extend recent results on AdS_7 solutions from D6 branes to AdS_(p+1) solutions from Dp branes. We show that supersymmetry of the AdS solutions depend on p non-trivially.
Gautason, Fridrik Freyr; Van Riet, Thomas
Phase transitions in disordered systems can be smeared if rare spatial regions develop true static order while the bulk system is in the disordered phase. Here, we study the effects of spatial disorder correlations on such smeared phase transitions. The behaviors of observables are determined within optimal fluctuation theory. We show that even short-range correlations can qualitatively modify smeared phase transitions. For positive correlations (like impurity atoms attract each other), the order parameter is enhanced, while it is suppressed for repulsive correlations (like atoms repel each other). We use computer simulations to generate various types of disorder correlations, and to verify our theoretical predictions.
Nozadze, David; Svoboda, Christopher; Hrahsheh, Fawaz; Vojta, Thomas
A retrospective study was conducted to examine the pattern of a disturbing increase in abnormal cervical smears in one health district. Past records over fifteen years (1965-79) were analysed to produce pick up rates according to age, screening state, severity of lesion, and area of residence. Main findings included an increased pick up rate in unscreened (5.8 to 12.9/1000 smears) and screened (0.9 to 3.6/1000 smears) women. The order of increase was proportionately much higher in women under...
Wolfendale, M. R.; King, S.; Usherwood, M. M.
The Pap smear has been in use for more than half a century as the primary screening test for preinvasive and invasive lesions of the uterine cervix. Although not the primary use and an imperfect test, it can be extremely useful in the diagnosis of some microorganisms. This review focuses on the use of the Pap smear in the diagnosis of several microorganisms including Actinomyces, Chlamydia trachomatis, Candida, Trichomonas vaginalis, Leptothrix vaginalis, Herpes Simplex Virus, the causative agents of bacterial vaginosis, and other rarer organisms. The accuracy of diagnosis using the smear varies among the different organisms in question. PMID:18162813
Fitzhugh, Valerie A; Heller, Debra S
During investigations into the prevalence of malarial parasites among lizards in the West Pokot District in Kenya, 179 lizards comprising eight species were caught. Examination of the Giemsa-stained smears made from their blood showed that 34 lizards were infected with Plasmodium species. Fifteen lizards were infected with a single species of Plasmodium and 19 carried multiple infections, the maximum, in four lizards, was four species. There were 19 combinations of parasite infections. Seventeen Plasmodium species were identified, the commonest being P. icipeensis. Only two of the eight lizard species were infected: the skink Mabuya striata and the agamid Agama agama. Eight of the Plasmodium species infected both; another eight species infected M. striata only but three of these have been described from different lizard families elsewhere in Africa. P. robinsoni infected A. agama only, although it was first described from another lizard family in another part of Africa. The epidemiological significance of these results is discussed. PMID:2332274
Mutinga, M J; Dipeolu, O O
Full Text Available In order to study the normal hematopoiesis, cellular components and myeloid/erythroid (M/E ratio in the bone marrow of the pheasant (Phasianus colchicus, bone marrow samples were collected from the proximal tibiotarsus bone of 16 clinically healthy adult pheasant. The bone marrow smears were stained using the Giemsa stain. The results indicated that the development and formation of blood cells in the bone marrow of pheasant were similar to other birds, whereas the morphology of the cells was similar to chickens, ducks, quail, and black-head gull. The mean M/E ratio was 1.24, the mean erythroid percentage was 42.24, the mean myeloid percentage was 52.62, and the mean percentage of all other cells percentage was 5.38. There was no significant difference in any of the cellular composition between male and female.
Full Text Available In order to study the normal haematopoiesis, cellular components and M/E ratio in the bone marrow of the partridge (Alectoris chukar, bone marrow samples were collected from the proximal tibiotarsus bone of 16 clinically healthy adult partridge (9 male and 7 female. The bone marrow smears were stained using the Giemsa stain. The results indicated that the development and formation of blood cells in the bone marrow of partridge were similar to other birds, whereas the morphology of the cells was similar to chickens, ducks, quail and black-head gull. The mean Myeloid/Erythroid (M/E ratio was 1.33, the mean erythroid percentage was 39.15%, the mean myeloid percentage was 52.34% and the mean percentage of all other cells percentage was 7.45 %. There was no significant difference in any of the cellular composition between male and female.
This study investigated infection by Ehrlichia spp. agents by PCR, immunofluorescence assay test (IFAT), and by Giemsa-stained blood smears in 108 dogs from a semiarid region of the state of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. Seventy-five (69.4%) of the 108 dogs were found to be seropositive to Ehrlichia canis, while only four dogs (3.7%) were positive in real-time PCR for E. canis. In six dogs (5.6%) E. canis-like morulae were observed in monocytes. Animals that stayed in environment whose floor was dried dirt, and dogs whose owners reported low frequency of cleaning the dog environment had higher (Pcanis. Increasing seropositivity was found in older dogs (P=0.012). This study provides the first molecular detection of E. canis in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil. PMID:23141416
Tanikawa, A; Labruna, M B; Costa, A; Aguiar, D M; Justiniano, S V; Mendes, R S; Melo, A L T; Alves, C J; Azevedo, S S
Full Text Available Objectives: Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease with a consequent increased risk of fracture, decreased quality of life and economic burdens for both the patients and health care system. While Dual energy X-Ray absorptiometry remains the gold standard for assessment of bone mineral density, it cannot be requested for all patients for obvious reasons. By determining other variables that may correlate with osteoporosis, we can identify individuals who may be at risk for osteoporosis earlier. Then, they can be treated at the earlier stages of the disease. In the present study, relationships between bone mineral density, maturity index in cervical smear, serum estradiol level and body mass index were examined. Materials & Methods: The present study performed on 128 women, who had been referred for bone mineral densitometry. Blood samples were obtained for determination of serum estradiol level. Cervical smear was taken for assessment of cell’s maturity. Cervical smears were examined by a pathologist and were sorted as atrophic or mature. Body mass index was calculated too. Relationships among Body mass index, serum estradiol level, and maturity index and bone mineral densitometry were analyzed using proper statistical tests. Results: Maturity index had significant relationship with T Score in the spine and femoral neck (P<0.001. Significant relationships were found between serum estradiol level and femoral neck T Score (P<0.004 and spine T Score (P<0.008. Also a significant relationship was found between body mass index and bone mineral density. Conclusion: Pap smear is a routine examination which is performed mainly for screening purposes in gynecology. It is non-invasive, simple and low-priced. Results of current study suggest that women with atrophic cervical smear should be examined more rigorously for osteoporosis. If any patient has atrophic maturity index in her cervical smear, she will be at much higher risk of osteoporosis.
Laboratory work aimed at improving the epidemiologic utility of an innovative genotoxicity marker is described. he exfoliated cell micronucleus assay involves microscope analysis of epithelial smears to determine the prevalence of micronucleation, an indicator of structural or nu...
We propose a new "locally smeared operator product expansion" (sOPE) to decompose non-local operators in terms of a basis of smeared operators. The sOPE formally connects nonperturbative matrix elements determined numerically using lattice field theory to matrix elements of non-local operators in the continuum. These nonperturbative matrix elements do not suffer from power-divergent mixing on the lattice, which significantly complicates calculations of quantities such as the moments of parton distribution functions, provided the smearing scale is kept fixed in the continuum limit. The presence of this smearing scale complicates the connection to the Wilson coefficients of the standard operator product expansion and requires the construction of a suitable formalism. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach with examples in real scalar field theory.
Background: Objectives of current study were (i) To find out the pattern of cervical smear in females having risk factors. (ii) To observe the relationship between abnormal cervical smear with high risk factors. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in the department of obstetrics and gynecology, Guwahati medical college and hospital from July 2009 to August 2010 with the help of Pathology department. 200 women attending gynecological OPD with associated risk facto...
Bhabani Pegu; Mukul Chandra Das; Javed Ali; Bhanu Pratap Singh Gaur
The microbial composition of smear-ripened cheeses is not very clear. A total of 194 bacterial isolates and 187 yeast isolates from the surfaces of four Irish farmhouse smear-ripened cheeses were identified at the midpoint of ripening using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), repetitive sequence-based PCR, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing for identifying and typing the bacteria and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (mtDNA R...
Mounier, Je?ro?me; Gelsomino, Roberto; Goerges, Stefanie; Vancanneyt, Marc; Vandemeulebroecke, Katrien; Hoste, Bart; Scherer, Siegfried; Swings, Jean; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Cogan, Timothy M.
Recently, we proposed a new method to extract the string tension from 4-dimensionally smeared Wilson loops. In this talk, we first show that the results obtained using this smearing method are identical to those obtained by Wilson flow, once the time step is sufficiently small. We then demonstrate the practical advantage of our method by applying it to the calculation of string tension in SU(3) Yang-Mills theory.
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between atypical glandular cell (AGC on Pap smear and significant pathologic finding to tailor management protocols. Methods: Between 2002 and 2005, Among 26893 Pap smears 122 women with AGC Pap smears (prevalence=0.45% were referred to our colposcopy clinic. Forty one women underwent colposcopy directed biopsy, endocervical curettage, endometrial sampling and cervical conization to determine the cytologic and histologic correlations of AGC on pap smears. Results: A total of 122 women with AGC Pap smear were found. Only 41 women accepted to participate in the study and followed the workup procedures. The mean age of the patients was 46.92 ±11.48 years (range, 23-80 years. Of these patients 13 patients (31.7% were post menopause and 28 patients (68.2% were in reproductive age. We found 13 (31.7% significant pathologic findings including 4 (9.7% high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HG-SIL, 3(7.3% low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LG-SIL, 2(4.8% Endometrial hyperplasia, 1(2.4% Endometrial adenocarci-noma, 1(2.4% adenocarcinoma of cervix, 1(2.4% squamous cell carcinoma of cervix and 1(2.4% papillary serous tumor of ovary. There was not any significant difference in the prevalence of significant pathologic findings and subtype of squamous or adenomatous lesions between pre and postmenopausal group. Conclusion: AGC on Pap smear was associated with a clinically significant diagnosis in approximately one third of our cases. The women with a diagnosis of AGC on cervicovaginal smear are needed to be evaluated at least with colposcopy, endocervical and endometrial curettage. Clinicians should be careful about the significance of AGC in pap smears.
Blood smear analysis has remained a crucial diagnostic tool for pathologists despite the advent of automatic analyzers such as flow cytometers and impedance counters. Though these current methods have proven to be indispensible tools for physicians and researchers alike, they provide limited information on the detailed morphology of individual cells, and merely alert the operator to manually examine a blood smear by raising flags when abnormalities are detected. We demonstrate an automatic interferometry-based smear analysis technique known as diffraction phase cytometry (DPC), which is capable of providing the same information on red blood cells as is provided by current clinical analyzers, while rendering additional, currently unavailable parameters on the 2-D and 3-D morphology of individual red blood cells. To validate the utility of our technique in a clinical setting, we present a comparison between tests generated from 32 patients by a state of the art clinical impedance counter and DPC.
Mir, Mustafa; Ding, Huafeng; Wang, Zhuo; Reedy, Jason; Tangella, Krishnarao; Popescu, Gabriel
Full Text Available Purpose: To examine the hypothesis that initial smear examination results have a significant bearing on the management and outcome of suspected microbial keratitis. Materials and Methods: One hundred and seventy consecutive patients with suspected microbial keratitis were included in a prospective nonrandomized comparative study and their detailed clinical and microbiological data (smears and cultures of corneal scrapings were captured on a predesigned corneal ulcer database. Patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 included 68 patients with corneal scrapings negative in smears while Group 2 included 102 patients with corneal scrapings positive in smears. The two groups were compared for their clinico-microbiological profile, management and clinical outcome. The outcome was noted at three months. Fisher?s exact test was applied for statistical analysis. Results: Cultures were sterile in 57.3% of patients in Group 1 compared to 17.6% in Group 2. Scrapings that grew S. pneumoniae , gram-negative organisms, fungi and Acanthamoeba were more often positive in smears (18.6%, 11.8%, 19.6% and 2.9% respectively. While data on duration of prior treatment was not available, prior medication made no significant difference to smear results. More (79.3% patients of Group 1 had small infiltrate size (< 25 mm[[2
To optimize Buruli ulcer (BU) microscopic diagnosis, we compared two smear preparation methods from tissue specimens: smears made with tissue suspension after grinding and smears made directly with unground tissue. We also compared two smear staining methods: auramine and Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN). IS 2404-PCR was used as reference method. One hundred and thirty-one surgical tissue specimens from patients suspected of having BU were analyzed. Both smear preparation methods and both staining methods ...
Affolabi, D.; Bankole?, H.; Ablordey, A.; Hounnouga, J.; Koutchakpo, P.; Sopoh, G.; Aguiar, J.; Dossou, A.; Johnson, R. C.; Anagonou, S.; Portaels, F.
Detección de mutaciones en los genes K-ras, H-ras y EGFR en muestras de plasma sanguíneo y cepillado cervical de pacientes con neoplasia intraepitelial cervical (NIC) III y cáncer de cuello uterino / Detection of genes mutations in the K-RAS, H-RAS and EGFR in samples of blood plasma and cervical smears for patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia III and cervical cancer
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: El cáncer cervical es el segundo cáncer más importante en mujeres a nivel mundial y la segunda causa de muerte en mujeres por cáncer. Se ha demostrado que el proceso de carcinogénesis cervical presenta componentes tanto genéticos, epigenéticos y medio ambientales. En la actualidad, muc [...] hos estudios se encaminan en la búsqueda de marcadores moleculares como mutaciones en oncogenes y/o genes tumor supresor que se asocien con la progresión de esta entidad. Los genes candidatos más estudiados en cáncer cervical en distintas poblaciones han sido H-ras, K-ras, EGFR entre otros. Objetivos: Se identificó el virus de papiloma humano (VPH) genérico y específico en el ADN libre de plasma y de cepillado cervical de pacientes con cáncer cervical invasivo y con neoplasia intraepitelial cervical (NIC) III además de evaluar alteraciones genéticas, como mutaciones en los genes H-ras, K-ras y EGFR. Metodología: Para ello se detectó el VPH genérico mediante PCR con los iniciadores GP5+/GP6+, y específico para VPH 16 y 18 en la región E6/E7. Para detectar las mutaciones en el codón 12 de H-ras, codones 12 y 13 de K-Ras y el exón 21 de EGFR se realizó mediante secuenciación directa de los productos de PCR de estos fragmentos génicos. Resultados: Obteniendo una buena correlación entre las muestras de plasma sanguíneo y los cepillados cervicales, tanto para los hallazgos de VPH p=0.0374 como para las mutaciones evaluadas p=0. En general, para EGFR en el exón 21 no se encontraron mutaciones, al igual que para los codones 12 y 13 en K-ras y codón 12 en H-ras. Conclusión: El uso del ADN presente en el plasma puede ser relevante para el análisis de mutaciones y de la presencia de marcadores tumorales cuando no se dispone de otras muestras. Abstract in english Introduction: Cervical cancer is the second most important cancer in women worldwide, and the second cause of cancer death in women. It has been shown that the process of cervical carcinogenesis presents as genetic and epigenetic components as environmental issues. At present, many studies are addre [...] ssed in searching for molecular markers such as mutations in oncogenes and/or tumor suppressor genes that are associated with the progression of this disease, the most studied candidate genes in cervical cancer in different populations have been H-ras, K-ras, EGFR among others. Objective: The present study identified human papilloma virus (HPV) generic and specific in DNA-free plasma and cervical smears of invasive cervical cancer patients and patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) III in addition to assessing genetic alterations, such as mutations in the genes H-ras, EGFR and K-ras. Methods: To do so generic HPV was detected by PCR with primers GP5+/GP6+, and specific HPV 16 and 18 in E6/E7 region; to detect mutations in codon 12 of H-ras, codons 12 and 13 of K-ras and EGFR exon 21 was conducted by direct sequencing of PCR products of these gene fragments. Results: Getting a good correlation between samples of blood plasma and cervical smears for both; the findings of HPV p=0.0374 and evaluated mutations p=0. In general, for EGFR in exon 21 mutations were not found, as for codons 12 and 13 in K-ras and codon 12 in H-ras. Conclusion: The use of DNA in plasma may be relevant to the analysis of mutations and the presences of tumor markers are not available from other samples.
Dabeiba Adriana, García; Yazmín Rocío, Arias; Fabio, Ancízar Aristizábal.
Objectives. To measure delays from onset of symptoms to initiation of treatment in patients with smear-negative and smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis and to identify reasons for these delays. Methods. A total of 136 newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Results. The patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 included 65 smear-negative patients. There were 71 smear-positive patients in group 2. The median application interval...
Gulbanu Horzum Ekinci; Esra Karakaya; Esra Akkutuk Ongel; Osman Haciomeroglu; Adnan Yilmaz
We study the effects of quenched extended impurities on nonequilibrium phase transitions in the directed percolation universality class. We show that these impurities have a dramatic effect: they completely destroy the sharp phase transition by smearing. This is caused by rare strongly coupled spatial regions which can undergo the phase transition independently from the bulk system. We use extremal statistics to determine the stationary state as well as the dynamics in the tail of the smeared transition, and we illustrate the results by computer simulations.
Thirty acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients with mycobacterial bacteremia documented by Du Pont Isolator (Du Pont Co., Wilmington, Del.) blood cultures underwent microscopic examination of buffy coat blood smears. Of 30 patients, 14 were culture positive for Mycobacterium avium-Mycobacterium intracellulare complex and 1 was positive for M. tuberculosis. Of 15 culture-positive patients, 13 had identifiable organisms on Kinyoun- or auramine-stained direct blood smears.
Eng, R. H.; Bishburg, E.; Smith, S. M.; Mangia, A.
Despite cervical cancer being one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru, cervical Pap smear coverage is low. This article uses findings from 185 direct clinician observations in four cities of Peru (representing the capital and each of the three main geographic regions of the country) to assess missed opportunities for…
Bayer, Angela M.; Nussbaum, Lauren; Cabrera, Lilia; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english As Head of Undergraduate Education in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at the University of Cape Town, South Africa, I have a particular interest in the competencies needed to perform primary care gynaecological procedures, one of which is the Pap smear. I was approached by a group of ke [...] en volunteer students to assist with Pap smear training to roll out a pilot screening programme at studentrun after-hours clinics in Cape Town and at volunteer rural health promotion clinics. This article describes a novel approach to teaching the Pap smear technique, using fruit and toilet rolls, which can easily be replicated in resource-constrained areas. Students branded the workshops as 'Papshops', and the name has stuck. Increasing numbers of students are now taught by peers already trained in prior Papshops, thereby expanding the teaching workforce. To date, during 2013 - 2014, Papshop students have performed almost 300 Pap smears for eligible women in under-resourced areas.
An indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) procedure was developed for the detection of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts in human, nonhuman primate, and bovine fecal smears. The procedure, which takes about 90 min to perform, involves the use of a rabbit antiserum against Cryptosporidium ...
Full Text Available Recently, it is hypothesized that there might be an association between immunological disorders and cervical premalignant and malignant abnormalities. Related studies have been generally focused on some particular autoimmune disease, specially the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE. This study aimed at comparing the rate of Pap smear abnormalities in female patients with autoimmune diseases and normal counterparts. In a case-control setting, 118 female patients with various autoimmune diseases (the case group and 118 healthy female counterparts (the control group were recruited in Tabriz Imam Reza Teaching Centre in a 24 months period of time. The two groups were matched for demographics and known risk factors of cervical malignancy. Frequencies of abnormal Pap smear testing were compared between the two groups. The autoimmune disorders were SLE (74 patients, rheumatoid arthritis or RA (32 patients, systemic sclerosis or SS (7 patients and ankylosing spondylitis or AS (5 patients in the case group. Frequency of abnormal Pap smear testing was significantly higher in the case group comparing with that in the controls (7.6% vs. 1.7%; p = 0.03. Frequency of abnormal Pap smear testing was higher in the patients with SLE (8.1% and RA (9.3% comparing with that in the controls; However, these differences were marginally nonsignificant (p = 0.06 and p = 0.07, respectively. Frequency of cases with abnormal Pap smear testing was not statistically different between the autoimmune disorders (p = 0.99. Based on these findings and in conclusion, there might be an association between the autoimmune disorders and occurrence of premalignant or malignant lesions in cervix. Further studies with larger samples sizes are recommended.
Receipt of an abnormal cervical smear result often generates fear and confusion and can have a negative impact on a woman's well-being. Most previous studies have focussed on high-grade abnormal smears. This study describes the psychological and psychosocial effects, on women, of having received a low-grade abnormal smear result. Over 3500 women recruited to TOMBOLA (Trial Of Management of Borderline and Other Low-grade Abnormal smears) participated in this study. Anxiety was assessed using t...
Gray, N. M.; Sharp, L.; Cotton, S. C.; Masson, L. F.; Little, J.; Walker, L. G.; Avis, M.; Philips, Z.; Russell, I.; Whynes, D.; Cruickshank, M.; Woolley, C. M.
Tissue smears were prepared from 55 men and eight women with genital ulceration using two staining techniques and examined by direct microscopy for the presence of Donovan bodies. Twenty three smears were positive using the May-Grunwald-Giemsa staining method and 23 were positive using a rapid technique, the RapiDiff stain. The RapiDiff technique is suitable for use in the diagnosis of granuloma inguinale (donovanosis) in busy sexually transmitted diseases clinics in the developing world.
Sehgal, V. N.
Full Text Available Introduction: In the patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB bacteriologic assessment of sputum for detection of acid bacilli (AFB Has essential role. This evaluation is accomplished by direct sputum smear & sputum culture. These examinations must be done in regular and preferably monthly after beginning of treatment. These tests have two important aims, including, determining of treatment efficacy & duration of isolation."nMethods and Materials: Most of the studies have that classic six month regimen led to sputum smear conversion & negative sputum culture in 85% of patient. This treatment regimen has two phases, including, attack phase and maintenance phase. In the attack phase we use four drugs, including, Isoniazid (INH, Rifampin (RMP, Pyrazinamide (PZA and Ethambutol (EMB for the first 2 months and if necessary until the end of third month. In the maintenance phase we use INH and Rif for the remaining of treatment course. The main objectives of this study were to determine the time needed for smear conversion and assessment of probable factors which may influence the smear conversion until 4 months after beginning of therapy. The factors that were assessed, were, Age, nationality, sex, clinical symptoms, underlying diseases, chest radiography (number of cavities, smoking, drug abuse and concentration of AF13 in the sputum Generally, we did this cross sectional study on the patient's records, who had been observed in Imam Khomeni Hospital, west health service center and masih daneshvary hospital between."nResults: This study showed that from totally 218 patients, 138(74.6% patients had sputum conversion at the first 2 months of treatment and until the end of 3rd & 4th month this rate reached to 83.3% respectively. So in the end of fourth month only 32(14.7% patients did not show sputum smear conversion. On the other hand this study showed that two factors including presence of cavities in chest radiography & concentration of AFB in the sputum are influencing this rate strongly."nConclusion: Role of other factors such as age, nationality , Smoking, diabetes mellitus and weigh loss are controversial and another studies are necessary for confirming their roles. Other factors including sex, clinical symptoms has not been show to be important. Some factors such as drug abuse and immunosuppresive therapy has not been assessed in this study, because number of cases were not enough for statistical analysis.
Soudbakhsh A R
Full Text Available The aim of the study was the monitoring of six biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, tryptamine, putrescine, and cadaverine and two polyamines (spermidine and spermine in 30 samples of dairy products purchased in the Czech Republic, namely in 15 samples of mould-ripened cheeses and in 15 samples of smear-ripened cheeses. A further goal was the microbiological analysis of the individual samples of cheeses (total count of microorganisms, number of enterobacteria, enterococci, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and moulds. The monitored biogenic amines were analyzed by a high performance liquid chromatography equipped with a UV/VIS DAD detector. The amount of enterobacteria in fresh cheese exceeded 105 CFU.g?1. In smear-ripened cheese flavourless (Romadur type, the amount was >103 CFU.g-1 and 104-105 CFU.g-1 in smear-ripened cheese with flavour. Biogenic amines were observed in two groups of blue cheeses (white veined cheese and blue veined cheese and smear-ripened cheeses. In both groups, there is a possibility of the presence of biogenic amines because the number of microorganisms and concentration of free amino acids increase during ripening. In ten samples of soft smear-ripening acid cheese and in smear-ripened cheese, the total content of biogenic amines were 22-1000 mg.kg-1 and in 5 samples of these cheeses, it was in range 1000-6000 mg.kg-1. The total amount of biogenic amines in the blue cheeses were in range 40-600 mg.kg-1. The presense of the tyramine was observed in the all analysed cheeses. The tyramine producing strains generated more than 900 mg.kg-1 of this biogenic amine. The production of tryptamine in the analysed cheeses was not proved by this study. The results of this study show that biogenic amines and polyamines are common in cheese. However, in some cases, they can pose a significant health danger for consumers. Any legislative control authority does not monitor them, as they are secondary metabolites even though they are potential health risks.
To assess and identify the causes and circumstances leading to delays in health seeking and diagnosis of tuberculosis patients as they often present with advance disease resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Settings Department of Tuberculosis, DOTS clinic DHQ Hospital, Vehari. Methodology One (author) inspiration diagnosed smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients were included. Information was gathered through interviews and from TB-01 card. Results Maximum patients were in age group of 16-40 years. Median patient delay was 4-6 months; jobless, homeless personnel had longer delay. The main reason for delay was that the symptoms were not considered serious enough. Delay in presentation of smear positive cases may be due to the lack of awareness of patients and the incompetence of some health workers. Training and supervision of staff and awareness campaigns targeted at the population and involvement of private sector will improve TB control in Vehari. (author)
Enterobius vermicularis also known commonly as pinworm is the most common intestinal parasite. It is a nematode that inhabits the human terminal ileum, colon and appendix. The fertilized female migrates to the perianal area where eggs are deposited but occasionally introduces itself into adjacent orifices, most commonly the female genitourinary tract. Thus the eggs can be seen in the vaginal smear as a result of contamination. We report a case wherein the patient presented with signs and symptoms of vulvovaginitis. In her vaginal smear there were eggs of Enterobius vermicularis which showed a coiled larva within it. In the background there were plenty of acute inflammatory cells. This patient responded favorably to antihelminthics. We report this case to highlight the morphology of the parasite and also to emphasize that such findings should not be neglected. Timely reporting and appropriate treatment of such cases will prevent further complications of this parasite including endometritis, salphingitis and peritonitis. PMID:22438633
Shetty, Jyothi B; Kulkarni, Dhanashri V; Prabhu, Vl
The temporal smearing of impulsive radio events at cosmological redshifts probes the properties of the ionized intergalactic medium (IGM). We relate the degree of temporal smearing and the profile of a scattered source to the evolution of a turbulent structure in the IGM as a function of redshift. We estimate the degree of scattering expected by analyzing the contributions to the scattering measure of the various components of baryonic matter embedded in the IGM, including the diffuse IGM, intervening galaxies, and intracluster gas. These estimates predict that the amount of temporal smearing expected at 300 MHz is typically as low as ?1 ms and suggests that these bursts may be detectable with low-frequency widefield arrays. A generalization of the dispersion-measure-scattering-measure relation observed for Galactic scattering to the densities and turbulent conditions relevant to the IGM suggests that scattering measures on the order of 10–6 kpc m–20/3 would be expected at z ? 1. This scattering is sufficiently low enough that its effects would not, for most lines of sight, be manifested in existing observations of the scatter broadening in images of extragalactic compact sources. The redshift dependence on the temporal smearing discriminates between scattering that occurs in the host galaxy of the burst and the IGM, with ?host?(1 + z)–3 if the scattering probes length scales below the inner scale of the turbulence or ?host?(1 + z)–17/5 if the turbulence follows a Kolmogorov spectrum. This differs strongly from the expected IGM scaling ?IGM ? z 2 for z ?0.2–0.5 for z ?> 1
An indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) procedure was developed for the detection of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts in human, nonhuman primate, and bovine fecal smears. The procedure, which takes about 90 min to perform, involves the use of a rabbit antiserum against Cryptosporidium oocysts isolated from dairy cattle. Cross-specificity testing of the IFA method revealed no reactivity with yeasts, various amoebae, Giardia lamblia, Chilomastix sp., or Blastocystis sp. and only very weak cross-react...
Stibbs, H. H.; Ongerth, J. E.
Recently, it is hypothesized that there might be an association between immunological disorders and cervical premalignant and malignant abnormalities. Related studies have been generally focused on some particular autoimmune disease, specially the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). This study aimed at comparing the rate of Pap smear abnormalities in female patients with autoimmune diseases and normal counterparts. In a case-control setting, 118 female patients with various autoimmune disease...
Kazem Ghahremanzadeh; Heidarali Esmaeili
The purpose of this study was to better understand the contribution of speech temporal envelope cues to consonant recognition in noise (-8, 0, 8, 16, 24, and quiet dB SNR). Four tasks were performed for hearing-impaired listeners: Speech-in-Noise test for the measure of sentence repeat ability in noise, gap and intensity detection for the measure of ability to detect changes in sound over time, and consonant identification for confusion matrices. For consonant identification, the temporal envelope of 16 consonants with a vowel /a/ (CV) was extracted from each of 26 critical bands. Each processed CV was temporally smeared by low-pass filtering (4, 8, and 16 Hz). The results show that the mean Pc increases gradually as SNR increases SNR 16 dB for no-smearing and 8-Hz smearing conditions. Consonant confusions result from certain sets of consonants, but the degree of confusion is a function of SNR. The results also show that measures of Speech-in-Noise and gap detection are more related to pure-tone threshold, while intensity detection is less related to pure-tone threshold. However, the effect of interstimulus interval is consistent regardless of degree and configuration of hearing loss.
Yoon, Yang-Soo; Gooler, David; Allen, Jont
The aim was to assess the presence of smear layer after canal instrumentation with two reciprocating rotary systems and a continuous motion one. Thirty canals were shaped with Reciproc, WaveOne or Mtwo systems. Smear layer was assessed following a three value scale at coronal, middle and apical levels with a scanning electron microscopy. Reciproc scores: coronal third, 20% of the cases: 0, 60%: 1, 20%: 2; middle third, 10%: 0, 20%: 1, 70%:2; apical third: 2 in all cases. WaveOne scores: coronal third, 0 (40%), 1 (30%) and 2 (30%); middle third, 0 (20%), 1 (50%), 2 (30%); apical third, 0 (20%), 2 (80%) of cases. MTwo scores: coronal third 0 (50%), 1 (30%) 2 (20%); middle third 0 (20%), 1 (50%), 2 (30%); apical third, 0 (10%), 1 (10%), 2 (80%). No significant differences (p>0.05) were found between the three used systems. Key words:Endodontics, reciprocating motion files, rotary file, SEM, smear layer. PMID:24455087
Amaral, Paula; Forner, Leopoldo; Llena, Carmen
Assessment of 12 microscopy centers in a tuberculosis unit by blinded checking of eight sputum smears selected by using a lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) method and by unblinded checking of all positive and five negative slides, among the slides examined in a month in a microscopy centre, revealed that the LQAS method can be implemented in the field to monitor the performance of acid-fast bacillus microscopy centers in national tuberculosis control programs.
Selvakumar, N.; Murthy, B. N.; Prabhakaran, E.; Sivagamasundari, S.; Vasanthan, Samuel; Perumal, M.; Govindaraju, R.; Chauhan, L. S.; Wares, Fraser; Santha, T.; Narayanan, P. R.
Assessment of 12 microscopy centers in a tuberculosis unit by blinded checking of eight sputum smears selected by using a lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) method and by unblinded checking of all positive and five negative slides, among the slides examined in a month in a microscopy centre, revealed that the LQAS method can be implemented in the field to monitor the performance of acid-fast bacillus microscopy centers in national tuberculosis control programs. PMID:15695704
Selvakumar, N; Murthy, B N; Prabhakaran, E; Sivagamasundari, S; Vasanthan, Samuel; Perumal, M; Govindaraju, R; Chauhan, L S; Wares, Fraser; Santha, T; Narayanan, P R
Blood smears were procured from 1,011 geese and ducks of 19 species from various locations in California. Parasites were found in 28 individuals. The parasites observed included Haemoproteus hermani, Leucocytozoon simondi, microfilaria, Plasmodium relictum (=P. biziurae), and Plasmodium sp. with elongate gametocytes. This is the first report of a natural infection with a Plasmodium in North American wild ducks.
A 20 year old male patient from Afghanistan with a history of G6PD deficiency and clinical manifestations of malaria referred to Bou-Ali Hospital in Tehran, capital of Iran. Giemsa stained thick blood films revealed an infection of Plasmodium falciparum with 33700 parasite/?L of blood. The patient was successfully treated according to malaria treatment guideline.
Fagani, Y.; Mohammadiha, A.; Yousefi, M.; Miahipour, A.; Nateghpour, M.
In 1998, the AutoPap 300 received FDA approval for primary screening of conventional cervical smears. As approved, smears categorized as "no further review" and comprising up to 25% of the smears screened by the AutoPap 300 can be reported as negative for malignant and dysplastic cells without screening by a cytotechnologist. We studied 106 conventional cervical smears in which glandular endometrial cells had been identified by manual screening to assess the ability of the AutoPap System (TriPath Imaging, Inc., Burlington, NC) to (1) designate conventional Papanicolaou smears that contain endometrial cells for "review," and (2) stratify smears that contain endometrial cells as more or less likely to be abnormal. Although the number of cases in our study was small, our findings indicate that (1) the AutoPap System is slightly less sensitive than manual screening by experienced cytotechnologists for the detection of endometrial cells in conventional smears, as the System designated for "review" 94.3% of all smears containing endometrial cells, 92.9% of smears reported as atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS) or endometrial adenocarcinoma, and 100% of the four smears with subsequently confirmed endometrial adenocarcinomas, (2) ranking of smears into quintiles by the AutoPap System did not provide additional diagnostically useful information with respect to endometrial pathology, (3) the number of endometrial cells in the smears did not correlate with quintile assignment, and (4) for most patients, routine use of the AutoPap System for primary screening of conventional cervical smears is unlikely to contribute to delay in the diagnosis of clinically significant endometrial lesions. PMID:12357502
Walts, Ann E; Thomas, Premi
In cosmic inflation driven by a scalar gauge singlet field with a tree level Higgs potential, the scalar to tensor ratio r is estimated to be larger than 0.036, provided the scalar spectral index n_s >= 0.96. We discuss quantum smearing of these predictions arising from the inflaton couplings to other particles such as GUT scalars, and show that these corrections can significantly decrease r. However, for n_s >= 0.96, we obtain r >= 0.02 which can be tested by the Planck satellite.
Rehman, Mansoor Ur
Dermatology residents often are on the front line when it comes to treating patients with complicated skin disorders, frequently seeing these cases first before discussing their findings and plan with an attending physician. Bedside testing modalities can help facilitate arriving at a diagnosis quickly, allowing for rapid initiation of treatment. The potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparation, Tzanck smear, mineral oil preparation, and Gram stain are easy to perform quickly and provide valuable diagnostic information. The purpose of this article is to consolidate these frequently used tests into a useful reference for the training and practicing dermatologist. PMID:25566582
This case study provides data and a baseline for comparing classification methods. The data consists of 917 images of Pap-smear cells, classified carefully by cyto-technicians and doctors. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and the cells fall into 7 classes. A basic data analysis includes scatter plots and linear classification results, in order to provide domain knowledge and lower bounds on the acceptable performance of future classifiers. Students and researchers can access the database on the Internet, and use it to test and compare their own classification methods.
Jantzen, Jan; Norup, Jonas
We study the Coulomb blockade in a grain coupled to a lead via a resonant impurity level. We show that the strong energy dependence of the transmission coefficient through the impurity level can have a dramatic effect on the quantization of the grain charge. In particular, if the resonance is sufficiently narrow, the Coulomb staircase shows very sharp steps even if the transmission through the impurity at the Fermi energy is perfect. This is in contrast to the naive expectation that perfect transmission should completely smear charging effects. PMID:11082601
The nonlinear dynamics of surface wave propagation in cooled plasmas with smeared interface is discussed. The strong parametric instability with excitation of a short-wave spectrum of the Langmuir vibrations is shown to evolve in the inhomogeneous region near the plasma resonance. At the nonlinear stage of the process the short-wave spectrum exchanges energy with the surface wave. The small quasi-stationary perturbations of electrons density and plasma ions with broken quasi-neutrality condition arise in vicinity of the plasma resonance. 10 refs
Full Text Available Bartonella spp are the causative agent of cat scratch disease in humans. Cats are the natural reservoir of these bacteria and may infect humans through scratches, bites or fleas. Blood samples from 47 cats aged up to 12 months were collected for this study. All animals were lodged in municipal animal shelters in the Vale do Sinos region, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Bartonella spp were detected by genus-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR and when the PCR was positive, the species were determined by DNA sequencing. A Giemsa-stained blood smear was also examined for the presence of intraerythrocytic elements suggestive of Bartonella spp infection. Phylogenetic analysis was also performed for all positive samples. Using molecular detection methods, Bartonella spp were detected in 17.02% (8/47 of the samples. In seven out of eight samples confirmed to be positive for Bartonella spp, blood smear examination revealed the presence of intraerythrocytic elements suggestive of Bartonella spp. Phylogenetic analysis characterized positive samples as Bartonella henselae (5 or Bartonella clarridgeiae (3. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first molecular study demonstrating the presence of Bartonella spp in cats from the Southern Region of Brazil.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Bartonella spp are the causative agent of cat scratch disease in humans. Cats are the natural reservoir of these bacteria and may infect humans through scratches, bites or fleas. Blood samples from 47 cats aged up to 12 months were collected for this study. All animals were lodged in municipal anima [...] l shelters in the Vale do Sinos region, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Bartonella spp were detected by genus-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and when the PCR was positive, the species were determined by DNA sequencing. A Giemsa-stained blood smear was also examined for the presence of intraerythrocytic elements suggestive of Bartonella spp infection. Phylogenetic analysis was also performed for all positive samples. Using molecular detection methods, Bartonella spp were detected in 17.02% (8/47) of the samples. In seven out of eight samples confirmed to be positive for Bartonella spp, blood smear examination revealed the presence of intraerythrocytic elements suggestive of Bartonella spp. Phylogenetic analysis characterized positive samples as Bartonella henselae (5) or Bartonella clarridgeiae (3). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first molecular study demonstrating the presence of Bartonella spp in cats from the Southern Region of Brazil.
Rodrigo, Staggemeier; Carolina Augusto, Venker; Deisy Heck, Klein; Mariana, Petry; Fernando Rosado, Spilki; Vlademir Vicente, Cantarelli.
The aim of the present study was to assess the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the Pap smear in the diagnosis of squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Pap smear of 15,345 women in 2 years were screened for early detection of abnormal cervix. In 299 cases (1.9%) were diagnosed as low-grade SIL (LSIL), high-grade SIL (HSIL) and SCC by the Bethesda system (TBS) 2001. Only 195 cases (1.3%) had definitive histologic diagnosis as negative, human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1, CIN 2, CIN 3 and SCC. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in LSIL was 86.5%, 70% and 71.3%, respectively. For HSIL it was 80.8%, 89.7% and 86.2%, respectively. For SCC it was 100%, 96.9% and 96.9%, respectively. Our data had high diagnostic performance for HSIL and SCC group and moderate diagnostic performance for LSIL group. PMID:23964448
Kanjanavirojkul, Nipa; Muanglek, Rotchana; Yanagihara, Lakkakul
Many reports have been published on the accuracy of the cervical vaginal smear for squamous lesions, and the literature contains fewer reports on the accuracy of the cervical vaginal smear for glandular lesions. The sensitivity of glandular lesion diagnosis depends on the subtype of lesion. The diagnostic sensitivity is highest for invasive endocervical adenocarcinoma and lowest for endometrial adenocarcinoma. The ability of some of the Bethesda system categories for glandular lesions to describe what they purport to describe is questionable. The Bethesda system categories of adenocarcinoma accurately classify adenocarcinomas. The Bethesda System category of atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS) is a misnomer. Although many cases of adenocarcinoma in-situ are placed in this category, follow-up of patients with AGUS show that the majority of patients with clinically significant lesions have squamous dysplasias. Other categories of AGUS, such as AGUS favor endometrial origin, are more appropriately named and encompass endometrial lesions which are either neoplastic or non-neoplastic. PMID:10888760
Raab, S S
Background: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is a parasitic skin disease. Diagnosis primarily is based on clinical signs and microscopic observation of parasite on direct stained smears or tissue sections. Sensitivity of direct smear is not as high as molecular methods. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize Leishmania species among the negative direct smears obtained from skin ulcers suspected to CL by PCR method.Methods: Among 81 patients with suspicious skin lesions to CL ref...
Ma, Mohaghegh; Fata, A.; Gh, Salehi; Berenji, F.; Mousavi Bazzaz, M.; Rafatpanah, H.; Parian, M.; Movahedi, A.
Introduction A smear layer forms on the root canal walls as the consequence of root instrumentation. The smear layer formed in such a way considerably influences the quality of root obturation and endodontic treatment outcome. Objective The aim of this study was to ultrastructurally analyze the surface of intracanal dentine after removal of the smear layer by the solution of doxycycline, citric acid and detergent Tween-80 (MTAD). Methods The study involved 60 single-rooted, extracted, human t...
Miti? Aleksandar; Miti? Nadica; Živkovi? Slavoljub; Toši? Goran; Savi? Vojin; Da?i? Stefan; Stojanovi? Miodrag
SETTING: National Reference Laboratory, Benin. OBJECTIVES: To compare the performance of Fraen FluoLED and LW Lumin light-emitting diode (LED) fluorescence microscopy modules. DESIGN: Acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smears, routinely examined with a classical fluorescence microscope, were blindly re-read with both LED systems at 200x magnification. Smears with discordant results were rechecked on all systems at 200x, and 100 randomly chosen smears were read again at 400x. Confirmed presence of AFB wi...
Affolabi, D.; Torrea, G.; Odoun, M.; Senou, N.; Ligali, M. A.; Anagonou, S.; Deun, A.
To study the expansion potentiality of megakaryocyte progenitor cells (MPCs) derived from human umbilical cord blood CD133(+) (UCB-CD133(+)) cells and determine the optimal harvest time. UCB-CD133(+) cells were purified from mononuclear cells (MNCs) by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) and seeded in serum-free liquid culture medium supplemented with thrombopoietin (TPO), interleukin-3 (IL-3), and stem cell factor (SCF) to expand MPCs. At day 0, 6, 10 and 14 of culture, the total cell number was counted and the dynamic changes of CD133, CD34, and CD41 antigen expression during ex vivo expansion were analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM). At different expansion times, the CD133(+) cells were collected and cultured in collagen semisolid medium to carry out CFU-MK colony culture. The incidence of CFU-MK was calculated and the morphology of MPCs and CFU-MK were detected by immunohistochemistry and Wright-Giemsa staining. The results showed that UCB-CD133(+) cells optimally expanded at day 7 with expansion multiple of 8.2 +/- 2.2 in serum-free liquid culture systems and the total cell number was expanded by 116-fold at day 14. At 10 days, each UCB-CD133(+) cell can form 2.5 +/- 1.0, 2.6 +/- 0.5 and 20.3 +/- 5.9 cells of CD133(+)CD41(+), CD34(+)CD41(+) and CD41(+) respectively, from which the number of CD133(+)CD41(+) and CD34(+)CD41(+) cells reach the highest. UCB-CD133(+) cells both before and after expansion could form CFU-MK, the total number of CFU-MK reached the peak from cells of 10 days expansion of UCB-CD133(+) cells and the expansion multiple of CFU-MK was 59.5 +/- 11.8. Immunohistochemical results indicated that the expanded megakaryocytic cells were immature and no sign of platelet formation. It is concluded that the human UCB-CD133(+) cells have a high ability of MPC expansion, 10 days of culture can be result in optimal expansion effect. PMID:18549646
Wang, Li; Chen, Dai-Xiong; Fang, Ning; Liu, Zu-Lin; Zhang, Tao; Wan, Wei-Hong; Qi, Ying; Liu, Jin-Wei
Full Text Available Abstract Identification of Mycobacterium leprae, which causes leprosy, is done by Ziehl Neelsen Carbol Fuchsin (ZNCF stained slit skin smear microscopy that aids in the diagnosis and quantification of approximate bacterial load carried by the patient. We attempted M. leprae DNA extraction from 46 stained slit skin smear negative slides, using Proteinase K and SDS lysis, followed by ethanol precipitation. M. leprae specific primers (16SrRNA were used for PCR-based amplification of DNA. We could detect M. leprae DNA in 15 (32.6% samples. The method can be useful in the diagnosis of apparently slit skin smear negative leprosy cases.
Assessment of peripheral blood counts and blood film analysis are frequently performed as diagnostic procedures in emergency medicine. Far fewer situations exist, however, in which these analyses are the main clue in establishing an emergency diagnosis. Artifacts can lead to wrong diagnosis, e.g. pseudo-thrombocytopenia, which is defined as a low platelet count resulting from a laboratory artifact. Severe neutropenia (agranulocytosis) and extreme hyperleukocytosis, as well as suspicion of acute leukemia, require a rapid diagnostic work-up. A newly detected anemia should not necessarily be treated by packed red cell transfusions. The decision whether an anemic patient ought to receive transfusions should be based on the speed with which the anemia has developed, as well as on clinical judgement. As a rule a chronic anemia patient with hemoglobin above 70 g/l does not need transfusions. An uncritical transfusion policy can even cause emergencies, e.g. in patients with megaloblastic anemia or in anemic multiple myeloma patients with a hyperviscosity syndrome. An elevated hematocrit requires prompt further investigations. This is of utmost importance if one considers the diagnosis of polycythemia vera rubra, a disease in which patients are particularly prone to thrombotic complications. Fragmented red cells (schistocytes) on peripheral blood smears constitute a cardinal diagnostic clue for the detection of microangiopathic hemolytic anemias (MAHA), in particular for the diagnosis of the life-threatening thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Malaria is another example for a chief role of blood smears examination in achieving a rapid diagnosis. If one encounters an unexpected severe thrombocytopenia, a marrow examination reveals whether it is due to rapid peripheral destruction, or due to a marrow failure. Furthermore, in any patients with an unanticipated thrombocytopenia, a disseminated intravascular coagulation and a MAHA should be ruled out. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is a rare, but possibly fatal complication of therapy with heparins. PMID:8488374
Full Text Available Background: Cervical acid phosphatase-Papanicolaou (CAP-PAP test has recently been described for detection of acid phosphatase enzyme in abnormal squamous cells, and has been proposed as a biomarker-based technology for the screening of cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: Eighty-one consecutive cervical smears were subjected to routine Papanicolaou (Pap staining as well as CAP-PAP, which combined cytochemical staining for acid phosphatase with modified Pap stain. Statistical evaluation of its utility was examined. Results: Of 81 smears, 16 (19.75% showed the presence of mature squamous cells with acid phosphatase by CAP-PAP technique and were considered positive. Of these 16, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS or above were initially diagnosed in five of the corresponding routine Pap smears. After re-evaluation with CAP-PAP, eight of the routine Pap smears were considered to have ASCUS or above. Of these eight, three were reported as low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and five as ASCUS on conventional Pap smears. The remaining 8/16 CAP-PAP-positive cases were negative for atypical squamous cells on the corresponding Pap smears. None of the CAP-PAP-negative smears were positive on routine Pap smear screening. Conclusions: This study highlights the efficacy of CAP-PAP in quality assurance of cervical smear screening. It is also an inexpensive method for segregating smears for subsequent re-screening. In the absence of trained cytologists in peripheral laboratories, this technique can be adopted for identifying smears that would require proper evaluation.
Abstract Background Plasmodium ovale infection is rarely reported in Malaysia. This is the first imported case of P. ovale infection in Malaysia which was initially misdiagnosed as Plasmodium vivax. Methods Peripheral blood sample was first examined by Giemsa-stained microscopy examination and further confirmed using a patented in-house multiplex PCR followed by sequencing. Results and Discussion Initial results from peri...
Thiruventhiran, T.; Chew Ching; Mahmud Rohela; Al, Lim Yvonne; Chua Kek
BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) rarely receives as much publicity as its neighbouring orifice, the cervix. As in the cervix, intraepithelial neoplasias are precursors to cancer in the anal canal. AIN and cervical interstitial neoplasia (CIN) undergo dysplasia as a consequence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Since the advent of screening with the Pap smear in CIN, cervical cancer has plummeted to a fifth of its initial incidence. Anal cancer, however, has been rising, with a predilection for human immunodeficiency virus-infected men. HPV causes a squamous epithelial dysplasia and converts healthy tissue into AINs of increasing severity until anal cancer manifests. CLINICAL CASE: This article describes a clinical case of anogenital HPV infection refractory to medical and surgical therapy. It also describes an effective surgical excision technique associated with a good cosmetic outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The paper concludes by briefly discussing the implications of a national screening programme against AIN in the future.
Oon, S F
Tuberculosis (TB) is a common infection in the developing countries. It can involve most organs. Genital TB is usually secondary to pulmonary or extragenital TB. Tuberculosis most commonly involves the upper genital tract. Involvement of the cervix is rare. In countries like India, where carcinoma of cervix is very common, cervical TB may easily be mistaken clinically for malignancy. We report a case of tuberculosis cervicits (secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis) in a 54-year-old postmenauposal woman, who presented with a complaint of discharge per vaginum for a short duration. Per speculum examination showed an ulcerated lesion over anterior lip of cervix, clinically suggestive of malignancy. However, a Papanicolaou-smear showed features suggestive of tuberculosis which was confirmed by biopsy, resulting in early diagnosis and treatment of the patient. Hence, in a patient with a suspicious cervical lesion and a prior history of tuberculosis, a diagnosis of cervical tuberculoiss must be considered. PMID:22634489
Jaiprakash, Padmapriya; Pai, Kanthilatha; Rao, Lakshmi
Radiation has been used as a form of therapy alone or in combination with surgery and/or chemotherapy for a variety of malignant tumors. Its application in the treatment of gynecological cancers, particularly those of the uterine cervix, has been particularly successful, radiation therapy being recognized as the treatment of choice for infiltrating epidermoid carcinoma of the cervix that has spread to tissues beyond the cervix. The following discussion of cellular findings in cervicovaginal smears describes the cellular alterations and the types of changes that may cause difficulty in interpretation, reports on the attempts at correlating the reaction of benign squamous cells to radiation with prognosis, and reviews the value of long-term follow-up by cytology
Introduction: Pap smear is a well known test in screening of epithelial cell abnormalities of the cervix. However, adding other screening methods to this test may increase the sensitivity and specificity of case finding. Current study has been designed to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the combination of Tru-Screen and Pap tests in comparison to Pap smear alone in women referred for annual screening. Methods: This case-control study was conducted...
Elaheh Refaei; Somayeh Khanjani; Fereshteh Mohammadizadeh; Tajossadat Allameh
We describe the cases of two asymptomatic patients who had carpet beetle larval parts in routine cervical Pap smears. The diagnosis was made by finding pathognomonic hastisetae in the smears. The evidence suggests that contamination occurred at or around the time of sampling. PMID:8023215
Bryant, J; Maslan, A M
Rapid diagnosis of trisomy 18 in newborns is often critical to clinical management decisions that must be made in a minimum of time. DNA probes combined with FISH can be used to accurately to determine the copy number of chromosome 18 in interphase cells. We have used the D18Z1 alpha satellite DNA probe to determine signal frequency in normal, previously karyotyped subjects, 12 females and 6 males. We also present one clinical case of trisomy 18, confirmed by karyotype, for comparison to the results obtained from normal subjects. Buccal smears, unlike cytogenetic preparations from peripheral blood, are quite resistant to penetration of probes and detection reagents resulting in higher levels of false monosomy. We have studied 19 individuals and have obtained consistent FISH results, ranging from 64 to 90% disomy. False monosomy rates ranged from 10 to 36%, while false trisomy or tetrasomy was less than 1% in all samples. High rates of false monosomy make this test questionable for detection of low order mosaicism for monosomy, but the extremely low false hyperploidy rate suggests that this is a dependable procedure for detection of trisomy 18, enabling the use of buccal epithelium which can be collected easily from even premature and tiny infants.
Harris, C.; Nunez, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, WI (United States); Giraldez, R. [ONCOR, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD (United States)
We have analysed the result of 17,173 pap smears screened in the national research center in reproductive health of Ariana from 1 may 1993 to 30 april 1997. Among these pap smears, 613 colposcopy and 380 biopsy have been performed. The results show that: 1.9% of pap smears present cytological anomalies with 0.79% of low Squamous Intraepithelial lesions and 0.66% high Squamous Intraepithelial lesions. The incidence of CIN III is 1.8% and 0.9% for invasive cancer. The age interval 35-44 years is at high risk of CIN III and invasive cancer of the cervix. evaluation of our diagnostic approach shows that: positive predictive value of pap smears with low SLI is 43.2% positive predictive value of pap smears with high SLI is 37.3%. PMID:12416356
Ben Aissa, Rim; Bennour, Ramzy; Ben Hamida, Abdelmajid; Kammoun, Neila; Mansour, Hayet; Mhamdi, Abdelmalek; Landoulsi, Sihem; Cherif, Neila; Gueddana, Nabiha
This study was carried out to determine the rate of agreement or disagreement of microscopy reading and culture positivity rate among smear positixe and negative specimens between peripheral tuberculosis diagnostic centres (PDCs) and Central Reference luberculosis laboratory (CTRL). In this study 13 PDCs in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania were involved. Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) method was used to collect 222 sputum smear slides. A total of 190 morning sputum specimens with corresponding slides were selected for culture. First readings were done by technicians at PDCs and thereafter selected slides and specimens were sent to CTRL for re-examination and culture. Culture results were used as a gold standard. Of 222 slides selected, 214 were suitable for re-examination. Percentage of agreement of smear reading between PDCs and CTRL was 42.9% and 100% for positive and negative slides, respectively. Measure of agreement (Kappa statistic) was 0.5, indicating moderate agreement. Of 190 samples cultured, percentage of agreement between smear reading from PDCs and CTRL was 37% and 88.9% for smear positive and negative slides, respectively. Kappa statistic was 0.3 indicating poor-fair agreements. Comparison of smear reading from PDCs with culture showed sensitivity of 36.9% and specificity of 88.9%. Comparison of smear readings from CTRL with culture results showed sensitivity of 95.6% and specificity of 98.6%. In conclusion there was inadequate performance in diagnosis of TB using smear microscopy among peripheral diagnostic centres in Dar es Salaam. This calls for immediate and rigorous measures to improve the quality of smear microscopy. It is therefore important to strengthen the capacity of laboratory personnel in smear microscopy techniques through supportive supervision and training. PMID:18087893
Mfinanga, G S; Ngadaya, E; Mtandu, R; Mutayoba, B; Basra, D; Kimaro, G; Chonde, T M; Ngowi, P; Mfaume, S; Kilale, A M; Egwaga, S; Kitua, A Y
Direct microscopic screening of blood cultures by Gram stain or methylene blue stain is time consuming and frequently insensitive. Therefore, we evaluated a fluorescent-staining procedure that uses acridine orange (AO) at pH 3.5 and compared it with the methylene blue and Gram stain procedures. All smears were prepared within 24 h of receiving the culture, fixed with methanol, and examined without the results of the companion smears being known. AO-stained smears were examined with incident-l...
Mirrett, S.; Lauer, B. A.; Miller, G. A.; Reller, L. B.
Objective: To assess the sensitivity and specificity of an alternate and easy technique to diagnose malaria. Design: A prospective study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of pathology, DHQ Hospital, Timergara District, Dir, North-west Frontier Province of Pakistan, from 19th September to 5th October 2000. Subjects and Methods: Smear positive 50 patients (27 males and 23 females, age ranging 2 years to 70 years) were included. Thick and thin smears were stained with Giemsa's stain and examined by the principal author. The ICT malaria test was performed according to the instruction sheet of the manufacturer. Results: on microscopy there were 29 cases of Plasmodium falciparum (P.f) and 21 of Plasmodiium vivax (P.v.). On ICT malaria P.f/P.v, there were 29 samples positive for P. Falciparum and 17 for P. vivax. These results demonstrated that the ICT malaria P.f/P.v test had sensitivity of 100% for P. falciparum and 81% for P. vivax and specificity of 100% for both, when compared to traditional blood films for the detection of P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria. Conclusion: The ICT malaria P.f/P.v test is an effective tool for the rapid diagnosis of malaria and may be used as a first line diagnostic tool. (author)
Full Text Available Background: Candida albicans infections of the cervix are not adequately diagnosed in Papanicolaou smears when compared with culture in Sabouraud dextrose agar. Methods: Cervical smears were collected from 1000, non-pregnant, asymptomatic women. The specimens were prepared using the Papanicolaou (Pap smear method examined by microscopy and subsequently cultured in Sabouraud dextrose agar. Results: The overall incidences of C. albicans in cervical smears cultured in Sabouraud dextrose agar was 30.10%, while the incidence in the Pap smears was 7.60%, making the sensitivity of Pap smears for the diagnosis of C. albicans to be 25.25%. Mild, and some moderate, infections detectable in Sabouraud dextrose agar could not be detected in the Pap smear specimens. Vulnerability to C. albicans infection decreased with age, the highest infection rate being between 20 and 39 years of age while the least was between 60 and 69 years of age. Papanicolaou’s method stained the nuclei, chromatin and nucleoli very well and enhanced differentiation between malignant and non-malignant cells. It also stained the cytoplasm and its contents such as keratin, vacuoles and granules and differentiated between acidophilic and basophilic materials. Non-cellular substances such as fibrin, crystals and pigments were also stained using this method. In addition, Papanicolaou’s method also stained some fungal and bacterial species, but did not provide differential staining characteristics seen in Gram staining technique. Conclusions: Papanicolaou stain should not be used as an alternative to culture in the diagnosis of Candida albicans.
We reviewed the laboratory registers of 42 tuberculosis (TB) diagnostic centres in the southern region of Ethiopia to determine the value of submitting serial sputum samples for the diagnosis of pulmonary TB (PTB) and estimate the proportion of suspects that are smear positive. A total of 15,821 TB suspects submitted three smears each (47,463 smears) in 2000 with a median of 228 per centre. The smear positivity rate (two or more positive smears) was 25%, with a range of 16.8-36.4% per zone. This exceeds the international recommendations of examining 10 suspects to identify one case. A total of 4099 (26%) of the suspects had at least one positive smear with 3753 (91.6%) of the first specimens being positive. A further 303 (7.4%) were negative in the first specimen but had a positive second specimen and 42 (1%) suspects had two negative specimens followed by a positive third smear. The value of the third sputum is negligible as 99% of the cases were identified from the first and second specimens. Reducing the number of specimens to two or even one would have multiple advantages in countries where laboratories are usually over-burdened and are not easily accessible to the population. Submission of two specimens on the same day could improve compliance in submitting samples and collecting results as the number of diagnostic visits would be reduced without significant loss of sensitivity. PMID:14516304
Yassin, Mohammed A; Cuevas, Luis E
Full Text Available Objective: Our primary aim was to detect how much importance is given to pap smear test by the health staff.Material and Methods: In this study inquiries including questions about age, marital status, occupation, attitude for applying to gynecology polyclinics as well as questions regarding their knowledge about and attitude to pap smear test and HPV vaccination were delivered to health staff as well as to a control group which was formed from patients applying to our polyclinics.Results: Neither of the groups applied for gynecologic control without having complaints.There was no significant difference between the groups when the rates of having smear test at least once were taken into consideration. In this study we detected that the smear test was not offered routinely to nearly half of the patients.Those patients who were offered the smear test had the test by significantly higher rates. 91,17% of the women in the study group had heard about HPV vaccination.Discussion: The awareness of health staff as well as the non-health staff population about pap smear test is far from adequate in Turkey. Furthermore, gynecologists do not offer smear tests to their patients efficiently.This situation may prevent the reduction of cervical malignancies in the near future.
Studies about cervical carcinogenesis have demonstrated the increased expression of matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP) according to the grade of cervical intraepithelial lesions. Considering the importance of innovative techniques to introduce noninvasive and rapid diagnoses for patients, this study aimed to perform MMP-9 immunocytochemistry in cervical smears according to the cytopathological diagnoses, in order to monitor MMP activity in cervical smears. This cross-sectional study investigated the expression of MMP-9 in normal cervical smears, inflammatory cervical smears, squamous intraepithelial lesions, and cervical carcinoma. Cervical smears from 630 women were collected for cytopathological diagnoses and immunocytochemistry. Women with squamous intraepithelial lesions showed an increase in MMP-9 expression, with moderate to intense staining occurring with increasing cervical lesion grade. The prevalence of moderate to intense MMP-9 staining was 9% in normal cervical smears, 12% in cervical inflammation, 24% in low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), 92% in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and 100% in cervical carcinoma cases. In the specific case of LSIL, we found that association with MMP-9 is more evident when there is the simultaneous presence of an infectious agent. Thus, the expression of MMP-9 in cervical smears increases according to the grade of cervical lesion and LSIL in the presence of infectious agents showed higher MMP-9 expression than women with LSIL without infectious agents. PMID:24578283
Matheus, Erika R; Zonta, Marco A; Discacciati, Michelle G; Paruci, Priscila; Velame, Fernanda; Cardeal, Laura B S; Barros, Silvia B M; Pignatari, Antonio C; Maria-Engler, Silvya S
The aims of this study were to determine the expression of p53 protein in endometrial adenocarcinomas (as a potential prognostic indicator before treatment) as well as normal endometrium in imprint smears and to correlate the results with clinicopathologic parameters of primary untreated endometrial cancer patients. Two hundred fifty five patients were evaluated with endometrial imprint cytology during a 29-month period. Endometrial samples freshly resected from women who underwent total abdominal hysterectomy were studied. One hundred twenty six patients had endometrial carcinoma and 129 cases were diagnosed as normal endometrium. The expression of p53 was assessed by immunocytochemistry. Positive staining was correlated with increased surgical-pathological stage, histological grade and lymph node metastases. High expression of p53 staining was significantly more frequent in histological type II than type I endometrial adenocarcinoma. High-grade endometrial carcinoma had higher proportions and stronger intensity compared with low-grade carcinoma. Negative immunostain for p53 protein was found in proliferative, secretory, and atrophic endometrium. Immunocytochemical findings from p53 stain, in addition to cytomorphologic features, appeared to be useful in the diagnosis and in the postoperative prognosis of endometrial carcinoma in endometrial cytology, especially if combined with other markers. High p53 expression correlates with morphologic features of aggressiveness and the expression pattern of p53 correspond to the expected cyclic/atrophic pattern in normal endometrium. PMID:24167025
Konstantinos, Kosmas; Marios, Stamoulas; Anna, Marouga; Nikolaos, Kavantzas; Efstratios, Patsouris; Paulina, Athanassiadou
Full Text Available Background: In the low resource settings of a developing country, a conventional Papanicolaou (Pap test is the mainstay screening system for cervical cancer. In order to counsel women and to organize a public health system for cervical cancer screening by Pap smear examination, it is imperative to know the pattern of premalignant and malignant lesions. This study was undertaken to find out the prevalence of an abnormal Pap smear, in a tertiary hospital of a developing country, and to carry out a clinicopathological and demographical analysis for establishing the pattern of epithelial cell abnormality in a Pap smear. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in a total of 1699 patients who underwent Pap smear examination. The prevalence of epithelial cell abnormality in the Pap smear was calculated in proportions / percentages. Specimen adequacy and reporting was assessed according to the revised Bethesda system. Results: Among the total of 1699 patients who had their Pap smear done, 139 (8.18% revealed epithelial cell abnormality. Altogether 26 smears revealed high-grade lesions and malignancy, most of which were found to be in women belonging to the 30 - 39 and ? 45 age group. A total of 75 (53.96% women were in the 20 - 44 age group and 64 (46.04% were in the ? 45 age group. A bimodal age distribution was detected in the epithelial cell abnormality, with the bulk being diagnosed in patients aged 45 or above. Overall one-third of the patients with an abnormal Pap smear result showed healthy cervix in per vaginal examination. Conclusions: A raised prevalence of epithelial cell abnormality reflects the lack of awareness about cervical cancer screening. Women aged 45 or above harbor the bulk of premalignant and malignant lesions in the Pap smear, signifying that these women are among the under users of cytological screening.
Of the 1527 women aged 30-59 years in one general practice who were eligible for a cervical smear examination 196 (12.8%) were overdue for the test. These women were contacted randomly by post or in person to ascertain their reasons for not responding to the practice screening programme. Of 118 women contacted personally 47% had no major objection to the smear test but had a low view of its priority. A further 24% gave incorrect reasons for thinking a smear test was unnecessary while 29% had ...
Full Text Available Roberto Assael, Joaquin Cervantes, Gerardo Barrera Clinica Medica Internacional, Ciudad Juarez, Mexico Background: The World Health Organization estimated in 2010 that 8.8 million new tuberculosis (TB cases. About one-third of the world's population is infected and 10% will develop active TB disease. While cultures remain the international gold standard for diagnosing TB disease, in many other low-income countries, sputum smears remain the only and most accessible tool with which to diagnose active TB disease. As a consequence, in patients with TB who have negative smears, their TB remains undetected. Aim: The objective of the study reported here was to demonstrate the proportion of smear-positive/culture-positive cases compared with smear-negative/culture-positive TB cases in Mexican immigrants bound for the USA. Methods: A retrospective study was undertaken of the medical records of 122 active TB cases diagnosed at a clinic in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, from 2009 to 2012. All cases were confirmed by culture, regardless of the sputum smear results. Results: Of the cases, 80% (97 active TB cases had negative sputum smears, while only 25 cases (20% had at least one positive smear. All of the cultures were confirmed as positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Conclusion: The fact that 80% of the TB cases were smear negative and 20% smear positive shows that there is a clear gap between the actual state of active TB disease within patients under screening conditions, meaning that eight out of ten actual cases are being missed when sputum smear is the only diagnostic tool in asymptomatic patients with abnormal chest X-rays. Based on these results, it is highly recommended that countries that have not standardized culturing as the gold standard for the diagnosis of active TB do so, so that TB cases – which may endanger global public health – are not missed. It is also recommended that further studies be undertaken to determine the clinical background of the patients diagnosed by smear and culture to identify a direct relationship between clinical signs and symptoms and the smear result. Keywords: TB, screening, Mexico, mycobacteria growth indicator tube, Löwenstein–Jensen agar
This paper presents a new white blood cell classification system for the recognition of five types of white blood cells. We propose a new segmentation algorithm for the segmentation of white blood cells from smear images. The core idea of the proposed segmentation algorithm is to find a discriminating region of white blood cells on the HSI color space. Pixels with color lying in the discriminating region described by an ellipsoidal region will be regarded as the nucleus and granule of cytopla...
Mu-Chun Su; Chun-Yen Cheng; Pa-Chun Wang
... energy for most cells of the body, including brain cells. Carbohydrates are found in fruit, cereal, bread, pasta, and rice. They are quickly turned into glucose in your body. This raises your blood glucose level. Hormones made in the body help control blood ...
Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer occurring among women worldwide, with almost half a million new cases each year. Normal cells gradually transform to form cancer cells through several stages. So, the changes occurring during the transformational stages need to be assessed. Aim: Our aim was to study various nuclear parameters useful in evaluating pre-malignant and malignant cervico-vaginal pap smears. Materials and Methods: Bethesda System was used to categorize cervical pap smears into premalignant and malignant lesions. Nuclear parameters were calculated using J 1.44C morphometric software. Several nuclear size parameters were analysed. Results: The nuclear area, perimeter, diameter were found to be statistically significant (ppremalignant from malignant cervical smears. Conclusion: Nuclear morphometry was thus a useful objective tool in differentiating premalignant from malignant cervical smears.
Rani M.N, Divya; Kumar ML, Harendra; SR, Sheela
OBJECTIVE.: To find appropriate management of patients with atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS) Pap smears. MATERIALS AND METHODS.: The authors present their findings on patients with 606 AGUS Pap smears based on colposcopy, cervical biopsies, endocervical curettage, and endometrial biopsy. Twenty-one proposed management schemes by other authors are reviewed. RESULTS.: From 606 AGUS Pap smears, 69% had benign findings and 31% had neoplastic findings. Among 29 patients with endometrial pathology, only 4 patients (14%) were AGUS Pap smear requires colposcopy. We suggest endometrial biopsy for women over 40 years old and for women younger than 40 years old who have a high risk for endometrial neoplasia. Better-defined cytologic criteria from cytologists are needed. PMID:17051038
Van Dinh, Tung; Haque, Moona; Lucci, Joseph A; Smith, Edward R; Hannigan, Edward V
Full Text Available Abstract Background The female lower genital tract is a gateway for pathogens entering the host through the mucous membrane. One of the prevalent human viruses is Torque teno virus (TTV. The major reported routes of TTV transmission are fecal-oral and parenteral. Furthermore, other modes of transmission, e.g. sexual contact, are suggested. To investigate the sexual route of TTV transmission, cervical smears of healthy women and those with cervical lesions were screened for the presence of TTV DNA. Methods TTV DNA was studied in cervical smears of 95 patients with cervical lesions and 55 healthy women. Paired serum samples were available from 55 and 42 women, respectively. All healthy women had normal cytology while 44 patients had histologically confirmed low-grade lesion (LGL and 51 high-grade lesion (HGL. TTV DNA was detected with primers specific for the non-coding region. In 40 paired cervical smears and serum samples, the phylogenetic group of TTV isolates was determined. The presence of HPV DNA in cervical smears was detected by means of PCR with MY09/11 primers. Results The prevalence of TTV DNA in cervical smears of healthy women was 52.7% and was comparable with that in paired serum samples (50%. Symptomatic women had significantly higher prevalence of TTV DNA in cervical smears (74.7% than healthy controls. The TTV DNA prevalence in patient serum samples was 51%. The phylogenetic groups of TTV serum isolates were concordant with those of TTV from cervical smears of the same subjects. In cervical smears, a wider variety of TTV isolates was found. The viral loads in cervical smears were 10 to 1000 times as high as in sera. The HPV-positive study subjects had significantly higher TTV DNA prevalence than HPV negatives. The prevalence of TTV was not associated with disease severity. Conclusion High prevalence of TTV in cervical smears suggests that sexual transmission is another mode of expansion of TTV infection among the population. The higher viral load in cervical smears than in the respective serum samples might indicate active TTV replication in the female genital tract. Nevertheless, cooperation between TTV and HPV needs to be further investigated.
We investigate the quantum phase transition in the random transverse-field Ising model under the influence of Ohmic dissipation. To this end, we numerically implement a strong-disorder renormalization-group scheme. We find that Ohmic dissipation destroys the quantum critical point and the associated quantum Griffiths phase by smearing. Our results quantitatively confirm a recent theory [J.A. Hoyos, T. Vojta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 (2008) 240601] of smeared quantum phase transitions.
Vojta, Thomas; Hoyos, José A.
Abstract Background Smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) accounts for a considerable proportion of TB transmission, which especially endangers health care workers (HCW). Novel Mycobacterium-tuberculosis-specific interferon-? release assays (IGRAs) may offer the chance to define the burden of TB in HCW more accurately than the Mantoux tuberculin skin test (TST), but the data that is available regarding their performance in tracing smear-negative TB in the low-incidence,...
Schultze-Werninghaus Gerhard; Schablon Anja; Nienhaus Albert; Schlösser Stephan; Ringshausen Felix C; Rohde Gernot
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of Gram stain versus Pap smear in diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV). METHODS: One-thousand and sixty women were enrolled in this study. All cases with symptoms of BV were determined by Amsel's criteria, which were accepted as the gold standard for diagnosis of BV. Pap smear and Gram stain evaluations were compared according to Amsel's criteria, without viewing the clinical results of the patients. Gram stain and Pap s...
Hakan Postaci; Funda Tasli; Xd Zg Xfc, Xd Zg Xfc L.; Murat Inal; Izzet Maral; Enver Vardar
OBJECTIVES--To determine the effects of three different methods of providing health education on the uptake of cervical smear testing among Asian women, and to evaluate the acceptability of different health education materials. DESIGN--Prospective cohort study over one year of effects of written materials by post, personal visit to give written materials, and personal visit to show a video on the uptake of smear testing. Techniques included a personally administered questionnaire. SETTING--Le...
Mcavoy, B. R.; Raza, R.
This report is the consensus-based, agreed position of the participants in a workshop for experts in sputum smear microscopy organised in August 2005 by the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union), and as such reflects their views, but not necessarily those of their respective organisations. The group reviewed current practices in sputum smear microscopy for tuberculosis (TB) and suggests considering certain changes in standard guidelines for the sputum collectio...
Gilpin, C.; Kim, S. J.; Lumb, R.; Rieder, H. L.; Deun, A.
OBJECT--To ascertain the management of inflammatory smear results by general practitioners. DESIGN--Postal questionnaire survey. SUBJECTS--All 200 general practitioners on Wirral Family Health Services Authority list as principals in 1990 and 1991. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Answers to questions covering a variety of aspects concerning the management of inflammatory smear results in general practice. RESULTS--One hundred and thirteen (57%) replied. Ninety per cent have facilities to test for Tric...
Bates, C. M.
AIM: To determine the proportion of women with abnormalities in cervical smears corresponding to borderline nuclear change, as defined by national guidelines, which return to normal or persist as cytological or histological abnormalities. METHODS: 313 women with borderline nuclear change diagnosed by a single pathologist using the national criteria were followed up for up to two years. RESULTS: On initial follow up, 45% of women had a negative smear or biopsy, 46.5% had a low grade cytologica...
Heatley, M. K.
Stool specimens of 1238 workers in western region of Saudi Arabia were examined for infection with intestinal parasites and for fecal occult blood (FOB) to investigate the possibility that enteroparasites correlate to occult intestinal bleeding. Direct smears and formal ether techniques were used for detection of diagnostic stages of intestinal parasites. A commercially available guaiac test was used to detect fecal occult blood. 47.01% of the workers were infected with intestinal parasites i...
Wakid, Majed H.
This study assessed the effects of spectral smearing and temporal fine structure (TFS) degradation on masking release (MR) (the improvement in speech identification in amplitude-modulated compared to steady noise observed for normal-hearing listeners). Syllables and noise stimuli were processed using either a spectral-smearing algorithm or a tone-excited vocoder. The two processing schemes simulated broadening of the auditory filters by factors of 2 and 4. Simulations of the early stages of auditory processing showed that the two schemes produced comparable excitation patterns; however, fundamental frequency (F0) information conveyed by TFS was degraded more severely by the vocoder than by the spectral-smearing algorithm. Both schemes reduced MR but, for each amount of spectral smearing, the vocoder produced a greater reduction in MR than the spectral-smearing algorithm, consistent with the effects of each scheme on F0 representation. Moreover, the effects of spectral smearing on MR produced by the two schemes were different for manner and voicing. Finally, MR data for listeners with moderate hearing loss were well matched by MR data obtained for normal-hearing listeners with vocoded stimuli, suggesting that impaired frequency selectivity alone may not be sufficient to account for the reduced MR observed for hearing-impaired listeners. PMID:19507983
Gnansia, Dan; Péan, Vincent; Meyer, Bernard; Lorenzi, Christian
At PNC Tokai Works, the plutonium fuel fabrication facility has been operating since 1967. Lung counting and bioassay for urine are performed routinely for internal radiation dosimetry in this facility. The nose smear method is used for assessing the significance of intake whenever an incident involving inhalation of radioactive material occurs. It was found empirically on the basis of 22 inhalation cases that nose smear samples were useful for assessing tentatively the intake in an incidental inhalation of plutonium aerosol. In 80% of the cases of plutonium inhalation, the amount in the early faecal excretion (5 days after inhalation) is less than 10 times the plutonium in the nose smear samples over the activity region from 0.074 to 28 Bq of nose smear samples. It is suggested that the amount of plutonium in early excreted faeces be estimated by applying the factor of 10 to the activity in nose smear samples. As an example, when PuO2 (class Y, AMAD 1 ?m) 0.074 Bq corresponding to the minimum detectable amount is measured in the nose smear samples, the early faecal excretion and the total intake can be estimated approximately to be 0.74 Bq and 1.55 Bq, respectively, applying the clearance model of ICRP 30, and the committed dose equivalent of bone surface is estimated as 1.6 mSv. (author)
Full Text Available Background: Inflammatory Pap smear is the most common report received by a gynecologist. The cervical screening algorithm for benign cellular changes on the Pap smear recommends treatment of infection if indicated and a repeat Pap smear in 4 to 6 months time. If the inflammatory changes still persist, subject the patient to colposcopy. However, in practice, this is not followed, especially in developing countries like ours where proper screening protocols are not available. Hence, a good number of patients in the premalignant stage are being missed. This study was undertaken to evaluate patients with persistent inflammatory Pap smears without atypia using colposcopy. Methods: A prospective analytical study of 150 gynecologial patients with persistent inflammatory Pap smear between 2006 and 2008 in an out-patient setting. All of them were subjected to colposcopy and biopsy from the abnormal areas. The incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN/invasive carcinoma was calculated by proportions/percentages. Results: The incidence of invasive carcinoma was <1%. But, the incidence of pre-malignant lesions (CIN was high (20.9%. CIN 2/3 and carcinoma in situ were present in 6.9% of the cases. Conclusions: Patients with persistent inflammatory Pap smears can harbour a high proportion of CIN and hence these patients will need further evaluation.
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: A screening programme for cervical cancer has been implemented in South Africa (SA) with intervals of 10 years after a normal cytological result. There are no studies that evaluate repeat screening at a shorter interval in SA. OBJECTIVES: (i) To find the incidence of cytological abnormal [...] ities on a repeat test after a report of normal cytology or an inadequate Pap smear; and (ii) to explore the factors associated with an abnormal cytology on repeat testing. METHODS: This was a secondary data analysis of a randomised controlled trial of diaphragm, lubricant gel and condoms v. condoms in the prevention of HIV infection. HIV-negative women were recruited between November 2003 and December 2005, with a normal Pap smear at entry. Observation time was from the first Pap smear to the date of the repeat Pap smear. Explanatory variables used were baseline, excepting any new HIV infection. RESULTS: The incidence of cytological abnormalities was 6.48% yearly in women with a previously normal Pap smear and 11.71% yearly in women with an inadequate smear result (p=0.03). The incidence of high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (HSILs) was
Y, Adam; J A, McIntyre; G, de Bruyn.
Objective: To determine degree of agreement between visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and Papanicolaous (Pap) smear as screening methods for cervical cancer. Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Lahore, from July to December 2012. Methodology: Two hundred and fifty women in reproductive age group presenting with various gynaecological complaints were included in the study. A Papanicolaous smear was taken and visual inspection with 5% acetic acid was done. VIA was reported as positive or negative according to acetowhite changes and cytology result was graded as CIN 1, 2, 3 and squamous carcinoma. Those women who showed positive result with either VIA or Pap smear or both were further subjected to colposcopic directed biopsy which was taken as gold standard. Results were computed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16 and statistical test used was kappa. Results: Out of 250 women, VIA was positive in 55 (22%) patients and Pap smear was abnormal in 27 (10.8%). Histological diagnosis of CIN/cancer was made in 36 out of a total 62 patients who underwent biopsy. Conclusion: There was a fair agreement between VIA and Pap smear, with VIA detecting more abnormalities than cytology. In the absence of Pap smear availability, VIA may be a reasonable cervical cancer screening method, especially in low resource settings. (author)
Background: Cancer of the cervix has been considered as one of the preventable cancers. This study is the first published research addressing the screening of cancer of the cervix in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia. Aim: This study aims to detect the prevalence of abnormal epithelial changes and its types in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia. Settings and Study Design: A retrospective study was designed to evaluate all previously conducted cervical smears examined at a secondary care maternity hospital in Saudi Arabia, during the period from 2003 to 2010. During this period, a total of 1171 smears were reported. Materials and Methods: We analyzed the records of all patients who had undergone Papanicolaou (Pap) smear during this period. After data collection, all cases were recorded as per Bethesda nomenclature. Results: A total of 624 (53.3%) abnormal Pap smears were found, with only 58 cases reported to have epithelial pathological diagnosis (SIL). They represented 4.95% of total taken smears. A majority of the SIL diagnoses in our population were ASCUS, representing 60% of SIL cases. The prevalence of squamous cervical carcinoma was 0.34%. Conclusion: The study has shown a relatively high prevalence of epithelial abnormalities in cervical smears in the studied population. The squamous cell carcinoma represented a higher than the overall prevalence compared to World Health Organization (WHO) factsheets about Saudi Arabia. The mean age of epithelial abnormalities and squamous cell carcinoma was in the reproductive years. PMID:22090690
Balaha, Magdy Hassan; Al Moghannum, Mohammed Saleh; Al Ghowinem, Naema; Al Omran, Souad
OBJECTIVE: To calculate Tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates in Guinea-Bissau over an 8-year period. METHODS: Since 2003, a surveillance system has registered all TB cases in six suburban districts of Bissau. In this population-based prospective follow-up study, 1205 cases of pulmonary TB were identified between January 2004 and December 2011. Incidence rates were calculated using census data from the Bandim Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). RESULTS: The overall incidence of pulmonary TB was 279 per 100 000 person-years of observation; the male incidence being 385, and the female 191. TB incidence rates increased significantly with age in both sexes, regardless of smear or HIV status. Despite a peak with unknown cause of 352 per 100 000 in 2007, the overall incidence of pulmonary TB declined over the period. The incidence of HIV infected TB cases declined significantly from 108 to 39 per 100 000, while the incidence of smear-positive TB cases remained stable; the overall figure was 188 per 100000. CONCLUSIONS: Overall incidence of pulmonary TB in Guinea-Bissau has declined from 2004 to 2011. The decline was also seen in the subgroups of smear-negative and HIV-positive TB cases, probably due to antiretroviral treatment. Smear-positive TB incidence remains stable over the period.
Lemvik, G; Rudolf, F
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Pap smear test is considered the best screening method for cervical disease, especially for malignant lesions. The crucial factor here is obtaining high-quality samples, as poorly-prepared ones cause a great deal of confusion for patients and physicians alike. Attempts to define an ideal sampling technique have been going on for many years, and in this study we compare three different sampling methods to determine which one provides the best quality. Materials and Methods: This interventional study was performed in a private obstetrics-gynecology clinic and involved 600 women who met the criteria for cervical screening. The Pap test was done by three different methods: "Swab spatula", "Cytobrush – spatula" and "Spatula only". Results: Each method was performed on 200 randomly-selected patients. Cytopathologic examination was done by a single pathologist and in a blind fashion. For each specimen, a quality rating was reported as "satisfactory" or "unsatisfactory". Among the 200 samples obtained by the "Swabspatula” method, 150 (75% were of satisfactory quality and the remaining 50 cases (25% were rated as unsatisfactory. As for the cytobrush–spatula group, 88 samples (94% were satisfactory and 12 (6% were unsatisfactory. Finally, 179 samples (88% in “Spatula-only” group were satisfactory and 24 (12% were unsatisfactory. The difference in the proportion of good-quality samples was significant in pairwise comparisons between the three methods: swab-spatula versus spatula-only (P = 0.0013, swab-spatula versus cytobrush-spatula (P = 0.0001 and cytobrush-spatula versus spatula-only (P = 0.036. Conclusion: The study revealed that the cytobrush-spatula sampling method yielded the highest proportion of high-quality samples. Hence, it would be desirable to familiarize physicians, midwives and other health care workers in this country with the technique of cytobrush cervical sampling and its potential advantages. However, financial and cultural aspects must be taken into account before adopting the procedure for routine cervical screening in Iran.
Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: The success of endodontic treatment depends on the method and quality of cleaning, disinfection and three-dimensional sealing of the root canal. The smear layer can play an important role in the success or failure of endodontic treatment. There is controversy over the presence or removal of the smear layer in relation to the success or failure of endodontic treatment. This study used standard methods of endodontic treatment and whole human saliva to evaluate the effect of the smear layer on salivary bacterial leakage in endodontically treated teeth.Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 48 human single- and multiple-rooted teeth were randomly divided into two experimental groups of 20 and two negative and positive control groups of 4 teeth. After access cavity preparation the root canals were prepared with crown-down technique and irrigated with 10 mL of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution. The canals in one group were irrigated with 17% EDTA and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite to remove the smear layer and in the other only with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite to leave the smear layer in place. Then the teeth were sterilized by autoclave and obturated with gutta-percha sterilized with ethylene oxide and Tubliseal sealer under aseptic conditions. Two mL of human saliva were collected from two persons and injected into the coronal portion of the samples, which was repeated for four months. Leakage of the samples was examined twice daily. Data was analyzed with chi-squared test at a confidence interval of 95%. Results: Presence or absence of the smear layer had no significant effect on salivary bacterial leakage of different root canals filled with gutta-percha and Tubliseal sealer (p value = 0.515, although the number of cases with contamination and leakage of saliva in the group with the smear layer (55% was more than that in the group without the smear layer (44%.Conclusion: The results showed no significant effect of the smear layer on coronal leakage of human saliva into obturated canals. Key words: Bacterial microleakage, Root canal therapy, Saliva, Smear layer, Tooth.
Abasali Khademi, ,
Full Text Available Abstract Background Decentralization of DOTS has increased the number of cured smear-positive tuberculosis (TB patients. However, the rate of recurrence has increased mainly due to HIV infection. Recurrence rate could be taken as an important measure of long-term success of TB treatment. We aimed to find out the rate of recurrence in smear-positive patients cured under DOTS in southern Ethiopia. Methods We did a retrospective cohort study on cured smear-positive TB patients who were treated from 1998 to 2006. Recurrence of smear-positive TB was used as an outcome measure. Person-years of observation (PYO were calculated per 100 PYO from the date of cure to date of interview. Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression methods were used to determine the survival and the hazard ratio (HR. Results 368 cured smear-positive TB patients which were followed for 1463 person-years. Of these, 187 patients (50.8% were men, 277 patients (75.5% were married, 157 (44.2% were illiterate, and 152 patients (41.3% were farmers. 15 of 368 smear-positive patients had recurrence. The rate of recurrence was 1 per 100 PYO (0.01 per annum. Recurrence was not associated with age, sex, occupation, marital status and level of education. Conclusion High recurrence rate occurred among smear-positive patients cured under DOTS. Further studies are required to identify factors contributing to high recurrence rates to improve disease free survival of TB patients after treatment.
Datiko Daniel G
The generation of clay smears along faults in uncemented sediments has been studied through laboratory experiments in a newly developed high stress ring shear apparatus. The main objective is to investigate basic mechanisms involved in the deformation process of sediments during faulting and formation of clay smears. The experimental test program comprises ring shear tests on sand with embedded clay segments (sand-clay sequence) under constant effective normal stress. Visual inspection of the samples after testing, analyses of thin sections and permeability measurements across the shear zone are used to characterise geometrical continuity, thickness and sealing potential of the smear. Deformation processes such as grain reorientation, clay smear and cataclasis are identified from the tests. The complexity of the shear zone is observed to increase with the effective normal stress applied to the specimen and the number of clay segments used in the ring (multilayered sand-clay sequences). At low effective normal stress, in clay-rich sediments, clay smear is the most efficient mechanism for permeability reduction. The permeability across the smear decreases with ring rotation (or shear displacement) and effective normal stress. A maximum decrease of two orders of magnitude compared to the permeability of the surrounding sand is observed after 90° rotation under 10.5 MPa effective normal stress. Sand-sand juxtaposition shear is dominated by grain rolling causing only minor permeability reduction. At high effective normal stress, permeability measurements across clay smear and sand-sand juxtaposition yield similar values indicating that the permeability reduction is dominated by grain size reduction in the sand.
Cuisiat, F.; Skurtveit, E.
The objective of the study was to detect Babesia infections in pet dogs of a north-eastern state of India. The diagnostic efficacy of Babesia infection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique has been compared with microscopy examination. For this, a total of 111 blood samples of pet dogs presented at clinical complex of the College of Veterinary Science, Guwahati, Assam with clinical signs suspected for Babesia infection subjected to the study. A total of 44 (39.63 %) dogs were diagnosed as positive for Babesia infections after microscopic examination. Among these, Babesia canis infection was diagnosed in 5 dogs (4.50 %) and B. gibsoni infection in 39 (35.13 %) dogs microscopically in Giemsa stained blood smears. Molecular diagnosis using PCR detected 63 (56.75 %) dogs positive for Babesia infection. Single infection with B. canis was found in 9 (8.10 %) dogs while B. gibsoni alone was detected in 3 (2.70 %) dogs. Mixed infections by both these species were detected in 51 (45.94 %) dogs. Overall, PCR detected 54 (48.64 %) dogs as B. gibsoni and 60 (54.05 %) dogs as B. canis positive. PMID:25320489
Laha, R; Bhattacharjee, K; Sarmah, P C; Das, M; Goswami, A; Sarma, D; Sen, A
The common features shared by primary plasma cell leukemia (pPCL) and multiple myeloma (MM) with circulating plasma cells (CPCs) are peripheral blood invasion and expansion of plasma cells independent of the protective bone marrow (BM) microenvironment niche. However, few studies have addressed the relationship between pPCL and MM with CPCs. Here, we quantitated the number CPCs by conventional morphology in 767 patients with newly diagnosed MM; their clinic features were compared with those of 33 pPCL cases. When the presence of CPCs was defined as more than 2 % plasma cells per 100 nucleated cells on Wright-Giemsa stained peripheral blood smears, the incidence of MM with CPCs was 14.1 % in newly diagnosed MM. Patients with CPCs shared many clinical features with pPCL, especially clinical parameters related to tumor burden. However, no commonalities were found in immunophenotyping and cytogenetics. The prognosis of pPCL was poor, with a median progression free survival (PFS) of 12 months and an overall survival (OS) of 15 months. MM patients with CPCs had a clearly inferior PFS and OS as compared with the control cohort. Most interestingly, although the CPCs were not high enough to meet the diagnostic criteria for pPCL, the survival of MM patients with CPCs was comparable with that of pPCL, with a median PFS of 17 months and an OS of 25 months. PMID:25231928
An, Gang; Qin, Xiaoqi; Acharya, Chirag; Xu, Yan; Deng, Shuhui; Shi, Lihui; Zang, Meirong; Sui, Weiwei; Yi, Shuhua; Li, Zengjun; Hao, Mu; Feng, Xiaoyan; Jin, Fengyan; Zou, Dehui; Qi, Junyuan; Zhao, Yaozhong; Tai, Yu-Tzu; Wang, Jianxing; Qiu, Lugui
Full Text Available The prevalence and significance of hemoparasites of cattle from north-central Nigeria was determined using diagnostic records from Parasitology Division, National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI Vom, from May 2006 to April 2008. A total of 637 blood samples from cattle from four states (Plateau, Bauchi, Nasarawa and Kaduna of Nigeria in anticoagulant were submitted to the laboratory for parasitological diagnosis. Giemsa stained thin blood smears were examined for hemoparasites. Packed cell volume (PCV for each sample was determined and Hematocrit centrifuge technique (HCT was used to determine the presence of motile parasites. An overall prevalence of 25.7% was recorded for all samples examined. Babesia bigemina and B.bovis accounted for 16.0%, followed by Theileria mutans (3.1%, Trypanosoma spp (T.vivax and T. congolense (2.8%, Anaplasma marginale (1.9%, Microfilaria (1.4%. The hemoparasites identified alone or in combination with others had a significant (P<0.05 effect on the mean PCV of infected animals. Similarly, hemoparasites infection in young animals as well as during the dry season resulted in significant (P<0.05 reduction of PCV values. The result of this study shows these hemoparasites are endemic in cattle in the study area which may result in serious disease conditions when such animals are subjected to stressful condition. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(10.000: 445-448
We determined the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in domestic dogs using microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. A total of 303 EDTA blood samples were collected from domestic dogs in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand, in May 2013. Microscopic observation of Giemsa-stained smears and molecular diagnosis using conventional PCR were performed. Infected dogs were treated with imidocarb dipropionate, a combination of imidocarb dipropionate and doxycycline, or doxycycline alone. Seventy-one (23.4%) out of 303 dogs were positive for DNA of tick-borne pathogens. Of the 303 animals, 13.2% and 1.3% were positive for a single infection with Babesia spp or Ehrlichia canis, respec- tively using microscopy; whereas 19.5% and 3.0% were positive using the PCR technique. Co-infection with Babesia spp and E. canis was observed in 0.7%, and coinfection with Hepatozoon canis and E. canis in 0.3%. Infected dogs were treated with the assigned drugs, and elimination of the pathogens was demonstrated by microscopy and PCR. The results indicated that while both microscopic and PCR diagnostic techniques were useful for tick-borne pathogen detection, PCR was more effective. Imidocarb dipropionate and doxycycline were found to be effective for treatment of babesiosis and ehrlichiosis, respectively. The present study suggests that the PCR technique has high sensitivity and specificity for Babesia and Ehrlichia diagnosis as well as for detection of Babesia spp, E. canis and H. canis DNA in EDTA blood specimens. PMID:25507247
Laummaunwai, Porntip; Sriraj, Pranee; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Boonmars, Thidarut; Boonjaraspinyo, Sirintip; Sangmaneedet, Somboon; Potchimplee, Prapasara; Khianman, Parin; Maleewong, Wanchai
Peripheral blood from a ball python (Python reginus) imported from Ghana was cultured in Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly (BSK) medium for Borrelia spp. isolation, resulting in the prominent appearance of free, and clusters of, trypanosomes in a variety of morphological forms. The molecular phylogenetic characterization of these cultured trypanosomes, using the small subunit rDNA, indicated that this python was infected with a species closely related to Trypanosoma varani Wenyon, 1908, originally described in the Nile monitor lizard (Varanus niloticus) from Sudan. Furthermore, nucleotide sequences of glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene of both isolates showed few differences. Giemsa-stained blood smears, prepared from the infected python 8 mo after the initial observation of trypanosomes in hemoculture, contained trypomastigotes with a broad body and a short, free flagellum; these most closely resembled the original description of T. varani, or T. voltariae Macfie, 1919 recorded in a black-necked spitting cobra (Naja nigricollis) from Ghana. It is highly possible that lizards and snakes could naturally share an identical trypanosome species. Alternatively, lizards and snakes in the same region might have closely related, but distinct, Trypanosoma species as a result of sympatric speciation. From multiple viewpoints, including molecular phylogenetic analyses, reappraisal of trypanosome species from a wide range of reptiles in Africa is needed to clarify the relationship of recorded species, or to unmask unrecorded species. PMID:20050011
Sato, Hiroshi; Takano, Ai; Kawabata, Hiroki; Une, Yumi; Watanabe, Haruo; Mukhtar, Maowia M
Full Text Available Since 1984, DNA tests based on the highly repeated subtelomeric sequences of Plasmodium falciparum (rep 20 have been frequently used in malaria diagnosis. Rep 20 is very specific for this parasite, and is made of 21 bp units, organized in repeated blocks with direct and inverted orientation. Based in this particular organization, we selected a unique consensus oligonucleotide (pf-21 to drive a PCR reaction coupled to hybridization to non-radioactive labeled probes. The pf-21 unique oligo PCR (pf-21-I assay produced DNA amplification fingerprints when was applied on purified P. falciparum DNA samples (Brazil and Colombia, as well as in patient's blood samples from a large area of Venezuela. The performance of the Pf-21-I assay was compared against Giemsa stained thick blood smears from samples collected at a malaria endemic area of the Bolívar State, Venezuela, at the field station of Malariología in Tumeremo. Coupled to non-radioactive hybridization the pf-21-I performed better than the traditional microscopic method with a r=1.7:1. In the case of mixed infections the r value of P. falciparum detection increased to 2.5:1. The increased diagnostic sensitivity of the test produced with this homologous oligonucleotide could provide an alternative to the epidemiological diagnosis of P. falciparum being currently used in Venezuela endemic areas, where low parasitemia levels and asymptomatic malaria are frequent. In addition, the DNA fingerprint could be tested in molecular population studies
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Since 1984, DNA tests based on the highly repeated subtelomeric sequences of Plasmodium falciparum (rep 20) have been frequently used in malaria diagnosis. Rep 20 is very specific for this parasite, and is made of 21 bp units, organized in repeated blocks with direct and inverted orientation. Based [...] in this particular organization, we selected a unique consensus oligonucleotide (pf-21) to drive a PCR reaction coupled to hybridization to non-radioactive labeled probes. The pf-21 unique oligo PCR (pf-21-I) assay produced DNA amplification fingerprints when was applied on purified P. falciparum DNA samples (Brazil and Colombia), as well as in patient's blood samples from a large area of Venezuela. The performance of the Pf-21-I assay was compared against Giemsa stained thick blood smears from samples collected at a malaria endemic area of the Bolívar State, Venezuela, at the field station of Malariología in Tumeremo. Coupled to non-radioactive hybridization the pf-21-I performed better than the traditional microscopic method with a r=1.7:1. In the case of mixed infections the r value of P. falciparum detection increased to 2.5:1. The increased diagnostic sensitivity of the test produced with this homologous oligonucleotide could provide an alternative to the epidemiological diagnosis of P. falciparum being currently used in Venezuela endemic areas, where low parasitemia levels and asymptomatic malaria are frequent. In addition, the DNA fingerprint could be tested in molecular population studies
L, Urdaneta; P, Guevara; JL, Ramirez.
Canine hepatozoonosis is a disease caused by the tick-borne protozoan Hepatozoon canis. Five puppies were inoculated by ingestion of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks experimentally infected with H. canis, and all became infected with H. canis: gametocytes were detected in blood smears from four dogs and schizonts were observed in the spleen and bone marrow of the fifth. Antibodies reactive with H. canis gametocytes were detected by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFA), with IgM detected initially in all dogs 16 to 39 days post infection (PI) and IgG 22 to 43 days PI. The presence of gametocytes was first observed within peripheral blood neutrophils in Giemsa-stained blood smears between days 28 and 43 PI. Gametocyte-reactive antibodies were detected before the appearance of blood gametocytes in three of the four parasitemic dogs and also in a dog with no observed parasitemia. The detection of serum antibodies prior to the detection of blood gametocytes, or without apparent parasitemia, suggests that antibodies reactive with gametocytes may be formed against earlier forms of the parasite developing in the parenchymal tissues. Sera of dogs experimentally infected with Babesia canis, Babesia gibsoni and Ehrlichia canis exhibited no reactivity when tested with H. canis antigen. Additionally, sera positive for H. canis were not reactive with antigens of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Leishmania donovani and E. canis. In conclusion, incoculation of dogs with ticks infected with H. canis results in production of antibodies reactive with peripheral blood gametocytes. Detection of IgG titres would be beneficial for the diagnosis of progressive infections with undetectable parasitemia, for seroprevalence studies, and as an adjunct to IgM titres in early infections. PMID:9561714
Baneth, G; Shkap, V; Samish, M; Pipano, E; Savitsky, I
Less than 60% of women diagnosed with cervical abnormalities on Pap smears return for proper surveillance and timely treatment. Previous tactics used to motivate these women to return have mainly relied on costly intensive recall efforts. Using a framework based on psychological value expectancy theory, a pamphlet was designed to motivate women with abnormal Pap smears to return for a repeat Pap smear. The effect of this pamphlet was tested in a randomized controlled trial. A total of 161 women with abnormal Pap smears were randomized and received either the pamphlet plus a notification letter or the letter only. The compliance rate was 64.2% in the intervention group and 51.3% in the comparison group (P = 0.10; two-tailed). In addition, subgroups of women who do not practice health-related behaviors were identified as groups where more intensive interventions may be needed. These results have implications for future strategies used to recall women with abnormal Pap smears. PMID:2263574
Paskett, E D; White, E; Carter, W B; Chu, J
Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of smear layer on apical seal of endodontically treated teeth. Methods: Sixty extracted single–rooted human teeth were randomly divided into two experimental groups (n=25 and two control groups (n=5. The teeth were instrumented with K–type files to size 40 and then flared. Apical patency was ensured in all teeth. 5% sodium hypochlorite and 17% Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid was used as irrigants to remove the smear layer in the second experimental group. The experimental groups were obturated by laterally condensed gutta – percha with Roth 801 sealer. The positive control group was obturated with gutta – percha without sealer. The root surfaces were then coated with nail polish and sticky wax except for the apex in the experimental groups and positive control group. The roots were completely covered in the negative control group. The samples were then immersed in India ink for 1 week at 37°C. Results: The statistical analysis of the results showed that the apical leakage was significantly increased in obturated canals with smear layer. Conclusion: The removal of smear layer might improve the long term apical seal and success of endodontically treated teeth. Keywords: Apical Seal, EDTA, Removal, Sodium Hypochlorite, Smear Layer.
Full Text Available Background: Breast carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor and leading cause of cancer deaths in women. While fine needle aspiration cytology is highly accurate in the diagnosis of breast lesions, it possesses certain drawbacks. In those circumstancesintraoperative imprint cytology assumes importance, however, imprint cytology is subjected to interpretative errors. Computer image analysis has become an important tool in the pathology laboratory for quantitative morphometric analysis. The purpose of this study was to compare the morphometric values of various breast lesions onintraoperative imprint smears with final histopathological sections.Methods: The study group comprised 30 cases of, borderline(suspicious, and malignant lesions. Intraoperative imprint smears were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and toluidine blue. Morphometry was done on these smears and compared with morphometry on the histopathological sections, followed by statistical correlation. We studied the following five parameters: mean nuclear area, mean nuclear diameter, mean nuclear perimeter, feret circle, and nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio.Results: In the current work, all of the studied parameters with the exception of feret circle showed significantly lower values in benign ductal epithelial cells compared to malignant lesions and concentrate on the importance of morphometry as a diagnostictool that could differentiate benign from malignant lesions, especially if it can be employed on imprint smears intraoperatively. Accurate assessment of intraoperative margins by imprint smears using image analysis automation can prevent multiple reexcisionprocedures in breast conservation surgery.
Laser enhancement of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid with cetrimide (EDTAC) has previously been shown to increase removal of smear layer, for middle-infrared erbium lasers. This study evaluated the efficiency of EDTAC activation using a near-infrared-pulsed 940?nm laser delivered by plain fibre tips into 15% EDTAC or 3% hydrogen peroxide. Root canals in 4 groups of 10 single roots were prepared using rotary files, with controls for the presence and absence of smear layer. After laser treatment (80?mJ?pulse(-1) , 50?Hz, 6 cycles of 10?s), roots were split and the apical, middle and coronal thirds of the canal were examined using scanning electron microscopy, with the area of dentine tubules determined by a validated quantitative image analysis method. Lasing EDTAC considerably improved smear layer removal, while lasing into peroxide gave minimal smear layer removal. The laser protocol used was more effective for smear layer removal than the 'gold standard' protocol using EDTAC with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). In addition, lasers may also provide a benefit through photothermal disinfection. Further research is needed to optimise irrigant activation protocols using near-infrared diode lasers of other wavelengths. PMID:25244221
Lagemann, Manfred; George, Roy; Chai, Lei; Walsh, Laurence J
A plastic scintillator detection system has been developed for the measurement of arterial blood H215O concentrations in positron emission tomographic (PET) local cerebral blood flow (1CBF) studies. The system uses a peristaltic pump to continually pull arterial blood from a radial artery through the plastic scintillator for the detection of the oxygen-15 positrons. To correct for the smearing of the arterial blood curve shape due to laminar flow in the pump tubing, a deconvolution technique has been developed
The complete blood count (CBC) is widely used test for counting and categorizing various peripheral particles in the blood. The main goal of the paper is to count and classify white blood cells (leukocytes) in microscopic images into five major categories using features such as shape, intensity and texture features. The first critical step of counting and classification procedure involves segmentation of individual cells in cytological images of thin blood smears. The quality of segmentation ...
Mehdi Habibzadeh; Adam Krzy?ak; Thomas Fevens
Aim: This survey was realized on cattle, sheep, goats, horses, and dogs, in order to study the influence of three morphometric parameters: the diameter, the circumference and the surface of red blood cells on the determinism of these species. Materials and Methods: For each species, blood samples were taken from 15 adult female by jugular venipuncture with confection of blood smears on microscope slides immediately after blood collection and stained according to the method of May-Gründwa...
Nezar Adili; Mohamed Melizi
The laboratory diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in humans includes the identification of cysts in stained lung tissue impression smears. By using a mouse model, we compared the number of cysts in lung tissue impression smears with those contained in a concentrate of homogenized lung tissue. Eleven C3H/HEN mice developed P. carinii infection after corticosteroid injections, a low protein (8%) diet, and tetracycline administered in drinking water. Impression smears were prepared with...
Thomson, R. B.; Smith, T. F.; Wilson, W. R.
One hundred and forty adult rice field frogs, Hoplobatrachus rugulosus (Wiegmann, 1834), were collected in Srakaew province, Thailand. For blood parasite examination, thin blood smears were made and routinely stained with Giemsa. The results showed that 70% of the frogs (98/140) were infected with 5 species of blood parasites, including a Trypanosoma rotatorium-like organism, Trypanosoma chattoni, Hepatozoon sp. a, Hepatozoon sp. b, and Lankesterella minima. Pathological examination of the li...
Malinee Chutmongkonkul; Achariya Sailasuta; Jetjun Satetasit
In space, astronauts are unavoidably exposed to charged particles from protons to irons. For a better estimate of the health risks of astronauts, further knowledge on the biological effects of charged particles, in particular the induction of cytogenetic damage is required. One im-portant factor that determines the biological response is the track structure of particles, i.e. their microscopic dose deposition in cells. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of track structure of heavy ions on the yield and the quality of cytogenetic damage in human peripheral blood lymphocytes representing normal tissue. Cells were irradiated with 9.5 MeV/u C-ions or 990 MeV/u Fe-ions which have a comparable LET (175 keV/µm and 155 keV/µm, respectively) but a different track radius (2.3 and 6200 µm, respectively). When aberrations were analyzed in first cycle metaphases collected at different post-irradiation times (48-84 h) following fluorescence plus Giemsa staining, an increase in the aberration yield with sampling time was observed for both radiation qualities reflecting a damage dependent cell cycle progression delay to mitosis. The pronounced differences in the aberration frequency per cell are attributable to the stochastic distribution of particle traversals per cell nucleus (radius: 2.8 µm). Following C-ion exposure we found a high fraction of non-aberrant cells in samples collected at 48 h which represent cells not directly hit by a particle and slightly damaged cells that successfully repaired the induced lesions. In addition, at higher C-ion fluences the aberra-tion yield saturated, suggesting that a fraction of lymphocytes receiving multiple particle hits is not able to reach mitosis. On the other hand, at 48 h after Fe-ion exposure the proportion of non-aberrant cells is lower than after C-ion irradiation clearly reflecting the track structure of high energy particles (i.e. more homogeneous dose deposition compared to low energy C-ions). Furthermore, the aberration yield increased linearly with Fe-ion fluence. When aberrations were analyzed in first cycle G2 -PCC cells to account for the prolonged G2 arrest of damaged cells, the same trend was detected. However, the increase in the aberration yield with time and the saturation effect were less pronounced compared to metaphase samples. Altogether, these data show that the aberration analysis with multiple samplings is necessary for a reliable estimate of cytogenetic damage induced by charged particles. In particular, when damage is measured at one early time-point the effectiveness of low energy particles will be considerably underestimated. When the aberration spectrum induced by low energy C-ions and high en-ergy Fe-ions was compared, we did not find a difference. Preliminary data obtained with the high resolution mFISH-technique confirm this observation. (Work supported by BMBF, Bonn, under contract 02S8497)
Lee, Ryonfa; Nasonova, Elena; Sommer, Sylwetster; Hartel, Carola; Durante, Marco; Ritter, Sylvia
We investigate a model for randomly layered magnets, viz. a three-dimensional Ising model with planar defects. The magnetic phase transition in this system is smeared because static long-range order can develop on isolated rare spatial regions. Here, we report large-scale kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of the dynamical behavior close to the smeared phase transition which we characterize by the spin (time) autocorrelation function. In the paramagnetic phase, its behavior is dominated by Griffiths effects similar to those in magnets with point defects. In the tail region of the smeared transition the dynamics is even slower: the autocorrelation function decays like a stretched exponential at intermediate times before approaching the exponentially small asymptotic value following a power law at late times. Our Monte-Carlo results are in good agreement with recent theoretical predictions based on optimal fluctuation theory.
Huether, S; Vojta, T; Huether, Shellie; Kinney, Ryan; Vojta, Thomas
Nasal smears for eosinophils obtained by nose blowing and/or posterior nasopharyngeal swabbing were stained with Wright's or Hansel's stains and read in three groups of children aged 4 to 15 years: 65 with seasonal allergic rhinitis, 42 with perennial rhinitis and negative skin tests, and 70 nonallergic controls. Of smears obtained by either or both methods, 69%, 11%, and 7% were positive (greater than or equal to 4%) in the three groups, respectively. Almost identical results were obtained using only the nose-blowing method. In children with seasonal nasal symptoms, the nasal smear for eosinophils appears to be a reliable diagnostic test with moderately high sensitivity and high specificity. PMID:6181676
Miller, R E; Paradise, J L; Friday, G A; Fireman, P; Voith, D
We present an extremely rare case of newly described entity called rosette forming glioneuronal tumor (RGNT), involving the pineal gland, tectum, and the adjacent thalamus in a 22-year-old male. Interestingly, the ventricular system was not involved in this case. The tumor was diagnosed intraoperatively on smear preparation on cytomorphology. If sampled adequately, it is fairly easy to diagnose RGNT on smear preparation as it has a very distinctive cytomorphology of being composed of two population of cell. One of the components is pilocytic astrocytoma and the other is composed of small cells with scant cytoplasm, vesicular nuclei, arranged around neuropil-like material forming "neurocytic rosettes." To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of RGNT in this rare location being diagnosed intraoperatively on smear preparation. PMID:19941371
Ghosal, Nandita; Furtado, Sunil V; Hegde, A S
The present paper reports a comprehensive first-principles calculation of electronic structure and lattice dynamical properties of niobium and molybdenum mononitrides in rocksalt phase at ground state as well as at finite electronic temperature applied using smearing parameter. The optimized structure with equilibrium parameters in rocksalt phase is dynamically unstable. An increase in smearing parameter or considering the finite temperature effects increases acoustic phonon frequencies at X point of the Brillouin zone and rocksalt structure dynamically stabilized for both compounds. This is because of the lowering of Fermi energy with increase of smearing parameter. Much better agreement between the calculated and experimental data is found as compared to previous calculations and a consistent description of the dynamical stability in the case of rocksalt phase of NbN and MoN is achieved. The thermodynamical functions are also calculated in the frame work of quasi harmonic approximation and discussed.
Gupta, Sanjay D. [Department of Physics, Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar 364002 (India); Jha, Prafulla K., E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Physics, Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar 364002 (India)
Full Text Available El diagnóstico de histoplasmosis se realiza tradicionalmente mediante el reconocimiento de típicas levaduras intracelulares de Histoplasma capsulatum en preparaciones microscópicas teñidas con Giemsa. Se comparó la eficacia de una modificación rápida de la técnica de Grocott (MRG y la tradicional de Giemsa para el diagnóstico de la histoplasmosis, a partir de la aplicación de ambas a 10 secreciones respiratorias, 8 escarificaciones de lesiones cutáneas y una biopsia ganglionar, pertenecientes todas a pacientes con sospecha clínica de esta micosis. En 15 de las 19 muestras no se encontraron diferencias significativas en la capacidad y rapidez para arribar al diagnóstico, mientras que en las 4 restantes, fueron reconocidas con la MRG estructuras que pasaron desapercibidas con la coloración de Giemsa. La modificación rápida permitió un reconocimiento más rápido del H. capsulatum en materiales donde este hongo se observó en escaso número y permitió además identificar con seguridad otros patógenos fúngicos diferentes de H. capsulatum, como Pneumocystis jiroveci, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis y Cryptococcus neoformans, difíciles de observar con la coloración de Giemsa. Se propone la técnica de Grocott o su modificación rápida para el diagnóstico de la histoplasmosis, especialmente cuando el empleo de la coloración de Giemsa da lugar a resultados negativos o dudosos.The diagnosis of histoplasmosis is traditionally achieved by recognizing the typical intracellular yeasts of Histoplasma capsulatum, in smears stained with Giemsa stain. The usefulness of a rapid modification of Grocott and of traditional Giemsa stains for the diagnosis of histoplasmosis was compared applying both techniques in 10 respiratory secretions, 8 cutaneous lesions scrapings and 1 adenomegaly biopsy, all of them belonging to patients with clinically suspected histoplasmosis. In 15 out of the 19 evaluated samples, no significant differences were found in the ability or speed to reach the diagnosis with the applied techniques; while in the remaining 4 samples, structures that had not been observed with Giemsa stain were recognized with the rapid modification. The modification enabled quicker recognition of H. capsulatum than Giemsa stain in those clinical samples where the number of these fungal pathogens was scant. Additionally, the rapid modification also enabled the recognition of fungal pathogens other than H. capsulatum, as Pneumocystis jiroveci, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Cryptococcus neoformans, difficult to observe with the Giemsa stain. Use of Grocott technique or rapid modification stain is proposed for the diagnosis of histoplasmosis, when the result obtained with the Giemsa stain is doubtful or negative.
Amadeo Javier Bava
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the HPV prevalance and its relation to Pap smear, colposcopy and colposcopy directed biopsy in our region of Eskisehir, Turkey.Material and Methods: A total of 615 women who applied to the outpatient clinic between December 2009 and December 2010 constituted our study population. All patients underwent pelvic examination and Pap smear sampling. Patients who had pathological cervical appearance or Pap smear results of ASCUS, AGUS, LSIL or HSIL were referred to colposcopy. Cervical samples for HPV DNA were taken from the patients before Pap smear sampling during the routine examination or before the colposcopic evaluation. Results: Twenty six of 615 patients (4% were HPV positive. Of these 26 patients, 12 were positive for HPV type 16, 3 for type 18, 3 for type 51, 2 for type 6, 1 for type 52, 1 for type 33, 1 for type 16 and type 31, 1 for type 6 and 52, 1 for type 56 and 90, 1 for type 39 and 66. In 4 patients with cervical cancer, and in 3 of 4 CIN III cases both HPV DNA and Pap smear were positive. In the Pap smear examination of 615 patients, cytology revealed 35 ASCUS (5.6% 4 AGUS (0.6%, 2 CIN I (0.3% results who were negative for HPV DNA. These patients with abnormal cytology (n=41 underwent colposcopy directed biopsy, there were 3 CIN I and 1 CIN III and all the other cervical biopsy results of these patients were benign (inflammation, chronic cervicitis. Conclusion: HPV positivity in our hospital setting is low which is compatible with other studies in Turkey. In positive HPV cases there is a good correlation between HPV type and positive cervical biopsy results.
Sabit Sinan Özalp
We show that phase transitions in Ising systems with planar defects, i.e., disorder perfectly correlated in two dimensions are destroyed by smearing. This is caused by exponentially rare spatial regions which can develop true static long-range order even when the bulk system is still in its disordered phase. Close to the smeared transition, the order parameter is very inhomogeneous in space, with the thermodynamic (average) order parameter depending exponentially on temperature. We determine the behavior using extremal statistics, and we illustrate the results by computer simulations.
We study the nonequilibrium phase transition in a contact process with extended quenched defects by means of Monte-Carlo simulations. We find that the spatial disorder correlations dramatically increase the effects of the impurities. As a result, the sharp phase transition is completely destroyed by smearing. This is caused by effects similar to but stronger than the usual Griffiths phenomena, viz., rare strongly coupled spatial regions can undergo the phase transition independently from the bulk system. We determine both the stationary density in the vicinity of the smeared transition and its time evolution, and we compare the simulation results to a recent theory based on extremal statistics.
Dickison, M; Dickison, Mark; Vojta, Thomas
We study the nonequilibrium phase transition in a contact process with extended quenched defects by means of Monte Carlo simulations. We find that the spatial disorder correlations dramatically increase the effects of the impurities. As a result, the sharp phase transition is completely destroyed by smearing. This is caused by effects similar to but stronger than the usual Griffiths phenomena, namely, rare strongly coupled spatial regions can undergo the phase transition independently from the bulk system. We determine both the stationary density in the vicinity of the smeared transition and its time evolution, and compare the simulation results to a recent theory based on extremal statistics.
Dickison, Mark; Vojta, Thomas [Department of Physics, University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States)
We show that phase transitions in Ising systems with planar defects, i.e., disorder perfectly correlated in two dimensions are destroyed by smearing. This is caused by effects similar to but stronger than the Griffiths phenomena: exponentially rare spatial regions can develop true static long-range order even when the bulk system is still in its disordered phase. Close to the smeared transition, the order parameter is very inhomogeneous in space, with the thermodynamic (average) order parameter depending exponentially on temperature. We determine the behaviour using extremal statistics, and we illustrate the results by computer simulations
We show that phase transitions in Ising systems with planar defects, i.e., disorder perfectly correlated in two dimensions are destroyed by smearing. This is caused by effects similar to but stronger than the Griffiths phenomena: exponentially rare spatial regions can develop true static long-range order even when the bulk system is still in its disordered phase. Close to the smeared transition, the order parameter is very inhomogeneous in space, with the thermodynamic (average) order parameter depending exponentially on temperature. We determine the behaviour using extremal statistics, and we illustrate the results by computer simulations.
Vojta, Thomas [Department of Physics, University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States)
We study the nonequilibrium phase transition in a contact process with extended quenched defects by means of Monte Carlo simulations. We find that the spatial disorder correlations dramatically increase the effects of the impurities. As a result, the sharp phase transition is completely destroyed by smearing. This is caused by effects similar to but stronger than the usual Griffiths phenomena, namely, rare strongly coupled spatial regions can undergo the phase transition independently from the bulk system. We determine both the stationary density in the vicinity of the smeared transition and its time evolution, and compare the simulation results to a recent theory based on extremal statistics
Smear preparation is a fairly accurate, simple and reliable tool for rapid intraoperative diagnosis of central nervous system tumors. Compared with frozen sections this technique has the advantage of being both more accurate for cytological details and of requiring less tissue. In addition final histological analysis after direct formalin fixation is of better quality than post freezing fixation. This technique is most helpful in the field of neuro-oncological pathology specially in glial tumors and in stereotactic biopsy procedures. The cytological aspects and smear patterns disclose important complementary diagnostic information for the histopathological examination. PMID:11084417
Beuvon, F; Varlet, P; Fallet-Bianco, C; Daumas-Duport, C
We investigate the behavior of a new class of regular black holes based on a non-Gaussian smeared mass distribution. It is shown that the smeared mass distribution consideration cures the well known problems in the terminal phase of black hole evaporation. We find that there is a finite maximum temperature that the black hole reaches before cooling down to absolute zero so that the evaporation ends up in a zero temperature extremal black hole. Finally, we probe the regular characteristic of the new black holes by showing that there is no curvature singularity at the origin.
Larranaga, Alexis; Torres, Daniel Alexdy
The considerable smearing and shift of gap feature as well as the distortions of the whole conductance structure taking place for the point-contact metaloxide tunneling junctions have been described introducing the outside resistances in series and in parallel to the junction itself. As it shown, the origin for these resistances is due to the presence of a deteriorated surface layer of metaloxide. Their influence on the observed tunneling conductance in some cases could be more significant than the smearing due to the finite lifetime of quasiparticles
Under a microscope, only a small field of a slide can be seen through the eye piece. A digital replication of a large section of the smear on a slide is desirable for several applications, including image-based auto-positioning for automated microscopy and telepathology. To achieve this, images of the various fields on the slide can be captured and stitched automatically to form a virtual slide map. We compared two auto-stitching methods, namely the geometric hashing and the scale invariant feature transform (SIFT), applied to images of tuberculosis-infected sputum smears. Experimental results show good agreement between the two methods. PMID:22255483
Patel, Bhavin; Douglas, Tania S
False-negative cervical Pap smears may lead to disability or death from carcinoma of the uterine cervix. New computer technology has led to the development of an interactive, neural network-based vision instrument to increase the accuracy of cervical smear screening. The instrument belongs to a new class of medical devices designed to provide computer-aided diagnosis (CADx). To test the instrument's performance, 487 archival negative smears (index smears) from 228 women with biopsy-documented high-grade precancerous lesions or invasive cervical carcinoma (index women) were retrieved from the files of 10 participating laboratories that were using federally mandated quality assurance procedures. Samples of sequential negative smears (total 9,666) were retrieved as controls. The instrument was used to identify evidence of missed cytological abnormalities, including atypical squamous or glandular cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS, AGUS), low-grade or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL, HSIL) and carcinoma. Using the instrument, 98 false-negative index smears were identified in 72 of the 228 index women (31.6%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 25% to 38%). Disregarding the debatable categories of ASCUS or AGUS, there were 44 women whose false-negative smears disclosed squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) or carcinoma (19.3%; 95% CI: 14.2% to 24.4%). Unexpectedly, SILs were also identified in 127 of 9,666 control negative smears (1.3%; 95% CI: 1.1% to 1.5%). Compared with historical performance data from several participating laboratories, the instrument increased the detection rate of SILs in control smears by 25% and increased the yield of quality control rescreening 5.1 times (P < 0.0001). These data provide evidence that conventional screening and quality control rescreening of cervical smears fail to identify a substantial number of abnormalities. A significant improvement in performance of screening of cervical smears could be achieved with the use of the instrument described in this report. PMID:9343327
Koss, L G; Sherman, M E; Cohen, M B; Anes, A R; Darragh, T M; Lemos, L B; McClellan, B J; Rosenthal, D L; Keyhani-Rofagha, S; Schreiber, K; Valente, P T
Full Text Available In this study, measurements of morphological and size parameters of peripheral blood cells (erythrocyte, leucocyte, thrombocyte on blood smear preparation devices stained with Wright’s stain were given for 87 species from Turkish herpetofauna (19 amphibian species including 7 urodeles and 12 anurans as well as 68 reptile species including 4 turtles, 30 lizards and 34 snake. It was determined that erythrocyte and nucleus sizes showed great variations among the species of herpetofauna and even among the preparations of the same species; the largest blood cells (erythrocyte, leucocyte, thrombocyte were found in urodeles; aquatic and semiaquatic species had larger erythrocytes than terrestrials, and the largest erythrocytes were in turtles among the reptile species examined. Lymphocytes were determined as the predominant cells among the blood leucocytes in blood smears of all the examined species.
Wild golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) - endangered primates that are native to the Brazilian Atlantic coastal forest - were surveyed for the presence of Trypanosoma cruzi with the use of Giemsa-stained blood smears, hemocultures and an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFAT). Positive IFAT with titers ranging from 1:20 to 1:1280 were observed in 52% of the 118 wild tamarins examined and the parasite was isolated from 38 tamarins. No patent parasitemia was observed among the tamarins from which T. cruzi was isolated. Serum conversion and positive hemoculture was observed for three animals that had yielded negative results some months earlier, which indicates that T. cruzi is actively transmitted among tamarins. In contrast to observations with other sylvatic isolates, those from the tamarins were significantly more virulent and most of them produced mortality in experimentally infected Swiss mice. Some variation in the kDNA restriction profiles among the isolates was observed. Electrophoresis with GPI, G6PDH, IDH, MDH and ME enzymes showed a Z2 profile. PMID:10904398
Lisboa, C V; Dietz, J; Baker, A J; Russel, N N; Jansen, A M
Full Text Available Wild golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia -- endangered primates that are native to the Brazilian Atlantic coastal forest -- were surveyed for the presence of Trypanosoma cruzi with the use of Giemsa-stained blood smears, hemocultures and an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFAT. Positive IFAT with titers ranging from 1:20 to 1:1280 were observed in 52% of the 118 wild tamarins examined and the parasite was isolated from 38 tamarins. No patent parasitemia was observed among the tamarins from which T. cruzi was isolated. Serum conversion and positive hemoculture was observed for three animals that had yielded negative results some months earlier, which indicates that T. cruzi is actively transmitted among tamarins. In contrast to observations with other sylvatic isolates, those from the tamarins were significantly more virulent and most of them produced mortality in experimentally infected Swiss mice. Some variation in the kDNA restriction profiles among the isolates was observed. Electrophoresis with GPI, G6PDH, IDH, MDH and ME enzymes showed a Z2 profile.
Lisboa Cristiane V
Morphologic and biometric data on bloodstream stages of Trypanosoma melophagium are presented. An increasing parasitemia with 111 trypomastigote stages of T. melophagium were found in Giemsa-stained thin blood smears taken from a splenectomized, cortisone-treated sheep recently infested with Melophagus ovinus infected with T. melophagium . The arithmetic mean and standard deviation in micron of the distances between posterior end and kinetoplast were 14.7 and 2.9, from the kinetoplastic to the center of the nucleus 5.1 and 1.1, and from there to the anterior end 19.5 and 1.9. The free flagellum measured 6.0 microns +/- 1.6 microns. The median and the range of the central 70% of values (median +/- 35%) of the nuclear index were 1.1 and 0.9-1.2 and of the kinetoplastic index 3.8 and 3.3-4.9. The same data in microns for the maximal width were 3.1 and 2.1-4.6, and for the width at the level of the nucleus 2.9 and 2.2-4.6. The larger and smaller diameters of the nucleus measured 2.6 (2.2-3.7) micron and 1.7 (1.3-1.7) micron, respectively. The corresponding kinetoplast diameters were 1.1 (0.9-1.3) microns and 0.9 (0.6-0.9) micron, respectively. PMID:6737322
Büscher, G; Friedhoff, K T
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A total of 128 ticks of the genus Amblyomma were recovered from 5 marsupials (Didelphis albiventris) - with 4 recaptures - and 17 rodents (16 Bolomys lasiurus and 1 Rattus norvegicus) captured in an urban forest reserve in Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Of the ticks collected, 95 [...] (78.9%) were in larval form and 22 (21.1%) were nymphs; the only adult (0.8%) was identified as A. cajennense. Viewed under dark-field microscopy in the fourth month after seeding, 9 cultures prepared from spleens and livers of the rodents, blood of the marsupials, and macerates of Amblyomma sp. nymphs revealed spiral-shaped, spirochete-like structures resembling those of Borrelia sp. Some of them showed little motility, while others were non-motile. No such structures could be found either in positive Giemsa-stained culture smears or under electron microscopy. No PCR amplification of DNA from those cultures could be obtained by employing Leptospira sp., B. burgdorferi, and Borrelia sp. primers. These aspects suggest that the spirochete-like structures found in this study do not fit into the genera Borrelia or Leptospira, requiring instead to be isolated for proper identification.
IP da, Costa; VLN, Bonoldi; NH, Yoshinari.
Full Text Available A total of 128 ticks of the genus Amblyomma were recovered from 5 marsupials (Didelphis albiventris - with 4 recaptures - and 17 rodents (16 Bolomys lasiurus and 1 Rattus norvegicus captured in an urban forest reserve in Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Of the ticks collected, 95 (78.9% were in larval form and 22 (21.1% were nymphs; the only adult (0.8% was identified as A. cajennense. Viewed under dark-field microscopy in the fourth month after seeding, 9 cultures prepared from spleens and livers of the rodents, blood of the marsupials, and macerates of Amblyomma sp. nymphs revealed spiral-shaped, spirochete-like structures resembling those of Borrelia sp. Some of them showed little motility, while others were non-motile. No such structures could be found either in positive Giemsa-stained culture smears or under electron microscopy. No PCR amplification of DNA from those cultures could be obtained by employing Leptospira sp., B. burgdorferi, and Borrelia sp. primers. These aspects suggest that the spirochete-like structures found in this study do not fit into the genera Borrelia or Leptospira, requiring instead to be isolated for proper identification.
IP da Costa
Bacterial agents are considered important pathogens causing external otitis in dogs. It is essential to carry out bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test in the case of otitis externa, particularly for chronic or recurring cases. Sterile swab samples were obtained from terminal part of vertical ear canals of 74 dogs with otitis externa for cytology, bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test. Cytologic smears were stained using Gram and Giemsa staining methods. Aerobic bacterial culture performed on blood agar and MacConkey agar. Among total number of 92 isolated bacteria, 68 were Staphylococcus intermedius. Other isolated bacteria included: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Pasteurella canis, and six other species of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. Antimicrobial susceptibility test were performed for all isolated bacteria using 14 antibiotics. Based on the results of this study, all isolated Staphylococcus spp. were sensitive to amikacin, enrofloxacin, and rifampin, and had low resistance to gentamicin, cephalothin and ceftriaxone. More than half of gram-positive isolates were resistant to penicillin and ampicillin. Generally, all isolated gram-negative bacteria, were sensitive to amikacin and enrofloxacin, and had low resistance to ceftriaxone and gentamicin. They were highly resistant to penicillin, eythromycin, and cephalothin. Regarding the results of this study, in cases of uncomplicated otitis externa, it is possible to select antimicrobial drugs merely based on cytology, but it is recommended to perform bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test. However, in complicated or refractory cases, antimicrobials should be selected based on bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test. PMID:20526674
Zamankhan Malayeri, Hamed; Jamshidi, Shahram; Zahraei Salehi, Taghi
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Wild golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) -- endangered primates that are native to the Brazilian Atlantic coastal forest -- were surveyed for the presence of Trypanosoma cruzi with the use of Giemsa-stained blood smears, hemocultures and an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFAT). Positiv [...] e IFAT with titers ranging from 1:20 to 1:1280 were observed in 52% of the 118 wild tamarins examined and the parasite was isolated from 38 tamarins. No patent parasitemia was observed among the tamarins from which T. cruzi was isolated. Serum conversion and positive hemoculture was observed for three animals that had yielded negative results some months earlier, which indicates that T. cruzi is actively transmitted among tamarins. In contrast to observations with other sylvatic isolates, those from the tamarins were significantly more virulent and most of them produced mortality in experimentally infected Swiss mice. Some variation in the kDNA restriction profiles among the isolates was observed. Electrophoresis with GPI, G6PDH, IDH, MDH and ME enzymes showed a Z2 profile.
Cristiane V, Lisboa; James, Dietz; Andrew J, Baker; Nédia N, Russel; Ana M, Jansen.
In order to explore the feasibility of producing a Babesia divergens live vaccine free of bovine material contaminants the parasite's ability to grow in human, sheep and horse erythrocytes and serum and serum-free medium was investigated. B. divergens was successfully maintained in bovine erythrocytes overlaid with serum-free HL-1 medium. Supplementation of the culture medium with bovine or sheep serum improved parasite growth (monitored by measuring parasitaemia and uptake of tritiated hypoxanthine) whereas horse and human sera reduced parasite growth. As assessed by Giemsa's stained and FITC-labelled blood smears, the parasite invaded all erythrocyte types. Polyparasitism was less common in sheep and horse erythrocytes than in bovine and human erythrocytes. Accole stages were observed in bovine, human and sheep but not in horse erythrocytes. Proliferation following invasion was higher in human but lower in horse and sheep erythrocytes compared with bovine erythrocytes. Long-term cultures of B. divergens reached similar peak parasitaemias in human, sheep and bovine erythrocytes. Attempts to establish long-term cultures in horse erythrocytes failed. These results suggest that B. divergens is not host specific at the level of host cell attachment and invasion. Instead, parasite survival appears to be decided once the organism has gained access into the cell. PMID:12118713
Zintl, A; Westbrook, C; Mulcahy, G; Skerrett, H E; Gray, J S
Icosahedral nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV)-like viruses, which forminclusions in the erythrocyte cytoplasm of reptiles, were previously presented as candidates for a new genus of the Iridoviridae family. The present work describes the distribution of infected lizard hosts and ultrastructural characteristics of the viral inclusions of NCLDV-like viruses from Portugal and adjacent locations in Spain. Giemsa-stained blood smears of 235 Lacerta schreiberi from Portugal and Spain, 571 Lacerta monticola from the mountain Serra da Estrela (Portugal), 794 Podarcis hispanica from several localities in Portugal and Spain, and 25 Lacerta dugesii from Madeira Island, were studied. Infection in L. schreiberi was only found in mountain populations, up to 30% in Serra da Estrela and 9-11% elsewhere. It was absent in lizards from lowlands. Prevalence of infection among L. monticola in Serra da Estrela was 10%; infected lizards were found during March to July and October but not in August and September. Infection in P. hispanica was below 3.3%. Only one infected specimen of L. dugesii was identified by light microscopy. Ultrastructural examination of infected samples revealed that the inclusions are virus assembly sites of icosahedral cytoplasmic iridovirus-like virions. Virions from different host species have different ultrastructural features and probably represent different related viruses. PMID:23806208
de Matos, António P Alves; Caeiro, M Filomena; Vale, Filipa F; Crespo, Eduardo; Paperna, Ilan
Osmotic pumps containing Escherichia coli-derived recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) were attached to indwelling jugular vein catheters and implanted subcutaneously into Golden Syrian hamsters. Within 3 days, peripheral granulocyte counts had increased > 10-fold with a concomitant 4-fold increase in total leukocytes. Microscopic examination of Wright-Giemsa-stained blood smears from rhG-CSF hamsters showed that only the neutrophil subpopulation of granulocytes had increased. After subcutaneous injection at 35S-labeled rhG-CSF doses of up to 10 ?g x kg-1 x day-1 only granulocyte counts were affected. However, at higher dose levels, a transient thrombocytopenia was noted. Erythrocyte and lymphocyte/monocyte counts remained unaffected by rhG-CSF over the entire dose range studied. Total leukocyte counts increased 3-fold within 12 hr after a single s.c. injection of rhG-CSF. This early effect was associated with an increase in the total number of colony-forming cells and the percent of active cycling cells in the marrow. A sustained elevation of peripheral leukocyte and marrow progenitor counts was observed following seven daily s.c. injections of rhG-CSF. The ability of rhG-CSF to increase the production and release of granulocytes from the marrow may underlie the beneficial effect it produced on the restoration of peripheral leukocyte counts in hamsters made leukopenic by treatment with 5-fluorouracilnic by treatment with 5-fluorouracil
Babesiosis is a tick-borne illness caused by the intraerythrocytic parasite Babesia microti. Adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a complication of B. microti infection and generally presents later in the course of the disease. We present a case of babesiosis presenting with ARDS. A 59-year-old male with history of hypertension and atrial fibrillation presented with one day of progressive shortness of breath. The patient returned from a trip to Massachusetts one day prior. On arrival to the emergency department (ED) the patient was noted to be febrile with tachycardia, tachypnea, and hypoxia and was intubated for respiratory failure. A computed tomography angiography (CTA) was negative for pulmonary embolism and showed bilateral infiltrates. The Berlin criteria for severe ARDS were met. Tick-borne illness was suspected and Wright-Giemsa stained thin blood smear confirmed the diagnosis of babesiosis. The patient was treated with atovaquone and azithromycin for seven days and was successfully extubated on day four of hospitalization. He continued to clinically improve and was discharged home four days later. The case highlights the importance of physicians being aware of the manifold ways in which babesiosis can manifest. PMID:24974563
Panduranga, Veena; Kumar, Anupam
Clinical and laboratory findings were determined in 23 Andalusian horses in southern Spain that were positive for Theileria equi by PCR, including 16 mares at pasture (group A1) and seven stabled stallions (group B1). Five healthy mares at pasture (group A2) and five stabled stallions (group B2), all of which were negative for T.?equi in Giemsa stained blood smears and by PCR, were used as controls. The most frequent clinical signs were anorexia, anaemia, depression and icterus (group A1), along with loss of performance or failure to train and depression (group B1). Thrombocytopoenia was evident in 5/7 horses in group B1. Lower serum iron concentrations were observed in both diseased groups compared with their respective control groups. There were no significant differences in APP concentrations between diseased and control groups; all affected horses had APP concentrations within reference limits. Serum haptoglobin, serum amyloid A and plasma fibrinogen concentrations were higher than the reference limits in 5/23, 3/23 and 1/23 diseased horses, respectively. It was concluded that horses with theileriosis exhibited only a mild systemic inflammatory response. PMID:25086769
Rodríguez, Rocío; Cerón, José J; Riber, Cristina; Castejón, Francisco; Gómez-Díez, Manuel; Serrano-Rodríguez, Juan M; Muñoz, Ana
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to describe the clinicopathological findings in dogs naturally infected with Babesia. During the period of February 2011-February 2012 twenty-nine cases of Babesia Canis were diagnosed in the clinic of Small Animal at the Veterinary Faculty of Tirana. The animal was considered infected when pear shaped babesia was observed inside infected erythrocytes in Wright-Giemsa stained blood smears. The animal stay for one week in our clinic and during this period we evaluated the canine babesiosis cases by means of clinical history, physical examination, hematological and biochemical tests. Based in the clinical sing of babesia the animal was divided in two groups with uncomplicated and complicate babesia. The duration of clinical signs ranged from 1 to 5 days prior to the arrival at the clinic and all the animals were positive with B. c. canis infections. The main clinical signs were dehydration and anemia in (79%, apathy (74%, anorexia or decrease appetite (70% and fever (68%. The anemia was present in the dogs and classified severe (13% as mild (45%, and moderate (52% of all the cases. In conclusion, the main clinicopathological findings were a mild to moderate hemolytic anemia and mild to severe thrombocytopenia.
Eight types of haemocytes were defined in the 6th instar larvae of the greater sugar cane borer Sesamia cretica Led, as follows prohaemocytes, plasmatocytes, granular cells, spindle cells, adipohaemocytes, oenocytoids, spherule cells and cystocytes. Total haemocyte counts (THCs) and differential counts (DHCs) were estimated for diapausing and non-diapausing larvae. During diapause, there was a significant reduction in the numbers of all haemocyte types. Upon termination of diapause, the haemocyte level increased. This reduction in the haemocyte level observed during diapause may be due to the decreased in the metabolic activity. Also, a decrease in the total haemocyte counts appeared after the parasitization of 6th instar S. cretica larvae by the 2nd larval instar of braconid ectoparasioid Bracon brevicornis Wesm. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as compared to the unparasitized ones. However, the DHCs in parasitized larvae showed an increase in the number of phagocytic cells (plasmatocytes, granular cells and spindle cells) and a remarkable decrease in the prohaemocyte counts was detected as compared to that of the unparasitized ones. Moreover, teratocytes appeared in the blood smears of paraitized S. cretica by B. brevicornis. They were round to oval, opaque and stain dark with Giemsa stain and ranged between 5-30 mu in diameter. PMID:9425824
el-Mandarawy, M B
Full Text Available Trypanosomosis in camel caused by Trypanosoma evansi is still a serious problem in camel husbandry causes considerable economic losses in many camel-rearing regions of the world. In the present study 193 camels clinically suspected for surra were examined parasitologically by Giemsa stained blood smear (GSBS and haematocrit centrifugation technique, serologically for detection of anti-trypanosomal antibodies by card agglutination test for trypanosomes (CATT, and for DNA amplification, by Polymerase chain reaction (PCR, with primers yielding a 177 bp PCR product for the specific detection of Trypanozoan parasites. Out of 193, eight camels were positive by GSBS (4.1% while 12 were positive with haematocrit centrifugation technique (6.2%. Detection of anti-trypanosomal antibodies with CATT yielded 84 positive samples (43.5%. Using PCR 110 out of 193 were positive (56.9 %. PCR technique is accurate, more sensitive and specific method for diagnosis of trypanosome infected camels than parasitological techniques; it overcomes the problem of specificity and can detect low parasitemic camels in chronic cases. The PCR proved to be the best test used for detection of camel trypanosomosis in Egypt. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(11.000: 325-328
Full Text Available Aim: Early diagnosis of sepsis in the neonate is often difficult because symptoms and signs are usually non-specific. A study was conducted to evaluate C-reactive protein (CRP as a screening tool for neonatal sepsis. Method: The prospective observational study was conducted at NICU, V. S. Hospital, Ahmedabad from January 2008 to June 2009. 75 neonates were included with the age group of first 28days (4week of life (infant age in study, all of which were suspected to have sepsis in clinical settings. All peripheral smear of neonate stained with Giemsa stain were reviewed .CRP performed by semi quantitative latex agglutination method. Positive cultures were the “gold standard” against which the performance of CRP , abnormal white blood cell counts (WBC & absolute neutrophil counts (ANC were compared. Results: Among 75 septic screens, 39 (52% patients had positive cultures. The sensitivity and specificity of CRP 0.6 mg/dL was 92.30% and 85.71% respectively. Abnormal platelet count had the lowest specificity(45% and sensitivity(23.07% among them. Conclusion: CRP assay using semi quantitative latex agglutination method is a valuable adjunct in screening for neonatal sepsis, complementing clinical decision-making. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(3.000: 276-278
Setal B Chauhan
Animal reservoirs for Trypanosoma cruzi infection were investigated in 5 communities in the Department of San Pedro, currently one of Paraguay's most highly endemic areas. A total of 112 domestic animals (37 cattle, 2 horses, 1 ass, 20 pigs, 44 dogs and 8 cats) and 4 wild animals (1 white-eared opossum, 2 yellow armadillos and 1 common long-nosed armadillo) were examined for blood. Although no trypomastigotes were found by 2 direct observation methods, the microhaematocrit and Giemsa stained thick and thin smears methods, several forms of trypanosoma flagellates morphologically identical to T. cruzi were detected in the liver infusion tryptose (LIT) medium from a single sample taken from a yellow armadillo, Euphractus sexicintus. When serum samples of all the animals were examined for antibody to T. cruzi by direct agglutination (DA) test, 3 cattle, 2 pigs, 16 dogs and 3 cats had positive titers (1:32 or greater), but no wild animals showed positive reactions. T. cruzi was not found by culture nor microscopic examination of samples from any of the seropositive animals. However, domestic animals such as cattle, pigs, dogs and cats which were found to be seropositive in this study, possibly act as an animal reservoir in this endemic area as well as armadillos in which T. cruzi was observed. PMID:8075219
Fujita, O; Sanabria, L; Inchaustti, A; De Arias, A R; Tomizawa, Y; Oku, Y
Aim:This research work is aimed to find out the prevalence of haemoparasitic infections in different categories of dogs.Materials and Methods: Out of 2104 dogs registered in the Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex of the College ofVeterinary Science, Khanapara, Guwahati during January 2009 to December 2010, blood of 424 cases suspected forhaemoparasites on the basis of clinical history were microscopically examined in wet blood film and giemsa stained bloodsmears.Results: The prevalence was ...
Bhattacharjee, K.; Sarmah, P. C.
AIM: To clarify the incidence of congenital hemolytic anemias (CHA) in young cholelithiasis patients and to determine a possible screening test based on the results.METHODS: Young cholelithiasis patients (< 35 years) were invited to our outpatient clinic. Participants were asked for comorbidities and family history. The number of gallstones were recorded. Blood samples were obtained to perform a complete blood count, standard Wright-Giemsa staining, reticulocyte count, hemoglobin (Hb) electro...
Ali Ezer, Nurkan Torer
Full Text Available Abstract-Cervicovaginal cytology is still a widely used cancer screening method that is well established in most countries. The present study aims at detecting and classifying squamous intraepithelial abnormalities and effects of certain infectious agents, particularly the cytopathic effects of human papillomavirus (HPV in a series of cervicovaginal smears, according to the Bethesda system (TBS. The significance of specimen adequacy in revealing squamous intraepithelial abnormalities (SIEA was also evaluated. Overall, 9066 smears were examined according to TBS. For interpretation of atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance (ASCUS, certain quality control (QC guidelines were considered. While stressing on koilocytic atypia, the full spectrum of cytologic alterations due to HPV was investigated. Of all smears, 79% were satisfactory for evaluation and 15% were inadequately satisfactory due to absence of the endocervical/transformation zone (EC/TZ component. The proportion of SIEA was significantly (P< 0.05 higher in smears having such a component. Of 246 cases with SIEA, 173 (1.90% cases were classified as ASCUS, 46 (0.50% as low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL, and 27 (0.26% as high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL. Of the latter, 19 cases demonstrated HPV effects. ASCUS was the most frequent diagnosis for which QC criteria were fulfilled. On the basis of our study the adequacy of specimen is of paramount significance, with particular emphasis on the presence of EC/TZ component.
N. Izadi Mood T. Hacopian
This light microscopic retrospective study of 798 cervical smear were done to see the pattern of cervical lesions and main presenting complaints of the women who attended the Gynae & Obstetrics department of BIRDEM hospital for medical and surgical advice. Out of these 798 smears examined light microscopically 274(34.34%) was normal, 453(54.26%) were inflammatory smear, 49(6.14%) showed Gardrenella, 9(1.13%) revealed the presence of Candida, 3(0.38%) showed Trichomonial infection, 6(0.76%) showed the presence of atypical cells (5ASCUS, 1 CIN) and 2(0.26%) were positive for malignancy, (1 adenocarcinoma, 1 squamous cell carcinoma). The mean age+/-SE of the women were 43.12+/-9.18 years, mean+/-SE age of the last child was 14.19+/-7.99 years; mean+/-SE of para was 3.5+/-7.34 pregnancies. The common presenting complains of these women Menorrhagia (17.92%), Menopausal Symptoms (17.42%), Lower Abdominal pain (15.78%), White PV discharge (15.78%), Dysmenorrhoea (7.52%), Pruritus/Itching vulva (7.14%), Prolapse (4.39%), Fibroid (2.01%), Infertility (1.13%), Post coital bleeding (0.75%) respectively. Pap's smear is reconfirmed as an established major screening tool for diagnosis of different cervical lesions. PMID:20395913
Rahman, M T; Afroze, N; Tahmin, T; Nipa, N N; Faisal, R H; Choudhury, S R
From January 1987 to August 1988, cytomorphologic criteria of both herpes simplex virus (HSV) and radiation effects were observed in Papanicolaou smears from 3 of 1,340 patients who had received radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase staining, using a rabbit IgG polyclonal HSV antibody, confirmed the presence of HSV antigen in those three postradiation smears. Both multinucleated molded cells and epithelial cells that lacked cytopathic effects were positive for HSV. Three other postradiation smears from these cases were similarly positive for HSV antigen; the one preradiation smear was negative. In situ hybridization and immunoperoxidase studies on sections from the preradiation biopsies were negative: severely altered neoplastic cells showed no reactivity. The absence of HSV markers in the preradiation specimens suggests that the HSV infections were secondary to the radiotherapy; further studies are needed to prove this association and to assess the possible mechanisms. These cases clearly indicate that the overlapping features of radiation and viral effects (such as multinucleation) may be present simultaneously
One hundred forty-three patients, 72 males and 71 females, with extrapulmonary tuberculosis were aspirated and subjected to cytological (Ziehl-Neelsen stain) examination and culture in Lowenstein-Jensen media. Routine haematological examination and Mantoux test were done in all the cases, x-ray chest in 112, skeletal x-ray in 3 relevant cases and sputum was examined for AFB in 16 cases where pulmonary tuberculosis was associated/suspected with extrapulmonary tuberculosis. HIV status was evaluated in 51 cases and 9 (7.64%) were seropositive. FNA cytology in 102 cases (71.3%) had caseating epithelioid granulomas while smear for AFB was positive in 57 cases (39.8%). Both culture and smear were positive in 29 (20.2%) cases. Combining both smear and culture yielded positive results in 47.5% cases. It was observed that AFB positivity was higher in untreated patients and with HIV positive cases. Further more, the triad of FNAC, AFB smear and culture were cheaper, foolproof and confirmatory than costlier tests like TB IgG, IgM, RTPCR and BACTEC. PMID:15168975
Sinha, S K; Chatterjee, M; Bhattacharya, S; Pathak, S K; Mitra, R Basu; Karak, K; Mukherjee, M
No evidence exists to support a clinical benefit from annual pelvic examinations for asymptomatic women who receive Pap smears every 3 to 5 years. However, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee on gynecologic practice recommends annual pelvic exams. PMID:25574511
Gold, Erin; Guthmann, Richard; Plonka, Catherine
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Mechanical instrumentation of the root surface causes the formation of a smear layer, which is a physical barrier that can affect periodontal regeneration. Although different procedures have been proposed to remove the smear layer, there is no information concerning how long the smear layer persists [...] on root surfaces after instrumentation in vivo. This study assessed the presence of the smear layer on root surfaces over a 28-day period after subgingival instrumentation with hand instruments. Fifty human teeth that were referred for extraction because of advanced periodontal disease were scaled and root planed (SRP) by a single experienced operator. Ten teeth were randomly assigned to be extracted 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after SRP. Another 10 teeth were extracted immediately after instrumentation (Day 0, control group). The subgingival area of the instrumented roots was evaluated with scanning electron microscopy. Representative photomicrographs were assessed by a blinded and calibrated examiner according to a scoring system. A rapid and significant (p
Fernanda Regina Godoy, ROCHA; Daniela Leal, ZANDIM-BARCELOS; Carlos, ROSSA JUNIOR; José Eduardo Cezar, SAMPAIO.
In nuclear power plants, drums are used in carrying out volume reduction treatment of low-level combustible solid wastes. After the treatment process, these drums are decontaminated, subjected to smear testing, and then reutilized. Shikoku Electric Power Co., Ltd. and Meidensha Electric Mfg. Co., Ltd. worked jointly to develop an automatic manipulator system to perform decontamination operation and smear testing for surface contamination of these recycled drums. The system consists of a drum feeder, drum handling equipment, decontamination/testing robot, wiping paper feeder, radioactive ray measuring apparatus, drum conveyor and control system. Major features of the system are as follows: 1) both sides of the lid as well as the body and bottom plate of a drum is decontaminated automatically; 2) liquid secondary wastes are not generated since decontamination is performed by wiping the drum with paper; 3) smear testing is carried out automatically (unaccepted drums are sent back to the decontamination process); 4) three manipulating arms for wet and dry decontamination and smear testing are changed automatically; and 5) several drums are processed continuously. (Nogami, K.)
Full Text Available Background: Decline in morbidity & mortality due to cervical cancer in developed countries can be mainly attributed to early detection of precancerous & cancerous lesions due to extensive screening programmeof cervical Pap smear examination. HPV infection is a known etiological agent for cervical cancer. HIV infected women are at higher risk of contracting HPV infection due to immune compromised status. Objective: Present study has been undertaken mainly to detect precancerous & cancerous lesions as well as inflammatory lesions in female patients living with HIV & to emphasize the fact that Pap smear examination should be established as a part of routine protocol for examination in these women. Methods: The study was carried out on 407 HIV infected females attending Integrated Counseling &Testing Centre of government institute. As controls, 200 females (not falling under high risk category, attending the Obstetrics& Gynecology OPD with various gynecological complaints were taken & results were compared. Results: Squamous cell abnormalities were found about four times high as compared to control group(Pvalue <0.05. High incidences of squamous cell abnormalities were noted in patients with high parity (parity three or more. Conlcusion: Regular gynecological examination including Pap smear examinations is highly recommended for HIV infected females.Pap smear examination is a simple, cheap, safe & practical diagnostic tool for early detection of cervical cancer in high risk population. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(1.000: 81-84
B M Jha
Full Text Available Introduction A smear layer forms on the root canal walls as the consequence of root instrumentation. The smear layer formed in such a way considerably influences the quality of root obturation and endodontic treatment outcome. Objective The aim of this study was to ultrastructurally analyze the surface of intracanal dentine after removal of the smear layer by the solution of doxycycline, citric acid and detergent Tween-80 (MTAD. Methods The study involved 60 single-rooted, extracted, human teeth divided into four groups. All samples were instrumented by a step-back technique and manual K-files, and rinsed during instrumentation by 2% CHX and H2O2. The first group of samples was exclusively rinsed by CHX and H2O2; in the second group, besides using CHX and H2O2, MTAD solution was used for the final irrigation. The samples which were rinsed by distilled water (+ control and the samples rinsed by 5.25% NaOCl and 17% Na EDTA (-control served as control groups. All samples were observed under the scanning electronic microscope JEOL-JSM-5300. The coronary, middle and apex thirds of the radix region were analyzed. Results The obtained results of the SEM analysis showed that the application of 2% chlorhexidine and hydrogen peroxide did not give clear dentine walls, and the smear layer could not be removed completely. The application of the same combination (CHX and H2O2, added by the final MTAD irrigation solution, led to the efficient removal of the smear layer, while the morphological structure of dentine surface remained unchanged. Statistical analysis showed that canal walls in the experimental group with MTAD as the final irrigation were significantly clearer compared to the control group (p<0.001. Conclusion Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that MTAD is an efficient solution for the final irrigation of the canal system.
Purpose: This study evaluates the use of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) to differentiate smear-positive, active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) from other pulmonary infections in the emergency room (ER) setting. Methods: One hundred and eighty-three patients diagnosed with pulmonary infections in an ER were divided into an acid fast bacillus (AFB) smear-positive, active PTB group (G1 = 84) and a non-AFB smear-positive, pulmonary infection group (G2 = 99). HRCT images from a 64-Multidetector CT were analyzed, retrospectively, for the morphology, number, and segmental distribution of pulmonary lesions. Results: Utilizing multivariate analysis, five variables were found to be independent risk factors predictive of G1: (1) consolidation involving the apex segment of right upper lobe, posterior segment of the right upper lobe, or apico-posterior segment of the left upper lobe; (2) consolidation involving the superior segment of the right or left lower lobe; (3) presence of a cavitary lesion; (4) presence of clusters of nodules; (5) absence of centrilobular nodules. A G1 prediction score was generated based on these 5 criteria to help differentiate G1 from G2. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.96 ± 0.012 in our prediction model. With an ideal cut-off point score of 3, the specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) are 90.9%, 96.4%, 90.0% and 96.8%, respectively. Conclusion: Th% and 96.8%, respectively. Conclusion: The use of this AFB smear-positive, active PTB prediction model based on 5 key HRCT findings may help ER physicians determine whether or not isolation is required while awaiting serial sputum smear results in high risk patients.
Full Text Available Objective: In this study of women admitted to our center with information on pap smear test, to evaluate the attitudes and behavior. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study of Van Mother-Child Health and Family Planning Center on a voluntary basis, women aged 15-49 were admitted to the control. The education level of participants, age at first marriage, before the presence of vaginal infection, the story, and motivations pap smear level of information availability, and a family history of cancer, administered a questionnaire asking the state to have a regular income. Results: The study included 362 women with age and hear the pap smear test was significantly increased (p = 0.01. Working women and pap smear level of knowledge (p = 0.04 and pap smears than women not working for International rates significantly higher (p = 0.02. Treatment of vaginal infection at least once before to get there was a significant relationship between the pap smear motivations (p>0.05. Family history of gynecologic cancer or non-gynecologic cancer smears have significantly increased the level of motivations (p = 0.0001. Pap smear information, regular the economic income of those levels, significantly higher than those without regular income (p = 0.0001. Conclusion: We serve the region, with low socio-economic characteristics that are considered, gynecological examination by health workers or women from the home visits, pap smear test for what purpose and how often you get the work done and the importance of explaining and giving more space to this issue suggest that the written and visual media. Keywords: Pap smears, health care, education [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(5.000: 527-532
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The lesson is design to describe the factors affecting blood flow through the cardiovascular system. The lesson uses the 5E model as an approach for students to become engaged, analytical and inquisitive in learning about the mechanism of blood flow and the importance of this in our body. In addition, the lesson engages the student to test variables that may affect blood flow.
ARNEL DELA CRUZ
Full Text Available Cheng-Yu Chang,1,* Jen-Yee Hong,2,* Mei-Kang Yuan,3,4 Shu-Ju Chang,5 Yuan-Ming Lee,6 Shih-Chieh Chang,2,4 Li-Cho Hsu,2,* Shin-Lung Cheng11Division of Chest Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 2Department of Internal Medicine, 3Department of Radiology, 4Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 5Department of Industrial Management and Enterprise Information, Aletheia University, Taipei, Taiwan; 6Department of Laboratory Medicine, National Yang-Ming University Hospital, Yilan, Taiwan *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Acid-fast bacilli (AFB smear-positive sputum is usually an initial clue in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB; however, the test is not disease-specific. Nontuberculous mycobacterium-related colonization or lung disease often has AFB smear-positive sputum results, and physicians may prescribe unnecessary antituberculous drugs for these patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics of patients with AFB smear-positive sputum who received unnecessary anti-TB treatment.Methods and patients: From January 2008 to July 2011, we retrospectively enrolled 97 patients with AFB smear-positive sputum who did not have pulmonary TB according to mycobacterial cultures and clinical judgment. We analyzed the clinical and radiographic features of the patients who received inappropriate and unnecessary anti-TB treatment. Preliminary analyses of chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were applied to determine factors unlikely to be associated with the independent variables. The relationship between independent covariates was then analyzed using multivariate logistic regression.Results: Of the 97 enrolled patients, 25 (25.8% were diagnosed with pulmonary TB and prescribed anti-TB drugs (mostly a combination of isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide. The other 72 (74.2% patients were not initially diagnosed with pulmonary TB and were classified as the control group. Compared to the control group, the patients who received inappropriate anti-TB treatment had more chronic cough as presentation symptom and heavy AFB Ziehl–Neelsen staining in sputum (>10/100 fields, grading 2+ to 4+. There were no significant differences in the radiographic analysis between the two groups.Conclusion: Among the patients with AFB smear-positive sputum that did not have pulmonary TB, chronic cough and heavy AFB staining (2+ to 4+ were risk factors for the inappropriate administration of unnecessary anti-TB treatment.Keywords: AFB smear-positive sputum, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, antituberculous treatment
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a remoção de smear layer por meio da microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e quantificar a liberação de íons cálcio resultante da irrigação com as soluções quelantes estudadas, por meio da espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. Dezesseis caninos extraíd [...] os foram instrumentados com a técnica step-back e divididos em 3 grupos de acordo com a solução irrigadora utilizada: G1: 1 mL de EDTAC a 17% entre cada lima; G2: CDTA a 17%; e G3: EGTA a 17%. As soluções foram coletadas após o uso. Os dentes foram secionados longitudinalmente e as raízes examinadas por MEV para verificação de smear layer nos terços por meio de escores (variando de 1 a 4), e avaliadas por três examinadores calibrados "cegos". Para quantificar a liberação de íons cálcio, as soluções coletadas foram avaliadas por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. Com relação ao smear layer, o teste de Friedman evidenciou diferença estatisticamente significante (p Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to evaluate, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), smear layer removal and quantify, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, the amount of calcium ion present in the chelating solutions after their use. Sixteen extracted canines were instrumented using the step-back te [...] chnique and were assigned to 3 groups according to the irrigating solution used: G1: 1 mL 17% EDTAC between each file; G2: 1 mL 17% CDTA; G3: 1 mL 17% EGTA. The solutions were collected after use. The teeth were cleaved longitudinally, evaluated under SEM and assessed for smear layer by blinded examiners and scored from 1 to 4. In order to quantify calcium ion release, the collected solutions were examined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Freidman's test was used for statistical analysis of SEM values and showed that canals irrigated with 17% EDTAC and 17% CDTA had significantly less smear layer throughout the canals than 17% EGTA (p
Andre Augusto Franco, Marques; Melissa Andréia, Marchesan; Celso Bernardo de, Sousa-Filho; Yara Teresinha Correa, Silva-Sousa; Manoel D., Sousa-Neto; Antonio Miranda da, Cruz-Filho.
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Much research has shown that Human Papiloma Virus (HPV plays an important role in cervix cancer and it is the cause of 99% of cervix cancer worldwide. Lots of research has been done to find a proper method for HPV diagnosis and screening in patients with genital warts. This study aimed at comparing PCR method with Pap smear test in HPV screening. Material and Methods: Considering the presence of DNA of HPV, 45 vaginal and cervix swap samples of women with genital warts were tested by means of specific PCR and Pap smear from September 2010 to April 2011. Results: Out of 45 vaginal and cervix swap samples of women suffering genital warts, 37 samples (82.2% are positive. Of 45 Pap smear samples, 13 (29% are neoplasia and 32 (71% normal. Conclusion: The difference between the results of PCR and Pap smear is due to low specification and sensitivity of Pap smear. Thus it is recommended using diagnostic PCR method in addition to Pap smear in order to promote the quality of screening in individuals with genital warts. Keywords: Human Papiloma Virus (HPV; Genital Warts; Molecular (PCR; Pap Smear
Bashi zadeh Fakhar, H. (MSc
Full Text Available Ditsapelo M McFarland College of Nursing and Public Health, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA Purpose: Papanicolaou (Pap smear services are available in most urban areas in Botswana. Yet most women in such areas do not screen regularly for cancer of the cervix. The purpose of this article is to present findings on the associations of demographic variables and Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana. Sample and methods: The study included a convenience sample of 353 asymptomatic women aged 30 years and older who were living in Gaborone, Botswana. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and items of the Health Belief Model. Data analysis included descriptive statistics for demographic variables and bivariate and ordinal (logit regression to determine the associations of demographic variables. Results: Having health insurance and having a regular health care provider were significant predictors of whether or not women had a Pap smear. Women with health insurance were more likely to have had a Pap smear test than women without health insurance (91% vs 36%. Similarly, women who had a regular health care provider were more likely to have had a Pap smear test than women without a regular health care provider (94% vs 42%. Major barriers to screening included what was described as "laziness" for women who had ever had a Pap smear (57% and limited information about Pap smear screening for women who had never had a Pap smear (44%. Conclusion: There is a need for more information about the importance of the Pap smear test and for increased access to screening services in Botswana. Keywords: cervical, screening, barriers, access, beliefs
The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of Tooth Mousse (TM) application, smear layer removal, and storage time on resin-dentin microtensile bond strength (?TBS). Dentin specimens were divided into two groups: (1) smear layer covered; (2) smear layer removed using 15% EDTA for 90 s. In each group, half the specimens were treated once with TM for 60 min. After bonding procedures using a two-step self-etching adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond (CSE); Kuraray Medical, Tokyo, Japan), an all-i...
Lin, Jun; Zheng, Wei-ying; Liu, Peng-ruo-feng; Zhang, Ning; Lin, Hui-ping; Fan, Yi-jing; Gu, Xin-hua; Vollrath, Oliver; Mehl, Christian
We consider the influence of quenched spatial disorder on phase transitions in classical and quantum systems. We show that rare strong disorder fluctuations can have dramatic effects on critical points. In classical systems with sufficiently correlated disorder or in quantum systems with overdamped dynamics they can completely destroy the sharp phase transition by smearing. This is caused by effects similar to but stronger than Griffiths phenomena: True static order can develop on a rare region while the bulk system is still in the disordered phase. We discuss the thermodynamic behavior in the vicinity of such a smeared transition using optimal fluctuation theory, and we present numerical results for a two-dimensional model system.
Vojta, T; Vojta, Thomas; Sknepnek, Rastko
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia de um escova intra-canal (CanalBrush, Coltène) na remoção da smear layer das paredes do canal radicular, quando usada de acordo com as instruções do fabricante. Quarenta e quatro incisivos mandibulares unirradiculares foram instrumentados até o ápice co [...] m instrumentos 30/0.06 e aleatoriamente distribuidos em três grupos A, B e C, com regime de irrigação final de 10 mL a 17% EDTA e 10 mL NaOCl a 2,5% para o Grupo A; irrigação final de 10 mL EDTA, 5 mL NaOCl, uso da escovinha CanalBrush por 20 s a 450 rpm e 5 mL NaOCl para o Grupo B e 10 mL NaOCl, uso da escovinha CanalBrush e 10 mL NaOCl para o Grupo C. Foi utilizada escovinha CanalBrush de tamanho médio para cada canal e todas elas foram examinadas em microscópio para avaliação da deformação de cerdas. Depois as raízes foram cortadas longitudinalmente e a presença da smear layer foi avaliada por microscópio eletrônico de varredura. As escovinhas usadas apresentaram todas alguma deformação das cerdas. No Grupo C foi observada a maior média de área de smear layer em todos os terços dentais. Na comparação dos terços apicais de todos os grupos não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos A e B (3,64±0.48 e 3,68±0,62, respectivamente), enquanto que o Grupo C mostrou escores significativamente mais altos(3,9±0.28) que os outros dois grupos. Concluindo, a escovinha CanalBrush mostrou ser incapaz de remover a smear layer dos canais instrumentados, quando usada de acordo com as instruções do fabricante. Abstract in english This study evaluated the effectiveness of a highly flexible endodontic brush made of polypropylene canal brush (CanalBrush; Coltène) on smear layer removal from the canal walls when used according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Forty-four single-rooted mandibular incisors were prepared to ap [...] ical size 30/0.06 and randomly divided into three groups A, B and C, where the final irrigation regimen was 10 mL 17% EDTA and 10 mL 2.5% NaOCl for group A, 10 mL EDTA, 5 mL NaOCl, CanalBrush for 20 s at 450 rpm and 5 mL NaOCl for group B, 10 mL NaOCl, CanalBrush and 10 mL NaOCl for group C. One medium-sized CanalBrush was used for each root canal and all brushes were examined under the optical microscope after application to evaluate bristle deformation. Afterwards, roots were split longitudinally and the presence of smear layer was evaluated under a scanning electron microscope. Used brushes invariably exhibited bristle deformation. Group C exhibited the highest means of smear layer in all thirds. Comparing the apical thirds in all groups, there was no statistical difference between groups A and B (3.64±0.48 and 3.68±0.62 respectively), while group C exhibited significantly higher scores (3.9±0.28) than the other two groups. In conclusion, the CanalBrush proved unable to remove smear layer from the instrumented root canals, when used according to the manufacturers' instructions.
Eleni, Protogerou; Ioanna, Arvaniti; Ioannis, Vlachos; Marouan Georgios, Khabbaz.
Full Text Available There are several case reports documenting opportunistic fungal infection in the female genital tract, with Aspergillus spp being a rarely reported causative organism. We hereby report a case of Aspergillus infection in a 48 year-old, postmenopausal female with carcinoma of the cervix. She presented with features of pelvic inflammatory disease, and an initial routine cervico-vaginal smear revealed severe inflammation along with fungal bodies. The features were consistent with the presence of Aspergillus spp, while the background epithelial cells were negative for intraepithelial malignancy. She was offered therapy for pelvic inflammatory disease. A repeat Papanicolaou smear after two weeks was negative for intraepithelial organisms, but showed the evidence of a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, with biopsy confirming squamous cell carcinoma.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A citologia de Tzanck consiste em método simples e confiável para o diagnóstico de dermatoses virais, parasitárias, autoimunes e tumorais. Para exemplificar o emprego do teste de Tzanck em lesões vésico-bolhosas, um caso de pênfigo vulgar é descrito, cuja citologia e imunofluorescência direta, utili [...] zando-se esfregaço coletado de lesão oral, confirmaram o diagnóstico de forma rápida e fácil. Abstract in english Tzanck smears can be used for the diagnosis of cutaneous infections, autoimmune disorders and cutaneous tumors. To exemplify its use, we report a case of a female patient with pemphigus vulgaris whose diagnosis was confirmed by positive direct immunofluorescence and conventional cytology using smear [...] s obtained by scraping the cheek mucosa.
Moema Mignac Cumming, Brito; Daniela Chaves, Tarquínio; Darlene, Arruda; Roberto Silva, Costa; Ana Maria, Roselino.
Search prefilters developed from spectral data collected on two 6700 Thermo-Nicolet FTIR spectrometers were able to identify the respective manufacturing plant and the production line of an automotive vehicle from its clear coat paint smear using IR transmission spectra collected on a Bio-Rad 40A or Bio-Rad 60 FTIR spectrometer. All four spectrometers were equipped with DTGS detectors. An approach based on instrumental line functions was used to transfer the classification model between the Thermo-Nicolet and Bio-Rad instruments. In this study, 209 IR spectra of clear coat paint smears comprising the training set were collected using two Thermo-Nicolet 6700 IR spectrometers, whereas the validation set consisted of 242 IR spectra of clear coats obtained using two Bio-Rad FTIR instruments. PMID:24401422
Lavine, Barry K; Fasasi, Ayuba; Mirjankar, Nikhil; Sandercock, Mark
Full Text Available A citologia de Tzanck consiste em método simples e confiável para o diagnóstico de dermatoses virais, parasitárias, autoimunes e tumorais. Para exemplificar o emprego do teste de Tzanck em lesões vésico-bolhosas, um caso de pênfigo vulgar é descrito, cuja citologia e imunofluorescência direta, utilizando-se esfregaço coletado de lesão oral, confirmaram o diagnóstico de forma rápida e fácil.Tzanck smears can be used for the diagnosis of cutaneous infections, autoimmune disorders and cutaneous tumors. To exemplify its use, we report a case of a female patient with pemphigus vulgaris whose diagnosis was confirmed by positive direct immunofluorescence and conventional cytology using smears obtained by scraping the cheek mucosa.
Moema Mignac Cumming Brito
An automated smear counting and data processing system for a life science laboratory was developed to facilitate routine surveys and eliminate human errors by using a notebook computer. This system was composed of a personal computer, a liquid scintillation counter and a well-type NaI(Tl) scintillation counter. The radioactivity of smear samples was automatically measured by these counters. The personal computer received raw signals from the counters through an interface of RS-232C. The software for the computer evaluated the surface density of each radioisotope and printed out that value along with other items as a report. The software was programmed in Pascal language. This system was successfully applied to routine surveys for contamination in our facility. PMID:7558851
Ogata, Y; Nishizawa, K
A comprehensive analysis to the problem of deuteron smearing corrections is given. Some problems of the usual approach (conventional approach) are discussed. It is shown that the formalism adopted by this approach leads to i) the existence of the so-called West #betta# corrections and ii) the disagreement of the sum rules with the quark parton model expectations in leptonic scattering. It is also shown that in this formalism the electroproduction expression is not inconsistent, and hence, in contradiction with Bodek's conclusion. Following West for the identification of the wave function, it is found that the smearing correction ?sub(s) of the high-energy (50-370 GeV) pion - and nucleon - process is non-negligible, and hence, in contradiction with the usual expectation. Another test for this approach is suggested. (author)
Hyalinizing trabecular tumor (HTT) is a rare neoplasm which usually follows an indolent clinical course. The cytologic diagnosis of HTT can be challenging as these neoplasms share cytomorphological features with other thyroid neoplasms and paraganglioma. In fine-needle aspiration (FNA) smears a diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) or suspicion of PTC is often made. Herein we report cytologic findings in two patients with HTT examined by FNA. The key to a correct diagnosis is the recognition of a hyaline and colloid/amyloid-like material in the background of the smears. Immunocytochemical examination showing aberrant membranous and peripheral cytoplasmic staining for MIB-1 can help in rendering a correct diagnosis. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25352467
Baku?a-Zalewska, Elwira; Cameron, Robert; Ga?czy?ski, Jacek P; Domanski, Henryk A
The conventional method of processing sputum for acid fast bacilli microscopy has been a primary tool for laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in Papua New Guinea. In routine preparation, untreated sputum is directly smeared on a glass slide without undergoing any stage of processing. Mounting evidence suggests that direct smearing is less sensitive and, to a certain degree, compromises infection control. A few alternatives for processing sputum have been recommended in the literature; however, their consumables are not easily accessible and are expensive for wide use in rural laboratories. The bleach concentration and processing method appears to be the most preferable choice because bleach is inexpensive, readily available, and has bactericidal properties. PMID:25378525
Makaen, Johnson; Maure, Tobbias
As a basis for other experiments using flow cytometry of porcine peripheral blood leukocytes, cell fractions were isolated by various methods and analyzed by forward angle light scatter and 90 degree light scatter. Cytospin smears of cell samples were also studied by leukocyte differential counts and nonspecific esterase staining. Three main populations of peripheral blood leukocytes [lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes (primarily neutrophils)], were defined in the log 90 degree light sc...
Wang, F. I.; Williams, T. J.; El-awar, F. Y.; Pang, V. F.; Hahn, E. C.
In order to evaluate prevalence and intensity of apicomplexan hemoparasites in free-ranging reptiles from Romania, blood smears were collected from European pond turtles (Emys orbicularis), sand lizards (Lacerta agilis), and spur-thighed tortoises (Testudo graeca). All three host species were positive for blood parasites, with prevalence of infected individuals between 60.71% and 100% and variable intensity. Similarities and differences with other epidemiological data are discussed. PMID:18283494
Mihalca, A D; Racka, K; Gherman, C; Ionescu, D T
We used a thermonuclease test to presumptively identify Staphylococcus aureus directly in blood cultures on the same day that a smear of the broth showed gram-positive cocci in clusters. There were no discrepancies between the identification of S. aureus directly from 250 blood cultures and identification by the tube coagulase test which was performed on the 18- to 24-h subculture isolates. These rapid results were clinically relevant and enabled physicians to make more timely and cost-effect...
Ratner, H. B.; Stratton, C. W.
Cyclospora, a coccidian protist, is increasingly being identified as an important, newly emerging parasite that causes diarrhea, flatulence, fatigue, and abdominal pain leading to weight loss in immunocompetent persons with or without a recent travel history as well as in patients with AIDS. Modified Kinyoun's acid-fast stain is the most commonly used stain to identify the oocyst of this parasite in fecal smears. Oocysts of Cyclospora stain variably by the modified acid-fast procedure, result...
Visvesvara, G. S.; Moura, H.; Kovacs-nace, E.; Wallace, S.; Eberhard, M. L.
The recognition of Cryptococcus neoformans in Gram-stained smears of purulent exudates may be hampered by the presence of the large gelatinous capsule which apparently prevents definitive staining of the yeast-like cells. In such stained preparations, C. neoformans may appear either as round cells with gram-positive granular inclusions impressed upon a pale lavender cytoplasmic background or as gram-negative lipoid bodies.
Bottone, E. J.
Early diagnosis of uterine cervical cancer is extremely important to reduce morbidity and mortality caused by this type of cancer. This justifies a study to examine the coverage and results of the Pap smear test in SUS users, taking into account the alterations pattern and proposed treatment, and the women proportion who do not return to receive the results of such tests. With these aims, it was developed a quantitative, descriptive and exploratory research, using the records of a Basic H...
Jéssica Fracalossi Feijó; Gustavo Potratz Gonçalves; Thaís Fonseca Chagas; Carolina Airão Destefani; Laryssa Caroline Reis Silva; Luísa Gonçalves Dutra de Oliveira
Background: Trichomoniasis is an extremely common sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide and is associated with important public health problems, including amplification of HIV transmission. This disease is in forms of symptomatic and asymptomatic in women and may depend on host as well as parasite variables. Most of the studies reported from females are based on examination of vaginal secretions and urine samples by direct smear and culture in modified Diamond's media. The aim ...
Valadkhani, Z.; Kazemi, F.; Assmar, M.; Amirkhani, A.; Esfandeari, B.; Lotfi, M.; Ghobadi-rad, S.; Hassan, N.; Aghighi, Z.
Filariasis is a major public health problem in India and microfilaria is sometimes seen during routine fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) smears, but it is very rare to find microfilaria coexistent with neoplastic lesions. Here we report a series of seven cases in which microfilaria is associated with neoplastic lesions. Out of these seven cases one is benign and six are malignant. Also we first time report the microfilaria coexistent with parotid pleomorphic adenoma, undifferentiated car...
Pantola, Chayanika; Kala, Sanjay; Agarwal, Asha; Khan, Lubna
Abstract Systemic AL amyloidosis is associated with nearly 15% of cases of multiple myeloma, but data on the frequency and significance of amyloid deposits in the bone marrow of patients affected by multiple myeloma without clinical signs of systemic amyloidosis are scanty. Bone marrow smears of 166 unselected patients affected by multiple myeloma (126 at diagnosis and 40 after treatment) were stained with Congo red and studied by transmission and birefringence microscopy. Both foc...
Petruzziello, Fara; Zeppa, Pio; Catalano, Lucio; Cozzolino, Immacolata; Gargiulo, Giuseppe; Musto, Pellegrino; D Auria, Fiorella; Liso, Vincenzo; Rizzi, Rita; Caruso, Nadia; Califano, Catello; Piro, Eugenio; Musso, Maurizio; Bonanno, Vincenza; Pia Falcone, Antonietta
There are several case reports documenting opportunistic fungal infection in the female genital tract, withr Aspergillus spp being a rarely reported causative organism. We hereby report a case of Aspergillus infection in a 48 year-old, postmenopausal female with carcinoma of the cervix. She presented with features of pelvic inflammatory disease, and an initial routine cervico-vaginal smear revealed severe inflammation along with fungal bodies. The features were consistent with the presence of...
Deb, Prabal; Srivastava, Anurag
Background: Cervical acid phosphatase-Papanicolaou (CAP-PAP) test has recently been described for detection of acid phosphatase enzyme in abnormal squamous cells, and has been proposed as a biomarker-based technology for the screening of cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: Eighty-one consecutive cervical smears were subjected to routine Papanicolaou (Pap) staining as well as CAP-PAP, which combined cytochemical staining for acid phosphatase with modified Pap stain. Statistic...
Deb Prabal; Iyer Venkateswaran; Bhatla Neerja; Markovic O; Verma Kusum
OBJECTIVE. To determine why invasive cervical carcinoma still occurs despite the availability of cervical smear screening. DESIGN. Questionnaire survey and retrospective study of patient records of women who attended a gynaecological oncology out-patients clinic from 13 February 1997 to 30 June 1997. SETTING. Public hospital, Hong Kong. PATIENTS. Ninety-nine women (median age 53 years; range, 30-79 years) who gave a history of squamous cervical carcinoma. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES...
Lee, Ssn; Wong, Rlc
Screening for tuberculosis (TB) in low- and middle-income countries is centered on the microscope. We present methods for the automated identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in images of Ziehl–Neelsen (ZN) stained sputum smears obtained using a bright-field microscope. We segment candidate bacillus objects using a combination of two-class pixel classifiers. The algorithm produces results that agree well with manual segmentations, as judged by the Hausdorff distance and the modified W...
Khutlang, Rethabile; Krishnan, Sriram; Dendere, Ronald; Whitelaw, Andrew; Veropoulos, Konstantinos; Learmonth, Genevieve; Douglas, Tania S.
Cervical cancer is a preventable disease. The risk factors for the development of cervical cancer include both biologic factors and social factors. In the United States, the leading risk factor for the development of cervical cancer is not having a Pap smear for five years prior to the diagnosis of cancer. In low and middle income countries, cervical cancer incidence and mortality
Annekathryn Goodman 2013-01-01
In 12 of 20 (60%) biopsy-proven cases of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, the diagnosis was first suggested by examination of routine Gram stains of impression smears made from infected lung tissue and later confirmed by methenamine-silver staining. The cysts appeared as 5- to 7-microns unstained spheres, each containing six to eight intracystic gram-negative bodies (sporozoites). Although the Gram stain does not appear to be as sensitive as more traditional staining techniques for the detecti...
Felegie, T. P.; Pasculle, A. W.; Dekker, A.
A comparative study was made of stained fecal smears and cultured fecal swabs for identification of the large spirochetes Treponema hyodysenteriae and Treponema innocens. Feces were obtained by swabbing rectums, colons, and stools of nonexposed swine and swine experimentally exposed to swine dysentery. In this study there was a significant (P less than 0.001) correlation between the observation of one or more large spirochetes on stained slides and obtaining either a strong or a weak beta-hem...
Olson, L. D.; Fales, W. H.
A citologia de Tzanck consiste em método simples e confiável para o diagnóstico de dermatoses virais, parasitárias, autoimunes e tumorais. Para exemplificar o emprego do teste de Tzanck em lesões vésico-bolhosas, um caso de pênfigo vulgar é descrito, cuja citologia e imunofluorescência direta, utilizando-se esfregaço coletado de lesão oral, confirmaram o diagnóstico de forma rápida e fácil.Tzanck smears can be used for the diagnosis of cutaneous infections, autoimmune disord...
Moema Mignac Cumming Brito; Daniela Chaves Tarquínio; Darlene Arruda; Roberto Silva Costa; Ana Maria Roselino
SETTING: Kinshasa Province, Democratic Republic of Congo. OBJECTIVE: To identify and validate register-based indicators of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) microscopy quality. DESIGN: Selection of laboratories based on reliability and variation in routine smear rechecking results. Calculation of relative sensitivity (RS) compared to recheckers and its correlation coefficient (R) with candidate indicators based on a fully probabilistic analysis incorporating vague prior information using WinBUGS. RESUL...
Deun, A.; Zwahlen, M.; Bola, V.; Lebeke, R.; Bahati, E.; Lubamba, P.; Rieder, H. L.
Abstract HPV DNA testing is known to be much more sensitive than cytology, but less specific. A range of HPV and related tests in 858 women referred for colposcopy because of an abnormal smear were evaluated to compare the performances of these tests. This paper compared the Abbott test to other tests which had been previously evaluated. This test was a real true test for 14 high risk HPV types. The Abbott test was found to be highly sensitive for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia...
Cuzick, Jack; Ambroisine, Laurence; Cadman, Louise; Austin, Janet; Ho, Linda; Terry, George; Liddle, Stuart; Dina, Roberto; Mccarthy, Julie; Buckley, Hilary; Bergeron, Christine; Soutter, William P.; Lyons, Deirdre; Szarewski, Anne
Full Text Available IntroductionFollow-up among women who have had an abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap smear is often poor in public hospitals that serve women at increased risk for cervical cancer. This randomized controlled trial evaluated and compared the total cost and cost per follow-up of a tailored outreach intervention plus usual care with the total cost and cost per follow-up of usual care alone.MethodsWomen with an abnormal Pap smear (n = 348 receiving care at Alameda County Medical Center (Alameda County, California were randomized to intervention or usual care. The intervention used trained community health advisors to complement the clinic’s protocol for usual care. We assessed the costs of the intervention and the cost per follow-up within 6 months of the abnormal Pap smear test result.ResultsThe intervention increased the rate of 6-month follow-up by 29 percentage points, and the incremental cost per follow-up was $959 (2005 dollars. The cost per follow-up varied by the severity of the abnormality. The cost per follow-up for the most severe abnormality (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion was $681, while the cost per follow-up for less severe abnormalities was higher.ConclusionIn a health care system in which many women fail to get follow-up care for an abnormal Pap smear, outreach workers were more effective than usual care (mail or telephone reminders at increasing follow-up rates. The results suggest that outreach workers should manage their effort based on the degree of abnormality; most effort should be placed on women with the most severe abnormality (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.
Todd H. Wagner, PhD
Background: Decline in morbidity & mortality due to cervical cancer in developed countries can be mainly attributed to early detection of precancerous & cancerous lesions due to extensive screening programmeof cervical Pap smear examination. HPV infection is a known etiological agent for cervical cancer. HIV infected women are at higher risk of contracting HPV infection due to immune compromised status. Objective: Present study has been undertaken mainly to detect precancerous & c...
Jha, B. M.; Mubin Patel; KomalPatel; Jitendra Patel
Background: Close contacts of tuberculosis (TB) patients are at increased risk of developing tuberculosis. Although passive contact screening guidelines are incorporated in the national TB control program, currently it is unknown how frequent close contacts are screened for TB in Vietnam. This study assesses current contact screening practices in Vietnam and determines the proportion of household contacts screened of newly registered TB patients. Method. Survey of household contacts of smear-...
Thanh, Tht; Ngoc, Sd; Viet, Nn; Van, HN; Horby, P.; Cobelens, Fg; Wertheim, Hf
Persistent infections by high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the main etiological factor for cervical cancer, and expression of HPV E7 oncoproteins was suggested to be a potential marker for tumor progression. The objective of this study was to generate new reagents for the detection of the HPV18 E7 oncoprotein in cervical smears. Rabbit monoclonal antibodies against recombinant E7 protein of HPV type 18 (HPV18) were generated and characterized using Western blotting, epitope mapping,...
Ehehalt, Daniela; Lener, Barbara; Pircher, Haymo; Dreier, Kerstin; Pfister, Heiko; Kaufmann, Andreas M.; Frangini, Sergio; Ressler, Sigrun; Mu?ller-holzner, Elisabeth; Schmitt, Markus; Ho?fler, Daniela; Rostek, Ursula; Kaiser, Andreas; Widschwendter, Andreas; Zwerschke, Werner
Numerous cytologic techniques aimed at effectively acquiring patient material for molecular testing have been proposed. Such techniques are becoming ever more important in an age of personalized medicine. In this commentary, the authors explored some more commonly proposed techniques to aid in the molecular testing of cytologic specimens. These techniques include the use of cell blocks, direct cytologic smears, filter paper storage, frozen samples, and enriched cellular techniques such as ThinPrep and cytospin preparations. Direct-smeared slides demonstrate excellent preservation of DNA, are easy to prepare, and are amenable to immediate adequacy at the time of the fine-needle aspiration (FNA) procedure as well as effective subsequent tumor purity estimation. Cell block methods cannot be assessed at the time of FNA and often demonstrate insufficiency, whereas filter paper and frozen techniques do not allow for the direct assessment of the presence and purity of tumor cells in the sample. Direct-smeared slides are emerging as the most effective preparation and storage medium of cytologic material to be used for molecular testing. Their cost-effectiveness, ease of use, and reliability have cemented them as the optimal solution for cytopathologists to fulfill the role of providing advanced molecular testing on patient samples. PMID:22786714
Knoepp, Stewart M; Roh, Michael H
Full Text Available Background: Trichomoniasis is an extremely common sexually transmitted infection (STI worldwide and is associated with important public health problems, including amplification of HIV transmission. This disease is in forms of symptomatic and asymptomatic in women and may depend on host as well as parasite variables. Most of the studies reported from females are based on examination of vaginal secretions and urine samples by direct smear and culture in modified Diamond's media. The aim of this study was checking the samples, which were negative by direct smear and culture, with PCR technique.Methods: The urine samples and vaginal discharge of patients attending Gynecology Clinics of Mazandaran Province, Iran with different symptoms rechecked for Trichomonas vaginalis by PCR technique using primers targeting a conserved region of the beta-tubulin genes of the parasite. Data were analyzed by Epi Info software programResults: Out of 161 negative samples by direct smear and culture, seven samples (4.3% were positive by PCR technique.Conclusion: Diagnosis of trichomoniasis by PCR is a sensitive and specific method that could play important role to help the physicians for properly treatment and control of infection.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study developed a clinical score based on clinical and radiographic data for the diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (SNPT). SNPT was defined as a positive culture in Ogawa in a patient with two negative sputum smears. Data from patients admitted to the emergency ward with respir [...] atory symptoms and negative acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smears was analyzed by means of logistic regression to develop the predictive score.Two hundred and sixty two patients were included. Twenty patients had SNPT. The variables included in the final model were hemoptysis, weight loss, age > 45 years old, productive cough, upper-lobe infiltrate, and miliary infiltrate. With those, a score was constructed. The score values ranged from -2 to 6. The area under the curve for the ROC curve was 0.83 (95% CI 0.74-0.90). A score of value 0 or less was associated with a sensitivity of 93% and a score of more than 4 points was associated with a specificity of 92% for SNPT. Fifty-two point twenty-nine percent of patients had scores of less than one or more than four, what provided strong evidence against and in favor, respectively, for the diagnosis of SNPT. The score developed is a cheap and useful clinical tool for the diagnosis of SNPT and can be used to help therapeutic decisions in patients with suspicion of having SNPT.
Alonso, Soto; Lely, Solari; Juan, Agapito; Carlos, Acuna-Villaorduna; Marie-Laurence, Lambert; Eduardo, Gotuzzo; Patrick Van der, Stuyft.
Background: Examination of bone marrow plays a pivotal role in the practice of haematology. It can be evaluated by three ways–bone marrow aspiration (BMA), bone marrow touch imprints (BMI) and bone marrow biopsy (BMBx). Aim and Objective: To study the efficacy and reliability of BMI smears in comparison to BMA smears, in making a diagnosis of diseases involving bone marrow. Setting and Designs: This study was carried out in the Department of Pathology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Varanasi over a period of 26 months. Materials and Methods: A total number of 182 cases, with their BMA, BMI and BMBx samples (from each and every case), were evaluated and their findings even compared. Statistical Analysis: All the observations were evaluated using simple and basic statistical tool, i.e. percentage. Results: The cellularity or cell density on BMI correlated with the cellularity of BMBx in 78.6% cases, which was higher than the value observed with BMA smears (71.4%). The spreading quality was better and cytological details were better appreciated in BMI as compared to BMA. Also, the presence of lymphoglandular bodies and particles on BMI were additive diagnostic clues. All of those findings were reflected in the higher diagnostic accuracy of BMI than BMA. Conclusion: BMI should be a standard practice and be considered as an early and reliable diagnostic tool for evaluating bone marrow pathologies PMID:25584225
Das, Subhajit; Bundhun, Soobashchan
Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a recently identified type of pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) with shorter progression-free and overall survival, higher rate of recurrence, and higher risk of leptomeningeal spread compared to pilocytic tumors (WHO grade 2 designation). A case is presented here in which intraoperative imprint smears of a pineal region tumor in a 14-year-old girl revealed cytologic monomorphism, elongated cells with bland nuclei embedded in a myxoid background. The tumor cells possessed uniformly round nuclei with a smooth nuclear outline, fine granular chromatin, and small nucleoli. Slender cytoplasmic fibrillary processes and angiocentric arrangement were observed but Rosenthal fibers or eosinophilic granular bodies were absent. A cytologic diagnosis of PMA of the pineal region was suggested by intraoperative smear preparation. Histology and immunohistochemical results confirmed the final diagnosis. This report shows that smear preparation can be trustworthy for the intraoperative diagnosis of PMA, helping to determine the appropriate neurosurgical procedure and therapeutic implications. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2015;43:121-124. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24578310
Hayashi, Toshitetsu; Haba, Reiji; Kushida, Yoshio; Katsuki, Naomi; Shibuya, Shinsuke; Kadota, Kyuichi; Matsunaga, Toru; Miyake, Keisuke; Tamiya, Takashi
The autosomal dominant macrothrombocytopenia with leukocyte inclusions, May-Hegglin anomaly (MHA), Sebastian syndrome (SBS) and Fechtner syndrome (FTNS), are rare disorders characterized by a triad of giant platelets, thrombocytopenia, and characteristic Döhle body-like cytoplasmic inclusions in granulocytes. Epstein syndrome (EPS) is another autosomal dominant macrothrombocytopenia associated with Alport syndrome but without leukocyte inclusions. We previously mapped the locus for MHA on chromosome 22q12.3-q13.2 by genome-wide linkage analysis and found that MYH9, the gene for the nonmuscle myosin heavy chain-A (NMMHCA), is responsible for the disorder, by positional cloning. Mutations of MYH9 have also been found in SBS, FTNS, and EPS; the term "MYH9 disorders" has been proposed, but clear phenotype-genotype relationships were not found. We developed an immunofluorescence technique for conventional air-dried peripheral blood smears and studied the neutrophil NMMHCA localization in MYH9 disorders. Abnormal subcellular localization of NMMHCA was observed in every neutrophil from individuals with MYH9 mutations and the localization pattern was classified into three groups according to the number, size, and shape of the NMMHCA-positive granules. Patients without neutrophil inclusions on conventional May-Grünwald-Giemsa-stained blood smears but with abnormal NMMHCA localization on immunofluorescence analysis had MYH9 mutations. In contrast, patients with EPS and isolated macrothrombocytopenia with normal NMMHCA localization had no MYH9 mutations. Immunofluorescence analysis of neutrophil NMMHCA is useful as a novel screening test for the differential diagnosis of macrothrombocytopenia and clear hematopathological classification of MYH9 disorders. PMID:14560660
The prevalence and incidence of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) are clearly not known; its onset before first feeding at birth especially has been rarely reported. A female newborn was referred to our institution due to blood-stained diarrhea before her first feeding at birth. Examination of the stool with Wright-Giemsa staining on day 6 revealed numerous fecal eosinophils, including Charcot-Leyden crystals. Lymphocyte stimulation test (LST) against cow's milk protein also...
Mizuno, Masanori; Masaki, Hiroshi; Yoshinare, Ryoko; Ito, Yujun; Morita, Hideyuki; Yoshio, Hiroyuki
A natural case of co-infection by Leishmania and Trypanosoma is reported in a dog (Canis familiaris) in south- western state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Both amastigote and trypomastigote forms were observed after Giemsa staining of cytological preparations of the dog's bone marrow aspirate. No parasite was detected using medium culture inoculation of the sample. DNA obtained from the bone marrow aspirate sample and from the blood buffy coat was submitted to polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
Elisa San Martin Mouriz Savani; Vania Lúcia Brandão Nunes; Eunice Aparecida Bianchi Galati; Tiago Moreno Castilho; Fernando Shiroma de Araujo; Iêda Maria Novaes Ilha; Maria Cecília Gibrail de Oliveira Camargo; Auria, Sandra Regina Nicoletti D.; Lucile Maria Floeter-Winter
We compared the apical seals of two new calcium silicate-based sealers (iRoot SP and MTA Fillapex) in the presence and absence of a smear layer. Eighty-two human premolars were prepared and randomly divided into four groups. In groups 1 and 3, the smear layer was retained. In groups 2 and 4, the root canals were irrigated with EDTA to remove the smear layer. Canals were filled using gutta-percha/iRoot SP (in groups 1 and 2) or obturated with gutta-percha/MTA Fillapex (in groups 3 and 4). Fluid filtration was used to evaluate apical microleakage. The presence of the smear layer had no significant effect on the sealing properties of the filling materials, except for iRoot SP at 2 weeks (P = 0.007). There was significantly less microleakage with iRoot SP than with MTA Fillapex (P = 0.025 at 2 weeks; P Fillapex. PMID:25231148
Bidar, Maryam; Sadeghalhoseini, Niloufar; Forghani, Maryam; Attaran, Negin
Full Text Available In order to perform a histomorphometric study of blood cells in male adult ostrich, blood samples were obtained from jugular vein of 10 clinically healthy male adult ostriches (2 - 3 years old. The slides were stained with the Giemsa methods and the smears were evaluated for cellular morphology, with cellular size being determined by micrometry. The findings of this study revealed that the shape of the cell, cytoplasm and nucleus of erythrocytes in male adult ostriches were similar to those in other birds such as quails, chickens, Iranian green-head ducks.
In order to perform a histomorphometric study of blood cells in male adult ostrich, blood samples were obtained from jugular vein of 10 clinically healthy male adult ostriches (2 - 3 years old). The slides were stained with the Giemsa methods and the smears were evaluated for cellular morphology, with cellular size being determined by micrometry. The findings of this study revealed that the shape of the cell, cytoplasm and nucleus of erythrocytes in male adult ostriches were similar to those in other birds such as quails, chickens, Iranian green-head ducks. PMID:25653798
Tadjalli, Mina; Nazifi, Saeed; Marzban Abbasabadi, Behrokh; Majidi, Banafsheh
Objective: In this study of women admitted to our center with information on pap smear test, to evaluate the attitudes and behavior. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study of Van Mother-Child Health and Family Planning Center on a voluntary basis, women aged 15-49 were admitted to the control. The education level of participants, age at first marriage, before the presence of vaginal infection, the story, and motivations pap smear level of information availability, and a family history ...
Sebahat Gucuk; Servet Alkan; Secil Arica; Aysegul Ates
The distribution, composition and flow-properties of fault core and shale smear along faults in carbonate reservoirs is less well understood compared to faults in siliciclastic rocks. This study uses field data to characterize and quantify fault zone properties that are critical for understanding structural heterogeneity in carbonate reservoirs. The study focus on; (1) variability and co-dependence of displacement, shale smear, fault- thickness, -composition and -geometry; (2) the effect of s...
, , , (Received 7 June, 2009; Accepted 22 July, 2009)AbstractBackground and purpose: Clinical and radiological manifestations of Pulumonary tuberculosis are well known. However, it appears there is an increasing rate of unusual radiological patterns in immuno-competent adults, with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (based on our experience). The aim of this study was to analyze chest X-ray (CXR) findings and clinical patterns among immuno-competent men and women with smear positive pulmon...
Shahriar Alian; Roya Ghasemian; Narges Najafi; Parinaz Pirsiavash
Background & Aim: Cervical cancer is the fourth common cancer worldwide. Pap smear is a usual t est to screen cervical cancer. The aim of the present study was to determine factors associated with Pap smear screening among married women aged 15-49 years in Lamerd health centers based on the Protection Motivation Theory . Methods & Materials: In this cross-sectional study, 220 married women aged 15-49 years were selected. Data were gathered using a questionnaire designed based on the Pro...
Fatemeh Jowzi; Tahereh Hashemifard; Mohammadali Morowatisharifabad; Zeinab Bashir
Background and Objectives: Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide and although pap smear is considered as an effective screening program, the level of using screening is low. The purpose of this study is pap smear test structures for measuring health belief model and factors affecting women in urban centers covered Zarandieh.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study (descriptive-analytical) which included 265 Urban Women's in Zarandieh. Data collection instrument...
Karimy M.; Shamsi M; Araban M; Gholamnia Z
Ditsapelo M McFarland College of Nursing and Public Health, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA Purpose: Papanicolaou (Pap) smear services are available in most urban areas in Botswana. Yet most women in such areas do not screen regularly for cancer of the cervix. The purpose of this article is to present findings on the associations of demographic variables and Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana. Sample and methods: The study included a...
Cervical cancer is still threatening all women across the world particularly in developing countries. In Indonesia, nowadays cervical cancer is the second most common cancer that affects women after breast cancer. This cancer is a potential killer, since there is no appearance of physical symptom at early stage. One of the efforts for diminishing the mortality caused by this disease is screening. The most suggested screening method for cervical cancer is Pap Smear Test. Pap smear test has ...
Pakpahan, Peranika R.
Liquid-based cytology (LBC) has replaced conventional smear assessment in many centers over recent years. In our laboratory this transfer took place in 1999. At that time we performed a split sample study comparing the conventional method of cervical smear evaluation with the ThinPrep system. This split sample study identified a dramatic improvement in specimen adequacy with LBC. While 11% of conventional preparations were reported as unsatisfactory and almost 9% were reported as suboptimal, evaluation of the same cases using LBC saw this combined figure reduced to 2.3%. AIM: To evaluate whether this dramatic fall in unsatisfactory smears has been maintained with the use of LBC. The database for all smears reported for 2005 (100% LBC) was interrogated. The number of unsatisfactory reports was calculated. The reason for an unsatisfactory report was recorded for each case. The overall unsatisfactory rate was compared with that reported in the 1999 split sample study. A total of 41,312 smear tests were reported in 2005. 1,342 (3.25%) were reported as unsatisfactory. Our findings support the ongoing value of LBC in a routine cervical screening laboratory in terms of continuing to maintain a low rate of unsatisfactory smears.
Plates stiffened with ribs can be modeled as equivalent homogeneous isotropic or orthotropic plates. Modeling such an equivalent smeared plate numerically, say, with the finite element method requires far less computer resources than modeling the complete stiffened plate. This may be important when a number of stiffened plates are combined in a complicated assembly composed of many plate panels. However, whereas the equivalent smeared plate technique is well established and recently improved for flat panels, there is no similar established technique for doubly curved stiffened shells. In this paper the improved smeared plate technique is combined with the equation of motion for a doubly curved thin rectangular shell, and a solution is offered for using the smearing technique for stiffened shell structures. The developed prediction technique is validated by comparing natural frequencies and mode shapes as well as forced responses from simulations based on the smeared theory with results from experiments with adoubly curved cross-stiffened shell. Moreover, natural frequencies of cross-stiffened panels determined by finite element simulations that include the exact cross-sectional geometries of panels with cross-stiffeners are compared with predictions based on the smeared theory for a range of different panel curvatures. Good agreement is found.
Luan, Yu; Ohlrich, Mogens
Full Text Available ... comes in contact with semen during unprotected heterosexual sex, it could get infected with sexually transmitted diseases. ... strongly associated with sexually transmitted diseases, practicing safe sex is very important. When used properly, condoms are ...
Full Text Available A DNA probe pPF14, which is species specific to P.falciparum have been used to identify malaria species. The blood specimens were pretreated before spotting onto nitrocellulose filter to eliminate non specific hybridization of DNA to blood components. In this study, die DNA probe pPF14 was used for detection of P.falciparum in blood specimens spotted directly (a simple preparation of sample onto nitrocellulose filter. Ninety two blood specimens from individuals with fever living in a P.falciparum endemic area were collected at the local Primary Health Centre in Lampung. Blood was collected by finger prick technique using heparinized capillary tubes. Twenty microliter of blood was plotted directly onto nitrocellulose filter, extracted, treated with proteinase K and tested with DNA probe pPF14. Another 20 microliter of blood was used for thick smear and examined microscopically. Nineteen out of 92 (20,7 % of the blood specimens were found to contain P.falciparum parasites by DNA probing and by thick smear. The densities of parasites ranged from 350 to 28,775 per microliter. The jDNA probing technique was successfully done for the detection of P.falciparum in the laboratory. However, this technique seems not to be quite sensitive for parasitological survey (detects 40-50 parasites per microliter of blood; while using thick smear examination, 5-10 parasites per microliter of blood could be detected with confidence. The important issue in this case is that no special treatment before spotting the blood onto nitrocellulose filter was needed to eliminate non-specific hybridization, when protease treatment was used. Collection of specimens would be easily done in the field.
Full Text Available The problems and additional cost factor involved in collecting and storing human blood, as well as the pending worldwide shortages are the main driving forces in the development of blood substitutes. Studies on artificial blood basically aim to develop oxygen carrying compounds, produce stem cell-based erythrocyte cells in vitro and, implement the functions and movements of natural hemoglobin molecules found in erythrocyte cells through artificial erythrocyte cells. Consequently, major areas of research in artificial blood studies are haemoglobin-based oxygen carriers, perfluorochemicals, respirocytes and stem cells. Even though these artificial erythrocyte cells do not qualify as perfect red blood cell substitutes yet, they have many potential clinical and non clinical uses. Studies are being carried out on the elimination of side effects of blood substitutes and extensive clinical trials are being conducted to test their safety and efficacy. Artificial blood substitutes could only be used clinically for patient management following clinical trials and approvals, and will be the ultimate global solution to the problems associated with donor scarcity, blood collection and transfusion-mediated diseases. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(2.000: 95-108
Viable lymphocytes are present in blood and cellular blood components used for transfusion. If the patient who receives a blood transfusion is immunocompetent these lymphocytes are destroyed immediately. However if the patient is immunodefficient or immunosuppressed the transfused lymphocytes survive, recognize the recipient as foreign and react producing a devastating and most often fatal syndrome of transfusion graft versus host disease [T-GVHD]. Even immunocompetent individuals can develop T-GVHD if the donor is a first degree relative since like the Trojan horse the transfused lymphocytes escape detection by the recipient's immune system, multiply and attack recipient tissues. T-GVHD can be prevented by irradiating the blood and different centers use doses ranging from 1.5 to 4.5 Gy. All transfusions where the donor is a first degree relative and transfusions to neonates, immunosuppressed patients and bone marrow transplant recipients need to be irradiated. Commercial irradiators specifically designed for irradiation of blood and cellular blood components are available: however they are expensive. India needs to have blood irradiation facilities available in all large tertiary institutions where immunosuppressed patients are treated. The Atomic Energy Commission of India needs to develop a blood irradiator which meets international standards for use in tertiary medical institutions in the country. (author)
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Blood cell types of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, are described and identified and the lineage of mature circulating cells in peripheral blood is traced to blast cells in the hematopoietic fat body. The fat body appears to be the phylogenetic precursor of bone marrow in higher forms, since blood cells originate and begin maturation in this tissue. Experimental animals were injected first with a hematopoietic stimulant and then (at an experimentally determined time) with pertussis vaccine to release proliferated blood cells into peripheral blood. Peripheral blood for smears was collected by cardiac exsanguination; hematopoietic tissue was extirpated for imprints; and leucocyte preparations were made by a special technique. Blood cells of the sea lamprey are apparently products of at least four distinct blast cells, each of which has a 'one end' maturation process. Results of this investigation support the polyphyletic theory of blood cell formation.
Piavis, George W.; Hiatt, James L.
Full Text Available ... Research In This Section Research Programs and Awards Sickle Cell Priorities Agenda for Hematology Research View all Blood ... View all For Patients Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting ...
Full Text Available ... In This Section Research Programs and Awards Sickle Cell Priorities Agenda for Hematology Research View all Blood ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ...
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Considering the epidemiological relevance and the mortality of Uterine Cervix Cancer, the aim of this study is know the gynecological profile of women who take Pap smear in a basic unit of a metropolitan area. This is an exploratory study, with quantitative approach and traversal outlining which took place in a Center of Natural Childbirth with 72 women. The data was collected during the women’s appointment and the through analysis of the charts. It was found that most women had up to 40 years of age (42; 58,5%, with low education degree (44; 61,1%, married (39; 54,2%, with menarche from 10 to 13 years (36; 50% and first sexual relation between 12 and 19 years (46; 63,9%. It was also found that some did not use contraceptive method (30; 41,7%, maintained vaginal only sexual relations (39; 54,1% and did the Pap smear test annually (38; 53%. Its was observed a good adhesion to the Pap smear test by the women, even though not obeying a regular periodicity. These particular studies are of great importance, because it pounts out characteristics that interfere in the woman's health and make it possible for the health professionals to recognize what needs to be improved, together with the satisfactory characteristics in the development of these women's health.
Camila Félix Américo
This case control study was carried out in the Department of Biochemistry, Mymensingh Medical College in cooperation with the Outpatient Department and Medicine Units of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Fulbaria Upazilla Health Complex, Mymensingh and some DOTS centers of BRAC, a non-government organization during the period of July 2006 to June 2007. The aim of the study was to explore the status of serum albumin & creatinine clearance levels in smear positive Bangladeshi pulmonary tuberculosis patients as a means to monitor the possibility of management of these patients as these levels decrease significantly. Serum albumin level was investigated in TB patients for monitoring the nutritional status of TB patients and also for the adjustment of serum calcium level. Creatinine clearance rate was investigated in TB patients for monitoring the impairment of renal function and nutritional depletion in tuberculosis patients. A total of 120 people of different age groups were included in this study. Subjects were divided into two groups- Group I (Control; n=60) - apparently healthy people selected matching by age, sex and socioeconomic status with the cases and Group II (Case; n=60) - people with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis. Serum albumin was estimated by colorimetric principle. Serum creatinine was also estimated by colorimetric principle & creatinine clearance rate was estimated from serum creatinine by Cockcroft- Gault equation. Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS windows package. Among the groups, mean±SD of serum albumin in Group II (3.74±0.44gm/dl) was significantly lower (pcreatinine clearance rate in Group II (35.36±8.29ml/min) was also significantly lower than that in Group I (84.16±20.20ml/min). It is evident from the study that serum albumin & creatinine clearance rate levels significantly decrease in smear positive Bangladeshi pulmonary tuberculosis patients. PMID:25178592
Hoque, M R; Chakraborty, P K; Paul, U K; Sarkar, S; Akhter, S; Shahidullah, S M; Gautam, B; Sultana, S; Ferdous, N; Samsunnahar, M
In order to observe the immunological responce of the irradiated cervical cancer, vaginal smears were taken from 27 patients during radiotherapy and stained with fluorescent anti-IgG, anti-IgA, and anti-IgM sera by the direct method. The IgG-, IgA-, and IgM-containing cells increase significantly in the cervicitis and cervical cancer as compared with controls. There is no difference between cervicitis and cervical cancer in IgG and IgA, but IgM-containing cells increase significantly in cervical cancer. There is a highly significant correlation between IgM-containing cells in vaginal smear of cervical cancer and lymphoid cell infiltration of primary cancerous tissue. During radiotherapy, there are no changes of the mean percentage of IgM-containing cells in vaginal smears at 1,000 rad and 2,000 rad irradiation, but at 3,000 rad irradiation IgM-containing cells decrease significantly. On the changes of IgM-containing cells during radiotherapy, the patients are classified into three groups. Group A: IgM-containing cells increase in their population temporarity during radiotherapy (11 cases). Group B: IgM-containing cells decrease gradually in their population during radiotherapy (12 cases). Group C: The changes of IgM-Containing cells are irregular and/or show little deviation (4 cases). The three year survivals of group A is 9/12 (82.8%), group B is 6/12 (50.0%), and group C is 4/4. There is significant difference between group A and group B in survival rates, and grou A and group B in survival rates, and group A is considered to be an immunoreactive group. (author)
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Delay in diagnosis of pulmonary and other forms of tuberculosis (TB can be fatal, particularly in HIV-infected patients. Hence, techniques based on nucleic acid amplification, which are both rapid and of high specificity and sensitivity, are now widely used and recommended for laboratories that diagnose TB. In the present study, diagnostic methods based on mycobacterial DNA amplification were evaluated in comparative trials alongside tradicional bacterial methods, using negative smear samples from patients with clinically-suspected TB (sputum samples from 25 patients with suspected pulmonary TB, urine samples from two patients with suspected renal TB and cerebrospinal fluid samples from one patient with suspected meningeal TB. A specificity of 100% was achieved with DNA amplification methods and tradicional culture/identification methods, in relation to clinical findings and treatment results. For the smear-negative sputa, conventional PCR for M. tuberculosis was positive in 62% of suspected lung TB case, showing the same sensitivity as bacterial identification. Both techniques failed in the detection of extra-pulmonary samples. Nested PCR showed, after species-specific amplification, a sensitivity of 100% for M. avium and 85% for M. tuberculosis. For extra-pulmonary smear-negative samples, only Nested PCR detected M. tuberculosis and all cases were confirmed clinically. Nested PCR, in which two-step amplification reactions are performed, can identify the two most important mycobacteria in human pathology quickly and directly from clinical spicimens. Keywords: tuberculosis; M. avium; Nested PCR; Smearnegative specimens
S. R.A. Leite
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Embora a gota espessa corada por Giemsa (GTS) permaneça o padrão ouro para o diagnóstico de malária, métodos moleculares são mais sensíveis e específicos para detectar parasitas e podem ser utilizad