WorldWideScience
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DNA extraction and amplification from Giemsa-stained blood smears.  

Science.gov (United States)

DNA extraction was attempted from Giemsa-stained blood smears on glass slides that had been stored for several years. High molecular weight DNA bands were clearly visible after electrophoresis when DNA was extracted from specimens stored up to 2 years. Specimens more than 4 years old demonstrated a smeared pattern, suggesting degeneration of the DNA, but they could be rescued by PCR amplification using primers of HLA-DQA1 genes. The recovery could be pursued even in 11-year-old specimens. PMID:8587007

Yokota, M; Tatsumi, N; Tsuda, I; Yano, I

1995-01-01

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Investigation of a novel approach to scoring Giemsa-stained malaria-infected thin blood films  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Daily assessment of the percentage of erythrocytes that are infected ('percent-parasitaemia') across a time-course is a necessary step in many experimental studies of malaria, but represents a time-consuming and unpopular task among researchers. The most common method is extensive microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained thin blood-films. This study explored a method for the assessment of percent-parasitaemia that does not require extended periods of microscopy and results in a desc...

Scholzen Anja; Drew Nathan; Proudfoot Owen; Xiang Sue; Plebanski Magdalena

2008-01-01

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Investigation of a novel approach to scoring Giemsa-stained malaria-infected thin blood films  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Daily assessment of the percentage of erythrocytes that are infected ('percent-parasitaemia' across a time-course is a necessary step in many experimental studies of malaria, but represents a time-consuming and unpopular task among researchers. The most common method is extensive microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained thin blood-films. This study explored a method for the assessment of percent-parasitaemia that does not require extended periods of microscopy and results in a descriptive and permanent record of parasitaemia data that is highly amenable to subsequent 'data-mining'. Digital photography was utilized in conjunction with a basic purpose-written computer programme to test the viability of the concept. Partial automation of the determination of percent parasitaemia was then explored, resulting in the successful customization of commercially available broad-spectrum image analysis software towards this aim. Lastly, automated discrimination between infected and uninfected RBCs based on analysis of digital parameters of individual cell images was explored in an effort to completely automate the calculation of an accurate percent-parasitaemia.

Scholzen Anja

2008-04-01

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DNA Comet Giemsa Staining for Conventional Bright-Field Microscopy  

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Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate the compatibility of Giemsa staining protocol with the comet assay. We showed, for the first time, that DNA comets can be visualized and analyzed using Giemsa staining. We generated DNA damage dose response curves for human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to X-ray radiation using the comet assay with either SybrGreen I or Giemsa stain. The dose response curves were fitted by linear regressions (R2 > 0.977. The SybrGreen I results showed only ~1.2-fold higher slope coefficient (method sensitivity compared to the Giemsa results. The unexpectedly high sensitivity of Giemsa staining for the comet assay is due to the Romanowsky-Giemsa effect, the stain photo-stability and the higher resolution of bright-field imaging compared to fluorescence imaging. Our results demonstrate that Giemsa staining can effectively be used for measuring DNA damage by the comet assay. The low cost and availability of Giemsa stain makes this method affordable for any low budget research and will facilitate new applications of the comet assay in biology and medicine.

Andreyan Osipov

2014-04-01

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Giemsa staining for cysts and trophozoites of Pneumocystis carinii.  

OpenAIRE

Although Giemsa staining has been routinely used for the detection of trophozoites and intracystic bodies in smears of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) from patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, it does not normally stain the cyst wall. For detection of the cysts other stains such as toluidine Blue 'O' and methenamine silver must be used as well. Sulphation of smears before staining with Giemsa allows cysts to be visualised, thus enabling a single stain to be used to show all the st...

Walker, J.; Conner, G.; Ho, J.; Hunt, C.; Pickering, L.

1989-01-01

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Comparison of Giemsa Staining, Intraperitoneal Injection and Oral  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common protozoan parasites in humans and animals in all countries of the world. The aim of this study was to detect Toxoplasma parasite in the brain of wild rats in Tehran using smear preparation, Giemsa staining, Intraperitoneal injection and oral administration to Souri mice. Materials and Methods: Forty rats were collected from different areas of Tehran. Smears were prepared from rat brains on glass slides and stained using Giemsa. In the second method, a cell suspension was prepared from rat brain and was given orally and injected intraperitoneally into Souri mice. In peritoneal method, peritoneum of the mice was examined for parasites. In oral method, the titer of Toxoplasma antibody in sera of Souri mice was determined using Toxoplasma IgG antibody kit and anti-mouse conjugate of Sigma company. Results: All results were negative in Giemsa staining method. In the second method, the results were negative and no parasites were observed in peritoneum of Souri mice. In oral administration method, after ingestion of suspensions by Souri mice and measuring the IgG titer, 50% of them showed a positive titer after one month. Conclusion: In detection of Toxoplasma gondii, the method of smear preparation on glass slides followed by Giemsa staining, and intraperitoneal injection of brain suspensions to Souri mice are of less value in comparison with oral administration of suspensions and determining the titer of IgG in sera of Souri mice.

Sajad Rashidi

2014-02-01

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Diagnosis and Characterization of Leishmania Species in Giemsa-Stained slides by PCR-RFLP  

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Full Text Available Background: Direct identification of Leishmania species in Giemsa-stained slides without parasite culturing in the areas where multiple species exist, is very helpful. This study was designed to isolate Leishmani spp. from Giemsa-stained smears and to characterize them by PCR technique.Methods: A total of 48 Giemsa-Stained slides from confirmed cases of leishmaniasis were examined under a light micro­scope at×1000 and classified based on grading of Leishmania parasites. DNA from each slide was extracted separately and sub­jected to PCR. The ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1 was amplified with specific primers and the PCR prod­ucts were digested with a restriction enzyme (HaeIII.Results: Of the 48 microscopy-positive slides, 43(89.6% were positive by PCR-RFLP and Leishmania species were identi­fied. A statistically significant difference was observed between the both methods (P< 0.05 and also a concordance was found between microscopy and PCR-RFLP (k= 0.55.Conclusion: PCR-RFLP seems to be an effective method to identify Leishmania species from Giemsa-stained smears which have been collected from both infected humans and animal reservoir hosts in Iran.

E Kazemi-Rad

2008-05-01

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Comparison of PCR with blood smear and inoculation of small animals for diagnosis of Babesia microti parasitemia.  

OpenAIRE

The specific diagnosis of babesiosis, which is caused by the piroplasm Babesia microti, is made by microscopic identification of the organism in Giemsa-stained thin blood smears, detection of babesial antibody in acute-and convalescent-phase sera, or identification of the organism following the injection of patient blood into laboratory animals. Although rapid diagnosis can be made with thin blood smears, parasites are often not visualized early in the course of infection. PCR is a new, rapid...

Krause, P. J.; Telford, S.; Spielman, A.; Ryan, R.; Magera, J.; Rajan, T. V.; Christianson, D.; Alberghini, T. V.; Bow, L.; Persing, D.

1996-01-01

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Image Analysis Approach for Development of a Decision Support System for Detection of Malaria Parasites in Thin Blood Smear Images  

OpenAIRE

This paper describes development of a decision support system for diagnosis of malaria using color image analysis. A hematologist has to study around 100 to 300 microscopic views of Giemsa-stained thin blood smear images to detect malaria parasites, evaluate the extent of infection and to identify the species of the parasite. The proposed algorithm picks up the suspicious regions and detects the parasites in images of all the views. The subimages representing all these parasites are put toget...

Prasad, Keerthana; Winter, Jan; Bhat, Udayakrishna M.; Acharya, Raviraja V.; Prabhu, Gopalakrishna K.

2011-01-01

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Purpose and Criteria for Blood Smear Scan, Blood Smear Examination, and Blood Smear Review  

OpenAIRE

A microscopic examination of an appropriately prepared and well-stained blood smear by a knowledgeable laboratory professional is necessary and clinically useful in a number of circumstances and for a variety of reasons. In this article, an attempt is made to delineate the purpose and criteria for blood smear examination in a variety of circumstances that are encountered in everyday laboratory hematology practice. A blood smear scan serves to at least (a) verify the flagged automated hematolo...

Gulati, Gene; Song, Jinming; Florea, Alina Dulau; Gong, Jerald

2012-01-01

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Anticoagulant induced artefacts in peripheral blood smears  

OpenAIRE

Microscopic evaluation of a peripheral blood smear is one of the most beneficial test. But anticoagulant induced artefacts could lead to misinterpretation of the smears. The present study was undertaken to identify the anticoagulant induced artefacts and avoid misinterpretation of peripheral blood smears. The blood samples were collected using Ethylene Diaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and Sodium citrate, mixed thoroughly and smears were made immediately as well as 1hr apart for 6 hrs, stained a...

Narasimha, Aparna; Kumar, Harendra; Prasad, C. S. B. R.

2008-01-01

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Anticoagulant induced artefacts in peripheral blood smears.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microscopic evaluation of a peripheral blood smear is one of the most beneficial test. But anticoagulant induced artefacts could lead to misinterpretation of the smears. The present study was undertaken to identify the anticoagulant induced artefacts and avoid misinterpretation of peripheral blood smears. The blood samples were collected using Ethylene Diaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and Sodium citrate, mixed thoroughly and smears were made immediately as well as 1hr apart for 6 hrs, stained and examined under oil immersion microscope. Direct smears were used as controls. Significant morphological artefacts were observed in our study. Artefacts were marked at the end of 2 hrs with EDTA but seen almost immediately with citrate blood. At 6 hrs, artefacts were marked but more severe with citrates than EDTA. Thus the practice of making blood smears before addition of anticoagulant is recommended and a delay up to 1hr is permissible with EDTA blood but not beyond. PMID:23100942

Narasimha, Aparna; Kumar, Harendra; Prasad, C S B R

2008-06-01

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A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI, BIOPSY SAMPLES FROM DIFFERENT GASTRIC LESIONS WITH TRIPLE STAINING AND MODIFIED GIEMSA STAINING  

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Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori are associated with most of the disorders of gastro-duodenal tract, such as gastritis, gastric ulcers, dyspepsia and gastric carcinoma. Many staining methods have been developed for the detection of these bacteria from gastric biopsies. However most of the methods adopted were shown to be more expensive, less sensitive, time consuming with less background information. In view of this, the present study was carried out to check the validity of triple staining method against modified Giemsa staining. For this study, 60 biopsy specimens were selected from different gastric lesions as chronic gastritis (30, gastric ulcers (10 and gastric carcinoma (20. These specimens were subjected to modified Giemsa staining showed purple to dark purple bacteria with bluish background. The results showed 56.66, 40 and 15 percentage positivity for chronic gastritis, benign gastric ulcers and malignant gastric lesions, respectively. The stained sections of triple staining showed black to dark brown bacteria with pink colored background with 70, 50 and 10 percentage positivity for chronic gastritis, benign gastric ulcers and malignant gastric lesions, respectively. From the present study it is clear that triple staining method is more sensitive than the modified Giemsa staining.

Pavan Kumar Pindi

2013-02-01

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Identification of Leishmania Species Using PCR Assay on Giemsa-Stained Slides Prepared From Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Patients  

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Full Text Available Background: Leishmaniasis is a group of diseases that are created by intracellular parasites of Leishmania. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is considered as one of the health problems in some provinces of Iran.Methods: In this study, a total of 178 Giemsa-stained slides from confirmed cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were examined. The slides were prepared from the patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis that referred to health centers and infected during the epidemic of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Poldokhtar city, Lorestan Province, Iran in 2006.Genomic DNA from each slide was extracted. After DNA extraction, ITS-PCR was used.Results: Out of 178 slides, 129 (72.47% samples had a band in the range of 485 bp and 49 (27.53% samples 626 bp that matched L. tropica and L. major standard samples, respectively.Conclusion: This study showed that Leishmania DNA could be efficiently ex­tracted and amplified even from old Giemsa-stained microscopic slides that were stored more than 6 yr. In this study was shown that both L. tropica and L. major species exist in Lorestan Province.

Farnaz Kheirandish

2013-09-01

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Structural analysis of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations by atomic force microscope (AFM) before and after Giemsa staining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: We have studied structures of chromosome aberration induced by ionizing radiation by an atomic force microscope (AFM). The AFM could visualize the fine structure of chromosomes on Giemsa stained or unstained samples, although it was difficult to visualize unstained chromosomes by light microscope. The height data of chromosomes obtained by AFM provided useful information to describe detailed structure of chromatid gaps induced by heavy ion irradiation. A fibrous structure was observed on the unstained chromosome and these structures were considered to be the 30nm fibers on the chromosome. These types of structures were observed in the gaps as well as on surface of the chromosome. Further more, other types of chromosome aberration induced by ionizing radiation visualized by AFM will be presented

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External quality assessment of Giemsa-stained blood film microscopy for the diagnosis of malaria and sleeping sickness in the Democratic Republic of the Congo / Évaluation externe de la qualité de la microscopie de frottis sanguins colorés au Giemsa pour le diagnostic du paludisme et de la maladie du sommeil en République démocratique du Congo / Evaluación de calidad externa de la microscopía en frotis de sangre con tinción de Giemsa para el diagnóstico de la malaria y la enfermedad del sueño en la República Democrática del Congo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Informar de los resultados de una segunda evaluación de calidad externa de la microscopía en frotis de sangre con tinción de Giemsa en la República Democrática del Congo, llevada a cabo un año después de la primera. MÉTODOS: Se entregó un panel de cuatro muestras a laboratorios de diagnóst [...] ico de todas las provincias del país. Las muestras contenían: (i) gametocitos Plasmodium falciparum; (ii) trofozoítos P. falciparum (densidad de referencia: 113 530 por µl); (iii) subespecies de Trypanosoma brucei y (iv) ningún parásito. RESULTADOS: De los 356 laboratorios contactados, respondieron 277 (77,8%). En total, el 35,0% de los laboratorios informó de las cuatro muestras correctamente, pero el 14,1% informó de resultados correctos en una o ninguna de las muestras. Los principales errores consistieron en no diagnosticar la tripanosomiasis (50,4%), no reconocer los gametocitos P. falciparum (17,5%) y diagnosticar malaria en la muestra sin parásitos (19,0%). La frecuencia de errores graves en la evaluación de la densidad de los parásitos y en informar de resultados con falsos positivos fue menor que en la evaluación de calidad externa anterior. El 17,2% y el 52,3%, respectivamente (P Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To report the findings of a second external quality assessment of Giemsa-stained blood film microscopy in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, performed one year after the first. METHODS: A panel of four slides was delivered to diagnostic laboratories in all provinces of the country. The [...] slides contained: (i) Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes; (ii) P. falciparum trophozoites (reference density: 113 530 per µl); (iii) Trypanosoma brucei subspecies; and (iv) no parasites. FINDINGS: Of 356 laboratories contacted, 277 (77.8%) responded. Overall, 35.0% of the laboratories reported all four slides correctly but 14.1% reported correct results for 1 or 0 slides. Major errors included not diagnosing trypanosomiasis (50.4%), not recognizing P. falciparum gametocytes (17.5%) and diagnosing malaria from the slide with no parasites (19.0%). The frequency of serious errors in assessing parasite density and in reporting false-positive results was lower than in the previous external quality assessment: 17.2% and 52.3%, respectively, (P

Pierre, Mukadi; Philippe, Gillet; Albert, Lukuka; Benjamin, Atua; Nicole, Sheshe; Albert, Kanza; Jean Bosco, Mayunda; Briston, Mongita; Raphaël, Senga; John, Ngoyi; Jean-Jacques, Muyembe; Jan, Jacobs; Veerle, Lejon.

2013-06-01

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Low sensitivity of nested PCR using Plasmodium DNA extracted from stained thick blood smears: an epidemiological retrospective study among subjects with low parasitaemia in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The success of PCR technique depends on many factors, such as high quality DNA pellets obtained from blood samples, good reagents and adequate conditions of amplification. Taking these limitations into account, a retrospective epidemiological study for malaria diagnosis was conducted in a mesoendemic area in the Brazilian Amazon. Methods A nested PCR protocol with DNA extracted from two blood storage devices obtained from Giemsa-stained thick blood smears and filter-papers was used for malaria diagnosis. The extracted DNA was used as a template to amplify approximately 100 bp species-specific sequences of the small subunit of the ribosomal RNA (18S SSU rRNA of Plasmodium sp. The prevalence of single and mixed infections was examined in a cross-sectional survey carried out among 369 miners living in the district of Apiacás, Mato Grosso State. The parasitemia levels detected by microscopic examination were compared to the PCR results. Results DNA samples isolated from blood on filter-paper allowed the detection and identification of Plasmodium in 165 (44.7% of the 369 individuals evaluated, while only 62 (16.8% had positive results using DNA obtained from thick smears, a similar rate observed by microscopic examination. The sensitivities of PCR using DNA from blood smears and filter-papers were 65% and 73.0%, respectively. Low parasite infections (below 20 parasites/µL blood were not detected when thick blood smears were used as a DNA source. Conclusions Although the blood preserved as thick blood smears provides an alternative and useful tool for malaria molecular diagnosis, its relatively poor performance at low level parasitemias impairs the correct determination of malaria prevalence in epidemiological studies. However, the results obtained in the present study confirm that the use of filter-paper to collect blood is useful for field studies.

Horta Maria

2004-03-01

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Comparison of methenamine silver nitrate and Giemsa stain for detection of Pneumocystis carinii in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens from HIV infected patients.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Seventy-seven bronchoalveolar lavages from human immunosuppressive virus infected patients with pulmonary symptoms were examined routinely for the presence of Pneumocystis carinii, using Giemsa stain to detect trophozoites and methenamine silver nitrate to detect cysts. Thirty-seven samples were found positive with both methods, but a further 10 were diagnosed with Giemsa indicating that the trophozoite stain is more sensitive. As Giemsa stain is simple, quick, cheap and familiar to most microbiological laboratories it should be used for screening of samples to be examined for Pneumocystis carinii. In cases where trophozoites are not detected by Giemsa a supplementary cyst stain may be performed in order to rule out the presumably few cases where cysts are present as the only evidence of Pneumocystis carinii infection.

Holten-Andersen, W; Kolmos, H J

1989-01-01

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Peripheral blood smear image analysis: A comprehensive review  

OpenAIRE

Peripheral blood smear image examination is a part of the routine work of every laboratory. The manual examination of these images is tedious, time-consuming and suffers from interobserver variation. This has motivated researchers to develop different algorithms and methods to automate peripheral blood smear image analysis. Image analysis itself consists of a sequence of steps consisting of image segmentation, features extraction and selection and pattern classification. The image segmentatio...

Mohammed, Emad A.; Mohamed, Mostafa M. A.; Far, Behrouz H.; Naugler, Christopher

2014-01-01

20

A sero-epidemiological survey of blood parasites in cattle in the north-eastern Free State, South Africa  

OpenAIRE

A survey to determine the incidence of parasites in cattle (n = 386) was conducted in the north eastern Free State between August 1999 and July 2000. Giemsa-stained blood smears were negative for blood parasites. A total of 94 % of the cattle were sero-positive for Babesia bigemina by indirect fluorescent antibody test while 87 % were sero-positive for Anaplasma by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The observation of ...

Mbati, P. A.; Waal, D. T.; Mtshali, M. S.

2010-01-01

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RBCs and Parasites Segmentation from Thin Smear Blood Cell Images  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Manually examine the blood smear for the detection of malaria parasite consumes lot of time for trend pathologists. As the computational power increases, the role of automatic visual inspection becomes more important. An automated system is therefore needed to complete as much work as possible for the identification of malaria parasites. The given scheme based on used of RGB color space, G layer processing, and segmentation of Red Blood Cells (RBC as well as cell parasites by auto-thresholding with offset value and use of morphological processing. The work compare with the manual results obtained from the pathology lab, based on total RBC count and cells parasite count. The designed system successfully detects malaria parasites and RBC cells in thin smear image.

Vishal V. Panchbhai

2012-09-01

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Detection of plasmodium parasites from images of thin blood smears  

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Full Text Available Malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in tropical and subtropical countries. Conventional microscopy is the Gold standard in the diagnosis of the disease. However, it is prone to some shortcomings which include time consumption and difficultness in reproducing results. Alternative diagnosis techniques which yield superior results are quite expensive and hence inaccessible to developing countries where the disease is prevalent. Thus in this work, an accurate, speedy and affordable system of malaria detection using stained thin blood smear images was developed. The method uses Artificial Neural Network (ANN to test for the presence of plasmodium parasites in thin blood smear images. Images of infected and non-infected erythrocytes were acquired, pre-processed, relevant features extracted from them and eventually diagnosis was made based on the features extracted from the images. Diagnosis entailed detection of plasmodium parasites. Classification accuracy of 95.0% in detection of infected erythrocyte was achieved with respect to results obtained by expert microscopists. The study revealed that artificial neural network (ANN classifiers trained with colour features of infected stained thin blood smear images are suitable for detection. It was further shown that ANN classifiers can be trained to perform image segmentation.

Daniel Maitethia Memeu

2013-11-01

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Peripheral blood smear image analysis: A comprehensive review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Peripheral blood smear image examination is a part of the routine work of every laboratory. The manual examination of these images is tedious, time-consuming and suffers from interobserver variation. This has motivated researchers to develop different algorithms and methods to automate peripheral blood smear image analysis. Image analysis itself consists of a sequence of steps consisting of image segmentation, features extraction and selection and pattern classification. The image segmentation step addresses the problem of extraction of the object or region of interest from the complicated peripheral blood smear image. Support vector machine (SVM) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) are two common approaches to image segmentation. Features extraction and selection aims to derive descriptive characteristics of the extracted object, which are similar within the same object class and different between different objects. This will facilitate the last step of the image analysis process: pattern classification. The goal of pattern classification is to assign a class to the selected features from a group of known classes. There are two types of classifier learning algorithms: supervised and unsupervised. Supervised learning algorithms predict the class of the object under test using training data of known classes. The training data have a predefined label for every class and the learning algorithm can utilize this data to predict the class of a test object. Unsupervised learning algorithms use unlabeled training data and divide them into groups using similarity measurements. Unsupervised learning algorithms predict the group to which a new test object belong to, based on the training data without giving an explicit class to that object. ANN, SVM, decision tree and K-nearest neighbor are possible approaches to classification algorithms. Increased discrimination may be obtained by combining several classifiers together. PMID:24843821

Mohammed, Emad A; Mohamed, Mostafa M A; Far, Behrouz H; Naugler, Christopher

2014-01-01

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Blinded comparison of a direct immunofluorescent monoclonal antibody staining method and a Giemsa staining method for identification of Pneumocystis carinii in induced sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage specimens of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.  

OpenAIRE

A new direct immunofluorescence monoclonal antibody (DFA) method (Genetic Systems, Inc., Seattle, Wash.) for identification of Pneumocystis carinii in induced sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage specimens was compared in a blinded study with an established Giemsa stain method. We evaluated 148 consecutive clinical specimens from 104 patients with the following results. For the 67 patients (64%) infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 49 were initially negative by both the DFA and ...

Wolfson, J. S.; Waldron, M. A.; Sierra, L. S.

1990-01-01

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A mycobacterial coinfection in a dog suspected on blood smear.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 4-year-old neutered female crossbred Shepherd was referred for a history of 10 days of anorexia, polyuria, polydipsia, polyadenomegaly, and diarrhea. On physical examination, the dog appeared quiet, responsive, and apyretic, with generalized and severe lymphadenomegaly. Hematologic abnormalities included neutrophilic leukocytosis with left shift, and lymphopenia. Blood smears revealed intracytoplasmic bacilli negatively stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa in neutrophils and monocytes. Lymph node smears revealed pyogranulomatous adenitis with calcified deposits and many negative-staining rod structures, both within the cytoplasm of neutrophils and macrophages, and free in the background. An acid-fast stain (Ziehl-Neelsen) confirmed the diagnosis of mycobacterial infection. The dog was euthanized for public health and ethical reasons, and the postmortem examination revealed severe and generalized granulomatous and necrotizing lymphadenitis, panniculitis, and hepatitis, and infiltration of epithelioid macrophages in the lungs, colon, and spleen. Numerous acid-fast bacilli, consistent with mycobacterial infection, were observed both in the cytoplasm of epithelioid macrophages and giant cells, and free in the background. Mycobacterium bovis was first confirmed by conventional PCR of organ extracts. Mycobacterium avium was detected in a culture of the same organs. Further PCR amplifications and sequencing revealed a coinfection with 2 different species of mycobacterium, one belonging to the Mycobacterium avium complex and the other to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. PMID:24320783

Etienne, Claire-Lise; Granat, Fanny; Trumel, Catherine; Raymond-Letron, Isabelle; Lucas, Marie-Noëlle; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Pingret, Jean-Luc; Magne, Laurent; Delverdier, Maxence

2013-12-01

26

Erythrocytic antioxidant defense, lipid peroxides level and blood iron, zinc and copper concentrations in dogs naturally infected with Babesia gibsoni.  

Science.gov (United States)

Babesiosis is a common tick borne disease of dogs in tropical and subtropical regions of the world caused by different species of Babesia. The present study aimed to examine erythrocyte lipid peroxide and erythrocytic antioxidant levels in dogs with clinical babesiosis, caused by Babesia gibsoni, and impact of the disease on blood iron, zinc and copper levels. The study was conducted on 10 naturally occurring cases of canine babesiosis with the history of tick infestation, erratic pyrexia, and prolonged illness. Microscopic examination of Giemsa stained peripheral blood smears confirmed B. gibsoni infection in the erythrocytes. Six apparently healthy dogs of different age, sex and breeds, brought for either health checkup or vaccination were used for comparison. Levels of erythrocytic antioxidant enzymes were significantly (Pgibsoni. Low level of blood iron, zinc and copper seems to have an additional role in the genesis of anaemia and oxidative stress. PMID:18378268

Chaudhuri, S; Varshney, J P; Patra, R C

2008-08-01

27

Fine needle aspiration cytology smear patterns of malignant melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 23 cases of malignant melanoma diagnosed by fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology from the years 1974 to 1983 were reviewed. The smears showed an abundance of melanin pigment overshadowing the tumor cells in six cases, a pleomorphic cytology in six, a round-cell morphology in four, an epithelial-like appearance in six and a spindle-cell pattern in one. Melanin pigment was readily seen in the May-Grünwald-Giemsa-stained smears in all cases except two, in one of which it was apparent after use of the Schmorl stain for melanin. An interesting observation was the presence of multiple, well-defined clear vacuoles in the cytoplasm of many cells and similar nuclear vacuolization in some cells in smears from ten cases. These cells could be regarded as intermediate forms between the nonvacuolated cells and the hypervacuolated balloon cells. The cause of this vacuolization is probably the result of degeneration and coalescence of melanosomes due to abnormal melanogenesis. These vacuoles were prominent in May-Grünwald-Giemsa-stained smears but were only faintly visible in Papanicolaou-stained smears, which may be the reason why this observation had not received emphasis in earlier reports of the FNA cytologic diagnosis of melanoma, in which the Papanicolaou stain was primarily used. PMID:3866463

Gupta, S K; Rajwanshi, A K; Das, D K

1985-01-01

28

Erythroid karyorrhexis in the peripheral blood smear in severe arsenic poisoning: a comparison with lead poisoning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three men with severe arsenic poisoning were hospitalized with working diagnoses, respectively, of peptic ulcer, pancreatitis, and viral gastroenteritis. In the first two patients, correct diagnosis was delayed until the return of heavy-metal screening tests ordered because of painful peripheral neuropathy in one and sudden flaccid paralysis, resembling Guillain-Barré syndrome, in the other. Both patients had coarsely stippled red blood cells with markedly abnormal nuclei in their peripheral blood smears. These distinctive hematologic features led to an early diagnosis in the third patient. The author's review of past cases of lead poisoning showed that red blood cell karyorrhexis also tends to occur in patients who consume illicit whiskey ("moonshine"). Karyorrhexis or marked dyserythropoiesis in the peripheral smear, not heretofore described in arsenic or lead poisoning, may indeed be a unique hematologic clue. Scrutiny of the peripheral blood and/or buffy coat smear in patients with perplexing gastrointestinal or neurologic symptoms may enable earlier diagnosis and better therapy of arsenic poisoning. PMID:6702757

Eichner, E R

1984-04-01

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Evaluation of Peripheral Blood Smear for Myelodysplasia in Breast Cancer Patients who Received Adjuvant Antracycline  

OpenAIRE

Objective: Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN) account for approximately 10% to 20% of all cases of AML (acute myeloid leukemia), MDS (myelodysplastic syndrome) and MDS/MPN (myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasms), MDS, and MDS/MPN. In our study, we evaluated peripheral blood smear samples and hemogram values in breast cancer patients who were receiving adjuvant anthracycline regimens and were in remission. Materials and Methods: A total of 78 patients receiving anthracycl...

Hasan Mutlu; Zeki Akca; Havva Uskudar Teke; Hediye Ugur

2011-01-01

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A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BLOOD SMEAR, QBC AND ANTIGEN DETECTION FOR DIAGNOSIS OF MALARIA  

OpenAIRE

Background & objectives:Rapid diagnosis is prerequisite for effective treatment and reducing mortality and morbidity of malaria. Microscopy has been the Gold standard for malaria diagnosis for decades. We made an attempt to compare blood smear, Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC) and rapid antigen detection methods for the rapid diagnosis of malaria.Methods & materials:A Cross sectional prospective study was conducted for 6 months in G.G.Hospital, Jamnagar. A total number of 90 hospitalized...

Suthar, Dr Mitesh N.; Mevada, Dr Amita K.; Pandya, Dr Neha H.; Desai, Dr Kinnar S.; Dr. Vaishali Patel; Dr. Toral Goswami

2013-01-01

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A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BLOOD SMEAR, QBC AND ANTIGEN DETECTION FOR DIAGNOSIS OF MALARIA  

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Full Text Available Background & objectives:Rapid diagnosis is prerequisite for effective treatment and reducing mortality and morbidity of malaria. Microscopy has been the Gold standard for malaria diagnosis for decades. We made an attempt to compare blood smear, Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC and rapid antigen detection methods for the rapid diagnosis of malaria.Methods & materials:A Cross sectional prospective study was conducted for 6 months in G.G.Hospital, Jamnagar. A total number of 90 hospitalized clinically suspected malarial cases were collected and confirmed by conventional blood smear, QBC and antigen based Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT. Blood smears were prepared and stained with Leishman’s stain. QBC and Rapid Diagnostic tests were done using commercially available kits. Patients were followed-up for signs of clinical recovery.Results:Malaria was diagnosed in 50, 54 and 59 patients by Leishman staining technique, QBC method and Rapid antigen detection test respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of Antigen detection test were 94%, 70% 79% & 90%, respectively while, those of QBC were 84%, 77%, 82% & 79%, respectively. The sensitivity of rapid diagnostic test is high with grade 3 & 4 parasitemia.Conclusion:In our study, rapid diagnostic tests were found more accurate than PBS & QBC. Microscopy is cost effective but microscopy and QBC requires technical expertise to interpret the results. In places where facilities are not available, rapid, simple and easy to interpret antigen detection test can be used, especially in endemic areas. 

Dr. Mitesh N. Suthar

2013-05-01

32

Blood Smear  

Science.gov (United States)

... possible. Related Pages On This Site Conditions: Anemia , Sickle Cell Anemia , Thalassemia , Hemoglobin Abnormalities , Leukemia , Malaria , Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiency , Bone Marrow Disorders , ...

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Blood smear  

Science.gov (United States)

... to certain drugs or the stress of infection ( G6PD deficiency ) Unstable form of hemoglobin The presence of ... eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap ...

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Erythrocyte dysplasia in peripheral blood smears from 5 thrombocytopenic dogs treated with vincristine sulfate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Secondary dyserythropoiesis has been associated with vincristine administration in dogs. Evaluation of bone marrow aspirates for the presence of morphologic abnormalities in the erythroid lineage aids in the diagnosis. However, morphologic features of circulating erythroid precursors in these cases have not been described previously. The purpose of this report was to describe the cytologic features of dyserythropoiesis in peripheral blood and also bone marrow smears in a case series of dogs with immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (IMT) treated with vincristine sulfate. Nineteen dogs receiving vincristine for treatment of IMT were identified by retrospectively searching a computerized medical record system. There were 5 dogs that had dysplastic erythroid precursors in peripheral blood smears within 7 days of vincristine treatment. Two of those 5 dogs also had evidence for erythrodysplasia in modified Wright's-stained bone marrow smears obtained postvincristine administration. Morphologic changes included bizarre or inappropriate mitotic figures, abnormal nuclear configurations (fragmentation, elongation, indentation, and binucleation), atypical nuclear remnants (Howell-Jolly bodies), or nuclear and cytoplasmic asynchrony within the erythroid precursors. A brief review of the literature with discussion of the etiologies for dyserythropoiesis is provided. The dyserythropoiesis was clinically insignificant in all 5 cases and resolved. However, pathologists and clinicians should be aware of these potential findings to prevent misdiagnosis of other conditions. PMID:24138476

Collicutt, Nancy B; Garner, Bridget

2013-12-01

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Evaluation of Peripheral Blood Smear for Myelodysplasia in Breast Cancer Patients who Received Adjuvant Antracycline  

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Full Text Available Objective: Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN account for approximately 10% to 20% of all cases of AML (acute myeloid leukemia, MDS (myelodysplastic syndrome and MDS/MPN (myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasms, MDS, and MDS/MPN. In our study, we evaluated peripheral blood smear samples and hemogram values in breast cancer patients who were receiving adjuvant anthracycline regimens and were in remission. Materials and Methods: A total of 78 patients receiving anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy treatment from Kayseri Research and Training Hospital and Mersin State Hospital were enrolled in the study. Their adjuvant treatments had been completed at least 18 months prior to the study. Results: Two patients complained of anemia (2.2% (Hb<11 mg/dl, leukopenia was observed in seven patients (7.7% (leukocytes<4000/mm3, and thrombocytopenia was observed in four patients (4.4% (PLT<150.000/mm3. In the blood smear samples, the following were observed: ovalomacrocytes (14%, macrocytes (37%, acanthocytes (1%, stomatocytes (12%, teardrops (12%, nucleated erythrocytes (1%, basophilic stippling (14%, and Howell-Jolly bodies (1%. Additionally, hypo-granulation (38%, Pelger-Huet abnormalities (26%, hypersegmentation (20%, immature granulocytes (8%, and blasts (6% were observed. We also confirmed the presence of giant platelets (50% and platelet hypogranulation (19%. Conclusion: According to the peripheral blood smear assessments in our study, we suggest that breast cancer patients should be evaluated for MDS in the early stages, starting from month 18, even if the automated blood counts are normal.

Hasan Mutlu

2011-12-01

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Retrospective and Prospective Investigations about “Quatrefoil” Erythrocytes in Canine Blood Smears  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of unusual two RBCs patterns (so-called “quatrefoil RBCs,” qRBCs) on canine blood smears at Optical Microscope (OM) was seen during routine evaluation of CBCs. Two consecutive retrospective investigations were arranged including about 7,000 CBCs and clinical records and laboratory data from dogs showing qRBCs. Few samples with qRBCs were prepared for Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). qRBCs were found in 6.89% (139 of 2016) and 8.47% (133 of 1569) of dogs and in 3.89% (154 of 3,958) and 4.47% (138 of 3,081) of CBCs (some dogs were tested more than once). Statistical analysis was significant for age groups (Chi squared, P Howell-Jolly bodies (ANOVA, P Howell-Jolly bodies. Few hypotheses were discussed to explain the origin and meaning of this RBC arrangement. PMID:24511413

Gavazza, Alessandra; Ricci, Marianna; Brettoni, Martina; Gugliucci, Biancaurora; Pasquini, Anna; Rispoli, Daniela; Bernabò, Nicola; Lubas, George

2014-01-01

37

Retrospective and Prospective Investigations about "Quatrefoil" Erythrocytes in Canine Blood Smears.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of unusual two RBCs patterns (so-called "quatrefoil RBCs," qRBCs) on canine blood smears at Optical Microscope (OM) was seen during routine evaluation of CBCs. Two consecutive retrospective investigations were arranged including about 7,000 CBCs and clinical records and laboratory data from dogs showing qRBCs. Few samples with qRBCs were prepared for Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). qRBCs were found in 6.89% (139 of 2016) and 8.47% (133 of 1569) of dogs and in 3.89% (154 of 3,958) and 4.47% (138 of 3,081) of CBCs (some dogs were tested more than once). Statistical analysis was significant for age groups (Chi squared, P Howell-Jolly bodies (ANOVA, P Howell-Jolly bodies. Few hypotheses were discussed to explain the origin and meaning of this RBC arrangement. PMID:24511413

Gavazza, Alessandra; Ricci, Marianna; Brettoni, Martina; Gugliucci, Biancaurora; Pasquini, Anna; Rispoli, Daniela; Bernabò, Nicola; Lubas, George

2014-01-01

38

Blood parasites in passerine birds from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parasites may lead bird species to extinction, affect host temporal and spatial population dynamics, alter community structure and alter individual' social status. We evaluated blood parasite prevalence and intensity according to bird families and species, among 925 birds that were caught in 2000 and 2001, in the Atlantic Forest in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. We applied Giemsa staining to thin blood smears, to detect blood parasites. The birds (n = 15.8%) in 11 families, were infected by at least one parasite genus, especially Muscicapidae (28.3%) and Conopophagidae (25%). Among the 146 infected birds, Plasmodium was detected in all bird families and had the highest prevalence (54.8%). Trypanosoma, Haemoproteus and microfilaria had lower prevalence rates (23.3, 23.3 and 2.1%, respectively). Birds caught during the rainy season were more infected than birds caught during the dry season. The overall low prevalence of blood parasites in birds is similar to the patterns found elsewhere in the Neotropical region. PMID:22534938

Sebaio, Fabiane; Braga, Erika Martins; Branquinho, Felipe; Fecchio, Alan; Marini, Miguel Ângelo

2012-01-01

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Crowdsourcing Malaria Parasite Quantification: An Online Game for Analyzing Images of Infected Thick Blood Smears  

Science.gov (United States)

Background There are 600,000 new malaria cases daily worldwide. The gold standard for estimating the parasite burden and the corresponding severity of the disease consists in manually counting the number of parasites in blood smears through a microscope, a process that can take more than 20 minutes of an expert microscopist’s time. Objective This research tests the feasibility of a crowdsourced approach to malaria image analysis. In particular, we investigated whether anonymous volunteers with no prior experience would be able to count malaria parasites in digitized images of thick blood smears by playing a Web-based game. Methods The experimental system consisted of a Web-based game where online volunteers were tasked with detecting parasites in digitized blood sample images coupled with a decision algorithm that combined the analyses from several players to produce an improved collective detection outcome. Data were collected through the MalariaSpot website. Random images of thick blood films containing Plasmodium falciparum at medium to low parasitemias, acquired by conventional optical microscopy, were presented to players. In the game, players had to find and tag as many parasites as possible in 1 minute. In the event that players found all the parasites present in the image, they were presented with a new image. In order to combine the choices of different players into a single crowd decision, we implemented an image processing pipeline and a quorum algorithm that judged a parasite tagged when a group of players agreed on its position. Results Over 1 month, anonymous players from 95 countries played more than 12,000 games and generated a database of more than 270,000 clicks on the test images. Results revealed that combining 22 games from nonexpert players achieved a parasite counting accuracy higher than 99%. This performance could be obtained also by combining 13 games from players trained for 1 minute. Exhaustive computations measured the parasite counting accuracy for all players as a function of the number of games considered and the experience of the players. In addition, we propose a mathematical equation that accurately models the collective parasite counting performance. Conclusions This research validates the online gaming approach for crowdsourced counting of malaria parasites in images of thick blood films. The findings support the conclusion that nonexperts are able to rapidly learn how to identify the typical features of malaria parasites in digitized thick blood samples and that combining the analyses of several users provides similar parasite counting accuracy rates as those of expert microscopists. This experiment illustrates the potential of the crowdsourced gaming approach for performing routine malaria parasite quantification, and more generally for solving biomedical image analysis problems, with future potential for telediagnosis related to global health challenges. PMID:23196001

Arranz, Asier; Frean, John

2012-01-01

40

Pap Smears  

Science.gov (United States)

... Healthy Weight: Your Personal Plan Dealing With Anger Pap Smears KidsHealth > Teens > Sexual Health > For Girls > Pap ... a Pap Smear? What Happens? What Is a Pap Smear? A Pap smear is a medical test ...

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A Preliminary Study of the Suitability of Archival Bone Marrow and Peripheral Blood Smears for Diagnosis of CML Using FISH  

OpenAIRE

Background. FISH is a molecular cytogenetic technique enabling rapid detection of genetic abnormalities. Facilities that can run fresh/wet samples for molecular diagnosis and monitoring of neoplastic disorders are not readily available in Ghana and other neighbouring countries. This study aims to demonstrate that interphase FISH can successfully be applied to archival methanol-fixed bone marrow and peripheral blood smear slides transported to a more equipped facility for molecular diagnosis o...

Alice Charwudzi; Olayemi, Edeghonghon E.; Ivy Ekem; Olufunmilayo Olopade; Mariann Coyle; Amma Anima Benneh; Emmanuel Alote Allotey

2014-01-01

42

Immunoglobulin and enzyme-conjugated dextran polymers enhance u-PAR staining intensity of carcinoma cells in peripheral blood smears.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The presence of disseminated carcinoma cells in bone marrow and peripheral blood has prognostic importance in patients with carcinomas. Much evidence indicates that dissemination of tumor cells may depend on activation of a variety of degradative enzymes. A strong positive correlation has been shown between the expression of tumor cell proteases and tumor invasion. Therefore, phenotypic characterization of disseminated carcinoma cells for expression of protease activators might define the invasive potential of the cells. We present an immunocytochemically enhanced staining method that allows phenotyping of disseminated carcinoma cells in bone marrow and peripheral blood smears. In the first step, the cells were incubated with antibodies against urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (u-PAR) and subsequently with secondary antibodies conjugated to peroxidase-labeled dextran polymers. A brown color reaction was developed with diaminobenzidine as chromogen. In the second step, the cells were incubated with alkaline phosphatase-conjugated murine monoclonal antibodies against a common cytokeratin epitope and a red color reaction was developed with new fuchsin as substrate. This method allows simultaneous and unambiguous immunolabeling of intracellular cytokeratin and of u-PAR intracellularly and on the surface of carcinoma cells. This novel approach can be used for detection and phenotyping of carcinoma cells in blood smears for u-PAR or, presumably, for any other heterogeneously expressed antigen on the surface of the detected cells.

Werther, K; Normark, M

1999-01-01

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Correlation between Sex Chromatin and Female Breast Tumour in Paraffin Sections, Buccal Smears and Peripheral Blood Films  

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Introduction: Sex chromatin is a plano-convex to triangular DNA mass measuring approximately 1?m in size and lying adjacent to the inner side of nuclear membrane in the somatic cells of the females. There is consistent loss in the sex chromatin percentage in the carcinoma cases in comparison to benign lesions and normal individuals. Aim: To know the correlation between the sex chromatin status in female breast tumors on paraffin sections, buccal smears and peripheral blood films. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on the paraffin sections prepared from carcinoma breast patients from their lumpectomy and mastectomy specimens. Buccal smears and a peripheral blood films were also prepared from each patient. Discussion: The control group had shown a mean sex chromatin of 54.6±6.73% which was found to be similar to the mean sex chromatin percentage in the fibroadenoma breast cases i.e. 54.91±6.06%. However, the mean sex chromatin in the carcinoma breast cases was markedly reduced i.e. 8.22±6.03%. Maximum no. of fibroadenoma cases (67%) were in the younger age group i.e. 15 to 25 year, while maximum number of carcinoma breast cases (42%) occurred in the 4th and 5th decade. Conclusion: There is a loss of sex chromatin in cases of carcinoma breast and is associated with poor histological markers. A statistically significant correlation was also found between sex chromatin status and microscopic grading in carcinoma breast. The tumors with higher microscopic grade had lower sex chromatin as compared to those with lower microscopic grading. PMID:24783091

Vijay Kumar, Bodal; Ravneet, Kalra; Manjit Singh, Bal; Ranjeev, Bhagat; Kalyan, Gurdeep Singh; Nishit, Gupta; Anil, Suri; Richika

2014-01-01

44

Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Technique based Prevalence of Surra in Equines  

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Full Text Available This project was carried out to find the prevalence of trypanosomiasis in equine in District Gujranwala by using indirect fluorescent antibody technique and thin smear method. Blood samples were collected from a total of 200 horses and donkeys of different ages and either sex. Duplicate thin blood smears were prepared from each sample and remaining blood samples were centrifuged to separate the serum. Smears from each animal were processed for giemsa staining and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT. Giemsa stained smears revealed Trypanosome infection in 4/200 (2.0% samples and IFAT in 12/200 (6.0% animals.

Ahsan Nadeem, Asim Aslam*, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary, Kamran Ashraf1, Khalid Saeed1, Nisar Ahmad1, Ishtiaq Ahmed and Habib ur Rehman2

2011-04-01

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A preliminary comparative report of quantitative buffy coat and modified quantitative buffy coat with peripheral blood smear in malaria diagnosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The quantitative buffy coat (QBC) technique is a method of diagnosing malarial parasites based on micro-centrifugation, fluorescence, and density gradient of infected red blood cells. The aim of the present study was to modify the QBC technique in order to reduce the cost per test of malaria diagnosis. This was achieved by introducing some modifications to routine QBC wherein REMI centrifuge (cost Rs 19000/-) and ultra-violet microscope (Rs 115000) were used instead of parafuge (Rs 108000) and paralens (Rs 293625/-). With the above modification, the cost per test for laboratories dealing with high patient load was reduced by 13%, whereas for smaller laboratories with low patient load, the cost per test was reduced by 48%. This is a significant difference in cost. The results of the modified QBC method were compared with the current diagnostic methods: peripheral blood smear (PBS) and routine QBC. Blood samples collected from 96 patients were subjected to the above tests. Considering PBS as the gold standard, routine QBC showed 91% sensitivity and 96% specificity for Plasmodium vivax- and 91% sensitivity and 94% specificity for Plasmodium falciparum-infected patients. It was seen that the modified QBC technique had 91% sensitivity and 98% specificity for P. vivax and 91% sensitivity and 96% specificity for P. falciparum. It was concluded that modification of the QBC technique renders it cheaper without compromising the specificity and sensitivity of the method. PMID:23182137

Kochareka, Manali; Sarkar, Sougat; Dasgupta, Debjani; Aigal, Umesh

2012-10-01

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Clonality and phenotyping of canine lymphomas before chemotherapy and during remission using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on lymph node cytologic smears and peripheral blood  

OpenAIRE

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor genes were utilized to determine phenotype and clonality from lymph node cytologic smears and peripheral blood lymphocytes from 10 dogs with lymphoma, before chemotherapy and during remission. Results were compared with those from 13 dogs with a cytologic diagnosis of lymph node hyperplasia. Clonality was identified in 7 of the lymphomas on the basis of either lymph node cytology or peripheral blood lymphocytes ...

Thilakaratne, Dilini N.; Mayer, Monique N.; Macdonald, Valerie S.; Jackson, Marion L.; Trask, Brenda R.; Kidney, Beverly A.

2010-01-01

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Automated system for characterization and classification of malaria-infected stages using light microscopic images of thin blood smears.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we propose a comprehensive image characterization cum classification framework for malaria-infected stage detection using microscopic images of thin blood smears. The methodology mainly includes microscopic imaging of Leishman stained blood slides, noise reduction and illumination correction, erythrocyte segmentation, feature selection followed by machine classification. Amongst three-image segmentation algorithms (namely, rule-based, Chan-Vese-based and marker-controlled watershed methods), marker-controlled watershed technique provides better boundary detection of erythrocytes specially in overlapping situations. Microscopic features at intensity, texture and morphology levels are extracted to discriminate infected and noninfected erythrocytes. In order to achieve subgroup of potential features, feature selection techniques, namely, F-statistic and information gain criteria are considered here for ranking. Finally, five different classifiers, namely, Naive Bayes, multilayer perceptron neural network, logistic regression, classification and regression tree (CART), RBF neural network have been trained and tested by 888 erythrocytes (infected and noninfected) for each features' subset. Performance evaluation of the proposed methodology shows that multilayer perceptron network provides higher accuracy for malaria-infected erythrocytes recognition and infected stage classification. Results show that top 90 features ranked by F-statistic (specificity: 98.64%, sensitivity: 100%, PPV: 99.73% and overall accuracy: 96.84%) and top 60 features ranked by information gain provides better results (specificity: 97.29%, sensitivity: 100%, PPV: 99.46% and overall accuracy: 96.73%) for malaria-infected stage classification. PMID:25523795

DAS, D K; Maiti, A K; Chakraborty, C

2015-03-01

48

Novel peripheral blood-derived human cell lines with properties of megakaryocytes  

OpenAIRE

For 18 mo, we derived 18 cell lines from 11 donors with various clinical profiles ranging from normal to leukemic. Suspension cultures were initiated with 1 X 10(6) mononuclear blood cells/ml of nutrient medium containing 10% human serum and 10% lectin-stimulated human lymphocyte conditioned medium. The cultures were monitored weekly by morphological analyses of Wright-Giemsa-stained cell preparations. All successful cultures showed a significant decline in viability during the first 3-4 wk w...

1985-01-01

49

Babesia gibsoni: detection in blood smears and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues using deoxyribonucleic acid in situ hybridization analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we attempted to detect Babesia gibsoni in blood smears and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues obtained from B. gibsoni-infected dogs using in situ hybridization. Using a digoxigenin-conjugated deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) probe, both intraerythrocytic and exoerythrocytic parasites in the culture could be specifically stained in blood smears fixed with 4% phosphate-buffered paraformaldehyde. This indicated that genomic DNA extracted from the parasites could be detected using in situ hybridization. Moreover, the parasite could be specifically stained in paraffin-embedded spleen, lymph node, and kidney sections using in situ hybridization. Infected erythrocytes in blood vessels in the spleen and kidney, hemosiderin-laden macrophages in the spleen, and phagocytized erythrocytes, which seemed to be infected with the parasites, in lymph nodes were also specifically stained. This suggests that in situ hybridization can be utilized to investigate both the life cycle of B. gibsoni and the pathological condition of canine babesiosis. PMID:20637756

Yamasaki, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Yusuke; Nakamura, Kensuke; Sasaki, Noboru; Murakami, Masahiro; Rajapakshage, Bandula Kumara Wickramasekara; Ohta, Hiroshi; Yamato, Osamu; Maede, Yoshimitsu; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi

2011-01-01

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Smudge cells in peripheral blood smears did not differentiate chronic lymphocytic leukemia from other B-cell chronic lymphoprolipherative diseases Sombras nucleares no esfregaço do sangue periférico não diferenciam a leucemia linfocítica crônica das outras doenças linfoproliferativas B crônicas  

OpenAIRE

Smudge cells has been classically associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), but they are found in peripheral blood tests for other chronic B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases (CLD). We investigated whether the percentage of smudge cells in peripheral blood smears can be used in the clinical practice to differentiate CLL from other B-cell CLD. The peripheral blood smears of 63 patients with the diagnosis of CLL and 62 with other B-cell CLD were analyzed. Three hundred cells (both lym...

Matos, Daniel M.; Guilherme Perini; Carlos Kruzich; Rego, Eduardo M.; Falca?o, Roberto P.

2009-01-01

51

A Case of Disseminated Histoplasmosis Detected in Peripheral Blood Smear Staining Revealing AIDS at Terminal Phase in a Female Patient from Cameroon  

OpenAIRE

Histoplasmosis is endemic in the American continent and also in Sub-Saharan Africa, coexisting with the African histoplasmosis. Immunosuppressed patients, especially those with advanced HIV infection develop a severe disseminated histoplasmosis with fatal prognosis. The definitive diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis is based on the detection of Histoplasma capsulatum from patient' tissues samples or body fluids. Among the diagnostic tests peripheral blood smear staining is not commonly u...

Christine Mandengue Ebenye

2012-01-01

52

Determination of Plasmodium Parasite Life Stages and Species in Images of Thin Blood Smears Using Artificial Neural Network  

OpenAIRE

Malaria is a leading cause of deaths globally. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of the disease is key to its effective treatment and management. Identification of plasmodium parasites life stages and species forms part of the diagnosis. In this study, a technique for identifying the parasites life stages and species using microscopic images of thin blood smears stained with Giemsa was developed. The technique entailed designing and training Artificial Neural Network (ANN) classifie...

Lucy Gitonga; Daniel Maitethia Memeu; Kenneth Amiga Kaduki; Mjomba Allen Christopher Kale; Njogu Samson Muriuki

2014-01-01

53

Pap Smear  

Science.gov (United States)

... sexual partners, infrequent Pap smears, cigarette smoking, a history of DES exposure, previous diagnosis of cervical cancer, compromised immune system from organ transplant or HIV , and the presence of other sexually ...

54

Laboratory diagnosis of malaria by conventional peripheral blood smear examination with Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC and Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT - A comparative study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: Rapid diagnosis is prerequisite for effective treatment and reducing mortality and morbidity of malaria. Microscopy has been the Gold standard for malaria diagnosis for decades. Recently, many new rapid diagnostic tests like Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC examination and rapid antigen detection methods are being widely used. We made an attempt to compare peripheral smear, QBC and rapid antigen detection methods for the diagnosis of malaria. Materials and Methods: A total number of 500 samples were collected from patients presenting with classical symptoms of malaria. Thick and thin blood smears were prepared and stained with Leishman’s stain. QBC, Histidine Rich Protein-II antigen test and plasmodium Lactate Dehydrogenase tests were done using commercially available kits. Results: Taking thick smear as gold standard, thin smear had sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 90.9%, 100%, 100% and 98.6% respectively. QBC showed sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 95.45%, 100%, 100% and 99.31% respectively. HRP-II antigen detection showed sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 56.06%, 100%, 100% and 94.20%. pLDH showed sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of 95.45%, 100%, 100% and 99.40% respectively. Conclusion: In our study, QBC had highest sensitivity followed by pLDH assay. Leishman’s stained thick smear is cost effective but requires technical expertise to interpret the results, so if facilities are available, QBC can be used for routine diagnosis. In places where facilities are not available rapid diagnostic test devices can be used, especially in endemic areas.

Bhat Sandhya K

2012-10-01

55

Detection of Babesia gibsoni by reaction of phage display single chain antibodies with P50 proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Babesia gibsoni (B. gibsoni) is a tick-borne hemoprotozoan parasite, which causes piroplasmosis in dogs. Diagnosis of canine babesiosis is commonly carried out using Giemsa-stained thin blood smears. However, at low levels of infection, it is difficult to detect Babesia organisms by observation of Giemsa-stained thin blood smears. We constructed a monoclonal phage display single chain antibody (scFv) against a B. gibsoni merozoite antigen, P50 protein. Intraerythrocytic B. gibsoni organisms are clearly stained using this antibody. The monoclonal scFv facilitated the detection of B. gibsoni organisms in canine blood samples. PMID:19721374

Hirose, Yoshino; Matsuhira, Saeka; Batanova, Tatiana Alexandrovna; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Terkawi, Mohamad A; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Kitoh, Katsuya; Xuan, Xuenan; Takashima, Yasuhiro

2009-08-01

56

Evaluation of hematological profile, biochemical and peripheral blood smear with a view to the health profile in primates of the Cebus genre maintained in captivity  

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Full Text Available Non-human primates serve as a model for studies on the dynamics of transmission routes and natural history of diseases shared between humans and animals. The captive environment is conducive the dissemination of zoonotic diseases. Many of these animals do not present clinical symptomatology, even when infected, which characterize them as an important source of infection for domestic animals and man. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sanity of non-human primates kept in captivity through hematological and biochemical analysis as well as peripheral blood smear, aiming to investigate the presence of zoonotic pathogens, serving as a model for future studies on the dynamics of routes of transmission of diseases shared between humans and animals. Were collected samples of blood from 15 nail monkeys (Cebus sp., adults, clinically healthy and belonging to Park Zoobotanic of Teresina. Were stained smear sanguine blades and obtained the haematological and biochemical profiles of each animal. The data analysis was based on basic statistics. Did not observed any haemoparasite present in peripheral blood. All animals were anemic, 46,7% thrombopenics and 87% of the animals showed some type of pathological process of chronic evolution, due to the high rate of monocytes found. All animals showed high rates of alkaline phosphatase, and transaminases AST and ALT, indicating injury of the hepatic parenchyma. New studies should be conducted to better elucidate of results, seeing that biochemical physiological data primate of the genus Cebus are scarce in literature.

David Baruc Cruvinel Lima

2014-09-01

57

Prevalence of piroplasms in small ruminants in North-West Tunisia and the first genetic characterisation of Babesia ovis in Africa  

OpenAIRE

In this study, the prevalence of piroplasms in sheep and goats was assessed with Giemsa-stained blood smear examination, PCR and nested PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to identify Babesia and Theileria species, respectively, in 338 small ruminants (172 sheep and 166 goats) from three sites in North-West Tunisia during the 2011 summer season. The overall infection prevalence of piroplasms in Giemsa-stained blood smears was 3.2% (11/338), with a parasitaemia ranging from 0.0...

Rjeibi, Mohamed Ridha; Gharbi, Mohamed; Mhadhbi, Moez; Mabrouk, Wiem; Ayari, Bouthei?na; Nasfi, Ines; Jedidi, Mohamed; Sassi, Limam; Rekik, Mourad; Darghouth, Mohamed Aziz

2014-01-01

58

The occurrence of hepatozoon in the gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis)  

Science.gov (United States)

Hepatozoon sciuri (Coles, 1914) is reported from gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) in Washington, D.C. and Maryland. Blood smears stained with Giemsa's stain revealed a parasitemia in 16 to 71% of the squirrels examined. A technique for laking the red cells and concentrating the white cells in blood samples demonstrated this protozoon to be present in every squirrel so tested.

Herman, C.M.; Price, D.L.

1955-01-01

59

Development of hedge operator based fuzzy divergence measure and its application in segmentation of chronic myelogenous leukocytes from microscopic image of peripheral blood smear.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper introduces a hedge operator based fuzzy divergence measure and its application in segmentation of leukocytes in case of chronic myelogenous leukemia using light microscopic images of peripheral blood smears. The concept of modified discrimination measure is applied to develop the measure of divergence based on Shannon exponential entropy and Yager's measure of entropy. These two measures of divergence are compared with the existing literatures and validated by ground truth images. Finally, it is found that hedge operator based divergence measure using Yager's entropy achieves better segmentation accuracy i.e., 98.29% for normal and 98.15% for chronic myelogenous leukocytes. Furthermore, Jaccard index has been performed to compare the segmented image with ground truth ones where it is found that that the proposed scheme leads to higher Jaccard index (0.39 for normal, 0.24 for chronic myelogenous leukemia). PMID:24238941

Ghosh, Madhumala; Chakraborty, Chandan; Konar, Amit; Ray, Ajoy K

2014-02-01

60

Significado da presença de esquizócitos no sangue periférico de gestantes com pré-eclâmpsia / Ming of the presence of schistocytes in blood smear of preeclamptic pregnat women  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: avaliar o significado da presença de esquizócitos em esfregaço de sangue periférico de gestantes com pré-eclâmpsia, identificando-os e correlacionando-os com outros marcadores de hemólise e da gravidade da doença. MÉTODOS: foram avaliadas 76 lâminas de esfregaço de sangue periférico de ges [...] tantes portadoras de pré-eclâmpsia. Após a realização do esfregaço, as lâminas foram submetidas ao corante de Leishman e armazenadas até a leitura, feita em microscópio modelo DLMB, da marca Leica, com aumento de 40 vezes e imersão em óleo. O microscópio era dotado de software Qwin Lite 2.5, que permitia gravar as imagens dos campos escolhidos em CD-ROM. Em cada lâmina foram contados dez campos com aproximadamente 100 eritrócitos. Foi considerada presença de esquizócitos (fragmento irregular ou em forma de capacete, de mordida ou triângulo) quando a porcentagem dos mesmos era maior ou igual que 0,2%. A presença de esquizócitos foi correlacionada com outros marcadores de hemólise (hemoglobina, bilirrubina total, desidrogenase lática e reticulócitos), marcadores da pré-eclâmpsia (proteinúria e número de plaquetas) e com a gravidade da pré-eclâmpsia. Para análise estatística foi utilizado o programa Statistical Package in Social Science (SPSS), versão 10.0, com valor de p Abstract in english PURPOSE: to evaluate the significance of schizocytes presence in peripheral blood smear of pregnant women with pre-eclampsia, identifying and correlating them with other markers of hemolysis and of the disease severity. METHODS: Seventh six glass slides of peripheral blood smear of pregnant women wi [...] th pre-eclampsia have been evaluated. After the smear, the slides have been stained with Leishman's dye and stored till they were examined with a Leica, model DLMB microscope, provided with the Qwin Lite 2.5 software that made it possible to record the images of selected fields in CD-ROM. Ten fields with approximately 100 erythrocytes were counted in each glass slide. Schizocytes (irregular fragment or helmet-shaped, bite-shaped or triangular) were considered as present, when their percentage was equal or higher than 0.2%, their presence being correlated with other hemolysis markers (hemoglobin, total bilirubin, lactic desidrogenasis and reticulocytes), pre-eclampsia markers (proteinuria and platelet number). The Statistical Package in Social Science for Windows (SPSS), 10.0 version has been used for statistical analysis, at p

Rosângela de Fátima do Nascimento e, Silva; Lucilene Silva Ruiz e, Resende; Bruno Rabelo, Cardoso; Joélcio Francisco, Abbade; José Carlos, Peraçoli.

2008-08-01

61

Diagnóstico presuntivo de histoplasmosis en un frotis sanguíneo / Presumptive diagnosis of histoplasmosis in a blood smear / Diagnóstico presuntivo de histoplasmose em um esfregaço de sangue  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Comunica-se o diagnóstico de um caso de histoplasmose associada à AIDS, de uma microscopia de extensão sanguínea realizada por ocasião do processamento de uma amostra enviada ao laboratório para um estudo hematológico. A extensão, fixada com metanol e corada com solução de Giemsa a 10%, revelou com [...] objetivo de 100X, estruturas leveduriformes de 2-4 µ diâmetro dentro de células leucocitárias do sangue, com a típica coloração em tampão e a presença de um halo claro periférico, os quais caracterizam microscopicamente a Histoplasma capsulatum. Em seguida, para confirmar o achado micológico, foi corada a mesma preparação com a técnica de Grocott, que mostrou leveduras de cor parda, dentro dos leucócitos sanguíneos. O paciente clínica e imunologicamente deteriorado ( Abstract in spanish Se comunica el diagnóstico de un caso de histoplasmosis asociada al SIDA a partir de la microscopía de un extendido hemático realizado en oportunidad del procesamiento de una muestra enviada al laboratorio para un estudio hematológico. El extendido, fijado con metanol y teñido con solución de Giemsa [...] al 10% reveló, con objetivo de 100X, estructuras levaduriformes de 2-4 µ de diámetro dentro de las células leucocitarias sanguíneas, con la típica tinción en casquete y la presencia de un halo claro periférico, que caracterizan microscópicamente a Histoplasma capsulatum. Luego, para confirmar el hallazgo micológico, se procedió a teñir el mismo preparado con la técnica de Grocott, la cual puso de manifiesto levaduras de color pardo, dentro de los leucocitos sanguíneos. El paciente, deteriorado clínica e inmunológicamente ( Abstract in english A case of AIDS-associated histoplasmosis diagnosed by microscopy from a blood smear performed during a hematologic study was reported. The smear, fixed with methanol and stained with 10% Giemsa solution, revealed with a 100X objective, 2-4 µ-diameter yeast - like structures within the leuMicrobiolog [...] ía contakocytes, showing a typical staining in cap and a peripheral clear halo, characteristic of Histoplasma capsulatum. To confirm the mycological finding, the same smear was stained with the Grocott technique, showing brownish yeasts in the leucocytes. The patient, clinically deteriorated and with advanced immunological disorder (

Agustina Daniela, Tkach; Jorge Daniel, Moreno; Amadeo Javier, Bava.

2012-12-01

62

Morphological findings in bone marrow biopsy and aspirate smears of visceral kala azar: A review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Context: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is endemic in India and may simulate and cause many hematological disorders like pancytopenia, myelofibrosis, myelodysplasia and hemophagocytosis. Aims: The study aims to investigate the hematological manifestation of Visceral Leishmaniasis and associated changes that may be observed in bone marrow aspirate smears and biopsy which may warn a pathologist of possible infections. Settings and Design: This is a retrospective study of 18 VL cases on B (b one marrow aspirate and biopsy in the department of Pathology in a tertiary care teaching hospital in New Delhi. Methods and Material: Giemsa stained slides of bone marrow aspirates and hematoxylin and Eosin stained biopsy slides were reviewed in detail by two competent pathologists. All the findings were tabulated and discussed and comparisons made with the previous similar studies. Results: Hyper cellular marrow, increased lymphocytes and plasma cells, marrow granulomas, hemophagocytosis, myelofibrosis, myelodysplasia and gelatinous transformation of the marrow were notable features the presence of which together or individually should caution a pathologist to search for Leishman Donovan (LD bodies in patients especially in a non-endemic zone in a tropical country.

Dhingra Kajal

2010-01-01

63

First field investigation report on the prevalence of trypanosomosis in camels in northern Tanzania  

OpenAIRE

Parasitological evaluation of equine trypanosomosis in 193 camels (49 male and 144 female) from 8 geographical localities of northern, Tanzania were carried out during the period of June-August 2010. The evaluation was carried out using Giemsa stained microscopy examination of blood smear. The overall detected prevalence of camel trypanosomosis was 8.2% with highest prevalence in Kilindi district...

E. S. Swai,; W. Moshy,; E. Mbise,; Kaaya, J.; Bwanga, S.

2011-01-01

64

A preliminary comparative report of quantitative buffy coat and modified quantitative buffy coat with peripheral blood smear in malaria diagnosis  

OpenAIRE

The quantitative buffy coat (QBC) technique is a method of diagnosing malarial parasites based on micro-centrifugation, fluorescence, and density gradient of infected red blood cells. The aim of the present study was to modify the QBC technique in order to reduce the cost per test of malaria diagnosis. This was achieved by introducing some modifications to routine QBC wherein REMI centrifuge (cost Rs 19?000/–) and ultra-violet microscope (Rs 115?000) were used instead of parafuge (Rs 10...

Kochareka, Manali; Sarkar, Sougat; Dasgupta, Debjani; Aigal, Umesh

2012-01-01

65

Florid Erythrophagocytosis on the Peripheral Smear  

OpenAIRE

Erythrophagocytosis is a relatively rare observation on blood smears. It has been reported in auto immune hemolytic anemias and sporadically in few other conditions. Here, we report a case of florid erythrophagocytosis with severe anemia following a viral infection in an 18-year-old girl. Her complete blood count (CBC) revealed hemoglobin of 3.6 gm/dl and a hematocrit of 10%. The peripheral smear showed erythrophagocytosis by neutrophils and rosetting of erythrocytes around neutrophils. The d...

Chandrashekar, Vani; Soni, Mamta

2012-01-01

66

Borrelia sp. in naturally infected Didelphis aurita (Wied, 1826) (marsupialia: didelphidae)  

OpenAIRE

Fifty-six opossums (Didelphis aurita) were captured on the campus of Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica county, Rio de Janeiro state, in order to investigate the occurrence of Borrelia sp among them in relation with the study of spirochaetemia and its ectoparasites. Blood tests were made through dark field and phase contrast microscopy, as well as the obtainment of blood smears. Smears were stained with Giemsa stain, which did not prove efficacy. There was no relation b...

Isis dos Santos Abel; Denclair Escobar de Almeida Junior; Adivaldo Henrique da Fonseca; Cleber Oliveira Soares; Márcia Mayumi Ishikawa

2000-01-01

67

The use of fluorescence enhancement to improve the microscopic diagnosis of falciparum malaria  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Giemsa staining of thick blood smears remains the "gold standard" for detecting malaria. However, this method is not very good for diagnosing low-level infections. A method for the simultaneous staining of Plasmodium-parasitized culture and blood smears for both bright field and fluorescence was developed and its ability to improve detection efficiency tested. Methods A total of 22 nucleic acid-specific fluorescent dyes were tested for their ability to provide easily observable staining of Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized red blood cells following Giemsa staining. Results Of the 14 dyes that demonstrated intense fluorescence staining, only SYBR Green 1, YOYO-1 and ethidum homodimer-2 could be detected using fluorescent microscopy, when cells were first stained with Giemsa. Giemsa staining was not effective when applied after the fluorescent dyes. SYBR Green 1 provided the best staining in the presence of Giemsa, as a very high percentage of the parasitized cells were simultaneously stained. When blood films were screened using fluorescence microscopy the parasites were more readily detectable due to the sharp contrast between the dark background and the specific, bright fluorescence produced by the parasites. Conclusion The dual staining method reported here allows fluorescence staining, which enhances the reader's ability to detect parasites under low parasitaemia conditions, coupled with the ability to examine the same cell under bright field conditions to detect the characteristic morphology of Plasmodium species that is observed with Giemsa staining.

Liu Paul

2007-07-01

68

Blood parasites in passerine birds from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest / Hemoparasitos em passeriformes da Mata Atlântica Brasileira  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Parasitos podem levar espécies de aves à extinção, afetar as dinâmicas temporais e espaciais dos hospedeiros, alterar a estrutura de comunidades e o status social de indivíduos. Avaliou-se a prevalência e a intensidade de parasitos em famílias e espécies de 925 aves capturadas, entre 2000 e 2001, na [...] Mata Atlântica de Minas Gerais. Foram coradas com Giemsa extensões de sangue para detectar parasitos hematozoários. As aves (n= 15,8%) 11 famílias estavam infectadas por pelo menos um gênero de parasito, especialmente Muscicapidae (28,3%) e Conopophagidae (25%). Entre as 146 aves infectadas, Plasmodium foi detectado em todas as famílias e possuiu a maior prevalência (54,8%). Trypanosoma,Haemoproteus e microfilaria possuíram baixas prevalências (23,3, 23,3 e 2,1%, respectivamente). Aves capturadasdurante a estação chuvosa estavam mais infectadas do que aves capturadas durante a estação seca. A baixa prevalência geral de parasitos do sangue das aves é semelhante aos padrões encontrados em outras localidades da região Neotropical. Abstract in english Parasites may lead bird species to extinction, affect host temporal and spatial population dynamics, alter community structure and alter individuals’ social status. We evaluated blood parasite prevalence and intensity according to bird families and species, among 925 birds that were caught in 2000 a [...] nd 2001, in the Atlantic Forest in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. We applied Giemsa staining to thin blood smears, to detect blood parasites. The birds (n = 15.8%) in 11 families, were infected by at least one parasite genus, especially Muscicapidae (28.3%) and Conopophagidae (25%). Among the 146 infected birds, Plasmodium was detected in all bird families and had the highest prevalence (54.8%). Trypanosoma, Haemoproteus and microfilaria had lower prevalence rates (23.3, 23.3 and 2.1%, respectively). Birds caught during the rainy season were more infected than birds caught during the dry season. The overall low prevalence of blood parasites in birds is similar to the patterns found elsewhere in the Neotropical region.

Fabiane, Sebaio; Érika Martins, Braga; Felipe, Branquinho; Alan, Fecchio; Miguel Ângelo, Marini.

2012-03-01

69

Blood parasites in passerine birds from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Hemoparasitos em passeriformes da Mata Atlântica Brasileira  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Parasites may lead bird species to extinction, affect host temporal and spatial population dynamics, alter community structure and alter individuals’ social status. We evaluated blood parasite prevalence and intensity according to bird families and species, among 925 birds that were caught in 2000 and 2001, in the Atlantic Forest in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. We applied Giemsa staining to thin blood smears, to detect blood parasites. The birds (n = 15.8% in 11 families, were infected by at least one parasite genus, especially Muscicapidae (28.3% and Conopophagidae (25%. Among the 146 infected birds, Plasmodium was detected in all bird families and had the highest prevalence (54.8%. Trypanosoma, Haemoproteus and microfilaria had lower prevalence rates (23.3, 23.3 and 2.1%, respectively. Birds caught during the rainy season were more infected than birds caught during the dry season. The overall low prevalence of blood parasites in birds is similar to the patterns found elsewhere in the Neotropical region.Parasitos podem levar espécies de aves à extinção, afetar as dinâmicas temporais e espaciais dos hospedeiros, alterar a estrutura de comunidades e o status social de indivíduos. Avaliou-se a prevalência e a intensidade de parasitos em famílias e espécies de 925 aves capturadas, entre 2000 e 2001, na Mata Atlântica de Minas Gerais. Foram coradas com Giemsa extensões de sangue para detectar parasitos hematozoários. As aves (n= 15,8% 11 famílias estavam infectadas por pelo menos um gênero de parasito, especialmente Muscicapidae (28,3% e Conopophagidae (25%. Entre as 146 aves infectadas, Plasmodium foi detectado em todas as famílias e possuiu a maior prevalência (54,8%. Trypanosoma,Haemoproteus e microfilaria possuíram baixas prevalências (23,3, 23,3 e 2,1%, respectivamente. Aves capturadasdurante a estação chuvosa estavam mais infectadas do que aves capturadas durante a estação seca. A baixa prevalência geral de parasitos do sangue das aves é semelhante aos padrões encontrados em outras localidades da região Neotropical.

Fabiane Sebaio

2012-03-01

70

Smear layer in endodontics  

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Full Text Available Modern methods of root canal cleaning and filing are causing formation of the smear layer on treated surfaces. The aim of this paper was to review clinical aspect of smear layer in endodontics. Smear layer is the consequence of instrumentation of root canal walls and is consisted of organic and inorganic particles of cut dentine, necrotic and/or vital pulp fragments, microorganisms and their products. Existence of smear layer is affecting permeability of the radicular dentine, thus decreasing effects of canal medicaments and impairing adhesion of obturation materials in root canal. Removal of the smear layer from canal walls is possible with use of various chemical agents, ultrasonic or laser techniques. Regardless to contradictory attitudes and opinions, removing the smear layer is required for possible bacterial contamination, compromised effects of root canal medication and in order to obtain better obturation of canals 'system. .

Živkovi? Slavoljub

2005-01-01

71

Comparação de nested-PCR com o diagnóstico direto na detecção de Ehrlichia canis e Anaplasma platys em cães / Comparison of nested-PCR with blood smear examination in detection of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in dogs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os sinais clínicos das infecções por Ehrlichia canis e Anaplasma platys são similares, e o diagnóstico desses patógenos feito por esfregaços sanguíneos corados é difícil devido à sensibilidade e especificidade. Por outro lado, os diagnósticos moleculares são altamente sensíveis e específicos, e nest [...] ed-PCRs têm sido otimizadas para o diagnóstico preciso desses patógenos em cães. Em um Hospital Veterinário Escola, amostras de sangue total com EDTA foram obtidas de 100 cães, e esfregaços foram feitos das amostras de sangue para busca dos parasitos intracelulares. Para cada amostra, DNA foi extraído e submetido à nPCR para detecção de E. canis e A. platys. Os resultados dos esfregaços sanguíneos mostraram que 9% dos animais foram positivos para E. canis e 21% para A. platys. Com relação à nPCR, 57 e 55% dos cães foram positivos para E. canis e A. platys, respectivamente. Quando comparados com a nPCR, os esfregaços sanguíneos corados revelaram resultados falso-negativos para E. canis e A. platys. Os resultados indicam que a nPCR é altamente sensível e específica para detecção de ambos os patógenos, e os diagnósticos moleculares podem ser mais úteis nos Hospitais Veterinários. Abstract in english The clinical signs of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys infection are similar, and the diagnosis of these pathogens made by stained blood smears is poor due sensibility and specificity. On the other hand, the molecular diagnosis is highly sensitive and specific and nested-PCR have been optimized [...] for accurate diagnosis these pathogens in dogs. At the veterinary teaching hospital, whole-blood samples with EDTA were obtained from 100 dogs and smears were made from blood samples for evaluation for intracellular parasites. For each sample, DNA was extracted and submitted to nPCR analysis for detection of E. canis and A. platys. The results of stained blood smears showed 9% of the animals were positive for E. canis and 21% for A. platys. Regarding of nPCR analysis, 57 and 55% of dogs were positive for E. canis and A. platys respectively. As compared to a nested PCR, the stained blood smears revealed false-negative results for both E. canis and A. platys. The results indicate that the nPCR is highly sensitive and specific for detection of both pathogens and the molecular diagnosis could be more useful at veterinary hospital.

Carlos A. N., Ramos; Rafael A. N., Ramos; Flábio R., Araújo; Daniel S., Guedes Jr; Ingrid I. F., Souza; Tatiana M., Ono; Anahi S., Vieira; Danillo S., Pimentel; Eduardo O., Rosas; Maria A. G., Faustino; Leucio C., Alves.

2009-12-01

72

Comparação de nested-PCR com o diagnóstico direto na detecção de Ehrlichia canis e Anaplasma platys em cães Comparison of nested-PCR with blood smear examination in detection of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in dogs  

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Full Text Available Os sinais clínicos das infecções por Ehrlichia canis e Anaplasma platys são similares, e o diagnóstico desses patógenos feito por esfregaços sanguíneos corados é difícil devido à sensibilidade e especificidade. Por outro lado, os diagnósticos moleculares são altamente sensíveis e específicos, e nested-PCRs têm sido otimizadas para o diagnóstico preciso desses patógenos em cães. Em um Hospital Veterinário Escola, amostras de sangue total com EDTA foram obtidas de 100 cães, e esfregaços foram feitos das amostras de sangue para busca dos parasitos intracelulares. Para cada amostra, DNA foi extraído e submetido à nPCR para detecção de E. canis e A. platys. Os resultados dos esfregaços sanguíneos mostraram que 9% dos animais foram positivos para E. canis e 21% para A. platys. Com relação à nPCR, 57 e 55% dos cães foram positivos para E. canis e A. platys, respectivamente. Quando comparados com a nPCR, os esfregaços sanguíneos corados revelaram resultados falso-negativos para E. canis e A. platys. Os resultados indicam que a nPCR é altamente sensível e específica para detecção de ambos os patógenos, e os diagnósticos moleculares podem ser mais úteis nos Hospitais Veterinários.The clinical signs of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys infection are similar, and the diagnosis of these pathogens made by stained blood smears is poor due sensibility and specificity. On the other hand, the molecular diagnosis is highly sensitive and specific and nested-PCR have been optimized for accurate diagnosis these pathogens in dogs. At the veterinary teaching hospital, whole-blood samples with EDTA were obtained from 100 dogs and smears were made from blood samples for evaluation for intracellular parasites. For each sample, DNA was extracted and submitted to nPCR analysis for detection of E. canis and A. platys. The results of stained blood smears showed 9% of the animals were positive for E. canis and 21% for A. platys. Regarding of nPCR analysis, 57 and 55% of dogs were positive for E. canis and A. platys respectively. As compared to a nested PCR, the stained blood smears revealed false-negative results for both E. canis and A. platys. The results indicate that the nPCR is highly sensitive and specific for detection of both pathogens and the molecular diagnosis could be more useful at veterinary hospital.

Carlos A. N. Ramos

2009-12-01

73

Evaluation of buffalo semen by Trypan blue/Giemsa staining and related fertility in vitro  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this work was to verify the feasibility of an easy, quick double staining technique for evaluation of frozen-thawed semen to predict the fertilizing capability in vitro of buffalo bulls. In Experiment 1, frozen-thawed semen from 6 bulls was stained with double Trypan blue/ Giemsa and the incidence of acrosome-intact live (AIL), acrosome-intact dead (AID), acrosome-lost live (ALL) and acrosome-lost dead (ALD) sperm was recorded. In Experiment 2, sperm from the same bulls were used t...

Gasparrini, B.; Mariotti, E.; Attanasio, L.; Rosa, A.; Di Palo, R.; Boccia, L.

2010-01-01

74

Evaluation of buffalo semen by Trypan blue/Giemsa staining and related fertility in vitro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this work was to verify the feasibility of an easy, quick double staining technique for evaluation of frozen-thawed semen to predict the fertilizing capability in vitro of buffalo bulls. In Experiment 1, frozen-thawed semen from 6 bulls was stained with double Trypan blue/ Giemsa and the incidence of acrosome-intact live (AIL, acrosome-intact dead (AID, acrosome-lost live (ALL and acrosome-lost dead (ALD sperm was recorded. In Experiment 2, sperm from the same bulls were used to fertilize in vitro matured oocytes. The data obtained confirm that there is a strong “bull effect” in buffalo species, with differences in the percentage of AIL sperm at thawing, in cleavage and blastocyst rates among bulls. Interestingly, it was found that this staining technique can be used for a preliminary screening to select semen to use for IVF, as shown by the correlation existent between the percentages of acrosome-intact viable sperm cells at thawing and the blastocyst yields for 4/6 bulls.

B. Gasparrini

2010-02-01

75

A sensitive method for accurate estimation of radiation induced apoptosis on peripheral blood mononuclear cells by acridine orange stain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A rapid and sensitive method for quantification of Apoptotic cells is presented. The value of the method is demonstrated on peripheral blood mononuclear cells, which constitutively undergo programmed cell death and which show an increase in the rate of apoptosis after exposure to the irradiation with 137 Cs ? -ray. After staining with Acridine orange post irradiation, three distinct cell populations (live, apoptosis, and necrosis) shown by analysis of fluorescence profiles. This Acridine orange stain method is directly compared with the stain method of Wright-Giemsa on duplicated slides and Apoptosis to quantify cell events following exposure to dose of in vitro ? -irradiation and post-irradiation incubation times. The apoptosis frequency of three healthy volunteers obtained with both stain methods was steep below 100cGy and flatter at high doses. A significantly higher number of radiation induced apoptotic cells were observed after stain with Acridine orange compared with Wright-Giemsa stain post irradiation. Our results demonstrated that the Acridine orange stain is superior methods with greater sensitivity and accuracy in comparison with the Wright-Giemsa stain tested. This method may be allows rapid measurement of a large number of cells for samples of radiation biological effect

76

A sensitive method for accurate estimation of radiation induced apoptosis on peripheral blood mononuclear cells by acridine orange stain  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A rapid and sensitive method for quantification of Apoptotic cells is presented. The value of the method is demonstrated on peripheral blood mononuclear cells, which constitutively undergo programmed cell death and which show an increase in the rate of apoptosis after exposure to the irradiation with {sub 137} Cs {gamma} -ray. After staining with Acridine orange post irradiation, three distinct cell populations (live, apoptosis, and necrosis) shown by analysis of fluorescence profiles. This Acridine orange stain method is directly compared with the stain method of Wright-Giemsa on duplicated slides and Apoptosis to quantify cell events following exposure to dose of in vitro {gamma} -irradiation and post-irradiation incubation times. The apoptosis frequency of three healthy volunteers obtained with both stain methods was steep below 100cGy and flatter at high doses. A significantly higher number of radiation induced apoptotic cells were observed after stain with Acridine orange compared with Wright-Giemsa stain post irradiation. Our results demonstrated that the Acridine orange stain is superior methods with greater sensitivity and accuracy in comparison with the Wright-Giemsa stain tested. This method may be allows rapid measurement of a large number of cells for samples of radiation biological effect.

Park, S. Y.; Kim, H. S.; Choi, J. M.; Yang, K.H.; Kim, C.S.; Lee, E.H.; Chjoi, K.H.; Lim, Y.K.; Kim, C.S. [Radiation Health Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2002-07-01

77

Intravascular hemolysis associated with Candidatus Mycoplasma hematoparvum in a non-splenectomized dog in the south region of Iran  

OpenAIRE

A 2-year-old male Pekingese dog was referred to Shiraz University’s Veterinary Teaching Hospital for anorexia and depression. The case had no history of surgery. Physical examination revealed no abnormalities except mild depression and fever. Small, coccoid, epicellular bacteria were detected on erythrocytes by microscopic examination of the Giemsa-stained blood smears. Abnormalities noted in the complete blood count included regenerative anemia characterized by a marked reticulocytosis. Ex...

Sharifiyazdi, Hassan; Abbaszadeh Hasiri, Mohammad; Amini, Amin Hosein

2014-01-01

78

Concordancia entre gota gruesa, inmunocromatografía y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa para el diagnóstico de malaria / Concordance between thick blood smear, immunochromatography and polymerase chain reaction for malaria diagnosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. El diagnóstico oportuno y efectivo del paludismo, o malaria, son condiciones determinantes para hacer un tratamiento adecuado de la enfermedad y un control de la misma. Objetivo. Se evaluó la concordancia de la sensibilidad, especificidad, valor diagnóstico positivo y negativo de una p [...] rueba rápida y de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR), con la prueba estándar, la gota gruesa, para el diagnóstico de la malaria. Materiales y métodos. Se analizó una población de 100 pacientes con signos y síntomas indicativos de paludismo, procedentes de las zonas de Urabá, Córdoba, Bajo Cauca y de otras regiones de Colombia, como Valle, Chocó y Vichada, todas áreas endémicas de la enfermedad. A cada paciente se le practicó una gota gruesa, la prueba rápida OptiMAL® y la amplificación a través de una PCR de secuencias de ADN específicas para género y para Plasmodium falciparum y Plasmodium vivax. Resultados. La sensibilidad de la prueba rápida frente a la gota gruesa, para el diagnóstico de ambas especies de Plasmodium fue de 93,85% (IC95% 87,23-100) y la especificidad de 94,29% (IC95% 85,17-100). La PCR comparada con la gota gruesa mostró una sensibilidad de 100% (IC95% 99,23-100) y una especificidad de 97,14% (IC95% 90,19-100). Conclusiones. Estos hallazgos muestran que la sensibilidad y especificidad de la prueba rápida y la PCR para el diagnóstico de malaria son comparables con el examen al microscopio de la gota gruesa, recomendada por su eficacia y bajo costo. Abstract in english Introduction. The rapid and effective diagnosis of malaria is the determining condition for an appropriate treatment and control of the disease. Objective. The sensitivity, specificity and the positive and negative predictive values were evaluated in cases of suspected malaria in Colombia in a compa [...] rison of a rapid diagnostic test. the PCR test and the thick blood smear-the traditional ‘gold standard.’ Materials and methods. A group of 100 patients with symptoms compatible with malaria, were included in the study. They were selected from the following Colombian regions: Urabá, Córdoba, lower Cauca, and relatively fewer from other malaria endemic areas of Colombia including the provinces of Valle, Chocó in the central west of Colombia and Vichada to the east. To each patient the following three tests were performed: the rapid OptiMAL® test, the PCR identification and the thick blood smear. The PCR amplified specific DNA sequences with primers designed to identify the genus Plasmodium, and the two species present in Colombia, P. falciparum and P. vivax. Results. The sensitivity of the rapid test versus the thick smear, for the diagnosis of both species of Plasmodium was 93.9% (95% CI: 87-100%) and the specificity was 94.3% (95% CI:.253 85-100%). The PCR compared with the thick smear showed a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 99-100%) and a specificity of 97.1% (95% CI: 90-100%). Conclusions. The sensitivity and specificity of the three tests did not present statistically significant differences. However, the thick blood smear was recommended as the standard test, mainly due to its low cost.

Astrid Elena, Montoya; José, Menco; Natalia, Osorio; María Alejandra, Zuluaga; Juliana, Duque; Giovanny, Torres; Marcos, Restrepo.

2008-06-01

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Smeared Gauge Fixing  

CERN Document Server

We present a new method of gauge fixing to standard lattice Landau gauge, Max Re Tr $\\sum_{\\mu,x}U_{\\mu,x}$, in which the link configuration is recursively smeared; these smeared links are then gauge fixed by standard extremization. The resulting gauge transformation is simultaneously applied to the original links. Following this preconditioning, the links are gauge fixed again as usual. This method is free of Gribov copies, and we find that for physical parameters ($\\beta \\geq 2$ in SU(2)), it generally results in the gauge fixed configuration with the globally maximal trace. This method is a general technique for finding a unique minimum to global optimization problems.

Hetrick, J E; Forcrand, Ph. de

1998-01-01

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Leukocytes Detection, Classification and Counting in Smears of Peripheral Blood / Detección, Clasificación y Conteo de Leucocitos en Frotis de Sangre Periférica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Mediante un clasificador k-NN en combinación con la primera métrica de Minkowski y técnicas de procesamiento digital de imágenes, se desarrolló un sistema computacional independiente de la plataforma, capaz de identificar, clasificar y contar cinco formas normales de leucocitos: neutrófilos, eosinóf [...] ilos, basófilos, monocitos y linfocitos. Es importante enfatizar que este trabajo no intenta diferenciar entre muestras de leucocitos provenientes de gente sana y enferma, debido a que la mayoría de las enfermedades se detectan principalmente por un cambio en el conteo diferencial de leucocitos más que por cambios en su forma. Finalmente, el contador de leucocitos puede ser usado en áreas emergentes como la hematología topográfica y la cronobiología. Abstract in english Using the k-NN classifier in combination with the first Minkowski metric, in addition to techniques of digital image processing, we developed a computational system platform-independent, which is able to identify, to classify and to count five normal types of leukocytes: neutrophils, eosinophils, ba [...] sophils, monocytes and lymphocytes. It is important to emphasize that this work does not attempt to diferentiate between smears of leukocytes coming from healthy and sick people; this is because most diseases produce a change in the differential count of leukocytes rather than in theirs forms. In the other side, the system could be used in emerging areas such as the topographic hematology and the chronobiology.

J., Martínez-Castro; S., Reyes-Cadena; E., Felipe-Riverón.

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First case of Plasmodium knowlesi infection in a Japanese traveller returning from Malaysia  

OpenAIRE

This is the first case of Plasmodium knowlesi infection in a Japanese traveller returning from Malaysia. In September 2012, a previously healthy 35-year-old Japanese man presented to National Center for Global Health and Medicine in Tokyo with a two-day history of daily fever, mild headaches and mild arthralgia. Malaria parasites were found in the Giemsa-stained thin blood smear, which showed band forms similar to Plasmodium malariae. Although a nested PCR showed the amplification of the prim...

Tanizaki, Ryutaro; Ujiie, Mugen; Kato, Yasuyuki; Iwagami, Moritoshi; Hashimoto, Aki; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Takeshita, Nozomi; Hayakawa, Kyoko; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Kano, Shigeyuki; Ohmagari, Norio

2013-01-01

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Flow cytometric readout based on Mitotracker Red CMXRos staining of live asexual blood stage malarial parasites reliably assesses antibody dependent cellular inhibition  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional in vitro assays could provide insights into the efficacy of malaria vaccine candidates. For estimating the anti-parasite effect induced by a vaccine candidate, an accurate determination of live parasite count is an essential component of most in vitro bioassays. Although traditionally parasites are counted microscopically, a faster, more accurate and less subjective method for counting parasites is desirable. In this study mitochondrial dye (Mitotracker Red CMXRos was used for obtaining reliable live parasite counts through flow cytometry. Methods Both asynchronous and tightly synchronized asexual blood stage cultures of Plasmodium falciparum were stained with CMXRos and subjected to detection by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. The parasite counts obtained by flow cytometry were compared to standard microscopic counts obtained through examination of Giemsa-stained thin smears. A comparison of the ability of CMXRos to stain live and compromised parasites (induced by either medium starvation or by anti-malarial drug treatment was carried out. Finally, parasite counts obtained by CMXRos staining through flow cytometry were used to determine specific growth inhibition index (SGI in an antibody-dependent cellular inhibition (ADCI assay. Results Mitotracker Red CMXRos can reliably detect live intra-erythrocytic stages of P. falciparum. Comparison between staining of live with compromised parasites shows that CMXRos predominantly stains live parasites with functional mitochondria. Parasite counts obtained by CMXRos staining and flow cytometry were highly reproducible and can reliably determine the ability of IgG from hyper-immune individuals to inhibit parasite growth in presence of monocytes in ADCI assay. Further, a dose-dependent parasite growth inhibitory effect could be detected for both total IgG purified from hyper-immune sera and affinity purified IgGs against the N-terminal non-repeat region of GLURP in ADCI assays coupled with determination of parasite counts through CMXRos staining and flow cytometry. Conclusions A flow cytometry method based on CMXRos staining for detection of live parasite populations has been optimized. This is a rapid and sensitive method with high inter-assay reproducibility which can reliably determine the anti-parasite effect mediated by antibodies in functional in vitro assays such as ADCI assay.

Jogdand Prajakta S

2012-07-01

83

Flow cytometric readout based on Mitotracker Red CMXRos staining of live asexual blood stage malarial parasites reliably assesses antibody dependent cellular inhibition  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Functional in vitro assays could provide insights into the efficacy of malaria vaccine candidates. For estimating the anti-parasite effect induced by a vaccine candidate, an accurate determination of live parasite count is an essential component of most in vitro bioassays. Although traditionally parasites are counted microscopically, a faster, more accurate and less subjective method for counting parasites is desirable. In this study mitochondrial dye (Mitotracker Red CMXRos) was used for obtaining reliable live parasite counts through flow cytometry. METHODS: Both asynchronous and tightly synchronized asexual blood stage cultures of Plasmodium falciparum were stained with CMXRos and subjected to detection by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. The parasite counts obtained by flow cytometry were compared to standard microscopic counts obtained through examination of Giemsa-stained thin smears. A comparison of the ability of CMXRos to stain live and compromised parasites (induced by either medium starvation or by anti-malarial drug treatment) was carried out. Finally, parasite counts obtained by CMXRos staining through flow cytometry were used to determine specific growth inhibition index (SGI) in an antibody-dependent cellular inhibition (ADCI) assay. RESULTS: Mitotracker Red CMXRos can reliably detect live intra-erythrocytic stages of P. falciparum. Comparison between staining of live with compromised parasites shows that CMXRos predominantly stains live parasites with functional mitochondria. Parasite counts obtained by CMXRos staining and flow cytometry were highly reproducible and can reliably determine the ability of IgG from hyper-immune individuals to inhibit parasite growth in presence of monocytes in ADCI assay. Further, a dose-dependent parasite growth inhibitory effect could be detected for both total IgG purified from hyper-immune sera and affinity purified IgGs against the N-terminal non-repeat region of GLURP in ADCI assays coupled with determination of parasite counts through CMXRos staining and flow cytometry. CONCLUSIONS: A flow cytometry method based on CMXRos staining for detection of live parasite populations has been optimized. This is a rapid and sensitive method with high inter-assay reproducibility which can reliably determine the anti-parasite effect mediated by antibodies in functional in vitro assays such as ADCI assay.

Jogdand, Prajakta S; Singh, Susheel K

2012-01-01

84

Smudge cells in peripheral blood smears did not differentiate chronic lymphocytic leukemia from other B-cell chronic lymphoprolipherative diseases / Sombras nucleares no esfregaço do sangue periférico não diferenciam a leucemia linfocítica crônica das outras doenças linfoproliferativas B crônicas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available As sombras nucleares têm sido classicamente associadasà leucemia linfocítica crônica (LLC), embora possam ser encontradas nos esfregaços do sangue periférico de outras doenças linfoproliferativas B crônicas (DLBC). Nesse estudo, nós investigamos se a porcentagem de sombras nucleares nos esfregaços d [...] o sangue periférico pode ser utilizada na prática clínica da hematologia para diferenciar a LLC das outras DLBC. Foram analisados os esfregaços do sangue periférico de 63 pacientes com o diagnóstico de LLC e 62 com outras DLPC. Trezentas células, entre células linfoides e sombras nucleares, foram contadas em cada esfregaço. A comparação da porcentagem de sombras nucleares entre os dois grupos foi realizada e, subsequentemente, foram fixados 5 cut-offs de mais de 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% e 50% de sombras nucleares com o propósito de definir um caso como "positivo para sombras nucleares" e verificar se havia diferenças entre a LLC e as outras DLBC. A porcentagem das sombras nucleares em pacientes com LLC (mediana 26%, 4%-86%) foi maior do que em pacientes com DLBC (mediana 14%, 1%-64%). Entretanto, nenhum dos cut-offs testados apresentou valores apropriados de sensibilidade, especificidade e valor preditivo positivo para distinguir os dois grupos. Desde queé necessário se dispor de um único valor de cut-off com alta sensibilidade, especificidade e valor preditivo positivo para inferir o diagnóstico de CLL na prática clínica, conclui-se que as sombras nucleares não são úteis para diferenciar a LLC das outras DLBC. Abstract in english Smudge cells has been classically associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), but they are found in peripheral blood tests for other chronic B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases (CLD). We investigated whether the percentage of smudge cells in peripheral blood smears can be used in the clinica [...] l practice to differentiate CLL from other B-cell CLD. The peripheral blood smears of 63 patients with the diagnosis of CLL and 62 with other B-cell CLD were analyzed. Three hundred cells (both lymphoid cells and smudge cells) were counted for each peripheral blood smear. A comparison of the percentage of smudge cells between the two groups was performed and, subsequently, 5 cut-off values were fixed (10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of smudge cells) with the aim of defining cases as "positive" or "negative" for smudge cells and verifying whether there are any differences between CLL and the other B-cell CLD. The percentage of smudge cells in patients with CLL (median 26%, 4%-86%) was higher than in patients with B-cell CLD (median 14%, 1%-64%). However, none of the cut-off values tested presented suitable values of sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value to separate the two groups. As it is necessary to have a single cut-off value with high sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value to infer the diagnosis of CLL in the clinical practice, we concluded that smudge cells are not fitting to differentiate CLL from other B-cell CLD.

Daniel M., Matos; Guilherme, Perini; Carlos, Kruzich; Eduardo M., Rego; Roberto P., Falcão.

85

Smudge cells in peripheral blood smears did not differentiate chronic lymphocytic leukemia from other B-cell chronic lymphoprolipherative diseases Sombras nucleares no esfregaço do sangue periférico não diferenciam a leucemia linfocítica crônica das outras doenças linfoproliferativas B crônicas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Smudge cells has been classically associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, but they are found in peripheral blood tests for other chronic B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases (CLD. We investigated whether the percentage of smudge cells in peripheral blood smears can be used in the clinical practice to differentiate CLL from other B-cell CLD. The peripheral blood smears of 63 patients with the diagnosis of CLL and 62 with other B-cell CLD were analyzed. Three hundred cells (both lymphoid cells and smudge cells were counted for each peripheral blood smear. A comparison of the percentage of smudge cells between the two groups was performed and, subsequently, 5 cut-off values were fixed (10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of smudge cells with the aim of defining cases as "positive" or "negative" for smudge cells and verifying whether there are any differences between CLL and the other B-cell CLD. The percentage of smudge cells in patients with CLL (median 26%, 4%-86% was higher than in patients with B-cell CLD (median 14%, 1%-64%. However, none of the cut-off values tested presented suitable values of sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value to separate the two groups. As it is necessary to have a single cut-off value with high sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value to infer the diagnosis of CLL in the clinical practice, we concluded that smudge cells are not fitting to differentiate CLL from other B-cell CLD.As sombras nucleares têm sido classicamente associadasà leucemia linfocítica crônica (LLC, embora possam ser encontradas nos esfregaços do sangue periférico de outras doenças linfoproliferativas B crônicas (DLBC. Nesse estudo, nós investigamos se a porcentagem de sombras nucleares nos esfregaços do sangue periférico pode ser utilizada na prática clínica da hematologia para diferenciar a LLC das outras DLBC. Foram analisados os esfregaços do sangue periférico de 63 pacientes com o diagnóstico de LLC e 62 com outras DLPC. Trezentas células, entre células linfoides e sombras nucleares, foram contadas em cada esfregaço. A comparação da porcentagem de sombras nucleares entre os dois grupos foi realizada e, subsequentemente, foram fixados 5 cut-offs de mais de 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% e 50% de sombras nucleares com o propósito de definir um caso como "positivo para sombras nucleares" e verificar se havia diferenças entre a LLC e as outras DLBC. A porcentagem das sombras nucleares em pacientes com LLC (mediana 26%, 4%-86% foi maior do que em pacientes com DLBC (mediana 14%, 1%-64%. Entretanto, nenhum dos cut-offs testados apresentou valores apropriados de sensibilidade, especificidade e valor preditivo positivo para distinguir os dois grupos. Desde queé necessário se dispor de um único valor de cut-off com alta sensibilidade, especificidade e valor preditivo positivo para inferir o diagnóstico de CLL na prática clínica, conclui-se que as sombras nucleares não são úteis para diferenciar a LLC das outras DLBC.

Daniel M. Matos

2009-01-01

86

Diagnóstico de leishmaniosis visceral por frotis de sangre periférica. A propósito de un caso en Cojedes, Venezuela / Visceral leishmaniasis diagnosis for smear of peripheral blood. A case report from Cojedes, Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En Venezuela se conoce la existencia de Leishmaniosis visceral desde 1941, y desde 1990 se notifican en promedio 50 casos por año, en focos separados ubicados en el centro, oeste sur y este del país. La incidencia de Leishmaniosis visceral en el Estado Cojedes en Venezuela es baja, reportándose únic [...] amente tres casos en la década de 1998 al 2007. En este artículo, se informa el primer caso de Leishmaniosis visceral en adulto en este Estado, diagnosticado por demostración del parásito por frotis de sangre periférica. Se resalta, el tener la posibilidad de efectuar diagnóstico a partir de sangre periférica, como un método alternativo y menos invasivo en fase aguda, particularmente en regiones donde no se dispone de otras herramientas de escrutinio. Abstract in english In Venezuela, known to exist Visceral leishmaniasis since 1941, and since 1990 are reported on average 50 cases per year, separate sources located in central, west south and east of country. The incidence of visceral Leishmaniasis in Venezuela Cojedes state is low, being reported only three cases in [...] the decade 1998 to 2007. In this article, we reported the first case of visceral leishmaniasis in adult in this state, diagnosed by demonstration of the parasite by peripheral blood smear. Is highlighted, having the possibility of diagnosis from peripheral blood, as an alternative and less invasive in the acute phase, particularly in regions where there are no other screening tools.

Wladimir, Ochoa; Luis, Gutiérrez; Rafael, Guevara; Milagros, Oviedo; Lisbeth, Loaiza; Gilberto, Bastidas.

2009-04-01

87

Systematical cytogenetic analysis of stable and unstable chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood of NPP workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between stable and unstable chromosome aberration frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes using Giemsa staining and FISH chromosome analysis. 15 Nuclear Power Plant's workers occupationally exposed to external radiation, with high (> 500 mSv) and intermediate lifetime cumulative doses and 15 healthy individuals, not occupationally exposed to radiation from administrative staff of Kozloduy NPP have been selected. The cytogenetic results in 10 years following systematic investigations by conventional analysis are shown. A total 14 610 metaphases was scored from 15 NPP workers and 15 controls. Mean frequency of dicentrics in workers group was 1,25 x 10-3 dic/cell. The mean frequency was 0,27 x 10-3 dic/cell in controls. It was observed 5 times lower dicentric frequency in controls then in workers, but it is not significant. It is known that dicentrics are unstable type of aberrations and their persistence depends on lymphocytes life time (about 3 years). The results are consistent with recent findings for Nuclear power workers by Giemsa staining. Dose-response dependence, genome frequency of translocations and dicentrics per 100 cells in NPP workers and controls are presented. The overall mean total translocation frequency for control group was 1.7x10-3 tr/cell and 5.4x10-3 tr/cell. When compared to unexposed controls the yields of translocations were significantly higher, but no dose dependence was apparent. Chromosome analysis of radiation exposed populations, using techniques to identify stable aberrations, offers the opportunity to examine the relative effectiveness of different exposure conditions and is of particular relevance since chromosome rearrangements are of prime importance in process of carcinogenesis. Such studies should therefore aid the understanding of risks associated with radiation exposure

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Uso de paneles de láminas estandarizadas para la evaluación de competencias en el diagnóstico microscópico de malaria en la Amazonía Peruana / Use of standardized blood smear slide sets for competency assessment in the malaria microscopic diagnosis in the Peruvian Amazon  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos. Evaluar la competencia de los microscopistas en el diagnóstico de la malaria mediante paneles de láminas estandarizados en la Amazonía peruana. Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal, realizado entre los meses de julio y septiembre de 2007, en 122 establecimientos de salud de primer ni [...] vel de atención de la Amazonía peruana. En el marco del Proyecto PAMAFRO, se evaluó las competencias en el diagnóstico de malaria en 68 microscopistas sin experiencia (un año), utilizando paneles estandarizados de 20 láminas siguiendo las recomendaciones de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). Se definió concordancia como el porcentaje de aciertos que tuvo el microscopista en los diagnósticos (identificación de especie del parásito). Un microscopista con concordancia ?90% (?18 láminas acertadas) fue definido como "experto", 80 a Abstract in english Objectives. To assess the competency of microscopists for malaria diagnosis using standardized slide sets in the Peruvian Amazon. Material and methods. Cross-sectional study carried out in 122 first level health facilities of the Peruvian Amazon, between July and September 2007. Within the frame of [...] the project "Control Malaria in the border areas of the Andean Region: A community approach" (PAMAFRO), we evaluated the malaria diagnosis performance in 68 microscopists without expertise ( 1 year) using standardized sets of 20 blood smear slides according to the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. A correct diagnosis (correct species identification) was defined as "agreement", a microscopist was qualified as an "expert" if they have an agreement ?90% (? 18 slides with correct diagnosis), as a "referent" with an agreement between 80% and

Ángel, Rosas-Aguirre; Dionicia, Gamboa; Hugo, Rodriguez; Fernando, Llanos-Zavalaga; Kristhian, Aguirre; Alejandro, Llanos-Cuentas.

2010-12-01

89

Uso de paneles de láminas estandarizadas para la evaluación de competencias en el diagnóstico microscópico de malaria en la amazonía peruana / Use of standardized blood smear slide sets for competency assessment in the malaria microscopic diagnosis in the peruvian amazon  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos. Evaluar la competencia de los microscopistas en el diagnóstico de la malaria mediante paneles de láminas estandarizados en la Amazonía peruana. Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal, realizado entre los meses de julio y septiembre de 2007, en 122 establecimientos de salud de primer ni [...] vel de atención de la Amazonía peruana. En el marco del Proyecto PAMAFRO, se evaluó las competencias en el diagnóstico de malaria en 68 microscopistas sin experiencia (un año), utilizando paneles estandarizados de 20 láminas siguiendo las recomendaciones de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). Se definió concordancia como el porcentaje de aciertos que tuvo el microscopista en los diagnósticos (identificación de especie del parásito). Un microscopista con concordancia ?90% (?18 láminas acertadas) fue definido como "experto", 80 a Abstract in english Objectives. To assess the competency of microscopists for malaria diagnosis using standardized slide sets in the Peruvian Amazon. Material and methods. Cross-sectional study carried out in 122 first level health facilities of the Peruvian Amazon, between July and September 2007. Within the frame of [...] the project "Control Malaria in the border areas of the Andean Region: A community approach" (PAMAFRO), we evaluated the malaria diagnosis performance in 68 microscopists without expertise ( 1 year) using standardized sets of 20 blood smear slides according to the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. A correct diagnosis (correct species identification) was defined as "agreement", a microscopist was qualified as an "expert" if they have an agreement ?90% (? 18 slides with correct diagnosis), as a "referent" with an agreement between 80% and

Ángel, Rosas-Aguirre; Dionicia, Gamboa; Hugo, Rodriguez; Fernando, Llanos-Zavalaga; Kristhian, Aguirre; Alejandro, Llanos-Cuentas.

2010-10-01

90

A review of loach cytogenetics - from Giemsa-stained chromosomes to chromosome paints and whole genome sequencing.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Praha : Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics, 2010. O26-O26. [International Loach Conference. 31.08.2010 - 03.09.2010, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP506/10/1155; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : loach cytogenetics * chromosome * Cobitis Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

Ráb, Petr; Symonová, Radka; Choleva, Lukáš; Janko, Karel; Opoldusová, Zuzana; Rábová, Marie; Štorchová, R.

91

Full blood count and haemozoin-containing leukocytes in children with malaria: diagnostic value and association with disease severity  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Diligent and correct laboratory diagnosis and up-front identification of risk factors for progression to severe disease are the basis for optimal management of malaria. Methods Febrile children presenting to the Medical Research Unit at the Albert Schweitzer Hospital (HAS in Lambaréné, Gabon, were assessed for malaria. Giemsa-stained thick films for qualitative and quantitative diagnosis and enumeration of malaria pigment, or haemozoin (Hz-containing leukocytes (PCL were performed, and full blood counts (FBC were generated with a Cell Dyn 3000® instrument. Results Compared to standard light microscopy of Giemsa-stained thick films, diagnosis by platelet count only, by malaria pigment-containing monocytes (PCM only, or by pigment-containing granulocytes (PCN only yielded sensitivities/specificities of 92%/93%; 96%/96%; and 85%/96%, respectively. The platelet count was significantly lower in children with malaria compared to those without (p ® instrument detected significantly more patients with PCL (p Conclusion In the age group examined in the Lambaréné area, platelets are an excellent adjuvant tool to diagnose malaria. Pigment-containing leukocytes (PCL are more readily detected by automated scatter flow cytometry than by microscopy. Automated Hz detection by an instrument as used here is a reliable diagnostic tool and correlates with disease severity. However, clinical usefulness as a prognostic tool is limited due to an overlap of PCL numbers recorded in severe versus non-severe malaria. However, this is possibly because of the instrument detection algorithm was not geared towards this task, and data lost during processing; and thus adjusting the instrument's algorithm may allow to establish a meaningful cut-off value.

Lell Bertrand

2008-06-01

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Ocorrência de apoptose em leucócitos no esfregaço de sangue periférico e em sincícios na infecção in vivo pelo vírus da cinomose canina Occurrence of apoptosis in leukocytes in the peripheral blood smear and in syncytia in canine distemper infection in vivo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to report the occurrence of apoptosis in peripheral blood leukocytes and in syncytia induced by experimental infection of dogs with canine distemper virus. Blood was collected from nine puppies that were inoculated with the Snyder Hill strain of CDV, and stained with May Grunwaldt-Giemsa. Dogs were necropsied and retropharyngeal lymph nodes were collected and processed for paraffin embedding. Five micrometers thick sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and methyl green pyronin. Other sections were submitted to TUNEL reaction for in situ detection of apoptosis, and immunohistochemistry to detect CDV antigen. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of viral antigen. Syncytia were present in all retropharyngeal lymph nodes. Several syncytia contained apoptotic nuclei as detected by hematoxylin-eosin and methyl green pyronin stains. Apoptotic nuclei were labeled inside syncytia by the TUNEL reaction. Blood smear analyses indicated higher proportion of apoptotic leukocytes in the peripheral blood of infected dogs.

L. Moro

2003-02-01

93

Ocorrência de apoptose em leucócitos no esfregaço de sangue periférico e em sincícios na infecção in vivo pelo vírus da cinomose canina / Occurrence of apoptosis in leukocytes in the peripheral blood smear and in syncytia in canine distemper infection in vivo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english The aim of this paper is to report the occurrence of apoptosis in peripheral blood leukocytes and in syncytia induced by experimental infection of dogs with canine distemper virus. Blood was collected from nine puppies that were inoculated with the Snyder Hill strain of CDV, and stained with May Gru [...] nwaldt-Giemsa. Dogs were necropsied and retropharyngeal lymph nodes were collected and processed for paraffin embedding. Five micrometers thick sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and methyl green pyronin. Other sections were submitted to TUNEL reaction for in situ detection of apoptosis, and immunohistochemistry to detect CDV antigen. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of viral antigen. Syncytia were present in all retropharyngeal lymph nodes. Several syncytia contained apoptotic nuclei as detected by hematoxylin-eosin and methyl green pyronin stains. Apoptotic nuclei were labeled inside syncytia by the TUNEL reaction. Blood smear analyses indicated higher proportion of apoptotic leukocytes in the peripheral blood of infected dogs.

L., Moro; C.M., Alves; F.G.A., Santos; J.E.S., Nunes; R.A., Carneiro; A.C., Vasconcelos.

2003-02-01

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WBC (White Blood Cell) Differential Count  

Science.gov (United States)

... name: White Blood Cell Differential Related tests: White Blood Cell Count , Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , Bone Marrow Aspiration ... to Get Tested? As part of a complete blood count (CBC) , when you have a routine health examination; when ...

95

STOUT SMEARING FOR TWISTED FERMIONS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of Stout smearing is investigated in numerical simulations with twisted mass Wilson quarks. The phase transition near zero quark mass is studied on 123 x 24, 163 x 32 and 243 x 48 lattices at lattice spacings a ? 0.1-0.125 fm. The phase structure of Wilson fermions with twisted mass (?) has been investigated in [1,2]. As it is explained there, the observed first order phase transition limits the minimal pion mass which can be reached in simulations at a given lattice spacing: mkmin ? ?(a). The phase structure is schematically depicted in the left panel of Fig. I . The phase transition can be observed in simulations with twisted mass fermions, for instance, as a ''jump'' or even metastabilities in the average plaquette value as a function of the hopping parameter (?). One possibility to weaken the phase transition and therefore allow for lighter pion masses at a given lattice spacing is to use an improved gauge action like the DBW2, Iwasaki, or tree-level Symanzik (tlSym) improved gauge action instead of the simple Wilson gauge action. This has been successfully demonstrated in [3,4,5]. Here we report on our attempts to use a smeared gauge field in the fermion lattice Dirac operator to further reduce the strength of the phase transition. This is relevant in simulations with Nf = 2 + 1 + 1 (u,d,s,c) quark flavors [6] where the first order phase transition becomes stronger compared to Nf = 2 simulations. The main impact of the above mentioned improved gauge actions on the gauge fields occurring in simulations is to suppress short range fluctuations (''dislocations'') and the associated ''exceptionally small'' eigenvalues of the fermion matrix. The same effect is expected from smearing the gauge field links in the fermion action. The cumulated effect of the improved gauge action and smeared links should allow for a smaller pion mass at a given lattice spacing and volume. Our choice is the Stout smearing procedure as introduced in [7], since it can easily be implemented in the Hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) based updating algorithms we are currently using. One should keep in mind that a possible caveat of this procedure is ''oversmearing'', i.e., removing too many small eigenvalues by applying too many smearing steps and/or using a too high value for the smearing parameter-because not every small eigenvalue is ''unphysical''. In addition, after many smearing steps the fermion action can become too delocalized which can lead to an unwanted slowing down of the approach to the continuum limit. In order to avoid this caveat we choose to work with only one step of very mild Stout smearing. Moreover we keep these smearing parameters fixed as we change the lattice spacing. In Section 1 we will shortly review the smearing procedure and the twisted mass formulation, as well as some details concerning the used updating algorithms. Section 2 is devoted to the presentation of the results of our numerical simulations using Nf = 2 and Nf = 2 + 1 + 1 flavors of twisted mass quarks

96

[Absence of plasmodial infection among wild monkeys in Northern Senegal?].  

Science.gov (United States)

Eighty-two wild monkeys belonging to the two species Chlorocebus aethiops and Erythrocebus patas were collected in the northern part of Senegal, West Africa. Thick blood smears were performed and Giemsa stained. Slides were microscopically examined with a sensitivity of the method estimated at 2 parasites per mm3 of blood. No blood parasites were observed. This negative result is in line with previous studies which never showed evidences of malaria parasites in monkeys from African savannahs. This intriguing absence is underlined. PMID:19343914

Pourrut, X; Robert, V

2009-02-01

97

Debris removal in Pap-smear images.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since its introduction in the 1940s the Pap-smear test has helped reduce the incidence of cervical cancer dramatically in countries where regular screening is standard. The automation of this procedure is an open problem that has been ongoing for over fifty years without reaching satisfactory results. Existing systems are discouragingly expensive and yet they are only able to make a correct distinction between normal and abnormal samples in a fraction of cases. Therefore, they are limited to acting as support for the cytotechnicians as they perform their manual screening. The main reason for the current limitations is that the automated systems struggle to overcome the complexity of the cell structures. Samples are covered in artefacts such as blood cells, overlapping and folded cells, and bacteria, that hamper the segmentation processes and generate large number of suspicious objects. The classifiers designed to differentiate between normal cells and pre-cancerous cells produce unpredictable results when classifying artefacts. In this paper, we propose a sequential classification scheme focused on removing unwanted objects, debris, from an initial segmentation result, intended to be run before the actual normal/abnormal classifier. The method has been evaluated using three separate datasets obtained from cervical samples prepared using both the standard Pap-smear approach as well as the more recent liquid based cytology sample preparation technique. We show success in removing more than 99% of the debris without loosing more than around one percent of the epithelial cells detected by the segmentation process. PMID:23582663

Malm, Patrik; Balakrishnan, Byju N; Sujathan, Vilayil K; Kumar, Rajesh; Bengtsson, Ewert

2013-07-01

98

Free-form Smeared Bottomonium Correlation Functions  

CERN Document Server

Gauge-invariant sources with a hydrogen wave function shape are constructed for bottomonium two-point correlation functions using the free-form smearing technique. The bottomonium spectrum, including a first lattice result for the D-wave first-excited state, is extracted from free-form smeared correlation functions. Results are compared with conventional smearing techniques and free-form smearing is found to have the advantage of reduced statistical errors.

Wurtz, Mark; Woloshyn, R M

2014-01-01

99

Canine Babesiosis in Northwestern India: Molecular Detection and Assessment of Risk Factors  

OpenAIRE

In the current study, a total of 214 blood samples from dogs in and around Ludhiana, Punjab (India), suspected for canine babesiosis were examined with conventional and molecular assays. Examination of Giemsa-stained peripheral thin blood smears revealed an overall prevalence of 7.47% (16/214) for canine babesiosis encompassing 0.93% (2/214) of large Babesia and 6.54% (14/214) of Babesia gibsoni. However, molecular diagnosis revealed 15.42% (33/214) samples positive for B. gibsoni infection a...

Amritpal Singh; Harkirat Singh; Singh, N. K.; Singh, N. D.; Rath, S. S.

2014-01-01

100

Blood and intestinal parasites of squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae) in Amazonian Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the result of an examination for blood and intestinal protozoa in 12 specimens of the red squirrel Sciurus spadiceus (Rodentia: Sciuridae) from Birroque, municipality of Placido de Castro, state of Acre, Brazil. No parasites were detected in thin, Giemsa-stained blood films of the animals, but culture of the blood of three in Difco B45 medium blood-agar slants gave rise to isolates of epimastigotes. Inoculation of one isolate into laboratory mice resulted in the appearance of Trypanosoma cruzi-like trypomastigotes in their peripheral blood, and the other two isolates gave rise to transient infections with a T. lewisi-like parasite in inoculated mice and hamsters. The failure of the latter parasite to develop in the triatomine bug Rhodnius robustus suggests that it is probably not T. rangeli. This appears to be the first record of a T. lewisi-like trypanosome in neotropical squirrels. Oocysts of an Eimeria sp., were detected in the faeces of 10 animals (83.3%). The parasite develops in the epithelial cells of the intestine, where it may cause severe damage and sometimes results in death of the animal. No oocysts were detected in bile. PMID:15558167

Lainson, Ralph; Brígido, Maria do Carmo de Oliveira; Silveira, Fernando Tobias

2004-10-01

101

Locally-smeared operator product expansions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We propose a "locally-smeared Operator Product Expansion" (sOPE) to decompose non-local operators in terms of a basis of locally-smeared operators. The sOPE formally connects nonperturbative matrix elements of smeared degrees of freedom, determined numerically using the gradient flow, to non-local operators in the continuum. The nonperturbative matrix elements do not suffer from power-divergent mixing on the lattice, provided the smearing scale is kept fixed in the continuum limit. The presence of this smearing scale prevents a simple connection to the standard operator product expansion and therefore requires the construction of a two-scale formalism. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach using the example of real scalar field theory.

Monahan, Christopher; Orginos, Kostantinos

2014-12-01

102

Clinical and hematological study of canine Ehrlichiosis with other hemoprotozoan parasites in Kolkata, West Bengal, India  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To observe other hemoprotozoan diseases with canine ehrlichiosis and to evaluate the clinical and hematological aspects of dogs naturally infected with ehrlichiosis with other hemoprotozoan diseases. Methods Blood was collected for hematological value and Giemsa stained blood smear was made for diagnosis of Ehrlichia sp. and other hemoprotozoan parasites from naturally infected dogs. Case history was taken from the owner and clinical signs and symptoms were noted. Results A total of 47 cases of ehrlichiosis in dogs were reported with babesiosis (8.51%) and hepatozoonosis (6.38%) hemoprotozoan diseases. Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia ewingii, Brucella canis, Babesia gibsoni and Hepatozoon canis were observed under oil immersion lense of microscope in Giemsa stained peripheral blood smears. Marked anaemia and neutrophilic leukocytosis were observed. Conclusions The results of this study stated that clinical and haematological changes occurred in canine ehrlichiosis with babesiosis and hepatozoonosis due to parasitemia. In mixed infection, the disease more severe, and also it depended on immunity of animals. Babesia gibsoni and Hepatozoon canis with Ehrlichia sp. were first reported from West Bengal state of India by this study.

Das, Mousam; Konar, Sabyasachi

2013-01-01

103

Smear layer on dentin in restorative dentistry  

OpenAIRE

Adhesion to enamel has become a routine technique in restorative dentistry. Adhesion to dentin, however, is still under investigation. Except structural elements of the dentin, smear layer has been one of the reasons that the interaction between the adhesive system and this tissue is difficult. The smear layer tissue created by cutting a tooth. It varies in thickness, roughness, density and degree of attachment andoccludes tubules and reduces the dental permeabilita. Dentin adhesivesystems ca...

Živkovi? Slavoljub; Kolar Mila; Blaži? Larisa; Vu?eti? Mirjana; Toši? Goran

2004-01-01

104

Pap Smear Practice Patterns of Family Physicians  

OpenAIRE

London, Ontario family physicians were surveyed, to compare the frequency of their Pap smear screening and their management of the abnormal smear with the recommendations of the 1982 Task Force report on cervical cancer screening. Considerable variation was observed between the Task Force recommendations and frequency of screening 36-60-year-old women, and the management of mild, recurrent mild, and moderate dysplasia. Many family physicians appeared to rely heavily on the cytopathologist's r...

Gerace, Toula M.; Sangster, John F.

1986-01-01

105

REHYDRATION OF AIR-DRIED CERVICAL SMEARS: AN ALTERNATIVE TO ROUTINE WET FIXATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To prepare Pap smears, the routine practice is to fix the slides immediately in 95% ethanol. This study was performed to evaluate the possibility of routine use of alternative method of air-drying and rehydration prior to alcohol fixation instead of conventional method. Paired cervical smears with at least low cellularity were collected from 117 women who participated in the study. One set was labeled WF (wet fixed or fixed immediately in 95% ethanol and the other one ARF (air-dried, rehydrated and fixed. The latter further split into 3 subgroups based on the duration of air-drying. The staining quality of the slides was assessed with respect to chromatin, nuclear and cytoplasmic borders, cytolysis, cellularity, cytoplasmic staining, and red blood cells lysis. Then they were graded blindly. The results were analyzed by Chi square test to compare the defined parameters between the 2 groups and also the 3 subgroups. ARF slides were significantly better with regard to clearance of background due to the lysis of red blood cells (P value, 0.000, x2 test; kappa, -0.27. No statistically significant differences were noted between two groups in terms of other cytologic features. Cytologic features of ARF slides were statistically identical to WF smears. However, red blood cells lysis rendered clearer background in ARF slides. Air-drying and rehydration of slides is a superior method for heavily blood stained smears and can be used at least with identical quality for routine practice.

A. Zare-Mirzaie

2007-08-01

106

Smear layer on dentin in restorative dentistry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adhesion to enamel has become a routine technique in restorative dentistry. Adhesion to dentin, however, is still under investigation. Except structural elements of the dentin, smear layer has been one of the reasons that the interaction between the adhesive system and this tissue is difficult. The smear layer tissue created by cutting a tooth. It varies in thickness, roughness, density and degree of attachment andoccludes tubules and reduces the dental permeabilita. Dentin adhesivesystems can react with intertubular and peritubular dentin only when this smear layer is removed or when the adhesive system is capable of diffusion through layer of debris. As part of restorative procedures required by adhesive dentistry, the smear layer must be removed, modified or impregnated by the resin to allow for bonding between the tooth and the restorative material. For remove and dissolve of smear layer acid conditioners on total etch and self-etching primers were used. Self-etching primer systems are undergoing rapid evolution; their results are not yet sufficiently predictable overall, but some systems have achieved positive results in both enamel and dentin bonding. Further studies are necessary to confirm the long-term efficiency of these self-etching primers.

Živkovi? Slavoljub

2004-01-01

107

Papanicolaou smears and cervical inflammatory cytokine responses  

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Full Text Available Abstract In a case-control study among 2064 South African women to investigate the risk of clinically invasive cancer of the cervix, we found a marked reduction in the risk of cervical cancer among women who gave a history of ever having undergone even a single Pap smear, and a statistically significant decline in the HPV positivity rate correlated with the lifetime number of Pap smears received. HPV infections and their associated low-grade lesions commonly regress, indicating that most often there is an effective host immune response against HPV infection. We hypothesized that act of performing a Pap smear is associated with inflammatory responses at the site of trauma, the cervix, and that this inflammatory signalling may be an immunological factor initiating these productive anti-HPV responses. In the present study, a randomized controlled trial, we enrolled 80 healthy young women to investigate the impact of performing a Pap smear on cervical inflammation. Forty one women, in the intervention group, received a Pap smear at enrollment and cervicovaginal lavages (CVLs were collected at baseline and 2 weeks later. Thirty nine women received no intervention at enrollment (control group but CVLs were collected at enrolment and 2 weeks later. We assessed various markers of inflammation including IL-12 p70, TNF-?, IL-8, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-1? in CVL specimens. While CVL levels of IL-8, IL-1? and IL-6 remained unchanged following a Pap smear, markers of cell mediated immunity (IL-12 p70 and TNF-? and T cell regulation (IL-10 were significantly elevated.

Shapiro Samual

2007-04-01

108

Evaluation of remote smearing of DWPF canistered waste forms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Savannah River Site (SRS) is evaluating the variables of the remote smearing process for monitoring transferable contamination on the waste glass canisters at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Smearing for transferable contamination is typically done by hand, but in this case, due to the nature of the high level waste within the canisters, remote smearing is required. The effectiveness of the smear pad was determined under varying conditions (distance traveled, force applied, and canister surface), as well as the relative importance of these factors. It was concluded that the remote smear is more reliable than the hand smear

109

Stout smearing for twisted mass fermions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of Stout smearing is investigated in numerical simulations with twisted mass Wilson quarks. The phase transition near zero quark mass is studied on 123 x 24,163 x 32 and 243 x 48 lattices at lattice spacings a?0.1-0.125 fm. (orig.)

110

[Usefulness and limit of Gram staining smear examination].  

Science.gov (United States)

Gram staining is one of the most simple and inexpensive methods for the rapid diagnosis of bacterial and fungal infections. It yields results much faster than culture, and provides important data for the patient's treatment and prognosis. However, a difference exists in the quality and quantity of information yielded by Gram staining smears based on the experience and knowledge of those conducting the tests. Therefore, a risk of misdiagnosis based on the information obtained from Gram staining smears is also present. The Gram staining conditions and morphology of bacteria sometimes change due to antimicrobial therapy. Species of Gram-negative rods sometimes become filamentous and pleomorphic. Gram-positive bacteria may become gram variable (change in staining condition) after antimicrobial therapy. Even bacteria that are easy to mis-identify exist, because the morphology of bacteria may be similar. Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive diplococcus, forming Gram-positive clustered cocci in specimens from blood culture bottles, resembling Streptococcus pneumoniae. Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative diplococcus in sputum, resembling Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis. Pasteurella multocida is a small-sized, Gram-negative short rod in the sputum, resembling Haemophilus influenzae. Prevotella intermedia is a small-sized, Gram-negative short rod in sputum, resembling Haemophilus influenzae. Capnocytophaga sp. is a Gram-negative fusiform (thin needle shape) rod present in clinical specimens, resembling Fusobacterium nucleatum. PMID:20560458

Nagata, Kuniaki; Mino, Hirotoshi; Yoshida, Shunsuke

2010-05-01

111

The Anal Pap Smear: Cytomorphology of squamous intraepithelial lesions  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Anal smears are increasingly being used as a screening test for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs). This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness and limitations of anal smears in screening for ASILs. Methods The cytomorphological features of 200 consecutive anal smears collected in liquid medium from 198 patients were studied and findings were correlated with results of surgical biopsies and/or repeat smears that became available for 71 patients within six...

Arain Shehla; Walts Ann; Thomas Premi; Bose Shikha

2005-01-01

112

Bacteriological safety of smears of surfacesio in catering facilities and food industry in Zenica-Doboj Canton in the period 2005-2007  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim To research bacteriological (hygienic safety of surfaces(hands smear of staff involved in the process of work, smearof furniture used for work, smear from walls in offices in thefacilities for production of meat and meat products (8, forproduction of milk and milk products (3, products of cakes(14, bakery and bakery products (4 sugar refinery and biscuits(1 and in objects of social sustenance in the territory of Zenica-Doboj Canton (Bosnia and Herzegovina B&H in period2005-2007 and to point out the importance of this analysis inproviding food safety for consumers.Methods: Data from the protocol of the Laboratory for Clinicaland Sanitary Microbiology,of the Cantonal Institute for PublicHealth Zenica were used. Samples of smears were inoculatedon MacConkey and blood agar. Results were interpreted inaccordance with applicable law in B&H.Results From 5051 analyzed smears, 190 (3,/% were notsatisfactory. The largest number of unsatisfactory smears wasnoted in Zenica, 75 (39; 47%, Visoko 49 (25.8% and Tešanj37 (19.5%. From 190 unsatisfactory smears, 57 (30%were smears from dishes, 43 (22.6% from furniture and worksurfaces 42 (22,1% and 41 (21.6% smears from hands. Themost frequently isolated was Escherichia coli, in 25 (22.6%smears from machines, and 34 (17.2% smears from dishes.Unsatisfactory smears were mostly found in objects of publicmaintenance, 96 (50.5% and in objects for production ofmeat, 82 (43.2%.Conclusion Regular control (monitoring, hygienic sutabilityqualityof smears in objects and education of employees toimprove hygienic measures for the purpose of the preventionof food contamination.

Edina Garanovi?

2013-05-01

113

Smear layer removal with citric acid solution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy in smear layer removal of 17% EDTA and 10% citric acid, using SEM. Material and method: Twenty human, extracted teeth with a single root canal were examined. Whilst instrumentation with step-back technique and manual K files, root canals were irrigated with 2 ml of 2.5% NaOCl, between each file size. After instrumentatio n, specimens were divided into two groups. The first group was irrigated with a final flush of 17% EDTA, during one minute, and the second group was irrigated with a 10% citric acid. Results: Irrigation with 17% EDTA and 10% citric acid removed smear layer from the root canals walls. There was not statistically significant differences (p>0.05 in cleaning ability between EDTA and citric acid groups.

Petrovi? Violeta

2005-01-01

114

Probability distributions of smeared quantum stress tensors  

CERN Document Server

We obtain in closed form the probability distribution for individual measurements of the stress-energy tensor of two-dimensional conformal field theory in the vacuum state, smeared in time against a Gaussian test function. The result is a shifted Gamma distribution with the shift given by the previously known optimal quantum inequality bound. For small values of the central charge it is overwhelmingly likely that individual measurements of the sampled energy density in the vacuum give negative results. For the case of a single massless scalar field, the probability of finding a negative value is 84%. We also report on computations for four-dimensional massless scalar fields showing that the probability distribution of the smeared square field is also a shifted Gamma distribution, but that the distribution of the energy density is not.

Fewster, Christopher J; Roman, Thomas A

2010-01-01

115

Probability distributions of smeared quantum stress tensors  

Science.gov (United States)

We obtain in closed form the probability distribution for individual measurements of the stress-energy tensor of two-dimensional conformal field theory in the vacuum state, smeared in time against a Gaussian test function. The result is a shifted gamma distribution with the shift given by the previously known optimal quantum inequality bound. For small values of the central charge it is overwhelmingly likely that individual measurements of the sampled energy density in the vacuum give negative results. For the case of a single massless scalar field, the probability of finding a negative value is 84%. We also report on computations for four-dimensional massless scalar fields showing that the probability distribution of the smeared square field is also a shifted gamma distribution, but that the distribution of the energy density is not.

Fewster, Christopher J.; Ford, L. H.; Roman, Thomas A.

2010-06-01

116

Probability distributions of smeared quantum stress tensors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We obtain in closed form the probability distribution for individual measurements of the stress-energy tensor of two-dimensional conformal field theory in the vacuum state, smeared in time against a Gaussian test function. The result is a shifted gamma distribution with the shift given by the previously known optimal quantum inequality bound. For small values of the central charge it is overwhelmingly likely that individual measurements of the sampled energy density in the vacuum give negative results. For the case of a single massless scalar field, the probability of finding a negative value is 84%. We also report on computations for four-dimensional massless scalar fields showing that the probability distribution of the smeared square field is also a shifted gamma distribution, but that the distribution of the energy density is not.

117

The Shape of Covariantly Smeared Sources in Lattice QCD  

CERN Document Server

Covariantly smeared sources are commonly used in lattice QCD to enhance the projection onto the ground state. Here we investigate the dependence of their shape on the gauge field background and find that the presence of localized concentrations of magnetic field can lead to strong distortions which reduce the smearing radii achievable by iterative smearing prescriptions. In particular, as $a\\to 0$, iterative procedures like Jacobi smearing require increasingly large iteration counts in order to reach physically-sized smearing radii $r_{sm}\\sim$ 0.5 fm, and the resulting sources are strongly distorted. To bypass this issue, we propose a covariant smearing procedure (``free-form smearing'') that allows us to create arbitrarily shaped sources, including in particular Gaussians of arbitrary radius.

von Hippel, Georg M; Rae, Thomas D; Wittig, Hartmut

2013-01-01

118

Blood: The Stuff of Life  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this lesson is to teach students about blood and its components while instilling an appreciation of its importance for survival. The lesson takes a step-by-step approach to determining the "recipe" for blood while introducing students to important laboratory techniques like centrifugation and microscopy, as well as some diseases of cell types found in blood. It also highlights the importance of donating blood by explaining basic physiological concepts and the blood donation procedure. There are no formal prerequisites, but students should be comfortable with converting weight units. The only materials needed are a calculator and paper, and it would be helpful to print the downloadable color PDF files of blood smear images. During the breaks, students are asked to estimate and then calculate the amount of blood in their body, identify cell types in a blood smear, and discuss the composition of blood with their neighbor. The lesson can be completed within a 50-minute class session.

MIT BLOSSOMS

2012-10-29

119

Immunohistochemical staining of human sperm cells in smears from sexual assault cases  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the routine clinical examination of sexual assault victims, apart from documenting physical evidence of abuse, securing evidence, typically DNA from blood, semen, or saliva, is an important part of the process. Often the presence of semen is considered a most interesting piece of evidence. Not only does it often contain enough DNA for DNA profiling, but it also strongly indicates that an actual sexual act has taken place. The examination of smear slides obtained in sexual assault cases is a time-consuming task especially for the less trained and in cases where the smear only contains few sperm cells. In this work the goal was to develop a procedure to rapidly visualize human sperm cells in smear slides with the use of bright-field microscopy. Using SPERM HY-LITER (TM) by Independent Forensics, human sperm cells are visualized using a fluorescently labeled mouse antibody which significantly decreases the time used to screen smears. By further using an EnVision+ (DAKO) protocol, it was possible to create an immunohistochemical staining method to visualize sperm cells in bright-field microscopy with the same level of certainty as when using SPERM HY-LITER (TM).

Christoffersen, S.

2011-01-01

120

Smears for determinations surface unfixed tritium contamination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present paper describes a method of obtaining expanded polystyrene with hydrophilized surface smears by radioinduced grafting of acrylic acid. The grafting was carried out by using a 60 Co ? radiation source. The variation of grafting rates as a function of dose range and absorbed dose was established. Grafting radiochemical rates were determined by radiometric methods using acrylic acid labeled with tritium as a grafting agent. The sampling coefficients and the reproducibility were analyzed as a function of the nature of the contaminated surface. (authors)

121

An endocrinology laboratory exercise demonstrating the effect of confinement stress on the immune system of mice  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes a simple laboratory exercise for examining the effect of stress on the immune system in mice. Mice are subjected to confinement stress for 1 h, after which a sample of blood is collected via the caudal vein. Blood samples are smeared onto microscope slides, air dried, and stained with Wright's Giemsa stain. When differential white blood cell counts are performed, there are noticeable differences between the neutrophil and lymphocyte counts of stressed versus control mice. The protocol is simple enough for students to perform, and the entire experiment can be completed within 3 h. Examples of ways in which the basic protocol can be modified to accommodate a shorter laboratory class are provided. This hands-on laboratory experiment provides students with experience using the scientific method to investigate the interaction between the endocrine and immune systems in response to stress.

Jacqueline Brehe (Carroll College Biology)

2008-03-04

122

First report of surra (Trypanosoma evansi infection) in a Tunisian dog.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trypanosoma evansi, the agent of surra, is a salivarian trypanosome, originating from Africa. Surra is a major disease in camels, equines and dogs, in which it can often be fatal in the absence of treatment. Animals exhibit nonspecific clinical signs (anaemia, loss of weight and abortion). In the present survey, a blood sample was collected in Sousse (Central Tunisia) from a dog that presented clinical signs of trypanosomiasis. Giemsa-stained blood smears and PCR were performed. ITS1 sequences from blood had 99.8 and 99.5% homology with published T. evansi sequences from cattle and camels, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report of T. evansi in a Tunisian dog. PMID:25654368

Rjeibi, Mohamed Ridha; Ben Hamida, Taoufik; Dalgatova, Zara; Mahjoub, Tarek; Rejeb, Ahmed; Dridi, Walid; Gharbi, Mohamed

2015-01-01

123

First report of surra (Trypanosoma evansi infection) in a Tunisian dog  

Science.gov (United States)

Trypanosoma evansi, the agent of surra, is a salivarian trypanosome, originating from Africa. Surra is a major disease in camels, equines and dogs, in which it can often be fatal in the absence of treatment. Animals exhibit nonspecific clinical signs (anaemia, loss of weight and abortion). In the present survey, a blood sample was collected in Sousse (Central Tunisia) from a dog that presented clinical signs of trypanosomiasis. Giemsa-stained blood smears and PCR were performed. ITS1 sequences from blood had 99.8 and 99.5% homology with published T. evansi sequences from cattle and camels, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report of T. evansi in a Tunisian dog. PMID:25654368

Rjeibi, Mohamed Ridha; Ben Hamida, Taoufik; Dalgatova, Zara; Mahjoub, Tarek; Rejeb, Ahmed; Dridi, Walid; Gharbi, Mohamed

2015-01-01

124

Susceptibility of owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae) to experimental infection with Bartonella bacilliformis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bartonellosis, caused by Bartonella bacilliformis, is a clinically significant disease in parts of South America, where it is characterized by fever and hemolytic anemia during the often-fatal acute stage and warty skin eruptions during chronic disease. In this study, we evaluated owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae) as a potential model for studying the immunogenicity and pathology of bartonellosis. Two groups of animals (n = 3 per group) received either 9.5 x 10(7) CFU B. bacilliformis by the ID route or 1.1 x 10(6) CFU by the IV route and were followed for 140 d. Animals were evaluated by physical exam, complete blood count or hematocrit (or both); infection was confirmed by Giemsa staining of blood smears, PCR amplification, and blood culture. On days 7 and 21, Giemsa-stained blood smears from both groups contained organisms (1% to 4% of erythrocytes). All blood cultures and PCR tests were negative. Complete blood counts and chemistry panels showed no difference from baseline. Serology revealed a greater than 4-fold increase in the IgM titer (compared with baseline levels) in the 3 animals from the ID group and 1 animal from the IV group. On day 35, a dermal lesion was excised from the inguinal region of 1 monkey from each group, with a second lesion excised on day 84 from the same monkey in the IV group. However the histopathology and immunostaining of these samples were not consistent with B. bacilliformis. The present study shows that owl monkeys can be infected with B. bacilliformis, but additional dosage studies are necessary to evaluate the usefulness of this species as a disease model for human bartonellosis. PMID:19793460

Bentzel, David E; Espinosa, Benjamin J; Canal, Enrique; Blazes, David L; Hall, Eric R

2008-02-01

125

Sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis: sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV is complicated by the increased presence of sputum smear negative tuberculosis. Diagnosis of smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis is made by an algorithm recommended by the National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Programme that uses symptoms, signs and laboratory results. The objective of this study is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the tuberculosis treatment algorithm used for the diagnosis of sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods A cross-section study with prospective enrollment of patients was conducted in Dar-es-Salaam Tanzania. For patients with sputum smear negative, sputum was sent for culture. All consenting recruited patients were counseled and tested for HIV. Patients were evaluated using the National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Programme guidelines and those fulfilling the criteria of having active pulmonary tuberculosis were started on anti tuberculosis therapy. Remaining patients were provided appropriate therapy. A chest X-ray, mantoux test, and Full Blood Picture were done for each patient. The sensitivity and specificity of the recommended algorithm was calculated. Predictors of sputum culture positive were determined using multivariate analysis. Results During the study, 467 subjects were enrolled. Of those, 318 (68.1% were HIV positive, 127 (27.2% had sputum culture positive for Mycobacteria Tuberculosis, of whom 66 (51.9% were correctly treated with anti-Tuberculosis drugs and 61 (48.1% were missed and did not get anti-Tuberculosis drugs. Of the 286 subjects with sputum culture negative, 107 (37.4% were incorrectly treated with anti-Tuberculosis drugs. The diagnostic algorithm for smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis had a sensitivity and specificity of 38.1% and 74.5% respectively. The presence of a dry cough, a high respiratory rate, a low eosinophil count, a mixed type of anaemia and presence of a cavity were found to be predictive of smear negative but culture positive pulmonary tuberculosis. Conclusion The current practices of establishing pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis are not sensitive and specific enough to establish the diagnosis of Acid Fast Bacilli smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis and over treat people with no pulmonary tuberculosis.

Mugusi Ferdinand M

2011-11-01

126

Interdisciplinary research at the SMEAR Estonia station  

Science.gov (United States)

Interdisciplinary research on ecosystem-atmosphere relations has been an issue since many years in Estonia. Since 2008, these activities have been intensified and led to the build up of a SMEAR (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) type station in Estonia. It is part of the Estonian Environmental Observatory, a delocalized research infrastructure that is operated by several Estonian universities and research institutions. It's core is located in the experimental forestry district in Järvselja where a major portion of the ecosystem and atmospheric research activities take place. Here, we present an overview of the current state of research which especially takes care of the hemiboreal forest ecosystem. Continuous build up of comprehensive measurements at diverse sites has led to a network of stations over Estonia. It's location in the transition zone between boreal and temperate forest ecosystems allows for new and updated hypothesis regarding fluxes of energy and matter in a globally changing climate system.

Noe, Steffen M.; Niinemets, Ülo; Kangur, Ahto; Hõrrak, Urmas; Soosaar, Kaido; Mander, Ülo

2014-05-01

127

Tuberculosis treatment among smear positive tuberculosis patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tuberculosis is a major health problem in many parts of the world. Delay in initiation of the treatment may result in prolonged infectious state, drug resistance, relapse and death. Objectives: To determine the factors responsible for not starting tuberculosis treatment among smear positive tuberculosis patients. Study type, settings and duration: This cross sectional study was done at Pakistan Medical Research Council TB Research Center, King Edward Medical University, Lahore, from fifth March 2010 to fifth December 2010. Patients and Methods: Fifty sputum smear positive patients of tuberculosis who did not register themselves in treatment register and presumably did not initiate anti tuberculosis treatment were contacted using telephone or traced by their home addresses. Once contact was established, they were inquired about the reasons for not starting tuberculosis treatment. Results: Of 50 patients 38(76%)belonged to the lower socio economic class and 12(24%) to the lower middle class. Fourteen patients (28%) were illiterate and 23(46%) had only 8 years of education. Of the 50 cases 41(82%) were taking treatment from traditional healers and 4% did not go back to the DOTS program. Physical condition of the patient, social, domestic and religious issues also played some role in default. Conclusions: Lack of health education and poverty were the main factors responsible for non compliance from treatment. Policy message: Sputum testing sites should have a paramedic whm testing sites should have a paramedic who should educate the patients about the benefits of treatment and the dangers of default or partial treatment. (author)

128

Vector identification and clinical, hematological, biochemical, and parasitological characteristics of camel (Camelus dromedarius) theileriosis in Egypt.  

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The objectives of the present study were to identify a possible tick vector and to determine the prevalence of camel theileriosis in Egypt using blood smears stained with Giemsa's stain and PCR assay. Hemogram and serum biochemical constituents were also investigated. A total of 243 camels, aged 3-5 years, were examined. The results revealed that 75 (30.86 %) camels were infected with Theileria spp. of Giemsa-stained blood smears. Hyalomma dromedarii was identified as the carrier tick of Theileria spp. Multinucleated sporoblast and free sporozoite were observed in the salivary gland smears from collecting ticks. PCR result revealed that Theileria annulata was the most abundant in camels (60 %) followed by Theileria spp. (10 %). Macrocytic hypochromic anemia was recorded in the infected camels with T. annulata. Leukocytosis, neutrophilia, eosinophilia, and lymphopenia were also observed in the infected group. In the serum of infected camels, total proteins, albumin, ?-globulin, and A/G ratio were significantly decreased (P?

Youssef, Shereen Youssef; Yasien, Safaa; Mousa, Waheed Mohamed Ali; Nasr, Soad Mohamed; El-Kelesh, Eman Ahmed Mohamed; Mahran, Khalid Mohamed; Abd-El-Rahman, Azza Hassan

2015-04-01

129

Intraerythrocytic merogony in Haemogregarina koppiensis (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina: Haemogregarinidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

During October 2003, a specimen of Amblyrhynchotes honckenii (Bloch, 1795) was captured at low tide, with a hand net, in a rock pool at Koppie Alleen, De Hoop Nature Reserve, South Africa. This fish was heavily parasitized by unidentified gnathiid praniza larvae, caligid copepods identified as Caligus tetrodontis Barnard, 1948, cymothoid isopods identified as Cinusa tetrodontis (Schioedte et Meinert, 1884), and the blood protozoan Haemogregarina koppiensis Smit et Davies, 2001. Giemsa-stained blood smears from this fish revealed new and unusual stages of merogony for H. koppiensis that included small, rounded, likely intraerythrocytic merozoites arranged in circles of eight around the host nucleus. Host cells appeared ghost-like and enlarged compared with normal erythrocytes. Identical merozoites, usually in clusters of up to 16, were also observed free of host cells. The pattern of merogony seen in H. koppiensis is unusual for a fish haemogregarine. PMID:16270810

Smit, Nico J; Davies, Angela J

2005-09-01

130

Canine babesiosis in northwestern India: molecular detection and assessment of risk factors.  

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In the current study, a total of 214 blood samples from dogs in and around Ludhiana, Punjab (India), suspected for canine babesiosis were examined with conventional and molecular assays. Examination of Giemsa-stained peripheral thin blood smears revealed an overall prevalence of 7.47% (16/214) for canine babesiosis encompassing 0.93% (2/214) of large Babesia and 6.54% (14/214) of Babesia gibsoni. However, molecular diagnosis revealed 15.42% (33/214) samples positive for B. gibsoni infection as evident by the presence of 671?bp amplicon. The results of multivariate analysis showed that the prevalence of B. gibsoni was associated with various risk factors, namely, age (Pgibsoni was higher in summer as compared to winter season and in younger dogs, while breed and sex of the host were not significantly associated with the occurrence of the disease. PMID:25013798

Singh, Amritpal; Singh, Harkirat; Singh, N K; Singh, N D; Rath, S S

2014-01-01

131

Optoelectronic hit/miss transform for screening cervical smear slides  

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An optoelectronic morphological processor for detecting regions of interest (abnormal cells) on a cervical smear slide using the hit/miss transform is presented. Computer simulation of the algorithm tested on 184 Pap-smear images provided 95% detection and 5% false alarm. An optoelectronic implementation of the hit/miss transform is presented, along with preliminary experimental results.

Narayanswamy, R.; Turner, R. M.; McKnight, D. J.; Johnson, K. M.; Sharpe, J. P.

1995-06-01

132

A Study of 13315 Papanicolau Smear Diagnoses in Shohada Hospital  

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Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to review Papanicolaou (Pap smears in patients of Shohada hospital in Tehran.Materials and methods:  A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out and a database search of all Pap smear reports from 1995 to 2005 at cytopathology department was reviewed. The abnormal Pap smear reports based on the Bethesda System were assessed.Results: A total of 13315 Pap smear reports were reviewed from patients aging 20 to 79 years old. Totally 6065 (45.55% cases had diagnosis of ‘negative', 293(2.21% smears were labeled as ‘inadequate', and 6799 (51.06% reports had ‘Benign cellular changes'. There were 158(1.18% abnormal Pap smears consisting of 84 (53.18% SIL with undetermined grade (ASC-US, 28(17.73% low grade SIL (LSIL, 17(10.75% high grade SIL (HSIL, 27(17.08% carcinoma and 2(1.26% atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS. Overall incidence of the cervical cancer among these samples was 0.2%. Benign cellular changes numbered 6799(51.06%, of which 5365 (78.9% smears demonstrated infectious processes.Conclusion: The number of abnormal pap smears in this study is less than western countries, but is comparable with Middle East and Islamic regions. More prospective studies are recommended.

Maryam Afrakhteh

2007-06-01

133

Who is getting Pap smears in urban Peru?  

OpenAIRE

Background Cervical cancer, although usually preventable by Pap smear screening, remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru. The percentages and characteristics of women in Peru who have or have not had a Pap smear have not been defined.

Paz Soldan, Valerie A.; Lee, Frank H.; Carcamo, Cesar; Holmes, King K.; Garnett, Geoff P.; Garcia, Patricia

2008-01-01

134

Analysis of cervical smears in a Muslim population  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Screening for the cancer of the cervix remains a neglected health care issue in Pakistan. To provide baseline data for future efforts to improve screening, we conducted a retrospective analysis of cervical smears taken in the obstetrics and gynaecological clinics of the Agha Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. We collected data on cervical smear cytology for cervical smears taken from January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1996. We assessed risk factors for dysplasia, including age, age at first marriage, and number of pregnancies. The overall prevalence of abnormal smears in our study was 0.5%. Of 20,995 cervical smears, showed non-specific inflammation, 7302 (34.8%) were reported as normal, 809 (3.85%) showed monillial infection, 148 (0.71%) showed atypia, 105 (0.5%) had dyplastic cytology and 52 (0.25%) samples were inadequate. The highest incidence of dysplastic smears was seen in the age group 35 to 44 years. Of 105 patients with dysplasia 12 were pregnant, and all were asymptomatic. The low prevalence of abnormal smears, compared with the data from Western populations, could be due to the internet bias of health awareness in the women who attended our hospital. The results of this study may serve as baseline for for future comparisons. A large community-based study may establish the exact prevalence of malignant and premalignant lesions so as to plan for future screening. (author)

135

Immunoperoxidase staining of cervicovaginal smears after radiotherapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cervicovaginal smears from 2 women with postirradiation dysplasia, 4 women with postirradiation squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, 30 women with irradiation atypia and 5 healthy, nonirradiated women were stained immunohistochemically with six keratin antibodies. For four of the antibodies--CK19 (BA17), EMA, PKK-1 and CAM 5.2--squamous cells showing irradiation atypia, postirradiation dysplasia or postirradiation squamous cell carcinoma were more likely to stain positively than were nonirradiated squamous cells. For three of the antibodies in which multiple squamous cells stained positively, the proportion of squamous cells showing postirradiation dysplasia or postirradiation squamous cell carcinoma staining strongly was equal to or greater than the corresponding overall proportion for squamous cells showing irradiation atypia. This was statistically significant with only one antibody, PKK-1. No statistically significant differences were seen in staining of irradiated and nonirradiated squamous cells by MAK-6 and AE1:AE3. The data show that some keratin antigens are more often expressed in the irradiated groups and that there may be differences in the degree of antigen expression between squamous cells showing postirradiation dysplasia or postirradiation squamous cell carcinoma and squamous cells showing irradiation atypia. PMID:1580112

Wachtel, M S; Thaler, H T; Gangi, M D; Hajdu, S I

1992-01-01

136

Smeared antibranes polarise in AdS  

CERN Document Server

In the recent literature it has been questioned whether the local backreaction of antibranes in flux throats can induce a perturbative brane-flux decay. Most evidence for this can be gathered for D6 branes and Dp branes smeared over 6-p compact directions, in line with the absence of finite temperature solutions for these cases. The solutions in the literature have flat worldvolume geometries and non-compact transversal spaces. In this paper we consider what happens when the worldvolume is AdS and the transversal space is compact. We show that in these circumstances brane polarisation smoothens out the flux singularity, which is an indication that brane-flux decay is prevented. This is consistent with the fact that the cosmological constant would be less negative after brane-flux decay. Our results extend recent results on AdS_7 solutions from D6 branes to AdS_(p+1) solutions from Dp branes. We show that supersymmetry of the AdS solutions depend on p non-trivially.

Gautason, Fridrik Freyr; Van Riet, Thomas

2015-01-01

137

Comparison of Chest X-Ray Findings of Smear Positive and Smear Negative Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis  

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Background: Tuberculosis is a chronic pulmonary infectious disease that has affected one-third of the people in the world. It causes nine million new cases and two million deaths per year. Chest radiography associated with Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast staining procedure significantly helps the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Chest radiography can help the diagnosis of tuberculosis in patients with a negative smear sample result that is mainly diagnosed with delay. Objectives: In this study, chest X-ray findings of PTB were compared in two groups of smear positive and smear negative patients. Patients and Methods: In this retrospective descriptive-analytical study, 376 patients who had been confirmed with PTB were referred to Birjand Health Care Center from 2001 to 2006. Out of the 376 patients, 100 patients with a positive smear based on WHO criteria were selected. In addition, among negative smear patients, 100 were selected in whom similar demographic characteristics with positive smear patients were seen. All of them had undergone chest radiographies that were then interpreted by two expert radiologists independently. Moreover, all patients’ sputa were examined by an expert laboratory technician at the reference laboratory of the health center. The obtained data were analyzed by means of frequency distribution table and descriptive statistics using SPSS (version 15) and Chi-square statistical test. Results: Except reticulo-nodular infiltration, the relative frequency of other radiographic findings in positive smear patients were more than negative smear patients; and only differences in calcification variables, mediastinal widening, patchy infiltration and hilar adenopathy were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Based on the results of this study, although radiographic findings are not diagnostic in PTB, they are helpful if the assessment associates with the view of clinical manifestations and sputum smears. PMID:25780545

Ebrahimzadeh, Azadeh; Mohammadifard, Mahyar; Naseh, Godratallah

2014-01-01

138

Endemic status of Trypanosoma evansi infection in a horse stable of eastern region of India--a field investigation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diagnosis of Trypanosoma evansi infection in a horse stable of Eastern Region of India on the basis of examination of Giemsa stained blood smears have been done. A high percentage (12.74%) of horses of this stable was found suffering from T evansi infection. This high prevalence of T evansi in horses, in this area could be considered as an alarming situation which has never been explored previously in horses of Eastern Region of India. After a period of 2 months and 18 days of treatment with quinapyramine sulphate and quinapyramine chloride, reinfection with T evansi in treated horses of this stable were noticed. Clinical signs of affected horses and possible causes of reinfection have been discussed. PMID:18509944

Laha, R; Sasmal, N K

2008-06-01

139

Severe human Babesia divergens infection in Norway.  

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Human babesiosis is a rare but potentially life-threatening parasitic disease transmitted by ixodid ticks, and has not previously been reported in Norway. We report a case of severe babesiosis that occurred in Norway in 2007. The patient had previously undergone a splenectomy. He was frequently exposed to tick bites in an area endemic for bovine babesiosis in the west of Norway. The patient presented with severe haemolysis and multiorgan failure. Giemsa-stained blood smears revealed 30% parasitaemia with Babesia spp. He was treated with quinine in combination with clindamycin, apheresis, and supportive treatment with ventilatory support and haemofiltration, and made a complete recovery. This is the first case reported in Norway; however Babesia divergens seroprevalence in cattle in Norway is high, as is the risk of Ixodes ricinus tick bite in the general population. Babesiosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained febrile haemolytic disease. PMID:25541295

Mørch, K; Holmaas, G; Frolander, P S; Kristoffersen, E K

2015-04-01

140

DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF COLPOSCOPY IN PATIENTS WITH ABNORMAL PAP SMEAR  

OpenAIRE

 

Introduction: In order to reduce invasive cervical cancer, it is necessary to follow presisly the patients with abnormal pap smear. Simply, repeating the cytologic assessment in patints with atypical pap smear will result in missing 26-83 percent of squamous intraepithelial lesions and most alarming 50 percent of invasive cancers. Consi...

Allameh, T.

2001-01-01

141

String tension from smearing and Wilson flow methods  

CERN Document Server

Recently, we proposed a new method to extract the string tension from 4-dimensionally smeared Wilson loops. In this talk, we first show that the results obtained using this smearing method are identical to those obtained by Wilson flow, once the time step is sufficiently small. We then demonstrate the practical advantage of our method by applying it to the calculation of string tension in SU(3) Yang-Mills theory.

González-Arroyo, Antonio

2014-01-01

142

Surface Microflora of Four Smear-Ripened Cheeses  

OpenAIRE

The microbial composition of smear-ripened cheeses is not very clear. A total of 194 bacterial isolates and 187 yeast isolates from the surfaces of four Irish farmhouse smear-ripened cheeses were identified at the midpoint of ripening using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), repetitive sequence-based PCR, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing for identifying and typing the bacteria and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (mtDNA R...

Mounier, Je?ro?me; Gelsomino, Roberto; Goerges, Stefanie; Vancanneyt, Marc; Vandemeulebroecke, Katrien; Hoste, Bart; Scherer, Siegfried; Swings, Jean; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Cogan, Timothy M.

2005-01-01

143

Measurement of surface contamination using the smear method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors propose an enchantment of the smear method used for measuring the surface contamination in rooms and facilities in the strict regime zone of the Kozloduy NPP. The existing procedure of smear taking has low accuracy, efficiency and reproducibility due to unsuitable filter materials. 30 new materials have been tested and two of them - textile fabrics TT and WH - have been found appropriate for the purpose. Application of these materials will considerably reduce the uncertainties of measurement

144

Note on Rome-Southampton renormalization with smeared gauge fields  

Science.gov (United States)

We have calculated continuum-limit step scaling functions of bilinear and four-fermion operators renormalized in a Rome-Southampton scheme using various smearing prescriptions for the gauge field. Also, for the first time, we have calculated nonperturbative anomalous dimensions of operators renormalized in a Rome-Southampton scheme. The effect of such smearing first enters connected fermionic correlation functions via radiative corrections. We use off-shell renormalization as a probe, and observe that the upper edge of the Rome-Southampton window is reduced by link smearing. This can be interpreted as arising due to the fermions decoupling from the high-momentum gluons and we observe that the running of operators with the scale at large lattice momenta shows enhanced lattice artifacts. We find that the effect is greater for HEX smearing than for Stout smearing, but that in both cases additional care must be taken when using off-shell renormalization with smeared gauge fields compared to thin-link simulations.

Arthur, R.; Boyle, P. A.; Hashimoto, S.; Hudspith, R.

2013-12-01

145

Molecular detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in carrier cattle of Iran - first documented report  

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Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a zoonotic, tick borne rickettsial pathogen. A. phagocytophilum has been detected in North America, Europe, Africa and Asia by molecular methods. In Iran we have little information about the distribution of this agent in human and animals."nMaterials and Methods: From March 2007 to July 2007, one hundred and fifty blood samples and corresponding blood smears of cattle without any signs of disease were prepared from a region in Isfahan, Iran with previous history of tick borne disease outbreak.The blood smears were first stained with Giemsa and analyzed for the presence of A. phagocytophilum in the neutrophils. The extracted DNA from blood cells were analyzed by A. phagocytophilum specific nested PCR using primers derived from the 16S rRNA gene."nResults: All blood smears were negative for A. phagocytophilum like structures by Giemsa staining, but 2 out of 150 blood samples (1.33% were positive for A. phagocytophilum specific nested PCR using specific primers derived from 16S rRNA gene."nConclusion: This study is the first detection of A. phagocytophilum in carrier cattle in Iran. The present study showed that A. Phagocytophilum is detectable in cattle without any sign of infection but maintained a persistant sub-clinical state in the cattle reservoir, which can be inferred as possible risk for management of public health.

P Shayan

2009-11-01

146

Trypanosoma evansi in dromedary camel: with a case report of zoonosis in greater Cairo, Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trypanosoma evansi (Steel, 1885) Balbiani, is the cause of trypanosomiasis (Surra) which multiples in the blood and body fluids. The incubation period varies from 7-15 days. The mortality rate was up to 20% and fatality rate may reach up to 100% in untreated camels. Three hundred randomly selected camels were 200 males 4-6 years old and 100 females 10-15 years. They were examined clinically and diagnosed by Giemsa stained blood smear, anti- trypanosomiasis-antibodies by ELISA and urine Thymol turbidity test for natural infection with T. evani (Surra). The results showed that camels were naturally infected with T. evansi as indicated by stained blood film examination and/or ELISA. Infection in males was 6.0% (stained blood smears), 8.0% (ELISA) and 5.0% (urine thymol turbidity test). In females the infection rate was 9.0%, 24.0% and 12% respectively. By correlation with suggestive clinical manifestations, ELISA proved to be more sensitive and specific (13.3%) than stained blood films (10.0%) and urine Thymol turbidity test (7.3%). Regarding humans, one out of 30 was positive as indicated by ELISA and stained blood smear but was negative by urine thymol turbidity test. The human case was successfully treated as indicated clinically, parasitologically and serologically. This is the first reported Egyptian human case of trypanosomiasis evansi, a neglected zoonosis. PMID:21634243

Haridy, Fouad M; El-Metwally, Mohamed Tolba; Khalil, Hazem H M; Morsy, Tosson A

2011-04-01

147

Detección de mutaciones en los genes K-ras, H-ras y EGFR en muestras de plasma sanguíneo y cepillado cervical de pacientes con neoplasia intraepitelial cervical (NIC) III y cáncer de cuello uterino / Detection of genes mutations in the K-RAS, H-RAS and EGFR in samples of blood plasma and cervical smears for patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia III and cervical cancer  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: El cáncer cervical es el segundo cáncer más importante en mujeres a nivel mundial y la segunda causa de muerte en mujeres por cáncer. Se ha demostrado que el proceso de carcinogénesis cervical presenta componentes tanto genéticos, epigenéticos y medio ambientales. En la actualidad, muc [...] hos estudios se encaminan en la búsqueda de marcadores moleculares como mutaciones en oncogenes y/o genes tumor supresor que se asocien con la progresión de esta entidad. Los genes candidatos más estudiados en cáncer cervical en distintas poblaciones han sido H-ras, K-ras, EGFR entre otros. Objetivos: Se identificó el virus de papiloma humano (VPH) genérico y específico en el ADN libre de plasma y de cepillado cervical de pacientes con cáncer cervical invasivo y con neoplasia intraepitelial cervical (NIC) III además de evaluar alteraciones genéticas, como mutaciones en los genes H-ras, K-ras y EGFR. Metodología: Para ello se detectó el VPH genérico mediante PCR con los iniciadores GP5+/GP6+, y específico para VPH 16 y 18 en la región E6/E7. Para detectar las mutaciones en el codón 12 de H-ras, codones 12 y 13 de K-Ras y el exón 21 de EGFR se realizó mediante secuenciación directa de los productos de PCR de estos fragmentos génicos. Resultados: Obteniendo una buena correlación entre las muestras de plasma sanguíneo y los cepillados cervicales, tanto para los hallazgos de VPH p=0.0374 como para las mutaciones evaluadas p=0. En general, para EGFR en el exón 21 no se encontraron mutaciones, al igual que para los codones 12 y 13 en K-ras y codón 12 en H-ras. Conclusión: El uso del ADN presente en el plasma puede ser relevante para el análisis de mutaciones y de la presencia de marcadores tumorales cuando no se dispone de otras muestras. Abstract in english Introduction: Cervical cancer is the second most important cancer in women worldwide, and the second cause of cancer death in women. It has been shown that the process of cervical carcinogenesis presents as genetic and epigenetic components as environmental issues. At present, many studies are addre [...] ssed in searching for molecular markers such as mutations in oncogenes and/or tumor suppressor genes that are associated with the progression of this disease, the most studied candidate genes in cervical cancer in different populations have been H-ras, K-ras, EGFR among others. Objective: The present study identified human papilloma virus (HPV) generic and specific in DNA-free plasma and cervical smears of invasive cervical cancer patients and patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) III in addition to assessing genetic alterations, such as mutations in the genes H-ras, EGFR and K-ras. Methods: To do so generic HPV was detected by PCR with primers GP5+/GP6+, and specific HPV 16 and 18 in E6/E7 region; to detect mutations in codon 12 of H-ras, codons 12 and 13 of K-ras and EGFR exon 21 was conducted by direct sequencing of PCR products of these gene fragments. Results: Getting a good correlation between samples of blood plasma and cervical smears for both; the findings of HPV p=0.0374 and evaluated mutations p=0. In general, for EGFR in exon 21 mutations were not found, as for codons 12 and 13 in K-ras and codon 12 in H-ras. Conclusion: The use of DNA in plasma may be relevant to the analysis of mutations and the presences of tumor markers are not available from other samples.

Dabeiba Adriana, García; Yazmín Rocío, Arias; Fabio, Ancízar Aristizábal.

2009-03-01

148

Evaluation of cervical smear in high risk women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in the department of obstetrics and gynecology, Guwahati medical college and hospital from July 2009 to August 2010 with the help of Pathology department. 200 women attending gynecological OPD with associated risk factors were selected at random. Detailed history, demographic information, contraceptive history and coital history were taken. Smear was taken from endocervix with the help of Ayer's spatula or cytobrush. Results: Out of 200 cases, in 110 (55% the smear was reported negative for malignancy. 73(36.5% had an inflammatory smear, 11 (5.5% had CIN, 1(0.5% had malignancy and 5(2.5% the smear was inadequate for cytological examination. In the study mean age of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN was 42.64 +/- 6.34 years. Low socio-economic status, high parity and the use of oral contraceptive pills were major risk factors. Conclusion: Cervical smear should be routinely used as a reliable diagnostic aid for early detection carcinoma cervix especially in high risk cases. The need of the hour is to create awareness and easy accessibility to proper screening. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(3.000: 1138-1140

Bhabani Pegu

2014-06-01

149

Shape-based nuclei area of digitized pap smear images  

Science.gov (United States)

Nuclei of the epithelial of Pap smear cells are important risk indicator of cervical cancers. Pathologist uses the changing of the area of the nuclei to determine whether cells are normal or abnormal. It means that having correct measurement of the area of nuclei is important on the pap smears assessment. Our paper present a novel approach to analyze the shape of nuclei in pap smear images and measuring the area of nuclei. We conducted a study to measure the area of nuclei automatically by calculating the number of pixels contained in each of the segmented nuclei. For comparison, we performed measurements of nuclei area using the ellipse area approximation. The result of the t-test confirmed that there were similarity between elliptical area approximation and automatic segmented nuclei-area at 0.5% level of significance.

Muhimmah, Izzati; Kurniawan, Rahadian

2012-04-01

150

Association of Oral Contraceptives and Abnormal Pap Smear  

OpenAIRE

To assess the hypothesis that combined Oral Contraceptive (OCs) increase the risk of cervical neoplasia, we conducted a multicenter Case-Control study in Mashhad, the capital of Khorasan province. Seventy-eight women with moderate to severe dysplasia at Pap smear as case group and one hundred fifty nine women with normal Pap smear were selected as the control group for evaluation. The both case and control groups were matched by age, parity and socioeconomic status. All of the women in this s...

Sayedmohsen Sayednozadi; Mohammadreza Hassany; Ramezani, Mohammad A.

2005-01-01

151

Joint opening nonlinear mechanism: Interface smeared crack model  

Science.gov (United States)

Contraction joint opening behavior is studied. An economical model called the Interface Smeared Crack Model is developed to simulate the joint opening nonlinear mechanism. The model is based on the general smeared crack approach, with a specially introduced pushing back operation which is intended to correct the local structure response at element level. This method dramatically reduces the computational cost compared with that of a standard joint element analysis. It is demonstrated that it would be beneficial to include joint opening mechanism in the dynamic analysis of arch dams, because joint opening will limit the peak tensile arch stresses and thus improve the seismic resistance of the structure.

Kuo, J. S. H.

1982-08-01

152

Smeared D0 charge and the Gubser-Mitra conjecture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We relate a Dp or NS-brane with D0-brane charge smeared over its worldvolume to the system with no D0-charge. This allows us to generalize Reall's partial proof of the Gubser-Mitra conjecture. We show explicitly for specific examples that the dynamical instability coincides with thermodynamic instability in the ensemble where the D0-brane charge can vary. We also comment on consistency checks of the conjecture for more complicated systems, using the example of the D4 with F1 and D0 charges smeared on its worldvolume

153

Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis in a rural setup: Comparison of clinical algorithm, smear scoring and culture by semiquantitative technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs in a rural set up and compare the smear scoring system to that of culture by semiquantitative technique. A total of 505 married women, who were in sexually active age group of 15-44 years, were selected from three different villages. High vaginal swabs, endocervical swabs, vaginal discharge and blood were collected and processed in the laboratory. Overall prevalence of 29% reproductive tract infection was detected. Endogenous infection was commonly observed (27.92%, and very low prevalence of STIs (Trichomonas 1.18%, Syphilis 0%, Gonorrhea 0% was detected. Diagnosis of BV was possible in 104 (20.5% women by smear alone and 88 (17.42% women by semiquantitative culture.

Rao P

2004-01-01

154

Anal Pap smears and anal cancer: what dermatologists should know.  

Science.gov (United States)

Squamous epithelial cells are susceptible to infection by the human papillomavirus. Infection of squamous epithelium with oncogenic human papillomavirus types is associated with development of dysplasia and potential malignant transformation. Historically, cervical cancer has been the most prevalent human papillomavirus-induced squamous neoplasia. However, because of widespread screening via Pap smear testing, rates of cervical cancer in the United States have decreased dramatically during the past 50 years. Rates of anal cancer, in contrast, have doubled during the past 30 years. The groups at highest risk for development of anal cancer are men who have sex with men, HIV-positive patients, and patients immunosuppressed as a result of solid-organ transplantation. By detecting dysplasia before it develops into invasive cancer, anal Pap smears may be a potentially useful screening tool for anal cancer, particularly in individuals known to be at increased risk. However, at this time, sufficient data supporting the benefit of anal Pap smear screening are lacking. With insufficient evidence, no national health care organizations currently recommend the use of anal Pap smears as a routine screening test, even among high-risk groups. PMID:25088812

Liszewski, Walter; Ananth, Amy T; Ploch, Lauren E; Rogers, Nicole E

2014-11-01

155

Missed Opportunities for Health Education on Pap Smears in Peru  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite cervical cancer being one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru, cervical Pap smear coverage is low. This article uses findings from 185 direct clinician observations in four cities of Peru (representing the capital and each of the three main geographic regions of the country) to assess missed opportunities for…

Bayer, Angela M.; Nussbaum, Lauren; Cabrera, Lilia; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.

2011-01-01

156

Association of Pap Smear Abnormalities with Autoimmune Disorders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, it is hypothesized that there might be an association between immunological disorders and cervical premalignant and malignant abnormalities. Related studies have been generally focused on some particular autoimmune disease, specially the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE. This study aimed at comparing the rate of Pap smear abnormalities in female patients with autoimmune diseases and normal counterparts. In a case-control setting, 118 female patients with various autoimmune diseases (the case group and 118 healthy female counterparts (the control group were recruited in Tabriz Imam Reza Teaching Centre in a 24 months period of time. The two groups were matched for demographics and known risk factors of cervical malignancy. Frequencies of abnormal Pap smear testing were compared between the two groups. The autoimmune disorders were SLE (74 patients, rheumatoid arthritis or RA (32 patients, systemic sclerosis or SS (7 patients and ankylosing spondylitis or AS (5 patients in the case group. Frequency of abnormal Pap smear testing was significantly higher in the case group comparing with that in the controls (7.6% vs. 1.7%; p = 0.03. Frequency of abnormal Pap smear testing was higher in the patients with SLE (8.1% and RA (9.3% comparing with that in the controls; However, these differences were marginally nonsignificant (p = 0.06 and p = 0.07, respectively. Frequency of cases with abnormal Pap smear testing was not statistically different between the autoimmune disorders (p = 0.99. Based on these findings and in conclusion, there might be an association between the autoimmune disorders and occurrence of premalignant or malignant lesions in cervix. Further studies with larger samples sizes are recommended.

Kazem Ghahremanzadeh

2011-01-01

157

No increased risk for cervical cancer after a broader definition of a negative pap smear  

OpenAIRE

The definition of minimal relevant Pap smear abnormality is crucial for balancing the beneficial effects of screening (prevented mortality) with negative side-effects (the high positivity rate). After inflammation ceased to be defined as a borderline abnormal smear outcome in The Netherlands in 1996, the proportion of these smears dropped from 10% to less than 2%. Because this may have caused a loss in smear sensitivity, we analysed the changes in the incidence of cervical cancer after a nega...

Rebolj, M.; Ballegooijen, M.; Kemenade, F.; Looman, C. W. N.; Boer, R.; Habbema, J. D. F.

2008-01-01

158

Sensitivity of a papanicolaou smear in the diagnosis of candida albicans infection of the cervix  

OpenAIRE

Background: Candida albicans infections of the cervix are not adequately diagnosed in Papanicolaou smears when compared with culture in Sabouraud dextrose agar. Methods: Cervical smears were collected from 1000, non-pregnant, asymptomatic women. The specimens were prepared using the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear method examined by microscopy and subsequently cultured in Sabouraud dextrose agar. Results: The overall incidences of C. albicans in cervical smears cultured in Sabouraud dextrose agar wa...

Avwioro Og; Olabiyi Oe; Avwioro To

2010-01-01

159

Evaluation of oral ulcers appearing in pemphigus patients treated with dexamethasone-cyclophosphamide pulse therapy  

OpenAIRE

Twenty cases of pemphigus with oral ulcers who were being treated with dexamethasone-cyclophosphamide pulse therapy were evaluated for the cause of ulcers. The lesions were first classified into pemphigus ulcers, aphthous ulcers, pyogenic infection and candidiasis on the basis of clinical characteristics. Smears from these ulcers were then stained with Giemsa stain to look for acantholytic cells and bacteria. Another smear was mounted in 10% KOH to look for candida. Seven patients were...

Pasricha J; Kapasi Akila

1992-01-01

160

Sputum Conversion Among Patients With Smear Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis  

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Full Text Available Introduction: In the patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB bacteriologic assessment of sputum for detection of acid bacilli (AFB Has essential role. This evaluation is accomplished by direct sputum smear & sputum culture. These examinations must be done in regular and preferably monthly after beginning of treatment. These tests have two important aims, including, determining of treatment efficacy & duration of isolation."nMethods and Materials: Most of the studies have that classic six month regimen led to sputum smear conversion & negative sputum culture in 85% of patient. This treatment regimen has two phases, including, attack phase and maintenance phase. In the attack phase we use four drugs, including, Isoniazid (INH, Rifampin (RMP, Pyrazinamide (PZA and Ethambutol (EMB for the first 2 months and if necessary until the end of third month. In the maintenance phase we use INH and Rif for the remaining of treatment course. The main objectives of this study were to determine the time needed for smear conversion and assessment of probable factors which may influence the smear conversion until 4 months after beginning of therapy. The factors that were assessed, were, Age, nationality, sex, clinical symptoms, underlying diseases, chest radiography (number of cavities, smoking, drug abuse and concentration of AF13 in the sputum Generally, we did this cross sectional study on the patient's records, who had been observed in Imam Khomeni Hospital, west health service center and masih daneshvary hospital between."nResults: This study showed that from totally 218 patients, 138(74.6% patients had sputum conversion at the first 2 months of treatment and until the end of 3rd & 4th month this rate reached to 83.3% respectively. So in the end of fourth month only 32(14.7% patients did not show sputum smear conversion. On the other hand this study showed that two factors including presence of cavities in chest radiography & concentration of AFB in the sputum are influencing this rate strongly."nConclusion: Role of other factors such as age, nationality , Smoking, diabetes mellitus and weigh loss are controversial and another studies are necessary for confirming their roles. Other factors including sex, clinical symptoms has not been show to be important. Some factors such as drug abuse and immunosuppresive therapy has not been assessed in this study, because number of cases were not enough for statistical analysis.

Soudbakhsh A R

2003-06-01

161

Biogenic amines in smear and mould-ripened cheeses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the study was the monitoring of six biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, tryptamine, putrescine, and cadaverine and two polyamines (spermidine and spermine in 30 samples of dairy products purchased in the Czech Republic, namely in 15 samples of mould-ripened cheeses and in 15 samples of smear-ripened cheeses. A further goal was the microbiological analysis of the individual samples of cheeses (total count of microorganisms, number of enterobacteria, enterococci, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and moulds. The monitored biogenic amines were analyzed by a high performance liquid chromatography equipped with a UV/VIS DAD detector. The amount of enterobacteria in fresh cheese exceeded 105 CFU.g?1. In smear-ripened cheese flavourless (Romadur type, the amount was >103 CFU.g-1 and 104-105 CFU.g-1 in smear-ripened cheese with flavour. Biogenic amines were observed in two groups of blue cheeses (white veined cheese and blue veined cheese and smear-ripened cheeses. In both groups, there is a possibility of the presence of biogenic amines because the number of microorganisms and concentration of free amino acids increase during ripening. In ten samples of soft smear-ripening acid cheese and in smear-ripened cheese, the total content of biogenic amines were 22-1000 mg.kg-1 and in 5 samples of these cheeses, it was in range 1000-6000 mg.kg-1. The total amount of biogenic amines in the blue cheeses were in range 40-600 mg.kg-1. The presense of the tyramine was observed in the all analysed cheeses. The tyramine producing strains generated more than 900 mg.kg-1 of this biogenic amine. The production of tryptamine in the analysed cheeses was not proved by this study. The results of this study show that biogenic amines and polyamines are common in cheese. However, in some cases, they can pose a significant health danger for consumers. Any legislative control authority does not monitor them, as they are secondary metabolites even though they are potential health risks.

Pavel Pleva

2014-02-01

162

Immunofluorescence detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in fecal smears.  

Science.gov (United States)

An indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) procedure was developed for the detection of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts in human, nonhuman primate, and bovine fecal smears. The procedure, which takes about 90 min to perform, involves the use of a rabbit antiserum against Cryptosporidium oocysts isolated from dairy cattle. Cross-specificity testing of the IFA method revealed no reactivity with yeasts, various amoebae, Giardia lamblia, Chilomastix sp., or Blastocystis sp. and only very weak cross-reactivity with coccidian oocysts of other genera. IFA detection of oocysts in human and nonhuman primate fecal smears was far more sensitive than was dimethyl sulfoxide-carbolfuchsin staining. Moreover, IFA detection was comparable in sensitivity to auramine O staining with samples of high oocyst concentration and somewhat more sensitive than auramine O with samples containing relatively few oocysts. The IFA procedure may be useful in the clinical diagnosis of human and animal cryptosporidiosis and also in the detection of oocysts in environmental samples. Images PMID:2429982

Stibbs, H H; Ongerth, J E

1986-01-01

163

Comparative Study of Smeared Cracking Models for Concrete Structures  

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Full Text Available The article shows how the constitutive modeling of concrete has evolved since the initial attempts to characterize the medium cracked as continuous, moving from smeared cracking, damage and microplane models, until the current tendency to design different models according to a single theoretical framework. A generic formulation for smeared cracking models, including fixed and rotational models, as well as degradation in tension and in compression, is provided. Using this formulation, three models are generated by specifying the laws of degradation. A comparative study of models, based on computer simulations of a beam subjected to shear at four points, is presented. The results are compared, between themselves and with experimental results, providing a critical analysis of the models.

Samuel Silva Penna

2014-02-01

164

Missed Opportunities for Health Education on Pap Smears in Peru  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite cervical cancer being one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru, cervical Pap smear coverage is low. This article uses findings from 185 direct clinician observations in four cities of Peru (representing the capital and each of the three main geographic regions of the country) to assess missed opportunities for health education on Pap smears and other preventive women’s health behaviors during women’s visits to a health care provider. Various types of health establishments, provider settings, and provider types were observed. Opportunities for patient education on the importance of prevention were rarely exploited. In fact, health education provided was minimal. Policy and programmatic implications are discussed. PMID:21464205

Bayer, Angela M.; Nussbaum, Lauren; Cabrera, Lilia; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.

2013-01-01

165

Association of Pap Smear Abnormalities with Autoimmune Disorders  

OpenAIRE

Recently, it is hypothesized that there might be an association between immunological disorders and cervical premalignant and malignant abnormalities. Related studies have been generally focused on some particular autoimmune disease, specially the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). This study aimed at comparing the rate of Pap smear abnormalities in female patients with autoimmune diseases and normal counterparts. In a case-control setting, 118 female patients with various autoimmune disease...

Kazem Ghahremanzadeh; Heidarali Esmaeili

2011-01-01

166

The Abnormal Pap Smear: A Rationale for Follow Up  

OpenAIRE

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is readily identifiable by cytology, so theoretically, most cases of invasive carcinoma should be preventable. Risk factors for carcinoma of the cervix are related to sexual activity, therefore screening should be similarly related. All women should have routine annual cytology as soon as they are sexually active. The high risk male partner should also be considered when taking a history. Those with moderately atypical smears or higher should be referr...

Toews, H. A.

1983-01-01

167

Smeared spin-flop transition in random antiferromagnetic Ising chain  

OpenAIRE

At T = 0 and a sufficiently large field, the nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic Ising chain undergoes a first-order spin-flop transition into the ferromagnetic phase. We consider its smearing under the random-bond disorder such that all independent random bonds are antiferromagnetic (AF). It is shown that it can be described exactly for arbitrary distribution of AF bonds P(J). Moreover, the site magnetizations of finite chains can be found analytically in this model. We cons...

Timonin, P. N.

2011-01-01

168

ABNORMAL FINDINGS IN PAP SMEARS: ISFAHAN PROVIENCE 1997-1998  

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Full Text Available Background. Cervical cancer is a common female malignancy in developing countries. In our health care system, the screening program is performed by doing pap smears with the interval of three years. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and frequency disturbation of abnormal smears. Methods. This is a cross sectional study was done in 1997-1998. Sample group were all the under coverage married women aged 20-65 years who have a factor of referal criteria. Papsmears samples were interpreted by a pathologist. Papsmear results were documented by colposcopy and biopsy. Results. The prevalence of abnormal smears in under coverage women is 0.05 percent. Results of abnormal papsmears due to more investigations (colposcopy and biopsy were: Normal 25 percent, ASCUS 57 percent, CIN 14 percent, CIN 2 1 percent, CIN 3 1 percent invasive cancer 2 percent. Conclusion. Refering of women with abnormal signs such as leukoplakia, cervical erosion, and history of contact bleeding is necessary. The number of false positive results in cytotechnologlsts diagtlosfs is high. This result shows that on-job-training for cytotechnologists is important.

G.H SADRI

2001-06-01

169

ABNORMAL FINDINGS IN PAP SMEARS: ISFAHAN PROVIENCE 1997-1998  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background. Cervical cancer is a common female malignancy in developing countries. In our health care system, the screening program is performed by doing pap smears with the interval of three years. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and frequency disturbation of abnormal smears. Methods. This is a cross sectional study was done in 1997-1998. Sample group were all the under coverage married women aged 20-65 years who have a factor of referal criteria. Papsmears samples were interpreted by a pathologist. Papsmear results were documented by colposcopy and biopsy. Results. The prevalence of abnormal smears in under coverage women is 0.05 percent. Results of abnormal papsmears due to more investigations (colposcopy and biopsy were: Normal 25 percent, ASCUS 57 percent, CIN 14 percent, CIN 2 1 percent, CIN 3 1 percent invasive cancer 2 percent. Conclusion. Refering of women with abnormal signs such as leukoplakia, cervical erosion, and history of contact bleeding is necessary. The number of false positive results in cytotechnologlsts diagtlosfs is high. This result shows that on-job-training for cytotechnologists is important.

GH SADRI

2001-03-01

170

Consonant confusions for temporally smeared envelope of syllables in noise  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to better understand the contribution of speech temporal envelope cues to consonant recognition in noise (-8, 0, 8, 16, 24, and quiet dB SNR). Four tasks were performed for hearing-impaired listeners: Speech-in-Noise test for the measure of sentence repeat ability in noise, gap and intensity detection for the measure of ability to detect changes in sound over time, and consonant identification for confusion matrices. For consonant identification, the temporal envelope of 16 consonants with a vowel /a/ (CV) was extracted from each of 26 critical bands. Each processed CV was temporally smeared by low-pass filtering (4, 8, and 16 Hz). The results show that the mean Pc increases gradually as SNR increases SNR conditions, but decreases at SNR > 16 dB for no-smearing and 8-Hz smearing conditions. Consonant confusions result from certain sets of consonants, but the degree of confusion is a function of SNR. The results also show that measures of Speech-in-Noise and gap detection are more related to pure-tone threshold, while intensity detection is less related to pure-tone threshold. However, the effect of interstimulus interval is consistent regardless of degree and configuration of hearing loss.

Yoon, Yang-Soo; Gooler, David; Allen, Jont

2005-09-01

171

Taste symmetry breaking with hypercubic-smeared staggered fermions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the impact of hypercubic (HYP) smearing on the size of taste-breaking for staggered fermions, comparing to unimproved and to asqtad-improved staggered fermions. As in previous studies, we find a substantial reduction in taste-breaking compared to unimproved staggered fermions (by a factor of 4-7 on lattices with spacing a?0.1 fm). In addition, we observe that discretization effects of next-to-leading order in the chiral expansion (O(a2p2)) are markedly reduced by HYP smearing. Compared to asqtad valence fermions, we find that taste-breaking in the pion spectrum is reduced by a factor of 2.5-3, down to a level comparable to the expected size of generic O(a2) effects. Our results suggest that, once one reaches a lattice spacing of a?0.09 fm, taste-breaking will be small enough after HYP smearing that one can use a modified power counting in which O(a2)2), simplify fitting to phenomenologically interesting quantities.

172

No increased risk for cervical cancer after a broader definition of a negative Pap smear  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The definition of minimal relevant Pap smear abnormality is crucial for balancing the beneficial effects of screening (prevented mortality) with negative side-effects (the high positivity rate). After inflammation ceased to be defined as a borderline abnormal smear outcome in The Netherlands in 1996, the proportion of these smears dropped from 10% to less than 2%. Because this may have caused a loss in smear sensitivity, we analysed the changes in the incidence of cervical cancer after a negative Pap smear. All negative smears made at ages 30-64 in 1990-1995 (n = 1,546,252) and 1998-2006 (n = 3,552,716), registered in the national registry of histo- and cytopathology (PALGA), were followed for up to 9 years. During follow-up of the 1990-1995 smears, 377 women developed cervical cancer within 5,232,959 woman-years at risk, while during the follow-up of the 1998-2006 smears, 619 women developed cervical cancer within 11,210,675 woman-years at risk. The cumulative incidence after the definition change was not significantly higher than before: e.g. at 6 years, the cumulative incidence for smears made in 1990-1995 was 46 per 100,000 (95% CI: 41-52), and for smears in 1998-2006 was 48 per 100,000 (95% CI: 43-54), p = 0.59. The hazard ratio for 1998-2006 compared to 1990-1995 adjusted for age, number of previous negative smears and history of abnormalities was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.78-1.03). In The Netherlands, a setting with high-quality cytological screening, treating smears with only signs of inflammation as negative leads to a considerably lower positivity rate without increasing the risk for cervical cancer after a negative smear.

Rebolj, Matejka; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein

2008-01-01

173

MWR Retrievals Performance Improvement after Smear Effect Correction  

Science.gov (United States)

The SAC-D/Aquarius mission is a cooperative mission developed between CoNAE (Argentine Space Agency) and NASA, that focuses on understanding the interaction between the global water cycle, ocean circulation and climate by measuring sea surface salinity (SSS). One of the main Argentinean instruments is the Microwave Radiometer (MWR), that measures the surface brightness temperature (TB) in a frequency range sensitive to geophysical parameters over the ocean (such as, surface wind speed, rain rate, water vapor, cloud liquid water, and sea ice concentration). MWR is a push-broom 3 channel, Dicke radiometer, operating at K (23.8 GHz H-Pol) and Ka (36.5 GHz, H- & V-Pol) band. The instrument has 16 beams, 8 forward-looking (36.5 GHz) and 8 aft-looking (23.8 GHz). The beams are arranged in a configuration with two incidence angles, one of 52° ( 4 odd beams) and one of 58° (4 even beams), for both forward and aft-looks. Since the first global Tb images, there has been an observed recurring anomalous effect, coined as "Smear Effect". This effect is present in all push-broom beams and results in a "smearing" of Tb observations, that is more noticeable near high contrast areas, such as land/water crossings, rain events, and in the presence of clouds. Geophysical retrieval algorithms based on radiances measured by space borne instruments play a large role in helping scientists monitor the state of the planet. In this sense accurate models are needed. After a detail analysis it was determined that the smear effect strongly affects the geophysical retrieval products. CONAE studied the effect, in a variety of cases, and developed a method to try to mitigate this smearing effect. The correction was applied to Tb counts and with this data the retrievals was reprocessed. We present in this paper a comparison between the results obtained before and after the correction with noticeable improvement in MWR products, i. e., more realistic geophysical retrieval products. The improvement is demonstrated by both global and regional studies over land and ocean.

Labanda, M. F.; Jacob, M. M.; Farrar, S.; Raimondo, H.; Jones, L.

2012-12-01

174

Pap-smear Benchmark Data For Pattern Classification  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This case study provides data and a baseline for comparing classification methods. The data consists of 917 images of Pap-smear cells, classified carefully by cyto-technicians and doctors. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and the cells fall into 7 classes. A basic data analysis includes scatter plots and linear classification results, in order to provide domain knowledge and lower bounds on the acceptable performance of future classifiers. Students and researchers can access the database on the Internet, and use it to test and compare their own classification methods.

Jantzen, Jan; Norup, Jonas

2005-01-01

175

Born approximation model for light scattering by red blood cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary role of a red blood cell (RBC) is delivering oxygen throughout our body. Abnormalities of this basic function lead to anemia and are caused by numerous diseases such as malaria and sickle cell anemia. As prompt and inexpensive tests for blood screening are in demand, we have developed a faster and reliable way to measure morphological parameters associated with the structure of red blood cells and the size distribution of the cells in a whole blood smear. Modeling the RBC shape under Born approximation, we are able to determine parameters of clinical relevance, such as the diameter, thickness and dimple size. From a measured quantitative phase image of a blood smear, we can determine the average and standard deviation of the red blood cell volume simultaneously, i.e., without analyzing each cell individually. This approach may open the door for a new generation of label-free, high-throughput blood testing. PMID:22025984

Lim, Joonoh; Ding, Huafeng; Mir, Mustafa; Zhu, Ruoyu; Tangella, Krishnarao; Popescu, Gabriel

2011-10-01

176

Prevalence of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae in cats in the south of Brazil: a molecular study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Bartonella spp are the causative agent of cat scratch disease in humans. Cats are the natural reservoir of these bacteria and may infect humans through scratches, bites or fleas. Blood samples from 47 cats aged up to 12 months were collected for this study. All animals were lodged in municipal anima [...] l shelters in the Vale do Sinos region, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Bartonella spp were detected by genus-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and when the PCR was positive, the species were determined by DNA sequencing. A Giemsa-stained blood smear was also examined for the presence of intraerythrocytic elements suggestive of Bartonella spp infection. Phylogenetic analysis was also performed for all positive samples. Using molecular detection methods, Bartonella spp were detected in 17.02% (8/47) of the samples. In seven out of eight samples confirmed to be positive for Bartonella spp, blood smear examination revealed the presence of intraerythrocytic elements suggestive of Bartonella spp. Phylogenetic analysis characterized positive samples as Bartonella henselae (5) or Bartonella clarridgeiae (3). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first molecular study demonstrating the presence of Bartonella spp in cats from the Southern Region of Brazil.

Rodrigo, Staggemeier; Carolina Augusto, Venker; Deisy Heck, Klein; Mariana, Petry; Fernando Rosado, Spilki; Vlademir Vicente, Cantarelli.

2010-11-01

177

Understanding image quality losses due to smear in high-resolution remote sensing imaging systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Space-based high-resolution scanning array imaging systems have the potential to introduce large amounts of image smear. When designing these systems, it is useful to understand how smear will degrade image quality. A brief description of the causes of smear and a simple mathematical model are presented. A series of image simulations (for a system in which (lambda) FN/p equals 1.0, where (lambda) is the mean wavelength for a panchromatic system, FN is the system f number, and p is the pixel pitch of the detectors) are performed in which along scan smear (ranging from 1.0 to 8.0 pixels) is introduced. Using the National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale (NIIRS), expert observers rated (Delta) NIIRS difference in image quality between the images with simulated smear and the original `unsmeared' image. The functional relationship between smear error and image quality (in units of (Delta) NIIRS) is determined.

Smith, Steven L.; Mooney, James A.; Tantalo, Theodore A.; Fiete, Robert D.

1999-05-01

178

Association of Oral Contraceptives and Abnormal Pap Smear  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To assess the hypothesis that combined Oral Contraceptive (OCs increase the risk of cervical neoplasia, we conducted a multicenter Case-Control study in Mashhad, the capital of Khorasan province. Seventy-eight women with moderate to severe dysplasia at Pap smear as case group and one hundred fifty nine women with normal Pap smear were selected as the control group for evaluation. The both case and control groups were matched by age, parity and socioeconomic status. All of the women in this study were single partner as husband and no smoker. 30 percent of cases and 64.8 percent of controls were used OCs. The duration of OCs use was the same in both. The odds ratio for OCs consumption was 0.2 with 95% confidence interval 0.11-0.4 in Logistic regression analysis. In contrast to some other studies, our findings showed an association between OCs and cervical dysplasia and there was a protective effect of OCs for cervical dysplasia.

Sayedmohsen Sayednozadi

2005-01-01

179

DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF COLPOSCOPY IN PATIENTS WITH ABNORMAL PAP SMEAR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  

Introduction: In order to reduce invasive cervical cancer, it is necessary to follow presisly the patients with abnormal pap smear. Simply, repeating the cytologic assessment in patints with atypical pap smear will result in missing 26-83 percent of squamous intraepithelial lesions and most alarming 50 percent of invasive cancers. Considering the contraversy of different study reports about the diagnostic value of colposcopy in confirming the abnormal papsmear, this study was conducted to determine the sensitivity and specificity of colposcopy based on the results of biopsy in women referred to hospitals of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS.
Methods: In a prospective study, we selected randomly 210 women from 700 patints who reffered to the hospitals of IUMS. These women were examined and biopsied simultaneously. The data was collected by a structured interview according to the demographic characteristics and then was analyzed using EPI software.
Results. From 210 subjects, only 125 were reported to have abnormal cervical cytologic. The sensitivity came out to be 97.29 percent and specificity was 43.20 percent.
Discussion. In Iran, according to the sensitivity and specificity for colposcpic examination, it can be suggested that in final evaluation of abnormal papsmears, colposcopic assesment of the cervix can be considered as the next appropriate step.

T ALLAMEH

2001-12-01

180

Blood Components  

Science.gov (United States)

Home > Learn About Blood > Blood Components Printable Version Blood Components How can one donation help multiple people? ... blood. The main transfusable blood components include: Whole Blood Whole blood contains red cells, white cells, and ...

181

HPV DNA and Pap smear test results in cases with and without cervical pathology  

OpenAIRE

Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the HPV prevalance and its relation to Pap smear, colposcopy and colposcopy directed biopsy in our region of Eskisehir, Turkey.Material and Methods: A total of 615 women who applied to the outpatient clinic between December 2009 and December 2010 constituted our study population. All patients underwent pelvic examination and Pap smear sampling. Patients who had pathological cervical appearance or Pap smear results of ASCUS, AGUS, LSIL or HSIL ...

Sabit Sinan Özalp; Tercan Us; Emine Arslan; Tufan Öge; Nilgün Ka?ifo?lu

2012-01-01

182

Actinomyces-like organisms in cervical smears from women using intrauterine contraceptive devices  

OpenAIRE

Cervical smears from 293 users of intrauterine contraceptive devices attending family planning clinics in East Fife, Dundee, and Angus were stained by Papanicolaou and Gram's methods and examined for actinomyces-like organisms. Of the 128 women using plastic devices, 40 gave smears positive for these organisms. In contrast only two positive smears were obtained from the 165 women using devices containing copper and none from a control group of 300 women taking oral contraceptives. Colonisatio...

Lincoln, Rosemarie D.

1981-01-01

183

Comparative evaluation of three and six month therapeutic regimens for smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis  

OpenAIRE

Both smears positive and negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) patients are routinely treated by six month therapeutic regimen. The aim of this study was to compare three and six month regimens chemotherapy for smear negative PTB among tuberculosis patients. Fifty-two patients with smear negative PTB randomly divided into two groups took part in this comparative clinical trial study. The patients in first group were treated with our recommended regimen (rifampicin, isoniazide, and ofloxacin) ...

Seyed Mohammad Alavi

2009-01-01

184

Colposcopic evaluation of cervix with persistent inflammatory Pap smear: A prospective analytical study  

OpenAIRE

Background: Inflammatory Pap smear is the most common report received by a gynecologist. The cervical screening algorithm for benign cellular changes on the Pap smear recommends treatment of infection if indicated and a repeat Pap smear in 4 to 6 months time. If the inflammatory changes still persist, subject the patient to colposcopy. However, in practice, this is not followed, especially in developing countries like ours where proper screening protocols are not available. Hence, a good numb...

Dasari Papa; Rajathi S; Kumar Surendra

2010-01-01

185

An Audit of Sputum Smear Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis Cases in Kinta District, Perak, in 2011  

OpenAIRE

58 cases of sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PtB) were reported to Kinta Health Department between January and June 2011. It was found that 47 cases (81%) were sputum smear negative cases. six cases (10.3%) were actually sputum smear positive but were wrongly reported as smear negative. Five cases (8.6%) were misdiagnosed as tuberculosis. Majority of these patients (82.7%) sought consultation and treatment after two weeks of having cough. only 6.9% sought treatment for cough that...

Subashini A; Km, Lau; Za, Habibur Rahman

2012-01-01

186

Extraction and detection of Mycobacterium leprae DNA from ZNCF-stained skin smear slides for better identification of negative skin smears  

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Full Text Available Abstract Identification of Mycobacterium leprae, which causes leprosy, is done by Ziehl Neelsen Carbol Fuchsin (ZNCF stained slit skin smear microscopy that aids in the diagnosis and quantification of approximate bacterial load carried by the patient. We attempted M. leprae DNA extraction from 46 stained slit skin smear negative slides, using Proteinase K and SDS lysis, followed by ethanol precipitation. M. leprae specific primers (16SrRNA were used for PCR-based amplification of DNA. We could detect M. leprae DNA in 15 (32.6% samples. The method can be useful in the diagnosis of apparently slit skin smear negative leprosy cases.

Kamble R

2010-01-01

187

Extraction and detection of Mycobacterium leprae DNA from ZNCF-stained skin smear slides for better identification of negative skin smears.  

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Abstract Identification of Mycobacterium leprae, which causes leprosy, is done by Ziehl Neelsen Carbol Fuchsin (ZNCF) stained slit skin smear microscopy that aids in the diagnosis and quantification of approximate bacterial load carried by the patient. We attempted M. leprae DNA extraction from 46 stained slit skin smear negative slides, using Proteinase K and SDS lysis, followed by ethanol precipitation. M. leprae specific primers (16SrRNA) were used for PCR-based amplification of DNA. We could detect M. leprae DNA in 15 (32.6%) samples. The method can be useful in the diagnosis of apparently slit skin smear negative leprosy cases. PMID:20061767

Kamble, R R; Shinde, V S; Madhale, S P; Kamble, A A; Ravikumar, B P; Jadhav, R S

2010-01-01

188

Cervical acid phosphatase detection: A guide to abnormal cells in cytology smear screening for cervical cancer  

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Full Text Available Background: Cervical acid phosphatase-Papanicolaou (CAP-PAP test has recently been described for detection of acid phosphatase enzyme in abnormal squamous cells, and has been proposed as a biomarker-based technology for the screening of cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: Eighty-one consecutive cervical smears were subjected to routine Papanicolaou (Pap staining as well as CAP-PAP, which combined cytochemical staining for acid phosphatase with modified Pap stain. Statistical evaluation of its utility was examined. Results: Of 81 smears, 16 (19.75% showed the presence of mature squamous cells with acid phosphatase by CAP-PAP technique and were considered positive. Of these 16, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS or above were initially diagnosed in five of the corresponding routine Pap smears. After re-evaluation with CAP-PAP, eight of the routine Pap smears were considered to have ASCUS or above. Of these eight, three were reported as low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and five as ASCUS on conventional Pap smears. The remaining 8/16 CAP-PAP-positive cases were negative for atypical squamous cells on the corresponding Pap smears. None of the CAP-PAP-negative smears were positive on routine Pap smear screening. Conclusions: This study highlights the efficacy of CAP-PAP in quality assurance of cervical smear screening. It is also an inexpensive method for segregating smears for subsequent re-screening. In the absence of trained cytologists in peripheral laboratories, this technique can be adopted for identifying smears that would require proper evaluation.

Deb Prabal

2008-01-01

189

An epidemiological survey on bovine and ovine babesiosis in Kurdistan Province, western Iran.  

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The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the Babesia infection in domestic animals in Kurdistan Province of Iran for the first time. In this survey, 9,111 domestic livestock, including cattle and sheep, were randomly sampled and examined from 500 flocks in Kurdistan Province from July 2007 to September 2009. Thin peripheral blood smears were taken and then stained by Giemsa staining method. From a total of 9,111 collected samples, 2,642 were sheep and 6,469 were cattle. Babesia spp. is detected in 1,359 (51.4%) out of sheep samples and 136 (2.1%) out of cattle samples by direct examination of blood smear. Altogether, the prevalence rate of Babesia infection was 16.4% (n = 1,495) in both animal groups. Babesia ovis and Babesia bigemina were the most prevalent species found in sheep and cattle, respectively. The relatively high prevalence of Babesia infection in livestock indicates the epizootic stability status of babesiosis in the western part of Iran. PMID:22109588

Fakhar, Mahdi; Hajihasani, Atta; Maroufi, Shilan; Alizadeh, Houjjat; Shirzad, Hossein; Piri, Faranak; Pagheh, Abdol Sattar

2012-02-01

190

Scattering theory using smeared non-Hermitian potentials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Local non-Hermitian potentials V(x)?V*(x) can, sometimes, generate stable bound states ?(x) at real energies. Unfortunately, the idea [based on the use of a non-Dirac ad hoc metric ?(x,x')??(x-x') in Hilbert space] cannot directly be transferred to scattering due to the related loss of the asymptotic observability of x[cf. H. F. Jones, Phys. Rev. D 78, 065032 (2008)]. We argue that for smeared (typically, nonlocal or momentum-dependent) potentials V?V† this difficulty may be circumvented. A return to the usual (i.e., causal and unitary) quantum scattering scenario is then illustrated via an exactly solvable multiple-scattering example. In it, the anomalous loss of observability of the coordinate remains restricted to a small vicinity of the scattering centers.

191

Pap smears for men: a vision of the future?  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) rarely receives as much publicity as its neighbouring orifice, the cervix. As in the cervix, intraepithelial neoplasias are precursors to cancer in the anal canal. AIN and cervical interstitial neoplasia (CIN) undergo dysplasia as a consequence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Since the advent of screening with the Pap smear in CIN, cervical cancer has plummeted to a fifth of its initial incidence. Anal cancer, however, has been rising, with a predilection for human immunodeficiency virus-infected men. HPV causes a squamous epithelial dysplasia and converts healthy tissue into AINs of increasing severity until anal cancer manifests. CLINICAL CASE: This article describes a clinical case of anogenital HPV infection refractory to medical and surgical therapy. It also describes an effective surgical excision technique associated with a good cosmetic outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The paper concludes by briefly discussing the implications of a national screening programme against AIN in the future.

Oon, S F

2012-02-01

192

A review of post-trachelectomy isthmic and vaginal smear cytology.  

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Currently in the UK cervical cancer has a peak incidence in women aged 35-39. Fertility-conserving surgical treatment by radical trachelectomy is established in the management of early disease. This study aimed at establishing the value of cytology in follow-up after trachelectomy. The cytological features of isthmic-vaginal smears post-trachelectomy for cervical cancer are presented together with a discussion of relevant clinical issues. One hundred and ninety seven smears from 32 women were reviewed. Two of the 32 patients developed pelvic recurrences. In both cases recurrence was detected cytologically long before development of a clinical or radiological abnormality. There is, however, a potential for overcall due to the presence of endometrial cells. These were present in large numbers and varying configurations in 58% of smears and led to a false positive report of malignancy in 2% of smears. The rate of referral for a cytologist opinion was significantly higher in smears containing endometrial cells (26%) than those without (13%). While all smears contained squamous cells, 41% contained squamous cells only and it is proposed that such smears should be reported as unsatisfactory in the first 2 years after surgery and negative thereafter, although the absence of glandular cells should be recorded. When an abnormality is reported, smear review and multidisciplinary discussion may avoid unnecessary investigations. PMID:15056170

Singh, N; Titmuss, E; Chin Aleong, J; Sheaff, M T; Curran, G; Jacobs, I J; Shepherd, J H

2004-04-01

193

Papanicolaou Smear Screening of Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Taiwan  

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Although little is known about the incidence of cervical cancer in women with intellectual disabilities (ID), Pap smear screening is an effective public health program to prevent cervical cancer to this group of people. The purposes of this study were to identify and evaluate the factors regarding the utilization of the Pap smears in women with ID…

Lin, Lan-Ping; Lin, Jin-Ding; Sung, Chang-Lin; Liu, Ta-Wen; Liu, Yi-Lian; Chen, Li-Mei; Chu, Cordia M.

2010-01-01

194

Unusual fungal bodies in conventional cervical smears: Report of nine cases.  

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Candida spp have often been reported in cervical cytology, other fungal organisms are very rare in modern literature. We report nine cases of conventional cervical smears showing Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Cladosporium spp in healthy imunocompetent females. Penicillium spp seen in four out of nine smears, Cladosporium spp alone in three out of nine smears, and Cladosporium spp along with Aspergillus spp in two out of nine smears. A detail of these nine cases is presented with discussion on importance of these structures when observed in conventional cervical smears. Awareness of such contaminants is important to differentiate from true infection for relevant therapeutic implications. A systematic step-wise approach to such structures is also suggested. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2015;43:234-237. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24962022

Jain, Gaurav; Singh, Meeta; Singhla, Anshuja; Das, Abhijit; Gupta, Srishti; Singh, Sompal; Jain, Sanjay; Pant, Leela

2015-03-01

195

Hematology and serum biochemistry of captive gharial (Gavialis gangeticus in India  

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Full Text Available Aim: To study the hematological and serum biochemical parameters of the critically endangered gharial (Gavialis gangeticus. Materials and Methods: Blood samples for hemato-biochemical analyses were collected from the ventral median coccygeal vein of six juvenile and six sub adult gharials of Dewari Gharial Rearing Centre of National Chambal Sanctuary, Madhya Pradesh, India. Hematological examination was performed manually. Differential leukocyte count was performed on the blood smears stained with Giemsa’s stain. The analysis of serum was conducted by eppendorf ECOM-F 6124 semi auto biochemical analyzer using standard ERBA biochemical reagent kits. Results: Peripheral blood cells of gharial showed erythrocytes with an oval outline and centrally located prominent round to oval nucleus. Erythrocyte count in sub adult gharials was significantly greater than juveniles. Whereas erythrocyte mean corpuscular volume and erythrocyte size in juveniles was significantly larger than sub adults. The average most abundant leukocyte type in gharial was lymphocytes (53%, followed by heterophils (27%, eosinophils (10%, monocytes (7% and basophils (3%. Aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, blood urea nitrogen, triglycerides and albumin concentrations in sub adult gharials were significantly higher than juveniles. No significant differences were determined in other hemato-biochemical parameters between juvenile and sub adult gharials under study. Conclusion: A preliminary database on hematology and blood biochemistry of gharial was established. The data will be useful in routine health evaluations, especially in relation to determining potential effects associated with factors such as pollution and infectious diseases.

Shahnaz Amin

2014-10-01

196

Detection by the polymerase chain reaction of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in tissues of persistently infected sheep.  

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To investigate the reservoir tissues of the tick-borne bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum in persistently infected sheep, six 6-month-old lambs were infected with a field isolate of the bacterium and maintained under tick-free conditions. At one and two weeks post-infection, A. phagocytophilum was detected in the peripheral blood of all lambs by examining May-Grünwald Giemsa-stained blood smears for classical intra-neutrophil inclusions, and by an A. phagocytophilum-specific nested PCR. After euthanasia at 3 months post-inoculation, peripheral blood and numerous tissue samples were collected from each lamb. DNA extracted from these samples was then subjected to PCR. All blood samples were PCR-negative but three lambs had PCR-positive tissues including intestinal wall and lymph nodes, thymus, bone marrow, kidney and bladder wall. The widespread nature of PCR-positive tissues suggested that circulatory cells may form the reservoir cells for A. phagocytophilum infection in carrier sheep, rather than lymphoid tissues as in rodents. PCR-positive tissue and blood samples were strikingly fewer in the experimentally infected sheep than reported earlier in tick-exposed carrier sheep under field conditions. It seems possible that tick infestation amplifies A. phagocytophilum infections in carrier sheep to a degree that enables tick transmission to occur. PMID:16330039

Stuen, S; Casey, A N J; Woldehiwet, Z; French, N P; Ogden, N H

2006-01-01

197

Interpretation of automated blood cell counts  

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Full Text Available Complete blood count (CBC tests are rapid, inexpensiveand universally available, and often aid primary clinicianswith decision making about patients with severaldisorders. Thus the rapid availability of the results of CBCcould provide considerable advantage for both patientsand clinicians. Furthermore, physicians can also avoidunnecessary peripheral blood smear examination usingCBC parameters. Many hematology analyzers, which enabledus simultaneously, measure several different CBCparameters, are available for early diagnosis. Herein theimpact of both pre and post analytic variations on the interpretationof the CBC results with case reports are reviewedin the light of the latest literature.Key words: Complete blood count, interpretation

Zühre Kaya

2013-09-01

198

PROFILE OF CERVICAL SMEAR CYTOLOGY IN WOMEN ATTENDING HEALTH CENTER IN RURAL AREA OF WESTERN MAHARASHTRA  

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Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer caused by infection with a sexually transmitted agent human papillomavirus (HPV, can be readily prevented by identifying and treating women with HPV-induced precancerous lesions of the cervix.Objective: To study the profile of cervical smear cytology in rural women in western Maharashtra.Methods: The study was designed to look at the previous reports of the Pap smear present at the health center Pravaranagar in rural area of Western Maharashtra. The reports of 186 smears were analyzed.Results: Maximum numbers of the women (70.43% were less than 40 years of age.  Majority of the women were from lower socio-economic status. There were 29.03 % Pap smears, negative for intraepithelial lesion. Intraepithelial neoplasia of various grade and invasive cervical carcinoma were diagnosed in some cases. Other infections were also detected on Pap smear like bacterial vaginosis, candidial infection and trichomonas vaginalis infestation. Conclusion: An Awareness and education program needs to be implemented to target women about cervical cancer and Pap smear screening. The goal of any screening programme should be to pick up majority of the precursor lesions and not frank cancers; it is desirable to initiate Pap smear screening in women from lower socio-economic status before the 40 years of age.

Jayant D Deshpande

2012-04-01

199

Sensitivity of a papanicolaou smear in the diagnosis of candida albicans infection of the cervix  

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Full Text Available Background: Candida albicans infections of the cervix are not adequately diagnosed in Papanicolaou smears when compared with culture in Sabouraud dextrose agar. Methods: Cervical smears were collected from 1000, non-pregnant, asymptomatic women. The specimens were prepared using the Papanicolaou (Pap smear method examined by microscopy and subsequently cultured in Sabouraud dextrose agar. Results: The overall incidences of C. albicans in cervical smears cultured in Sabouraud dextrose agar was 30.10%, while the incidence in the Pap smears was 7.60%, making the sensitivity of Pap smears for the diagnosis of C. albicans to be 25.25%. Mild, and some moderate, infections detectable in Sabouraud dextrose agar could not be detected in the Pap smear specimens. Vulnerability to C. albicans infection decreased with age, the highest infection rate being between 20 and 39 years of age while the least was between 60 and 69 years of age. Papanicolaou’s method stained the nuclei, chromatin and nucleoli very well and enhanced differentiation between malignant and non-malignant cells. It also stained the cytoplasm and its contents such as keratin, vacuoles and granules and differentiated between acidophilic and basophilic materials. Non-cellular substances such as fibrin, crystals and pigments were also stained using this method. In addition, Papanicolaou’s method also stained some fungal and bacterial species, but did not provide differential staining characteristics seen in Gram staining technique. Conclusions: Papanicolaou stain should not be used as an alternative to culture in the diagnosis of Candida albicans.

Avwioro Og

2010-02-01

200

Sensitivity of a papanicolaou smear in the diagnosis of candida albicans infection of the cervix  

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Background: Candida albicans infections of the cervix are not adequately diagnosed in Papanicolaou smears when compared with culture in Sabouraud dextrose agar. Methods: Cervical smears were collected from 1000, non-pregnant, asymptomatic women. The specimens were prepared using the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear method examined by microscopy and subsequently cultured in Sabouraud dextrose agar. Results: The overall incidences of C. albicans in cervical smears cultured in Sabouraud dextrose agar was 30.10%, while the incidence in the Pap smears was 7.60%, making the sensitivity of Pap smears for the diagnosis of C. albicans to be 25.25%. Mild, and some moderate, infections detectable in Sabouraud dextrose agar could not be detected in the Pap smear specimens. Vulnerability to C. albicans infection decreased with age, the highest infection rate being between 20 and 39 years of age while the least was between 60 and 69 years of age. Papanicolaou's method stained the nuclei, chromatin and nucleoli very well and enhanced differentiation between malignant and non-malignant cells. It also stained the cytoplasm and its contents such as keratin, vacuoles and granules and differentiated between acidophilic and basophilic materials. Non-cellular substances such as fibrin, crystals and pigments were also stained using this method. In addition, Papanicolaou's method also stained some fungal and bacterial species, but did not provide differential staining characteristics seen in Gram staining technique. Conclusions: Papanicolaou stain should not be used as an alternative to culture in the diagnosis of Candida albicans. PMID:22624121

Og, Avwioro; Oe, Olabiyi; To, Avwioro

2010-01-01

201

Comparison of amrad ICT test with microscopic examination for rapid diagnosis of malaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To assess the sensitivity and specificity of an alternate and easy technique to diagnose malaria. Design: A prospective study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of pathology, DHQ Hospital, Timergara District, Dir, North-west Frontier Province of Pakistan, from 19th September to 5th October 2000. Subjects and Methods: Smear positive 50 patients (27 males and 23 females, age ranging 2 years to 70 years) were included. Thick and thin smears were stained with Giemsa's stain and examined by the principal author. The ICT malaria test was performed according to the instruction sheet of the manufacturer. Results: on microscopy there were 29 cases of Plasmodium falciparum (P.f) and 21 of Plasmodiium vivax (P.v.). On ICT malaria P.f/P.v, there were 29 samples positive for P. Falciparum and 17 for P. vivax. These results demonstrated that the ICT malaria P.f/P.v test had sensitivity of 100% for P. falciparum and 81% for P. vivax and specificity of 100% for both, when compared to traditional blood films for the detection of P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria. Conclusion: The ICT malaria P.f/P.v test is an effective tool for the rapid diagnosis of malaria and may be used as a first line diagnostic tool. (author)

202

Novel chromatin texture features for the classification of pap smears  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a set of novel structural texture features for quantifying nuclear chromatin patterns in cells on a conventional Pap smear. The features are derived from an initial segmentation of the chromatin into bloblike texture primitives. The results of a comprehensive feature selection experiment, including the set of proposed structural texture features and a range of different cytology features drawn from the literature, show that two of the four top ranking features are structural texture features. They also show that a combination of structural and conventional features yields a classification performance of 0.954±0.019 (AUC±SE) for the discrimination of normal (NILM) and abnormal (LSIL and HSIL) slides. The results of a second classification experiment, using only normal-appearing cells from both normal and abnormal slides, demonstrates that a single structural texture feature measuring chromatin margination yields a classification performance of 0.815±0.019. Overall the results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed structural approach and that it is possible to detect malignancy associated changes (MACs) in Papanicoloau stain.

Bejnordi, Babak E.; Moshavegh, Ramin; Sujathan, K.; Malm, Patrik; Bengtsson, Ewert; Mehnert, Andrew

2013-03-01

203

Resequencing microarray technology for genotyping human papillomavirus in cervical smears.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are more than 40 human papillomaviruses (HPVs) belonging to the alpha genus that cause sexually transmitted infections; these infections are among the most frequent and can lead to condylomas and anogenital intra-epithelial neoplasia. At least 18 of these viruses are causative agents of anogenital carcinomas. We evaluated the performance of a resequencing microarray for the detection and genotyping of alpha HPV of clinical significance using cloned HPV DNA. To reduce the number of HPV genotypes tiled on microarray, we used reconstructed ancestral sequences (RASs) as they are more closely related to the various genotypes than the current genotypes are among themselves. The performance of this approach was tested by genotyping with a set of 40 cervical smears already genotyped using the commercial PapilloCheck kit. The results of the two tests were concordant for 70% (28/40) of the samples and compatible for 30% (12/40). Our findings indicate that RASs were able to detect and identify one or several HPV in clinical samples. Associating RASs with homonym sequences improved the genotyping of HPV present in cases of multiple infection. In conclusion, we demonstrate the diagnostic potential of resequencing technology for genotyping of HPV, and illustrate its value both for epidemiological studies and for monitoring the distribution of HPV in the post-vaccination era. PMID:25383888

Berthet, Nicolas; Falguières, Michael; Filippone, Claudia; Bertolus, Chloé; Bole-Feysot, Christine; Brisse, Sylvain; Gessain, Antoine; Heard, Isabelle; Favre, Michel

2014-01-01

204

Tritium autoradiography of cell surfaces in smear preparations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments were performed in order to find out whether tritium-labeled cell surface markers can be quantified at the single cell level in autoradiographs of smear preparations. Mouse thymocytes were incubated with 3H-concanavalin A and subsequently spread on microscopic slides. The spreading techniques, either by cytocentrifugation or by the use of cover slips, were performed in such a way as to achieve preparations in which the mean flatness of the cells varied. By means of incident light microphotometry, the cellular areas and the grain counts of individual cells were determined. The results show a strong dependence of the mean grain yield per slide on the mean cellular area. Cytocentrifuge preparations resulted in larger mean cellular areas and higher mean grain counts than cover slip preparations. With the use of cytocentrifugation, however, the differences in the flatness of the cells were of such a magnitude that a reproducible quantification of 3H-labeled cell surface markers was not possible. Conventional techniques of spreading cells on slides failed to provide a degree of flatness that could approach the saturation grain count per cell without completely destroying the cellular morphology

205

Tritium autoradiography of cell surfaces in smear preparations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experiments were performed in order to find out whether tritium-labeled cell surface markers can be quantified at the single cell level in autoradiographs of smear preparations. Mouse thymocytes were incubated with /sup 3/H-concanavalin A and subsequently spread on microscopic slides. The spreading techniques, either by cytocentrifugation or by the use of cover slips, were performed in such a way as to achieve preparations in which the mean flatness of the cells varied. By means of incident light microphotometry, the cellular areas and the grain counts of individual cells were determined. The results show a strong dependence of the mean grain yield per slide on the mean cellular area. Cytocentrifuge preparations resulted in larger mean cellular areas and higher mean grain counts than cover slip preparations. With the use of cytocentrifugation, however, the differences in the flatness of the cells were of such a magnitude that a reproducible quantification of /sup 3/H-labeled cell surface markers was not possible. Conventional techniques of spreading cells on slides failed to provide a degree of flatness that could approach the saturation grain count per cell without completely destroying the cellular morphology.

Doermer, P.; Jaeger, G.

1983-06-01

206

Assessment of smear layer removal protocols in curved root canals.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study sought to assess if the final rinse protocol interferes with the smear layer removal in the apical area of curved canals. Sixty-four extracted human mandibular molars with curved mesial roots were instrumented with rotary files and divided into six experimental groups for final rinse: 1EDTA (syringe irrigation with 1?mL of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)?), 5EDTA (syringe irrigation with 5?mL of 17% EDTA), 1EDTA-P (syringe irrigation with 1?mL of 17% EDTA?+?pumping with gutta-percha point), 5EDTA-P (syringe irrigation with 5?mL of 17% EDTA?+?pumping with gutta-percha point), 1EDTA-EA (syringe irrigation with 1?mL of 17% EDTA?+?EndoActivator) and 5EDTA-EA (syringe irrigation with 5?mL of 17% EDTA?+?EndoActivator). Final rinsing was carried out over 3?min. The specimens were split lengthwise and observed under a scanning electron microscope using a score criterion. Comparison among the groups showed statistically significant difference only between the 5EDTA-EA group and the other groups (Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's post-hoc tests, P?root canals more effectively than the other protocols used. PMID:25244220

Yeung, William; Raldi, Denise Pontes; Cunha, Rodrigo Sanches; Mello, Isabel

2014-08-01

207

Pattern of epithelial cell abnormality in Pap smear: A clinicopathological and demographic correlation  

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Full Text Available Background: In the low resource settings of a developing country, a conventional Papanicolaou (Pap test is the mainstay screening system for cervical cancer. In order to counsel women and to organize a public health system for cervical cancer screening by Pap smear examination, it is imperative to know the pattern of premalignant and malignant lesions. This study was undertaken to find out the prevalence of an abnormal Pap smear, in a tertiary hospital of a developing country, and to carry out a clinicopathological and demographical analysis for establishing the pattern of epithelial cell abnormality in a Pap smear. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in a total of 1699 patients who underwent Pap smear examination. The prevalence of epithelial cell abnormality in the Pap smear was calculated in proportions / percentages. Specimen adequacy and reporting was assessed according to the revised Bethesda system. Results: Among the total of 1699 patients who had their Pap smear done, 139 (8.18% revealed epithelial cell abnormality. Altogether 26 smears revealed high-grade lesions and malignancy, most of which were found to be in women belonging to the 30 - 39 and ? 45 age group. A total of 75 (53.96% women were in the 20 - 44 age group and 64 (46.04% were in the ? 45 age group. A bimodal age distribution was detected in the epithelial cell abnormality, with the bulk being diagnosed in patients aged 45 or above. Overall one-third of the patients with an abnormal Pap smear result showed healthy cervix in per vaginal examination. Conclusions: A raised prevalence of epithelial cell abnormality reflects the lack of awareness about cervical cancer screening. Women aged 45 or above harbor the bulk of premalignant and malignant lesions in the Pap smear, signifying that these women are among the under users of cytological screening.

Banik Urmila

2011-01-01

208

Diagnosing sputum/smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis: Does fibre-optic bronchoscopy play a significant role?  

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Full Text Available Background : Diagnosis of sputum/smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis patients can be both challenging and time consuming with many patients being put on empirical anti-tubercular treatment. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy may provide a confirmative and early diagnosis in such patients. Aims: To assess the role of fibreoptic bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of sputum /smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 75 suspected sputum / smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis cases attending Pulmonary Medicine Department of Mamata Medical College and Hospital, Khammam, AP. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy was performed; culture of sputum and bronchial washings for Mycobacterium tuberculosis was done by BACTEC method. Results: A final diagnosis of sputum /smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis was made in 60 patients. Bronchial washings smear for acid-fast bacilli (AFB was positive in 21 patients while culture of bronchial washings was positive in 39 patients. In 29 patients, smear or culture of bronchial washing alone contributed to the final diagnosis. Total yield of bronchoscopy in diagnosis of sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis was 83.33% (50/60; bronchoscopy was the only diagnostic method in 66% cases (40/60 with bronchial washings being the only diagnostic method in 48.33%. Bronchial washings smear for AFB and histopathological evidence of caseating granuloma made immediate diagnosis possible in 48.33% (29/60 patients. Conclusion: Our study suggests that fibreoptic bronchoscopy can provide excellent material for diagnosis of suspected cases of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in whom smears of expectorated sputum do not reveal mycobacteria.

Bachh Arshad

2010-01-01

209

Smears and cultures for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in an asymptomatic immigrant population  

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Full Text Available Roberto Assael, Joaquin Cervantes, Gerardo Barrera Clinica Medica Internacional, Ciudad Juarez, Mexico Background: The World Health Organization estimated in 2010 that 8.8 million new tuberculosis (TB cases. About one-third of the world's population is infected and 10% will develop active TB disease. While cultures remain the international gold standard for diagnosing TB disease, in many other low-income countries, sputum smears remain the only and most accessible tool with which to diagnose active TB disease. As a consequence, in patients with TB who have negative smears, their TB remains undetected. Aim: The objective of the study reported here was to demonstrate the proportion of smear-positive/culture-positive cases compared with smear-negative/culture-positive TB cases in Mexican immigrants bound for the USA. Methods: A retrospective study was undertaken of the medical records of 122 active TB cases diagnosed at a clinic in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, from 2009 to 2012. All cases were confirmed by culture, regardless of the sputum smear results. Results: Of the cases, 80% (97 active TB cases had negative sputum smears, while only 25 cases (20% had at least one positive smear. All of the cultures were confirmed as positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Conclusion: The fact that 80% of the TB cases were smear negative and 20% smear positive shows that there is a clear gap between the actual state of active TB disease within patients under screening conditions, meaning that eight out of ten actual cases are being missed when sputum smear is the only diagnostic tool in asymptomatic patients with abnormal chest X-rays. Based on these results, it is highly recommended that countries that have not standardized culturing as the gold standard for the diagnosis of active TB do so, so that TB cases – which may endanger global public health – are not missed. It is also recommended that further studies be undertaken to determine the clinical background of the patients diagnosed by smear and culture to identify a direct relationship between clinical signs and symptoms and the smear result. Keywords: TB, screening, Mexico, mycobacteria growth indicator tube, Löwenstein–Jensen agar

Assael R

2013-09-01

210

Predicting results of mycobacterial culture on sputum smear reversion after anti-tuberculous treatment: a case control study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is currently known regarding sputum smear reversion (acid-fast smear becomes positive again after negative conversion during anti-tuberculous treatment. This study aimed to evaluate its occurrence in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB and identify factors predicting results of mycobacterial culture for smear-reversion of sputum samples. Methods The retrospective review was performed in a tertiary referral center and a local teaching hospital in Taiwan. From 2000 to 2007, patients with smear-positive culture-confirmed pulmonary TB experiencing smear reversion after 14 days of anti-tuberculous treatment were identified. Results The 739 patients with smear-positive pulmonary TB had 74 (10% episodes of sputum smear reversion that grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 22 (30% (Mtb group. The remaining 52 episodes of culture-negative sputum samples were classified as the non-Mtb group. The anti-tuberculous regimen was modified after confirming smear reversion in 15 (20%. Fourteen episodes in the Mtb group and 15 in the non-Mtb group occurred during hospitalization. All were admitted to the negative-pressure rooms at the time of smear reversion. Statistical analysis showed that any TB drug resistance, smear reversion within the first two months of treatment or before culture conversion, and the absence of radiographic improvement before smear reversion were associated with the Mtb group. None of the smear reversion was due to viable M. tuberculosis if none of the four factors were present. Conclusions Sputum smear reversion develops in 10% of patients with smear-positive pulmonary TB, with 30% due to viable M. tuberculosis bacilli. Isolation and regimen modification may not be necessary for all drug-susceptible patients who already have radiographic improvement and develop smear reversion after two months of treatment or after sputum culture conversion.

Lee Li-Na

2010-03-01

211

A Neural-Network-Based Approach to White Blood Cell Classification  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents a new white blood cell classification system for the recognition of five types of white blood cells. We propose a new segmentation algorithm for the segmentation of white blood cells from smear images. The core idea of the proposed segmentation algorithm is to find a discriminating region of white blood cells on the HSI color space. Pixels with color lying in the discriminating region described by an ellipsoidal region will be regarded as the nucleus and granule of cytopla...

Mu-Chun Su; Chun-Yen Cheng; Pa-Chun Wang

2014-01-01

212

An Audit of Sputum Smear Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis Cases in Kinta District, Perak, in 2011  

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Full Text Available 58 cases of sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PtB were reported to Kinta Health Department between January and June 2011. It was found that 47 cases (81% were sputum smear negative cases. six cases (10.3% were actually sputum smear positive but were wrongly reported as smear negative. Five cases (8.6% were misdiagnosed as tuberculosis. Majority of these patients (82.7% sought consultation and treatment after two weeks of having cough. only 6.9% sought treatment for cough that was less than two weeks old. Accurate diagnosis of PtB is crucial and the Perak state Health Department needs to quickly adopt steps to improve the situation.

Subashini A

2012-12-01

213

A note on smeared branes in flux vacua and gauged supergravity  

CERN Document Server

In the known examples of flux vacua with calibrated spacetime-filling sources (branes or orientifold planes), one can smear the source in order to perform a standard KK reduction and obtain a lower-dimensional supergravity description. Furthermore, it is expected that the smeared and localized solution preserve equal amounts of supersymmetry. In this note we point out that the AdS_7 solution discussed in arXiv:1111.2605 and arXiv:1309.2949 is a counterexample to this common lore. The solution is supersymmetric when the spacetime-filling D6-branes are localized but breaks supersymmetry in the smeared limit. By using the embedding tensor formalism we demonstrate that there is no gauged supergravity description for the solution, regardless of the source being smeared or not. We conjecture that for flux solutions with separation between the KK scale and the AdS radius this cannot occur.

Danielsson, U H; Fazzi, M; Van Riet, T

2013-01-01

214

Comparative evaluation of three and six month therapeutic regimens for smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis  

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Full Text Available Both smears positive and negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB patients are routinely treated by six month therapeutic regimen. The aim of this study was to compare three and six month regimens chemotherapy for smear negative PTB among tuberculosis patients. Fifty-two patients with smear negative PTB randomly divided into two groups took part in this comparative clinical trial study. The patients in first group were treated with our recommended regimen (rifampicin, isoniazide, and ofloxacin and another group with standard regimen according directly observed treatment short course strategy. Cure rates in first and second group were 96.5% and 100% respectively. There was no difference between two groups in responding to anti tuberculosis chemotherapy (p>0.05. This study showed that three month therapeutic regimen is as effective as six month therapeutic regimen and may be considered effective treatment for adult patients with unprogressive smear negative PTB.

Seyed Mohammad Alavi

2009-01-01

215

An evaluation of smear layer with various desensitizing agents after tooth preparation.  

Science.gov (United States)

According to hydrodynamics, any agent blocking the dentinal tubules reduces the flow of fluids and diminishes hypersensitivity. The properties of the desensitizing agents that sponsor tubular occlusion and the barrier efficiency resulting from the interaction of the smear layer with test materials were examined with the scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis. Selected dentinal desensitizing was accomplished with burnishing procedures, cavity varnish, calcium hydroxide, and topical fluoride. Subjective evaluations were also recorded clinically after tooth preparation. This investigation indicated that the smear layer did not protect against zinc phosphate cement, and that cavity varnish prevented the formation of the smear plugs. The smear layer and plugs were basically composed of calcium and phosphorus, the major ingredients of dentin. PMID:1432760

Zaimoglu, A; Aydin, A K

1992-09-01

216

Cervical cancer: developments in screening and evaluation of the abnormal Pap smear.  

OpenAIRE

Of the more than 50 million Pap smears performed annually in the United States, about 5% of them are abnormal. Although the need for treatment of high-grade lesions is clear, the appropriate management of low-grade lesions remains controversial. New methods of screening for cervical cancer have become available, including testing for the human papilloma virus and improved methods of administering and evaluating the Pap smear. This review addresses new developments in cervical cancer screening...

Walsh, J. M.

1998-01-01

217

Improved cervical smear assessment using antibodies against proteins that regulate DNA replication  

OpenAIRE

Carcinoma of the cervix is one of the most common malignancies. Papanicolaou (Pap) smear tests have reduced mortality by up to 70%. Nevertheless their interpretation is notoriously difficult with high false-negative rates and frequently fatal consequences. We have addressed this problem by using affinity-purified antibodies against human proteins that regulate DNA replication, namely Cdc6 and Mcm5. These antibodies were applied to sections and smears of normal and diseased uterine cervix by u...

Williams, Gareth H.; Romanowski, Piotr; Morris, Lesley; Madine, Mark; Mills, Anthony D.; Stoeber, Kai; Marr, Jackie; Laskey, Ronald A.; Coleman, Nicholas

1998-01-01

218

Proof-of-concept evaluation of an automated sputum smear microscopy system for tuberculosis diagnosis  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: ‘‘TBDx’’ is an innovative smear microscopy system that automatically loads slides onto a microscope, focuses and digitally captures images and then classifies smears as positive or negative using computerised algorithms. OBJECTIVES: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of TBDx, using culture as the gold standard, and compare this to a microscopist’s diagnostic performance. METHODS: This study is nested within a cross-sectional study of tuberculosis suspects f...

Lewis, James J.; Chihota, Violet N.; Meulen, Minty; Fourie, P. Bernard; Fielding, Katherine L.; Grant, Alison D.; Dorman, Susan E.; Churchyard, Gavin J.

2012-01-01

219

A note on Rome-Southampton Renormalization with Smeared Gauge Fields  

OpenAIRE

We have calculated continuum limit step scaling functions of bilinear and four-fermion operators renormalized in a Rome-Southampton scheme using various smearing prescriptions for the gauge field. Also, for the first time, we have calculated non-perturbative anomalous dimensions of operators renormalized in a Rome-Southampton scheme. The effect of such smearing first enters connected fermionic correlation functions via radiative corrections. We use off-shell renormalisation ...

Arthur, R.; Boyle, P. A.; Hashimoto, S.; Hudspith, R.

2013-01-01

220

Knowledge Attitudes and Practice about Pap Smear among Women Reffering to A Public Hospital  

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Full Text Available Objective: The Pap smear is a reliable, inexpensive and effective screening test for cervical cancer; the second most common cancer among women worldwide. We aimed to determine women’s knowledge, attitudes and practice towards Pap smear and barriers for the screening in a public hospital.Materials and methods: This study, was carried out on 350 outpatient married women reffering for a visit at the clinics of the Alzahra educational hospital, Rasht- Iran, 2011. A questionnaire including demographic characteristics (24 questions, knowledge (14 questions, attitudes (11 statments and practice (10 questions towards Pap smear was completed by interview with the women. The data were analyzed using SPSS ver.13.Results: Mean age of participants was 32 (SD 12 years. Of the respondents, only 44.3% were aware of the Pap smear and 27.1% had had it at least once in their life. The most common reason for having the test was physicians’ or other health workers’ advise and for not having the test was no recommendation by health providers and lack of knowledge about Pap smear. Embarrassing, fear of the test result or economic problems mentioned by only 12 (4.2% as the main barrier. Mean (±SD knowledge score of the women who had heard about the Pap smear was 59.4 (24.3 and attitudes score of all participants was 48.5 (11.6 from possible range score of 0-100. Women with a history of Pap smear had had higher awareness and attitudes score.Conclusion: The knowledge and practice of the women was inadequate and need to be promoted. Considering the main reason mentioned by the participants for not having the test, all health providers should educate and encourage women to do regular Pap smear.

Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh- Charandabi

2012-12-01

221

DNA Extracted from Stained Sputum Smears Can Be Used in the MTBDRplus Assay?  

OpenAIRE

We examined the feasibility of using DNA extracted from stained sputum smears for the detection of rifampin and isoniazid resistance with the commercial MTBDRplus assay from Hain Lifescience GmbH, Nehren, Germany. Overall sensitivity was initially low (70.0%) but increased to 96.7% when a multiplex PCR preamplification step was added. We then tested stored Mycobacterium tuberculosis-positive stained smears prepared from 297 patients' sputum samples. Species identification and drug susceptibil...

Dubois Cauwelaert, Natasha; Ramarokoto, Herimanana; Ravololonandriana, Pascaline; Richard, Vincent; Rasolofo, Voahangy

2011-01-01

222

Smear positive extra pulmonary tuberculosis disease at University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background While pulmonary tuberculosis is the most common presentation, extra pulmonary tuberculosis is also an important clinical problem. However, no adequate information had been made available on the prevalence of smear positive extra pulmonary tuberculosis in Gondar. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and possible risk factors of smear positive extra pulmonary tuberculosis among suspected patients at University of Gondar Hospital. Methods A cross-sectional study...

Zenebe Yohannes; Anagaw Belay; Tesfay Wogahta; Debebe Tewodros; Gelaw Baye

2013-01-01

223

Pattern of epithelial cell abnormality in Pap smear: A clinicopathological and demographic correlation  

OpenAIRE

Background: In the low resource settings of a developing country, a conventional Papanicolaou (Pap) test is the mainstay screening system for cervical cancer. In order to counsel women and to organize a public health system for cervical cancer screening by Pap smear examination, it is imperative to know the pattern of premalignant and malignant lesions. This study was undertaken to find out the prevalence of an abnormal Pap smear, in a tertiary hospital of a developing country, and to carry o...

Banik Urmila; Bhattacharjee Pradip; Ahamad Shahab; Rahman Zillur

2011-01-01

224

Cervical cancer screening with pattern of Pap smear. Review of multicenter studies.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES To estimate the frequency of abnormal cervical smears and to compare the findings with earlier reported data from Saudi Arabia. METHODS The study was divided into 2 parts. The prospective part was conducted at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital and a private laboratory by using the Bethesda System criteria and diagnostic entities in evaluating all the pap smears that were received during the period of January 2000 to December 2004. All reliable published literature on pap...

Altaf, Fadwa J.

2007-01-01

225

An In Vitro SEM Study on the Effectiveness of Smear Layer Removal of Four Different Irrigations  

OpenAIRE

Introduction The aim of this study was to compare the smear layer removal efficacies of 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 17% Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), SmearClear and BioPure MTAD using a common irrigation protocol. Materials and Methods: Fifty freshly extracted human single rooted maxillary and mandibular teeth were prepared by a ProTaper rotary system up to an apical preparation file size F3. Prepared teeth were randomly divided into five groups (n=10); distilled water (Group A;...

ASHOK KUMAR; SYED MUKHTAR -UN-NISAR ANDRABI; Rajendra, K.; TEWARI; Surrendra, K.; MISHRA; HUMA IFTEKHAR

2012-01-01

226

SEM Analysis of MTAD Efficacy for Smear Layer Removal from Periodontally Affected Root Surfaces  

OpenAIRE

Objective: Biopure® MTAD (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, USA) has been developed as a final irrigant following root canal shaping to remove intracanal smear layer. Many of the unique properties of MTAD potentially transfer to the conditioning process of tooth roots during periodontal therapy. The aim of this ex vivo studywas to evaluate the effect of MTAD on the removal of smear layer from root surfaces.Materials and Methods: Thirty two longitudinally sectioned specimens from 16 freshly extracted te...

Tabor, R. K.; Dummer, P. M. H.; Gholamii, Gh A.; Mh, Nekoofar; Ghandi, M.; Houshmand, B.

2011-01-01

227

Evaluation of sputum smears concentrated by cytocentrifugation for detection of acid-fast bacilli.  

OpenAIRE

Early identification and isolation of tuberculosis patients is of utmost importance to minimize the risk of further epidemic spread of the disease. The traditional concentrated acid-fast smears are not very reliable tools for the presumptive diagnosis of tuberculosis. Acid-fast bacillus (AFB) smears from 120 patients specimens and 80 simulated AFB samples were processed according to standard laboratory procedures and by cytocentrifugation (Cyto-Tek, Ames Division, Miles Laboratories, Inc., El...

Saceanu, C. A.; Pfeiffer, N. C.; Mclean, T.

1993-01-01

228

Preconditioning Maximal Center Gauge with Stout Link Smearing in SU(3)  

CERN Document Server

Center vortices are studied in SU(3) gauge theory using Maximal Center Gauge (MCG) fixing. Stout link smearing and over-improved stout link smearing are used to construct a preconditioning gauge field transformation, applied to the original gauge field before fixing to MCG. We find that preconditioning successfully achieves higher gauge fixing maxima. We observe a reduction in the number of identified vortices when preconditioning is used, and also a reduction in the vortex-only string tension.

Cais, Alan Ó; Langfeld, Kurt; Lasscock, Ben; Leinweber, Derek; Moran, Peter; Sternbeck, Andre; von Smekal, Lorenz

2008-01-01

229

Hematozoa of forest birds in American Samoa - Evidence for a diverse, indigenous parasite fauna from the South Pacific  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduced avian diseases pose a significant threat to forest birds on isolated island archipelagos, especially where most passerines are endemic and many groups of blood-sucking arthropods are either absent or only recently introduced. We conducted a blood parasite survey of forest birds from the main islands of American Samoa to obtain baseline information about the identity, distribution and prevalence of hematozoan parasites in this island group. We examined Giemsa-stained blood smears from 857 individual birds representing 20 species on Tutuila, Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u islands. Four hematozoan parasites were identified - Plasmodium circumflexum (1%, 12/857), Trypanosoma avium (4%, 32/857), microfilaria (9%, 76/857), and an Atoxoplasma sp. (South Pacific, it is likely that avian malaria and other hematozoan parasites are indigenous and widespread at least as far as the central South Pacific. Their natural occurrence may provide some immunological protection to indigenous birds in the event that other closely related parasites are accidentally introduced to the region.

Atkinson, C.T.; Utzurrum, R.C.; Seamon, J.O.; Savage, Amy F.; Lapointe, D.A.

2006-01-01

230

Intravascular hemolysis associated with Candidatus Mycoplasma hematoparvum in a non-splenectomized dog in the south region of Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 2-year-old male Pekingese dog was referred to Shiraz University's Veterinary Teaching Hospital for anorexia and depression. The case had no history of surgery. Physical examination revealed no abnormalities except mild depression and fever. Small, coccoid, epicellular bacteria were detected on erythrocytes by microscopic examination of the Giemsa-stained blood smears. Abnormalities noted in the complete blood count included regenerative anemia characterized by a marked reticulocytosis. Examination of the plasma showed visual evidence of slight intra vascular hemolysis. In addition, Howell-Jolly bodies, nucleated RBCs, increased immature neutrophils and thrombocytosis were found in this case. The urine was strongly positive for bilirubin, and the urine sediment had abundant bilirubin crystals. For polymerase chain reaction (PCR) purpose, total DNA was extracted from blood sample collected from dog. PCR was positive and phylogenetic analysis of concatenated data showed our isolate clustered within Candidatus Mycoplasma hematoparvum group. Treatment was performed by oral ciprofloxacin and prednisolone. The clinical signs improved after three days. Two month follow-up showed no recurrence. In conclusion, hemoplasmosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis in dogs with hemolytic process and pyrexia. The PCR evaluation for hemoplasma DNA should be included in the investigation of such cases to enable the rapid detection of this infection, which may be more common than previously estimated. Besides, ciprofloxacin might have an effect on treatment of hemoplasma in dogs, however, conducting further case studies are necessary to recommend successful treatment. PMID:25568726

Sharifiyazdi, Hassan; Abbaszadeh Hasiri, Mohammad; Amini, Amin Hosein

2014-01-01

231

Colposcopic evaluation of cervix with persistent inflammatory Pap smear: A prospective analytical study  

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Full Text Available Background: Inflammatory Pap smear is the most common report received by a gynecologist. The cervical screening algorithm for benign cellular changes on the Pap smear recommends treatment of infection if indicated and a repeat Pap smear in 4 to 6 months time. If the inflammatory changes still persist, subject the patient to colposcopy. However, in practice, this is not followed, especially in developing countries like ours where proper screening protocols are not available. Hence, a good number of patients in the premalignant stage are being missed. This study was undertaken to evaluate patients with persistent inflammatory Pap smears without atypia using colposcopy. Methods: A prospective analytical study of 150 gynecologial patients with persistent inflammatory Pap smear between 2006 and 2008 in an out-patient setting. All of them were subjected to colposcopy and biopsy from the abnormal areas. The incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN/invasive carcinoma was calculated by proportions/percentages. Results: The incidence of invasive carcinoma was <1%. But, the incidence of pre-malignant lesions (CIN was high (20.9%. CIN 2/3 and carcinoma in situ were present in 6.9% of the cases. Conclusions: Patients with persistent inflammatory Pap smears can harbour a high proportion of CIN and hence these patients will need further evaluation.

Dasari Papa

2010-01-01

232

Agreement Between Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid and Papanicolaous Smear as Screening Methods for Cervical Cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To determine degree of agreement between visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and Papanicolaous (Pap) smear as screening methods for cervical cancer. Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Lahore, from July to December 2012. Methodology: Two hundred and fifty women in reproductive age group presenting with various gynaecological complaints were included in the study. A Papanicolaous smear was taken and visual inspection with 5% acetic acid was done. VIA was reported as positive or negative according to acetowhite changes and cytology result was graded as CIN 1, 2, 3 and squamous carcinoma. Those women who showed positive result with either VIA or Pap smear or both were further subjected to colposcopic directed biopsy which was taken as gold standard. Results were computed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16 and statistical test used was kappa. Results: Out of 250 women, VIA was positive in 55 (22%) patients and Pap smear was abnormal in 27 (10.8%). Histological diagnosis of CIN/cancer was made in 36 out of a total 62 patients who underwent biopsy. Conclusion: There was a fair agreement between VIA and Pap smear, with VIA detecting more abnormalities than cytology. In the absence of Pap smear availability, VIA may be a reasonable cervical cancer screening method, especially in low resource settings. (author)

233

Incidence of cytological abnormalities within 24 months of a normal cervical smear in Soweto, South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A screening programme for cervical cancer has been implemented in South Africa (SA) with intervals of 10 years after a normal cytological result. There are no studies that evaluate repeat screening at a shorter interval in SA. OBJECTIVES: (i) To find the incidence of cytological abnormal [...] ities on a repeat test after a report of normal cytology or an inadequate Pap smear; and (ii) to explore the factors associated with an abnormal cytology on repeat testing. METHODS: This was a secondary data analysis of a randomised controlled trial of diaphragm, lubricant gel and condoms v. condoms in the prevention of HIV infection. HIV-negative women were recruited between November 2003 and December 2005, with a normal Pap smear at entry. Observation time was from the first Pap smear to the date of the repeat Pap smear. Explanatory variables used were baseline, excepting any new HIV infection. RESULTS: The incidence of cytological abnormalities was 6.48% yearly in women with a previously normal Pap smear and 11.71% yearly in women with an inadequate smear result (p=0.03). The incidence of high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (HSILs) was

Y, Adam; J A, McIntyre; G, de Bruyn.

2013-01-01

234

An In Vitro SEM Study on the Effectiveness of Smear Layer Removal of Four Different Irrigations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this study was to compare the smear layer removal efficacies of 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, 17% Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA, SmearClear and BioPure MTAD using a common irrigation protocol. Materials and Methods: Fifty freshly extracted human single rooted maxillary and mandibular teeth were prepared by a ProTaper rotary system up to an apical preparation file size F3. Prepared teeth were randomly divided into five groups (n=10; distilled water (Group A; negative control, EDTA (Group B, SmearClear (Group C, BioPure MTAD (Group D and NaOCl (Group E. After final irrigation with tested irrigants the teeth were decoronated, split into two halves longitudinally and observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM for removal of the smear layer. The SEM images were then analyzed for the amount of smear layer present using a three score system. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Intergroup comparison of groups B, C, and D showed no statistical significant differences in the coronal and middle thirds, however, in the apical third the canal surfaces were cleaner in samples from group D (P<0.05. Conclusion: BioPure MTAD was the most effective agent for the purpose of smear layer removal in the apical third of the root canals.

ASHOK KUMAR

2012-10-01

235

Quality Control of Sputum Smears Examination by Re-Reading in a Tuberculosis Screening  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nBackground: Sputum smear examination is the basis of diagnosis of tuberculosis and quality control for the correct diagno­sis of tuberculosis is necessary. This study was a method survey and performed with 930 smears with the aim to compare the confidence rate of sputum smear examination reported by one laboratory technician with the findings reported by two techni­cians in a tuberculosis screening program."nMethods: In this method survey study in Qaemshahr, smears collected from one laboratory were sent to another laboratory for re-examination and duplicate reading and the findings were subsequently compared. Cultures were used as a standard con­trol test."nResults: Comparison showed that the rate of agreement between positive and negative findings of both laboratories was %73.8 and %99.3, respectively. First laboratory reading and its culture results were similar in 89% of cases. There was no sig­nifi­cant decrease in the frequency of false negative results of smears which were read twice as compared to those which had been read once only."nConclusion: The current method of screening patients suspected with tuberculosis, in which all sputum smears are read by a sin­gle technician, is accepted as an accurate and reliable method for the diagnosis of tuberculosis.

F Majlessi

2008-12-01

236

Comparison of visual inspection of cervix and pap smear for cervical cancer screening  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the performance of visual inspection of cervix (VIA) after application of 3% acetic acid in cervical cancer screening in comparison with PAP smear. Results: Out of 540 subjects, 356 were negative with both screening techniques. One hundred and fifty-six subjects were positive with VIA (28.9%) while PAP smear was positive in seventy-eight subjects (14.4%). The sensitivity of VIA was 93.9% and of PAP smear was 46.9%. Corresponding specificities were 30.4% and 69.5%. There was no significant difference between the positive predictive value (PPV) of both test (p<0.05). The accuracy of VIA was 77.5% compared to 52.8% of PAP smear. The difference was highly significant (p < 0.01). Conclusion: These results indicate that VIA is more sensitive and has a higher accuracy as compared to PAP smear. It could, therefore, be valuable in detection of precancerous lesions of cervix. Low cost, easy applicability and immediate results make VIA a useful screening test in developing countries like Pakistan as compared to PAP smear. (author)

237

Cytological analysis of equine bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Part 2: Comparison of smear and cytocentrifuged preparations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to develop a diagnostically useful smear method for preparation of equine bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) for use by practitioners. A smear method for equine BALF preparation which included the addition of serum was developed, and cell morphology, differential cell counts (DCC) and repeatability of counting DCC compared with those of cytocentrifuged BALF preparations. BALF samples (n = 21) were collected from 5 control horses and 5 heaves-susceptible horses. Smear preparations of BALF produced smaller, darker, staining cells, making cytological identification more difficult than on cytocentrifuged preparations. There was a significantly higher (P<0.01) macrophage DCC and lower lymphocyte DCC on cytocentrifuged compared to smear preparations. Mast cell and eosinophil DCC were significantly higher (P<0.05) on cytocentrifuged compared to smear preparations of BALF. Smear preparations were shown to be reliable for the cytological diagnosis of equine neutrophilic pulmonary disease and offer practitioners an alternative to sending equine BALF to a laboratory for processing and cytological analysis. PMID:12108750

Pickles, K; Pirie, R S; Rhind, S; Dixon, P M; McGorum, B C

2002-05-01

238

Effects of different irrigation solutions on root dentine microhardness, smear layer removal and erosion.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to compare the effects of different irrigants on root dentine microhardness, erosion and smear layer removal. A total of 72 root dentine slices were divided into six groups, according to the final irrigants used: Group 1: 17% ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) + 2.5% NaOCl, Group 2: 7% maleic acid (MA) + 2.5% sodium hypochloride (NaOCl), Group 3: 1.3% NaOCl + mixture of tetracycline, acid and detergent (MTAD), Group 4: Smear Clear + 2.5% NaOCl, Group 5: 5% NaOCl, Group 6: saline. Vickers microhardness values were measured before and after treatment. In total, 42 root-halves were prepared for scanning electron microscope to evaluate the amount of smear and erosion in the coronal, middle and apical thirds. Data were analysed using two-way anova, Duncan and two-proportion z-tests. Maleic acid showed the greatest reduction in dentine microhardness (P MTAD. EDTA, maleic acid, MTAD and Smear Clear removed smear layer efficiently in the coronal and middle thirds of root canal. However, in the apical region, maleic acid showed more efficient removal of the smear layer than the other irrigants (P < 0.05). PMID:23890262

Ulusoy, Özgür ? A; Görgül, Güliz

2013-08-01

239

Blood culture  

Science.gov (United States)

Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed. The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

240

Blood Transfusion  

Science.gov (United States)

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Blood Transfusion? A blood transfusion is a safe, common ... Very rarely, serious problems develop. Important Information About Blood The heart pumps blood through a network of ...

241

Blood Thinners  

Science.gov (United States)

If you have some kinds of heart or blood vessel disease, or if you have poor blood flow to your brain, your doctor may recommend that you take a blood thinner. Blood thinners reduce the risk of heart ...

242

Blood differential  

Science.gov (United States)

Differential; White blood cell differential count ... The health care provider will take blood from your vein. The blood collects into an airtight container. In infants or a young child, blood will be taken from a ...

243

Histomorphometric study on blood cells in male adult ostrich  

OpenAIRE

In order to perform a histomorphometric study of blood cells in male adult ostrich, blood samples were obtained from jugular vein of 10 clinically healthy male adult ostriches (2 - 3 years old). The slides were stained with the Giemsa methods and the smears were evaluated for cellular morphology, with cellular size being determined by micrometry. The findings of this study revealed that the shape of the cell, cytoplasm and nucleus of erythrocytes in male adult ostriches were similar to those ...

Mina Tadjalli; Saeed Nazifi; Behrokh Marzban Abbasabadi; Banafsheh Majidi

2013-01-01

244

Decline in overall, smear-negative and HIV-positive TB incidence while smear-positive incidence stays stable in Guinea-Bissau 2004-2011  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: To calculate Tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates in Guinea-Bissau over an 8-year period. METHODS: Since 2003, a surveillance system has registered all TB cases in six suburban districts of Bissau. In this population-based prospective follow-up study, 1205 cases of pulmonary TB were identified between January 2004 and December 2011. Incidence rates were calculated using census data from the Bandim Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). RESULTS: The overall incidence of pulmonary TB was 279 per 100 000 person-years of observation; the male incidence being 385, and the female 191. TB incidence rates increased significantly with age in both sexes, regardless of smear or HIV status. Despite a peak with unknown cause of 352 per 100 000 in 2007, the overall incidence of pulmonary TB declined over the period. The incidence of HIV infected TB cases declined significantly from 108 to 39 per 100 000, while the incidence of smear-positive TB cases remained stable; the overall figure was 188 per 100000. CONCLUSIONS: Overall incidence of pulmonary TB in Guinea-Bissau has declined from 2004 to 2011. The decline was also seen in the subgroups of smear-negative and HIV-positive TB cases, probably due to antiretroviral treatment. Smear-positive TB incidence remains stable over the period.

Lemvik, G; Rudolf, F

2014-01-01

245

A Comparison of Three Pap Smear Collection Methods  

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Full Text Available Background and Aim: Pap smear test is considered the best screening method for cervical disease, especially for malignant lesions. The crucial factor here is obtaining high-quality samples, as poorly-prepared ones cause a great deal of confusion for patients and physicians alike. Attempts to define an ideal sampling technique have been going on for many years, and in this study we compare three different sampling methods to determine which one provides the best quality. Materials and Methods: This interventional study was performed in a private obstetrics-gynecology clinic and involved 600 women who met the criteria for cervical screening. The Pap test was done by three different methods: "Swab spatula", "Cytobrush – spatula" and "Spatula only". Results: Each method was performed on 200 randomly-selected patients. Cytopathologic examination was done by a single pathologist and in a blind fashion. For each specimen, a quality rating was reported as "satisfactory" or "unsatisfactory". Among the 200 samples obtained by the "Swabspatula” method, 150 (75% were of satisfactory quality and the remaining 50 cases (25% were rated as unsatisfactory. As for the cytobrush–spatula group, 88 samples (94% were satisfactory and 12 (6% were unsatisfactory. Finally, 179 samples (88% in “Spatula-only” group were satisfactory and 24 (12% were unsatisfactory. The difference in the proportion of good-quality samples was significant in pairwise comparisons between the three methods: swab-spatula versus spatula-only (P = 0.0013, swab-spatula versus cytobrush-spatula (P = 0.0001 and cytobrush-spatula versus spatula-only (P = 0.036. Conclusion: The study revealed that the cytobrush-spatula sampling method yielded the highest proportion of high-quality samples. Hence, it would be desirable to familiarize physicians, midwives and other health care workers in this country with the technique of cytobrush cervical sampling and its potential advantages. However, financial and cultural aspects must be taken into account before adopting the procedure for routine cervical screening in Iran.

A Mesdaghinia

2006-07-01

246

Effect of the smear layer on salivary bacterial leakage in endodontically treated teeth  

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Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: The success of endodontic treatment depends on the method and quality of cleaning, disinfection and three-dimensional sealing of the root canal. The smear layer can play an important role in the success or failure of endodontic treatment. There is controversy over the presence or removal of the smear layer in relation to the success or failure of endodontic treatment. This study used standard methods of endodontic treatment and whole human saliva to evaluate the effect of the smear layer on salivary bacterial leakage in endodontically treated teeth.Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 48 human single- and multiple-rooted teeth were randomly divided into two experimental groups of 20 and two negative and positive control groups of 4 teeth. After access cavity preparation the root canals were prepared with crown-down technique and irrigated with 10 mL of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution. The canals in one group were irrigated with 17% EDTA and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite to remove the smear layer and in the other only with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite to leave the smear layer in place. Then the teeth were sterilized by autoclave and obturated with gutta-percha sterilized with ethylene oxide and Tubliseal sealer under aseptic conditions. Two mL of human saliva were collected from two persons and injected into the coronal portion of the samples, which was repeated for four months. Leakage of the samples was examined twice daily. Data was analyzed with chi-squared test at a confidence interval of 95%. Results: Presence or absence of the smear layer had no significant effect on salivary bacterial leakage of different root canals filled with gutta-percha and Tubliseal sealer (p value = 0.515, although the number of cases with contamination and leakage of saliva in the group with the smear layer (55% was more than that in the group without the smear layer (44%.Conclusion: The results showed no significant effect of the smear layer on coronal leakage of human saliva into obturated canals. Key words: Bacterial microleakage, Root canal therapy, Saliva, Smear layer, Tooth.

Abasali Khademi, ,

2012-01-01

247

An ELISA method for quantitation of Pneumocystis carinii in culture and lung.  

Science.gov (United States)

Numbers of Pneumocystis carinii in cultures or tissues traditionally have been determined by counting organisms on Giemsa-stained slides. For cultures, 10 microliters of culture supernatants have been sampled and counted on days 1, 3, 5 and 7. Infectivity scores of P. carinii-infected animal lung have been determined by three examiners scoring lung impression smears stained with Giemsa using a roughly logarithmic scale. Both counting procedures are tedious and time consuming. We have developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system which uses culture supernatants (in vitro) or homogenized animal lung (in vivo) as antigen, convalescent rat sera as primary antibody, and goat anti-rat alkaline phosphatase-conjugated immunoglobulin G as secondary antibody. The ELISA method shows good correlation with manual counts of Giemsa stains and allows a more rapid, more efficient method for quantitating P. carinii in both culture and infected lung. PMID:1818173

Durkin, M M; Bartlett, M S; Queener, S F; Shaw, M M; Lee, C H; Smith, J W

1991-01-01

248

Born approximation model for light scattering by red blood cells  

OpenAIRE

The primary role of a red blood cell (RBC) is delivering oxygen throughout our body. Abnormalities of this basic function lead to anemia and are caused by numerous diseases such as malaria and sickle cell anemia. As prompt and inexpensive tests for blood screening are in demand, we have developed a faster and reliable way to measure morphological parameters associated with the structure of red blood cells and the size distribution of the cells in a whole blood smear. Modeling the RBC shape un...

Lim, Joonoh; Ding, Huafeng; Mir, Mustafa; Zhu, Ruoyu; Tangella, Krishnarao; Popescu, Gabriel

2011-01-01

249

Now ICT malaria Pf/Pv® frente a microscopía (gota gruesa- extendido) para diagnóstico de malaria en Urabá (Colombia) / Now ICT malaria Pf/Pv ® versus microscopy (thick-smear, thin smear) for diagnosis of malaria in Urabá (Colombia)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Problema: solo conocemos tres informes para Colombia de la prueba diagnóstica de malaria Now ICT Malaria Pf/ Pv ® (NowICT); esos estudios tuvieron resultados de sensibilidad y especificidad muy diferentes. Objetivo: evaluar la capacidad diagnóstica de NowICT frente a la gota gruesa para el diagnósti [...] co de infección plasmodial en sangres periférica materna, del cordón umbilical y placentaria. Metodología: diseño paralelo y enmascarado para evaluación de una prueba diagnóstica. El tamaño de la muestra se calculó con parámetros epidemiológicos y estadísticos y fue de 131 muestras de sangre periférica materna; también se examinaron sendas muestras de sangre placentaria y de cordón umbilical. Resultados: se evaluaron en total 386 muestras. La sensibilidad de NowICT para P. vivax no alcanzó 70% en ninguna de las fuentes (madre, placenta, cordón). La especificidad mínima fue de 99% . Los valores para P. falciparum no se calcularon porque los casos fueron pocos. Conclusión: Now ICT malaria Pf/ Pv® no es una herramienta diagnóstica útil en Colombia porque su sensibilidad para P. vivax es muy deficiente y en el país esta especie es la que predomina en la generación de malaria en humanos. Esta interpretación concuerda con las conclusiones generales de la OMS sobre el estado de desarrollo de las pruebas diagnósticas rápidas para malaria. Abstract in english Problem: To date, there are only three reports from Colombia about the malaria diagnostic test Now ICT Malaria Pf / Pv ® (NowICT). The results from these studies showed major differences in sensitivity and specificity Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of NowICT compared to thick smea [...] r for the diagnosis of Plasmodium infection in matched blood samples from mothers (maternal peripheral blood), umbilical cord and placenta. Methods: We used a closed (blinded/ masked) and parallel design for the evaluation of a diagnostic test. The sample size was calculated with statistical and epidemiological parameters; this consisted of 131 thick smears from maternal peripheral blood. Blood samples from placenta and umbilical cord were also studied (386 samples tested in total). Results: The sensitivity of Now ICT for detection of P. vivax was below 70% in any of the samples (maternal blood, placental blood or cord blood). The specificity was greater than 99% . Values for P. falciparum infection were not calculated since too few cases were detected. Conclusions: Now ICT Malaria Pf / Pv ® is not a useful diagnostic tool in Colombia since the sensitivity for the most frequent species in the country, P. vivax, is poor. This interpretation is consistent with the WHO's general conclusions about the state of development of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria.

Jaime, Carmona- Fonseca; Alexander, Franco Gallego; Eliana, Arango Flórez; Olga María, Agudelo García; Amanda, Maestre Buitrago.

2010-06-01

250

Tuberculosis recurrence in smear-positive patients cured under DOTS in southern Ethiopia: retrospective cohort study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Decentralization of DOTS has increased the number of cured smear-positive tuberculosis (TB patients. However, the rate of recurrence has increased mainly due to HIV infection. Recurrence rate could be taken as an important measure of long-term success of TB treatment. We aimed to find out the rate of recurrence in smear-positive patients cured under DOTS in southern Ethiopia. Methods We did a retrospective cohort study on cured smear-positive TB patients who were treated from 1998 to 2006. Recurrence of smear-positive TB was used as an outcome measure. Person-years of observation (PYO were calculated per 100 PYO from the date of cure to date of interview. Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression methods were used to determine the survival and the hazard ratio (HR. Results 368 cured smear-positive TB patients which were followed for 1463 person-years. Of these, 187 patients (50.8% were men, 277 patients (75.5% were married, 157 (44.2% were illiterate, and 152 patients (41.3% were farmers. 15 of 368 smear-positive patients had recurrence. The rate of recurrence was 1 per 100 PYO (0.01 per annum. Recurrence was not associated with age, sex, occupation, marital status and level of education. Conclusion High recurrence rate occurred among smear-positive patients cured under DOTS. Further studies are required to identify factors contributing to high recurrence rates to improve disease free survival of TB patients after treatment.

Datiko Daniel G

2009-09-01

251

Molecular detection and treatment of tick-borne pathogens in domestic dogs in Khon Kaen, northeastern Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

We determined the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in domestic dogs using microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. A total of 303 EDTA blood samples were collected from domestic dogs in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand, in May 2013. Microscopic observation of Giemsa-stained smears and molecular diagnosis using conventional PCR were performed. Infected dogs were treated with imidocarb dipropionate, a combination of imidocarb dipropionate and doxycycline, or doxycycline alone. Seventy-one (23.4%) out of 303 dogs were positive for DNA of tick-borne pathogens. Of the 303 animals, 13.2% and 1.3% were positive for a single infection with Babesia spp or Ehrlichia canis, respec- tively using microscopy; whereas 19.5% and 3.0% were positive using the PCR technique. Co-infection with Babesia spp and E. canis was observed in 0.7%, and coinfection with Hepatozoon canis and E. canis in 0.3%. Infected dogs were treated with the assigned drugs, and elimination of the pathogens was demonstrated by microscopy and PCR. The results indicated that while both microscopic and PCR diagnostic techniques were useful for tick-borne pathogen detection, PCR was more effective. Imidocarb dipropionate and doxycycline were found to be effective for treatment of babesiosis and ehrlichiosis, respectively. The present study suggests that the PCR technique has high sensitivity and specificity for Babesia and Ehrlichia diagnosis as well as for detection of Babesia spp, E. canis and H. canis DNA in EDTA blood specimens. PMID:25507247

Laummaunwai, Porntip; Sriraj, Pranee; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Boonmars, Thidarut; Boonjaraspinyo, Sirintip; Sangmaneedet, Somboon; Potchimplee, Prapasara; Khianman, Parin; Maleewong, Wanchai

2014-09-01

252

Evaluation of DNA Recombinant Methodologies for the Diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum and their Comparison with the Microscopy Assay  

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Full Text Available Since 1984, DNA tests based on the highly repeated subtelomeric sequences of Plasmodium falciparum (rep 20 have been frequently used in malaria diagnosis. Rep 20 is very specific for this parasite, and is made of 21 bp units, organized in repeated blocks with direct and inverted orientation. Based in this particular organization, we selected a unique consensus oligonucleotide (pf-21 to drive a PCR reaction coupled to hybridization to non-radioactive labeled probes. The pf-21 unique oligo PCR (pf-21-I assay produced DNA amplification fingerprints when was applied on purified P. falciparum DNA samples (Brazil and Colombia, as well as in patient's blood samples from a large area of Venezuela. The performance of the Pf-21-I assay was compared against Giemsa stained thick blood smears from samples collected at a malaria endemic area of the Bolívar State, Venezuela, at the field station of Malariología in Tumeremo. Coupled to non-radioactive hybridization the pf-21-I performed better than the traditional microscopic method with a r=1.7:1. In the case of mixed infections the r value of P. falciparum detection increased to 2.5:1. The increased diagnostic sensitivity of the test produced with this homologous oligonucleotide could provide an alternative to the epidemiological diagnosis of P. falciparum being currently used in Venezuela endemic areas, where low parasitemia levels and asymptomatic malaria are frequent. In addition, the DNA fingerprint could be tested in molecular population studies

L Urdaneta

1998-09-01

253

Evaluation of DNA Recombinant Methodologies for the Diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum and their Comparison with the Microscopy Assay  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Since 1984, DNA tests based on the highly repeated subtelomeric sequences of Plasmodium falciparum (rep 20) have been frequently used in malaria diagnosis. Rep 20 is very specific for this parasite, and is made of 21 bp units, organized in repeated blocks with direct and inverted orientation. Based [...] in this particular organization, we selected a unique consensus oligonucleotide (pf-21) to drive a PCR reaction coupled to hybridization to non-radioactive labeled probes. The pf-21 unique oligo PCR (pf-21-I) assay produced DNA amplification fingerprints when was applied on purified P. falciparum DNA samples (Brazil and Colombia), as well as in patient's blood samples from a large area of Venezuela. The performance of the Pf-21-I assay was compared against Giemsa stained thick blood smears from samples collected at a malaria endemic area of the Bolívar State, Venezuela, at the field station of Malariología in Tumeremo. Coupled to non-radioactive hybridization the pf-21-I performed better than the traditional microscopic method with a r=1.7:1. In the case of mixed infections the r value of P. falciparum detection increased to 2.5:1. The increased diagnostic sensitivity of the test produced with this homologous oligonucleotide could provide an alternative to the epidemiological diagnosis of P. falciparum being currently used in Venezuela endemic areas, where low parasitemia levels and asymptomatic malaria are frequent. In addition, the DNA fingerprint could be tested in molecular population studies

L, Urdaneta; P, Guevara; JL, Ramirez.

1998-09-01

254

Babesia infection in naturally exposed pet dogs from a north-eastern state (Assam) of India: detection by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the study was to detect Babesia infections in pet dogs of a north-eastern state of India. The diagnostic efficacy of Babesia infection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique has been compared with microscopy examination. For this, a total of 111 blood samples of pet dogs presented at clinical complex of the College of Veterinary Science, Guwahati, Assam with clinical signs suspected for Babesia infection subjected to the study. A total of 44 (39.63 %) dogs were diagnosed as positive for Babesia infections after microscopic examination. Among these, Babesia canis infection was diagnosed in 5 dogs (4.50 %) and B. gibsoni infection in 39 (35.13 %) dogs microscopically in Giemsa stained blood smears. Molecular diagnosis using PCR detected 63 (56.75 %) dogs positive for Babesia infection. Single infection with B. canis was found in 9 (8.10 %) dogs while B. gibsoni alone was detected in 3 (2.70 %) dogs. Mixed infections by both these species were detected in 51 (45.94 %) dogs. Overall, PCR detected 54 (48.64 %) dogs as B. gibsoni and 60 (54.05 %) dogs as B. canis positive. PMID:25320489

Laha, R; Bhattacharjee, K; Sarmah, P C; Das, M; Goswami, A; Sarma, D; Sen, A

2014-12-01

255

Improved cervical smear assessment using antibodies against proteins that regulate DNA replication.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carcinoma of the cervix is one of the most common malignancies. Papanicolaou (Pap) smear tests have reduced mortality by up to 70%. Nevertheless their interpretation is notoriously difficult with high false-negative rates and frequently fatal consequences. We have addressed this problem by using affinity-purified antibodies against human proteins that regulate DNA replication, namely Cdc6 and Mcm5. These antibodies were applied to sections and smears of normal and diseased uterine cervix by using immunoperoxidase or immunofluorescence to detect abnormal precursor malignant cells. Antibodies against Cdc6 and Mcm5 stain abnormal cells in cervical smears and sections with remarkably high specificity and sensitivity. Proliferation markers Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen are much less effective. The majority of abnormal precursor malignant cells are stained in both low-grade and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. Immunostaining of cervical smears can be combined with the conventional Pap stain so that all the morphological information from the conventional method is conserved. Thus antibodies against proteins that regulate DNA replication can reduce the high false-negative rate of the Pap smear test and may facilitate mass automated screening. PMID:9843993

Williams, G H; Romanowski, P; Morris, L; Madine, M; Mills, A D; Stoeber, K; Marr, J; Laskey, R A; Coleman, N

1998-12-01

256

SEM Analysis of MTAD Efficacy for Smear Layer Removal from Periodontally Affected Root Surfaces  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective Biopure® MTAD (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, USA) has been developed as a final irrigant following root canal shaping to remove intracanal smear layer. Many of the unique properties of MTAD potentially transfer to the conditioning process of tooth roots during periodontal therapy. The aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate the effect of MTAD on the removal of smear layer from root surfaces. Materials and Methods Thirty two longitudinally sectioned specimens from 16 freshly extracted teeth diagnosed with advanced periodontal disease were divided into four groups. In group 1 and 2, the root surfaces were scaled using Gracey curettes. In group 3 and 4, 0.5 mm of the root surface was removed using a fissure bur. The specimens in group 1 and 3 were then irrigated by normal saline. The specimens in groups 2 and 4 were irrigated with Biopure MTAD. All specimens were prepared for SEM and scored according to the presence of smear layer. Results MTAD significantly increased (P=0.001) the smear layer removal in both groups 2 and 4 compared to the associated control groups, in which only saline was used. Conclusion MTAD increased the removal of the smear layer from periodontally affected root surfaces. Use of MTAD as a periodontal conditioner may be suggested. PMID:22509454

Houshmand, B.; Ghandi, M.; Nekoofar, MH.; Gholamii, Gh. A.; Tabor, R. K.; Dummer, P. M. H.

2011-01-01

257

Improving follow-up after an abnormal Pap smear: a randomized controlled trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

Less than 60% of women diagnosed with cervical abnormalities on Pap smears return for proper surveillance and timely treatment. Previous tactics used to motivate these women to return have mainly relied on costly intensive recall efforts. Using a framework based on psychological value expectancy theory, a pamphlet was designed to motivate women with abnormal Pap smears to return for a repeat Pap smear. The effect of this pamphlet was tested in a randomized controlled trial. A total of 161 women with abnormal Pap smears were randomized and received either the pamphlet plus a notification letter or the letter only. The compliance rate was 64.2% in the intervention group and 51.3% in the comparison group (P = 0.10; two-tailed). In addition, subgroups of women who do not practice health-related behaviors were identified as groups where more intensive interventions may be needed. These results have implications for future strategies used to recall women with abnormal Pap smears. PMID:2263574

Paskett, E D; White, E; Carter, W B; Chu, J

1990-11-01

258

Pap smears of patients with extramammary Paget's disease of the vulva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) of the vulva is a rare entity. The diagnosis is almost always made on biopsy. Tumor cells are seen rarely in Papanicolaou (Pap) smears. We encountered three cases of EMPD that were detected in Pap smears. One patient had vulvar and vaginal involvement and the abnormal cells seen in the vaginal smear initially were interpreted as high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. Retrospective review showed scattered single atypical cells with enlarged hyperchromatic nuclei, coarse chromatin, inconspicuous nucleoli, high nuclear/cytoplasmic (N:C) ratio, and scanty basophilic cytoplasm. Rare signet ring cells and cells within cells were present. In the other two patients who had cervical involvement, the correct diagnosis was made on Pap smears. The slides showed both single and cohesive sheets of glandular cells with enlarged round to oval nuclei, coarse chromatin, prominent nucleoli, and abundant basophilic cytoplasm containing prominent vacuoles with signet ring-cell appearance. Cells within cells were abundant. EMPD has distinct cytomorphological features. Although infrequently encountered, EMPD can be diagnosed on Pap smears with adequate clinical history. PMID:15880697

Gu, Mai; Ghafari, Sophie; Lin, Fritz

2005-06-01

259

The Effect of Smear Layer on Apical Seal of Endodontically Treated Teeth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of smear layer on apical seal of endodontically treated teeth. Methods: Sixty extracted single–rooted human teeth were randomly divided into two experimental groups (n=25 and two control groups (n=5. The teeth were instrumented with K–type files to size 40 and then flared. Apical patency was ensured in all teeth. 5% sodium hypochlorite and 17% Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid was used as irrigants to remove the smear layer in the second experimental group. The experimental groups were obturated by laterally condensed gutta – percha with Roth 801 sealer. The positive control group was obturated with gutta – percha without sealer. The root surfaces were then coated with nail polish and sticky wax except for the apex in the experimental groups and positive control group. The roots were completely covered in the negative control group. The samples were then immersed in India ink for 1 week at 37°C. Results: The statistical analysis of the results showed that the apical leakage was significantly increased in obturated canals with smear layer. Conclusion: The removal of smear layer might improve the long term apical seal and success of endodontically treated teeth. Keywords: Apical Seal, EDTA, Removal, Sodium Hypochlorite, Smear Layer.

A Farhad

2004-06-01

260

(AH-26,ROTH- 801, PURE ZOE PASTE IN PRESENCE OR ABSENCE OF SMEAR LAYER  

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Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to assess the sealing ability of three sealers (AH-26,Roth-801, Pure ZOE paste using bacterial penetration method in static salivary system in the presence or absence of smear layer. Methods. The canals in 188 human extracted teeth were prepared and in half of the samples the smear layer was removed using EOTA- Naclo. Then, the samples were divided randomly and each experimental group was obturated with single cone gutta percha and of the mentioned sealers. Then the teeth were set up on vials which contained sterilled TSB cultural media. For 90 days the samples were exposed to artificial saliva bacterial suspension and the turbidity of the cultural media was checked twice a day. Results. The longest mean period of turbidity was seen in AH-26 smear layer absent group (59.21 days and the shortest mean period of turbidity was seen in pure ZOE paste smear layer present group (18.35 days. Discussion. The results of this study shows that removal of smear layer enhances the sealing sealers and AH-26 has the best sealing ability amongst the three sealers considered in this experiment.

A.R FARHAD

2002-09-01

261

SEM Analysis of MTAD Efficacy for Smear Layer Removal from Periodontally Affected Root Surfaces  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Biopure® MTAD (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, USA has been developed as a final irrigant following root canal shaping to remove intracanal smear layer. Many of the unique properties of MTAD potentially transfer to the conditioning process of tooth roots during periodontal therapy. The aim of this ex vivo studywas to evaluate the effect of MTAD on the removal of smear layer from root surfaces.Materials and Methods: Thirty two longitudinally sectioned specimens from 16 freshly extracted teeth diagnosed with advanced periodontal disease were divided into four groups. In group 1 and 2, the root surfaces were scaled using Gracey curettes. In group 3 and 4, 0.5 mm of the root surface was removed using a fissure bur. The specimens in group 1 and 3 were then irrigated by normal saline. Thespecimens in groups 2 and 4 were irrigated with Biopure MTAD.All specimens were prepared for SEM and scored according to the presence of smear layer.Results: MTAD significantly increased (P=0.001 the smear layer removal in both groups 2 and 4 compared to the associated control groups, in which only saline was used.Conclusion: MTAD increased the removal of the smear layer from periodontally affected root surfaces. Use of MTAD as a periodontal conditioner may be suggested.

R. K. Tabor

2011-12-01

262

Activation of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid by a 940 nm diode laser for enhanced removal of smear layer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Laser enhancement of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid with cetrimide (EDTAC) has previously been shown to increase removal of smear layer, for middle-infrared erbium lasers. This study evaluated the efficiency of EDTAC activation using a near-infrared-pulsed 940?nm laser delivered by plain fibre tips into 15% EDTAC or 3% hydrogen peroxide. Root canals in 4 groups of 10 single roots were prepared using rotary files, with controls for the presence and absence of smear layer. After laser treatment (80?mJ?pulse(-1) , 50?Hz, 6 cycles of 10?s), roots were split and the apical, middle and coronal thirds of the canal were examined using scanning electron microscopy, with the area of dentine tubules determined by a validated quantitative image analysis method. Lasing EDTAC considerably improved smear layer removal, while lasing into peroxide gave minimal smear layer removal. The laser protocol used was more effective for smear layer removal than the 'gold standard' protocol using EDTAC with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). In addition, lasers may also provide a benefit through photothermal disinfection. Further research is needed to optimise irrigant activation protocols using near-infrared diode lasers of other wavelengths. PMID:25244221

Lagemann, Manfred; George, Roy; Chai, Lei; Walsh, Laurence J

2014-08-01

263

Influence of addition of plasmin or mastitic milk to cheesemilk on quality of smear-ripened cheese  

OpenAIRE

Smear-ripened cheese varieties are characterised by the growth of a smear culture, containing predominantly Brevibacterium linens, on the cheese surface during ripening. In such cheese, considerable zonal differences in biochemistry of ripening exist, due to moisture loss from, and growth and metabolic activity of smear microflora at, the cheese surface. In this study, the effects of adding exogenous plasmin or small amounts of mastitic milk to good quality milk on the quality of ...

O Farrell, Ian P.; Sheehan, Jeremiah J.; Wilkinson, Martin G.; Harrington, Dermot; Kelly, Alan L.

2002-01-01

264

Comparison of two methods used to prepare smears of mouse lung tissue for detection of Pneumocystis carinii.  

OpenAIRE

The laboratory diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in humans includes the identification of cysts in stained lung tissue impression smears. By using a mouse model, we compared the number of cysts in lung tissue impression smears with those contained in a concentrate of homogenized lung tissue. Eleven C3H/HEN mice developed P. carinii infection after corticosteroid injections, a low protein (8%) diet, and tetracycline administered in drinking water. Impression smears were prepared with...

Thomson, R. B.; Smith, T. F.; Wilson, W. R.

1982-01-01

265

32P plant injection and leaf smearing technique for root distribution studies of ragi (Eleusine coracana Gaertn)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

32P plant injection and leaf smearing techniques were compared for root distribution studies of ragi in solution culture. Specific activity (activity/mgP) was more or less constant in different root sections after 7 days of plant injection and leaf smearing. 32P activity was 2.8 and 0.82 percent after 7 days in plant injected and leaf smeared roots. 32P plant injection technique seems to be better than leaf smearing as there was very little activity in roots in the latter technique as compared to the former. (author)

266

Comparative study of shape, intensity and texture features and support vector machine for white blood cell classification  

OpenAIRE

The complete blood count (CBC) is widely used test for counting and categorizing various peripheral particles in the blood. The main goal of the paper is to count and classify white blood cells (leukocytes) in microscopic images into five major categories using features such as shape, intensity and texture features. The first critical step of counting and classification procedure involves segmentation of individual cells in cytological images of thin blood smears. The quality of segmentation ...

Mehdi Habibzadeh; Adam Krzy?ak; Thomas Fevens

2013-01-01

267

Evaluation of smear layer: a comparison of automated image analysis versus expert observers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Consistent and reproducible evaluation techniques of the smear layer in root canals in scanning electron microscopy studies are needed when comparing various instruments and techniques. In this study, the performance of 3 experienced blinded evaluators applying the Hulsmann technique was compared with a digital analysis method. Smear layer in the apical third of root canals of 35 freshly extracted teeth prepared by using nickel-titanium rotary instruments, Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG lasers was scored on coded images. There was good agreement between the digital analysis method and the different evaluators (kappa analysis) across the range of the Hulsmann scores. Image analysis might be useful for evaluating the degree of smear layer removal in endodontic research. PMID:18634934

George, Roy; Rutley, Edward B; Walsh, Laurence J

2008-08-01

268

Effect of F-File on removal of the smear layer: a scanning electron microscope study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of F-File with NaOCl on removal of the smear layer. A total of 48 single-rooted teeth were instrumented using crown-down technique with one of the irrigation agents: distilled water, 5.25% NaOCl, RC-Prep, Glyde, MTAD or F-File with NaOCl. The remaining smear layer was scored at cervical, middle and apical thirds of the roots with SEM. In all the canals of experimental groups the coronal sections were cleaner than the middle and apical sections except with distilled water (PMTAD (P0.05). The F-file failed to improve the effect of NaOCl in removing smear layer. PMID:21771185

Tunga, Umut; Parlak, Esra; Bodrumlu, Emre; Aydemir, Hikmet; Ye?ilsoy, Cemil

2011-08-01

269

Pilomyxoid astrocytoma of the pineal region: cytopathological features and differential diagnostic considerations by intraoperative smear preparation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a recently identified type of pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) with shorter progression-free and overall survival, higher rate of recurrence, and higher risk of leptomeningeal spread compared to pilocytic tumors (WHO grade 2 designation). A case is presented here in which intraoperative imprint smears of a pineal region tumor in a 14-year-old girl revealed cytologic monomorphism, elongated cells with bland nuclei embedded in a myxoid background. The tumor cells possessed uniformly round nuclei with a smooth nuclear outline, fine granular chromatin, and small nucleoli. Slender cytoplasmic fibrillary processes and angiocentric arrangement were observed but Rosenthal fibers or eosinophilic granular bodies were absent. A cytologic diagnosis of PMA of the pineal region was suggested by intraoperative smear preparation. Histology and immunohistochemical results confirmed the final diagnosis. This report shows that smear preparation can be trustworthy for the intraoperative diagnosis of PMA, helping to determine the appropriate neurosurgical procedure and therapeutic implications. PMID:24578310

Hayashi, Toshitetsu; Haba, Reiji; Kushida, Yoshio; Katsuki, Naomi; Shibuya, Shinsuke; Kadota, Kyuichi; Matsunaga, Toru; Miyake, Keisuke; Tamiya, Takashi

2015-02-01

270

Studies on Morphology and Cytochemistry in Blood Cells of Ayu Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis  

OpenAIRE

Peripheral blood cells from ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis, were separated using a density gradient. Blood cells were then smeared using Shandon Cytospin and subjected to cytochemical staining. Blood cells were categorized based on morphological and cytochemical characteristics, and the density fractionation range and nucleus area/cell area ratio were observed. Lymphocytes are distinguished from neutrophils by their basophilic cytoplasm and Golgi-like field. The featu...

Nakada, Kojin; Fujisawa, Kuniyasu; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Furusawa, Shuichi

2014-01-01

271

White Blood Cell Segmentation by Color-Space-Based K-Means Clustering  

OpenAIRE

White blood cell (WBC) segmentation, which is important for cytometry, is a challenging issue because of the morphological diversity of WBCs and the complex and uncertain background of blood smear images. This paper proposes a novel method for the nucleus and cytoplasm segmentation of WBCs for cytometry. A color adjustment step was also introduced before segmentation. Color space decomposition and k-means clustering were combined for segmentation. A database including 300 microscopic blood sm...

Congcong Zhang; Xiaoyan Xiao; Xiaomei Li; Ying-Jie Chen; Wu Zhen; Jun Chang; Chengyun Zheng; Zhi Liu

2014-01-01

272

HPV DNA and Pap smear test results in cases with and without cervical pathology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the HPV prevalance and its relation to Pap smear, colposcopy and colposcopy directed biopsy in our region of Eskisehir, Turkey.Material and Methods: A total of 615 women who applied to the outpatient clinic between December 2009 and December 2010 constituted our study population. All patients underwent pelvic examination and Pap smear sampling. Patients who had pathological cervical appearance or Pap smear results of ASCUS, AGUS, LSIL or HSIL were referred to colposcopy. Cervical samples for HPV DNA were taken from the patients before Pap smear sampling during the routine examination or before the colposcopic evaluation. Results: Twenty six of 615 patients (4% were HPV positive. Of these 26 patients, 12 were positive for HPV type 16, 3 for type 18, 3 for type 51, 2 for type 6, 1 for type 52, 1 for type 33, 1 for type 16 and type 31, 1 for type 6 and 52, 1 for type 56 and 90, 1 for type 39 and 66. In 4 patients with cervical cancer, and in 3 of 4 CIN III cases both HPV DNA and Pap smear were positive. In the Pap smear examination of 615 patients, cytology revealed 35 ASCUS (5.6% 4 AGUS (0.6%, 2 CIN I (0.3% results who were negative for HPV DNA. These patients with abnormal cytology (n=41 underwent colposcopy directed biopsy, there were 3 CIN I and 1 CIN III and all the other cervical biopsy results of these patients were benign (inflammation, chronic cervicitis. Conclusion: HPV positivity in our hospital setting is low which is compatible with other studies in Turkey. In positive HPV cases there is a good correlation between HPV type and positive cervical biopsy results.

Sabit Sinan Özalp

2012-03-01

273

Prevalence of abnormal Papanicolaou smears in female sex workers in Hong Kong.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE. To investigate the prevalence of pre-cancerous uterine cervix lesions as detected in Papanicolaou (Pap) smears from female sex workers in Hong Kong. DESIGN. Retrospective analysis of laboratory records. SETTING. Private anatomical pathology laboratory, Hong Kong. PATIENTS. Female sex workers undergoing Pap smear examinations at two non-governmental organisations between 2006 and 2012. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES. Detection of pre-cancerous uterine cervical conditions and their management. RESULTS. A total of 2697 satisfactory Pap smears from female sex workers were performed during the study period from 2006 to 2012. In these subjects, the point prevalence of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and atypical squamous cells of unknown significance was 10.12% (compared with 3.92% for the general population during the same period), whereas that of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and atypical squamous cells of unknown significance with or without high-grade intraepithelial lesions was 2.22% (compared with 0.54% in the general population). For both categories of lesions, the higher prevalence among female sex workers than in the general population was statistically significant. Most patients who had abnormal Pap smears received proper referrals and follow-up management according to recommended guidelines. CONCLUSIONS. Female sex workers in Hong Kong as a group had a significantly higher prevalence of abnormal Pap smears than the general population. Non-governmental organisations providing free-of-charge screening services to these women helped early detection and proper follow-up for those who had abnormal Pap smears, whilst also increasing their awareness of women's health issues. PMID:23650200

Leung, K M; Yeoh, Gary P S; Cheung, H N; Fong, François Y; Chan, K W

2013-06-01

274

“Proof-Of-Concept” Evaluation of an Automated Sputum Smear Microscopy System for Tuberculosis Diagnosis  

Science.gov (United States)

Background “TBDx” is an innovative smear microscopy system that automatically loads slides onto a microscope, focuses and digitally captures images and then classifies smears as positive or negative using computerised algorithms. Objectives To determine the diagnostic accuracy of TBDx, using culture as the gold standard, and compare this to a microscopist's diagnostic performance. Methods This study is nested within a cross-sectional study of tuberculosis suspects from South African gold mines. All tuberculosis suspects had one sputum sample collected, which was decontaminated prior to smear microscopy, liquid culture and organism identification. All slides were auramine-stained and then read by both a research microscopist and by TBDx using fluorescence microscopes, classifying slides based on the WHO classification standard of 100 fields of view (FoV) at 400× magnification. Results Of 981 specimens, 269 were culture positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (27.4%). TBDx had higher sensitivity than the microscopist (75.8% versus 52.8%, respectively), but markedly lower specificity (43.5% versus 98.6%, respectively). TBDx classified 520/981 smears (53.0%) as scanty positive. Hence, a proposed hybrid software/human approach that combined TBDx examination of all smears with microscopist re-examination of TBDx scanty smears was explored by replacing the “positive” result of slides with 1–9 AFB detected on TBDx with the microscopist's original reading. Compared to using the microscopist's original results for all 981 slides, this hybrid approach resulted in equivalent specificity, a slight reduction in sensitivity from 52.8% to 49.4% (difference of 3.3%; 95% confidence interval: 0.2%, 6.5%), and a reduction in the number of slides to be read by the microscopist by 47.0%. Discussion Compared to a research microscopist, the hybrid software/human approach had similar specificity and positive predictive value, but sensitivity requires further improvement. Automated microscopy has the potential to substantially reduce the number of slides read by microscopists. PMID:23209666

Lewis, James J.; Chihota, Violet N.; van der Meulen, Minty; Fourie, P. Bernard; Fielding, Katherine L.; Grant, Alison D.; Dorman, Susan E.; Churchyard, Gavin J.

2012-01-01

275

Reducing "atypical squamous cells" overdiagnosis on cervicovaginal smears by diligent cytology screening.  

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The frequency of possible reasons for "atypical squamous cells" (ASC) overdiagnosis on Papanicolaou (Pap) smears was analyzed. Pap smears of 199 women with negative biopsy outcome after an ASC diagnosis were reviewed. Special attention was paid to presence of reproductive tract infections (RTIs), perimenopausal cells (PM cells), immature metaplastic cells, hormone-related alterations, and drying artefacts. Comparisons were made using ?(2) test between the two ASC qualifiers and also between premenopausal and peri/postmenopausal women. Possible reasons for ASC overdiagnosis could be assigned on Pap smear review in 88/199 (44.2%) negative biopsies. Overall, PM cells were the most frequent reason for ASC overdiagnosis, being present in 35/199 (17.6%) smears. RTIs were the next most common cause (14.6%). PM cells were the most significant confounding factors for persistent ASC undetermined significance (ASC-US) over interpretation (20.2%) while in none of the cases these were interpreted as ASC-H (P = 0.004). Of these, 32 smears belonged to peri/postmenopausal women while only three to premenopausal women (P ASC-H rather than ASC-US interpretation (P = 0.007). RTIs and drying artefacts were more frequently overcalled as ASC-US (in premenopausal women) while hormonal changes were interpreted as ASC-H. Hormone related changes, immature metaplastic cells and drying artefacts more commonly resulted in ASC interpretation in peri/ postmenopausal smears. The results of this study suggest that diligent screening can substantially reduce ASC overdiagnosis, thereby reducing the referrals/ follow ups. PMID:21309012

Gupta, Sanjay; Sodhani, Pushpa

2012-09-01

276

Smear layer removal and chelated calcium ion quantification of three irrigating solutions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a remoção de smear layer por meio da microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e quantificar a liberação de íons cálcio resultante da irrigação com as soluções quelantes estudadas, por meio da espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. Dezesseis caninos extraíd [...] os foram instrumentados com a técnica step-back e divididos em 3 grupos de acordo com a solução irrigadora utilizada: G1: 1 mL de EDTAC a 17% entre cada lima; G2: CDTA a 17%; e G3: EGTA a 17%. As soluções foram coletadas após o uso. Os dentes foram secionados longitudinalmente e as raízes examinadas por MEV para verificação de smear layer nos terços por meio de escores (variando de 1 a 4), e avaliadas por três examinadores calibrados "cegos". Para quantificar a liberação de íons cálcio, as soluções coletadas foram avaliadas por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. Com relação ao smear layer, o teste de Friedman evidenciou diferença estatisticamente significante (p Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to evaluate, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), smear layer removal and quantify, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, the amount of calcium ion present in the chelating solutions after their use. Sixteen extracted canines were instrumented using the step-back te [...] chnique and were assigned to 3 groups according to the irrigating solution used: G1: 1 mL 17% EDTAC between each file; G2: 1 mL 17% CDTA; G3: 1 mL 17% EGTA. The solutions were collected after use. The teeth were cleaved longitudinally, evaluated under SEM and assessed for smear layer by blinded examiners and scored from 1 to 4. In order to quantify calcium ion release, the collected solutions were examined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Freidman's test was used for statistical analysis of SEM values and showed that canals irrigated with 17% EDTAC and 17% CDTA had significantly less smear layer throughout the canals than 17% EGTA (p

Andre Augusto Franco, Marques; Melissa Andréia, Marchesan; Celso Bernardo de, Sousa-Filho; Yara Teresinha Correa, Silva-Sousa; Manoel D., Sousa-Neto; Antonio Miranda da, Cruz-Filho.

277

Blood gases  

Science.gov (United States)

Blood gases are a measurement of how much oxygen and carbon dioxide are in your blood. They also determine ... taking a sample of blood from the wrist area. The health care provider will insert a small ...

278

High infection rates of the tick Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum with Trypanosoma theileri  

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Full Text Available A crossbred calf (3 months old obtained from a farm where regular control of ticks was practised and found to be free of blood parasites was inoculated with 20 ml pooled blood collected from four field cattle which had very low Trypanosoma theileri parasitaemias (one parasite per 70 µl blood as determined by the haematocrit centrifugation technique. Trypanosoma theileri was present in the blood 6 days after injection and a peak parasitaemia of 42 parasites per 70 µl blood was recorded by day 12. Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum nymphs were applied on the ears of the calf on day 8 and they dropped engorged by days 13 and 14. The resulting adult ticks were examined for the presence of T. theileri by severing a leg and making a smear of the clear haemolymph which exuded from the wound. The smear was fixed in methanol and stained with Giemsa stain. The infection rate with T. theileri in the ticks was 43.3 % (26 out of 60. The intensity of infection was very high and various developmental stages of the flagellates were observed (epimastigotes, sphaeromastigotes, trypomastigotes and other intermediate stages. The haemolymph from 12 ticks was also collected in tissue culture medium and the trypanosomes survived for 25 weeks before eventually dying. The results demonstrated unequivocally the high vectorial capacity of the tick H. a. anatolicum for T. theileri.

Amna E. E. Mohamed

2010-11-01

279

Impact of the track structure of heavy charged particles on cytogenetic damage in human blood lymphocytes  

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In space, astronauts are unavoidably exposed to charged particles from protons to irons. For a better estimate of the health risks of astronauts, further knowledge on the biological effects of charged particles, in particular the induction of cytogenetic damage is required. One im-portant factor that determines the biological response is the track structure of particles, i.e. their microscopic dose deposition in cells. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of track structure of heavy ions on the yield and the quality of cytogenetic damage in human peripheral blood lymphocytes representing normal tissue. Cells were irradiated with 9.5 MeV/u C-ions or 990 MeV/u Fe-ions which have a comparable LET (175 keV/µm and 155 keV/µm, respectively) but a different track radius (2.3 and 6200 µm, respectively). When aberrations were analyzed in first cycle metaphases collected at different post-irradiation times (48-84 h) following fluorescence plus Giemsa staining, an increase in the aberration yield with sampling time was observed for both radiation qualities reflecting a damage dependent cell cycle progression delay to mitosis. The pronounced differences in the aberration frequency per cell are attributable to the stochastic distribution of particle traversals per cell nucleus (radius: 2.8 µm). Following C-ion exposure we found a high fraction of non-aberrant cells in samples collected at 48 h which represent cells not directly hit by a particle and slightly damaged cells that successfully repaired the induced lesions. In addition, at higher C-ion fluences the aberra-tion yield saturated, suggesting that a fraction of lymphocytes receiving multiple particle hits is not able to reach mitosis. On the other hand, at 48 h after Fe-ion exposure the proportion of non-aberrant cells is lower than after C-ion irradiation clearly reflecting the track structure of high energy particles (i.e. more homogeneous dose deposition compared to low energy C-ions). Furthermore, the aberration yield increased linearly with Fe-ion fluence. When aberrations were analyzed in first cycle G2 -PCC cells to account for the prolonged G2 arrest of damaged cells, the same trend was detected. However, the increase in the aberration yield with time and the saturation effect were less pronounced compared to metaphase samples. Altogether, these data show that the aberration analysis with multiple samplings is necessary for a reliable estimate of cytogenetic damage induced by charged particles. In particular, when damage is measured at one early time-point the effectiveness of low energy particles will be considerably underestimated. When the aberration spectrum induced by low energy C-ions and high en-ergy Fe-ions was compared, we did not find a difference. Preliminary data obtained with the high resolution mFISH-technique confirm this observation. (Work supported by BMBF, Bonn, under contract 02S8497)

Lee, Ryonfa; Nasonova, Elena; Sommer, Sylwetster; Hartel, Carola; Durante, Marco; Ritter, Sylvia

280

Comparación de las coloraciones de Giemsa y Grocott en el diagnóstico de la histoplasmosis / Comparison of Giemsa and Grocott stains in the diagnosis of histoplasmosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available El diagnóstico de histoplasmosis se realiza tradicionalmente mediante el reconocimiento de típicas levaduras intracelulares de Histoplasma capsulatum en preparaciones microscópicas teñidas con Giemsa. Se comparó la eficacia de una modificación rápida de la técnica de Grocott (MRG) y la tradicional d [...] e Giemsa para el diagnóstico de la histoplasmosis, a partir de la aplicación de ambas a 10 secreciones respiratorias, 8 escarificaciones de lesiones cutáneas y una biopsia ganglionar, pertenecientes todas a pacientes con sospecha clínica de esta micosis. En 15 de las 19 muestras no se encontraron diferencias significativas en la capacidad y rapidez para arribar al diagnóstico, mientras que en las 4 restantes, fueron reconocidas con la MRG estructuras que pasaron desapercibidas con la coloración de Giemsa. La modificación rápida permitió un reconocimiento más rápido del H. capsulatum en materiales donde este hongo se observó en escaso número y permitió además identificar con seguridad otros patógenos fúngicos diferentes de H. capsulatum, como Pneumocystis jiroveci, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis y Cryptococcus neoformans, difíciles de observar con la coloración de Giemsa. Se propone la técnica de Grocott o su modificación rápida para el diagnóstico de la histoplasmosis, especialmente cuando el empleo de la coloración de Giemsa da lugar a resultados negativos o dudosos. Abstract in english The diagnosis of histoplasmosis is traditionally achieved by recognizing the typical intracellular yeasts of Histoplasma capsulatum, in smears stained with Giemsa stain. The usefulness of a rapid modification of Grocott and of traditional Giemsa stains for the diagnosis of histoplasmosis was compare [...] d applying both techniques in 10 respiratory secretions, 8 cutaneous lesions scrapings and 1 adenomegaly biopsy, all of them belonging to patients with clinically suspected histoplasmosis. In 15 out of the 19 evaluated samples, no significant differences were found in the ability or speed to reach the diagnosis with the applied techniques; while in the remaining 4 samples, structures that had not been observed with Giemsa stain were recognized with the rapid modification. The modification enabled quicker recognition of H. capsulatum than Giemsa stain in those clinical samples where the number of these fungal pathogens was scant. Additionally, the rapid modification also enabled the recognition of fungal pathogens other than H. capsulatum, as Pneumocystis jiroveci, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Cryptococcus neoformans, difficult to observe with the Giemsa stain. Use of Grocott technique or rapid modification stain is proposed for the diagnosis of histoplasmosis, when the result obtained with the Giemsa stain is doubtful or negative.

Amadeo Javier, Bava; María Fernanda, Zuiani.

2007-09-01

281

The Costs of an Outreach Intervention for Low-Income Women With Abnormal Pap Smears  

OpenAIRE

IntroductionFollow-up among women who have had an abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smear is often poor in public hospitals that serve women at increased risk for cervical cancer. This randomized controlled trial evaluated and compared the total cost and cost per follow-up of a tailored outreach intervention plus usual care with the total cost and cost per follow-up of usual care alone.MethodsWomen with an abnormal Pap smear (n = 348) receiving care at Alameda County Medical Center (Alameda County,...

Todd H Wagner, Phd; Linda P Engelstad, Md; Stephen J Mcphee, Md; Rena J Pasick, Drph

2007-01-01

282

Formulation of an improved smeared stiffener theory for buckling analysis of grid-stiffened composite panels  

Science.gov (United States)

A smeared stiffener theory for stiffened panels is presented that includes skin-stiffener interaction effects. The neutral surface profile of the skin-stiffener combination is developed analytically using the minimum potential energy principle and statics conditions. The skin-stiffener interaction is accounted for by computing the stiffness due to the stiffener and the skin in the skin-stiffener region about the neutral axis at the stiffener. Buckling load results for axially stiffened, orthogrid, and general grid-stiffened panels are obtained using the smeared stiffness combined with a Rayleigh-Ritz method and are compared with results from detailed finite element analyses.

Jaunky, Navin; Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Ambur, Damodar R.

1995-01-01

283

Comparison of leaf smearing and wick feeding techniques for root distribution studies of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wick feeding and leaf smearing methods have been compared for their relative efficiencies for root distribution studies with tobacco plant. The applied radioactivity gets equilibrated within 3 days in the tobacco plant. Root sections of the plants fed through the wick contained higher quantity for the radioactivity over those of the leaf smeared ones. Because of the case of application and better translocation of applied radioactivity the wick-feeding method appears to have good utility for root distribution studies with hard stemmed plants. (author)

284

Hyaline globules in fine-needle aspiration smears of salivary gland neoplasms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most salivary gland neoplasms can be accurately diagnosed on fine-needle aspiration cytology. Few cases present with overlapping cytomorphological features, so accurate distinction in these cases may be difficult. We describe a case of pleomorphic adenoma that had a close resemblance to adenoid cystic carcinoma on smears due to presence of numerous hyaline globules and bare nuclei. Careful analysis of cellular details along with corroborative clinical evidence clinched the correct diagnosis. This article discusses cytological features of salivary gland tumours in which hyaline globules can be seen on smears. PMID:25750224

Gupta, Mayank; Bindra, Mandeep Singh

2015-01-01

285

The accuracy of Pap smear utilization self-report: a methodological consideration in cervical screening research.  

OpenAIRE

One method used to determine utilization rates of cervical screening is women's self-report. Few studies have assessed the accuracy of this measure--none has been conducted in Australia--although there are a number of reasons for suspecting its validity. This study examined and quantified the accuracy of self-report of Pap smear use among a randomly selected sample of women from an Australian community. Accuracy of Pap smear utilization self-report within a three-year period was assessed by c...

Bowman, J. A.; Redman, S.; Dickinson, J. A.; Gibberd, R.; Sanson-fisher, R. W.

1991-01-01

286

REHYDRATION OF AIR-DRIED CERVICAL SMEARS: AN ALTERNATIVE TO ROUTINE WET FIXATION  

OpenAIRE

To prepare Pap smears, the routine practice is to fix the slides immediately in 95% ethanol. This study was performed to evaluate the possibility of routine use of alternative method of air-drying and rehydration prior to alcohol fixation instead of conventional method. Paired cervical smears with at least low cellularity were collected from 117 women who participated in the study. One set was labeled WF (wet fixed or fixed immediately in 95% ethanol) and the other one ARF (air-dried, rehydra...

Zare-mirzaie, A.; Abolhasani, K. Khalili-alam M.

2007-01-01

287

Chlamydia trachomatis in cervico vaginal smears of irradiated uteri: cytologic and immune cytochemical aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cervico vaginal smears of women with uterine carcinoma treated with radiotherapy are analyzed in the present work. A series of such smears showed morphological changes suggestive of Chlamydia infection with the Papanicolaou stain. Confirmation of the presence of such agent was done using an avidin-biotin peroxidase technique. A higher prevalence of Chlamydia in the group of patients with carcinoma of the uterus treated with irradiation than in the population without ionizing treatment was verified. The presence of cells with radiotherapic changes infected by Chlamydia is a new finding in cytology. (author)

288

Cervix Cancer Diagnosis from Pap Smear Images Using Structure Based Segmentation and Shape Analysis  

OpenAIRE

his work presents an approach for analysis of P AP s mear images of cervical region based on cell nuclei distribution and shape and size analysis. PAP smear test is an efficient and easy procedure to detect any abnor mality in cervical cells. But human observation is not always satisfying and it is a tedious task to manually analyze a large number of PAP smear images. The purpose of this study is to automate the screening process and to provide specific statistical data which will be helpful...

Mahanta, Lipi B.; Dilip Ch. Nath; Chandan Kr. Nath

2012-01-01

289

Development of portable and automatic smear sampler for measuring surface contamination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In measuring radioactive contamination in radiation controlled area of nuclear facility, the technical criteria to evaluate surface contamination level and to sample by indirect method was established in this paper. Radioactive materials always present on surface within operating nuclear facilities. Because of the presence of interfering radiation field, health physicists take smear samples to monitoring surface contamination according to routine monitoring program. But there are some problems like great errors and difference of personnel. Then, to solve them, The portable and automatic smear sampling apparatus was designed and fabricated

290

Evaluation of radioactive surface contamination using polystyrene smears grafted with acrylic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes a method for obtaining expanded polystyrene smears having a hydrophilic surface, carried out by radioinduced grafting of acrylic acid. Acrylic acid grafting was performed using a 60 Co radiation source, which ensures a maximum of absorbed dose rate of 10 kGy/h. Variation of grafting radiochemical yields were calculated as a function of dose absorbed a dose absorbed rate. Grafting radiochemical yields were calculated with weighting and radiometric method using acrylic acid labeled with 3 H as grafting agent. Drawing coefficients and quenching processes were analysed in relation with the acrylic acid grafting degree on the expanded polystyrene smears

291

Immunoelectrophoresis - blood  

Science.gov (United States)

IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis ... A blood sample is needed. For information on how this is done, see: Venipuncture

292

Enhanced detection of gametocytes by magnetic deposition microscopy predicts higher potential for Plasmodium falciparum transmission  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Aggregated haemozoin crystals within malaria-infected erythrocytes confer susceptibility of parasitized cells to a magnetic field. Here the utility of this method for diagnosis of human malaria is evaluated in a malaria-endemic region of Papua New Guinea (PNG. Methods and findings Individuals with Plasmodium falciparum malaria symptoms (n = 55 provided samples for conventional blood smear (CBS and magnetic deposition microscopy (MDM diagnosis. Standard Giemsa staining and light microscopy was performed to evaluate all preparations. Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia observed on MDM slides was consistently higher than parasitaemia observed by (CBS for ring (CBS = 2.6 vs. MDM = 3.4%; t-test P-value = 0.13, trophozoite (CBS = 0.5 vs. MDM = 1.6%; t-test P-value = 0.01, schizont (CBS = 0.003 vs. MDM = 0.1%; t-test P-value = 0.08 and gametocyte (CBS = 0.001 vs. MDM = 0.4%; t-test P-value = 0.0002 parasitaemias. Gametocyte prevalence determined by CBS compared to MDM increased from 7.3% to 45%, respectively. Conclusion MDM increased detection sensitivity of P. falciparum-infected, haemozoin-containing erythrocytes from infected humans while maintaining detection of ring-stage parasites. Gametocyte prevalence five-fold higher than observed by CBS suggests higher malaria transmission potential in PNG endemic sites compared to previous estimates.

Zborowski Maciej

2008-04-01

293

C-Reactive Protein (CRP in Early Diagnosis of Neonatal Septicemia  

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Full Text Available Aim: Early diagnosis of sepsis in the neonate is often difficult because symptoms and signs are usually non-specific. A study was conducted to evaluate C-reactive protein (CRP as a screening tool for neonatal sepsis. Method: The prospective observational study was conducted at NICU, V. S. Hospital, Ahmedabad from January 2008 to June 2009. 75 neonates were included with the age group of first 28days (4week of life (infant age in study, all of which were suspected to have sepsis in clinical settings. All peripheral smear of neonate stained with Giemsa stain were reviewed .CRP performed by semi quantitative latex agglutination method. Positive cultures were the “gold standard” against which the performance of CRP , abnormal white blood cell counts (WBC & absolute neutrophil counts (ANC were compared. Results: Among 75 septic screens, 39 (52% patients had positive cultures. The sensitivity and specificity of CRP 0.6 mg/dL was 92.30% and 85.71% respectively. Abnormal platelet count had the lowest specificity(45% and sensitivity(23.07% among them. Conclusion: CRP assay using semi quantitative latex agglutination method is a valuable adjunct in screening for neonatal sepsis, complementing clinical decision-making. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(3.000: 276-278

Setal B Chauhan

2012-06-01

294

[Ehrlichiosis/Anaplasmosis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis are zoonoses caused by bacteria from the family Anaplasmataceae, including human and animal pathogens. The human pathogens are Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the causative agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME), Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the pathogen causing human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), E. ewingii and Neorickettsia sennetsu, granulocytotropic and monocytotropic Ehrlichia species, respectively. Ehrlichia spp. are small, gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria. They replicate in the cytoplasmic vacuoles of host cells, especially granulocytes and monocytes, to form microcolonies called morulae. These agents are transmitted through the bite of infected tick. In the United States, the vectors are Amblyomma americanum, Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus ticks. The primary vector in Europe is Ixodes ricinus. Rodents, deer, roe deer, foxes, cattle, sheep, goats, horses and dogs are reservoirs of these bacteria in Europe. Peromyscus leucopus, the white-footed mouse, and Odocoileus virginianus, the white-tailed deer, are the most important reservoirs in the United States. Infection in humans is manifested as a nonspecific flu-like illness. The laboratory diagnosis is most frequently serological--evidence of antibody by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and detection of DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or microscopy evidence--Giemsa stain of blood smears (morulae in granulocytes or monocytes). Doxycycline is the drug of choice in therapy. Avoiding exposure to ticks is the best method of prevention of infection. PMID:20077398

Kalinová, Zuzana; Cisláková, Lýdia; Halánová, Monika

2009-12-01

295

Search for Borrelia sp. in ticks collected from potential reservoirs in an urban forest reserve in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil: a short report  

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Full Text Available A total of 128 ticks of the genus Amblyomma were recovered from 5 marsupials (Didelphis albiventris - with 4 recaptures - and 17 rodents (16 Bolomys lasiurus and 1 Rattus norvegicus captured in an urban forest reserve in Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Of the ticks collected, 95 (78.9% were in larval form and 22 (21.1% were nymphs; the only adult (0.8% was identified as A. cajennense. Viewed under dark-field microscopy in the fourth month after seeding, 9 cultures prepared from spleens and livers of the rodents, blood of the marsupials, and macerates of Amblyomma sp. nymphs revealed spiral-shaped, spirochete-like structures resembling those of Borrelia sp. Some of them showed little motility, while others were non-motile. No such structures could be found either in positive Giemsa-stained culture smears or under electron microscopy. No PCR amplification of DNA from those cultures could be obtained by employing Leptospira sp., B. burgdorferi, and Borrelia sp. primers. These aspects suggest that the spirochete-like structures found in this study do not fit into the genera Borrelia or Leptospira, requiring instead to be isolated for proper identification.

IP da Costa

2002-07-01

296

Clinicopathological findings in dogs naturally infected dogs with Babesia  

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Full Text Available The aim of the study was to describe the clinicopathological findings in dogs naturally infected with Babesia. During the period of February 2011-February 2012 twenty-nine cases of Babesia Canis were diagnosed in the clinic of Small Animal at the Veterinary Faculty of Tirana. The animal was considered infected when pear shaped babesia was observed inside infected erythrocytes in Wright-Giemsa stained blood smears. The animal stay for one week in our clinic and during this period we evaluated the canine babesiosis cases by means of clinical history, physical examination, hematological and biochemical tests. Based in the clinical sing of babesia the animal was divided in two groups with uncomplicated and complicate babesia. The duration of clinical signs ranged from 1 to 5 days prior to the arrival at the clinic and all the animals were positive with B. c. canis infections. The main clinical signs were dehydration and anemia in (79%, apathy (74%, anorexia or decrease appetite (70% and fever (68%. The anemia was present in the dogs and classified severe (13% as mild (45%, and moderate (52% of all the cases. In conclusion, the main clinicopathological findings were a mild to moderate hemolytic anemia and mild to severe thrombocytopenia.

Egon Andoni

2013-05-01

297

An update of malaria infection and anaemia in adults in Buea, Cameroon  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaemia is caused by many factors in developing countries including malaria. We compared anaemia rates in patients with malaria parasitaemia to that of patients without malaria parasitaemia. Findings A cross-sectional study was carried out from November 2007 to July 2008 in health units in Buea, Cameroon. Adult patients with fever or history of fever were included in the study. Information on socio-demographic variables and other variables was collected using a questionnaire. Malaria parasitaemia status was determined by microscopy using Giemsa stained thick blood smears. Haemoglobin levels were determined by the microhaematocrit technique. The study population consisted of 250 adult patients with a mean age of 29.31 years (SD = 10.63 and 59.44% were females. 25.60% of the patients had malaria parasitaemia while 14.80% had anaemia (haemoglobin Conclusions In adult patients with fever in this setting, malaria parasitaemia contributes to anaemia and is of public health impact. Our results also provide a baseline prevalence for malaria parasitaemia in febrile adults in health units in this setting.

Achidi Eric A

2010-04-01

298

Canine vector-borne disease in travelled dogs in Germany--a retrospective evaluation of laboratory data from the years 2004-2008.  

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When importing dogs from various Mediterranean countries into Western Europe canine vector-borne infections are often considered as a major issue. Several diseases including babesiosis, leishmaniosis, hepatozoonosis, canine heartworm disease or ehrlichiosis can potentially be endemic in this region and pose a potential health risk for travelling dogs. Information on such infections in travelled dogs is scarce and therefore this study has been undertaken to examine the frequency of vector-borne infections in travelled dogs from the years 2004-2008. A total of 997 samples were screened by direct and/or indirect methods. Total seroprevalence was 7.5% with individual seroprevalence for the 3 species Leishmania spp., Ehrlichia canis and Babesia canis spp. ranging from 3.1 to 4.9%. Total detection rate for pathogens by direct methods was 3.5%. Nineteen Giemsa-stained blood smears were positive for large Babesia. None of the samples screened for microfilariae by Knott's test or for Dirofilaria immitis antigen by DiroChek(®) were positive. Using PCR methods Leishmania-DNA was detected in 1/42 samples but none of 59 animals screened for E. canis-DNA was positive. The prevalence values as established by indirect and direct pathogen detection are considered as rather low. PMID:21565447

Hamel, D; Röhrig, E; Pfister, K

2011-09-01

299

Prevalence of parasitic infections in cattle of Ludhiana district, Punjab.  

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A total of 862 cattle were sampled for both haematological (703) and coprological (159) investigations at the Large Animal Clinics, GADVASU, Ludhiana, Punjab, India. Examination of Giemsa-stained peripheral blood smears exhibited that 22.9 % (161/703) of cattle were infected with haematozoa comprising Theileria annulata (14.65 %), Trypanosoma evansi (0.28 %), Babesia bigemina (1.56 %) and Anaplasma marginale (8.53 %) while mixed infection appeared in 2.13 % (15/703) animals. The prevalence of total haemoparasites and A. marginale infections were significantly higher (p Balantidium coli, strongyles and Trichuris spp. were detected from 3.77, 1.88, 3.77, 2.52, 10.69 and 1.26 % of examined animals. Except coccidiosis, there was no significant variation of GI parasitic infections in relation to sex as Eimeria spp. were found higher (p < 0.01) in males. The prevalence of Trichuris spp. was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in younger animals <6 months of age. The present work emphasized that strongyles and T. annulata were the most prevalent GI and haemoparasites, respectively. PMID:24082538

Singh, N K; Singh, Harkirat; Jyoti; Haque, M; Rath, S S

2012-10-01

300

[Experimental analysis and countermeasures for EDTA-dependent Pseudothrombocytopenia].  

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of clinically common EDTA-dependent pseudo-thrombocytopenia (EDTA-PTCP) and methols for treating this diseese. A total of 1326 cases of thrombocytopenia found at blood routine examination were amalyzed anong 71 535 patients hospitalized in our hospital from January 2010 to May 2013, and 87 cases of PTCP caused EDTA-K anticoagulant were analyzed again by using sodium citrate auticoagulant, at the same time the platelet formation distribution was observed by microscopy of smear with Wright-Giemsa staining. The results showed that the platelet count detected by using EDTA-K anticoagulant in 87 cases was (56 ± 27)×10(9)/L, while the platelet count detected by using sodium citrate was (185 ± 39)×10(9)/L (t = 1.83,P EDTA-K was 0.12%, it was 6.56% for the total number of thrombocytopenia. It is concluded that the incidence of PTCP cansed by EDTA-K is 0.12%, the PTCP is easily misdiagnosed. Therefore, the specimens of platelet count sodium citrate in order to avoid misdiagnosis. PMID:25338586

Mao, Wei-Yu; Huo, Mei; Ye, Su-Dan; Gong, Wen-Bo

2014-10-01

301

PARASITISMO DE LEUCOCITOS Y TROMBOCITOS DE Gallus gallus L. POR Plasmodium (Novyella juxtanucleare (APICOMPLEXA: PLASMODIIDAE  

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Full Text Available RESUMEN Se realizó una investigación del parasitismo de Plasmodium juxtanucleare en gallinas sin raza definida, provenientes de criaderos rústicos en el município de Seropédica, estado de Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Se realizaron frotis sanguineos periféricos, los cuales fueron coloreados con Giemsa diluído en tampon sorensen pH6,8. En el exámen hemoscópico se puede observar en aves con alto índice de parasitemia (>10% formas parasitarias de trofozoítas y esquizontes en el citoplasma de células de la linea leucocítica y trofozoítas en células de la linea trombocítica. Las observaciones en el presente estudio hacen inferir que la cepa de P. juxtanucleare que ocurre en Seropédica realiza esquizogonia fanerozóica. Este trabajo constituye el primer hallazgo de formas parasitárias de P. juxtanucleare en leucocitosPARASITISM OF LEUKOCYTES AND THROMBOCYTES OF Gallus gallus L. BY Plasmodium (Novyella juxtanucleare (APICOMPLEXA: PLASMODIIDAE A research about parasitism of the Plasmodium juxtanucleare in crossbred fowls from Seropédica municipality, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, were done. Blood smear were done, and stained by Giemsa stain diluted in sorensen buffer pH6.8. The hemoscopical exam of fowls with high parasitaemia (>10% showed trophozoite and meront forms in the cytoplasm of leukocytic cells; and trophozoite forms in the cytoplasm of the thrombocytic cells. These observation do conclude that P. juxtanucleare strain from Seropédica produce phanerozoic meronts. This report constitutes the first finding of P. juxtanucleare forms in the leukocytes.

CLEBER O SOARES

1999-01-01

302

Effects of insect diapause and parasitization of a braconid, Bracon brevicornis Wesm. on the haemolymph of its host Sesamia cretica Led.  

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Eight types of haemocytes were defined in the 6th instar larvae of the greater sugar cane borer Sesamia cretica Led, as follows prohaemocytes, plasmatocytes, granular cells, spindle cells, adipohaemocytes, oenocytoids, spherule cells and cystocytes. Total haemocyte counts (THCs) and differential counts (DHCs) were estimated for diapausing and non-diapausing larvae. During diapause, there was a significant reduction in the numbers of all haemocyte types. Upon termination of diapause, the haemocyte level increased. This reduction in the haemocyte level observed during diapause may be due to the decreased in the metabolic activity. Also, a decrease in the total haemocyte counts appeared after the parasitization of 6th instar S. cretica larvae by the 2nd larval instar of braconid ectoparasioid Bracon brevicornis Wesm. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as compared to the unparasitized ones. However, the DHCs in parasitized larvae showed an increase in the number of phagocytic cells (plasmatocytes, granular cells and spindle cells) and a remarkable decrease in the prohaemocyte counts was detected as compared to that of the unparasitized ones. Moreover, teratocytes appeared in the blood smears of paraitized S. cretica by B. brevicornis. They were round to oval, opaque and stain dark with Giemsa stain and ranged between 5-30 mu in diameter. PMID:9425824

el-Mandarawy, M B

1997-12-01

303

Self-Reports of Pap Smear Screening in Women with Physical Disabilities  

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We collected self reported rate of cervical smear testing to examine the affecting factors in women with physical disabilities in the study, to define the reproductive health care for this group of people. The study population recruited 521 women with physical disabilities aged more than 15 years who were officially registered as having physical…

Lin, Jin-Ding; Chen, Shih-Fan; Lin, Lan-Ping; Sung, Chang-Lin

2011-01-01

304

Debris and smear removal in flattened root canals after use of different irrigant agitation protocols.  

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Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) can be used to analyze the presence of debris and smear layer on the internal walls of root canal. This study evaluated the debris and smear removal in flattened root canals using SEM after use of different irrigant agitation protocols. Fifty mandibular incisors were distributed into five groups (n = 10) according to the irrigant agitation protocol used during chemomechanical preparation: conventional syringe irrigation with NaviTip needle (no activation), active scrubbing of irrigant with brush-covered NaviTip FX needle, manual dynamic irrigation, continuous passive ultrasonic irrigation, and apical negative pressure irrigation (EndoVac system). Canals were irrigated with 5 mL of 2.5% NaOCl at each change of instrument and received a final flush with 17% EDTA for 1 min. After instrumentation, the roots were split longitudinally and SEM micrographs at ×100 and ×1,000 were taken to evaluate the amount of debris and smear layer, respectively, in each third. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's post-hoc tests (? = 5%). Manual dynamic activation left significantly (p protocols, while ultrasonic irrigation and EndoVac were the most effective (p 0.05) either among the irrigant agitation protocols or between the protocol-canal third interactions. Although none of the irrigant agitation protocols completely removed debris and smear layer from flattened root canals, the machine-assisted agitation systems (ultrasound and EndoVac) removed more debris than the manual techniques. PMID:22131294

Ribeiro, Eduardo Milani; Silva-Sousa, Yara T C; Souza-Gabriel, Aline Evangelista; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião; Lorencetti, Karina Torales; Silva, Silvio Rocha Correa

2012-06-01

305

The effect of EDTA with and without ultrasonics on removal of the smear layer.  

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This study evaluated in vitro effectiveness of 17% EDTA with and without ultrasonics on smear layer removal. One hundred and five extracted premolars randomly divided into seven groups were instrumented with different final irrigating protocols: group A (Sal3US), saline for 3 minutes with ultrasonics; groups B (Na3) and C (Na3US), 1% sodium hypochlorite for 3 minutes without and with ultrasonics, respectively; groups D (ED3) and E (ED3US), 17% EDTA for 3 minutes without and with ultrasonics, respectively; and groups F (ED1) and G (ED1US), 17% EDTA for 1 minute without and with ultrasonics, respectively. Specimens were examined under scanning electron microscope and scored for smear layer and debris removal. Statistical analysis showed that groups with EDTA and ultrasonic irrigation, groups E (ED3US) and G (ED1US), had significantly more specimens with complete smear layer and debris removal. There was no significant difference between groups E (ED3US) and G (ED1US). A 1-minute application of combined use of EDTA and ultrasonics is efficient for smear layer and debris removal in the apical region of the root canal. PMID:19249602

Kuah, Hong-Guan; Lui, Jeen-Nee; Tseng, Patrick S K; Chen, Nah-Nah

2009-03-01

306

Reactivation of inactive X chromosome in buccal smear of carcinoma of breast  

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Buccal mucosal smears of 100 female patients of carcinoma of breast were compared with 100 controls matched accordingly. The frequency of Barr bodies was significantly lower in carcinoma of breast patients (menstruating and menopausal women) P < 0.001 when compared with controls indicating reactivation of the inactive X chromosome.

Natekar Prashant; DeSouza Fatima

2008-01-01

307

Development of manipulator system for decontamination and surface contamination monitering with smear method of recycled dram  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In nuclear power plants, drums are used in carrying out volume reduction treatment of low-level combustible solid wastes. After the treatment process, these drums are decontaminated, subjected to smear testing, and then reutilized. Shikoku Electric Power Co., Ltd. and Meidensha Electric Mfg. Co., Ltd. worked jointly to develop an automatic manipulator system to perform decontamination operation and smear testing for surface contamination of these recycled drums. The system consists of a drum feeder, drum handling equipment, decontamination/testing robot, wiping paper feeder, radioactive ray measuring apparatus, drum conveyor and control system. Major features of the system are as follows: 1) both sides of the lid as well as the body and bottom plate of a drum is decontaminated automatically; 2) liquid secondary wastes are not generated since decontamination is performed by wiping the drum with paper; 3) smear testing is carried out automatically (unaccepted drums are sent back to the decontamination process); 4) three manipulating arms for wet and dry decontamination and smear testing are changed automatically; and 5) several drums are processed continuously. (Nogami, K.)

308

Fiberoptic bronchoscopy for the rapid diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was aimed to investigate the diagnostic value of fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB with chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT for the rapid diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB in patients suspected of PTB but found to have a negative sputum acid-fast bacilli (AFB smear. Methods We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of results from FOB and HRCT in 126 patients at Gangnam Severance Hospital (Seoul, Korea who were suspected of having PTB. Results Of 126 patients who had negative sputum AFB smears but were suspected of having PTB, 54 patients were confirmed as having active PTB. Hemoptysis was negatively correlated with active PTB. Tree-in-bud appearance on HRCT was significantly associated with active PTB. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, and negative predictive value (NPV of FOB alone was 75.9%, 97.2%, 95.3%, and 84.3%, respectively, for the rapid diagnosis of active PTB. The combination of FOB and HRCT improved the sensitivity to 96.3% and the NPV to 96.2%. Conclusions FOB is a useful tool in the rapid diagnosis of active PTB with a high sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV in sputum smear-negative PTB-suspected patients. HRCT improves the sensitivity of FOB when used in combination with FOB in sputum smear-negative patients suspected of having PTB.

Shin Jung

2012-06-01

309

Reactivation of inactive X chromosome in buccal smear of carcinoma of breast  

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Full Text Available Buccal mucosal smears of 100 female patients of carcinoma of breast were compared with 100 controls matched accordingly. The frequency of Barr bodies was significantly lower in carcinoma of breast patients (menstruating and menopausal women P < 0.001 when compared with controls indicating reactivation of the inactive X chromosome.

Natekar Prashant

2008-01-01

310

"SPECIMEN ADEQUACY AND EFFECT OF HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS IN CERVICOVAGINAL SMEARS WITH SQUAMOUS INTRAEPITHELIAL ABNORMALITY"  

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Full Text Available Abstract-Cervicovaginal cytology is still a widely used cancer screening method that is well established in most countries. The present study aims at detecting and classifying squamous intraepithelial abnormalities and effects of certain infectious agents, particularly the cytopathic effects of human papillomavirus (HPV in a series of cervicovaginal smears, according to the Bethesda system (TBS. The significance of specimen adequacy in revealing squamous intraepithelial abnormalities (SIEA was also evaluated. Overall, 9066 smears were examined according to TBS. For interpretation of atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance (ASCUS, certain quality control (QC guidelines were considered. While stressing on koilocytic atypia, the full spectrum of cytologic alterations due to HPV was investigated. Of all smears, 79% were satisfactory for evaluation and 15% were inadequately satisfactory due to absence of the endocervical/transformation zone (EC/TZ component. The proportion of SIEA was significantly (P< 0.05 higher in smears having such a component. Of 246 cases with SIEA, 173 (1.90% cases were classified as ASCUS, 46 (0.50% as low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL, and 27 (0.26% as high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL. Of the latter, 19 cases demonstrated HPV effects. ASCUS was the most frequent diagnosis for which QC criteria were fulfilled. On the basis of our study the adequacy of specimen is of paramount significance, with particular emphasis on the presence of EC/TZ component.

N. Izadi Mood T. Hacopian

2004-08-01

311

Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium casei UCMA 3821, Isolated from a Smear-Ripened Cheese  

OpenAIRE

Corynebacterium casei is one of the most prevalent species present on the surfaces of smear-ripened cheeses, where it contributes to the production of the desired organoleptic properties. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Corynebacterium casei UCMA 3821 to provide insights into its physiology.

Monnet, Christophe; Loux, Valentin; Bento, Pascal; Gibrat, Jean-franc?ois; Straub, Ce?cile; Bonnarme, Pascal; Landaud, Sophie; Irlinger, Franc?oise

2012-01-01

312

Has the use of pap smears reduced the risk of invasive cervical cancer in Guadalajara, Mexico?  

Science.gov (United States)

In Mexico, cervical cancer is the leading cause of death due to cancer among women 35 years of age and older. Although cytologic screening for cervical cancer was introduced as a national program 24 years ago, the mortality rate for this disease has been increasing. A case-control study was undertaken. Cases were women younger than 70, with newly diagnosed invasive cervical cancer (ICC), who had been residing for at least the past year in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara. They were selected from 5 hospitals belonging to the Mexican National Health System. Controls were women without cervical cancer who were treated in the same health center as the corresponding case. Analysis included 143 cases and 311 controls. Information on risk factors for cervical cancer and prior cervical cytologic screening was obtained through a standardized personal interview. Overall, 54% of the cases reported having had a cervical cytology compared with 82% of controls. When compared with unscreened women, those who had ever had a Pap smear had a significantly lower risk of cervical cancer (OR = 0.3, 95% CI 0.2-0.4), and the protective effect persisted for over 5 years. Utilization of Pap smears in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara exerted a protective effect on ICC. Of the 65 women who reported a negative history of Pap smears, 45 would not have contracted cancer if they had ever had a Pap smear. PMID:10446445

Jiménez-P rez, M; Thomas, D B

1999-09-01

313

Surface micro-distributions of pigment and the relation between smearing and local mass distribution  

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In this work, the process of smearing and its time evolution have been investigated. When smearing occurs, the print is removed from the printed paper and colours other parts of the paper or the printing press and destroys the final product. To study the re-distribution of ink, cyan ink with Cu as a tracer in the coloured pigment has been used. Non-printed paper has been pressed against the paper, 1 and 5 s after the printing. The micro-distributions of ink on both printed and non-printed papers have then been studied using particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Basis weight was measured with the off-axis scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) technique and this data was correlated with the data from the print. One conclusion is that the process of smearing is not dependent on the shape of the pigment distribution, i.e. copper, or the content of copper in a specific pixel. On the contrary, the smearing was found to be related to the structure of the paper and that it mainly occurs where the paper is thicker.

Buelow, K. E-mail: karin.bulow@nuclear.lu.se; Kristiansson, P.; Larsson, T.; Malmberg, S.; Elfman, M.; Malmqvist, K.; Pallon, J.; Shariff, A

2001-07-01

314

Surface micro-distributions of pigment and the relation between smearing and local mass distribution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, the process of smearing and its time evolution have been investigated. When smearing occurs, the print is removed from the printed paper and colours other parts of the paper or the printing press and destroys the final product. To study the re-distribution of ink, cyan ink with Cu as a tracer in the coloured pigment has been used. Non-printed paper has been pressed against the paper, 1 and 5 s after the printing. The micro-distributions of ink on both printed and non-printed papers have then been studied using particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Basis weight was measured with the off-axis scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) technique and this data was correlated with the data from the print. One conclusion is that the process of smearing is not dependent on the shape of the pigment distribution, i.e. copper, or the content of copper in a specific pixel. On the contrary, the smearing was found to be related to the structure of the paper and that it mainly occurs where the paper is thicker

315

Bovine trypanosomosis: A threat to cattle production in Chena district, southwest Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

A cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis was carried out in Chena district, Kefa zone, southwest Ethiopia from September 2010 to January 2011. Blood samples were collected from 391 randomly selected local (zebu) breed cattle in three representative peasant associations (PAs). The buffy coat and Giemsa stained thin blood films examination techniques were used for parasite detection and identification. The packed cell volume (PCV) estimation was also conducte...

Bizuayehu Alemayehu; Basaznew Bogale; Tewodros Fentahun; Mersha Chanie

2012-01-01

316

Prevalence of haemoparasites in pet, working and stray dogs of Assam and North-East India: A hospital based study  

OpenAIRE

Aim:This research work is aimed to find out the prevalence of haemoparasitic infections in different categories of dogs.Materials and Methods: Out of 2104 dogs registered in the Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex of the College ofVeterinary Science, Khanapara, Guwahati during January 2009 to December 2010, blood of 424 cases suspected forhaemoparasites on the basis of clinical history were microscopically examined in wet blood film and giemsa stained bloodsmears.Results: The prevalence was ...

Bhattacharjee, K.; Sarmah, P. C.

2013-01-01

317

Profile of PAP smear cytology and its histopathological correlation at tertiary care center – A retrospective study  

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Full Text Available Objective: The Papanicolaou (Pap smear was introduced in 1941 and became the standard screening test for cervical cancer and premalignant lesions. Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide after breast cancer, and in developing countries, the leading cause of death by cancer. It is one of the most preventable and curable of all cancers. The Pap smear is the standard screening tool used to test for the presence of abnormal cells that could become cancerous. Its role in diagnosis of infective inflammatory conditions is no less successful. Methods: This retrospective study of 500 women with age group 18 to 90 years was carried out over a 2 years at cytology section of pathology department, M.P.Shah medical college, Jamnagar. This study had been divided into 2 groups. Group I included study of 400 women who attended gynaecological clinic at GGH hospital Jamnagar and Group II included study of 100 women who attended Pap smear screening camp  at Air force hospital, Jamnagar.Results: In group I, maximum number (212 of inflammatory lesions was obtained with incidence of 53%. 84(21% had SIN, 12(3% had squamous cell carcinoma. In group II, incidence of normal smear was high. Conclusion: Pap smear is a simple, cheap, safe and practical diagnostic tool for early detection of cervical cancer in high risk group population, so it should be established as a routine screening procedure. It also has a greater role in diagnosis of inflammatory lesions. It is recommended that The Bethesda System should be used for reporting as it improves the reproducibility and helps in identification of ASCUS and AGCUS lesions and plays a key role to diagnose various intraepithelial and invasive lesions at an early stage and manage them  properly.

Bhavika Vaghela

2014-01-01

318

Efficiency of final irrigation of root canal in removal of smear layer  

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Full Text Available Introduction A smear layer forms on the root canal walls as the consequence of root instrumentation. The smear layer formed in such a way considerably influences the quality of root obturation and endodontic treatment outcome. Objective The aim of this study was to ultrastructurally analyze the surface of intracanal dentine after removal of the smear layer by the solution of doxycycline, citric acid and detergent Tween-80 (MTAD. Methods The study involved 60 single-rooted, extracted, human teeth divided into four groups. All samples were instrumented by a step-back technique and manual K-files, and rinsed during instrumentation by 2% CHX and H2O2. The first group of samples was exclusively rinsed by CHX and H2O2; in the second group, besides using CHX and H2O2, MTAD solution was used for the final irrigation. The samples which were rinsed by distilled water (+ control and the samples rinsed by 5.25% NaOCl and 17% Na EDTA (-control served as control groups. All samples were observed under the scanning electronic microscope JEOL-JSM-5300. The coronary, middle and apex thirds of the radix region were analyzed. Results The obtained results of the SEM analysis showed that the application of 2% chlorhexidine and hydrogen peroxide did not give clear dentine walls, and the smear layer could not be removed completely. The application of the same combination (CHX and H2O2, added by the final MTAD irrigation solution, led to the efficient removal of the smear layer, while the morphological structure of dentine surface remained unchanged. Statistical analysis showed that canal walls in the experimental group with MTAD as the final irrigation were significantly clearer compared to the control group (p<0.001. Conclusion Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that MTAD is an efficient solution for the final irrigation of the canal system.

Miti? Aleksandar

2009-01-01

319

Scanning electron microscopy of root canal walls after removing the smear layer  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate ultrastructurally the effect of smear layer removal by applying different root canal irrigances: 3% HO2, 4% NaOCl and 15% Na-EDTA (in combination with 3% HO2, 4% NaOCl and establish the appearance of root canal dentine surface after treatment with 15% Na-EDTA for different time periods(1 min and 5 min using additional irrigant 3% HOor 4% NaOCl. 22 22 Teeth with single and double canals extracted for orthodontic reasons, were used in this study. After instrumentation, coronal and apical parts were removed. Middle parts were cut longitudinally into two equal segments. The specimens were grouped and treated: with HO2, NaOCl, and with combination of Na-EDTA+ HO2 and Na-EDTA+NaOCl where the irrigation with 2 Na-EDTA lasted 1 or 5 minutes. Control segments were enlarged and irrigated with distillate water to obtain the smear layer. The results obtained showed that irrigation with HOand NaOCl did 22 not remove the smear layer, one-minute application of 15% Na-EDTA followed by 4% NaOCl showed that the smear layer was completely removed. Using of 3% HOafter Na-EDTA over the same period of time obtained 22 less "clear" surfaces. Five-minute application of Na-EDTA caused excessive peritubular and intertubular dentinal erosion. It is concluded that for effective removal of smear layer with Na- EDTA, this procedure should not last longer than 1 minute and should be followed by NaOCl.

Gaši? Jovanka

2003-01-01

320

Comparison of different irrigation activation techniques on smear layer removal: An in vitro study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of different irrigation activation techniques on smear layer removal. About 80 single-rooted human maxillary central teeth were decoronated to a standardized length.The samples were prepared by using ProTaper system to size F4 and divided into eight equal groups (n?=?10) according to the final irrigation activation technique; distilled water was used as an irrigant in Group 1. The other groups were treated with 2.5% NaOCl and 17% EDTA, respectively. Conventional syringe irrigation (CSI) was used in Group 2. Irrigation solutions were activated using passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI, Group 3), EndoVac apical negative pressure (ANP, Group 4), diode laser (Group 5), Nd:YAG laser (Group 6), Er:YAG laser (Group 7), and Er:YAG laser using with photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS™, Group 8). Teeth were split longitudinally and subjected to scanning electron microscope (SEM). PIPS showed the best removal of smear layer when compared with PUI, ANP, Nd:YAG, and Er:YAG, but the difference was not statistically significant (P?>?0.05). Smear layer scores obtained with PIPS technique were statistically significant different from those of obtained with control, CSI and diode laser groups (P?laser removed smear layer more effectively at the coronal and middle levels compared to the apical level (P?laser have a positive effect on removing of smear layer. Microsc. Res. Tech. 78:230-239, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25582378

Akyuz Ekim, Sefika Nur; Erdemir, Ali

2015-03-01

321

High-resolution CT for identify patients with smear-positive, active pulmonary tuberculosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: This study evaluates the use of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) to differentiate smear-positive, active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) from other pulmonary infections in the emergency room (ER) setting. Methods: One hundred and eighty-three patients diagnosed with pulmonary infections in an ER were divided into an acid fast bacillus (AFB) smear-positive, active PTB group (G1 = 84) and a non-AFB smear-positive, pulmonary infection group (G2 = 99). HRCT images from a 64-Multidetector CT were analyzed, retrospectively, for the morphology, number, and segmental distribution of pulmonary lesions. Results: Utilizing multivariate analysis, five variables were found to be independent risk factors predictive of G1: (1) consolidation involving the apex segment of right upper lobe, posterior segment of the right upper lobe, or apico-posterior segment of the left upper lobe; (2) consolidation involving the superior segment of the right or left lower lobe; (3) presence of a cavitary lesion; (4) presence of clusters of nodules; (5) absence of centrilobular nodules. A G1 prediction score was generated based on these 5 criteria to help differentiate G1 from G2. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.96 ± 0.012 in our prediction model. With an ideal cut-off point score of 3, the specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) are 90.9%, 96.4%, 90.0% and 96.8%, respectively. Conclusion: Th% and 96.8%, respectively. Conclusion: The use of this AFB smear-positive, active PTB prediction model based on 5 key HRCT findings may help ER physicians determine whether or not isolation is required while awaiting serial sputum smear results in high risk patients.

322

Artificial blood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

Sarkar Suman

2008-01-01

323

Erythrocyte morphology in genetic defects of the Rh and Kell blood group systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Absence of KX antigen and of normal expression of the Kell system antigens is associated with bizarre red blood cell morphology when observed by either light or scanning electron microscopy. Numerous acanthocytes and dacryocytes have been observed in the peripheral blood smear of an apparently healthy individual with McLeod-phenotype blood, in a male patient with type II chronic granulomatous disease who had a shortened 51Cr red blood cell survival time, and in a minor population of the red blood cells of his carrier mother. PMID:402512

Taswell, H F; Lewis, J C; Marsh, W L; Wimer, B M; Pineda, A A; Brzica, S M

1977-03-01

324

LOW KNOWLEDGE OF CERVICAL CANCER AND CERVICAL PAP SMEARS AMONG WOMEN IN PERU, AND THEIR IDEAS OF HOW THIS COULD BE IMPROVED  

Science.gov (United States)

Estimates of the percentage of women who have had Pap smears in Peru vary between 7% and 43%. This study explores what women know about cervical cancer and Pap smears, as well as their barriers to obtaining Pap smears. Focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted with a total of 177 women in four Peruvian cities. Discussions reveal that most women did not know what causes cervical cancer. Most women did not know the purpose of Pap smears, although knowledge about Pap smears was higher than knowledge about cervical cancer. Fear, embarrassment, and lack of knowledge were the main barriers identified for not getting Pap smears. Programs and policies aiming to increase Pap smear coverage must start by educating women on cervical cancer and its prevention in order to improve women's perceptions about the screening test and increase Pap smear seeking behaviors in the long term. PMID:21988870

PAZ-SOLDÁN, VALERIE A.; NUSSBAUM, LAUREN; BAYER, ANGELA M.; CABRERA, LILIA

2013-01-01

325

Borrelia sp. in naturally infected Didelphis aurita (Wied, 1826) (marsupialia: didelphidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Cinquenta e seis gambás (Didelphis aurita) foram capturados no campus da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica - Rio de Janeiro, com o intuito de se investigar a ocorrência de Borrelia sp. entre eles, associada ao estudo da espiroquetemia e de seus ectoparasitos. Amostras de sangu [...] e dos animais foram examinadas à microscopia de campo escuro e contraste de fase, além deste ter se destinado à obtenção de esfregaços sanguíneos, corados pelo método de Giemsa. Não houve relação entre os resultados obtidos através dos exames diretos do sangue (13 gambás positivos para Borrelia sp.) e aqueles observados nos esfregaços sanguíneos (dois animais positivos), o que demonstra a baixa eficácia desta técnica. Estudos sobre a parasitemia de 37 animais mantidos em cativeiro, assim como as várias recapturas nas quais animais uma vez negativos mostraram-se positivos dias mais tarde, revelaram que os estudos hemoscópicos podem ser utilizados eficientemente como ferramentas de diagnóstico. Ectoparasitos colhidos de nove animais foram classificados. Houve ocorrência de ninfas Amblyomma cajennense e adultos Ctenocephalides sp. Abstract in english Fifty-six opossums (Didelphis aurita) were captured on the campus of Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica county, Rio de Janeiro state, in order to investigate the occurrence of Borrelia sp among them in relation with the study of spirochaetemia and its ectoparasites. Blood tests [...] were made through dark field and phase contrast microscopy, as well as the obtainment of blood smears. Smears were stained with Giemsa stain, which did not prove efficacy. There was no relation between results obtained through blood tests (13 opossum positive for Borreliasp.), and this technique (two positive animals). Parasitaemia studies of 37 animals kept in captivity as well as of several recaptures in which animals once negative proved to be positive days later, showed that haemoscopical studies could be used as an effective diagnosis tool. Ectoparasites from nine animals were classified; with the occurrence of nymphal Amblyomma cajennense and adult Ctenocephalides sp..

Isis dos Santos, Abel; Denclair Escobar de, Almeida Junior; Adivaldo Henrique da, Fonseca; Cleber Oliveira, Soares; Márcia Mayumi, Ishikawa.

326

Borrelia sp. in naturally infected Didelphis aurita (Wied, 1826 (marsupialia: didelphidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fifty-six opossums (Didelphis aurita were captured on the campus of Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica county, Rio de Janeiro state, in order to investigate the occurrence of Borrelia sp among them in relation with the study of spirochaetemia and its ectoparasites. Blood tests were made through dark field and phase contrast microscopy, as well as the obtainment of blood smears. Smears were stained with Giemsa stain, which did not prove efficacy. There was no relation between results obtained through blood tests (13 opossum positive for Borreliasp., and this technique (two positive animals. Parasitaemia studies of 37 animals kept in captivity as well as of several recaptures in which animals once negative proved to be positive days later, showed that haemoscopical studies could be used as an effective diagnosis tool. Ectoparasites from nine animals were classified; with the occurrence of nymphal Amblyomma cajennense and adult Ctenocephalides sp..Cinquenta e seis gambás (Didelphis aurita foram capturados no campus da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica - Rio de Janeiro, com o intuito de se investigar a ocorrência de Borrelia sp. entre eles, associada ao estudo da espiroquetemia e de seus ectoparasitos. Amostras de sangue dos animais foram examinadas à microscopia de campo escuro e contraste de fase, além deste ter se destinado à obtenção de esfregaços sanguíneos, corados pelo método de Giemsa. Não houve relação entre os resultados obtidos através dos exames diretos do sangue (13 gambás positivos para Borrelia sp. e aqueles observados nos esfregaços sanguíneos (dois animais positivos, o que demonstra a baixa eficácia desta técnica. Estudos sobre a parasitemia de 37 animais mantidos em cativeiro, assim como as várias recapturas nas quais animais uma vez negativos mostraram-se positivos dias mais tarde, revelaram que os estudos hemoscópicos podem ser utilizados eficientemente como ferramentas de diagnóstico. Ectoparasitos colhidos de nove animais foram classificados. Houve ocorrência de ninfas Amblyomma cajennense e adultos Ctenocephalides sp.

Isis dos Santos Abel

2000-01-01

327

BLOOD DONATION  

CERN Multimedia

A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

SC Unit

2008-01-01

328

Constraints on the Sealing Capacity of Faults with Clay Smears from Discrete Element Models Validated by Laboratory Experiments  

Science.gov (United States)

Prediction of hydrocarbon column heights in structural traps critically depends on proper analysis of the sealing capacity of faults. Entrainment of clay in fault zones in upper crustal levels may lead to the development of continuous clay smears that dramatically increase the sealing capacity of faults. In this study, direct shear experiments on large-scale samples of layered sandstone-claystone-sandstone are simulated using two-dimensional discrete element numerical models to study the development of clay smears for different claystone types and normal stress conditions. Analysis of clay smear structures in terms of drag, slicing, wear and flow of clay reveals that drag is dominant at low shear displacements and high local stress concentrations, slicing and wear become important at higher shear displacement and low stresses at source bed near the fault zone. Correlation between critical fault displacements in the experiments and local stress ratios (shear stress divided by normal stress) in the models is used to determine smear failure and leakage for all claystones and normal stresses. A smear breach diagram with sealing/leaking conditions for faults containing clay smears shows that clay smears may be sealing at larger displacements than predicted by other fault seal algorithms, such as shale gouge ratio, in particular for low shale content and high normal stress.

TerHeege, J. H.; Wassing, B. B. T.; Orlic, B.; Giger, S. B.; Clennell, M. B.

2013-05-01

329

An improved computer vision method for detecting white blood cells  

OpenAIRE

The automatic detection of White Blood Cells (WBC) still remains as an unsolved issue in medical imaging. The analysis of WBC images has engaged researchers from fields of medicine and computer vision alike. Since WBC can be approximated by an ellipsoid form, an ellipse detector algorithm may be successfully applied in order to recognize them. This paper presents an algorithm for the automatic detection of WBC embedded into complicated and cluttered smear images that conside...

Cuevas, Erik; Diaz, Margarita; Manzanares, Miguel; Zaldivar, Daniel; Perez, Marco

2014-01-01

330

BLOOD FLOW  

Science.gov (United States)

The lesson is design to describe the factors affecting blood flow through the cardiovascular system. The lesson uses the 5E model as an approach for students to become engaged, analytical and inquisitive in learning about the mechanism of blood flow and the importance of this in our body. In addition, the lesson engages the student to test variables that may affect blood flow.

ARNEL DELA CRUZ

2012-06-28

331

Preliminary Study of the Influence of Red Blood Cells Size on the Determinism of the Breed in Cattle  

OpenAIRE

This study was carried out on five cattle groups, local, cross, Prim'Holstein, Montbeliard, and Brown of the Alps, in order to study the influence of breed on erythrocytes diameter. For each breed, blood samples were taken from 15 adult females by jugular venipuncture; blood smears were made on slides immediately after the blood collection and stained according to the method of May-Gründwald Giemsa. Morphometric study was realized using the OPTIKA Pro Vision software. The statistical analysi...

Nezar Adili; Mohamed Melizi; Hadj Belabbas; Abdelhamid Achouri

2014-01-01

332

Influence of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate application, smear layer removal, and storage time on resin-dentin bonding*  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of Tooth Mousse (TM) application, smear layer removal, and storage time on resin-dentin microtensile bond strength (?TBS). Dentin specimens were divided into two groups: (1) smear layer covered; (2) smear layer removed using 15% EDTA for 90 s. In each group, half the specimens were treated once with TM for 60 min. After bonding procedures using a two-step self-etching adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond (CSE); Kuraray Medical, Tokyo, Japan), an all-i...

Lin, Jun; Zheng, Wei-ying; Liu, Peng-ruo-feng; Zhang, Ning; Lin, Hui-ping; Fan, Yi-jing; Gu, Xin-hua; Vollrath, Oliver; Mehl, Christian

2014-01-01

333

Citologia de Tzanck: redescobrindo uma antiga ferramenta diagnóstica / Tzanck smears: an old but useful diagnostic tool  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A citologia de Tzanck consiste em método simples e confiável para o diagnóstico de dermatoses virais, parasitárias, autoimunes e tumorais. Para exemplificar o emprego do teste de Tzanck em lesões vésico-bolhosas, um caso de pênfigo vulgar é descrito, cuja citologia e imunofluorescência direta, utili [...] zando-se esfregaço coletado de lesão oral, confirmaram o diagnóstico de forma rápida e fácil. Abstract in english Tzanck smears can be used for the diagnosis of cutaneous infections, autoimmune disorders and cutaneous tumors. To exemplify its use, we report a case of a female patient with pemphigus vulgaris whose diagnosis was confirmed by positive direct immunofluorescence and conventional cytology using smear [...] s obtained by scraping the cheek mucosa.

Moema Mignac Cumming, Brito; Daniela Chaves, Tarquínio; Darlene, Arruda; Roberto Silva, Costa; Ana Maria, Roselino.

2009-08-01

334

Automated smear counting and data processing using a notebook computer in a biomedical research facility.  

Science.gov (United States)

An automated smear counting and data processing system for a life science laboratory was developed to facilitate routine surveys and eliminate human errors by using a notebook computer. This system was composed of a personal computer, a liquid scintillation counter and a well-type NaI(Tl) scintillation counter. The radioactivity of smear samples was automatically measured by these counters. The personal computer received raw signals from the counters through an interface of RS-232C. The software for the computer evaluated the surface density of each radioisotope and printed out that value along with other items as a report. The software was programmed in Pascal language. This system was successfully applied to routine surveys for contamination in our facility. PMID:7558851

Ogata, Y; Nishizawa, K

1995-10-01

335

Bandwidth smearing in optical interferometry: Analytic model of the transition to the double fringe packet  

CERN Document Server

Bandwidth smearing is a chromatic aberration due to the finite frequency bandwidth. In long-baseline optical interferometry terms, it is when the angular extension of the source is greater than the coherence length of the interferogram. As a consequence, separated parts of the source will contribute to fringe packets that are not fully overlapping; it is a transition from the classical interferometric regime to a double or multiple fringe packet. While studied in radio interferometry, there has been little work on the matter in the optical, where observables are measured and derived in a different manner, and are more strongly impacted by the turbulent atmosphere. We provide here the formalism and a set of usable equations to model and correct for the impact of smearing on the fringe contrast and phase, with the case of multiple stellar systems in mind. The atmosphere is briefly modeled and discussed.

Lachaume, Régis

2012-01-01

336

Pap-smear Classification Using Efficient Second Order Neural Network Training Algorithms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we make use of two highly efficient second order neural network training algorithms, namely the LMAM (Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum) and OLMAM (Optimized Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum), for the construction of an efficient pap-smear test classifier. The algorithms are methodologically similar, and are based on iterations of the form employed in the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method for non-linear least squares problems with the inclusion of an additional adaptive momentum term arising from the formulation of the training task as a constrained optimization problem. The classification results obtained from the application of the algorithms on a standard benchmark pap-smear data set reveal the power of the two methods to obtain excellent solutions in difficult classification problems whereas other standard computational intelligence techniques achieve inferior performances.

Ampazis, Nikolaos; Dounias, George

2004-01-01

337

Effectiveness of a Canal Brush on Removing Smear Layer: A Scanning Electron Microscopic Study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia de um escova intra-canal (CanalBrush, Coltène) na remoção da smear layer das paredes do canal radicular, quando usada de acordo com as instruções do fabricante. Quarenta e quatro incisivos mandibulares unirradiculares foram instrumentados até o ápice co [...] m instrumentos 30/0.06 e aleatoriamente distribuidos em três grupos A, B e C, com regime de irrigação final de 10 mL a 17% EDTA e 10 mL NaOCl a 2,5% para o Grupo A; irrigação final de 10 mL EDTA, 5 mL NaOCl, uso da escovinha CanalBrush por 20 s a 450 rpm e 5 mL NaOCl para o Grupo B e 10 mL NaOCl, uso da escovinha CanalBrush e 10 mL NaOCl para o Grupo C. Foi utilizada escovinha CanalBrush de tamanho médio para cada canal e todas elas foram examinadas em microscópio para avaliação da deformação de cerdas. Depois as raízes foram cortadas longitudinalmente e a presença da smear layer foi avaliada por microscópio eletrônico de varredura. As escovinhas usadas apresentaram todas alguma deformação das cerdas. No Grupo C foi observada a maior média de área de smear layer em todos os terços dentais. Na comparação dos terços apicais de todos os grupos não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos A e B (3,64±0.48 e 3,68±0,62, respectivamente), enquanto que o Grupo C mostrou escores significativamente mais altos(3,9±0.28) que os outros dois grupos. Concluindo, a escovinha CanalBrush mostrou ser incapaz de remover a smear layer dos canais instrumentados, quando usada de acordo com as instruções do fabricante. Abstract in english This study evaluated the effectiveness of a highly flexible endodontic brush made of polypropylene canal brush (CanalBrush; Coltène) on smear layer removal from the canal walls when used according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Forty-four single-rooted mandibular incisors were prepared to ap [...] ical size 30/0.06 and randomly divided into three groups A, B and C, where the final irrigation regimen was 10 mL 17% EDTA and 10 mL 2.5% NaOCl for group A, 10 mL EDTA, 5 mL NaOCl, CanalBrush for 20 s at 450 rpm and 5 mL NaOCl for group B, 10 mL NaOCl, CanalBrush and 10 mL NaOCl for group C. One medium-sized CanalBrush was used for each root canal and all brushes were examined under the optical microscope after application to evaluate bristle deformation. Afterwards, roots were split longitudinally and the presence of smear layer was evaluated under a scanning electron microscope. Used brushes invariably exhibited bristle deformation. Group C exhibited the highest means of smear layer in all thirds. Comparing the apical thirds in all groups, there was no statistical difference between groups A and B (3.64±0.48 and 3.68±0.62 respectively), while group C exhibited significantly higher scores (3.9±0.28) than the other two groups. In conclusion, the CanalBrush proved unable to remove smear layer from the instrumented root canals, when used according to the manufacturers' instructions.

Eleni, Protogerou; Ioanna, Arvaniti; Ioannis, Vlachos; Marouan Georgios, Khabbaz.

2013-12-01

338

Cervix Cancer Diagnosis from Pap Smear Images Using Structure Based Segmentation and Shape Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available his work presents an approach for analysis of P AP s mear images of cervical region based on cell nuclei distribution and shape and size analysis. PAP smear test is an efficient and easy procedure to detect any abnor mality in cervical cells. But human observation is not always satisfying and it is a tedious task to manually analyze a large number of PAP smear images. The purpose of this study is to automate the screening process and to provide specific statistical data which will be helpful for detecting abnormalities in cervical region. The proposed approach is implemented in MATLAB®, a high level, interactive environment for data visualization/analysis/computation. The MATLAB® Image Processing Toolbox was used to segment the digital images and calculate various statistical data. By comparing cell nuclei distribution and taking into account the shape and size features MATLAB® can be programmed to distinguish normal cervical cell to questionable ones.

Lipi B. Mahanta

2012-02-01

339

On the conceptual equivalence of embedded strong discontinuity and smeared crack formulations:  

OpenAIRE

Embedded discontinuity formulations have been recently presented as a method of incorporating displacement discontinuities in standard finite elements. These elements allow inelastic deformations to be modelled using discrete constitutive models at an internal interface. However, the actual formulation of these models is identical in concept to more traditional fracture energy regularised smeared crack models. Rather than adjusting the hardening modulus depending on element size, the inela...

Wells, G. N.; Sluys, L. J.

2001-01-01

340

The Costs of an Outreach Intervention for Low-Income Women With Abnormal Pap Smears  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available IntroductionFollow-up among women who have had an abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap smear is often poor in public hospitals that serve women at increased risk for cervical cancer. This randomized controlled trial evaluated and compared the total cost and cost per follow-up of a tailored outreach intervention plus usual care with the total cost and cost per follow-up of usual care alone.MethodsWomen with an abnormal Pap smear (n = 348 receiving care at Alameda County Medical Center (Alameda County, California were randomized to intervention or usual care. The intervention used trained community health advisors to complement the clinic’s protocol for usual care. We assessed the costs of the intervention and the cost per follow-up within 6 months of the abnormal Pap smear test result.ResultsThe intervention increased the rate of 6-month follow-up by 29 percentage points, and the incremental cost per follow-up was $959 (2005 dollars. The cost per follow-up varied by the severity of the abnormality. The cost per follow-up for the most severe abnormality (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion was $681, while the cost per follow-up for less severe abnormalities was higher.ConclusionIn a health care system in which many women fail to get follow-up care for an abnormal Pap smear, outreach workers were more effective than usual care (mail or telephone reminders at increasing follow-up rates. The results suggest that outreach workers should manage their effort based on the degree of abnormality; most effort should be placed on women with the most severe abnormality (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.

Todd H. Wagner, PhD

2007-01-01

341

Clinical diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in low-income countries: the current evidence  

OpenAIRE

Sputum smear examination for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) can diagnose up to 50-60% of cases of pulmonary tuberculosis in well-equipped laboratories. In low-income countries, poor access to high-quality microscopy services contributes to even lower rates of AFB detection. Furthermore, in countries with high prevalence of both pulmonary tuberculosis and HIV infection, the detection rate is even lower owing to the paucibacillary nature of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with HIV infection. In the...

Siddiqi, K.; Lambert, M. L.; Walley, J.

2003-01-01

342

The Social Ecology of Cervical Cancer: The Challenges to Pap Smear Screening  

OpenAIRE

Cervical cancer is a preventable disease. The risk factors for the development of cervical cancer include both biologic factors and social factors. In the United States, the leading risk factor for the development of cervical cancer is not having a Pap smear for five years prior to the diagnosis of cancer. In low and middle income countries, cervical cancer incidence and mortality are directly related to the lack of both screening programs and cancer treatment facilitie...

Annekathryn Goodman

2013-01-01

343

Smears and cultures for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in an asymptomatic immigrant population  

OpenAIRE

Roberto Assael, Joaquin Cervantes, Gerardo Barrera Clinica Medica Internacional, Ciudad Juarez, Mexico Background: The World Health Organization estimated in 2010 that 8.8 million new tuberculosis (TB) cases. About one-third of the world's population is infected and 10% will develop active TB disease. While cultures remain the international gold standard for diagnosing TB disease, in many other low-income countries, sputum smears remain the only and most accessible tool with which to diag...

Assael R; Cervantes J; Barrera G

2013-01-01

344

Treatment outcome of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Monitoring the outcome of tuberculosis treatment and understanding the specific reasons for unsuccessful treatment outcome are important in evaluating the effectiveness of tuberculosis control program. This study investigated tuberculosis treatment outcomes and predictors for unsuccessful treatment outcome in the Tigray region of Ethiopia. Methods Medical records of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients registered from September 2009 to June 2011 in 15 distr...

Berhe Gebretsadik; Enquselassie Fikre; Aseffa Abraham

2012-01-01

345

Morphological findings in bone marrow biopsy and aspirate smears of visceral kala azar: A review  

OpenAIRE

Context: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in India and may simulate and cause many hematological disorders like pancytopenia, myelofibrosis, myelodysplasia and hemophagocytosis. Aims: The study aims to investigate the hematological manifestation of Visceral Leishmaniasis and associated changes that may be observed in bone marrow aspirate smears and biopsy which may warn a pathologist of possible infections. Settings and Design: This is a retrospective study of 18 VL cases on B (b) ...

Dhingra Kajal; Gupta Parul; Saroha Vijay; Setia Namrata; Khurana Nita; Singh Tejinder

2010-01-01

346

Validation of candidate smear microscope quality indicators, extracted from tuberculosis laboratory registers  

OpenAIRE

SETTING: Kinshasa Province, Democratic Republic of Congo. OBJECTIVE: To identify and validate register-based indicators of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) microscopy quality. DESIGN: Selection of laboratories based on reliability and variation in routine smear rechecking results. Calculation of relative sensitivity (RS) compared to recheckers and its correlation coefficient (R) with candidate indicators based on a fully probabilistic analysis incorporating vague prior information using WinBUGS. RESUL...

Deun, A.; Zwahlen, M.; Bola, V.; Lebeke, R.; Bahati, E.; Lubamba, P.; Rieder, H. L.

2007-01-01

347

Ploidy and chromatin pattern analysis as an aid for cervical smear diagnosis  

OpenAIRE

In the present study we used computerassisted microscopy to analyze the morphology of Feulgen-stained cell nuclei in cell populations obtained at the same time as routinely performed cervical smears and in the same way. We investigated in a series of 110 cases whether the quantitative morphonuclear description of cytological cervical samples is able to aid pathologists to distinguish between benign and more suspect premalignant lesions. For this task nuclear DN...

Nemec, E.; Vandeputte, S.; Pachterbeke, C.; Vokaer, R.; Budel, V.; Deprez, C.; Kiss, R.; Decaestecker, C.

2002-01-01

348

Classification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Images of ZN-Stained Sputum Smears  

OpenAIRE

Screening for tuberculosis (TB) in low- and middle-income countries is centered on the microscope. We present methods for the automated identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in images of Ziehl–Neelsen (ZN) stained sputum smears obtained using a bright-field microscope. We segment candidate bacillus objects using a combination of two-class pixel classifiers. The algorithm produces results that agree well with manual segmentations, as judged by the Hausdorff distance and the modified W...

Khutlang, Rethabile; Krishnan, Sriram; Dendere, Ronald; Whitelaw, Andrew; Veropoulos, Konstantinos; Learmonth, Genevieve; Douglas, Tania S.

2009-01-01

349

Recognition of Pneumocystis carinii by gram stain in impression smears of lung tissue.  

OpenAIRE

In 12 of 20 (60%) biopsy-proven cases of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, the diagnosis was first suggested by examination of routine Gram stains of impression smears made from infected lung tissue and later confirmed by methenamine-silver staining. The cysts appeared as 5- to 7-microns unstained spheres, each containing six to eight intracystic gram-negative bodies (sporozoites). Although the Gram stain does not appear to be as sensitive as more traditional staining techniques for the detecti...

Felegie, T. P.; Pasculle, A. W.; Dekker, A.

1984-01-01

350

Characterization of positive air ions in boreal forest air at the Hyytiälä SMEAR station  

OpenAIRE

The behavior of the concentration of positive small (or cluster) air ions and naturally charged nanometer aerosol particles (aerosol ions) has been studied on the basis of measurements carried out in a boreal forest at the Hyytiälä SMEAR station, Finland, during the BIOFOR III campaign in spring 1999. Statistical characteristics of the concentrations of cluster ions, two classes of aerosol ions of the sizes of 2.5–8 nm and 8–ca. 20 nm and the quantities that determine th...

Ho?rrak, U.; Aalto, P. P.; Salm, J.; Komsaare, K.; Tammet, H.; Ma?kela?, J. M.; Laakso, L.; Kulmala, M.

2007-01-01

351

Test and Treat: A New Standard for Smear-Positive Tuberculosis  

OpenAIRE

Optimizing sputum smear microscopy, the principal method of tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis in high-burden settings around the world, is a critical priority for global TB control. To improve rates of testing, completion, and reporting, the World Health Organization (WHO) recently endorsed a policy of same-day diagnosis of TB by microscopy. Unfortunately, the implementation of this policy has emphasized same-day sputum collection alone, with patients required to return on a subsequent day to colle...

Davis, J. Lucian; Dowdy, David W.; Den Boon, Saskia; Walter, Nicholas D.; Katamba, Achilles; Cattamanchi, Adithya

2012-01-01

352

Detection of Human Papillomavirus Type 18 E7 Oncoprotein in Cervical Smears: a Feasibility Study  

OpenAIRE

Persistent infections by high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the main etiological factor for cervical cancer, and expression of HPV E7 oncoproteins was suggested to be a potential marker for tumor progression. The objective of this study was to generate new reagents for the detection of the HPV18 E7 oncoprotein in cervical smears. Rabbit monoclonal antibodies against recombinant E7 protein of HPV type 18 (HPV18) were generated and characterized using Western blotting, epitope mapping,...

Ehehalt, Daniela; Lener, Barbara; Pircher, Haymo; Dreier, Kerstin; Pfister, Heiko; Kaufmann, Andreas M.; Frangini, Sergio; Ressler, Sigrun; Mu?ller-holzner, Elisabeth; Schmitt, Markus; Ho?fler, Daniela; Rostek, Ursula; Kaiser, Andreas; Widschwendter, Andreas; Zwerschke, Werner

2012-01-01

353

The string tension for Large N gauge theory from smeared Wilson loops  

CERN Document Server

Using smeared Creutz ratios we extract the string tension for SU(N) pure gauge theory and $N$=3,4,5,6,8. We employ these results to extrapolate to large N. The same methodology is applied to the single-site Twisted Eguchi Kawai model. The corresponding string tension matches perfectly within errors with the extrapolated one, providing strong evidence in favour of the twisted reduction framework. Interesting results are also obtained on the behaviour of Creutz ratios for large sizes.

González-Arroyo, Antonio

2012-01-01

354

Lymph node cellular morphology: comparative study of imprints and cytocentrifuge smears.  

OpenAIRE

To assess the usefulness of the lymph node imprint technique in quantitating cell types a comparative study using cytocentrifuge smears as controls was undertaken. The cell dimensions and distribution of cell types were compared in 12 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) using semi-automated image analysis. The results show that the imprint procedure introduces selective bias in favour of certain cell types; moreover, certain cell measurements, such as nuclear shape, are easier to see o...

Stevens, M. W.; Fazzalari, N. L.; Crisp, D. J.

1987-01-01

355

Fiberoptic bronchoscopy for the rapid diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background This study was aimed to investigate the diagnostic value of fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) with chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for the rapid diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in patients suspected of PTB but found to have a negative sputum acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear. Methods We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of results from FOB and HRCT in 126 patients at Gangnam Severance Hospital (Seoul, Korea) who were suspected of having PTB. Resul...

Shin Jung; Chang Yoon; Kim Tae; Kim Hyung; Ahn Chul; Byun Min

2012-01-01

356

The effect of pH of the sodium hypochlorite on smear layer removal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Canal irrigation is an important segment of endodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of 0.5% NaOCl solutions of different pH values on smear layer removal. Material and Methods. Thirty-two freshly extracted single rooted teeth with gangrenous pulp were used in the study. The samples were divided into four groups of eight teeth in each. Four solutions of 0.5% NaOCl having pH values 5, 7, 9 and 12 respectively, were used during chemomechanical instrumentation with hand instruments and using step back technique. SEM analysis was done to assess the quality of smear layer removal in apical, middle and coronal part of root canal. Presence and quantity of smear layer and detritus was quantified using the scale from 1 to 5. Results. SEM analysis results showed similar results for 0.5% NaOCl solutions of different pH values in root canal cleaning with no statistically significant differences. Conclusion. The most effective cleaning root canal was achieved with 0.5% NaOCl solution of pH 5.

Karadži? Branislav

2010-01-01

357

Influence of smear layer removal on the obturation of root canal ramifications  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated whether smear layer removal has any influence on the filling of the root canal system, by examining the obturation of lateral canals, secondary canals and apical deltas. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty maxillary and mandibular canines were randomly divided into two group [...] s, according to their irrigation regimen. Both groups were irrigated with 1% NaOCl during canal shaping, but only the teeth in Group II received a final irrigation with 17% EDTA for smear layer removal. The root canals were obturated with lateral condensation of gutta-percha and the specimens were cleared, allowing for observation under the microscope. RESULTS: In Groups I and II, 42.5% and 37.5% of the teeth, respectively, presented at least one filled canal ramification. Although a larger number of obturated ramifications was found in Group I, there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups (p = 0.4957). CONCLUSIONS: Smear layer removal under the conditions tested in this study did not affect the obturation of root canal ramifications when lateral condensation of gutta-percha was the technique used for root canal filling.

Elaine Vianna Freitas, Fachin; Roberta Kochenborger, Scarparo; Liliane Inês Sachet, Massoni.

2009-06-01

358

Influence of smear layer removal on the obturation of root canal ramifications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated whether smear layer removal has any influence on the filling of the root canal system, by examining the obturation of lateral canals, secondary canals and apical deltas. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty maxillary and mandibular canines were randomly divided into two groups, according to their irrigation regimen. Both groups were irrigated with 1% NaOCl during canal shaping, but only the teeth in Group II received a final irrigation with 17% EDTA for smear layer removal. The root canals were obturated with lateral condensation of gutta-percha and the specimens were cleared, allowing for observation under the microscope. RESULTS: In Groups I and II, 42.5% and 37.5% of the teeth, respectively, presented at least one filled canal ramification. Although a larger number of obturated ramifications was found in Group I, there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups (p = 0.4957. CONCLUSIONS: Smear layer removal under the conditions tested in this study did not affect the obturation of root canal ramifications when lateral condensation of gutta-percha was the technique used for root canal filling.

Elaine Vianna Freitas Fachin

2009-06-01

359

DNA extracted from stained sputum smears can be used in the MTBDRplus assay.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the feasibility of using DNA extracted from stained sputum smears for the detection of rifampin and isoniazid resistance with the commercial MTBDRplus assay from Hain Lifescience GmbH, Nehren, Germany. Overall sensitivity was initially low (70.0%) but increased to 96.7% when a multiplex PCR preamplification step was added. We then tested stored Mycobacterium tuberculosis-positive stained smears prepared from 297 patients' sputum samples. Species identification and drug susceptibility testing (DST) had been performed at the Institut Pasteur de Madagascar. Overall, the performance of the MTBDRplus assay applied to slide DNA was similar to that obtained in other studies with DNA extracted from clinical specimens. With the ready availability of stained smears in routine diagnostic laboratories and their easy transport and storage at room temperature, this approach should be useful for optimizing the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and for conducting resistance surveys aimed at identifying hot-spot regions and breaking chains of transmission. PMID:21832013

Dubois Cauwelaert, Natasha; Ramarokoto, Herimanana; Ravololonandriana, Pascaline; Richard, Vincent; Rasolofo, Voahangy

2011-10-01

360

Development of a clinical scoring system for the diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study developed a clinical score based on clinical and radiographic data for the diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (SNPT). SNPT was defined as a positive culture in Ogawa in a patient with two negative sputum smears. Data from patients admitted to the emergency ward with respir [...] atory symptoms and negative acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smears was analyzed by means of logistic regression to develop the predictive score.Two hundred and sixty two patients were included. Twenty patients had SNPT. The variables included in the final model were hemoptysis, weight loss, age > 45 years old, productive cough, upper-lobe infiltrate, and miliary infiltrate. With those, a score was constructed. The score values ranged from -2 to 6. The area under the curve for the ROC curve was 0.83 (95% CI 0.74-0.90). A score of value 0 or less was associated with a sensitivity of 93% and a score of more than 4 points was associated with a specificity of 92% for SNPT. Fifty-two point twenty-nine percent of patients had scores of less than one or more than four, what provided strong evidence against and in favor, respectively, for the diagnosis of SNPT. The score developed is a cheap and useful clinical tool for the diagnosis of SNPT and can be used to help therapeutic decisions in patients with suspicion of having SNPT.

Alonso, Soto; Lely, Solari; Juan, Agapito; Carlos, Acuna-Villaorduna; Marie-Laurence, Lambert; Eduardo, Gotuzzo; Patrick Van der, Stuyft.

2008-04-01

361

Effect of ultrasonication with EDTA or MTAD on smear layer, debris and erosion scores.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of ultrasonication with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and a mixture of tetracycline isomer, an acid, and a detergent (MTAD) as final canal irrigants on the smear layer, debris and erosion scores. Fifty-eight extracted single-rooted human teeth were instrumented with ProTaper rotary files up to size F3. According to the final irrigation regimen, the samples were distributed into the following groups: EDTA, MTAD, EDTA ultrasonicated for 1 min, and MTAD ultrasonicated for 1 min. The smear layer, debris and erosion scores were recorded at the apical, middle, and coronal third of each canal using a scanning electron microscope. Data were subjected to statistical evaluation using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (P MTAD. Also EDTA resulted in more erosion at the coronal level than MTAD when subjected to ultrasonication. Ultrasonic activation of EDTA significantly increased its erosive effects at the middle and coronal levels. Based on the present findings, MTAD appears to cause less dentinal erosion while allowing proper removal of the smear layer and debris. PMID:21467812

Dadresanfar, Bahareh; Khalilak, Zohreh; Delvarani, Abbas; Mehrvarzfar, Payman; Vatanpour, Mehdi; Pourassadollah, Mahsa

2011-03-01

362

Cord Blood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available   Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord blood is a sample of blood taken from a newborn baby's umbilical cord. It is a rich source of stem cells, umbilical cord blood and tissue are collected from material that normally has no use following a child’s birth. Umbilical cord blood and tissue cells are rich sources of stem cells, which have been used in the treatment of over 80 diseases including leukemia, lymphoma and anemia as bone marrow stem cell potency.  The most common disease category has been leukemia. The next largest group is inherited diseases. Patients with lymphoma, myelodysplasia and severe aplastic anemia have also been successfully transplanted with cord blood. Cord blood is obtained by syringing out the placenta through the umbilical cord at the time of childbirth, after the cord has been detached from the newborn. Collecting stem cells from umbilical blood and tissue is ethical, pain-free, safe and simple. When they are needed to treat your child later in life, there will be no rejection or incompatibility issues, as the procedure will be using their own cells. In contrast, stem cells from donors do have these potential problems. By consider about cord blood potency, cord blood banks (familial or public were established. In IRAN, four cord blood banks has activity, Shariati BMT center cord blood bank, Royan familial cord blood banks, Royan public cord blood banks and Iranian Blood Transfusion Organ cord blood banks. Despite 50,000 sample which storage in these banks, but the user centers are few, we hope in all providence the transplantation center will establish by good activity to improve social welfare. Key words: Bone marrow, Cord blood, Peripheral blood.

Saeed Abroun

2014-05-01

363

Color contrast of red blood cells on solid substrate  

Science.gov (United States)

In present study we developed the new method of colour visualization of red blood cells without using any chemical staining. The method based on physical phenomena a white light interference on thin transparent films. It is shown that in the case of thin human blood smears colour interference contrast occurs on solid polished substrates. The best contrast shows substrates with maximal refractive index (Mo, W, Si). These materials have been selected as substrate instead of ordinary microscopic slide in reflected light microscopy. It is shown that reflection of incident white light from blood cell surface and boundary cell-substrate generate two coherent lights. The second one (object signal) after passing through red blood cell gathers additional phase and after interference interaction with reference signal (light reflected from outer cell surface) enables cell image in colour. Number of blood smears of healthy persons (control) and patients who were diagnosed with cancer are presented. It is concluded that the offered method may be used as an effective diagnostic tool to detect early stage blood cells lesion by its interference painting in white light. Offered method may be used in research laboratories, hospitals, diagnostic centres, emergency medicine and other as complementary diagnostic tool to present convenient optical and electron microscopy technique.

Paiziev, Adkham A.

2013-02-01

364

Isolation of an Anaplasma sp. Organism from White-Tailed Deer by Tick Cell Culture  

OpenAIRE

We used tick cell culture to isolate a bacterium previously referred to as the “white-tailed deer (WTD) agent” from two captive fawns inoculated with blood from wild WTD (Odocoileus virginianus). Buffy coat cells were added to ISE6 tick cell cultures and incubated at 34°C, and 8 days later, Anaplasma-like inclusions were demonstrated in Giemsa-stained culture samples. The microbes became established and could be continuously passaged in tick cells. The identity of a culture isolate desig...

Munderloh, Ulrike G.; Tate, Cynthia M.; Lynch, Meghan J.; Howerth, Elizabeth W.; Kurtti, Timothy J.; Davidson, William R.

2003-01-01

365

Ocurrence of co-infection by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi and Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) evansi in a dog in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil  

OpenAIRE

A natural case of co-infection by Leishmania and Trypanosoma is reported in a dog (Canis familiaris) in south- western state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Both amastigote and trypomastigote forms were observed after Giemsa staining of cytological preparations of the dog's bone marrow aspirate. No parasite was detected using medium culture inoculation of the sample. DNA obtained from the bone marrow aspirate sample and from the blood buffy coat was submitted to polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...

Elisa San Martin Mouriz Savani; Vania Lúcia Brandão Nunes; Eunice Aparecida Bianchi Galati; Tiago Moreno Castilho; Fernando Shiroma de Araujo; Iêda Maria Novaes Ilha; Maria Cecília Gibrail de Oliveira Camargo; Auria, Sandra Regina Nicoletti D.; Lucile Maria Floeter-Winter

2005-01-01

366

Diagnosis of malaria in the field by fluorescence microscopy of QBC capillary tubes.  

OpenAIRE

The diagnostic performance of commercial capillary tubes containing acridine orange dye (QBC) was compared with the standard diagnosis of malaria by microscopical examination of Giemsa-stained thick blood films (GTS) in remote field conditions. The comparison was conducted among 165 volunteers living in northeastern Irian Jaya, Indonesia, an area having hyperendemic malaria transmission. By GTS, 65 volunteers were positive for malaria, but only 49 were judged positive by QBC. Among the 100 bl...

Baird, Jk; Jones, Tr

1992-01-01

367

Hematochezia before the First Feeding in a Newborn with Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome  

OpenAIRE

The prevalence and incidence of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) are clearly not known; its onset before first feeding at birth especially has been rarely reported. A female newborn was referred to our institution due to blood-stained diarrhea before her first feeding at birth. Examination of the stool with Wright-Giemsa staining on day 6 revealed numerous fecal eosinophils, including Charcot-Leyden crystals. Lymphocyte stimulation test (LST) against cow's milk protein also...

Mizuno, Masanori; Masaki, Hiroshi; Yoshinare, Ryoko; Ito, Yujun; Morita, Hideyuki; Yoshio, Hiroyuki

2011-01-01

368

Maternal peripheral blood level of IL-10 as a marker for inflammatory placental malaria  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Placental malaria (PM) is an important cause of maternal and foetal mortality in tropical areas, and severe sequelae and mortality are related to inflammation in the placenta. Diagnosis is difficult because PM is often asymptomatic, peripheral blood smear examination detects parasitemia as few as half of PM cases, and no peripheral markers have been validated for placental inflammation. Methods In a cohort of Tanzanian parturients, PM was determined by placental blood smea...

Mutabingwa Theonest K.; Kurtis Jonathan D; Fried Michal; Muehlenbachs Atis; Kabyemela Edward R; Duffy Patrick E

2008-01-01

369

Morphology of peripheral blood cells from various species of Turkish Herpetofauna  

OpenAIRE

In this study, measurements of morphological and size parameters of peripheral blood cells (erythrocyte, leucocyte, thrombocyte) on blood smear preparation devices stained with Wright’s stain were given for 87 species from Turkish herpetofauna (19 amphibian species including 7 urodeles and 12 anurans as well as 68 reptile species including 4 turtles, 30 lizards and 34 snakes). It was determined that erythrocyte and nucleus sizes showed great variations among the species of herpetofauna...

Kerim Çiçek; Hüseyin Ar?kan

2010-01-01

370

Characterisation of extensional faults in carbonate rocks (Suez Rift, Egypt); with particular focus on the role of shale smear  

OpenAIRE

The distribution, composition and flow-properties of fault core and shale smear along faults in carbonate reservoirs is less well understood compared to faults in siliciclastic rocks. This study uses field data to characterize and quantify fault zone properties that are critical for understanding structural heterogeneity in carbonate reservoirs. The study focus on; (1) variability and co-dependence of displacement, shale smear, fault- thickness, -composition and -geometry; (2) the effect of s...

Elvik, Lillian

2012-01-01

371

Rapid Identification of Mycobacteria from Smear-Positive Sputum Samples by Nested PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis?  

OpenAIRE

The rapid identification of mycobacteria from smear-positive sputum samples is an important clinical issue. Furthermore, the availability of a cheap, technically simple, and accurate method also would benefit mycobacterial laboratories in developing countries. In the present study, we aimed to develop an assay allowing the identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and other frequently isolated nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) directly from smear-positive sputum samples....

Wu, Tsu-lan; Chia, Ju-hsin; Kuo, An-jing; Su, Lin-hui; Wu, Ting-shu; Lai, Hsin-chih

2008-01-01

372

Comparative study of visual inspection of the cervix using acetic acid (VIA) and Papanicolaou (Pap) smears for cervical cancer screening  

OpenAIRE

This article is a comparative study of two screening methods for pre-invasive lesions of the cervix. The Papanicolaou (Pap) smear, an old and tested screening method, is compared with the findings from visual inspection of the cervix following acetic acid (VIA) wash. VIA is a new screening method being advocated by the World Health Organization as an alternative to Pap smear in low-resource settings.

Albert, So; Oguntayo, Oa; Samaila, Moa

2012-01-01

373

Sputum smear microscopy in DOTS: Are three samples necessary? An analysis and its implications in tuberculosis control  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: To assess relevance of spot morning spot (SMS) method of smear microscopy in tuberculosis control by directly observed treatment short course (DOTS). Materials and Methods : Screening of smear microscopy results of 546 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis at our DOTS centre. Results: Among 546 cases, 82% had all three samples positive for AFB, 98% had either morning sample or spot and morning sample positive. 2% had second spot sample positive. Conclusion: Ex...

Rao Sukhesh

2009-01-01

374

Associations of demographic variables and the Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana  

OpenAIRE

Ditsapelo M McFarland College of Nursing and Public Health, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA Purpose: Papanicolaou (Pap) smear services are available in most urban areas in Botswana. Yet most women in such areas do not screen regularly for cancer of the cervix. The purpose of this article is to present findings on the associations of demographic variables and Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana. Sample and methods: The study included a...

McFarl; DM

2013-01-01

375

Pap smear  

Science.gov (United States)

... risk of cervical cancer is greater with HSIL Carcinoma in situ (CIS): This result most often means the abnormal changes are likely to lead to cervical cancer if not treated Atypical squamous cells (ASC): Abnormal changes have been ...

376

Fecal smear  

Science.gov (United States)

... This will provide a better sample. Put the sample in a container given to you by your health care provider. Make sure you follow your health care provider's instructions for returning the sample. Return the sample to the laboratory as soon ...

377

Has the ThinPrep method of cervical screening maintained its improvement over conventional smears in terms of specimen adequacy?  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Liquid-based cytology (LBC) has replaced conventional smear assessment in many centers over recent years. In our laboratory this transfer took place in 1999. At that time we performed a split sample study comparing the conventional method of cervical smear evaluation with the ThinPrep system. This split sample study identified a dramatic improvement in specimen adequacy with LBC. While 11% of conventional preparations were reported as unsatisfactory and almost 9% were reported as suboptimal, evaluation of the same cases using LBC saw this combined figure reduced to 2.3%. AIM: To evaluate whether this dramatic fall in unsatisfactory smears has been maintained with the use of LBC. The database for all smears reported for 2005 (100% LBC) was interrogated. The number of unsatisfactory reports was calculated. The reason for an unsatisfactory report was recorded for each case. The overall unsatisfactory rate was compared with that reported in the 1999 split sample study. A total of 41,312 smear tests were reported in 2005. 1,342 (3.25%) were reported as unsatisfactory. Our findings support the ongoing value of LBC in a routine cervical screening laboratory in terms of continuing to maintain a low rate of unsatisfactory smears.

Treacy, A

2009-04-01

378

Smearing technique for vibration analysis of simply supported cross-stiffened and doubly curved thin rectangular shells  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Plates stiffened with ribs can be modeled as equivalent homogeneous isotropic or orthotropic plates. Modeling such an equivalent smeared plate numerically, say, with the finite element method requires far less computer resources than modeling the complete stiffened plate. This may be important when a number of stiffened plates are combined in a complicated assembly composed of many plate panels. However, whereas the equivalent smeared plate technique is well established and recently improved for flat panels, there is no similar established technique for doubly curved stiffened shells. In this paper the improved smeared plate technique is combined with the equation of motion for a doubly curved thin rectangular shell, and a solution is offered for using the smearing technique for stiffened shell structures. The developed prediction technique is validated by comparing natural frequencies and mode shapes as well as forced responses from simulations based on the smeared theory with results from experiments with adoubly curved cross-stiffened shell. Moreover, natural frequencies of cross-stiffened panels determined by finite element simulations that include the exact cross-sectional geometries of panels with cross-stiffeners are compared with predictions based on the smeared theory for a range of different panel curvatures. Good agreement is found.

Luan, Yu; Ohlrich, Mogens

2011-01-01

379

Blood safety.  

OpenAIRE

Since blood is a biologic product, it is unlikely that the risk for transfusion-transmitted infection will ever be reduced to zero. The approach to emerging infections associated with transfusion of blood and blood products includes assessing the transmissibility of the agent by this route; developing effective prevention strategies, including screening tests and donor deferral policies; improving viral and bacterial inactivation procedures; and surveillance for known, as well as emerging and...

Chamberland, M. E.; Epstein, J.; Dodd, R. Y.; Persing, D.; Will, R. G.; Demaria, A.; Emmanuel, J. C.; Pierce, B.; Khabbaz, R.

1998-01-01

380

Correlation between Sex Chromatin and Female Breast Tumour in Paraffin Sections, Buccal Smears and Peripheral Blood Films  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: Sex chromatin is a plano-convex to triangular DNA mass measuring approximately 1?m in size and lying adjacent to the inner side of nuclear membrane in the somatic cells of the females. There is consistent loss in the sex chromatin percentage in the carcinoma cases in comparison to benign lesions and normal individuals.

Vijay Kumar, Bodal; Ravneet, Kalra; Manjit Singh, Bal; Ranjeev, Bhagat; Kalyan, Gurdeep Singh; Nishit, Gupta; Anil, Suri; Richika,

2014-01-01

381

Histomorphometric study on blood cells in male adult ostrich.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to perform a histomorphometric study of blood cells in male adult ostrich, blood samples were obtained from jugular vein of 10 clinically healthy male adult ostriches (2 - 3 years old). The slides were stained with the Giemsa methods and the smears were evaluated for cellular morphology, with cellular size being determined by micrometry. The findings of this study revealed that the shape of the cell, cytoplasm and nucleus of erythrocytes in male adult ostriches were similar to those in other birds such as quails, chickens, Iranian green-head ducks. PMID:25653798

Tadjalli, Mina; Nazifi, Saeed; Marzban Abbasabadi, Behrokh; Majidi, Banafsheh

2013-01-01

382

Histomorphometric study on blood cells in male adult ostrich  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to perform a histomorphometric study of blood cells in male adult ostrich, blood samples were obtained from jugular vein of 10 clinically healthy male adult ostriches (2 - 3 years old. The slides were stained with the Giemsa methods and the smears were evaluated for cellular morphology, with cellular size being determined by micrometry. The findings of this study revealed that the shape of the cell, cytoplasm and nucleus of erythrocytes in male adult ostriches were similar to those in other birds such as quails, chickens, Iranian green-head ducks.

Mina Tadjalli

2013-09-01

383

A neural-network-based approach to white blood cell classification.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a new white blood cell classification system for the recognition of five types of white blood cells. We propose a new segmentation algorithm for the segmentation of white blood cells from smear images. The core idea of the proposed segmentation algorithm is to find a discriminating region of white blood cells on the HSI color space. Pixels with color lying in the discriminating region described by an ellipsoidal region will be regarded as the nucleus and granule of cytoplasm of a white blood cell. Then, through a further morphological process, we can segment a white blood cell from a smear image. Three kinds of features (i.e., geometrical features, color features, and LDP-based texture features) are extracted from the segmented cell. These features are fed into three different kinds of neural networks to recognize the types of the white blood cells. To test the effectiveness of the proposed white blood cell classification system, a total of 450 white blood cells images were used. The highest overall correct recognition rate could reach 99.11% correct. Simulation results showed that the proposed white blood cell classification system was very competitive to some existing systems. PMID:24672374

Su, Mu-Chun; Cheng, Chun-Yen; Wang, Pa-Chun

2014-01-01

384

Blood cell lineage in the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus (Pisces: Petromyzontidae)  

Science.gov (United States)

Blood cell types of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, are described and identified and the lineage of mature circulating cells in peripheral blood is traced to blast cells in the hematopoietic fat body. The fat body appears to be the phylogenetic precursor of bone marrow in higher forms, since blood cells originate and begin maturation in this tissue. Experimental animals were injected first with a hematopoietic stimulant and then (at an experimentally determined time) with pertussis vaccine to release proliferated blood cells into peripheral blood. Peripheral blood for smears was collected by cardiac exsanguination; hematopoietic tissue was extirpated for imprints; and leucocyte preparations were made by a special technique. Blood cells of the sea lamprey are apparently products of at least four distinct blast cells, each of which has a 'one end' maturation process. Results of this investigation support the polyphyletic theory of blood cell formation.

Piavis, George W.; Hiatt, James L.

1971-01-01

385

Blood irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Viable lymphocytes are present in blood and cellular blood components used for transfusion. If the patient who receives a blood transfusion is immunocompetent these lymphocytes are destroyed immediately. However if the patient is immunodefficient or immunosuppressed the transfused lymphocytes survive, recognize the recipient as foreign and react producing a devastating and most often fatal syndrome of transfusion graft versus host disease [T-GVHD]. Even immunocompetent individuals can develop T-GVHD if the donor is a first degree relative since like the Trojan horse the transfused lymphocytes escape detection by the recipient's immune system, multiply and attack recipient tissues. T-GVHD can be prevented by irradiating the blood and different centers use doses ranging from 1.5 to 4.5 Gy. All transfusions where the donor is a first degree relative and transfusions to neonates, immunosuppressed patients and bone marrow transplant recipients need to be irradiated. Commercial irradiators specifically designed for irradiation of blood and cellular blood components are available: however they are expensive. India needs to have blood irradiation facilities available in all large tertiary institutions where immunosuppressed patients are treated. The Atomic Energy Commission of India needs to develop a blood irradiator which meets international standards for use in tertiary medical institutions in the country. (author)

386

Blood Types  

Science.gov (United States)

... cause serious health problems. Back Continue Why Blood Type Matters The immune system produces proteins known as antibodies that act as ... B or AB blood) enter your body, your Type A immune system gets fired up against them. That means you ...

387

Artificial Blood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The problems and additional cost factor involved in collecting and storing human blood, as well as the pending worldwide shortages are the main driving forces in the development of blood substitutes. Studies on artificial blood basically aim to develop oxygen carrying compounds, produce stem cell-based erythrocyte cells in vitro and, implement the functions and movements of natural hemoglobin molecules found in erythrocyte cells through artificial erythrocyte cells. Consequently, major areas of research in artificial blood studies are haemoglobin-based oxygen carriers, perfluorochemicals, respirocytes and stem cells. Even though these artificial erythrocyte cells do not qualify as perfect red blood cell substitutes yet, they have many potential clinical and non clinical uses. Studies are being carried out on the elimination of side effects of blood substitutes and extensive clinical trials are being conducted to test their safety and efficacy. Artificial blood substitutes could only be used clinically for patient management following clinical trials and approvals, and will be the ultimate global solution to the problems associated with donor scarcity, blood collection and transfusion-mediated diseases. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(2.000: 95-108

Umit Yasar

2012-04-01

388

Blood donation  

CERN Multimedia

A blood donation is organised by the Cantonal Hospital of Geneva On Thursday 19 March 2009 from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT 2 Number of donations during the last blood donations :135 donors in July 2008 122 donors in November 2008 Let’s do better in 2009 !!! Give 30 minutes of your time to save lives...

GS Department

2009-01-01

389

Women who take pap smear in Fortaleza - social and sexual characterization.   

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Considering the epidemiological relevance and the mortality of Uterine Cervix Cancer, the aim of this study is know the gynecological profile of women who take Pap smear in a basic unit of a metropolitan area. This is an exploratory study, with quantitative approach and traversal outlining which took place in a Center of Natural Childbirth with 72 women. The data was collected during the women’s appointment and the through analysis of the charts. It was found that most women had up to 40 years of age (42; 58,5%, with low education degree (44; 61,1%, married (39; 54,2%, with menarche from 10 to 13 years (36; 50% and first sexual relation between 12 and 19 years (46; 63,9%. It was also found that some did not  use contraceptive method (30; 41,7%, maintained vaginal only sexual relations (39; 54,1% and did the Pap smear test annually (38; 53%. Its was observed a good adhesion to the Pap smear test by the women, even though not obeying a regular periodicity. These particular studies are of great importance, because it pounts out characteristics that interfere in the woman's health and make it possible for the health professionals to recognize what needs to be improved, together with the satisfactory characteristics in the development of these women's health.

Camila Félix Américo

2009-12-01

390

Interferon release does not add discriminatory value to smear-negative HIV-tuberculosis algorithms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinical algorithms for evaluating HIV-infected individuals for tuberculosis (TB) prior to isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) perform poorly, and interferon-? release assays (IGRAs) have moderate accuracy for active TB. It is unclear whether, when used as adjunct tests, IGRAs add any clinical discriminatory value for active TB diagnosis in the pre-IPT assessment. 779 sputum smear-negative HIV-infected persons, established on or about to commence combined antiretroviral therapy (ART), were screened for TB prior to IPT. Stepwise multivariable logistic regression was used to develop clinical prediction models. The discriminatory ability was assessed by receiver operator characteristic area under the curve (AUC). QuantiFERON-TB Gold in-tube (QFT-GIT) was evaluated. The prevalence of smear-negative TB by culture was 6.4% (95% CI 4.9-8.4%). Used alone, QFT-GIT and the tuberculin skin test (TST) had comparable performance; the post-test probability of disease based on single negative tests was 3-4%. In a multivariable model, the QFT-GIT test did not improve the ability of a clinical algorithm, which included not taking ART, weight <60 kg, no prior history of TB, any one positive TB symptom/sign (cough ? 2 weeks) and CD4+ count <250 cells per mm(3), to discriminate smear-negative culture-positive and -negative TB (72% to 74%; AUC comparison p=0.33). The TST marginally improved the discriminatory ability of the clinical model (to 77%, AUC comparison p=0.04). QFT-GIT does not improve the discriminatory ability of current TB screening clinical algorithms used to evaluate HIV-infected individuals for TB ahead of preventive therapy. Evaluation of new TB diagnostics for clinical relevance should follow a multivariable process that goes beyond test accuracy. PMID:21719487

Rangaka, M X; Gideon, H P; Wilkinson, K A; Pai, M; Mwansa-Kambafwile, J; Maartens, G; Glynn, J R; Boulle, A; Fielding, K; Goliath, R; Titus, R; Mathee, S; Wilkinson, R J

2012-01-01

391

Rapid molecular diagnosis of tuberculosis and other mycobacteriosis in smear-negative clinical specimens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Delay in diagnosis of pulmonary and other forms of tuberculosis (TB can be fatal, particularly in HIV-infected patients. Hence, techniques based on nucleic acid amplification, which are both rapid and of high specificity and sensitivity, are now widely used and recommended for laboratories that diagnose TB. In the present study, diagnostic methods based on mycobacterial DNA amplification were evaluated in comparative trials alongside tradicional bacterial methods, using negative smear samples from patients with clinically-suspected TB (sputum samples from 25 patients with suspected pulmonary TB, urine samples from two patients with suspected renal TB and cerebrospinal fluid samples from one patient with suspected meningeal TB. A specificity of 100% was achieved with DNA amplification methods and tradicional culture/identification methods, in relation to clinical findings and treatment results. For the smear-negative sputa, conventional PCR for M. tuberculosis was positive in 62% of suspected lung TB case, showing the same sensitivity as bacterial identification. Both techniques failed in the detection of extra-pulmonary samples. Nested PCR showed, after species-specific amplification, a sensitivity of 100% for M. avium and 85% for M. tuberculosis. For extra-pulmonary smear-negative samples, only Nested PCR detected M. tuberculosis and all cases were confirmed clinically. Nested PCR, in which two-step amplification reactions are performed, can identify the two most important mycobacteria in human pathology quickly and directly from clinical spicimens. Keywords: tuberculosis; M. avium; Nested PCR; Smearnegative specimens

S. R.A. Leite

2009-01-01

392

Pap Smear Screening Test and it’s Applications in Cervical Cancer Detection and Classification  

OpenAIRE

A large group of women population, in the world is affected by the cervical cancer in their different age groups. Hence, most of the researchers, pathologists and also more number of collegiate have provided more number of solutions, to identify this cancer from the test images of pap smear screening test. But their results represent, only to an extent, whether the patient is affected by cancer or not, and do not specially identify the exact nature and severity of the cancer. In this paper, i...

Athinarayanan, S.; Srinath, Dr M. V.

2013-01-01

393

Early Bactericidal Activity of Paromomycin (Aminosidine) in Patients with Smear-Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis  

OpenAIRE

The early bactericidal activity of the aminoglycoside paromomycin (aminosidine) in doses of 7.5 and 15 mg/kg of body weight was measured in 22 patients with previously untreated smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis. The fall in log10 CFU per milliliter of sputum per day during the first 2 days of treatment for 7 patients receiving a paromomycin dosage of 7.5 mg/kg/day was 0.066, with a standard deviation (SD) of 0.216 and confidence limits from ?0.134 to 0.266, and that for 15 patients rec...

Donald, P. R.; Sirgel, F. A.; Kanyok, T. P.; Danziger, L. H.; Venter, A.; Botha, F. J.; Parkin, D. P.; Seifart, H. I.; Wal, B. W.; Maritz, J. S.; Mitchison, D. A.

2000-01-01

394

Non-perturbative improvement of stout-smeared three flavour clover fermions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We discuss a 3-flavour lattice QCD action with clover improvement in which the fermion matrix has single level stout smearing for the hopping terms together with unsmeared links for the clover term. With the (tree-level) Symanzik improved gluon action this constitutes the Stout Link Non-perturbative Clover or SLiNC action. To cancel O(a) terms the clover term coefficient has to be tuned. We present here results of a non-perturbative determination of this coefficient using the Schroedinger functional and as a by-product a determination of the critical hopping parameter. Comparisons of the results are made with lowest order perturbation theory. (orig.)

Cundy, N.; Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (GB). School of Physics and Astronomy] (and others)

2009-01-15

395

Determining the interobserver reproducibility of Pap smears in the diagnosis of epithelial cell abnormalities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Cancer of uterine cervix is the second cause of death in women in the world and the most common cause in developing countries. Because the majority of women with invasive cervical cancer of the uterine have not previously undergone screening, many clinicians assume that Pap smear has a high degree of accuracy; but problems such as false positive and false negative interpretations, as well as interobserver variability have questioned its validity."n"nMethods : We retrieved 162 positive cervical smears that had been originally interpreted as ASC-US, ASC-H, LSIL, HSIL, SCC, AGC and adenocarcinoma from the cytology archives of Women's Hospital in Tehran, Iran. The slides were rescreened by an experienced pathologist and reclassified in the mentioned categories. All the 162 slides were reviewed by three more pathologists in a blind study using interpretative criteria utilized in their daily routine to evaluate interobserver reproducibility. To increase the level of interobserver agreement, the diagnostic categories were reduced to squamous Vs. glandular abnormalities and invasive (SCC and adenocarcinoma Vs. non-invasive abnormalities."n"nResults : The results obtained in this study indicated slight interobserver agreement (k=0.26. The most reproducible category was the invasive category (SCC in addition to adenocarcinoma and the least agreement was seen for HSIL (k=0.19. "n"nConclusion: This study showed that reproducibility of cytological interpretation of conventional Pap smears varies among interpretive categories and the overall interobserver agreement is slight. Since convening on the reduction of interobserver discrepancy in Pap smear interpretations necessitates more reliable information of interpretative variability, larger studies need to be undertaken.

Izadi-Mood N

2011-07-01

396

Use of Polyphosphate to Decrease Uranium Leaching in Hanford 300 Area Smear Zone Sediments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The primary objective of this study is to summarize the laboratory investigations performed to evaluate short- and long-term effects of phosphate treatment on uranium leaching from 300 area smear zone sediments. Column studies were used to compare uranium leaching in phosphate-treated to untreated sediments over a year with multiple stop flow events to evaluate longevity of the uranium leaching rate and mass. A secondary objective was to compare polyphosphate injection, polyphosphate/xanthan injection, and polyphosphate infiltration technologies that deliver phosphate to sediment.

Szecsody, James E.; Zhong, Lirong; Oostrom, Martinus; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Williams, Mark D.

2012-09-30

397

Noise reduction by combining smearing with multi-level integration methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we propose an algorithm that combines the Luescher–Weiss (LW) multi-level error reduction technique with three-dimensional gauge-field smoothing. The purpose of this algorithm is to reduce the noise and the computational time associated with measuring field correlators in the low temperature pure quantum chromodynamics (QCD), or the stringy regions of Yang–Mills theory in general. The simultaneous application of both link-blocking and path-integral factorization techniques is based on the observation that Monte Carlo updating of the three-dimensional smeared lattices preserves the key features of the long distance physics. (author)

398

Variable electronic shutter in CMOS imager with improved anti smearing techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

A leakage compensated snapshot imager provides a number of different aspects to prevent smear and other problems in a snapshot imager. The area where the imager is formed may be biased in a way that prevents photo carriers including electrons and holes from reaching a storage area. In addition, a number of different aspects may improve the efficiency. The capacitance per unit area of the storage area may be one, two or more orders of magnitude greater than the capacitance per-unit area of the photodiode. In addition, a ratio between photodiode capacitance and storage area capacitance is maintained larger than 0.7.

Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

2005-01-01

399

Women who take pap smear in Fortaleza - social and sexual characterization.   

OpenAIRE

Considering the epidemiological relevance and the mortality of Uterine Cervix Cancer, the aim of this study is know the gynecological profile of women who take Pap smear in a basic unit of a metropolitan area. This is an exploratory study, with quantitative approach and traversal outlining which took place in a Center of Natural C...

Camila Félix Américo; Lydia Vieira Freitas; Levânia Maria Benevides Dias; Ana Carolina Maria Araújo Chagas; Thaís Marques Lima; Escolástica Rejane Ferreira Moura; Ana Karina Bezerra Pinheiro

2009-01-01

400

Detection of mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical samples by smear and culture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A retrospective study was carried out in order to compare the smear stained by ZN and Lowenstein-Jensen (U) medium for the detection of Mycobacterium in clinical samples from different categories. Study Design: Laboratory based, Retrospective. Place and Duration: Sir Ganga Ram Hospital Fatima Jinnah Medical College, Lahore over a 5 year period between Jan 2001 and June 2006. Material and Methods: A total of 798 clinical samples were collected from patients of both sexes and all ages with a provisional diagnosis of tuberculosis. A Ziehl-Neelsen stain (ZN) and culture on U medium was performed for the detection of Mycobacterium. The specimen categories were sputum, pus, lymph node aspirate, urine and endometrial curetting. Results: Out of 5 types of 798 specimens received over a period of five years, only 46.3%) (n=369) were respiratory whereas the remaining 53.7% (n=429) were non respiratory tract category samples including sputum, pus, lymph node aspirate, urine and endometrial curetting. All were examined for the presence of acid-fast-bacilli (AFB) in ZN smear. Among these 3.578% gave a positive ZN stain while 11.65% were positive on culture. Out of a total of 369 respiratory tract category samples, 38 (10.3%) sputum samples were positive for AFB on both ZN and culture. Among the non respiratory tract category, 47 (28.2%) pus, 26 (31%) LN aspirate, 5 (15.6%) urine, 5 (3.42%) endometrial curetting were reported positive. Only 15.16% of clinical samples belonging to 5 15.16% of clinical samples belonging to 5 different categories of specimens received from patients of both sexes with a provisional diagnosis of tuberculosis, tested positive for Mycobacterium by both ZN stain smear and culture on U medium. Among these, 3.57% were positive for AFB on ZN smear and 11.65% were positive on culture on U medium. Conclusion: These conventional techniques have proved to be reliable testing tools for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in our settings but there is an urgent need to promote the use of Biotic and Pcr for early detection and drug susceptibility keeping in view the rise in the number of multi-drug resistant cases of tuberculosis in the last few years. (author)

401

Effectiveness of EDTA and EDTA-T brushingm on the removal of root surface smear layer  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to compare the removal of root surface smear layer following active application of EDTA gel and EDTA-T (texapon) gel in different concentrations (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 24%), using scanning electron microscopy. A total of 220 dentin blocks obtained from the root surfaces of extracted teeth were divided into 3 groups: Group I - (control) application of saline solution (n = 20); Group II - EDTA gel (pH 7.0) was applied in the following concentrations: 5%, 10%, 15%, ...

Sampaio José Eduardo Cezar; Rached Ricardo Samih Georges Abi; Pilatti Gibson Luiz; Theodoro Letícia Helena; Batista Luiz Henrique Carvalho

2003-01-01

402

Scanning electron microscopy of root canal walls after removing the smear layer  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to investigate ultrastructurally the effect of smear layer removal by applying different root canal irrigances: 3% HO2, 4% NaOCl and 15% Na-EDTA (in combination with 3% HO2, 4% NaOCl) and establish the appearance of root canal dentine surface after treatment with 15% Na-EDTA for different time periods(1 min and 5 min) using additional irrigant 3% HOor 4% NaOCl. 22 22 Teeth with single and double canals extracted for orthodontic reasons, were used in this study. A...

Gaši? Jovanka; Da?i?-Simonovi? Dragica; Radi?evi? Goran; Miti? Aleksandar; Stojilkovi? Goran; Dakovi? Jelena

2003-01-01

403

White blood cell segmentation by color-space-based k-means clustering.  

Science.gov (United States)

White blood cell (WBC) segmentation, which is important for cytometry, is a challenging issue because of the morphological diversity of WBCs and the complex and uncertain background of blood smear images. This paper proposes a novel method for the nucleus and cytoplasm segmentation of WBCs for cytometry. A color adjustment step was also introduced before segmentation. Color space decomposition and k-means clustering were combined for segmentation. A database including 300 microscopic blood smear images were used to evaluate the performance of our method. The proposed segmentation method achieves 95.7% and 91.3% overall accuracy for nucleus segmentation and cytoplasm segmentation, respectively. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can segment WBCs effectively with high accuracy. PMID:25256107

Zhang, Congcong; Xiao, Xiaoyan; Li, Xiaomei; Chen, Ying-Jie; Zhen, Wu; Chang, Jun; Zheng, Chengyun; Liu, Zhi

2014-01-01

404

Parasites of cattle in the trans-boundary areas of Ogun State, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: An assessment of the parasites of cattle along a major trans-boundary route was carried out in Yewa division of Ogun State, Nigeria between February 2006 and July 2007. The location of study is bound to the west by the Republic of Benin, with which it shares 155 kilometres of International boundary, within latitude 6 deg. 151 N and 7 deg. 581 N in a deciduous/derived Savannah zone of Nigeria. A total of 62 herds of between 56 and 98 heads of cattle entering Nigeria from neighbouring West African Countries by hoof along the Iwoye - Imeko - Olodo - Abeokuta route were observed for various haemo- and ecto-parasites. About 5ml of blood was collected from the jugular vein of each of 245 randomly selected animals into sterile bijou bottles containing 250il of 200 mM disodium ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (Na2EDTA) as anticoagulant. Animals infested with ectoparasites were noted and the parasites on each of the animals were collected into universal bottles containing 1% formaldehyde. The pus expressed from skin nodules on 18 animals and skin scabs from 15 animals were also collected for Parasitology and Microbiology respectively. All the samples were analysed at the College of veterinary medicine, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta. The blood samples were screened for the presence of trypanosomes using the buffy coat centrifugation method and for other blood parasites by examination of Giemsa-stained thin blood smear. Of the f Giemsa-stained thin blood smear. Of the 245 blood samples analysed, 123 (50.20%) were positive for blood protozoans. Of these, Babesia spp. infection accounted for 50 (40.65%); Trypanosoma spp. accounted for 29 (23.58%); Anaplasma spp. 14 (11.38%); mixed Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp. 9 (7.32%) and mixed Babesia spp. and Trypanosoma spp. 21 (17.07%). All the animals sampled had varying degrees of tick infestation ranging from a total count of 26 to 280 ticks per cattle. Of the 3756 ticks collected, 1080 (28.75%) were Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, 917 (24.41%) were Amblyomma variegatum, 739 (19.68%) were Boophilus decoloratus, 487 (12.97%) were Boophilus microplus, 473 (12.59%) were Amblyomma hebraeum, 41 (1.09%) were Hyalomma spp. and 19 (0.51%) were Amblyomma Haematopinus was the only louse specie identified in this study. They were found on the upper eyelid, inner commissure of the pinna and tip of the tail in 16 animals. Demodex bovis was seen in all the 18 skin nodules, while Dermatophilus congolensis was isolated from all 15-skin scabs collected. The very high parasitic load observed in the animal population in this study is an indication that many parasites enter the country on daily basis via animate vectors. These animals may be carriers of a wide range of economic important diseases, the control of which may be very expensive. This may also result in additional cost of production to the owners of in-contact animals. Since the potential for increasing livestock production in Nigeria can only be fully realized if the animals are adequately protected against major diseases, the animals in border areas should be regularly monitored and screened for diseases of economic and/ or epizootic importance to minimize spread of trans-boundary diseases to the national herd. (author)

405

Blood Clotting and Pregnancy  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... In This Section Research Programs and Awards Sickle Cell Priorities Agenda for Hematology Research View all Blood ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ...

406

Biology of Blood  

Science.gov (United States)

... Mail Facebook TwitterTitle Google+ LinkedIn Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Also Of Interest ( ... to Consumer Version DOCTORS: Go to Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

407

Blood Clotting and Pregnancy  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

408

Blood Facts and Statistics  

Science.gov (United States)

... About Blood > Blood Facts and Statistics Printable Version Blood Facts and Statistics Facts about blood needs Facts ... about American Red Cross Blood Services Facts about blood needs Every two seconds someone in the U.S. ...

409

Blood Clotting and Pregnancy  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the 2014 ASH Annual Meeting For Patients Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood ... blood clots are treated with an anticoagulant, a medicine that prevents the blood from clotting. Certain anticoagulants ...

410

Effect of sealers on fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth with and without smear layer removal: An in vitro study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim : The present study involved the in vitro comparison of root reinforcing abilities of two sealers, i.e., Ketac-Endo and Acroseal, in endodontically treated teeth in the presence and absence of smear layer. Materials and Methods : Fifty teeth were taken and sectioned at the cementoenamel junction. The teeth with faults were discarded and a total of 36 teeth were used for study. The samples were biomechanically prepared using step-back technique. In 10 teeth, the smear layer was preserved using sodium hypochlorite. Smear layers were removed from 10 teeth using 17% EDTA, and in another 10 samples, the smear layers were eliminated using 17% EGTA. The remaining samples served as controls. Samples were obturated with sealers using the lateral condensation technique. Ketac-Endo (3M is a glass ionomer based root canal sealer, and Acroseal (Septodont sealers were used. The teeth were then tested by using an Instron testing machine. Results : Ketac-Endo shows higher fracture resistance values in comparison to Acroseal. Other factors as the amount of tooth structure remaining, the agents used for the removal of smear layer and instrumentation techniques may alter the tooth resistance to fracture. Conclusion : Ketac-Endo shows higher fracture resistance values in comparison to Acroseal.

Jhamb Swaty

2009-01-01

411

Amylase - blood  

Science.gov (United States)

Amylase is an enzyme that helps digest carbohydrates. It is produced in the pancreas and the glands ... saliva. When the pancreas is diseased or inflamed, amylase releases into the blood. A test can be ...

412

Blood Typing  

Science.gov (United States)

... becomes a candidate for an organ, tissue, or bone marrow transplant, or when a person wishes to become a ... Available online at http://bloodbanker.com/plasma/plasma-donation/blood-donation-terms/ through http://bloodbanker.com . Accessed ...

413

Pap Smear Screening Test and it’s Applications in Cervical Cancer Detection and Classification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A large group of women population, in the world is affected by the cervical cancer in their different age groups. Hence, most of the researchers, pathologists and also more number of collegiate have provided more number of solutions, to identify this cancer from the test images of pap smear screening test. But their results represent, only to an extent, whether the patient is affected by cancer or not, and do not specially identify the exact nature and severity of the cancer. In this paper, it is proposed, to identify the cancer and classify the stage of the cancer from the pap smear test images with high accuracy. The proposed work is based on segmentation, enhancement, and feature extraction and classification process. Test results show the mean and area value based classification of the normal and abnormal cell and also to identify the stage of the cervical cancer. Hence the results would be more useful for the pathologists to reduce their work load and minimize the human error while improving the accuracy of diagnosis.

S.Athinarayanan

2013-06-01

414

Comparative evaluation of bone marrow aspirate particle smears, imprints and biopsy sections.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Comparative evaluation of bone marrow aspirate particle smears, imprints and biopsy sections was done on 30 haematological problems. Core needle biopsy of the bone marrow is a safe and useful procedure. It is a valuable diagnostic aid for measurement of marrow cellularity, metastatic tumours and fibrosis. It should not be taken as a substitute for examination of the marrow by aspiration smear but is a complementary procedure which affords several advantages. Bone marrow biopsy was of maximum utility in myelofibrosis which was diagnosed on biopsy alone. There were three additional cases with normal bone marrow aspiration in which specific diagnosis could only be made from bone marrow biopsy sections. New methodologies i.e. plastic embedding and semi thin sections of undecalcified bone marrow, can be expected to improve the cytological details of tissue obtained by biopsy. Imprint preparations obtained from biopsy can be useful in patients of malignancy but we have found them to be of limited value except in cases of dry tap.

Sabharwal B

1990-10-01

415

Effect of interferogram smearing on atmospheric limb sounding by Fourier transform spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method is presented for analyzing an absorption spectrum obtained from the interferogram measured by an interferometer operated in the solar occultation mode. In this mode the complete interferogram is smeared with various components of individual interferograms generated by rays passing through different tangent altitudes. It is shown that the effective tangent altitude of the spectrum is the altitude at which the center fringe of the interferogram is recorded and that the other components of the interferogram only define the instrument line shape. The interferogram smearing effectively creates strong sidelobes on absorption lines so that a strong apodization on the interferogram is recommended for the solar occultation experiment. These concepts applied to retrieve pressure and temperature simultaneously from stratospheric absorption spectra in the CO2 4.3-?m band obtained by a balloon-borne interferometer in 1976 over Palestine, Tex. Included in the analysis of the CO2 4.3-?m band are the continuum absorptions by the pressure-induced N2 fundamental band and by far wings of the CO2 v3 band. The CO2 absorption line is corrected by a sub-Lorentzian function. Excellent agreement is found between the observed and simulated spectra

416

Classification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in images of ZN-stained sputum smears.  

Science.gov (United States)

Screening for tuberculosis (TB) in low- and middle-income countries is centered on the microscope. We present methods for the automated identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in images of Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stained sputum smears obtained using a bright-field microscope. We segment candidate bacillus objects using a combination of two-class pixel classifiers. The algorithm produces results that agree well with manual segmentations, as judged by the Hausdorff distance and the modified Williams index. The extraction of geometric-transformation-invariant features and optimization of the feature set by feature subset selection and Fisher transformation follow. Finally, different two-class object classifiers are compared. The sensitivity and specificity of all tested classifiers is above 95% for the identification of bacillus objects represented by Fisher-transformed features. Our results may be used to reduce technician involvement in screening for TB, and would be particularly useful in laboratories in countries with a high burden of TB, where, typically, ZN rather than auramine staining of sputum smears is the method of choice. PMID:19726269

Khutlang, Rethabile; Krishnan, Sriram; Dendere, Ronald; Whitelaw, Andrew; Veropoulos, Konstantinos; Learmonth, Genevieve; Douglas, Tania S

2010-07-01

417

Vacuum Energy Density Fluctuations in Minkowski and Casimir States via Smeared Quantum Fields and Point Separation  

CERN Document Server

We present calculations of the variance of fluctuations and of the mean of the energy momentum tensor of a massless scalar field for the Minkowski and Casimir vacua as a function of an intrinsic scale defined by a smeared field or by point separation. We point out that contrary to prior claims, the ratio of variance to mean-squared being of the order unity is not necessarily a good criterion for measuring the invalidity of semiclassical gravity. For the Casimir topology we obtain expressions for the variance to mean-squared ratio as a function of the intrinsic scale (defined by a smeared field) compared to the extrinsic scale (defined by the separation of the plates, or the periodicity of space). Our results make it possible to identify the spatial extent where negative energy density prevails which could be useful for studying quantum field effects in worm holes and baby universe, and for examining the design feasibility of real-life `time-machines'. For the Minkowski vacuum we find that the ratio of the var...

Phillips, N G; Phillips, Nicholas. G.

2000-01-01

418

Reduction of friction on geological faults by weak-phase smearing  

Science.gov (United States)

Most common crustal rock types display friction coefficients of 0.6 or higher, but some faults must be frictionally weak as they slip when the stress state is unfavourably-oriented (i.e. the resolved shear stress is low for a given normal stress across the fault surface). A role for low-friction minerals and high pore fluid pressures, either separately or in combination, is frequently invoked to explain such slip, but volume fractions of dispersed weak phases often seem to be present in fault gouge in amounts too small to produce significant mechanical weakening. By means of mechanical tests on synthetic fault gouge and microstructural study of run products, we show that the effective area of an embedded weak phase (graphite) on a slip plane can be substantially increased by mechanical smearing, and that the enlarged area of the weak phase on the slip plane follows a linear mixing law. This allows a relatively small volume fraction of the initially dispersed weak phase to have a disproportionately large effect, provided the smearing is concentrated into a narrow planar slip zone or into an interconnected network of them.

Rutter, E. H.; Hackston, A. J.; Yeatman, E.; Brodie, K. H.; Mecklenburgh, J.; May, S. E.

2013-06-01

419

Intelligent and nature inspired optimization methods in medicine : The Pap smear cell classification problem  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The classification problem consists of using some known objects, usually described by a large vector of features, to induce a model that classifies others into known classes. Feature selection is widely used as the first stage of the classification task to reduce the dimension of the problem, decrease noise and improve speed by the elimination of irrelevant or redundant features. The present paper deals with the optimization of nearest neighbour classifiers via intelligent and nature inspired algorithms for a very significant medical problem, the Pap smear cell classification problem. The algorithms used include tabu search, genetic algorithms, particle swarm optimization and ant colony optimization. The proposed complete algorithmic scheme is tested on two sets of data. The first consists of 917 images of Pap smear cells and the second set consists of 500 images, classified carefully by expert cyto-technicians and doctors. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and the cells fall into seven classesrepresenting a variety of normal and abnormal cases. Nevertheless, from the medical diagnosis viewpoint, a minimum requirement corresponds to the general two-class problem of correct separation between normal and abnormal cells.

Marinakis, Yannis; Marinaki, Magdalene

2009-01-01

420

Autoinducer-2 activity produced by bacteria found in smear of surface ripened cheeses  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bacterial strains of the species Arthrobacter nicotianae, Corynebacterium ammoniagenes, Corynebacterium casei, Microbacterium barkeri, Microbacterium gubbeenense and Staphylococcus equorum subsp. linens, all isolated from the smear of surface ripened cheeses, were found to possess autoinducer-2 (AI-2) activity using the Vibrio harveyi (BB170) bioluminescence assay. In contrast, Brevibacterium casei and Brevibacterium linens strains were not found to have AI-2 activity. When exposed to low pH and high NaCl concentrations, AI-2 activities increased between 5.0 and 11.6× for C. casei 44701, M. gubbeenense 15944 and S. equorum subsp. linens 15097, whereas AI-2 activities did not increase for A. nicotianae 20123, C. ammoniagenes 20305, C. ammoniagenes 20306 and M. barkeri 20145. The fact that AI-2 activity is produced by bacterial strains found in the smear of surface ripened cheeses, and also increased by dairy-relevant stress conditions, indicates that AI-2 signalling might be important in regulation of microbial succession during ripening of surface ripened cheeses.

Gori, Klaus; Moslehi Jenabian, Saloomeh

2011-01-01

421

Simulation of bright-field microscopy images depicting pap-smear specimen.  

Science.gov (United States)

As digital imaging is becoming a fundamental part of medical and biomedical research, the demand for computer-based evaluation using advanced image analysis is becoming an integral part of many research projects. A common problem when developing new image analysis algorithms is the need of large datasets with ground truth on which the algorithms can be tested and optimized. Generating such datasets is often tedious and introduces subjectivity and interindividual and intraindividual variations. An alternative to manually created ground-truth data is to generate synthetic images where the ground truth is known. The challenge then is to make the images sufficiently similar to the real ones to be useful in algorithm development. One of the first and most widely studied medical image analysis tasks is to automate screening for cervical cancer through Pap-smear analysis. As part of an effort to develop a new generation cervical cancer screening system, we have developed a framework for the creation of realistic synthetic bright-field microscopy images that can be used for algorithm development and benchmarking. The resulting framework has been assessed through a visual evaluation by experts with extensive experience of Pap-smear images. The results show that images produced using our described methods are realistic enough to be mistaken for real microscopy images. The developed simulation framework is very flexible and can be modified to mimic many other types of bright-field microscopy images. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of ISAC. PMID:25573002

Malm, Patrik; Brun, Anders; Bengtsson, Ewert

2015-03-01

422

Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract on the radiolabelling of blood constituents and the morphometry of red blood cells: In vitro assay  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) on the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99 m({sup 99m}Tc) and on the morphology of red blood cells were studied. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with cinnamon extract for 1hour or with 0.9% NaCl, as control. Labelling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc was performed. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC), soluble (SF-P and SF-BC) and insoluble (IF-P and IF-BC) fractions were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity incorporated (%ATI) was calculated. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphological analysis of the red blood cells was evaluated. The data showed that the cinnamon extract decreased significantly (p<0.05) the %ATI on BC, IF-P and IF-BC. No modifications were verified on shape of red blood cells. Cinnamon extracts could alter the labelling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc, and although our results were obtained with animals, precaution is suggested in interpretations of nuclear medicine examinations involving the labelling of blood constituents in patients who are using cinnamon.

Benarroz, M.O. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Avenida General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, 59010-180 Natal, RN (Brazil); Fonseca, A.S. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: adenilso@uerj.br; Rocha, G.S. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Frydman, J.N.G. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Avenida General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, 59010-180 Natal, RN (Brazil); Rocha, V.C.; Pereira, M.O. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)] (and others)

2008-02-15

423

Fault transmissibility in clastic-argillaceous sequences controlled by clay smear evolution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Document available in extended abstract form only. The mechanical entrainment of clays and shales in fault zones of sedimentary sequences can exert fundamental control on fault-permeability. To estimate the influence of entrained clay bands on fluid flow, semi-empirical fault-seal algorithms are being used for hydrocarbon exploration (e.g. Yielding et al., 1997) and CO2 storage assessment (e.g. Bretan et al., 2011). To estimate clay distribution in the fault zone, these algorithms do not consider material properties or deformation conditions at the time of faulting, but rather they rely on the simplified assumption that fault gouge composition at any point along the fault reflects the 'mean' clay fraction of the slipped interval. Whether individual clay bands are breached or are continuous is not evaluated, yet this could have a dramatic effect on fault transmissibility. In this study, the sealing capacity of clay smears evolving in sealed direct shear experiments of initially intact sandstone-clay-stone sequences was quantified to large displacements up to more than ten times the thickness of the clay layer. A new type of direct shear cell was specifically designed for these experiments (Giger et al., 2011). The sample blocks consisted of a pre-consolidated clay-rich 'seal' layer, which was embedded and synthetically cemented in 'reservoir' quartz sand. The mineralogy and mechanical properties of the clay layer and the reservoir sandstones were constrained the reservoir sandstones were constrained in geomechanical tests. Discrete element modelling (DEM) was carried out in parallel to investigate a wider range of deformation conditions, and to explore the possibility to upscale the analogue test results. The fluid flow response across the fault zone could be monitored continuously during deformation. A tracer was also added to the clay layer, and the finite 3D smear structure could be resolved (using a medical CT scanner) and related to the flow response (Ciftci et al., 2011). Displacement at which seals break down is closely linked to the clay content in the seal layer. Contrary to expectations, softer seal layers do not seal better than stiff seal layers for given clay content. In the testing range between 4 - 24 MPa covering maximum burial depth conditions of ?800 m to ?4 km (assuming normal fault tectonics), a systematic trend is also observed indicating better smear continuity by increasing the effective normal stress. Predominantly brittle processes such as slicing and wear, and not ductile drag or plastic flow appear to be responsible for the generation of clay smears. The test results offer the prospect of incorporating critical shale smear factors (i.e. normalized displacement at which seal breakdown occurs) into probabilistic fault seal algorithms that take into account important properties that can be measured or estimated, namely, layer clay content, and fault normal effective stress. Such mechanistically improved fault seal algorithms are also relevant for the safety assessment of sediment formations above and below a potential radioactive waste repository. (authors)