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Sample records for giemsa-stained blood smears

  1. Automated estimation of parasitaemia of Plasmodium yoelii-infected mice by digital image analysis of Giemsa-stained thin blood smears

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    Wang Lina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasitaemia, the percentage of infected erythrocytes, is used to measure progress of experimental Plasmodium infection in infected hosts. The most widely used technique for parasitaemia determination is manual microscopic enumeration of Giemsa-stained blood films. This process is onerous, time consuming and relies on the expertise of the experimenter giving rise to person-to-person variability. Here the development of image-analysis software, named Plasmodium AutoCount, which can automatically generate parasitaemia values from Plasmodium-infected blood smears, is reported. Methods Giemsa-stained blood smear images were captured with a camera attached to a microscope and analysed using a programme written in the Python programming language. The programme design involved foreground detection, cell and infection detection, and spurious hit filtering. A number of parameters were adjusted by a calibration process using a set of representative images. Another programme, Counting Aid, written in Visual Basic, was developed to aid manual counting when the quality of blood smear preparation is too poor for use with the automated programme. Results This programme has been validated for use in estimation of parasitemia in mouse infection by Plasmodium yoelii and used to monitor parasitaemia on a daily basis for an entire challenge infection. The parasitaemia values determined by Plasmodium AutoCount were shown to be highly correlated with the results obtained by manual counting, and the discrepancy between automated and manual counting results were comparable to those found among manual counts of different experimenters. Conclusions Plasmodium AutoCount has proven to be a useful tool for rapid and accurate determination of parasitaemia from infected mouse blood. For greater accuracy when smear quality is poor, Plasmodium AutoCount, can be used in conjunction with Counting Aid.

  2. Investigation of a novel approach to scoring Giemsa-stained malaria-infected thin blood films

    OpenAIRE

    Scholzen Anja; Drew Nathan; Proudfoot Owen; Xiang Sue; Plebanski Magdalena

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Daily assessment of the percentage of erythrocytes that are infected ('percent-parasitaemia') across a time-course is a necessary step in many experimental studies of malaria, but represents a time-consuming and unpopular task among researchers. The most common method is extensive microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained thin blood-films. This study explored a method for the assessment of percent-parasitaemia that does not require extended periods of microscopy and results in a desc...

  3. Investigation of a novel approach to scoring Giemsa-stained malaria-infected thin blood films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholzen Anja

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Daily assessment of the percentage of erythrocytes that are infected ('percent-parasitaemia' across a time-course is a necessary step in many experimental studies of malaria, but represents a time-consuming and unpopular task among researchers. The most common method is extensive microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained thin blood-films. This study explored a method for the assessment of percent-parasitaemia that does not require extended periods of microscopy and results in a descriptive and permanent record of parasitaemia data that is highly amenable to subsequent 'data-mining'. Digital photography was utilized in conjunction with a basic purpose-written computer programme to test the viability of the concept. Partial automation of the determination of percent parasitaemia was then explored, resulting in the successful customization of commercially available broad-spectrum image analysis software towards this aim. Lastly, automated discrimination between infected and uninfected RBCs based on analysis of digital parameters of individual cell images was explored in an effort to completely automate the calculation of an accurate percent-parasitaemia.

  4. DNA Comet Giemsa Staining for Conventional Bright-Field Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Andreyan Osipov; Ekaterina Arkhangelskaya; Alexei Vinokurov; Nadezhda Smetanin?; Alex Zhavoronkov; Dmitry Klokov

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the compatibility of Giemsa staining protocol with the comet assay. We showed, for the first time, that DNA comets can be visualized and analyzed using Giemsa staining. We generated DNA damage dose response curves for human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to X-ray radiation using the comet assay with either SybrGreen I or Giemsa stain. The dose response curves were fitted by linear regressions (R2 > 0.977). The SybrGreen I results showed only ~1.2...

  5. Diagnosis and Characterization of Leishmania Species in Giemsa-Stained slides by PCR-RFLP

    OpenAIRE

    Kazemi-rad, E.; Mohebali, M.; Hajjaran, H.; Rezaei, S.; Mamishi, S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Direct identification of Leishmania species in Giemsa-stained slides without parasite culturing in the areas where multiple species exist, is very helpful. This study was designed to isolate Leishmani spp. from Giemsa-stained smears and to characterize them by PCR technique.Methods: A total of 48 Giemsa-Stained slides from confirmed cases of leishmaniasis were examined under a light micro­scope at×1000 and classified based on grading of Leishmania parasites. DNA ...

  6. Identifying different types of chromatin using Giemsa staining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stockert, Juan C; Blazquez-Castro, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Mixtures of polychrome methylene blue-eosin Y (i.e., Giemsa stain) are widely used in biological staining. They induce a striking purple coloration of chromatin DNA (the Romanowsky-Giemsa effect), which contrasts with the blue-stained RNA-containing cytoplasm and nucleoli. After specific prestaining treatments that induce chromatin disorganization (giving banded or harlequin chromosomes), Giemsa staining produces a differential coloration, with C- and G-bands appearing in purple whereas remaining chromosome regions are blue. Unsubstituted (TT) and bromo-substituted (BT) DNAs also appear purple and blue, respectively. The same occurs in the case of BT and BB chromatids.In addition to discussing the use of Giemsa stain as a suitable method to reveal specific features of chromosome structure, some molecular processes and models are also described to explain Giemsa staining mechanisms of chromatin.

  7. A rapid method for counting nucleated erythrocytes on stained blood smears by digital image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gering, E.; Atkinson, C.T.

    2004-01-01

    Measures of parasitemia by intraerythrocytic hematozoan parasites are normally expressed as the number of infected erythrocytes per n erythrocytes and are notoriously tedious and time consuming to measure. We describe a protocol for generating rapid counts of nucleated erythrocytes from digital micrographs of thin blood smears that can be used to estimate intensity of hematozoan infections in nonmammalian vertebrate hosts. This method takes advantage of the bold contrast and relatively uniform size and morphology of erythrocyte nuclei on Giemsa-stained blood smears and uses ImageJ, a java-based image analysis program developed at the U.S. National Institutes of Health and available on the internet, to recognize and count these nuclei. This technique makes feasible rapid and accurate counts of total erythrocytes in large numbers of microscope fields, which can be used in the calculation of peripheral parasitemias in low-intensity infections.

  8. Purpose and Criteria for Blood Smear Scan, Blood Smear Examination, and Blood Smear Review

    OpenAIRE

    Gulati, Gene; Song, Jinming; Florea, Alina Dulau; Gong, Jerald

    2012-01-01

    A microscopic examination of an appropriately prepared and well-stained blood smear by a knowledgeable laboratory professional is necessary and clinically useful in a number of circumstances and for a variety of reasons. In this article, an attempt is made to delineate the purpose and criteria for blood smear examination in a variety of circumstances that are encountered in everyday laboratory hematology practice. A blood smear scan serves to at least (a) verify the flagged automated hematolo...

  9. Reliable DNA Extraction on Historical Malaria Negative Smears Conducted to Nested PCR in South-East of Iran

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    A. Ebrahimzadeh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of PCR depends on many factors, such as high quality DNA pellets obtained from fixed Giemsa-stained blood samples, good reagents and adequate conditions of amplification. In account of this limitations, a retrospective epidemiological study for malaria diagnosis was conducted in a hypoendemic area, Sistan and Baluchestan province of south-east of Iran. For the first time this research designed to perform a nested PCR protocol using new and modified method of DNA extraction from negative Fixed and Giemsa Stained smears. This study demonstrated 11.55% PCR positive for Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum which were undetectable by microscopy.

  10. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI, BIOPSY SAMPLES FROM DIFFERENT GASTRIC LESIONS WITH TRIPLE STAINING AND MODIFIED GIEMSA STAINING

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    Pavan Kumar Pindi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori are associated with most of the disorders of gastro-duodenal tract, such as gastritis, gastric ulcers, dyspepsia and gastric carcinoma. Many staining methods have been developed for the detection of these bacteria from gastric biopsies. However most of the methods adopted were shown to be more expensive, less sensitive, time consuming with less background information. In view of this, the present study was carried out to check the validity of triple staining method against modified Giemsa staining. For this study, 60 biopsy specimens were selected from different gastric lesions as chronic gastritis (30, gastric ulcers (10 and gastric carcinoma (20. These specimens were subjected to modified Giemsa staining showed purple to dark purple bacteria with bluish background. The results showed 56.66, 40 and 15 percentage positivity for chronic gastritis, benign gastric ulcers and malignant gastric lesions, respectively. The stained sections of triple staining showed black to dark brown bacteria with pink colored background with 70, 50 and 10 percentage positivity for chronic gastritis, benign gastric ulcers and malignant gastric lesions, respectively. From the present study it is clear that triple staining method is more sensitive than the modified Giemsa staining.

  11. Trypan blue/giemsa staining to assess sperm membrane integrity in salernitano stallions and its relationship to pregnancy rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, R; Longobardi, V; Spadetta, M; Neri, D; Ariota, B; Gasparrini, B; Di Palo, R

    2014-02-01

    Aim of this study was to test the reliability of Trypan blue/Giemsa staining to evaluate sperm membrane integrity, acrosomal intactness and morphology in stallion to verify whether it could be applied in vitro as useful tool for sperm fertilizing ability. Fertility data on inseminated mares were collected to evaluate the relationship of sperm quality to pregnancy rates. Forty-one ejaculates were collected from 3 stallions of Salernitano Horse Breed and evaluated for gross appearance, volume, visual motility and membrane integrity with Trypan blue/Giemsa staining and thirty-five mares were inseminated during the breeding season from April to July. Differences among stallions were found in volume, sperm concentration (p fertility differences were found among stallions with an average fertility per cycle of 44.6% and a pregnancy rate of 68.6%. Higher percentages of LSIA were found in the ejaculates used to inseminate mares that became pregnant vs those used in mares not pregnant (p < 0.05). The significance of LSIA as test variable to verify the reliability of Trypan blue/Giemsa staining was confirmed by Receiver operating characteristic ROC analysis and the sensitivity of the test was 85% at a cut-off value of 48% LSIA. Trypan blue-Giemsa showed to be an accurate method that can be applied on field to evaluate sperm membrane integrity and to identify poor-quality ejaculates. PMID:23889365

  12. External quality assessment of Giemsa-stained blood film microscopy for the diagnosis of malaria and sleeping sickness in the Democratic Republic of the Congo / Évaluation externe de la qualité de la microscopie de frottis sanguins colorés au Giemsa pour le diagnostic du paludisme et de la maladie du sommeil en République démocratique du Congo / Evaluación de calidad externa de la microscopía en frotis de sangre con tinción de Giemsa para el diagnóstico de la malaria y la enfermedad del sueño en la República Democrática del Congo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pierre, Mukadi; Philippe, Gillet; Albert, Lukuka; Benjamin, Atua; Nicole, Sheshe; Albert, Kanza; Jean Bosco, Mayunda; Briston, Mongita; Raphaël, Senga; John, Ngoyi; Jean-Jacques, Muyembe; Jan, Jacobs; Veerle, Lejon.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Informar de los resultados de una segunda evaluación de calidad externa de la microscopía en frotis de sangre con tinción de Giemsa en la República Democrática del Congo, llevada a cabo un año después de la primera. MÉTODOS: Se entregó un panel de cuatro muestras a laboratorios de diagnóst [...] ico de todas las provincias del país. Las muestras contenían: (i) gametocitos Plasmodium falciparum; (ii) trofozoítos P. falciparum (densidad de referencia: 113 530 por µl); (iii) subespecies de Trypanosoma brucei y (iv) ningún parásito. RESULTADOS: De los 356 laboratorios contactados, respondieron 277 (77,8%). En total, el 35,0% de los laboratorios informó de las cuatro muestras correctamente, pero el 14,1% informó de resultados correctos en una o ninguna de las muestras. Los principales errores consistieron en no diagnosticar la tripanosomiasis (50,4%), no reconocer los gametocitos P. falciparum (17,5%) y diagnosticar malaria en la muestra sin parásitos (19,0%). La frecuencia de errores graves en la evaluación de la densidad de los parásitos y en informar de resultados con falsos positivos fue menor que en la evaluación de calidad externa anterior. El 17,2% y el 52,3%, respectivamente (P Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To report the findings of a second external quality assessment of Giemsa-stained blood film microscopy in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, performed one year after the first. METHODS: A panel of four slides was delivered to diagnostic laboratories in all provinces of the country. The [...] slides contained: (i) Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes; (ii) P. falciparum trophozoites (reference density: 113 530 per µl); (iii) Trypanosoma brucei subspecies; and (iv) no parasites. FINDINGS: Of 356 laboratories contacted, 277 (77.8%) responded. Overall, 35.0% of the laboratories reported all four slides correctly but 14.1% reported correct results for 1 or 0 slides. Major errors included not diagnosing trypanosomiasis (50.4%), not recognizing P. falciparum gametocytes (17.5%) and diagnosing malaria from the slide with no parasites (19.0%). The frequency of serious errors in assessing parasite density and in reporting false-positive results was lower than in the previous external quality assessment: 17.2% and 52.3%, respectively, (P

  13. Feature extraction of Giemsa-stained chromosomes and classification error of a backpropagation neural-network-based classifier

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    Ryu, Seung-Yun; Cho, Jongman

    2002-04-01

    Many studies for computer-based chromosome analysis using artificial neural network (ANN) have shown that it is possible to classify chromosomes into 24 subgroups. It is important to select optimum features for training the ANN. Our purpose was to select features that had the low classification error and the best ability for human chromosome classification. We applied the medial axis transformation for the medial line, extended the line to the boundary and obtained relative length, relative area and centromeric index. The Giemsa-stained human chromosome has a sequence of banding pattern that is perpendicular to the medial axis of the chromosome. Density profile is a one-dimensional graph of the banding pattern property of the chromosome computed at a sequence of points along the possibly curved chromosome medial axis. Some studied used relative length, centromeric index and 62 density profile as features, but we prepared two data sets as features that one set was relative length, centromeric index and 80 density profile considered No. 1 chromosome's length and the other was relative length, centromeric index, the 80 density profile and relative area and compared classification error of each set. We found that the classification error showed to be decreased by adding relative area to the other features.

  14. Prevalence of theileriosis in cross-bred cattle: its detection through blood smear examination and polymerase chain reaction in Dehradun district, Uttarakhand, India

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    Shweta Kohli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Theileriosis is a major threat to dairy and related industries. Theileria is a protozoan parasite that causes theileriosis, a fatal disease. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of theileriosis in crossbred cattle belonging to Dehradun district, Uttarakhand, India. Materials and Methods: We screened 301 blood samples each month from apparently normal/healthy crossbred cattle from various locations of Dehradun district. Samples were tested using Giemsa's staining technique and specific PCR test. Result: Microscopic examination of blood smears revealed 27.2% (82 overall prevalence of theileriosis. The highest prevalence was found in rainy season with a prevalence rate 45.4%. By Theileria genus specific PCR test, 98 samples (32.5 % were found to be positive for theileriosis. Conclusion: Our study suggests that theileriosis is spreading to even the temperate region in Uttarakhand and immediate screening norms/policies are needed to reduce the extent of spread. There is a need for further investigation using molecular technique.

  15. Wright-Giemsa: Automated Generation of Peripheral Blood Smears for Hematology Education

    OpenAIRE

    Healy, James C.; Rainer, Robert O.; Beck, J. Robert

    1989-01-01

    We describe a microcomputer based system for the generation and presentation of peripheral blood smears. Smear characteristics are described by the smear author and these characteristics are then translated by the program into a peripheral smear. Smears are stored as maps that describe the placement of individual cellular elements. At the time of presentation, smears are created from the map by placing individual cells drawn from a cell library. In this paper we discuss issues involved in cre...

  16. RBCs and Parasites Segmentation from Thin Smear Blood Cell Images

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    Vishal V. Panchbhai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Manually examine the blood smear for the detection of malaria parasite consumes lot of time for trend pathologists. As the computational power increases, the role of automatic visual inspection becomes more important. An automated system is therefore needed to complete as much work as possible for the identification of malaria parasites. The given scheme based on used of RGB color space, G layer processing, and segmentation of Red Blood Cells (RBC as well as cell parasites by auto-thresholding with offset value and use of morphological processing. The work compare with the manual results obtained from the pathology lab, based on total RBC count and cells parasite count. The designed system successfully detects malaria parasites and RBC cells in thin smear image.

  17. Automated red blood cell analysis compared with routine red blood cell morphology by smear review

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    Dr.Poonam Radadiya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The RBC histogram is an integral part of automated haematology analysis and is now routinely available on all automated cell counters. This histogram and other associated complete blood count (CBC parameters have been found abnormal in various haematological conditions and may provide major clues in the diagnosis and management of significant red cell disorders. Performing manual blood smears is important to ensure the quality of blood count results and to make presumptive diagnosis. In this article we have taken 100 samples for comparative study between RBC histograms obtained by automated haematology analyzer with peripheral blood smear. This article discusses some morphological features of dimorphism and the ensuing characteristic changes in their RBC histograms.

  18. Comparison of PCR-Based Diagnosis with Centrifuged-Based Enrichment Method for Detection of Borrelia Persica in Animal Blood Samples

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    SR Naddaf

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mainstay of diagnosis of relapsing fever (RF is demonstration of the spirochetes in Giemsa-stained thick blood smears, but during non fever periods the bacteria are very scanty and rarely detected in blood smears by mi­cros­copy. This study is aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of different methods developed for detection of low-grade spi­ro­chetemia. Methods: Animal blood samples with low degrees of spirochetemia were tested with two PCRs and a nested PCR tar­get­ing flaB, GlpQ, and rrs genes. Also, a centrifuged-based enrichment method and Giemsa staining were per­formed on blood samples with various degrees of spirochetemia. Results: The flaB-PCR and nested rrs-PCR turned positive with various degrees of spirochetemia including the blood samples that turned negative with dark-field microscopy. The GlpQ-PCR was positive as far as at least one spi­ro­chete was seen in 5-10 microscopic fields. The sensitivity of GlpQ-PCR increased when DNA from Buffy Coat Layer (BCL was used as template. The centrifuged-based enrichment method turned positive with as low concentra­tion as 50 bacteria/ml blood, while Giemsa thick staining detected bacteria with concentrations ? 25000 bacteria/ml. Conclusion: Centrifuged-based enrichment method appeared as much as 500-fold more sensitive than thick smears, which makes it even superior to some PCR assays. Due to simplicity and minimal laboratory requirements, this method can be considered a valuable tool for diagnosis of RF in rural health centers.

  19. Investigations of significance of blood smear results in diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases in dogs

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    Potkonjak Aleksandar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The microscopic examination of stained smears of peripheral blood is of vital significance in the speedy diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases, in particular during the stage of infection when the cause is present in the blood, or blood cells. It is sometimes possible to make a definitive diagnosis of an infectious or parasitic disease following an examination of a stained smear of the peripheral blood. Since microscopic examinations of a peripheral blood smear are applied increasingly rarely in clinical practice, due to the development of other methods for the diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases in dogs, as well as the lack of knowledge of the morphology of the numerous causes that can be present in the blood, we carried out an investigation into the presence and spread of infections whose causes can be present in dog blood. The investigations covered 100 dogs from which peripheral blood smears were taken and then stained with a Giemsa solution according to the standard protocol and examined under a microscope with an immersion lens. The examination of peripheral blood smears stained according to Giemsa resulted in the identification of the presence of an Ehrlichia spp. morula in a neutrophil granulocyte in one dog. The presence of hemotropic mycoplasmas was established in erythrocytes of eleven dogs, while the presence of the protozoa Babesia canis in erythrocytes was identified in five dogs included in the investigations. A microscopic examination of dog peripheral blood smears stained according to Giemsa was shown as a speedy, practical, simple, and inexpensive method for making a definitive etiological diagnosis of these infections, and it should be included regularly in standard protocols for the diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases.

  20. A comparative study of blood smear, QBC and antigen detection for diagnosis of malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Parija S; Dhodapkar Rahul; Elangovan Subashini; Chaya D

    2009-01-01

    Rapid diagnosis is prerequisite for effective treatment and reducing mortality and morbidity of malaria. This study was taken up to compare the efficacy of various methods available, i.e., thick and thin smear, quantitative buffy coat (QBC), plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase and aldolase in blood of patient. A total of 411 samples were collected from patients presenting with classic symptoms of malaria. For traditional microscopy; thick and thin smears were prepared and stained with Leishman&#...

  1. Splenic B cell lymphoma with lymphocyte clusters in peripheral blood smears

    OpenAIRE

    Shelton, J.; Frank, I

    2000-01-01

    EDTA induced clumping of lymphoid cells, both benign and malignant, in peripheral blood samples has been reported only rarely. Such clustering presents the laboratory and pathologist with unique difficulties in the accurate diagnosis of these disorders. A case of low grade B cell splenic lymphoma is presented with lymphocyte clumping in smears made from EDTA anticoagulated peripheral blood, the fourth case described in which neoplastic lymphoid cells form clusters in vitro in peripheral blood...

  2. A comparative study of blood smear, QBC and antigen detection for diagnosis of malaria

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    Parija S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid diagnosis is prerequisite for effective treatment and reducing mortality and morbidity of malaria. This study was taken up to compare the efficacy of various methods available, i.e., thick and thin smear, quantitative buffy coat (QBC, plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase and aldolase in blood of patient. A total of 411 samples were collected from patients presenting with classic symptoms of malaria. For traditional microscopy; thick and thin smears were prepared and stained with Leishman?s stain, taking thick smear as gold standard, thin smear had a sensitivity and specificity of 54.8% and 100%, respectively. QBC and antigen detection was done using commercially available kits; out of 411 samples, QBC and Malariagen were positive in 66 and 62 cases, with a sensitivity of 78% and 75%, respectively. Leishman?s thick smear, although cost effective, is difficult to interpret for inexperienced microscopists; so if facilities are available, QBC should be used for routine diagnosis. In places where facilities are not available, rapid, simple and easy to interpret antigen detection test can be used despite low sensitivity.

  3. Evaluation of Peripheral Blood Smear for Myelodysplasia in Breast Cancer Patients who Received Adjuvant Antracycline

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan Mutlu; Zeki Akca; Havva Uskudar Teke; Hediye Ugur

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN) account for approximately 10% to 20% of all cases of AML (acute myeloid leukemia), MDS (myelodysplastic syndrome) and MDS/MPN (myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasms), MDS, and MDS/MPN. In our study, we evaluated peripheral blood smear samples and hemogram values in breast cancer patients who were receiving adjuvant anthracycline regimens and were in remission. Materials and Methods: A total of 78 patients receiving anthracycl...

  4. Crowdsourcing malaria parasite quantification: an online game for analyzing images of infected thick blood smears

    OpenAIRE

    Luengo Oroz, Miguel A?ngel; Arranz, Asier; Frean, John

    2012-01-01

    Background: There are 600,000 new malaria cases daily worldwide. The gold standard for estimating the parasite burden and the corresponding severity of the disease consists in manually counting the number of parasites in blood smears through a microscope, a process that can take more than 20 minutes of an expert microscopist’s time. Objective: This research tests the feasibility of a crowdsourced approach to malaria image analysis. In particular, we investigated whether anonymous volunte...

  5. Blood Smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... phagocytes). They can ingest particles such as cellular debris, bacteria , or other insoluble particles. Lymphocytes are smaller ... line information]. Available online at http://www.rwjuhh.net/Atoz/encyclopedia/article/003665.asp through http://www. ...

  6. Evaluation of Peripheral Blood Smear for Myelodysplasia in Breast Cancer Patients who Received Adjuvant Antracycline

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    Hasan Mutlu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN account for approximately 10% to 20% of all cases of AML (acute myeloid leukemia, MDS (myelodysplastic syndrome and MDS/MPN (myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasms, MDS, and MDS/MPN. In our study, we evaluated peripheral blood smear samples and hemogram values in breast cancer patients who were receiving adjuvant anthracycline regimens and were in remission. Materials and Methods: A total of 78 patients receiving anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy treatment from Kayseri Research and Training Hospital and Mersin State Hospital were enrolled in the study. Their adjuvant treatments had been completed at least 18 months prior to the study. Results: Two patients complained of anemia (2.2% (Hb<11 mg/dl, leukopenia was observed in seven patients (7.7% (leukocytes<4000/mm3, and thrombocytopenia was observed in four patients (4.4% (PLT<150.000/mm3. In the blood smear samples, the following were observed: ovalomacrocytes (14%, macrocytes (37%, acanthocytes (1%, stomatocytes (12%, teardrops (12%, nucleated erythrocytes (1%, basophilic stippling (14%, and Howell-Jolly bodies (1%. Additionally, hypo-granulation (38%, Pelger-Huet abnormalities (26%, hypersegmentation (20%, immature granulocytes (8%, and blasts (6% were observed. We also confirmed the presence of giant platelets (50% and platelet hypogranulation (19%. Conclusion: According to the peripheral blood smear assessments in our study, we suggest that breast cancer patients should be evaluated for MDS in the early stages, starting from month 18, even if the automated blood counts are normal.

  7. Detection of Theileria annulata in blood samples of native cattle by PCR and smear method in Southeast of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourollahi-Fard, Saeid R; Khalili, Mohammad; Ghalekhani, Nima

    2015-06-01

    Theileria annulata, a protozoan parasite of cattle is causes tropical theileriosis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to assess the presence and the frequency of T. annulata infection in blood samples obtained from carrier cattle in Kerman, Southeast of Iran. Blood samples were collected in citrate solution from 150 native cattle with mean age of 1 year which selected randomly. Primarily, a thin layer smear was prepared from their ear sublime vein blood and was fixed with methanol and stained with Giemsa dye. Blood smears were examined for the presence of parasites, and blood samples were analyzed by PCR. Piroplasmic forms of T. annulata were seen in 16 of 150 (10.66 %) by examination the blood smears with light microscope, whereas 68 of 150 (45.33 %) cattle were positive by PCR method. All animals that were positive by blood smears were also positive by PCR. Difference between these methods was significant (P < 0.05). Our results demonstrate that this PCR assay in diagnosing T. annulata parasites in carrier cattle is more sensitive than method of smear preparation and can be used in epidemiological studies. PMID:26064010

  8. Selection of the best features for leukocytes classification in blood smear microscopic images

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    Sarrafzadeh, Omid; Rabbani, Hossein; Talebi, Ardeshir; Banaem, Hossein Usefi

    2014-03-01

    Automatic differential counting of leukocytes provides invaluable information to pathologist for diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. The main objective of this paper is to detect leukocytes from a blood smear microscopic image and classify them into their types: Neutrophil, Eosinophil, Basophil, Lymphocyte and Monocyte using features that pathologists consider to differentiate leukocytes. Features contain color, geometric and texture features. Colors of nucleus and cytoplasm vary among the leukocytes. Lymphocytes have single, large, round or oval and Monocytes have singular convoluted shape nucleus. Nucleus of Eosinophils is divided into 2 segments and nucleus of Neutrophils into 2 to 5 segments. Lymphocytes often have no granules, Monocytes have tiny granules, Neutrophils have fine granules and Eosinophils have large granules in cytoplasm. Six color features is extracted from both nucleus and cytoplasm, 6 geometric features only from nucleus and 6 statistical features and 7 moment invariants features only from cytoplasm of leukocytes. These features are fed to support vector machine (SVM) classifiers with one to one architecture. The results obtained by applying the proposed method on blood smear microscopic image of 10 patients including 149 white blood cells (WBCs) indicate that correct rate for all classifiers are above 93% which is in a higher level in comparison with previous literatures.

  9. Retrospective and Prospective Investigations about “Quatrefoil” Erythrocytes in Canine Blood Smears

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Gavazza; Marianna Ricci; Martina Brettoni; Biancaurora Gugliucci; Anna Pasquini; Daniela Rispoli; Nicola Bernabò; George Lubas

    2014-01-01

    The presence of unusual two RBCs patterns (so-called “quatrefoil RBCs,” qRBCs) on canine blood smears at Optical Microscope (OM) was seen during routine evaluation of CBCs. Two consecutive retrospective investigations were arranged including about 7,000 CBCs and clinical records and laboratory data from dogs showing qRBCs. Few samples with qRBCs were prepared for Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). qRBCs were found in 6.89% (139 of 2016) and 8.47% (133 of 1569) of dogs and in 3.89% (154 o...

  10. Detection of malarial parasite by blood smear examination and antigen detection: A comparative study

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    Erumalla Naveen, Dimple Arora, Vinod Agarwal, Neelam sharma, Anuradha B, Vijay Durga S

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At present about 100 countries in the world are considered malarious, is thought to kill between 1.1 and 2.7 million people worldwide each year, of which about 1 million are children under the age of 5 years in these areas. Under ideal circumstances, the clinical suspicion of malaria would be confirmed by a laboratory test that is simple to perform, rapid, sensitive, specific and expensive. At the present time, no such test exists. The most common test for malaria diagnosis remains the microscopic examination of giemsa or the fields –stained blood smears. The test is based on the detection of Plasmodium falciparum specific histidine rich protein ii (hrp and a pan malarial species specific enzyme aldolose, produced by the respective parasites and released into the blood and the test is based on immune chromatography, the test is highly sensitive. Method: In this study included 100 patients, 60% of patients had history suggestive of malaria, another 40% gave the history of irregular fever; For each patient peripheral blood sample was collected, thin and thick smear blood films were made immediately after blood collection, stained with Leishman stain and examined for malaria parasite by light microscopy. Results: The blood films results indicated that 40 (20% patients were infected with malaria and the rest 171 (85.5% were malaria negative. Among positive patients Plasmodium vivax was detected in 24 cases (60% and Plasmodium falciparum in 10 cases (31% and 6 cases mixed infection (PV + PF (15% correspondingly, the Para HIT Test results indicated that 29 (14.5% of the patient sample were positive for malaria parasites and 171 (85.5 were malaria negative out 29 patients cases. Infection with Plasmodium vivax accounted for 17 (58.6% while infection with Plasmodium falciparum accounted for 9 (25% and 3 (1.3% with mixed infection of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodiumfalciparum

  11. The estimation of platelet count from a blood smear on the basis of the red cell: platelet ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Brahimi; Soufi Osmani; Abdessamad Arabi; Badra Enta-Soltan; Zohra Taghezout; Belkheir Smain Elkahili; Mohamed Amine Bekadja

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The estimation of platelet count from blood smears is a daily routine laboratory test, which should be systematic each time the automated count is erroneous.In our laboratory, we estimate the platelet count indirectly by using the automated red blood cell (RBC) and calculating the platelet count on the basis of the red cell: platelet ratio in a stained blood film. In this study, we attempted to verify the reliability of this technique.Material and Methods: One hundred ninety-one pl...

  12. Molecular Identification of Leishmania Species Using Samples Obtained from Negative Stained Smears

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    MA Mohaghegh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL is a parasitic skin disease. Diagnosis primarily is based on clinical signs and microscopic observation of parasite on direct stained smears or tissue sections. Sensitivity of direct smear is not as high as molecular methods. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize Leishmania species among the negative direct smears obtained from skin ulcers sus­pected to CL by PCR method.Methods: Among 81 patients with suspicious skin lesions to CL referred to the Parasitology lab, nega­tive Giemsa stained smears were collected. DNA extraction performed by scraping stained smears, then PCR was performed.Results: Among the DNA extracted from smears, L. tropica was isolated from 9 (11.1% of the smears and L.major was not isolated from any samples.Conclusion: Direct microscopy on stained smears for diagnosis of leishmaniasis is not enough accu­rate. PCR is recommended for clinically suspected lesions with negative result of direct smear.

  13. Concerted spatial-frequency and polarization-phase filtering of laser images of polycrystalline networks of blood plasma smears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushenko, Yu A.

    2012-11-01

    The complex technique of concerted polarization-phase and spatial-frequency filtering of blood plasma laser images is suggested. The possibility of obtaining the coordinate distributions of phases of linearly and circularly birefringent protein networks of blood plasma separately is presented. The statistical (moments of the first to fourth orders) and scale self-similar (logarithmic dependences of power spectra) structure of phase maps of different types of birefringence of blood plasma of two groups of patients-healthy people (donors) and those suffering from rectal cancer-is investigated. The diagnostically sensitive parameters of a pathological change of the birefringence of blood plasma polycrystalline networks are determined. The effectiveness of this technique for detecting change in birefringence in the smears of other biological fluids in diagnosing the appearance of cholelithiasis (bile), operative differentiation of the acute and gangrenous appendicitis (exudate), and differentiation of inflammatory diseases of joints (synovial fluid) is shown.

  14. The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia in blood donors in a Nigerian teaching hospital

    OpenAIRE

    E C Okocha, C. C. Ibeh

    2005-01-01

    Background & objectives: The present study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of malariaparasitaemia among blood donors and to determine the possible risk of transmission of malaria parasiteto recipients of blood in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Anambra State.Methods: Four hundred and forty-four subjects were selected randomly and EDTA added blood wascollected for screening malaria parasites using Giemsa stain. The data were subjected to ? 2 analysis.Results: Preval...

  15. The estimation of platelet count from a blood smear on the basis of the red cell: platelet ratio

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    Mohamed Brahimi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The estimation of platelet count from blood smears is a daily routine laboratory test, which should be systematic each time the automated count is erroneous.In our laboratory, we estimate the platelet count indirectly by using the automated red blood cell (RBC and calculating the platelet count on the basis of the red cell: platelet ratio in a stained blood film. In this study, we attempted to verify the reliability of this technique.Material and Methods: One hundred ninety-one platelet counts were executed by two laboratory methods: an automated count using an impedance cell counter and then a manual method by reviewing microscopic blood smears. The number of platelets per 1000 erythrocytes was multiplied by the automated RBC (x106 cells/µl to give an approximate manual count (x103 cells/µl. Two paired t-test was used for comparison of the two methods.Results: The regression analyses for the entire data set collected in our study with the two laboratory methods gave the following least squares equation by comparing the automated (y to the manual method (x: y=0.8548x + 12.013 (r=0.908. The paired t-test showed no significant difference between the two methods (p>0.05 and the Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC was equal to 0.905.The plot of the differences between the automated and manual values against their means according to Band and Altman design showed that the difference mean was 3.209 with a standard deviation SD=46.331.We noticed that 93% of the differences were within the agreement limits (mean±2SD, and that 77% of the differences were less than 20,000 platelets/µl.Conclusion: Estimating platelet count on the basis of the red cell: platelet ratio is a reliable technique and it should be proposed as a method of reference.

  16. A study of eosinophil count in nasal and blood smear in allergic respiratory diseases in a rural setup

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    Naveen Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic respiratory disorders are fairly common visiting cases in pediatrics outpatient department (OPD. With an appropriate history and detailed examination, diagnosis may not be problematic. Routine investigation may not contribute much to the final diagnosis but may help in ruling out other possibilities. This study was done to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of blood or nasal eosinophilia in subjects suffering from allergic respiratory disorders and also to assess the feasibility of nasal cytogram which is a simple, economical and reliable investigation in allergic respiratory disorders. This is a prospective clinical correlation study of patients attending outpatient department. 100 subjects aged between 2-18 years of either sex were selected for the estimation of eosinophil count in nasal and peripheral smear in allergic respiratory disorders. All allergic respiratory cases based on eosinophillia. The nasal and blood eosinophilia were compared with each other and clinical findings of allergic rhinitis with or without asthma were studied. In this study peak age incidence was seen between 11-18 years and it was more common in males. Rhinorrhoea, pale mucosa and nasal obstruction were common findings in allergic rhinitis with bronchial asthma. Nasal eosinophilia was seen in 52.4% and 64.9% of cases of allergic rhinitis and allergic rhinitis with asthma respectively. Blood eosinophilia was seen in 54% and 56.8% of cases of allergic rhinitis with asthma respectively. Nasal cytogram which is a simple, economical and non- invasive procedure can be used as an alternative to invasive peripheral smear eosinophilia as both are equally efficacious in diagnosing allergic respiratory diseases.

  17. Pap Smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before an initial exposure to the virus, so girls and women should get them before becoming sexually active. ^ Back to top 3. Does an abnormal Pap smear always mean cancer? A single "abnormal" Pap smear does not ...

  18. Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Technique based Prevalence of Surra in Equines

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    Ahsan Nadeem, Asim Aslam*, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary, Kamran Ashraf1, Khalid Saeed1, Nisar Ahmad1, Ishtiaq Ahmed and Habib ur Rehman2

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This project was carried out to find the prevalence of trypanosomiasis in equine in District Gujranwala by using indirect fluorescent antibody technique and thin smear method. Blood samples were collected from a total of 200 horses and donkeys of different ages and either sex. Duplicate thin blood smears were prepared from each sample and remaining blood samples were centrifuged to separate the serum. Smears from each animal were processed for giemsa staining and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT. Giemsa stained smears revealed Trypanosome infection in 4/200 (2.0% samples and IFAT in 12/200 (6.0% animals.

  19. Clonality and phenotyping of canine lymphomas before chemotherapy and during remission using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on lymph node cytologic smears and peripheral blood

    OpenAIRE

    Thilakaratne, Dilini N.; Mayer, Monique N.; Macdonald, Valerie S.; Jackson, Marion L.; Trask, Brenda R.; Kidney, Beverly A.

    2010-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor genes were utilized to determine phenotype and clonality from lymph node cytologic smears and peripheral blood lymphocytes from 10 dogs with lymphoma, before chemotherapy and during remission. Results were compared with those from 13 dogs with a cytologic diagnosis of lymph node hyperplasia. Clonality was identified in 7 of the lymphomas on the basis of either lymph node cytology or peripheral blood lymphocytes ...

  20. Evaluation of Immunochromatography test and Quantitative buffy coat against peripheral blood smear examination in diagnosis of malaria

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    Omprakash Bobade

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In spite of enormous preventive and control measures, malaria has resurged in many tropical countries including India. The limited access to effective diagnosis and treatment of cases in endemic areas is one of the most important factors hampering the reduction of morbidity and mortality associated with malaria.Aims and objective: The present study was conducted with an aim to evaluate immunochromatography test (ICT and quantitative buffy coat (QBC against peripheral blood smear (PBS examination for diagnosis of malaria.Material and methods: Blood samples collected from 186 clinically suspected cases of malaria was used for preparation of PBS for examination of malarial parasite, QBC and ICT. Results: Out of 186 patients included in study, 122 (65.5% of were positive for malaria by any of the three tests used. 116 (95.1% were positive for malarial parasite on the PBS. ICT was positive in 103 (84.4% cases and QBC was positive in 70 (57.3% cases.Conclusions: ICT for malaria can be used as rapid, simple and mass screening test in remote and rural areas as skilled professional are not required. ICT may prove as useful tool for malaria control programmes. In established setup where skilled and expert personnel are available PBS remains the test of choice and ICT can be used as an adjuvant to PBS.

  1. Automated system for characterization and classification of malaria-infected stages using light microscopic images of thin blood smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, D K; Maiti, A K; Chakraborty, C

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a comprehensive image characterization cum classification framework for malaria-infected stage detection using microscopic images of thin blood smears. The methodology mainly includes microscopic imaging of Leishman stained blood slides, noise reduction and illumination correction, erythrocyte segmentation, feature selection followed by machine classification. Amongst three-image segmentation algorithms (namely, rule-based, Chan-Vese-based and marker-controlled watershed methods), marker-controlled watershed technique provides better boundary detection of erythrocytes specially in overlapping situations. Microscopic features at intensity, texture and morphology levels are extracted to discriminate infected and noninfected erythrocytes. In order to achieve subgroup of potential features, feature selection techniques, namely, F-statistic and information gain criteria are considered here for ranking. Finally, five different classifiers, namely, Naive Bayes, multilayer perceptron neural network, logistic regression, classification and regression tree (CART), RBF neural network have been trained and tested by 888 erythrocytes (infected and noninfected) for each features' subset. Performance evaluation of the proposed methodology shows that multilayer perceptron network provides higher accuracy for malaria-infected erythrocytes recognition and infected stage classification. Results show that top 90 features ranked by F-statistic (specificity: 98.64%, sensitivity: 100%, PPV: 99.73% and overall accuracy: 96.84%) and top 60 features ranked by information gain provides better results (specificity: 97.29%, sensitivity: 100%, PPV: 99.46% and overall accuracy: 96.73%) for malaria-infected stage classification. PMID:25523795

  2. Laboratory diagnosis of malaria by conventional peripheral blood smear examination with Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC and Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT - A comparative study

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    Bhat Sandhya K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Rapid diagnosis is prerequisite for effective treatment and reducing mortality and morbidity of malaria. Microscopy has been the Gold standard for malaria diagnosis for decades. Recently, many new rapid diagnostic tests like Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC examination and rapid antigen detection methods are being widely used. We made an attempt to compare peripheral smear, QBC and rapid antigen detection methods for the diagnosis of malaria. Materials and Methods: A total number of 500 samples were collected from patients presenting with classical symptoms of malaria. Thick and thin blood smears were prepared and stained with Leishman’s stain. QBC, Histidine Rich Protein-II antigen test and plasmodium Lactate Dehydrogenase tests were done using commercially available kits. Results: Taking thick smear as gold standard, thin smear had sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 90.9%, 100%, 100% and 98.6% respectively. QBC showed sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 95.45%, 100%, 100% and 99.31% respectively. HRP-II antigen detection showed sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 56.06%, 100%, 100% and 94.20%. pLDH showed sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of 95.45%, 100%, 100% and 99.40% respectively. Conclusion: In our study, QBC had highest sensitivity followed by pLDH assay. Leishman’s stained thick smear is cost effective but requires technical expertise to interpret the results, so if facilities are available, QBC can be used for routine diagnosis. In places where facilities are not available rapid diagnostic test devices can be used, especially in endemic areas.

  3. Evaluation of hematological profile, biochemical and peripheral blood smear with a view to the health profile in primates of the Cebus genre maintained in captivity

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    David Baruc Cruvinel Lima

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-human primates serve as a model for studies on the dynamics of transmission routes and natural history of diseases shared between humans and animals. The captive environment is conducive the dissemination of zoonotic diseases. Many of these animals do not present clinical symptomatology, even when infected, which characterize them as an important source of infection for domestic animals and man. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sanity of non-human primates kept in captivity through hematological and biochemical analysis as well as peripheral blood smear, aiming to investigate the presence of zoonotic pathogens, serving as a model for future studies on the dynamics of routes of transmission of diseases shared between humans and animals. Were collected samples of blood from 15 nail monkeys (Cebus sp., adults, clinically healthy and belonging to Park Zoobotanic of Teresina. Were stained smear sanguine blades and obtained the haematological and biochemical profiles of each animal. The data analysis was based on basic statistics. Did not observed any haemoparasite present in peripheral blood. All animals were anemic, 46,7% thrombopenics and 87% of the animals showed some type of pathological process of chronic evolution, due to the high rate of monocytes found. All animals showed high rates of alkaline phosphatase, and transaminases AST and ALT, indicating injury of the hepatic parenchyma. New studies should be conducted to better elucidate of results, seeing that biochemical physiological data primate of the genus Cebus are scarce in literature.

  4. Characterization of Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Subsets in Patients with Acute Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax Malaria Infections at Wonji Sugar Estate, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Kassa, Desta; Petros, Beyene; Mesele, Tsehaynesh; Hailu, Ermias; Wolday, Dawit

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the absolute counts of CD4+, CD8+, B, NK, and CD3+ cells and total lymphocytes in patients with acute Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria. Three-color flow cytometry was used for enumerating the immune cells. After slide smears were stained with 3% Giemsa stain, parasite species were detected using light microscopy. Data were analyzed using STATA and SPSS software. A total of 204 adults of both sexes (age, >15 years) were included in the study. One hundred fifty...

  5. Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Technique based Prevalence of Surra in Equines

    OpenAIRE

    Ahsan Nadeem, Asim Aslam*, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary, Kamran Ashraf1, Khalid Saeed1, Nisar Ahmad1, Ishtiaq Ahmed and Habib ur Rehman2

    2011-01-01

    This project was carried out to find the prevalence of trypanosomiasis in equine in District Gujranwala by using indirect fluorescent antibody technique and thin smear method. Blood samples were collected from a total of 200 horses and donkeys of different ages and either sex. Duplicate thin blood smears were prepared from each sample and remaining blood samples were centrifuged to separate the serum. Smears from each animal were processed for giemsa staining and indirect fluorescent antibod...

  6. Diagnóstico presuntivo de histoplasmosis en un frotis sanguíneo Diagnóstico presuntivo de histoplasmose em um esfregaço de sangue Presumptive diagnosis of histoplasmosis in a blood smear

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    Agustina Daniela Tkach

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se comunica el diagnóstico de un caso de histoplasmosis asociada al SIDA a partir de la microscopía de un extendido hemático realizado en oportunidad del procesamiento de una muestra enviada al laboratorio para un estudio hematológico. El extendido, fijado con metanol y teñido con solución de Giemsa al 10% reveló, con objetivo de 100X, estructuras levaduriformes de 2-4 µ de diámetro dentro de las células leucocitarias sanguíneas, con la típica tinción en casquete y la presencia de un halo claro periférico, que caracterizan microscópicamente a Histoplasma capsulatum. Luego, para confirmar el hallazgo micológico, se procedió a teñir el mismo preparado con la técnica de Grocott, la cual puso de manifiesto levaduras de color pardo, dentro de los leucocitos sanguíneos. El paciente, deteriorado clínica e inmunológicamente (Comunica-se o diagnóstico de um caso de histoplasmose associada à AIDS, de uma microscopia de extensão sanguínea realizada por ocasião do processamento de uma amostra enviada ao laboratório para um estudo hematológico. A extensão, fixada com metanol e corada com solução de Giemsa a 10%, revelou com objetivo de 100X, estruturas leveduriformes de 2-4 µ diâmetro dentro de células leucocitárias do sangue, com a típica coloração em tampão e a presença de um halo claro periférico, os quais caracterizam microscopicamente a Histoplasma capsulatum. Em seguida, para confirmar o achado micológico, foi corada a mesma preparação com a técnica de Grocott, que mostrou leveduras de cor parda, dentro dos leucócitos sanguíneos. O paciente clínica e imunologicamente deteriorado (A case of AIDS-associated histoplasmosis diagnosed by microscopy from a blood smear performed during a hematologic study was reported. The smear, fixed with methanol and stained with 10% Giemsa solution, revealed with a 100X objective, 2-4 µ-diameter yeast - like structures within the leuMicrobiología contakocytes, showing a typical staining in cap and a peripheral clear halo, characteristic of Histoplasma capsulatum. To confirm the mycological finding, the same smear was stained with the Grocott technique, showing brownish yeasts in the leucocytes. The patient, clinically deteriorated and with advanced immunological disorder (<50 T CD4+ lymphocytes/µL, died the next day after the diagnosis was made, in spite of the established treatments. This finding highlights the need to have operators trained in the recognition of microbiological structures of diagnostic importance in hematological smears in a Reference Center of Infectious Diseases, and even in the General Laboratory. The immediate diagnosis of this and other serious infections, as Malaria, enables the etiologic treatment and increases the possibilities of therapeutic success.

  7. Development of hedge operator based fuzzy divergence measure and its application in segmentation of chronic myelogenous leukocytes from microscopic image of peripheral blood smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Madhumala; Chakraborty, Chandan; Konar, Amit; Ray, Ajoy K

    2014-02-01

    This paper introduces a hedge operator based fuzzy divergence measure and its application in segmentation of leukocytes in case of chronic myelogenous leukemia using light microscopic images of peripheral blood smears. The concept of modified discrimination measure is applied to develop the measure of divergence based on Shannon exponential entropy and Yager's measure of entropy. These two measures of divergence are compared with the existing literatures and validated by ground truth images. Finally, it is found that hedge operator based divergence measure using Yager's entropy achieves better segmentation accuracy i.e., 98.29% for normal and 98.15% for chronic myelogenous leukocytes. Furthermore, Jaccard index has been performed to compare the segmented image with ground truth ones where it is found that that the proposed scheme leads to higher Jaccard index (0.39 for normal, 0.24 for chronic myelogenous leukemia). PMID:24238941

  8. Significado da presença de esquizócitos no sangue periférico de gestantes com pré-eclâmpsia / Ming of the presence of schistocytes in blood smear of preeclamptic pregnat women

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosângela de Fátima do Nascimento e, Silva; Lucilene Silva Ruiz e, Resende; Bruno Rabelo, Cardoso; Joélcio Francisco, Abbade; José Carlos, Peraçoli.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o significado da presença de esquizócitos em esfregaço de sangue periférico de gestantes com pré-eclâmpsia, identificando-os e correlacionando-os com outros marcadores de hemólise e da gravidade da doença. MÉTODOS: foram avaliadas 76 lâminas de esfregaço de sangue periférico de ges [...] tantes portadoras de pré-eclâmpsia. Após a realização do esfregaço, as lâminas foram submetidas ao corante de Leishman e armazenadas até a leitura, feita em microscópio modelo DLMB, da marca Leica, com aumento de 40 vezes e imersão em óleo. O microscópio era dotado de software Qwin Lite 2.5, que permitia gravar as imagens dos campos escolhidos em CD-ROM. Em cada lâmina foram contados dez campos com aproximadamente 100 eritrócitos. Foi considerada presença de esquizócitos (fragmento irregular ou em forma de capacete, de mordida ou triângulo) quando a porcentagem dos mesmos era maior ou igual que 0,2%. A presença de esquizócitos foi correlacionada com outros marcadores de hemólise (hemoglobina, bilirrubina total, desidrogenase lática e reticulócitos), marcadores da pré-eclâmpsia (proteinúria e número de plaquetas) e com a gravidade da pré-eclâmpsia. Para análise estatística foi utilizado o programa Statistical Package in Social Science (SPSS), versão 10.0, com valor de p Abstract in english PURPOSE: to evaluate the significance of schizocytes presence in peripheral blood smear of pregnant women with pre-eclampsia, identifying and correlating them with other markers of hemolysis and of the disease severity. METHODS: Seventh six glass slides of peripheral blood smear of pregnant women wi [...] th pre-eclampsia have been evaluated. After the smear, the slides have been stained with Leishman's dye and stored till they were examined with a Leica, model DLMB microscope, provided with the Qwin Lite 2.5 software that made it possible to record the images of selected fields in CD-ROM. Ten fields with approximately 100 erythrocytes were counted in each glass slide. Schizocytes (irregular fragment or helmet-shaped, bite-shaped or triangular) were considered as present, when their percentage was equal or higher than 0.2%, their presence being correlated with other hemolysis markers (hemoglobin, total bilirubin, lactic desidrogenasis and reticulocytes), pre-eclampsia markers (proteinuria and platelet number). The Statistical Package in Social Science for Windows (SPSS), 10.0 version has been used for statistical analysis, at p

  9. Significado da presença de esquizócitos no sangue periférico de gestantes com pré-eclâmpsia Ming of the presence of schistocytes in blood smear of preeclamptic pregnat women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela de Fátima do Nascimento e Silva

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o significado da presença de esquizócitos em esfregaço de sangue periférico de gestantes com pré-eclâmpsia, identificando-os e correlacionando-os com outros marcadores de hemólise e da gravidade da doença. MÉTODOS: foram avaliadas 76 lâminas de esfregaço de sangue periférico de gestantes portadoras de pré-eclâmpsia. Após a realização do esfregaço, as lâminas foram submetidas ao corante de Leishman e armazenadas até a leitura, feita em microscópio modelo DLMB, da marca Leica, com aumento de 40 vezes e imersão em óleo. O microscópio era dotado de software Qwin Lite 2.5, que permitia gravar as imagens dos campos escolhidos em CD-ROM. Em cada lâmina foram contados dez campos com aproximadamente 100 eritrócitos. Foi considerada presença de esquizócitos (fragmento irregular ou em forma de capacete, de mordida ou triângulo quando a porcentagem dos mesmos era maior ou igual que 0,2%. A presença de esquizócitos foi correlacionada com outros marcadores de hemólise (hemoglobina, bilirrubina total, desidrogenase lática e reticulócitos, marcadores da pré-eclâmpsia (proteinúria e número de plaquetas e com a gravidade da pré-eclâmpsia. Para análise estatística foi utilizado o programa Statistical Package in Social Science (SPSS, versão 10.0, com valor de pPURPOSE: to evaluate the significance of schizocytes presence in peripheral blood smear of pregnant women with pre-eclampsia, identifying and correlating them with other markers of hemolysis and of the disease severity. METHODS: Seventh six glass slides of peripheral blood smear of pregnant women with pre-eclampsia have been evaluated. After the smear, the slides have been stained with Leishman's dye and stored till they were examined with a Leica, model DLMB microscope, provided with the Qwin Lite 2.5 software that made it possible to record the images of selected fields in CD-ROM. Ten fields with approximately 100 erythrocytes were counted in each glass slide. Schizocytes (irregular fragment or helmet-shaped, bite-shaped or triangular were considered as present, when their percentage was equal or higher than 0.2%, their presence being correlated with other hemolysis markers (hemoglobin, total bilirubin, lactic desidrogenasis and reticulocytes, pre-eclampsia markers (proteinuria and platelet number. The Statistical Package in Social Science for Windows (SPSS, 10.0 version has been used for statistical analysis, at p<0.05. RESULTS: schizocytes have been present in 31.6% of the pregnant women with pre-eclampsia. In most (75% of the blood smears there have been three or four schizocytes. There has been no correlation between schizocyte presence and any other hemolysis marker, any pre-eclampsia marker or disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: schizocytes have been identified in a small number and in less than a third of the pregnant women with pre-eclampsia. There has been no correlation with other hemolysis marker parameters or with the disease severity. This way, the presence of schizocytes is not a marker of the clinical evolution of pre-eclampsia.

  10. Morphological findings in bone marrow biopsy and aspirate smears of visceral kala azar: A review

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    Dhingra Kajal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is endemic in India and may simulate and cause many hematological disorders like pancytopenia, myelofibrosis, myelodysplasia and hemophagocytosis. Aims: The study aims to investigate the hematological manifestation of Visceral Leishmaniasis and associated changes that may be observed in bone marrow aspirate smears and biopsy which may warn a pathologist of possible infections. Settings and Design: This is a retrospective study of 18 VL cases on B (b one marrow aspirate and biopsy in the department of Pathology in a tertiary care teaching hospital in New Delhi. Methods and Material: Giemsa stained slides of bone marrow aspirates and hematoxylin and Eosin stained biopsy slides were reviewed in detail by two competent pathologists. All the findings were tabulated and discussed and comparisons made with the previous similar studies. Results: Hyper cellular marrow, increased lymphocytes and plasma cells, marrow granulomas, hemophagocytosis, myelofibrosis, myelodysplasia and gelatinous transformation of the marrow were notable features the presence of which together or individually should caution a pathologist to search for Leishman Donovan (LD bodies in patients especially in a non-endemic zone in a tropical country.

  11. Diagnóstico presuntivo de histoplasmosis en un frotis sanguíneo / Presumptive diagnosis of histoplasmosis in a blood smear / Diagnóstico presuntivo de histoplasmose em um esfregaço de sangue

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Agustina Daniela, Tkach; Jorge Daniel, Moreno; Amadeo Javier, Bava.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Comunica-se o diagnóstico de um caso de histoplasmose associada à AIDS, de uma microscopia de extensão sanguínea realizada por ocasião do processamento de uma amostra enviada ao laboratório para um estudo hematológico. A extensão, fixada com metanol e corada com solução de Giemsa a 10%, revelou com [...] objetivo de 100X, estruturas leveduriformes de 2-4 µ diâmetro dentro de células leucocitárias do sangue, com a típica coloração em tampão e a presença de um halo claro periférico, os quais caracterizam microscopicamente a Histoplasma capsulatum. Em seguida, para confirmar o achado micológico, foi corada a mesma preparação com a técnica de Grocott, que mostrou leveduras de cor parda, dentro dos leucócitos sanguíneos. O paciente clínica e imunologicamente deteriorado ( Abstract in spanish Se comunica el diagnóstico de un caso de histoplasmosis asociada al SIDA a partir de la microscopía de un extendido hemático realizado en oportunidad del procesamiento de una muestra enviada al laboratorio para un estudio hematológico. El extendido, fijado con metanol y teñido con solución de Giemsa [...] al 10% reveló, con objetivo de 100X, estructuras levaduriformes de 2-4 µ de diámetro dentro de las células leucocitarias sanguíneas, con la típica tinción en casquete y la presencia de un halo claro periférico, que caracterizan microscópicamente a Histoplasma capsulatum. Luego, para confirmar el hallazgo micológico, se procedió a teñir el mismo preparado con la técnica de Grocott, la cual puso de manifiesto levaduras de color pardo, dentro de los leucocitos sanguíneos. El paciente, deteriorado clínica e inmunológicamente ( Abstract in english A case of AIDS-associated histoplasmosis diagnosed by microscopy from a blood smear performed during a hematologic study was reported. The smear, fixed with methanol and stained with 10% Giemsa solution, revealed with a 100X objective, 2-4 µ-diameter yeast - like structures within the leuMicrobiolog [...] ía contakocytes, showing a typical staining in cap and a peripheral clear halo, characteristic of Histoplasma capsulatum. To confirm the mycological finding, the same smear was stained with the Grocott technique, showing brownish yeasts in the leucocytes. The patient, clinically deteriorated and with advanced immunological disorder (

  12. The postpartum Papanicolaou smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, B D; Senf, J H; Udall, W

    1989-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the importance of obtaining postpartum Papanicolaou (Pap) smears routinely. Four hundred eighty-nine patients receiving pregnancy care had a normal prenatal Pap smear and a repeat Pap smear at their postpartum visit. Twenty-four (4.9 percent) had an abnormal postpartum Pap smear (95 percent confidence interval: 3.1-6.9 percent). Twenty-one (87.5 percent) of the abnormal smears showed squamous dysplasia; three (12.5 percent) showed squamous atypia. No specific risk factors were identified that predicted the occurrence of an abnormal postpartum Pap following a normal prenatal Pap except for age. Women more than 30 years of age were less likely to have an abnormal postpartum Pap smear (P = 0.008). The results of this study support the practice of performing Pap smears during prenatal care and again at postpartum examination, even when the prenatal Pap smear is normal. PMID:2538045

  13. Smear layer in endodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Živkovi? Slavoljub; Brkani? Tatjana; Da?i? Dragoslav; Opa?i? Vanja; Pavlovi? Violeta; Medojevi? Milica

    2005-01-01

    Modern methods of root canal cleaning and filing are causing formation of the smear layer on treated surfaces. The aim of this paper was to review clinical aspect of smear layer in endodontics. Smear layer is the consequence of instrumentation of root canal walls and is consisted of organic and inorganic particles of cut dentine, necrotic and/or vital pulp fragments, microorganisms and their products. Existence of smear layer is affecting permeability of the radicular dentine, thus decreasing...

  14. Prevalence of Congenital Malaria in Minna, North Central Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Innocent Chukwuemeka James Omalu; Charles Mgbemena; Amaka Mgbemena; Victoria Ayanwale; Israel Kayode Olayemi; Adeniran Lateef; Chukwuemeka, Victoria I.

    2011-01-01

    The study was designed to determine the true prevalence of congenital, cord, and placental malaria in General Hospital Minna, North Central Nigeria. Peripheral blood smears of near-term pregnant women, as well as the placental, cord, and peripheral blood smears of their newborn babies, were examined for malaria parasites, using the Giemsa staining technique. Out of 152 pregnant women screened, 21 (13.82%) of them were infected with malaria parasites. Of the 152 new born babies, 4 (2.63%) show...

  15. The use of fluorescence enhancement to improve the microscopic diagnosis of falciparum malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Paul

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giemsa staining of thick blood smears remains the "gold standard" for detecting malaria. However, this method is not very good for diagnosing low-level infections. A method for the simultaneous staining of Plasmodium-parasitized culture and blood smears for both bright field and fluorescence was developed and its ability to improve detection efficiency tested. Methods A total of 22 nucleic acid-specific fluorescent dyes were tested for their ability to provide easily observable staining of Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized red blood cells following Giemsa staining. Results Of the 14 dyes that demonstrated intense fluorescence staining, only SYBR Green 1, YOYO-1 and ethidum homodimer-2 could be detected using fluorescent microscopy, when cells were first stained with Giemsa. Giemsa staining was not effective when applied after the fluorescent dyes. SYBR Green 1 provided the best staining in the presence of Giemsa, as a very high percentage of the parasitized cells were simultaneously stained. When blood films were screened using fluorescence microscopy the parasites were more readily detectable due to the sharp contrast between the dark background and the specific, bright fluorescence produced by the parasites. Conclusion The dual staining method reported here allows fluorescence staining, which enhances the reader's ability to detect parasites under low parasitaemia conditions, coupled with the ability to examine the same cell under bright field conditions to detect the characteristic morphology of Plasmodium species that is observed with Giemsa staining.

  16. Blood parasites in passerine birds from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Hemoparasitos em passeriformes da Mata Atlântica Brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Sebaio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Parasites may lead bird species to extinction, affect host temporal and spatial population dynamics, alter community structure and alter individuals’ social status. We evaluated blood parasite prevalence and intensity according to bird families and species, among 925 birds that were caught in 2000 and 2001, in the Atlantic Forest in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. We applied Giemsa staining to thin blood smears, to detect blood parasites. The birds (n = 15.8% in 11 families, were infected by at least one parasite genus, especially Muscicapidae (28.3% and Conopophagidae (25%. Among the 146 infected birds, Plasmodium was detected in all bird families and had the highest prevalence (54.8%. Trypanosoma, Haemoproteus and microfilaria had lower prevalence rates (23.3, 23.3 and 2.1%, respectively. Birds caught during the rainy season were more infected than birds caught during the dry season. The overall low prevalence of blood parasites in birds is similar to the patterns found elsewhere in the Neotropical region.Parasitos podem levar espécies de aves à extinção, afetar as dinâmicas temporais e espaciais dos hospedeiros, alterar a estrutura de comunidades e o status social de indivíduos. Avaliou-se a prevalência e a intensidade de parasitos em famílias e espécies de 925 aves capturadas, entre 2000 e 2001, na Mata Atlântica de Minas Gerais. Foram coradas com Giemsa extensões de sangue para detectar parasitos hematozoários. As aves (n= 15,8% 11 famílias estavam infectadas por pelo menos um gênero de parasito, especialmente Muscicapidae (28,3% e Conopophagidae (25%. Entre as 146 aves infectadas, Plasmodium foi detectado em todas as famílias e possuiu a maior prevalência (54,8%. Trypanosoma,Haemoproteus e microfilaria possuíram baixas prevalências (23,3, 23,3 e 2,1%, respectivamente. Aves capturadasdurante a estação chuvosa estavam mais infectadas do que aves capturadas durante a estação seca. A baixa prevalência geral de parasitos do sangue das aves é semelhante aos padrões encontrados em outras localidades da região Neotropical.

  17. Blood parasites in passerine birds from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest / Hemoparasitos em passeriformes da Mata Atlântica Brasileira

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabiane, Sebaio; Érika Martins, Braga; Felipe, Branquinho; Alan, Fecchio; Miguel Ângelo, Marini.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Parasitos podem levar espécies de aves à extinção, afetar as dinâmicas temporais e espaciais dos hospedeiros, alterar a estrutura de comunidades e o status social de indivíduos. Avaliou-se a prevalência e a intensidade de parasitos em famílias e espécies de 925 aves capturadas, entre 2000 e 2001, na [...] Mata Atlântica de Minas Gerais. Foram coradas com Giemsa extensões de sangue para detectar parasitos hematozoários. As aves (n= 15,8%) 11 famílias estavam infectadas por pelo menos um gênero de parasito, especialmente Muscicapidae (28,3%) e Conopophagidae (25%). Entre as 146 aves infectadas, Plasmodium foi detectado em todas as famílias e possuiu a maior prevalência (54,8%). Trypanosoma,Haemoproteus e microfilaria possuíram baixas prevalências (23,3, 23,3 e 2,1%, respectivamente). Aves capturadasdurante a estação chuvosa estavam mais infectadas do que aves capturadas durante a estação seca. A baixa prevalência geral de parasitos do sangue das aves é semelhante aos padrões encontrados em outras localidades da região Neotropical. Abstract in english Parasites may lead bird species to extinction, affect host temporal and spatial population dynamics, alter community structure and alter individuals’ social status. We evaluated blood parasite prevalence and intensity according to bird families and species, among 925 birds that were caught in 2000 a [...] nd 2001, in the Atlantic Forest in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. We applied Giemsa staining to thin blood smears, to detect blood parasites. The birds (n = 15.8%) in 11 families, were infected by at least one parasite genus, especially Muscicapidae (28.3%) and Conopophagidae (25%). Among the 146 infected birds, Plasmodium was detected in all bird families and had the highest prevalence (54.8%). Trypanosoma, Haemoproteus and microfilaria had lower prevalence rates (23.3, 23.3 and 2.1%, respectively). Birds caught during the rainy season were more infected than birds caught during the dry season. The overall low prevalence of blood parasites in birds is similar to the patterns found elsewhere in the Neotropical region.

  18. Smear layer in endodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živkovi? Slavoljub

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern methods of root canal cleaning and filing are causing formation of the smear layer on treated surfaces. The aim of this paper was to review clinical aspect of smear layer in endodontics. Smear layer is the consequence of instrumentation of root canal walls and is consisted of organic and inorganic particles of cut dentine, necrotic and/or vital pulp fragments, microorganisms and their products. Existence of smear layer is affecting permeability of the radicular dentine, thus decreasing effects of canal medicaments and impairing adhesion of obturation materials in root canal. Removal of the smear layer from canal walls is possible with use of various chemical agents, ultrasonic or laser techniques. Regardless to contradictory attitudes and opinions, removing the smear layer is required for possible bacterial contamination, compromised effects of root canal medication and in order to obtain better obturation of canals 'system. .

  19. Evaluation of buffalo semen by Trypan blue/Giemsa staining and related fertility in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gasparrini

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to verify the feasibility of an easy, quick double staining technique for evaluation of frozen-thawed semen to predict the fertilizing capability in vitro of buffalo bulls. In Experiment 1, frozen-thawed semen from 6 bulls was stained with double Trypan blue/ Giemsa and the incidence of acrosome-intact live (AIL, acrosome-intact dead (AID, acrosome-lost live (ALL and acrosome-lost dead (ALD sperm was recorded. In Experiment 2, sperm from the same bulls were used to fertilize in vitro matured oocytes. The data obtained confirm that there is a strong “bull effect” in buffalo species, with differences in the percentage of AIL sperm at thawing, in cleavage and blastocyst rates among bulls. Interestingly, it was found that this staining technique can be used for a preliminary screening to select semen to use for IVF, as shown by the correlation existent between the percentages of acrosome-intact viable sperm cells at thawing and the blastocyst yields for 4/6 bulls.

  20. Evaluation of buffalo semen by Trypan blue/Giemsa staining and related fertility in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Gasparrini, B.; Mariotti, E.; Attanasio, L.; Rosa, A.; Di Palo, R.; Boccia, L.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to verify the feasibility of an easy, quick double staining technique for evaluation of frozen-thawed semen to predict the fertilizing capability in vitro of buffalo bulls. In Experiment 1, frozen-thawed semen from 6 bulls was stained with double Trypan blue/ Giemsa and the incidence of acrosome-intact live (AIL), acrosome-intact dead (AID), acrosome-lost live (ALL) and acrosome-lost dead (ALD) sperm was recorded. In Experiment 2, sperm from the same bulls were used t...

  1. Comparação de nested-PCR com o diagnóstico direto na detecção de Ehrlichia canis e Anaplasma platys em cães / Comparison of nested-PCR with blood smear examination in detection of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in dogs

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos A. N., Ramos; Rafael A. N., Ramos; Flábio R., Araújo; Daniel S., Guedes Jr; Ingrid I. F., Souza; Tatiana M., Ono; Anahi S., Vieira; Danillo S., Pimentel; Eduardo O., Rosas; Maria A. G., Faustino; Leucio C., Alves.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Os sinais clínicos das infecções por Ehrlichia canis e Anaplasma platys são similares, e o diagnóstico desses patógenos feito por esfregaços sanguíneos corados é difícil devido à sensibilidade e especificidade. Por outro lado, os diagnósticos moleculares são altamente sensíveis e específicos, e nest [...] ed-PCRs têm sido otimizadas para o diagnóstico preciso desses patógenos em cães. Em um Hospital Veterinário Escola, amostras de sangue total com EDTA foram obtidas de 100 cães, e esfregaços foram feitos das amostras de sangue para busca dos parasitos intracelulares. Para cada amostra, DNA foi extraído e submetido à nPCR para detecção de E. canis e A. platys. Os resultados dos esfregaços sanguíneos mostraram que 9% dos animais foram positivos para E. canis e 21% para A. platys. Com relação à nPCR, 57 e 55% dos cães foram positivos para E. canis e A. platys, respectivamente. Quando comparados com a nPCR, os esfregaços sanguíneos corados revelaram resultados falso-negativos para E. canis e A. platys. Os resultados indicam que a nPCR é altamente sensível e específica para detecção de ambos os patógenos, e os diagnósticos moleculares podem ser mais úteis nos Hospitais Veterinários. Abstract in english The clinical signs of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys infection are similar, and the diagnosis of these pathogens made by stained blood smears is poor due sensibility and specificity. On the other hand, the molecular diagnosis is highly sensitive and specific and nested-PCR have been optimized [...] for accurate diagnosis these pathogens in dogs. At the veterinary teaching hospital, whole-blood samples with EDTA were obtained from 100 dogs and smears were made from blood samples for evaluation for intracellular parasites. For each sample, DNA was extracted and submitted to nPCR analysis for detection of E. canis and A. platys. The results of stained blood smears showed 9% of the animals were positive for E. canis and 21% for A. platys. Regarding of nPCR analysis, 57 and 55% of dogs were positive for E. canis and A. platys respectively. As compared to a nested PCR, the stained blood smears revealed false-negative results for both E. canis and A. platys. The results indicate that the nPCR is highly sensitive and specific for detection of both pathogens and the molecular diagnosis could be more useful at veterinary hospital.

  2. Comparison of results of the manual and automated scoring of micronucleus frequencies in (60)Co-irradiated peripheral blood lymphocytes for triage dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamizh Selvan, G; Chaudhury, N K; Venkatachalam, P

    2015-03-01

    Scoring micronuclei in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of individuals exposed to ionizing radiation is a rapid biodosimetry assay. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from five individuals were exposed in vitro to 0-5Gy of (60)Co ?-radiation at a dose rate of 0.76Gy/min. The blood cultures were initiated with RPMI-1640 (80%) supplemented with FBS (20%), stimulated with mitogen and incubated at 37°C for 44h. At the 44th hour, cytochalasin-B (6µg/mL) was added, and the cultures were incubated for 28h more. The cells were harvested with a pre-chilled hypotonic solution (0.075M) and fixed with a Carnoy's solution (methanol/acetic acid 5:1). Giemsa- and propidium-iodide-stained cells affixed to slides for microscopy were scored manually and automatically with the micronucleus scoring software from MetaSystems. The micronucleus frequencies determined in the Giemsa-stained cells by manual and automated scoring were 23.6% different (P<0.0001) with an efficiency of 24.9%. Slides stained with propidium iodide are a better choice for automated scoring than Giemsa-stained ones. PMID:25544665

  3. In vitro isolation of equine piroplasms derived from Cape Mountain zebra ( Equus zebra zebra) in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Zweygarth, Erich; Meyer, P.; Lopez-rebollar, Laura M.

    2002-01-01

    Twenty blood samples of zebras ( Equus zebra zebra) from the Karoo National Park and the Bontebok National Park in South Africa, all seropositive for Theileria equi, were subjected to in vitro culture to identify carrier animals and to isolate the parasites. Sixteen animals had a detectable parasitaemia in Giemsa-stained blood smears examined before culture initiation, the remaining four animals were identified as T. equi carriers by in vitro culture. Cultures were initiated either in an oxyg...

  4. Concordancia entre gota gruesa, inmunocromatografía y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa para el diagnóstico de malaria / Concordance between thick blood smear, immunochromatography and polymerase chain reaction for malaria diagnosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Astrid Elena, Montoya; José, Menco; Natalia, Osorio; María Alejandra, Zuluaga; Juliana, Duque; Giovanny, Torres; Marcos, Restrepo.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El diagnóstico oportuno y efectivo del paludismo, o malaria, son condiciones determinantes para hacer un tratamiento adecuado de la enfermedad y un control de la misma. Objetivo. Se evaluó la concordancia de la sensibilidad, especificidad, valor diagnóstico positivo y negativo de una p [...] rueba rápida y de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR), con la prueba estándar, la gota gruesa, para el diagnóstico de la malaria. Materiales y métodos. Se analizó una población de 100 pacientes con signos y síntomas indicativos de paludismo, procedentes de las zonas de Urabá, Córdoba, Bajo Cauca y de otras regiones de Colombia, como Valle, Chocó y Vichada, todas áreas endémicas de la enfermedad. A cada paciente se le practicó una gota gruesa, la prueba rápida OptiMAL® y la amplificación a través de una PCR de secuencias de ADN específicas para género y para Plasmodium falciparum y Plasmodium vivax. Resultados. La sensibilidad de la prueba rápida frente a la gota gruesa, para el diagnóstico de ambas especies de Plasmodium fue de 93,85% (IC95% 87,23-100) y la especificidad de 94,29% (IC95% 85,17-100). La PCR comparada con la gota gruesa mostró una sensibilidad de 100% (IC95% 99,23-100) y una especificidad de 97,14% (IC95% 90,19-100). Conclusiones. Estos hallazgos muestran que la sensibilidad y especificidad de la prueba rápida y la PCR para el diagnóstico de malaria son comparables con el examen al microscopio de la gota gruesa, recomendada por su eficacia y bajo costo. Abstract in english Introduction. The rapid and effective diagnosis of malaria is the determining condition for an appropriate treatment and control of the disease. Objective. The sensitivity, specificity and the positive and negative predictive values were evaluated in cases of suspected malaria in Colombia in a compa [...] rison of a rapid diagnostic test. the PCR test and the thick blood smear-the traditional ‘gold standard.’ Materials and methods. A group of 100 patients with symptoms compatible with malaria, were included in the study. They were selected from the following Colombian regions: Urabá, Córdoba, lower Cauca, and relatively fewer from other malaria endemic areas of Colombia including the provinces of Valle, Chocó in the central west of Colombia and Vichada to the east. To each patient the following three tests were performed: the rapid OptiMAL® test, the PCR identification and the thick blood smear. The PCR amplified specific DNA sequences with primers designed to identify the genus Plasmodium, and the two species present in Colombia, P. falciparum and P. vivax. Results. The sensitivity of the rapid test versus the thick smear, for the diagnosis of both species of Plasmodium was 93.9% (95% CI: 87-100%) and the specificity was 94.3% (95% CI:.253 85-100%). The PCR compared with the thick smear showed a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 99-100%) and a specificity of 97.1% (95% CI: 90-100%). Conclusions. The sensitivity and specificity of the three tests did not present statistically significant differences. However, the thick blood smear was recommended as the standard test, mainly due to its low cost.

  5. Concordancia entre gota gruesa, inmunocromatografía y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa para el diagnóstico de malaria Concordance between thick blood smear, immunochromatography and polymerase chain reaction for malaria diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Restrepo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Introducción. El diagnóstico oportuno y efectivo del paludismo, o malaria, son condiciones determinantes para hacer un tratamiento adecuado de la enfermedad y un control de la misma.
    Objetivo. Se evaluó la concordancia de la sensibilidad, especificidad, valor diagnóstico positivo y negativo de una prueba rápida y de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR, con la prueba estándar, la gota gruesa, para el diagnóstico de la malaria.
    Materiales y métodos. Se analizó una población de 100 pacientes con signos y síntomas indicativos de paludismo, procedentes de las zonas de Urabá, Córdoba, Bajo Cauca y de otras regiones de Colombia, como Valle, Chocó y Vichada, todas áreas endémicas de la enfermedad.
    A cada paciente se le practicó una gota gruesa, la prueba rápida OptiMAL® y la amplificación a través de una PCR de secuencias de ADN específicas para género y paraPlasmodium falciparum y Plasmodium vivax.
    Resultados. La sensibilidad de la prueba rápida frente a la gota gruesa, para el diagnóstico de ambas especies de Plasmodium fue de 93,85% (IC95% 87,23-100 y la especificidad de 94,29% (IC95% 85,17-100.
    La PCR comparada con la gota gruesa mostró una sensibilidad de 100% (IC95% 99,23-100 y una especificidad de 97,14% (IC95% 90,19-100.
    Conclusiones. Estos hallazgos muestran que la sensibilidad y especificidad de la prueba rápida y la PCR para el diagnóstico de malaria son comparables con el examen al microscopio de la gota gruesa, recomendada por su eficacia y bajo costo.

    Introduction. The rapid and effective diagnosis of malaria is the determining condition for an appropriate treatment and control of the disease.
    Objective. The sensitivity, specificity and the positive and negative predictive values were evaluated in cases of suspected malaria in Colombia in a comparison of a rapid diagnostic test. the PCR test and the thick blood smear-the traditional gold standard.
    Materials and methods. A group of 100 patients with symptoms compatible with malaria, were included in the study. They were selected from the following Colombian regions: Urabá, Córdoba, lower Cauca, and relatively fewer from other malaria endemic areas of Colombia including the provinces of Valle, Chocó in the central west of Colombia and Vichada to the east. To each patient the following three tests were performed: the rapid OptiMAL® test, the PCR identification and the thick blood smear. The PCR amplified specific DNA sequences with primers designed to identify the genus Plasmodium, and the two species present in Colombia, P. falciparum and P. vivax.
    Results. The sensitivity of the rapid test versus the thick smear, for the diagnosis of both species of Plasmodium was 93.9% (95% CI: 87-100% and the specificity was 94.3% (95% CI:.253 85-100%. The PCR compared with the thick smear showed a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 99-100% and a specificity of 97.1% (95% CI: 90-100%.
    Conclusions. The sensitivity and specificity of the three tests did not present statistically significant differences. However, the thick blood smear was recommended as the standard test, mainly due to its low cost.

  6. First case of Plasmodium knowlesi infection in a Japanese traveller returning from Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tanizaki, Ryutaro; Ujiie, Mugen; Kato, Yasuyuki; Iwagami, Moritoshi; Hashimoto, Aki; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Takeshita, Nozomi; Hayakawa, Kyoko; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Kano, Shigeyuki; Ohmagari, Norio

    2013-01-01

    This is the first case of Plasmodium knowlesi infection in a Japanese traveller returning from Malaysia. In September 2012, a previously healthy 35-year-old Japanese man presented to National Center for Global Health and Medicine in Tokyo with a two-day history of daily fever, mild headaches and mild arthralgia. Malaria parasites were found in the Giemsa-stained thin blood smear, which showed band forms similar to Plasmodium malariae. Although a nested PCR showed the amplification of the prim...

  7. Camel trypanosomosis in the Canary Islands: assessment of seroprevalence and infection rates using the card agglutination test (CATT/T. evansi) and parasite detection tests

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez, C.; Juste, M. C.; Corbera, J. A.; Magnus, E.; Verloo, D.; Montoya, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    Trypanosomosis due to Trypanosoma evansi (surra) is a major enzootic disease of the dromedary camel. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to assess seroprevalence and infection rates in the Canary Islands using antibody(-card agglutination test-CATT/T. evansi) and parasite detection tests (micro-Haematocrit Centrifugation technique, Giemsa stained blood smears, microscopic examination of lymph node aspirates and mouse inoculation). PCV was also determined. 745 dromedary camels (483 fema...

  8. Study of the cell destruction phenomena in gamma radiated human blood leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation of blood induces morphological and molecular effects in the cells that, depending on its severity, can lead to apoptosis. Despite the advanced knowledge available about the effects of radiation on biological tissue, the phenomena of radio-induced deterioration has been only slightly described integrally. This work evaluated the stages of cellular destruction in leukocytes obtained from blood samples radiated with 60Co at doses of 25 and 50 Gy. The radio-induced morphological changes were analyzed, as well as their relation to the increases in the concentration of serum potassium and the overexpression of p53 using Giemsa stain, the streptavidin-biotin interaction and the sodium tetraphenylborate reaction, respectively. Our results show that gamma radiation induces at least three morphological phenomena in leukocytes: loss of cellular integrity in lymphocytes; leukocyte fragmentation and lobular dissociation in neutrophils, accompanied by the overexpression of p53

  9. Leukocytes Detection, Classification and Counting in Smears of Peripheral Blood / Detección, Clasificación y Conteo de Leucocitos en Frotis de Sangre Periférica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., Martínez-Castro; S., Reyes-Cadena; E., Felipe-Riverón.

    Full Text Available Mediante un clasificador k-NN en combinación con la primera métrica de Minkowski y técnicas de procesamiento digital de imágenes, se desarrolló un sistema computacional independiente de la plataforma, capaz de identificar, clasificar y contar cinco formas normales de leucocitos: neutrófilos, eosinóf [...] ilos, basófilos, monocitos y linfocitos. Es importante enfatizar que este trabajo no intenta diferenciar entre muestras de leucocitos provenientes de gente sana y enferma, debido a que la mayoría de las enfermedades se detectan principalmente por un cambio en el conteo diferencial de leucocitos más que por cambios en su forma. Finalmente, el contador de leucocitos puede ser usado en áreas emergentes como la hematología topográfica y la cronobiología. Abstract in english Using the k-NN classifier in combination with the first Minkowski metric, in addition to techniques of digital image processing, we developed a computational system platform-independent, which is able to identify, to classify and to count five normal types of leukocytes: neutrophils, eosinophils, ba [...] sophils, monocytes and lymphocytes. It is important to emphasize that this work does not attempt to diferentiate between smears of leukocytes coming from healthy and sick people; this is because most diseases produce a change in the differential count of leukocytes rather than in theirs forms. In the other side, the system could be used in emerging areas such as the topographic hematology and the chronobiology.

  10. Flow cytometric readout based on Mitotracker Red CMXRos staining of live asexual blood stage malarial parasites reliably assesses antibody dependent cellular inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jogdand, Prajakta S; Singh, Susheel K

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Functional in vitro assays could provide insights into the efficacy of malaria vaccine candidates. For estimating the anti-parasite effect induced by a vaccine candidate, an accurate determination of live parasite count is an essential component of most in vitro bioassays. Although traditionally parasites are counted microscopically, a faster, more accurate and less subjective method for counting parasites is desirable. In this study mitochondrial dye (Mitotracker Red CMXRos) was used for obtaining reliable live parasite counts through flow cytometry. METHODS: Both asynchronous and tightly synchronized asexual blood stage cultures of Plasmodium falciparum were stained with CMXRos and subjected to detection by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. The parasite counts obtained by flow cytometry were compared to standard microscopic counts obtained through examination of Giemsa-stained thin smears. A comparison of the ability of CMXRos to stain live and compromised parasites (induced by either medium starvation or by anti-malarial drug treatment) was carried out. Finally, parasite counts obtained by CMXRos staining through flow cytometry were used to determine specific growth inhibition index (SGI) in an antibody-dependent cellular inhibition (ADCI) assay. RESULTS: Mitotracker Red CMXRos can reliably detect live intra-erythrocytic stages of P. falciparum. Comparison between staining of live with compromised parasites shows that CMXRos predominantly stains live parasites with functional mitochondria. Parasite counts obtained by CMXRos staining and flow cytometry were highly reproducible and can reliably determine the ability of IgG from hyper-immune individuals to inhibit parasite growth in presence of monocytes in ADCI assay. Further, a dose-dependent parasite growth inhibitory effect could be detected for both total IgG purified from hyper-immune sera and affinity purified IgGs against the N-terminal non-repeat region of GLURP in ADCI assays coupled with determination of parasite counts through CMXRos staining and flow cytometry. CONCLUSIONS: A flow cytometry method based on CMXRos staining for detection of live parasite populations has been optimized. This is a rapid and sensitive method with high inter-assay reproducibility which can reliably determine the anti-parasite effect mediated by antibodies in functional in vitro assays such as ADCI assay.

  11. Flow cytometric readout based on Mitotracker Red CMXRos staining of live asexual blood stage malarial parasites reliably assesses antibody dependent cellular inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jogdand Prajakta S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional in vitro assays could provide insights into the efficacy of malaria vaccine candidates. For estimating the anti-parasite effect induced by a vaccine candidate, an accurate determination of live parasite count is an essential component of most in vitro bioassays. Although traditionally parasites are counted microscopically, a faster, more accurate and less subjective method for counting parasites is desirable. In this study mitochondrial dye (Mitotracker Red CMXRos was used for obtaining reliable live parasite counts through flow cytometry. Methods Both asynchronous and tightly synchronized asexual blood stage cultures of Plasmodium falciparum were stained with CMXRos and subjected to detection by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. The parasite counts obtained by flow cytometry were compared to standard microscopic counts obtained through examination of Giemsa-stained thin smears. A comparison of the ability of CMXRos to stain live and compromised parasites (induced by either medium starvation or by anti-malarial drug treatment was carried out. Finally, parasite counts obtained by CMXRos staining through flow cytometry were used to determine specific growth inhibition index (SGI in an antibody-dependent cellular inhibition (ADCI assay. Results Mitotracker Red CMXRos can reliably detect live intra-erythrocytic stages of P. falciparum. Comparison between staining of live with compromised parasites shows that CMXRos predominantly stains live parasites with functional mitochondria. Parasite counts obtained by CMXRos staining and flow cytometry were highly reproducible and can reliably determine the ability of IgG from hyper-immune individuals to inhibit parasite growth in presence of monocytes in ADCI assay. Further, a dose-dependent parasite growth inhibitory effect could be detected for both total IgG purified from hyper-immune sera and affinity purified IgGs against the N-terminal non-repeat region of GLURP in ADCI assays coupled with determination of parasite counts through CMXRos staining and flow cytometry. Conclusions A flow cytometry method based on CMXRos staining for detection of live parasite populations has been optimized. This is a rapid and sensitive method with high inter-assay reproducibility which can reliably determine the anti-parasite effect mediated by antibodies in functional in vitro assays such as ADCI assay.

  12. Smudge cells in peripheral blood smears did not differentiate chronic lymphocytic leukemia from other B-cell chronic lymphoprolipherative diseases / Sombras nucleares no esfregaço do sangue periférico não diferenciam a leucemia linfocítica crônica das outras doenças linfoproliferativas B crônicas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniel M., Matos; Guilherme, Perini; Carlos, Kruzich; Eduardo M., Rego; Roberto P., Falcão.

    Full Text Available As sombras nucleares têm sido classicamente associadasà leucemia linfocítica crônica (LLC), embora possam ser encontradas nos esfregaços do sangue periférico de outras doenças linfoproliferativas B crônicas (DLBC). Nesse estudo, nós investigamos se a porcentagem de sombras nucleares nos esfregaços d [...] o sangue periférico pode ser utilizada na prática clínica da hematologia para diferenciar a LLC das outras DLBC. Foram analisados os esfregaços do sangue periférico de 63 pacientes com o diagnóstico de LLC e 62 com outras DLPC. Trezentas células, entre células linfoides e sombras nucleares, foram contadas em cada esfregaço. A comparação da porcentagem de sombras nucleares entre os dois grupos foi realizada e, subsequentemente, foram fixados 5 cut-offs de mais de 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% e 50% de sombras nucleares com o propósito de definir um caso como "positivo para sombras nucleares" e verificar se havia diferenças entre a LLC e as outras DLBC. A porcentagem das sombras nucleares em pacientes com LLC (mediana 26%, 4%-86%) foi maior do que em pacientes com DLBC (mediana 14%, 1%-64%). Entretanto, nenhum dos cut-offs testados apresentou valores apropriados de sensibilidade, especificidade e valor preditivo positivo para distinguir os dois grupos. Desde queé necessário se dispor de um único valor de cut-off com alta sensibilidade, especificidade e valor preditivo positivo para inferir o diagnóstico de CLL na prática clínica, conclui-se que as sombras nucleares não são úteis para diferenciar a LLC das outras DLBC. Abstract in english Smudge cells has been classically associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), but they are found in peripheral blood tests for other chronic B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases (CLD). We investigated whether the percentage of smudge cells in peripheral blood smears can be used in the clinica [...] l practice to differentiate CLL from other B-cell CLD. The peripheral blood smears of 63 patients with the diagnosis of CLL and 62 with other B-cell CLD were analyzed. Three hundred cells (both lymphoid cells and smudge cells) were counted for each peripheral blood smear. A comparison of the percentage of smudge cells between the two groups was performed and, subsequently, 5 cut-off values were fixed (10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of smudge cells) with the aim of defining cases as "positive" or "negative" for smudge cells and verifying whether there are any differences between CLL and the other B-cell CLD. The percentage of smudge cells in patients with CLL (median 26%, 4%-86%) was higher than in patients with B-cell CLD (median 14%, 1%-64%). However, none of the cut-off values tested presented suitable values of sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value to separate the two groups. As it is necessary to have a single cut-off value with high sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value to infer the diagnosis of CLL in the clinical practice, we concluded that smudge cells are not fitting to differentiate CLL from other B-cell CLD.

  13. Smudge cells in peripheral blood smears did not differentiate chronic lymphocytic leukemia from other B-cell chronic lymphoprolipherative diseases Sombras nucleares no esfregaço do sangue periférico não diferenciam a leucemia linfocítica crônica das outras doenças linfoproliferativas B crônicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. Matos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Smudge cells has been classically associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, but they are found in peripheral blood tests for other chronic B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases (CLD. We investigated whether the percentage of smudge cells in peripheral blood smears can be used in the clinical practice to differentiate CLL from other B-cell CLD. The peripheral blood smears of 63 patients with the diagnosis of CLL and 62 with other B-cell CLD were analyzed. Three hundred cells (both lymphoid cells and smudge cells were counted for each peripheral blood smear. A comparison of the percentage of smudge cells between the two groups was performed and, subsequently, 5 cut-off values were fixed (10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of smudge cells with the aim of defining cases as "positive" or "negative" for smudge cells and verifying whether there are any differences between CLL and the other B-cell CLD. The percentage of smudge cells in patients with CLL (median 26%, 4%-86% was higher than in patients with B-cell CLD (median 14%, 1%-64%. However, none of the cut-off values tested presented suitable values of sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value to separate the two groups. As it is necessary to have a single cut-off value with high sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value to infer the diagnosis of CLL in the clinical practice, we concluded that smudge cells are not fitting to differentiate CLL from other B-cell CLD.As sombras nucleares têm sido classicamente associadasà leucemia linfocítica crônica (LLC, embora possam ser encontradas nos esfregaços do sangue periférico de outras doenças linfoproliferativas B crônicas (DLBC. Nesse estudo, nós investigamos se a porcentagem de sombras nucleares nos esfregaços do sangue periférico pode ser utilizada na prática clínica da hematologia para diferenciar a LLC das outras DLBC. Foram analisados os esfregaços do sangue periférico de 63 pacientes com o diagnóstico de LLC e 62 com outras DLPC. Trezentas células, entre células linfoides e sombras nucleares, foram contadas em cada esfregaço. A comparação da porcentagem de sombras nucleares entre os dois grupos foi realizada e, subsequentemente, foram fixados 5 cut-offs de mais de 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% e 50% de sombras nucleares com o propósito de definir um caso como "positivo para sombras nucleares" e verificar se havia diferenças entre a LLC e as outras DLBC. A porcentagem das sombras nucleares em pacientes com LLC (mediana 26%, 4%-86% foi maior do que em pacientes com DLBC (mediana 14%, 1%-64%. Entretanto, nenhum dos cut-offs testados apresentou valores apropriados de sensibilidade, especificidade e valor preditivo positivo para distinguir os dois grupos. Desde queé necessário se dispor de um único valor de cut-off com alta sensibilidade, especificidade e valor preditivo positivo para inferir o diagnóstico de CLL na prática clínica, conclui-se que as sombras nucleares não são úteis para diferenciar a LLC das outras DLBC.

  14. Diagnóstico de leishmaniosis visceral por frotis de sangre periférica. A propósito de un caso en Cojedes, Venezuela / Visceral leishmaniasis diagnosis for smear of peripheral blood. A case report from Cojedes, Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wladimir, Ochoa; Luis, Gutiérrez; Rafael, Guevara; Milagros, Oviedo; Lisbeth, Loaiza; Gilberto, Bastidas.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En Venezuela se conoce la existencia de Leishmaniosis visceral desde 1941, y desde 1990 se notifican en promedio 50 casos por año, en focos separados ubicados en el centro, oeste sur y este del país. La incidencia de Leishmaniosis visceral en el Estado Cojedes en Venezuela es baja, reportándose únic [...] amente tres casos en la década de 1998 al 2007. En este artículo, se informa el primer caso de Leishmaniosis visceral en adulto en este Estado, diagnosticado por demostración del parásito por frotis de sangre periférica. Se resalta, el tener la posibilidad de efectuar diagnóstico a partir de sangre periférica, como un método alternativo y menos invasivo en fase aguda, particularmente en regiones donde no se dispone de otras herramientas de escrutinio. Abstract in english In Venezuela, known to exist Visceral leishmaniasis since 1941, and since 1990 are reported on average 50 cases per year, separate sources located in central, west south and east of country. The incidence of visceral Leishmaniasis in Venezuela Cojedes state is low, being reported only three cases in [...] the decade 1998 to 2007. In this article, we reported the first case of visceral leishmaniasis in adult in this state, diagnosed by demonstration of the parasite by peripheral blood smear. Is highlighted, having the possibility of diagnosis from peripheral blood, as an alternative and less invasive in the acute phase, particularly in regions where there are no other screening tools.

  15. Uso de paneles de láminas estandarizadas para la evaluación de competencias en el diagnóstico microscópico de malaria en la Amazonía Peruana Use of standardized blood smear slide sets for competency assessment in the malaria microscopic diagnosis in the Peruvian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Rosas-Aguirre

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar la competencia de los microscopistas en el diagnóstico de la malaria mediante paneles de láminas estandarizados en la Amazonía peruana. Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal, realizado entre los meses de julio y septiembre de 2007, en 122 establecimientos de salud de primer nivel de atención de la Amazonía peruana. En el marco del Proyecto PAMAFRO, se evaluó las competencias en el diagnóstico de malaria en 68 microscopistas sin experiencia (un año, utilizando paneles estandarizados de 20 láminas siguiendo las recomendaciones de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS. Se definió concordancia como el porcentaje de aciertos que tuvo el microscopista en los diagnósticos (identificación de especie del parásito. Un microscopista con concordancia ?90% (?18 láminas acertadas fue definido como "experto", 80 a Objectives. To assess the competency of microscopists for malaria diagnosis using standardized slide sets in the Peruvian Amazon. Material and methods. Cross-sectional study carried out in 122 first level health facilities of the Peruvian Amazon, between July and September 2007. Within the frame of the project "Control Malaria in the border areas of the Andean Region: A community approach" (PAMAFRO, we evaluated the malaria diagnosis performance in 68 microscopists without expertise ( 1 year using standardized sets of 20 blood smear slides according to the World Health Organization (WHO recommendations. A correct diagnosis (correct species identification was defined as "agreement", a microscopist was qualified as an "expert" if they have an agreement ?90% (? 18 slides with correct diagnosis, as a "referent" with an agreement between 80% and <90%, "competent" if they are between 70 and <80% and "in training" if they have <70%. Results. Microscopists with expertise (68.6% had more agreement than those without expertise (48.2%. The competency assessment was acceptable (competent, referent, or experts levels in 11.8% of the microscopists without expertise and in 52.6% from those with expertise. The agreement was lower using blood smear slides with P. falciparum with low parasitaemia, with P. malariae and with mixed infections. Conclusions. Is the first assessment, we found only one of three microscopists from the Peruvian Amazon is competent fro malaria diagnosis according to the WHO standards. From this baseline data, we have to continue working in order to improve the competency assessment of the microscopists within the frame of a quality assurance system

  16. Prevalance of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in Donkeys from Eastern Turkey in Winter Season

    OpenAIRE

    I. Balkaya*, A. E. Utuk1 and F. C. Piskin1

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi by the examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears and c-ELISA method in donkeys, selected randomly from Erzurum, the largest province of Eastern Turkey. The specimens were consisted of 92 thin blood-smears and 75 sera during winter season. As result of microscopic examination no parasite was detected. Of the 75 sera, 3 (4%) and 1 (1.33%) samples were positive for the presence of T. equi and B. caballi ...

  17. Systematical cytogenetic analysis of stable and unstable chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood of NPP workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between stable and unstable chromosome aberration frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes using Giemsa staining and FISH chromosome analysis. 15 Nuclear Power Plant's workers occupationally exposed to external radiation, with high (> 500 mSv) and intermediate lifetime cumulative doses and 15 healthy individuals, not occupationally exposed to radiation from administrative staff of Kozloduy NPP have been selected. The cytogenetic results in 10 years following systematic investigations by conventional analysis are shown. A total 14 610 metaphases was scored from 15 NPP workers and 15 controls. Mean frequency of dicentrics in workers group was 1,25 x 10-3 dic/cell. The mean frequency was 0,27 x 10-3 dic/cell in controls. It was observed 5 times lower dicentric frequency in controls then in workers, but it is not significant. It is known that dicentrics are unstable type of aberrations and their persistence depends on lymphocytes life time (about 3 years). The results are consistent with recent findings for Nuclear power workers by Giemsa staining. Dose-response dependence, genome frequency of translocations and dicentrics per 100 cells in NPP workers and controls are presented. The overall mean total translocation frequency for control group was 1.7x10-3 tr/cell and 5.4x10-3 tr/cell. When compared to unexposed controls the yields of translocations were significantly higher, but no dose dependence was apparent. Chromosome analysis of radiation exposed populations, using techniques to identify stable aberrations, offers the opportunity to examine the relative effectiveness of different exposure conditions and is of particular relevance since chromosome rearrangements are of prime importance in process of carcinogenesis. Such studies should therefore aid the understanding of risks associated with radiation exposure

  18. Uso de paneles de láminas estandarizadas para la evaluación de competencias en el diagnóstico microscópico de malaria en la amazonía peruana / Use of standardized blood smear slide sets for competency assessment in the malaria microscopic diagnosis in the peruvian amazon

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ángel, Rosas-Aguirre; Dionicia, Gamboa; Hugo, Rodriguez; Fernando, Llanos-Zavalaga; Kristhian, Aguirre; Alejandro, Llanos-Cuentas.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar la competencia de los microscopistas en el diagnóstico de la malaria mediante paneles de láminas estandarizados en la Amazonía peruana. Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal, realizado entre los meses de julio y septiembre de 2007, en 122 establecimientos de salud de primer ni [...] vel de atención de la Amazonía peruana. En el marco del Proyecto PAMAFRO, se evaluó las competencias en el diagnóstico de malaria en 68 microscopistas sin experiencia (un año), utilizando paneles estandarizados de 20 láminas siguiendo las recomendaciones de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). Se definió concordancia como el porcentaje de aciertos que tuvo el microscopista en los diagnósticos (identificación de especie del parásito). Un microscopista con concordancia ?90% (?18 láminas acertadas) fue definido como "experto", 80 a Abstract in english Objectives. To assess the competency of microscopists for malaria diagnosis using standardized slide sets in the Peruvian Amazon. Material and methods. Cross-sectional study carried out in 122 first level health facilities of the Peruvian Amazon, between July and September 2007. Within the frame of [...] the project "Control Malaria in the border areas of the Andean Region: A community approach" (PAMAFRO), we evaluated the malaria diagnosis performance in 68 microscopists without expertise ( 1 year) using standardized sets of 20 blood smear slides according to the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. A correct diagnosis (correct species identification) was defined as "agreement", a microscopist was qualified as an "expert" if they have an agreement ?90% (? 18 slides with correct diagnosis), as a "referent" with an agreement between 80% and

  19. Uso de paneles de láminas estandarizadas para la evaluación de competencias en el diagnóstico microscópico de malaria en la Amazonía Peruana / Use of standardized blood smear slide sets for competency assessment in the malaria microscopic diagnosis in the Peruvian Amazon

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ángel, Rosas-Aguirre; Dionicia, Gamboa; Hugo, Rodriguez; Fernando, Llanos-Zavalaga; Kristhian, Aguirre; Alejandro, Llanos-Cuentas.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar la competencia de los microscopistas en el diagnóstico de la malaria mediante paneles de láminas estandarizados en la Amazonía peruana. Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal, realizado entre los meses de julio y septiembre de 2007, en 122 establecimientos de salud de primer ni [...] vel de atención de la Amazonía peruana. En el marco del Proyecto PAMAFRO, se evaluó las competencias en el diagnóstico de malaria en 68 microscopistas sin experiencia (un año), utilizando paneles estandarizados de 20 láminas siguiendo las recomendaciones de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). Se definió concordancia como el porcentaje de aciertos que tuvo el microscopista en los diagnósticos (identificación de especie del parásito). Un microscopista con concordancia ?90% (?18 láminas acertadas) fue definido como "experto", 80 a Abstract in english Objectives. To assess the competency of microscopists for malaria diagnosis using standardized slide sets in the Peruvian Amazon. Material and methods. Cross-sectional study carried out in 122 first level health facilities of the Peruvian Amazon, between July and September 2007. Within the frame of [...] the project "Control Malaria in the border areas of the Andean Region: A community approach" (PAMAFRO), we evaluated the malaria diagnosis performance in 68 microscopists without expertise ( 1 year) using standardized sets of 20 blood smear slides according to the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. A correct diagnosis (correct species identification) was defined as "agreement", a microscopist was qualified as an "expert" if they have an agreement ?90% (? 18 slides with correct diagnosis), as a "referent" with an agreement between 80% and

  20. Ocorrência de apoptose em leucócitos no esfregaço de sangue periférico e em sincícios na infecção in vivo pelo vírus da cinomose canina / Occurrence of apoptosis in leukocytes in the peripheral blood smear and in syncytia in canine distemper infection in vivo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L., Moro; C.M., Alves; F.G.A., Santos; J.E.S., Nunes; R.A., Carneiro; A.C., Vasconcelos.

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english The aim of this paper is to report the occurrence of apoptosis in peripheral blood leukocytes and in syncytia induced by experimental infection of dogs with canine distemper virus. Blood was collected from nine puppies that were inoculated with the Snyder Hill strain of CDV, and stained with May Gru [...] nwaldt-Giemsa. Dogs were necropsied and retropharyngeal lymph nodes were collected and processed for paraffin embedding. Five micrometers thick sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and methyl green pyronin. Other sections were submitted to TUNEL reaction for in situ detection of apoptosis, and immunohistochemistry to detect CDV antigen. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of viral antigen. Syncytia were present in all retropharyngeal lymph nodes. Several syncytia contained apoptotic nuclei as detected by hematoxylin-eosin and methyl green pyronin stains. Apoptotic nuclei were labeled inside syncytia by the TUNEL reaction. Blood smear analyses indicated higher proportion of apoptotic leukocytes in the peripheral blood of infected dogs.

  1. Hypercubic smeared links for dynamical fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasenfratz, A.; Hoffmann, R. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Physics; Schaefer, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2007-02-15

    We investigate a variant of hypercubic gauge link smearing where the SU(3) projection is replaced with a normalization to the corresponding unitary group. This smearing is differentiable and thus suitable for use in dynamical fermion simulations using molecular dynamics type algorithms. We show that this smearing is as efficient as projected hypercubic smearing in removing ultraviolet noise from the gauge fields. We test the normalized hypercubic smearing in dynamical improved (clover) Wilson and valence overlap simulations. (orig.)

  2. The minimally abnormal Papanicolaou smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotzman, G L; Julian, T M

    1996-03-01

    The Bethesda system has helped to standardize the nomenclature for cervical cytology. Previously used cytologic classification systems failed to define modern histopathologic concepts. The Bethesda system also has dramatically increased the number of Papanicolaou smears classified as minimally abnormal. While high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 and 3) clearly require colposcopic evaluation, the minimally abnormal Pap smear may not always require colposcopic assessment. Common minimally abnormal cytologic categories include atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, low-grade intraepithelial lesions and atypical glandular cells. New guidelines propose a conservative and expectant approach for these mild abnormalities. Understanding the meaning of these Pap smear reports and instituting appropriate treatments will improve patients care, reduce clinician anxiety and help ensure the best care for patients. PMID:8629563

  3. Prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi infections in horses belonging to resource-poor farmers in the north-eastern Free State Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Sugimoto, C; Igarashi, I; Inoue, N; M.L. Thibedi; F. E.S. Masangane; M. P. Motheo; M. Bakheit; A. Alhassan; O M M Thekisoe; M. Y. Motloang; P. A. Mbati

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi infections in the north-eastern Free State Province of South Africa was determined by examination of thin and thick Giemsa-stained blood smears, IFAT and PCR. No parasites were detected by microscopy from any blood samples collected at five study sites, Qwaqwa, Kestell, Harrismith, Vrede and Warden. Of the tested serum samples, 28/29 (96.5%), 20/21 (95.2%) nd 42/42( 100%) were positive by IFAT for T. equi infections in ...

  4. Blood and intestinal parasites of squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae) in Amazonian Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ralph, Lainson; Maria do Carmo de Oliveira, Brígido; Fernando Tobias, Silveira.

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available We report the result of an examination for blood and intestinal protozoa in 12 specimens of the red squirrel Sciurus spadiceus (Rodentia: Sciuridae) from Birroque, municipality of Plácido de Castro, state of Acre, Brazil. No parasites were detected in thin, Giemsa-stained blood films of the animals, [...] but culture of the blood of three in Difco B45 medium blood-agar slants gave rise to isolates of epimastigotes. Inoculation of one isolate into laboratory mice resulted in the appearance of Trypanosoma cruzi-like trypomastigotes in their peripheral blood, and the other two isolates gave rise to transient infections with a T. lewisi-like parasite in inoculated mice and hamsters. The failure of the latter parasite to develop in the triatomine bug Rhodnius robustus suggests that it is probably not T. rangeli. This appears to be the first record of a T. lewisi-like trypanosome in neotropical squirrels. Oocysts of an Eimeria sp., were detected in the faeces of 10 animals (83.3%). The parasite develops in the epithelial cells of the intestine, where it may cause severe damage and sometimes results in death of the animal. No oocysts were detected in bile.

  5. Occurrence of Babesia species in captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegmann, Lisa; Silaghi, Cornelia; Obiegala, Anna; Karnath, Carolin; Langer, Sandra; Ternes, Kerstin; Kämmerling, Jens; Osmann, Christine; Pfeffer, Martin

    2015-06-30

    Two cases of acute babesiosis in captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in two German zoos in 2009 and 2012 triggered this study to investigate the occurrence and species diversity of Babesia parasites infecting reindeer in different zoos and deer parks in Germany. Between June and December 2013, blood samples were taken from 123 clinically inapparent reindeer from 16 different facilities. Samples were tested for the presence of Babesia species DNA by conventional PCR and sequence analysis of part of the 18S rRNA gene. Also, Giemsa-stained smears of reindeer blood samples were examined for parasitaemia by light microscopy. The overall PCR-prevalence in blood samples was 23.6% (n=29). Comparison of sequenced amplicons with GenBank entries possibly revealed up to five different Babesia species: B. venatorum (n=19), B. capreoli (n=2) and B. capreoli-like (n=4), B. odocoilei-like (n=2) and B. divergens (n=1), while one sample turned out to be a Theileria sp. Out of the 16 facilities in the study, 12 housed at least one positive animal. In Giemsa-stained blood smears, intra-erythrocytic Babesia parasites were detected in samples of three reindeer from three locations. The high prevalence of Babesia infections implicates babesiosis to be a relevant infectious disease threat for captive reindeer in Germany. Consequently, reindeer with clinical signs compatible to those of acute babesiosis should either be tested for the presence of Babesia spp. DNA or blood smears should be examined for parasitaemia. PMID:25986326

  6. Comparación de la observación de leucocitos en el sedimento urinario con el recuento en cámara de Neubauer / Comparison between the observation of white blood cells from centrifuged urine smear and the Neubauer chamber

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Horacio Angel, Lopardo; Jose Luis, Pinheiro.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Se comparó la metodología rutinaria de observación del sedimento urinario entre porta y cubreobjetos con el recuento en cámara de Neubauer, tomado como método de referencia y se verificó su capacidad de predicción de bacteriuria significativa. En un período de dos meses se realizaron 2.287 urocultiv [...] os. Sólo 1.153 resultaron evaluables según los criterios de exclusión y en 982 se pudo correlacionar ambos métodos microscópicos con el resultado de los cultivos. La correlación entre los recuentos en cámara y las observaciones del sedimento urinario fue del 96,4%. Las sensibilidades respectivas de la observación del sedimento y del recuento en cámara respecto del urocultivo fueron de 53,5% y 55,5%. Las especificidades respectivas fueron del 90,7% y 91,4%. A partir de los resultados obtenidos se infiere que la observación de leucocituria significativa es predictiva de la bacteriuria significativa. Por el contrario, su ausencia no puede ser un motivo para descartarla. La observación del sedimento entre porta y cubreobjetos resultó prácticamente equivalente al método más tedioso de recuento en cámara de Neubauer. Abstract in english The current method of centrifuged urine smear was compared to the Neubauer chamber method, using this technique as the gold standard. Their predictive ability for detecting significant bacteriuria was determined. During two months, 2.287 urine cultures were studied. Only 1.153 were evaluable. In 982 [...] samples a comparison between the two microscopic methods could be established. The correlation between them was 96,4%. The sensitivity of the centrifuged urine smear and the Neubauer chamber method was 53.5% and 55.5% respectively. Specificities were 90.7% and 91.4%. Those results pointed out that seeing a significant number of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) both in the centrifuged urine smear and in the Neubauer chamber was predictive of significant bacteriuria. On the other hand, absence of PMNs is not an argument for not considering this possibility. Centrifuged urine was equivalent to the Neubauer chamber method in this comparative study.

  7. Comparación de la observación de leucocitos en el sedimento urinario con el recuento en cámara de Neubauer Comparison between the observation of white blood cells from centrifuged urine smear and the Neubauer chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Angel Lopardo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Se comparó la metodología rutinaria de observación del sedimento urinario entre porta y cubreobjetos con el recuento en cámara de Neubauer, tomado como método de referencia y se verificó su capacidad de predicción de bacteriuria significativa. En un período de dos meses se realizaron 2.287 urocultivos. Sólo 1.153 resultaron evaluables según los criterios de exclusión y en 982 se pudo correlacionar ambos métodos microscópicos con el resultado de los cultivos. La correlación entre los recuentos en cámara y las observaciones del sedimento urinario fue del 96,4%. Las sensibilidades respectivas de la observación del sedimento y del recuento en cámara respecto del urocultivo fueron de 53,5% y 55,5%. Las especificidades respectivas fueron del 90,7% y 91,4%. A partir de los resultados obtenidos se infiere que la observación de leucocituria significativa es predictiva de la bacteriuria significativa. Por el contrario, su ausencia no puede ser un motivo para descartarla. La observación del sedimento entre porta y cubreobjetos resultó prácticamente equivalente al método más tedioso de recuento en cámara de Neubauer.The current method of centrifuged urine smear was compared to the Neubauer chamber method, using this technique as the gold standard. Their predictive ability for detecting significant bacteriuria was determined. During two months, 2.287 urine cultures were studied. Only 1.153 were evaluable. In 982 samples a comparison between the two microscopic methods could be established. The correlation between them was 96,4%. The sensitivity of the centrifuged urine smear and the Neubauer chamber method was 53.5% and 55.5% respectively. Specificities were 90.7% and 91.4%. Those results pointed out that seeing a significant number of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs both in the centrifuged urine smear and in the Neubauer chamber was predictive of significant bacteriuria. On the other hand, absence of PMNs is not an argument for not considering this possibility. Centrifuged urine was equivalent to the Neubauer chamber method in this comparative study.

  8. [Morphological comparison of two species of Theileria in sheep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, You-Quan; Guan, Gui-Quan; Ma, Mi-Ling; Luo, Jian-Xun; Yin, Hong

    2009-04-01

    Two splenectomized sheep were infected respectively with Theileria luwenshuni and T. uilenbergi, 2 species identified by PCR. When piroplasms were found in blood smears from ears of the sheep, morphological observation on the Theileria spp. was carried out by optical microscopy. By Giemsa staining, the cytoplasm exhibited in slight blue and nucleus in purple. The two Theileria species displayed various shapes, but pyriform-shaped, round-shaped and needle-shaped parasites appeared in every stage of the infection. In fact, there is no significant morphological difference between the two species. PMID:19856516

  9. In vitro cultivation of a Babesia sp. from cattle in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Zweygarth, Erich; Niekerk, C.; Just, M. C.; Waal, D. T.

    1995-01-01

    A South African Babesia sp. of cattle which is as yet unclassified, was continuously cultivated in micro-aerophilous stationary-phase culture. The parasites were resuscitated from a blood stabilate stored in liquid nitrogen. A modified HL-1 medium supplemented with either horse or bovine serum was used. Cultures were initiated in a humidified atmosphere containing 2% 0? , 5% C0? and 93% N? at 37°C. Parasites were detected on Giemsa-stained smears after 2 d in culture. On day 4...

  10. Scanty AFB smears: what's in a name?

    OpenAIRE

    Van Deun, A.; Salim, A. H.; Cooreman, E.; Daru, P.; Das, A. P. K.; Aung, K. J. M.; Rieder, H L

    2004-01-01

    SETTING: A tuberculosis control project in Bangladesh. OBJECTIVE: To document the frequency and diagnostic value of smears with scanty acid-fast bacilli (AFB) (IUATLD/WHO scale, < 10/100 high power fields), and to assess the appropriateness of the current positivity threshold. DESIGN: Analysis of databases of laboratory registers, patient records and the diagnostic yield of sputum collection strategies. RESULTS: Scanty smears constituted about 10% of suspect and almost 50% of follow-up smears...

  11. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your blood is living tissue made up of liquid and solids. The liquid part, called plasma, is made of water, salts, and protein. Over half of your blood is plasma. The solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white ...

  12. Locally-smeared operator product expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monahan, Christopher; Orginos, Kostantinos

    2014-12-01

    We propose a "locally-smeared Operator Product Expansion" (sOPE) to decompose non-local operators in terms of a basis of locally-smeared operators. The sOPE formally connects nonperturbative matrix elements of smeared degrees of freedom, determined numerically using the gradient flow, to non-local operators in the continuum. The nonperturbative matrix elements do not suffer from power-divergent mixing on the lattice, provided the smearing scale is kept fixed in the continuum limit. The presence of this smearing scale prevents a simple connection to the standard operator product expansion and therefore requires the construction of a two-scale formalism. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach using the example of real scalar field theory.

  13. First Molecular Identification and Genetic Characterization of Theileria lestoquardi in Sheep of the Maghreb Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rjeibi, M R; Darghouth, M A; Rekik, M; Amor, B; Sassi, L; Gharbi, M

    2014-09-11

    Theileria lestoquardi is the most prominent Theileria species in small ruminants that causes malignant theileriosis of sheep in Africa and Asia. In the present survey, blood samples and ticks were collected in Kebili (southern Tunisia) from 166 Queue Fine de l'Ouest sheep. Giemsa-stained blood smears, immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and PCR were performed. The DNA was extracted from blood and analysed by PCR targeting 18S rRNA gene of Theileria spp. and then sequenced. A total number of 140 ticks were collected from a total number of 166 sheep during the four seasons. The ticks belonged to two genera and 4 species; the most frequent tick was Hyalomma excavatum 84.3% (118/140) and then Rhipicephalus spp. 15.7% (22/140). Only two animals had positive Giemsa-stained blood smears, and they were also positive by IFAT. The amplicons had 99.3 and 99.6% homology with the BLAST published T. lestoquardi amplicons. To our knowledge, this is the first report of T. lestoquardi in small ruminants within the Maghreb region. PMID:25208526

  14. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... plasma. Continue Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (RBCs, and also called erythrocytes , pronounced: ih-RITH-ruh-sytes) are shaped like slightly indented, flattened disks. RBCs contain an iron-rich protein called hemoglobin (pronounced: ...

  15. Smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis and lymphocyte subsets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To correlate and quantitate Iymphocyte subsets with clinically diagnosed smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis and severity of disease. Subjects and Methods: Freshly diagnosed, well-characterized smear-negative patients (n=15) of pulmonary tuberculosis were selected. Non-induced three-consecutive negative smears of sputum with simultaneous culture for AFB for 6-8 weeks, positive Mauntoux test (= or > 0 mm), blood complete picture with ESR and chest x-rays were done. Selected panel of monoclonal antibodies against specific CD markers were used. Statistical analysis done by student t-test or Mann-Whitney rank-sum test with the help of Sigma State software. Results: Hemoglobin and total lymphocyte counts were significantly reduced whereas total leukocyte counts with absolute neutrophil counts were increased. Fraction of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes with HLA-DR expression was reduced while no significant change in rest of the TB and NK lymphocytes. Conclusion: Low hemoglobin level, high neutrophil count and low total lymphocytes suggest possible direct relationship with extent of disease. The number of activated CD4+, CD8+, alpha beta and gamma delta TCR T cells have tendency to increase during Mycobacterium infection. This seems to have a potential of being a good, non-invasive prognostic indicator for patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. (author)

  16. Detection of Theileria annulata by PCR and its Comparison With Smear Method in Native Carrier Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Azizi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During March and April 2007, 140 native cows with the mean age of more than one year were selected randomly and their age and sex were registered in the related papers. Primarily, a thin layer smear was prepared from their ear sublime vein blood and was fixed with methanol and then it stained with Gimsa dye. Also, 9 mL blood from the jagular vein of the same cow was taken and collected in autoclaved tubes (containing 1 mL of 3.2% buffered citrate solution conversely for extracting their DNA for PCR. Two primers were used: N516/N517 belonged to a huge gene (30 kDa which is responsible for coding the surface antigen of Theileria annulata merozoite. By detection of 140 prepared blood smear with light microscope and lens 100, piroplasmic forms of Theileria annulata were seen in 12 smear (8.57%. By PCR method, 56 DNA of Theileria annulata was separated from 140 samples (40%. Statistical comparison of PCR and smear methods in diagnosing of Theileria annulata carriers can explain a significant difference between these two methods (p<0.05. The results of this study shows that sensitivity and accuracy of PCR method in diagnosing of Theileria annulata carriers is more than common method of smear preparation and can be used in epidemiological studies for the sake of controlling, prevention and determining of immunological condition of cows in region.

  17. How to Interpret Abnormal Pap Smear Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HPV testing. ASC-H means ASC with possible HSIL: Some of your cells are not normal and ... HPV testing or recommend a repeat Pap smear. HSIL HSIL stands for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. ...

  18. CLINICOPATHOLOGIC CORRELATION OF THE UNSATISFACTORY PAPANICOLAOU SMEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Izadi Mood

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1991 Bethesda System for cervical/vaginal cytology reporting has defined adequacy criteria, including unsatisfactory designation. Most laboratories in USA and a few laboratories in Iran have implemented these criteria, but only few studies about clinical implications have been performed. All unsatisfactory Papanicolaou (Pap smears taken between August 2000 and March 2002 were retrieved from the file of cytologic reports of Mirza Koochak Khan Hospital's Department of Pathology. Of 4,598 total Pap smears 204 (4.4% were unsatisfactory (corresponding atypical rate of 2.5% and a SIL/carcinoma rate of 0.97%. About 20.2% of unsatisfactory Pap smears were from patients with a history of epithelial abnormalities. The majority (71 of 204 specimens; 35% of follow-up Pap smears or biopsies occurred within 6 months,12% within 6-12 months,1% within 12-18 months and 1% after 18 months. Approximately 59% had no follow-up. The first repeat Pap smear or histologic specimen in 83 patients with follow-up was negative in 71 (85%, unsatisfactory in 2(2.4%, epithelial cell abnormality in 11 (13.2% and atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance in 4(4.8%. Nonmalignant conditions contributing to the unsatisfactory smears on histologic specimens (23% included cervicitis, endocervical polyp and endometritis. Majority of patients with unsatisfactory Pap smears were followed up within 6 months. A significant number(13.2% of those with follow-up had eventual diagnosis of epithelial cell abnormality. Benign pathologic conditions also contributed to unsatisfactory smears. These patients were more likely to have a history of abnormalities. Unsatisfactory specimens are associated with benign as well as preneoplastic/neoplastic conditions. Clinical correlation should be the first step in delineating the cause of the unsatisfactory diagnosis.

  19. Smear layer on dentin in restorative dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Živkovi? Slavoljub; Kolar Mila; Blaži? Larisa; Vu?eti? Mirjana; Toši? Goran

    2004-01-01

    Adhesion to enamel has become a routine technique in restorative dentistry. Adhesion to dentin, however, is still under investigation. Except structural elements of the dentin, smear layer has been one of the reasons that the interaction between the adhesive system and this tissue is difficult. The smear layer tissue created by cutting a tooth. It varies in thickness, roughness, density and degree of attachment andoccludes tubules and reduces the dental permeabilita. Dentin adhesivesystems ca...

  20. Papanicolaou smears and cervical inflammatory cytokine responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapiro Samual

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a case-control study among 2064 South African women to investigate the risk of clinically invasive cancer of the cervix, we found a marked reduction in the risk of cervical cancer among women who gave a history of ever having undergone even a single Pap smear, and a statistically significant decline in the HPV positivity rate correlated with the lifetime number of Pap smears received. HPV infections and their associated low-grade lesions commonly regress, indicating that most often there is an effective host immune response against HPV infection. We hypothesized that act of performing a Pap smear is associated with inflammatory responses at the site of trauma, the cervix, and that this inflammatory signalling may be an immunological factor initiating these productive anti-HPV responses. In the present study, a randomized controlled trial, we enrolled 80 healthy young women to investigate the impact of performing a Pap smear on cervical inflammation. Forty one women, in the intervention group, received a Pap smear at enrollment and cervicovaginal lavages (CVLs were collected at baseline and 2 weeks later. Thirty nine women received no intervention at enrollment (control group but CVLs were collected at enrolment and 2 weeks later. We assessed various markers of inflammation including IL-12 p70, TNF-?, IL-8, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-1? in CVL specimens. While CVL levels of IL-8, IL-1? and IL-6 remained unchanged following a Pap smear, markers of cell mediated immunity (IL-12 p70 and TNF-? and T cell regulation (IL-10 were significantly elevated.

  1. Suppressing dislocations in normalized hypercubic smearing

    CERN Document Server

    DeGrand, Thomas; Svetitsky, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Normalized hypercubic smearing improves the behavior of dynamical Wilson-clover fermions, but has the unwanted side effect that it can occasionally produce spikes in the fermion force. These spikes originate in the chain rule connecting the derivative with respect to the smeared links to the derivative with respect to the dynamical links, and are associated with the presence of dislocations in the dynamical gauge field. We propose and study an action designed to suppress these dislocations. We present evidence for improved performance of the hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm. A side benefit is improvement in the properties of valence chiral fermions.

  2. Removal factor determination of some local smear papers for surface contamination smear test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Removal factor determination of some local smear papers has been done, using dry smear test method. The aim of this research is to find removal values of local smear papers on some surfaces, to replace import smear papers. Smear test was done on the various surfaces i.e.: porcelain, formica, glass, stainless steel, steel and PVC, with the local smear papers I.e.: Padalarang, Diagonal, Concorde, Marga, Hard Cloth, and import smear paper. The artificial contaminant which used were I-131 and P-32. The removal factor values of Padalarang paper for surfaces: porcelain, formica, glass stainless steel, steel and PVC were: 24.5%, 20.0%, 27.0%, 6.8%, 4.9%, and 13.6% respectively. The removal factor values of Diagonal paper were:18.4%, 15.9%, 5.7%, 3.5%, and 9.1% respectively. The removal factor values of concord paper were: 18.5%, 20.3%, 23.1%, 6.6%, 3.8%, and 9.0% respectively. The removal factor values of Marga paper were: 16.7%, 13.5%, 21.1%, 4.2%, 4.1% and 8.1% respectively. The removal factor values of Hard Cloth were: 18.6%, 12.6%, 20.5%, 8.2%, and 10.1% respectively. The removal factor values of import smear paper were: 17.8%, 15.0%, 18.8%, 9.1%, 4.8%, and 14.4% respectively . Substitution alternative of import smear paper is Padalarang. (author)

  3. Detection of Ehrlichia canis in canine blood samples by real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) PCR and melting curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongklieng, Amornmas; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Intapan, Pewpan M; Boonmars, Thidarut; Janwan, Penchom; Sanpool, Oranuch; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Taweethavonsawat, Piyanan; Chungpivat, Sudchit; Morakote, Nimit; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2014-09-01

    Ehrlichia canis is a small pleomorphic gram-negative, coccoid, obligatory intracellular bacterium and the cause of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. A real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer polymerase chain reaction (real-time FRET PCR) coupled with melting curve analysis was established for detection of E. canis infection in canine blood samples. The VirB9 gene was amplified using one pair of primers and the melting curve analysis was generated by heating the hybridizing probes and amplified products. Eight E. canis-infected dog blood samples were initially identified using the Giemsa staining/microscopic method followed by conventional PCR (cPCR)/Sanger sequencing for confirmation. The sensitivity and specificity of the real-time FRET PCR detection were 87.5% and 100%, respectively and the limit of detection was 6.6 x 10(3) copies of positive E. canis control plasmids. The real-time FRET PCR with melting curve analysis reported here is better than microscopic visualization or cPCR because the method is not affected by the false bias inherent in the microscopic method. Furthermore, many samples can be processed rapidly at the same time. This convenient tool is beneficial as an alternative assay for the epidemiologic study of canine ehrlichiosis as well as for eradication of these organisms in prevention and control programs in endemic areas. PMID:25507246

  4. Prevalance of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in Donkeys from Eastern Turkey in Winter Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Balkaya*, A. E. Utuk1 and F. C. Piskin1

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi by the examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears and c-ELISA method in donkeys, selected randomly from Erzurum, the largest province of Eastern Turkey. The specimens were consisted of 92 thin blood-smears and 75 sera during winter season. As result of microscopic examination no parasite was detected. Of the 75 sera, 3 (4% and 1 (1.33% samples were positive for the presence of T. equi and B. caballi antibodies, respectively. We couldn’t detect mix infection with both parasites. This study indicated the prevalence of T. equi and B. caballi in donkeys for the first time from Eastern Turkey in winter season.

  5. Detection of tropical bovine theileriosis by polymerase chain reaction in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatoon, S; Kolte, S W; Kurkure, N V; Chopde, N A; Jahan, A

    2015-03-01

    Tropical bovine theileriosis, a tick borne disease, caused by, Theileria annulata with marked clinical signs of pyrexia (102-105 °F), enlargement of lymphnodes etc., causes heavy economic losses in terms of high mortality and morbidity rates. Diagnosis of theileriosis is mainly based on clinical symptoms and microscopic examination of stained blood smears and lymph node biopsy smears but limitations of these methods against Theileria sp. limits the specificity. Hence, to overcome the limitations, the present study reports the detection of T. annulata in blood samples of cattle by polymerase chain reaction. The study was conducted on 155 cattle having typical clinical symptoms and blood smear after staining with Giemsa stain was examined for the presence of T. annulata in RBC. The Primer sequences were used as per d'Oliveira et al. The assay employs primers specific for the gene encoding the 30-kDa major merozoite surface antigen of T. annulata and the amplification of 721 bp was done. Out of the total 155 animals, 34 were positive for T. annulata by blood smear method whereas 134 samples were positive by PCR. So diagnosis of blood samples by PCR is found to be the most sensitive and specific methodology as compared to cytological blood smear examination. The sensitivity was 23.88 % and specificity was 90.47 % of blood smear method considering PCR as gold standard and it was found that PCR is more sensitive than the conventional method of examination. PMID:25698860

  6. The Anal Pap Smear: Cytomorphology of squamous intraepithelial lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Arain Shehla; Walts Ann; Thomas Premi; Bose Shikha

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Anal smears are increasingly being used as a screening test for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs). This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness and limitations of anal smears in screening for ASILs. Methods The cytomorphological features of 200 consecutive anal smears collected in liquid medium from 198 patients were studied and findings were correlated with results of surgical biopsies and/or repeat smears that became available for 71 patients within six...

  7. Bacteriological safety of smears of surfacesio in catering facilities and food industry in Zenica-Doboj Canton in the period 2005-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edina Garanovi?

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim To research bacteriological (hygienic safety of surfaces(hands smear of staff involved in the process of work, smearof furniture used for work, smear from walls in offices in thefacilities for production of meat and meat products (8, forproduction of milk and milk products (3, products of cakes(14, bakery and bakery products (4 sugar refinery and biscuits(1 and in objects of social sustenance in the territory of Zenica-Doboj Canton (Bosnia and Herzegovina B&H in period2005-2007 and to point out the importance of this analysis inproviding food safety for consumers.Methods: Data from the protocol of the Laboratory for Clinicaland Sanitary Microbiology,of the Cantonal Institute for PublicHealth Zenica were used. Samples of smears were inoculatedon MacConkey and blood agar. Results were interpreted inaccordance with applicable law in B&H.Results From 5051 analyzed smears, 190 (3,/% were notsatisfactory. The largest number of unsatisfactory smears wasnoted in Zenica, 75 (39; 47%, Visoko 49 (25.8% and Tešanj37 (19.5%. From 190 unsatisfactory smears, 57 (30%were smears from dishes, 43 (22.6% from furniture and worksurfaces 42 (22,1% and 41 (21.6% smears from hands. Themost frequently isolated was Escherichia coli, in 25 (22.6%smears from machines, and 34 (17.2% smears from dishes.Unsatisfactory smears were mostly found in objects of publicmaintenance, 96 (50.5% and in objects for production ofmeat, 82 (43.2%.Conclusion Regular control (monitoring, hygienic sutabilityqualityof smears in objects and education of employees toimprove hygienic measures for the purpose of the preventionof food contamination.

  8. Smear layer removal with citric acid solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrovi? Violeta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy in smear layer removal of 17% EDTA and 10% citric acid, using SEM. Material and method: Twenty human, extracted teeth with a single root canal were examined. Whilst instrumentation with step-back technique and manual K files, root canals were irrigated with 2 ml of 2.5% NaOCl, between each file size. After instrumentatio n, specimens were divided into two groups. The first group was irrigated with a final flush of 17% EDTA, during one minute, and the second group was irrigated with a 10% citric acid. Results: Irrigation with 17% EDTA and 10% citric acid removed smear layer from the root canals walls. There was not statistically significant differences (p>0.05 in cleaning ability between EDTA and citric acid groups.

  9. Chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes of prostate cancer patients treated with IMRT and carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: To investigate the cytogenetic damage in blood lymphocytes of patients treated for prostate cancer with different radiation qualities and target volumes. Materials and methods: Twenty patients receiving carbon-ion boost irradiation followed by IMRT or IMRT alone for the treatment of prostate cancer entered the study. Cytogenetic damage induced in peripheral blood lymphocytes of these patients was investigated at different times during the radiotherapy course using Giemsa staining and mFISH. A blood sample from each patient was taken before initiation of radiation therapy and irradiated in vitro to test for individual radiosensitivity. In addition, in vitro dose-effect curves for the induction of chromosomal exchanges by X-rays and carbon ions of different energies were measured. Results: The yield of chromosome aberrations increased during the therapy course, and the frequency was lower in patients irradiated with carbon ions as compared to patients treated with IMRT with similar target volumes. A higher frequency of aberrations was measured by increasing the target volume. In vitro, high-LET carbon ions were more effective than X-rays in inducing aberrations and yielded a higher fraction of complex exchanges. The yield of complex aberrations observed in vivo was very low. Conclusion: The investigation showed no higher aberration yield induced by treatment with a carbon-ion boost. In contrast, the reduced integral dose to the normal tissue is red integral dose to the normal tissue is reflected in a lower chromosomal aberration yield when a carbon-ion boost is used instead of IMRT alone. No cytogenetic 'signature' of exposure to densely ionizing carbon ions could be detected in vivo.

  10. Comparison of Microscopy and PCR-RFLP for detection of Anaplasma marginale in carrier cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Shayan, P.; Noaman, V.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives: In Iran, anaplasmosis is normally diagnosed with traditional Giemsa staining method. This is not applicable for identification of the carrier animals. The aim of this study was to compare the detection of Anaplasma marginale in two different numbers of microscopic fields (50 and 100) using conventional Giemsa staining method compared with the PCR-RFLP technique."nMaterials and Methods: In this study, examinations were performed on 150 blood samples from cattle witho...

  11. Comparison of molecular and microscopic technique for detection of Theileria spp. in carrier cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Noaman, Vahid

    2012-01-01

    In Iran, theileriosis is normally diagnosed with traditional Giemsa staining method. This is not applicable for identification of the carrier animals. The aim of this study was to compare conventional Giemsa staining method with the PCR technique in the detection of Theileria organisms. In this study, examinations were performed on 150 blood samples from cattle without clinical signs. Sensitivity and specificity of 50 microscopic fields were compared with Theileria specific PCR. The degree of...

  12. A highly sensitive, PCR-based method for the detection of Plasmodium falciparum clones in microtiter plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weissenbach Matthew E

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cloning of parasites by limiting dilution is an essential and rate-limiting step in many aspects of malaria research including genomic and genetic manipulation studies. The standard Giemsa-stained blood smears to detect parasites is time-consuming, whereas the more sensitive parasite lactate dehydrogenase assay involves multiple steps and requires fresh reagents. A simple PCR-based method was therefore tested for parasite detection that can be adapted to high throughput studies. Methods Approximately 1 ?L of packed erythrocytes from each well of a microtiter cloning plate was directly used as template DNA for a PCR reaction with primers for the parasite 18s rRNA gene. Positive wells containing parasites were identified after rapid separation of PCR products by gel electrophoresis. Results The PCR-based method can consistently detect a parasitaemia as low as 0.0005%, which is equivalent to 30 parasite genomes in a single well of a 96-well plate. Parasite clones were easily detected from cloning plates using this method and a comparison of PCR results with Giemsa-stained blood smears showed that PCR not only detected all the positive wells identified in smears, but also detected wells not identified otherwise, thereby confirming its sensitivity. Conclusion The PCR-based method reported here is a simple, sensitive and efficient method for detecting parasite clones in culture. This method requires very little manual labor and can be completely automated for high throughput studies. The method is sensitive enough to detect parasites a week before they can be seen in Giemsa smears and is highly effective in identifying slow growing parasite clones.

  13. Blood: The Stuff of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    MIT BLOSSOMS

    2012-10-29

    The purpose of this lesson is to teach students about blood and its components while instilling an appreciation of its importance for survival. The lesson takes a step-by-step approach to determining the "recipe" for blood while introducing students to important laboratory techniques like centrifugation and microscopy, as well as some diseases of cell types found in blood. It also highlights the importance of donating blood by explaining basic physiological concepts and the blood donation procedure. There are no formal prerequisites, but students should be comfortable with converting weight units. The only materials needed are a calculator and paper, and it would be helpful to print the downloadable color PDF files of blood smear images. During the breaks, students are asked to estimate and then calculate the amount of blood in their body, identify cell types in a blood smear, and discuss the composition of blood with their neighbor. The lesson can be completed within a 50-minute class session.

  14. Immunohistochemical staining of human sperm cells in smears from sexual assault cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, S.

    2011-01-01

    In the routine clinical examination of sexual assault victims, apart from documenting physical evidence of abuse, securing evidence, typically DNA from blood, semen, or saliva, is an important part of the process. Often the presence of semen is considered a most interesting piece of evidence. Not only does it often contain enough DNA for DNA profiling, but it also strongly indicates that an actual sexual act has taken place. The examination of smear slides obtained in sexual assault cases is a time-consuming task especially for the less trained and in cases where the smear only contains few sperm cells. In this work the goal was to develop a procedure to rapidly visualize human sperm cells in smear slides with the use of bright-field microscopy. Using SPERM HY-LITER (TM) by Independent Forensics, human sperm cells are visualized using a fluorescently labeled mouse antibody which significantly decreases the time used to screen smears. By further using an EnVision+ (DAKO) protocol, it was possible to create an immunohistochemical staining method to visualize sperm cells in bright-field microscopy with the same level of certainty as when using SPERM HY-LITER (TM).

  15. Cervical cytology. Increased sensitivity with a second cervical smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthy, D A; Briggs, R M; Buyco, A; Eschenbach, A

    1978-06-01

    Two consecutive Papanicolaou smears were obtained in 3524 patients during a single clinic visit. The first smear consisted of a combined cervical scrape and vaginal pool sample (Fast smear) while the second smear contained only a cervical scrape. Of the 93 patients with abnormal cytology, 71 (76%) patients were identified by the first smear and 74 (80%) by the second smear. The interpretation of the two smears correlated in 51 patients (54.8%). Of the remaining 42 patients, the cytologic findings were more advanced in the second smear in 19 cases, and in 23 cases the reverse was true. There were 19 instances in which the cytologic findings were suspicious or positive. In 8 (42.1%) of these 19, one of the two smears contained either negative (7) or atypical (1) cytologic findings. The histologic diagnosis corresponded to the more advanced cytologic findings in all cases. The addition of the second cervical smear increased the detection rate of suspicious of positive cytology by 26.3%. PMID:662251

  16. Smear layer removal with citric acid solution

    OpenAIRE

    Petrovi? Violeta; Živkovi? Slavoljub

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy in smear layer removal of 17% EDTA and 10% citric acid, using SEM. Material and method: Twenty human, extracted teeth with a single root canal were examined. Whilst instrumentation with step-back technique and manual K files, root canals were irrigated with 2 ml of 2.5% NaOCl, between each file size. After instrumentatio n, specimens were divided into two groups. The first group was irrigated with a final flush of 17% EDTA, during one minute, and...

  17. An endocrinology laboratory exercise demonstrating the effect of confinement stress on the immune system of mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacqueline Brehe (Carroll College Biology)

    2008-03-04

    This article describes a simple laboratory exercise for examining the effect of stress on the immune system in mice. Mice are subjected to confinement stress for 1 h, after which a sample of blood is collected via the caudal vein. Blood samples are smeared onto microscope slides, air dried, and stained with Wright's Giemsa stain. When differential white blood cell counts are performed, there are noticeable differences between the neutrophil and lymphocyte counts of stressed versus control mice. The protocol is simple enough for students to perform, and the entire experiment can be completed within 3 h. Examples of ways in which the basic protocol can be modified to accommodate a shorter laboratory class are provided. This hands-on laboratory experiment provides students with experience using the scientific method to investigate the interaction between the endocrine and immune systems in response to stress.

  18. A new counting system for smear test sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A smear measurement system for a low-energy ? emitter has been developed, which uses a paraffin scintillator for a radiation detector. In sample preparation, the radioactive contamination on a smear sample can be solidified immediately by adding small amount of a liquid-solid reversible paraffin scintillator. This technique overcomes many disadvantages of a conventional liquid scintillation technique ever employed, and allows the smear sample to be measured repeatedly and stored. (author)

  19. Effect of Cervical Wiping with Sterile Cotton on the Quality of Pap-smear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Kamalifard

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are conflicting reports about the effect of wiping cervix with cotton on Pap-smear results. Therefore, we aimed to do a research about this subject. Materials and Methods: 234 eligible women attended to have Pap-smear at an educational hospital in Rasht, Iran, from July to September 2011, were allocated by block randomization into two groups. In the intervention group, we cleaned cervix with a sterile cotton rotating 360 degrees and obtained samples using spatula for exocervix and cytobrush for endocervix. This method was performed without cleaning the cervix on the control group. Data collection, vulvovaginal examination, laboratory assay were done by investigators masked to the group allocation. Participants were also blind. The data were analyzed using logistic regression in SPSS-13.Results: Rate of sufficient endocervical cell of the slides in the intervention group was significantly higher than in the control group (70.3% vs. 57.8%, p=0.03. In the intervention group 42.4% of the slides were satisfactory and 57.6% had limited quality for interpretation. These figures in the control group were 37.1% and 62.9%, respectively. This difference was not statistically significant. Also, there was no significant difference between the groups on rate of slides with inadequacy of squamous cells and obscuring 75% or more of the slides with inflammatory exudate or blood (p>0.05.Conclusion: There were no significant differences between the groups on some quality indicators of the smears. However, frequency of smears with sufficient endocervical cells was higher in the group with cervical wipping. Therefore, it is recommended to clean cervix before obtaining the smears.

  20. Sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis: sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugusi Ferdinand M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV is complicated by the increased presence of sputum smear negative tuberculosis. Diagnosis of smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis is made by an algorithm recommended by the National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Programme that uses symptoms, signs and laboratory results. The objective of this study is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the tuberculosis treatment algorithm used for the diagnosis of sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods A cross-section study with prospective enrollment of patients was conducted in Dar-es-Salaam Tanzania. For patients with sputum smear negative, sputum was sent for culture. All consenting recruited patients were counseled and tested for HIV. Patients were evaluated using the National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Programme guidelines and those fulfilling the criteria of having active pulmonary tuberculosis were started on anti tuberculosis therapy. Remaining patients were provided appropriate therapy. A chest X-ray, mantoux test, and Full Blood Picture were done for each patient. The sensitivity and specificity of the recommended algorithm was calculated. Predictors of sputum culture positive were determined using multivariate analysis. Results During the study, 467 subjects were enrolled. Of those, 318 (68.1% were HIV positive, 127 (27.2% had sputum culture positive for Mycobacteria Tuberculosis, of whom 66 (51.9% were correctly treated with anti-Tuberculosis drugs and 61 (48.1% were missed and did not get anti-Tuberculosis drugs. Of the 286 subjects with sputum culture negative, 107 (37.4% were incorrectly treated with anti-Tuberculosis drugs. The diagnostic algorithm for smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis had a sensitivity and specificity of 38.1% and 74.5% respectively. The presence of a dry cough, a high respiratory rate, a low eosinophil count, a mixed type of anaemia and presence of a cavity were found to be predictive of smear negative but culture positive pulmonary tuberculosis. Conclusion The current practices of establishing pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis are not sensitive and specific enough to establish the diagnosis of Acid Fast Bacilli smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis and over treat people with no pulmonary tuberculosis.

  1. Interdisciplinary research at the SMEAR Estonia station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noe, Steffen M.; Niinemets, Ülo; Kangur, Ahto; Hõrrak, Urmas; Soosaar, Kaido; Mander, Ülo

    2014-05-01

    Interdisciplinary research on ecosystem-atmosphere relations has been an issue since many years in Estonia. Since 2008, these activities have been intensified and led to the build up of a SMEAR (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) type station in Estonia. It is part of the Estonian Environmental Observatory, a delocalized research infrastructure that is operated by several Estonian universities and research institutions. It's core is located in the experimental forestry district in Järvselja where a major portion of the ecosystem and atmospheric research activities take place. Here, we present an overview of the current state of research which especially takes care of the hemiboreal forest ecosystem. Continuous build up of comprehensive measurements at diverse sites has led to a network of stations over Estonia. It's location in the transition zone between boreal and temperate forest ecosystems allows for new and updated hypothesis regarding fluxes of energy and matter in a globally changing climate system.

  2. Tuberculosis treatment among smear positive tuberculosis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuberculosis is a major health problem in many parts of the world. Delay in initiation of the treatment may result in prolonged infectious state, drug resistance, relapse and death. Objectives: To determine the factors responsible for not starting tuberculosis treatment among smear positive tuberculosis patients. Study type, settings and duration: This cross sectional study was done at Pakistan Medical Research Council TB Research Center, King Edward Medical University, Lahore, from fifth March 2010 to fifth December 2010. Patients and Methods: Fifty sputum smear positive patients of tuberculosis who did not register themselves in treatment register and presumably did not initiate anti tuberculosis treatment were contacted using telephone or traced by their home addresses. Once contact was established, they were inquired about the reasons for not starting tuberculosis treatment. Results: Of 50 patients 38(76%)belonged to the lower socio economic class and 12(24%) to the lower middle class. Fourteen patients (28%) were illiterate and 23(46%) had only 8 years of education. Of the 50 cases 41(82%) were taking treatment from traditional healers and 4% did not go back to the DOTS program. Physical condition of the patient, social, domestic and religious issues also played some role in default. Conclusions: Lack of health education and poverty were the main factors responsible for non compliance from treatment. Policy message: Sputum testing sites should have a paramedic whm testing sites should have a paramedic who should educate the patients about the benefits of treatment and the dangers of default or partial treatment. (author)

  3. Prevalence of hemoprotozoan diseases in cattle population of chittagong division, Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alim, Md. Abdul; Das, Shubhagata

    2012-01-01

    A one year (2009-10) prevalence study on hemoprotozoan diseases was conducted in crossbred and indigenous cattle, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Blood samples were collected randomly from 216 crossbred and 432 indigenous cattle of four representative areas in three consecutive seasons. Samples were examined by Giemsa's stained blood smear method. The effect of topography, season, age and sex was observed in cattle during this study. The overall prevalence of hemoprotozoan diseases was 16.18 and 12.02% in crossbred and indigenous cattle, respectively where babesiosis and anaplasmosis were predominant. Babesiosis was found to be consistent in all the four different areas but highest prevalence (9.25%)was found in hilly area. Hemoprotozoan diseases were predominant in summer season followed by rainy and winter seasons. Adult cattle were significantly (P

  4. Vector identification and clinical, hematological, biochemical, and parasitological characteristics of camel (Camelus dromedarius) theileriosis in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Shereen Youssef; Yasien, Safaa; Mousa, Waheed Mohamed Ali; Nasr, Soad Mohamed; El-Kelesh, Eman Ahmed Mohamed; Mahran, Khalid Mohamed; Abd-El-Rahman, Azza Hassan

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of the present study were to identify a possible tick vector and to determine the prevalence of camel theileriosis in Egypt using blood smears stained with Giemsa's stain and PCR assay. Hemogram and serum biochemical constituents were also investigated. A total of 243 camels, aged 3-5 years, were examined. The results revealed that 75 (30.86 %) camels were infected with Theileria spp. of Giemsa-stained blood smears. Hyalomma dromedarii was identified as the carrier tick of Theileria spp. Multinucleated sporoblast and free sporozoite were observed in the salivary gland smears from collecting ticks. PCR result revealed that Theileria annulata was the most abundant in camels (60 %) followed by Theileria spp. (10 %). Macrocytic hypochromic anemia was recorded in the infected camels with T. annulata. Leukocytosis, neutrophilia, eosinophilia, and lymphopenia were also observed in the infected group. In the serum of infected camels, total proteins, albumin, ?-globulin, and A/G ratio were significantly decreased (P?

  5. The Anal Pap Smear: Cytomorphology of squamous intraepithelial lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walts Ann E

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anal smears are increasingly being used as a screening test for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs. This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness and limitations of anal smears in screening for ASILs. Methods The cytomorphological features of 200 consecutive anal smears collected in liquid medium from 198 patients were studied and findings were correlated with results of surgical biopsies and/or repeat smears that became available for 71 patients within six months. Results Adequate cellularity was defined as an average of 6 or more nucleated squamous cells/hpf. A glandular/transitional component was not required for adequacy. Dysplastic cells, atypical parakeratotic cells and bi/multinucleated cells were frequent findings in ASIL while koilocytes were infrequent. Smears from LSIL cases most frequently showed mildly dysplastic and bi/multinucleate squamous cells followed by parakeratotic cells (PK, atypical parakeratotic cells (APK, and koilocytes. HSIL smears contained squamous cells with features of moderate/severe dysplasia and many APKs. Features of LSIL were also found in most HSIL smears. Conclusions In this study liquid based anal smears had a high sensitivity (98% for detection of ASIL but a low specificity (50% for predicting the severity of the abnormality in subsequent biopsy. Patients with cytologic diagnoses of ASC-US and LSIL had a significant risk (46–56% of HSIL at biopsy. We suggest that all patients with a diagnosis of ASC-US and above be recommended for high resolution anoscopy with biopsy.

  6. A Study of 13315 Papanicolau Smear Diagnoses in Shohada Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Afrakhteh

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to review Papanicolaou (Pap smears in patients of Shohada hospital in Tehran.Materials and methods:  A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out and a database search of all Pap smear reports from 1995 to 2005 at cytopathology department was reviewed. The abnormal Pap smear reports based on the Bethesda System were assessed.Results: A total of 13315 Pap smear reports were reviewed from patients aging 20 to 79 years old. Totally 6065 (45.55% cases had diagnosis of ‘negative', 293(2.21% smears were labeled as ‘inadequate', and 6799 (51.06% reports had ‘Benign cellular changes'. There were 158(1.18% abnormal Pap smears consisting of 84 (53.18% SIL with undetermined grade (ASC-US, 28(17.73% low grade SIL (LSIL, 17(10.75% high grade SIL (HSIL, 27(17.08% carcinoma and 2(1.26% atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS. Overall incidence of the cervical cancer among these samples was 0.2%. Benign cellular changes numbered 6799(51.06%, of which 5365 (78.9% smears demonstrated infectious processes.Conclusion: The number of abnormal pap smears in this study is less than western countries, but is comparable with Middle East and Islamic regions. More prospective studies are recommended.

  7. Who is getting Pap smears in urban Peru?

    OpenAIRE

    Paz Soldan, Valerie A.; Lee, Frank H.; Carcamo, Cesar; Holmes, King K.; Garnett, Geoff P.; Garcia, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer, although usually preventable by Pap smear screening, remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru. The percentages and characteristics of women in Peru who have or have not had a Pap smear have not been defined.

  8. Analysis of cervical smears in a Muslim population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Screening for the cancer of the cervix remains a neglected health care issue in Pakistan. To provide baseline data for future efforts to improve screening, we conducted a retrospective analysis of cervical smears taken in the obstetrics and gynaecological clinics of the Agha Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. We collected data on cervical smear cytology for cervical smears taken from January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1996. We assessed risk factors for dysplasia, including age, age at first marriage, and number of pregnancies. The overall prevalence of abnormal smears in our study was 0.5%. Of 20,995 cervical smears, showed non-specific inflammation, 7302 (34.8%) were reported as normal, 809 (3.85%) showed monillial infection, 148 (0.71%) showed atypia, 105 (0.5%) had dyplastic cytology and 52 (0.25%) samples were inadequate. The highest incidence of dysplastic smears was seen in the age group 35 to 44 years. Of 105 patients with dysplasia 12 were pregnant, and all were asymptomatic. The low prevalence of abnormal smears, compared with the data from Western populations, could be due to the internet bias of health awareness in the women who attended our hospital. The results of this study may serve as baseline for for future comparisons. A large community-based study may establish the exact prevalence of malignant and premalignant lesions so as to plan for future screening. (author)

  9. Evaluation of hematopoietic cells and myeloid/erythroid ratio in the bone marrow of the pheasant (Phasianus colchicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Tadjalli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the normal hematopoiesis, cellular components and myeloid/erythroid (M/E ratio in the bone marrow of the pheasant (Phasianus colchicus, bone marrow samples were collected from the proximal tibiotarsus bone of 16 clinically healthy adult pheasant. The bone marrow smears were stained using the Giemsa stain. The results indicated that the development and formation of blood cells in the bone marrow of pheasant were similar to other birds, whereas the morphology of the cells was similar to chickens, ducks, quail, and black-head gull. The mean M/E ratio was 1.24, the mean erythroid percentage was 42.24, the mean myeloid percentage was 52.62, and the mean percentage of all other cells percentage was 5.38. There was no significant difference in any of the cellular composition between male and female.

  10. First case of visceral Leishmaniosis/HIV coinfection in Niš - southeastern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanovi? G.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniosis (VL has emerged as an important opportunistic parasitosis associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. The aim of this paper is to report the first case of Leishmania/HIV coinfection in a patient from Niš (Southeastern Serbia. Microscopical examination of Giemsa-stained bone marrow (BM smears show the presence of Leishmania spp. amastigotes based on their morphological characteristics. In spite of the parasitological finding, the serological test applied gave negative results. Molecular analyses confirmed the infection and allowed us to identify the leishmania species as Leishmania infantum (100% identity. VL/HIV coinfection has important clinical, diagnostic and epidemiological implications. In fact, the failure of serological tests is expected in this condition, and the application of molecular diagnostics to the blood may offer, apart from an easy and non-invasive diagnostic opportunity, the possibility of warning about the risk of possible nosocomial infections. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41018 and br. 175034

  11. MICRONUCLEI AND OTHER NUCLEAR ANOMALIES IN BUCCAL SMEARS: METHODS DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory work aimed at improving the epidemiologic utility of an innovative genotoxicity marker is described. he exfoliated cell micronucleus assay involves microscope analysis of epithelial smears to determine the prevalence of micronucleation, an indicator of structural or nu...

  12. Papshop: Not a 'melon'choly Pap smear workshop!

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C, Gordon.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available As Head of Undergraduate Education in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at the University of Cape Town, South Africa, I have a particular interest in the competencies needed to perform primary care gynaecological procedures, one of which is the Pap smear. I was approached by a group of ke [...] en volunteer students to assist with Pap smear training to roll out a pilot screening programme at studentrun after-hours clinics in Cape Town and at volunteer rural health promotion clinics. This article describes a novel approach to teaching the Pap smear technique, using fruit and toilet rolls, which can easily be replicated in resource-constrained areas. Students branded the workshops as 'Papshops', and the name has stuck. Increasing numbers of students are now taught by peers already trained in prior Papshops, thereby expanding the teaching workforce. To date, during 2013 - 2014, Papshop students have performed almost 300 Pap smears for eligible women in under-resourced areas.

  13. Analysis of inadequate cervical smears using Shewhart control charts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wall Michael K

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate cervical smears cannot be analysed, can cause distress to women, are a financial burden to the NHS and may lead to further unnecessary procedures being undertaken. Furthermore, the proportion of inadequate smears is known to vary widely amongst providers. This study investigates this variation using Shewhart's theory of variation and control charts, and suggests strategies for addressing this. Methods Cervical cytology data, from six laboratories, serving 100 general practices in a former UK Health Authority area were obtained for the years 2000 and 2001. Control charts of the proportion of inadequate smears were plotted for all general practices, for the six laboratories and for the practices stratified by laboratory. The relationship between proportion of inadequate smears and the proportion of negative, borderline, mild, moderate or severe dyskaryosis as well as the positive predictive value of a smear in each laboratory was also investigated. Results There was wide variation in the proportion of inadequate smears with 23% of practices showing evidence of special cause variation and four of the six laboratories showing evidence of special cause variation. There was no evidence of a clinically important association between high rates of inadequate smears and better detection of dyskaryosis (R2 = 0.082. Conclusions The proportion of inadequate smears is influenced by two distinct sources of variation – general practices and cytology laboratories, which are classified by the control chart methodology as either being consistent with common or special cause variation. This guidance from the control chart methodology appears to be useful in delivering the aim of continual improvement.

  14. Attenuation of perceived motion smear during vergence and pursuit tracking*

    OpenAIRE

    Bedell, Harold E.; Chung, Susana T. L.; Patel, Saumil S.

    2004-01-01

    When the eyes move, the images of stationary objects sweep across the retina. Despite this motion of the retinal image and the substantial integration of visual signals across time, physically stationary objects typically do not appear to be smeared during eye movements. Previous studies indicated that the extent of perceived motion smear is smaller when a stationary target is presented during pursuit or saccadic eye movements than when comparable motion of the retinal image occurs during ste...

  15. Comparison of clinical and microbiological profiles in smear-positive and smear-negative cases of suspected microbial keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Savitri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To examine the hypothesis that initial smear examination results have a significant bearing on the management and outcome of suspected microbial keratitis. Materials and Methods: One hundred and seventy consecutive patients with suspected microbial keratitis were included in a prospective nonrandomized comparative study and their detailed clinical and microbiological data (smears and cultures of corneal scrapings were captured on a predesigned corneal ulcer database. Patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 included 68 patients with corneal scrapings negative in smears while Group 2 included 102 patients with corneal scrapings positive in smears. The two groups were compared for their clinico-microbiological profile, management and clinical outcome. The outcome was noted at three months. Fisher?s exact test was applied for statistical analysis. Results: Cultures were sterile in 57.3% of patients in Group 1 compared to 17.6% in Group 2. Scrapings that grew S. pneumoniae , gram-negative organisms, fungi and Acanthamoeba were more often positive in smears (18.6%, 11.8%, 19.6% and 2.9% respectively. While data on duration of prior treatment was not available, prior medication made no significant difference to smear results. More (79.3% patients of Group 1 had small infiltrate size (< 25 mm[[2

  16. Cytokine responses of CD4+ T cells during a Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi (ER blood-stage infection in mice initiated by the natural route of infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butcher Geoffrey

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigation of host responses to blood stages of Plasmodium spp, and the immunopathology associated with this phase of the life cycle are often performed on mice infected directly with infected red blood cells. Thus, the effects of mosquito bites and the pre-erythrocytic stages of the parasite, which would be present in natural infection, are ignored In this paper, Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi infections of mice injected directly with infected red blood cells were compared with those of mice infected by the bites of infected mosquitoes, in order to determine whether the courses of primary infection and splenic CD4 T cell responses are similar. Methods C57Bl/6 mice were injected with red blood cells infected with P. chabaudi (ER or infected via the bite of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. Parasitaemia were monitored by Giemsa-stained thin blood films. Total spleen cells, CD4+ T cells, and cytokine production (IFN-?, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 were analysed by flow cytometry. In some experiments, mice were subjected to bites of uninfected mosquitoes prior to infectious bites in order to determine whether mosquito bites per se could affect a subsequent P. chabaudi infection. Results P. chabaudi (ER infections initiated by mosquito bite were characterized by lower parasitaemia of shorter duration than those observed after direct blood challenge. However, splenomegaly was comparable suggesting that parasitaemia alone does not account for the increase in spleen size. Total numbers of CD4 T cells and those producing IFN-?, IL-10 and IL-2 were reduced in comparison to direct blood challenge. By contrast, the reduction in IL-4 producing cells was less marked suggesting that there is a proportionally lower Th1-like response in mice infected via infectious mosquitoes. Strikingly, pre-exposure to bites of uninfected mosquitoes reduced the magnitude and duration of the subsequent mosquito-transmitted infection still further, but enhanced the response of CD4 T cells producing IFN-? and IL-4. Conclusion The data in this paper suggest that studying early host responses in blood stage malaria infections measured after direct blood challenge of mice may not completely reflect the natural situation, and more detailed investigations of blood-stage immunity after mosquito transmission in experimental models should be considered.

  17. Patient and Doctor Delays in Smear-Negative and Smear-Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients Attending a Referral Hospital in Istanbul, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Gulbanu Horzum Ekinci; Esra Karakaya; Esra Akkutuk Ongel; Osman Haciomeroglu; Adnan Yilmaz

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To measure delays from onset of symptoms to initiation of treatment in patients with smear-negative and smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis and to identify reasons for these delays. Methods. A total of 136 newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Results. The patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 included 65 smear-negative patients. There were 71 smear-positive patients in group 2. The median application interval...

  18. Detection of Theileria annulata by PCR and its Comparison With Smear Method in Native Carrier Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Hamidreza Azizi; Behrooz Shiran; Amir Farzaneh Dehkordi; Fazlollah Salehi; Camellia Taghadosi

    2008-01-01

    During March and April 2007, 140 native cows with the mean age of more than one year were selected randomly and their age and sex were registered in the related papers. Primarily, a thin layer smear was prepared from their ear sublime vein blood and was fixed with methanol and then it stained with Gimsa dye. Also, 9 mL blood from the jagular vein of the same cow was taken and collected in autoclaved tubes (containing 1 mL of 3.2% buffered citrate solution) conversely for extracting their DNA ...

  19. Detección de mutaciones en los genes K-ras, H-ras y EGFR en muestras de plasma sanguíneo y cepillado cervical de pacientes con neoplasia intraepitelial cervical (NIC) III y cáncer de cuello uterino / Detection of genes mutations in the K-RAS, H-RAS and EGFR in samples of blood plasma and cervical smears for patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia III and cervical cancer

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dabeiba Adriana, García; Yazmín Rocío, Arias; Fabio, Ancízar Aristizábal.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El cáncer cervical es el segundo cáncer más importante en mujeres a nivel mundial y la segunda causa de muerte en mujeres por cáncer. Se ha demostrado que el proceso de carcinogénesis cervical presenta componentes tanto genéticos, epigenéticos y medio ambientales. En la actualidad, muc [...] hos estudios se encaminan en la búsqueda de marcadores moleculares como mutaciones en oncogenes y/o genes tumor supresor que se asocien con la progresión de esta entidad. Los genes candidatos más estudiados en cáncer cervical en distintas poblaciones han sido H-ras, K-ras, EGFR entre otros. Objetivos: Se identificó el virus de papiloma humano (VPH) genérico y específico en el ADN libre de plasma y de cepillado cervical de pacientes con cáncer cervical invasivo y con neoplasia intraepitelial cervical (NIC) III además de evaluar alteraciones genéticas, como mutaciones en los genes H-ras, K-ras y EGFR. Metodología: Para ello se detectó el VPH genérico mediante PCR con los iniciadores GP5+/GP6+, y específico para VPH 16 y 18 en la región E6/E7. Para detectar las mutaciones en el codón 12 de H-ras, codones 12 y 13 de K-Ras y el exón 21 de EGFR se realizó mediante secuenciación directa de los productos de PCR de estos fragmentos génicos. Resultados: Obteniendo una buena correlación entre las muestras de plasma sanguíneo y los cepillados cervicales, tanto para los hallazgos de VPH p=0.0374 como para las mutaciones evaluadas p=0. En general, para EGFR en el exón 21 no se encontraron mutaciones, al igual que para los codones 12 y 13 en K-ras y codón 12 en H-ras. Conclusión: El uso del ADN presente en el plasma puede ser relevante para el análisis de mutaciones y de la presencia de marcadores tumorales cuando no se dispone de otras muestras. Abstract in english Introduction: Cervical cancer is the second most important cancer in women worldwide, and the second cause of cancer death in women. It has been shown that the process of cervical carcinogenesis presents as genetic and epigenetic components as environmental issues. At present, many studies are addre [...] ssed in searching for molecular markers such as mutations in oncogenes and/or tumor suppressor genes that are associated with the progression of this disease, the most studied candidate genes in cervical cancer in different populations have been H-ras, K-ras, EGFR among others. Objective: The present study identified human papilloma virus (HPV) generic and specific in DNA-free plasma and cervical smears of invasive cervical cancer patients and patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) III in addition to assessing genetic alterations, such as mutations in the genes H-ras, EGFR and K-ras. Methods: To do so generic HPV was detected by PCR with primers GP5+/GP6+, and specific HPV 16 and 18 in E6/E7 region; to detect mutations in codon 12 of H-ras, codons 12 and 13 of K-ras and EGFR exon 21 was conducted by direct sequencing of PCR products of these gene fragments. Results: Getting a good correlation between samples of blood plasma and cervical smears for both; the findings of HPV p=0.0374 and evaluated mutations p=0. In general, for EGFR in exon 21 mutations were not found, as for codons 12 and 13 in K-ras and codon 12 in H-ras. Conclusion: The use of DNA in plasma may be relevant to the analysis of mutations and the presences of tumor markers are not available from other samples.

  20. Ocorrência de apoptose em leucócitos no esfregaço de sangue periférico e em sincícios na infecção in vivo pelo vírus da cinomose canina Occurrence of apoptosis in leukocytes in the peripheral blood smear and in syncytia in canine distemper infection in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Moro, L.; C.M. Alves; F.G.A. Santos; J.E.S. Nunes; Carneiro, R.A.; A. C. VASCONCELOS

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the occurrence of apoptosis in peripheral blood leukocytes and in syncytia induced by experimental infection of dogs with canine distemper virus. Blood was collected from nine puppies that were inoculated with the Snyder Hill strain of CDV, and stained with May Grunwaldt-Giemsa. Dogs were necropsied and retropharyngeal lymph nodes were collected and processed for paraffin embedding. Five micrometers thick sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and meth...

  1. Bacteriuria screening by use of acridine orange-stained smears.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoff, R. G.; Newman, D. E.; Staneck, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    Acridine orange (AO)-stained smears of 1,042 urine specimens were examined for the presence of bacteria and compared with quantitative culture results. The detection of one or more organisms per three AO fields at X200 magnification was noted in 161 of 162 and 193 of 195 urine specimens that grew greater than 10(5) and 10(4) CFU/ml, respectively, of a clinically relevant organism. However, a high number of false-positive AO smears (356 and 324, respectively) was observed among urines that fai...

  2. Predictors of Papanicolaou Smear Use Among American Samoan Women

    OpenAIRE

    Shiraz I. Mishra; Luce-Aoelua, Pat H; Hubbell, F. Allan

    2001-01-01

    To explore the rate and predictors of Papanicolaou (Pap) smear use among American Samoans, we conducted a survey of 986 randomly selected adult, self-identified Samoan women in American Samoa (n = 323), Hawaii (n = 325), and Los Angeles (n = 338). Only 46% of the women reported having a Pap smears within the past 3 years. These women were more likely than others to reside in Hawaii (odds ratio [OR], 1.7), be less than 40 years of age (OR, 2.2), be married (OR, 1.9), have more than 12 years of...

  3. Free-form smearing for bottomonium and B meson spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Wurtz, Mark; Woloshyn, R M

    2015-01-01

    To obtain high-quality results from lattice QCD, it is important to use operators that produce good signals for the quantities of interest. Free-form smearing is a powerful tool that helps to accomplish that goal. The present work introduces a new implementation of free-form smearing that maintains its usefulness and reduces its computational time dramatically. Applications to the mass spectrum of $B$, $B_s$, $B_c$ and bottomonium mesons show the effectiveness of the method. Results are compared with other lattice QCD studies and with experimental data where available. The present work includes the first lattice QCD exploration for some of these mesons.

  4. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis in a rural setup: Comparison of clinical algorithm, smear scoring and culture by semiquantitative technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao P

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs in a rural set up and compare the smear scoring system to that of culture by semiquantitative technique. A total of 505 married women, who were in sexually active age group of 15-44 years, were selected from three different villages. High vaginal swabs, endocervical swabs, vaginal discharge and blood were collected and processed in the laboratory. Overall prevalence of 29% reproductive tract infection was detected. Endogenous infection was commonly observed (27.92%, and very low prevalence of STIs (Trichomonas 1.18%, Syphilis 0%, Gonorrhea 0% was detected. Diagnosis of BV was possible in 104 (20.5% women by smear alone and 88 (17.42% women by semiquantitative culture.

  5. Missed Opportunities for Health Education on Pap Smears in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Angela M.; Nussbaum, Lauren; Cabrera, Lilia; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite cervical cancer being one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru, cervical Pap smear coverage is low. This article uses findings from 185 direct clinician observations in four cities of Peru (representing the capital and each of the three main geographic regions of the country) to assess missed opportunities for…

  6. Tubercular endometritis detected through Pap smear campaign in Enugu, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Onuigbo, Wilson; Esimai, Bessie; Nwaekpe, Chinenye; Chijioke, Grace

    2012-01-01

    In a series of 3,267 cervical smears examined in Enugu, Nigeria, from 1993 through 2010, there was a single positive case of tuberculosis (TB). It was found in a 55-year-old, Para 7, postmenopausal woman. Treatment for tuberculosis was instituted successfully.

  7. Diagnosis of Mycobacterium bacteremia in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome by direct examination of blood films.

    OpenAIRE

    Eng, R H; Bishburg, E; S. M. Smith; Mangia, A

    1989-01-01

    Thirty acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients with mycobacterial bacteremia documented by Du Pont Isolator (Du Pont Co., Wilmington, Del.) blood cultures underwent microscopic examination of buffy coat blood smears. Of 30 patients, 14 were culture positive for Mycobacterium avium-Mycobacterium intracellulare complex and 1 was positive for M. tuberculosis. Of 15 culture-positive patients, 13 had identifiable organisms on Kinyoun- or auramine-stained direct blood smears.

  8. Gauge Invariant Smearing and Matrix Correlators using Wilson Fermions at beta=6.2

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, S

    1993-01-01

    We present an investigation of gauge invariant smearing for Wilson fermions on a $24^3 \\times 48$ lattice at $\\beta = 6.2$. We demonstrate a smearing algorithm that allows a substantial improvement in the determination of the baryon spectrum obtained using propagators smeared at both source and sink, at only a small computational cost. We investigate the matrix of correlators constructed from local and smeared operators, and are able to expose excited states of both the mesons and baryons.

  9. Sputum Conversion Among Patients With Smear Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soudbakhsh A R

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB bacteriologic assessment of sputum for detection of acid bacilli (AFB Has essential role. This evaluation is accomplished by direct sputum smear & sputum culture. These examinations must be done in regular and preferably monthly after beginning of treatment. These tests have two important aims, including, determining of treatment efficacy & duration of isolation."nMethods and Materials: Most of the studies have that classic six month regimen led to sputum smear conversion & negative sputum culture in 85% of patient. This treatment regimen has two phases, including, attack phase and maintenance phase. In the attack phase we use four drugs, including, Isoniazid (INH, Rifampin (RMP, Pyrazinamide (PZA and Ethambutol (EMB for the first 2 months and if necessary until the end of third month. In the maintenance phase we use INH and Rif for the remaining of treatment course. The main objectives of this study were to determine the time needed for smear conversion and assessment of probable factors which may influence the smear conversion until 4 months after beginning of therapy. The factors that were assessed, were, Age, nationality, sex, clinical symptoms, underlying diseases, chest radiography (number of cavities, smoking, drug abuse and concentration of AF13 in the sputum Generally, we did this cross sectional study on the patient's records, who had been observed in Imam Khomeni Hospital, west health service center and masih daneshvary hospital between."nResults: This study showed that from totally 218 patients, 138(74.6% patients had sputum conversion at the first 2 months of treatment and until the end of 3rd & 4th month this rate reached to 83.3% respectively. So in the end of fourth month only 32(14.7% patients did not show sputum smear conversion. On the other hand this study showed that two factors including presence of cavities in chest radiography & concentration of AFB in the sputum are influencing this rate strongly."nConclusion: Role of other factors such as age, nationality , Smoking, diabetes mellitus and weigh loss are controversial and another studies are necessary for confirming their roles. Other factors including sex, clinical symptoms has not been show to be important. Some factors such as drug abuse and immunosuppresive therapy has not been assessed in this study, because number of cases were not enough for statistical analysis.

  10. Biogenic amines in smear and mould-ripened cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Pleva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was the monitoring of six biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, tryptamine, putrescine, and cadaverine and two polyamines (spermidine and spermine in 30 samples of dairy products purchased in the Czech Republic, namely in 15 samples of mould-ripened cheeses and in 15 samples of smear-ripened cheeses. A further goal was the microbiological analysis of the individual samples of cheeses (total count of microorganisms, number of enterobacteria, enterococci, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and moulds. The monitored biogenic amines were analyzed by a high performance liquid chromatography equipped with a UV/VIS DAD detector. The amount of enterobacteria in fresh cheese exceeded 105 CFU.g?1. In smear-ripened cheese flavourless (Romadur type, the amount was >103 CFU.g-1 and 104-105 CFU.g-1 in smear-ripened cheese with flavour. Biogenic amines were observed in two groups of blue cheeses (white veined cheese and blue veined cheese and smear-ripened cheeses. In both groups, there is a possibility of the presence of biogenic amines because the number of microorganisms and concentration of free amino acids increase during ripening. In ten samples of soft smear-ripening acid cheese and in smear-ripened cheese, the total content of biogenic amines were 22-1000 mg.kg-1 and in 5 samples of these cheeses, it was in range 1000-6000 mg.kg-1. The total amount of biogenic amines in the blue cheeses were in range 40-600 mg.kg-1. The presense of the tyramine was observed in the all analysed cheeses. The tyramine producing strains generated more than 900 mg.kg-1 of this biogenic amine. The production of tryptamine in the analysed cheeses was not proved by this study. The results of this study show that biogenic amines and polyamines are common in cheese. However, in some cases, they can pose a significant health danger for consumers. Any legislative control authority does not monitor them, as they are secondary metabolites even though they are potential health risks.

  11. Delay in treatment seeking of smear positive tuberculous patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess and identify the causes and circumstances leading to delays in health seeking and diagnosis of tuberculosis patients as they often present with advance disease resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Settings Department of Tuberculosis, DOTS clinic DHQ Hospital, Vehari. Methodology One (author) inspiration diagnosed smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients were included. Information was gathered through interviews and from TB-01 card. Results Maximum patients were in age group of 16-40 years. Median patient delay was 4-6 months; jobless, homeless personnel had longer delay. The main reason for delay was that the symptoms were not considered serious enough. Delay in presentation of smear positive cases may be due to the lack of awareness of patients and the incompetence of some health workers. Training and supervision of staff and awareness campaigns targeted at the population and involvement of private sector will improve TB control in Vehari. (author)

  12. Comparative Study of Smeared Cracking Models for Concrete Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Silva Penna

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article shows how the constitutive modeling of concrete has evolved since the initial attempts to characterize the medium cracked as continuous, moving from smeared cracking, damage and microplane models, until the current tendency to design different models according to a single theoretical framework. A generic formulation for smeared cracking models, including fixed and rotational models, as well as degradation in tension and in compression, is provided. Using this formulation, three models are generated by specifying the laws of degradation. A comparative study of models, based on computer simulations of a beam subjected to shear at four points, is presented. The results are compared, between themselves and with experimental results, providing a critical analysis of the models.

  13. MORPHOMETRIC CRITERIA IN THE ASSESSMENT OF MAMMARY SMEARS

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Mihalache; Simona-Eliza Giu?c?; Carmen Ionescu; Irina-Draga C?runtu; Adriana Grigora?

    2011-01-01

    The applications of the computer-assisted image processing and analysis in the field of pathology are now developed in order to design, validate and implement supplementary and/or complementary tools for automated identification and classification, based on the characterization of the lesions in terms of the measurement values. The aim of our study is to create an original computerized technique for the investigation of the mammary smears. The study group included 20 Papanicolaou mammary smea...

  14. MORPHOMETRIC CRITERIA IN THE ASSESSMENT OF MAMMARY SMEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mihalache

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The applications of the computer-assisted image processing and analysis in the field of pathology are now developed in order to design, validate and implement supplementary and/or complementary tools for automated identification and classification, based on the characterization of the lesions in terms of the measurement values. The aim of our study is to create an original computerized technique for the investigation of the mammary smears. The study group included 20 Papanicolaou mammary smears, diagnosed as normal, benign and malign. From all smears, we captured digitized images, corresponding to significant microscopic fields – as cellularity. By using the Zeiss KS400 software, we constructed the macro generically named MAMAR, which includes a sequence of the automated operations allowing the extraction of the morphometric parameters for the representative cells. For all defined parameters (cell area, nuclear area, nucleo-citoplasmic ratio, equivalent diameter and form factor, an automated measurement function was applied. The comparison between the morphometric parameters that characterize normal, benign and, respectively, malign cells offers a unbiased point of view that certainly increase the accuracy of the diagnosis. Within the framework of this morphometric analysis, the equivalent diameter and the form factor ensure the refinement of the numerical information given by the cellular and nuclear areas.

  15. Critical evaluation of peripheral smear in cases of anemia with high mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in children: A series of four cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Sunita

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, a parameter that is reported as a part of a standard complete blood count by automated analyzer, is a measure of the concentration of hemoglobin in a given volume of packed red blood cell. Values of MCHC significantly above reference range are not physiologically possible due to limitations on solubility of hemoglobin. The high MCHC can give us a clue to certain type of hemolytic anemia and necessitate critical evaluation of peripheral smear to reach a definitive diagnosis. Here we are presenting a series of four cases with raised MCHC, emphasizing the importance of systematic and meticulous examination of the peripheral smear to render a definitive diagnosis.

  16. No increased risk for cervical cancer after a broader definition of a negative Pap smear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein

    2008-01-01

    The definition of minimal relevant Pap smear abnormality is crucial for balancing the beneficial effects of screening (prevented mortality) with negative side-effects (the high positivity rate). After inflammation ceased to be defined as a borderline abnormal smear outcome in The Netherlands in 1996, the proportion of these smears dropped from 10% to less than 2%. Because this may have caused a loss in smear sensitivity, we analysed the changes in the incidence of cervical cancer after a negative Pap smear. All negative smears made at ages 30-64 in 1990-1995 (n = 1,546,252) and 1998-2006 (n = 3,552,716), registered in the national registry of histo- and cytopathology (PALGA), were followed for up to 9 years. During follow-up of the 1990-1995 smears, 377 women developed cervical cancer within 5,232,959 woman-years at risk, while during the follow-up of the 1998-2006 smears, 619 women developed cervical cancer within 11,210,675 woman-years at risk. The cumulative incidence after the definition change was not significantly higher than before: e.g. at 6 years, the cumulative incidence for smears made in 1990-1995 was 46 per 100,000 (95% CI: 41-52), and for smears in 1998-2006 was 48 per 100,000 (95% CI: 43-54), p = 0.59. The hazard ratio for 1998-2006 compared to 1990-1995 adjusted for age, number of previous negative smears and history of abnormalities was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.78-1.03). In The Netherlands, a setting with high-quality cytological screening, treating smears with only signs of inflammation as negative leads to a considerably lower positivity rate without increasing the risk for cervical cancer after a negative smear.

  17. Smearing and filtering methods in lattice QCD - a quantitative comparison

    CERN Document Server

    Solbrig, Stefan; Gattringer, Christof; Ilgenfritz, Ernst-Michael; Müller-Preussker, Michael; Schäfer, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    We systematically compare three filtering methods used to extract topological excitations from lattice gauge configurations, namely smearing, Laplace filtering and the filtered fermionic topological charge (with chirally improved fermions). Each of these techniques introduces ambiguities, like its parameter dependence. We show, however, that all these methods can be tuned to each other over a broad range of filtering levels and that they reveal very similar topological structures. For these common structures we find an interesting power-law relating the number and packing fraction of clusters of filtered topological charge.

  18. Detection of MicroRNAs in Archival Cytology Urine Smears

    OpenAIRE

    Simonato, Francesca; Ventura, Laura; Sartori, Nicola; Cappellesso, Rocco; Fassan, Matteo; Busund, Lill-tove; Fassina, Ambrogio

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs’ dysregulation and profiling have been demonstrated to be clinically relevant in urothelial carcinoma (UC). Urine cytology is commonly used as the mainstay non-invasive test for secondary prevention and follow-up of UC patients. Ancillary tools are needed to support cytopathologists in the diagnosis of low-grade UC. The feasibility and reliability of microRNAs profiling by qRT-PCR analysis (miR-145 and miR-205) in archival routine urine cytology smears (affected by fixation/staini...

  19. Prevalence of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae in cats in the south of Brazil: a molecular study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo, Staggemeier; Carolina Augusto, Venker; Deisy Heck, Klein; Mariana, Petry; Fernando Rosado, Spilki; Vlademir Vicente, Cantarelli.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Bartonella spp are the causative agent of cat scratch disease in humans. Cats are the natural reservoir of these bacteria and may infect humans through scratches, bites or fleas. Blood samples from 47 cats aged up to 12 months were collected for this study. All animals were lodged in municipal anima [...] l shelters in the Vale do Sinos region, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Bartonella spp were detected by genus-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and when the PCR was positive, the species were determined by DNA sequencing. A Giemsa-stained blood smear was also examined for the presence of intraerythrocytic elements suggestive of Bartonella spp infection. Phylogenetic analysis was also performed for all positive samples. Using molecular detection methods, Bartonella spp were detected in 17.02% (8/47) of the samples. In seven out of eight samples confirmed to be positive for Bartonella spp, blood smear examination revealed the presence of intraerythrocytic elements suggestive of Bartonella spp. Phylogenetic analysis characterized positive samples as Bartonella henselae (5) or Bartonella clarridgeiae (3). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first molecular study demonstrating the presence of Bartonella spp in cats from the Southern Region of Brazil.

  20. Prevalence of bovine theileriosis in North Central region of Algeria by real-time polymerase chain reaction with a note on its distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziam, Hocine; Kelanamer, Rabah; Aissi, Miriem; Ababou, Assia; Berkvens, Dirk; Geysen, Dirk

    2015-06-01

    To determine the presence and distribution of bovine theileriosis in the North Central region of Algeria, 358 DNA samples and 359 blood smears were analyzed from nine provinces. Theileria DNA extracted from cattle blood was amplified by fluorescence resonance energy transfer polymerase chain reaction (FRET-PCR). Blood smears were examined for Theileria piroplasms by microscopical examination (ME) of Giemsa-stained slides. While microscopical identification revealed only 42 animals being infected with Theileria piroplasms, PCR-positive amplification using Theileria genus-specific primers was obtained from 132 Theileria spp. (P?Theileria annulata, while 24 (18.2 %) were found positive for Theileria sp. (P?Theileria sp1 and 52.5?±?0.5 °C for Theileria sp2. Cloning and sequencing of Theileria sp1 and Theileria sp2 using the Cox primers indicated that these species are very closely related to Theileria buffeli. There is a highly significant difference in the distribution of theileriosis between different provinces (P?

  1. Understanding image quality losses due to smear in high-resolution remote sensing imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Steven L.; Mooney, James A.; Tantalo, Theodore A.; Fiete, Robert D.

    1999-05-01

    Space-based high-resolution scanning array imaging systems have the potential to introduce large amounts of image smear. When designing these systems, it is useful to understand how smear will degrade image quality. A brief description of the causes of smear and a simple mathematical model are presented. A series of image simulations (for a system in which (lambda) FN/p equals 1.0, where (lambda) is the mean wavelength for a panchromatic system, FN is the system f number, and p is the pixel pitch of the detectors) are performed in which along scan smear (ranging from 1.0 to 8.0 pixels) is introduced. Using the National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale (NIIRS), expert observers rated (Delta) NIIRS difference in image quality between the images with simulated smear and the original `unsmeared' image. The functional relationship between smear error and image quality (in units of (Delta) NIIRS) is determined.

  2. The preparation of additional smears from a cervical scrape: impact on the rate of detection of cervical neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Awadhi, R; Byrne, M; Coleman, D V

    2001-06-01

    The preparation of additional smears from a cervical scrape: impact on the rate of detection of cervical neoplasia It has been known for some time that only a proportion of the cells on the smear-taking device is transferred to the slide. This can give rise to errors in reporting although the smear may have been taken correctly. This study was undertaken to identify a quick and simple method of improving the accuracy of the Papanicolaou test. A conventional smear and five additional smears were obtained from 62 women attending a Genito-Urinary Medicine clinic. The cell content of the conventional smears and the additional smears was compared. Dyskaryotic cells were detected both in the conventional smear and in the first and second additional smears from 22 women. Dyskaryotic cells were detected in the first and second additional smears only in five women. Thus, the conventional smear failed to detect biopsy-confirmed cervical abnormality in these women. A cell count of the first additional smear in the five cases where the conventional smear was negative showed that they contained, on average, 310 dyskaryotic cells. The preparation of one additional cervical smear per cervical scrape could significantly increase the accuracy of the cervical smear test by 11% (P=0.025, McNemar's test). PMID:11380556

  3. Blood Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Home > Learn About Blood > Blood Components Printable Version Blood Components How can one donation help multiple people? ... blood. The main transfusable blood components include: Whole Blood Whole blood contains red cells, white cells, and ...

  4. Cytopathological pattern of cervical Pap smear according to the Bethesda system in Southwestern Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Elhakeem, Howaida A.; Al-ghamdi, Abdulhameed S.; Al-maghrabi, Jaudah A.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Cervical carcinoma is an important women's health problem worldwide. The aim of this study is to evaluate the abnormal cytological entities detected by cervical Pap smear in Al-Baha region of KSA, to reclassify the cytological findings according to the recently recommended Bethesda system and to discuss the significance of Pap smear's screening programs. METHODS A retrospective study was designed to review the Pap smears from the archives of the Department of Pat...

  5. Tuberculosis recurrence in smear-positive patients cured under DOTS in southern Ethiopia: retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Datiko Daniel G; Lindtjørn Bernt

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Decentralization of DOTS has increased the number of cured smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) patients. However, the rate of recurrence has increased mainly due to HIV infection. Recurrence rate could be taken as an important measure of long-term success of TB treatment. We aimed to find out the rate of recurrence in smear-positive patients cured under DOTS in southern Ethiopia. Methods We did a retrospective cohort study on cured smear-positive TB patients who were treated ...

  6. Value of third sputum smear for detection of pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV infected patients

    OpenAIRE

    Parvaneh Baghaei; Davoud Mansouri; Mohammad Reza Masjedi; Payam Tabarsi; Ali Akbar Velayati; Majid Marjani

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated diagnostic yield of third sputum smear in patients co infected with HIV for detection of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Among 139 pulmonary tuberculosis cases confirmed with positive sputum culture, diagnostic yield of first smear of sputum with acid fast staining was 81.9%. Incremental yield of 2nd and 3rd samples was 11.7% and 6.3% respectively. So two sputum smears may be enough for primary evaluation of HIV infected patients suspected to TB.

  7. Molecular Identification of Leishmania Species Using Samples Obtained from Negative Stained Smears

    OpenAIRE

    MA Mohaghegh; A Fata; GH Salehi; Berenji, F; M Mousavi Bazzaz; Rafatpanah, H; Parian, M; A Movahedi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is a parasitic skin disease. Diagnosis primarily is based on clinical signs and microscopic observation of parasite on direct stained smears or tissue sections. Sensitivity of direct smear is not as high as molecular methods. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize Leishmania species among the negative direct smears obtained from skin ulcers sus­pected to CL by PCR method.Methods: Among 81 patients with suspicious skin lesions to CL ref...

  8. Smear correction of highly-variable, frame-transfer-CCD images with application to polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Iglesias, Francisco A; Nagaraju, K

    2015-01-01

    Image smear, produced by the shutter-less operation of frame transfer CCD detectors, can be detrimental for many imaging applications. Existing algorithms used to numerically remove smear, do not contemplate cases where intensity levels change considerably between consecutive frame exposures. In this report we reformulate the smearing model to include specific variations of the sensor illumination. The corresponding desmearing expression and its noise properties are also presented and demonstrated in the context of fast imaging polarimetry.

  9. An audit of sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis cases in kinta district, perak, in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subashini, A; Lau, Km; Habibur Rahman, Za

    2012-01-01

    58 cases of sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) were reported to Kinta Health Department between January and June 2011. It was found that 47 cases (81%) were sputum smear negative cases. Six cases (10.3%) were actually sputum smear positive but were wrongly reported as smear negative. Five cases (8.6%) were misdiagnosed as tuberculosis. Majority of these patients (82.7%) sought consultation and treatment after two weeks of having cough. Only 6.9% sought treatment for cough that was less than two weeks old. Accurate diagnosis of PTB is crucial and the Perak State Health Department needs to quickly adopt steps to improve the situation. PMID:25606253

  10. An Audit of Sputum Smear Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis Cases in Kinta District, Perak, in 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Subashini A; Km, Lau; Za, Habibur Rahman

    2012-01-01

    58 cases of sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PtB) were reported to Kinta Health Department between January and June 2011. It was found that 47 cases (81%) were sputum smear negative cases. six cases (10.3%) were actually sputum smear positive but were wrongly reported as smear negative. Five cases (8.6%) were misdiagnosed as tuberculosis. Majority of these patients (82.7%) sought consultation and treatment after two weeks of having cough. only 6.9% sought treatment for cough that...

  11. Extraction and detection of Mycobacterium leprae DNA from ZNCF-stained skin smear slides for better identification of negative skin smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamble R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Identification of Mycobacterium leprae, which causes leprosy, is done by Ziehl Neelsen Carbol Fuchsin (ZNCF stained slit skin smear microscopy that aids in the diagnosis and quantification of approximate bacterial load carried by the patient. We attempted M. leprae DNA extraction from 46 stained slit skin smear negative slides, using Proteinase K and SDS lysis, followed by ethanol precipitation. M. leprae specific primers (16SrRNA were used for PCR-based amplification of DNA. We could detect M. leprae DNA in 15 (32.6% samples. The method can be useful in the diagnosis of apparently slit skin smear negative leprosy cases.

  12. Pap smears for men: a vision of the future?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Oon, S F

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) rarely receives as much publicity as its neighbouring orifice, the cervix. As in the cervix, intraepithelial neoplasias are precursors to cancer in the anal canal. AIN and cervical interstitial neoplasia (CIN) undergo dysplasia as a consequence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Since the advent of screening with the Pap smear in CIN, cervical cancer has plummeted to a fifth of its initial incidence. Anal cancer, however, has been rising, with a predilection for human immunodeficiency virus-infected men. HPV causes a squamous epithelial dysplasia and converts healthy tissue into AINs of increasing severity until anal cancer manifests. CLINICAL CASE: This article describes a clinical case of anogenital HPV infection refractory to medical and surgical therapy. It also describes an effective surgical excision technique associated with a good cosmetic outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The paper concludes by briefly discussing the implications of a national screening programme against AIN in the future.

  13. Exflagellated microgametes of Plasmodium vivax in human peripheral blood: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tembhare Prashant

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral blood smear examination is the most specific as well as the most common test performed for the diagnosis of malaria. Schizonts, ring forms (trophozoites and gametocytes are the stages of malarial parasite that are commonly seen in the peripheral blood smear of a patient. Here, we report an extremely rare case of a 40-year-old male patient who presented with Plasmodium vivax infection with multiple exflagellated microgametes in the peripheral blood smear with review of the literature. Exflagellation of microgametes in malarial parasites is only seen in the definitive host, mosquito, and is very unusual to see during the developmental phases in the intermediate host, human. It is important to recognize these exflagellated microgametes in the peripheral blood smear as they may lead to diagnostic confusion with organisms such as spirochetes and trypanosomes.

  14. Wet smear method by a water sprayer and temporary decontamination method by a vacuum cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improving the smear efficiency and the stability of smear method on the monitoring of radioactive floor surface contamination, wet smear method by a water sprayer was designed and examined. And as the temporary decontamination method applied to the wide spread radioactive floor surface contamination, the method by a vacuum cleaner (vacuum cleaner method) was examined. These examinations were carried out by the experiment using the lonleum floor sheets waxed and the various types of pharmaceutical compounds labeled with 99mTc. On wet smear method, the smear efficiencies were larger than 50 % and coefficient of variations by far smaller than that of dry smear method (usual smear method) for all the radiopharmaceuticals examined. These results showed the effectiveness of wet smear method. On vacuum cleaner method, the decontamination coefficients were comparatively large and almost same to that by wet duster method (decontamination method by using the wet duster) except Ringer's solution and DMSA what had less removable part of contamination. These results showed the effectiveness of vacuum cleaner method for the removable parts of contamination. (author)

  15. Papanicolaou Smear Screening of Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Lin, Jin-Ding; Sung, Chang-Lin; Liu, Ta-Wen; Liu, Yi-Lian; Chen, Li-Mei; Chu, Cordia M.

    2010-01-01

    Although little is known about the incidence of cervical cancer in women with intellectual disabilities (ID), Pap smear screening is an effective public health program to prevent cervical cancer to this group of people. The purposes of this study were to identify and evaluate the factors regarding the utilization of the Pap smears in women with ID…

  16. Detection of malarial parasite by blood smear examination and antigen detection: A comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Erumalla Naveen, Dimple Arora, Vinod Agarwal, Neelam sharma, Anuradha B, Vijay Durga S

    2013-01-01

    At present about 100 countries in the world are considered malarious, is thought to kill between 1.1 and 2.7 million people worldwide each year, of which about 1 million are children under the age of 5 years in these areas. Under ideal circumstances, the clinical suspicion of malaria would be confirmed by a laboratory test that is simple to perform, rapid, sensitive, specific and expensive. At the present time, no such test exists. The most common test for malaria diagnosis remains the micros...

  17. First case of visceral Leishmaniosis/HIV coinfection in Niš - southeastern Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Marjanovi? G.; Miladinovi?-Tasi? Nataša; Gabrielli Simona; Otaševi? Suzana; Popovi?-Dragonji? Lidija; Koci? Branislava; Arsi?-Arsenijevi? Valentina; Tadi? Ljiljana; Cancrini Gabriella

    2012-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniosis (VL) has emerged as an important opportunistic parasitosis associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The aim of this paper is to report the first case of Leishmania/HIV coinfection in a patient from Niš (Southeastern Serbia). Microscopical examination of Giemsa-stained bone marrow (BM) smears show the presence of Leishmania spp. amastigotes based on their morphological characteristics. In spite of the parasitological finding, the serological t...

  18. Interpretation of automated blood cell counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zühre Kaya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Complete blood count (CBC tests are rapid, inexpensiveand universally available, and often aid primary clinicianswith decision making about patients with severaldisorders. Thus the rapid availability of the results of CBCcould provide considerable advantage for both patientsand clinicians. Furthermore, physicians can also avoidunnecessary peripheral blood smear examination usingCBC parameters. Many hematology analyzers, which enabledus simultaneously, measure several different CBCparameters, are available for early diagnosis. Herein theimpact of both pre and post analytic variations on the interpretationof the CBC results with case reports are reviewedin the light of the latest literature.Key words: Complete blood count, interpretation

  19. Comparison of amrad ICT test with microscopic examination for rapid diagnosis of malaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the sensitivity and specificity of an alternate and easy technique to diagnose malaria. Design: A prospective study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of pathology, DHQ Hospital, Timergara District, Dir, North-west Frontier Province of Pakistan, from 19th September to 5th October 2000. Subjects and Methods: Smear positive 50 patients (27 males and 23 females, age ranging 2 years to 70 years) were included. Thick and thin smears were stained with Giemsa's stain and examined by the principal author. The ICT malaria test was performed according to the instruction sheet of the manufacturer. Results: on microscopy there were 29 cases of Plasmodium falciparum (P.f) and 21 of Plasmodiium vivax (P.v.). On ICT malaria P.f/P.v, there were 29 samples positive for P. Falciparum and 17 for P. vivax. These results demonstrated that the ICT malaria P.f/P.v test had sensitivity of 100% for P. falciparum and 81% for P. vivax and specificity of 100% for both, when compared to traditional blood films for the detection of P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria. Conclusion: The ICT malaria P.f/P.v test is an effective tool for the rapid diagnosis of malaria and may be used as a first line diagnostic tool. (author)

  20. Novel chromatin texture features for the classification of pap smears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejnordi, Babak E.; Moshavegh, Ramin; Sujathan, K.; Malm, Patrik; Bengtsson, Ewert; Mehnert, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a set of novel structural texture features for quantifying nuclear chromatin patterns in cells on a conventional Pap smear. The features are derived from an initial segmentation of the chromatin into bloblike texture primitives. The results of a comprehensive feature selection experiment, including the set of proposed structural texture features and a range of different cytology features drawn from the literature, show that two of the four top ranking features are structural texture features. They also show that a combination of structural and conventional features yields a classification performance of 0.954±0.019 (AUC±SE) for the discrimination of normal (NILM) and abnormal (LSIL and HSIL) slides. The results of a second classification experiment, using only normal-appearing cells from both normal and abnormal slides, demonstrates that a single structural texture feature measuring chromatin margination yields a classification performance of 0.815±0.019. Overall the results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed structural approach and that it is possible to detect malignancy associated changes (MACs) in Papanicoloau stain.

  1. MMP-9 expression increases according to the grade of squamous intraepithelial lesion in cervical smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheus, Erika R; Zonta, Marco A; Discacciati, Michelle G; Paruci, Priscila; Velame, Fernanda; Cardeal, Laura B S; Barros, Silvia B M; Pignatari, Antonio C; Maria-Engler, Silvya S

    2014-10-01

    Studies about cervical carcinogenesis have demonstrated the increased expression of matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP) according to the grade of cervical intraepithelial lesions. Considering the importance of innovative techniques to introduce noninvasive and rapid diagnoses for patients, this study aimed to perform MMP-9 immunocytochemistry in cervical smears according to the cytopathological diagnoses, in order to monitor MMP activity in cervical smears. This cross-sectional study investigated the expression of MMP-9 in normal cervical smears, inflammatory cervical smears, squamous intraepithelial lesions, and cervical carcinoma. Cervical smears from 630 women were collected for cytopathological diagnoses and immunocytochemistry. Women with squamous intraepithelial lesions showed an increase in MMP-9 expression, with moderate to intense staining occurring with increasing cervical lesion grade. The prevalence of moderate to intense MMP-9 staining was 9% in normal cervical smears, 12% in cervical inflammation, 24% in low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), 92% in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and 100% in cervical carcinoma cases. In the specific case of LSIL, we found that association with MMP-9 is more evident when there is the simultaneous presence of an infectious agent. Thus, the expression of MMP-9 in cervical smears increases according to the grade of cervical lesion and LSIL in the presence of infectious agents showed higher MMP-9 expression than women with LSIL without infectious agents. PMID:24578283

  2. Current approach of health employees in Turkey to pap smear test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Yetimalar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Our primary aim was to detect how much importance is given to pap smear test by the health staff.Material and Methods: In this study inquiries including questions about age, marital status, occupation, attitude for applying to gynecology polyclinics as well as questions regarding their knowledge about and attitude to pap smear test and HPV vaccination were delivered to health staff as well as to a control group which was formed from patients applying to our polyclinics.Results: Neither of the groups applied for gynecologic control without having complaints.There was no significant difference between the groups when the rates of having smear test at least once were taken into consideration. In this study we detected that the smear test was not offered routinely to nearly half of the patients.Those patients who were offered the smear test had the test by significantly higher rates. 91,17% of the women in the study group had heard about HPV vaccination.Discussion: The awareness of health staff as well as the non-health staff population about pap smear test is far from adequate in Turkey. Furthermore, gynecologists do not offer smear tests to their patients efficiently.This situation may prevent the reduction of cervical malignancies in the near future.

  3. Identification of mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum smear slide using automatic scanning microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulaningtyas, Riries; Suksmono, Andriyan B.; Mengko, Tati L. R.; Saptawati, Putri

    2015-04-01

    Sputum smear observation has an important role in tuberculosis (TB) disease diagnosis, because it needs accurate identification to avoid high errors diagnosis. In development countries, sputum smear slide observation is commonly done with conventional light microscope from Ziehl-Neelsen stained tissue and it doesn't need high cost to maintain the microscope. The clinicians do manual screening process for sputum smear slide which is time consuming and needs highly training to detect the presence of TB bacilli (mycobacterium tuberculosis) accurately, especially for negative slide and slide with less number of TB bacilli. For helping the clinicians, we propose automatic scanning microscope with automatic identification of TB bacilli. The designed system modified the field movement of light microscope with stepper motor which was controlled by microcontroller. Every sputum smear field was captured by camera. After that some image processing techniques were done for the sputum smear images. The color threshold was used for background subtraction with hue canal in HSV color space. Sobel edge detection algorithm was used for TB bacilli image segmentation. We used feature extraction based on shape for bacilli analyzing and then neural network classified TB bacilli or not. The results indicated identification of TB bacilli that we have done worked well and detected TB bacilli accurately in sputum smear slide with normal staining, but not worked well in over staining and less staining tissue slide. However, overall the designed system can help the clinicians in sputum smear observation becomes more easily.

  4. Diagnosing sputum/smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis: Does fibre-optic bronchoscopy play a significant role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachh Arshad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Diagnosis of sputum/smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis patients can be both challenging and time consuming with many patients being put on empirical anti-tubercular treatment. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy may provide a confirmative and early diagnosis in such patients. Aims: To assess the role of fibreoptic bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of sputum /smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 75 suspected sputum / smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis cases attending Pulmonary Medicine Department of Mamata Medical College and Hospital, Khammam, AP. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy was performed; culture of sputum and bronchial washings for Mycobacterium tuberculosis was done by BACTEC method. Results: A final diagnosis of sputum /smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis was made in 60 patients. Bronchial washings smear for acid-fast bacilli (AFB was positive in 21 patients while culture of bronchial washings was positive in 39 patients. In 29 patients, smear or culture of bronchial washing alone contributed to the final diagnosis. Total yield of bronchoscopy in diagnosis of sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis was 83.33% (50/60; bronchoscopy was the only diagnostic method in 66% cases (40/60 with bronchial washings being the only diagnostic method in 48.33%. Bronchial washings smear for AFB and histopathological evidence of caseating granuloma made immediate diagnosis possible in 48.33% (29/60 patients. Conclusion: Our study suggests that fibreoptic bronchoscopy can provide excellent material for diagnosis of suspected cases of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in whom smears of expectorated sputum do not reveal mycobacteria.

  5. Blood Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t have serious reactions to having blood drawn. Laboratory (lab) workers draw the blood and analyze it. They use either whole blood to count blood cells, or they separate the blood cells from the ...

  6. Comparison of acridine orange, methylene blue, and Gram stains for blood cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Mirrett, S.; Lauer, B. A.; Miller, G. A.; Reller, L. B.

    1982-01-01

    Direct microscopic screening of blood cultures by Gram stain or methylene blue stain is time consuming and frequently insensitive. Therefore, we evaluated a fluorescent-staining procedure that uses acridine orange (AO) at pH 3.5 and compared it with the methylene blue and Gram stain procedures. All smears were prepared within 24 h of receiving the culture, fixed with methanol, and examined without the results of the companion smears being known. AO-stained smears were examined with incident-l...

  7. Acetylsalicylic acid and morphology of red blood cells

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques Natan Grinapel Frydman; Adenilson de Souza da Fonseca; Vanessa Câmara da Rocha; Monica Oliveira Benarroz; Gabrielle de Souza Rocha; Marcia Oliveira Pereira; Mario José Pereira; Aldo Cunha Medeiros; Mario Bernardo-Filho

    2010-01-01

    This work evaluated the effect of in vitro and in vivo treatment with ASA on the morphology of the red blood cells. Blood samples or Wistar rats were treated with ASA for one hour. Blood samples or animals treated with saline were used as control group. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphology of red blood cells were evaluated under optical microscopy. Data showed that the in vitro treatment for one hour with ASA at higher dose used significan...

  8. Smears and cultures for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in an asymptomatic immigrant population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assael R

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Roberto Assael, Joaquin Cervantes, Gerardo Barrera Clinica Medica Internacional, Ciudad Juarez, Mexico Background: The World Health Organization estimated in 2010 that 8.8 million new tuberculosis (TB cases. About one-third of the world's population is infected and 10% will develop active TB disease. While cultures remain the international gold standard for diagnosing TB disease, in many other low-income countries, sputum smears remain the only and most accessible tool with which to diagnose active TB disease. As a consequence, in patients with TB who have negative smears, their TB remains undetected. Aim: The objective of the study reported here was to demonstrate the proportion of smear-positive/culture-positive cases compared with smear-negative/culture-positive TB cases in Mexican immigrants bound for the USA. Methods: A retrospective study was undertaken of the medical records of 122 active TB cases diagnosed at a clinic in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, from 2009 to 2012. All cases were confirmed by culture, regardless of the sputum smear results. Results: Of the cases, 80% (97 active TB cases had negative sputum smears, while only 25 cases (20% had at least one positive smear. All of the cultures were confirmed as positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Conclusion: The fact that 80% of the TB cases were smear negative and 20% smear positive shows that there is a clear gap between the actual state of active TB disease within patients under screening conditions, meaning that eight out of ten actual cases are being missed when sputum smear is the only diagnostic tool in asymptomatic patients with abnormal chest X-rays. Based on these results, it is highly recommended that countries that have not standardized culturing as the gold standard for the diagnosis of active TB do so, so that TB cases – which may endanger global public health – are not missed. It is also recommended that further studies be undertaken to determine the clinical background of the patients diagnosed by smear and culture to identify a direct relationship between clinical signs and symptoms and the smear result. Keywords: TB, screening, Mexico, mycobacteria growth indicator tube, Löwenstein–Jensen agar

  9. Carrier de-smearing of photoluminescence images on silicon wafers using the continuity equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phang, S. P.; Sio, H. C.; Macdonald, D.

    2013-11-01

    Photoluminescence images of silicon wafers with non-uniform lifetime distribution are often smeared by lateral carrier diffusion. We propose a simple method to de-smear the photoluminescence images by applying the two-dimensional continuity equation. We demonstrate the method on simulated silicon wafers and measured photoluminescence-based lifetime image of multicrystalline silicon wafer. The de-smearing is very effective in recovering the actual lifetime for wafers with gradual changes in lifetime but is less effective around localised recombination centres with high contrast such as grain boundaries and dislocations. The method is sensitive to measurement noise; therefore, the implementation of suitable noise filtering is often critical.

  10. Establishment of an adherent cell layer from human umbilical cord blood

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Zeni Z.C., Alfonso; Eduardo D., Forneck; Waldir F., Allebrandt; Nance B., Nardi.

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available As células-mãe são encontradas no sangue do cordão umbilical humano (HUCB), além de na medula óssea e no sangue periférico, e há um crescente interesse no uso desse material como uma fonte alternativa para transplante de medula óssea e terapia gênica. A hematopoiese in vitro tem sido mantida por até [...] 16 semanas em culturas de HUCB, mas o estabelecimento de uma camada estromal aderente tem invariavelmente falhado. Precursores de células aderentes foram pesquisados entre células mononucleares do HUCB em culturas a longo prazo. Células mononucleares obtidas do sangue do cordão depois de partos normais a termo foram cultivadas em diferentes concentrações em meio Dulbecco modificado por Iscove, com alimentação semanal. Uma camada aderente foi detectada em 16 de 30 culturas, 12 das quais em concentrações celulares maiores que 2 x 10(6) células/ml. Ao contrário das culturas de medula óssea, em que o estroma é detectado precocemente, na maioria (10/16) das culturas positivas do HUCB a camada aderente foi identificada apenas depois da quarta semana de cultura. As células nunca atingiram a confluência e se destacaram da placa aproximadamente quatro semanas após sua detecção. A coloração de culturas positivas por May-Grünwald-Giemsa revelou células aderentes semelhantes a fibroblastos ou semelhantes a células endoteliais em um arranjo diferente daquele do estroma da medula óssea em 13 amostras. Em duas dessas, as células aderentes estavam organizadas em cordões característicos e delimitados de células. Ao contrário das culturas de medula óssea, células gordurosas nunca foram observadas nas camadas aderentes. Um rápido desenvolvimento de grandes células mielóides na primeira semana de cultura foi característico de culturas negativas e essas células mantiveram-se por até 12 semanas. HUCB contém precursores de células aderentes que ocorrem em números menores do que na medula óssea e podem estar em um estágio diferente (possivelmente menos maduro) de diferenciação. Abstract in english In addition to bone marrow and peripheral blood, stem cells also occur in human umbilical cord blood (HUCB), and there is an increasing interest in the use of this material as an alternative source for bone marrow transplantation and gene therapy. In vitro hematopoiesis has been maintained for up to [...] 16 weeks in HUCB cultures, but the establishment of an adherent, stromal layer has consistently failed. Adherent cell precursors among mononuclear cells from HUCB were sought for in long-term cultures. Mononuclear cells obtained from cord blood after full term, normal deliveries were cultivated at different concentrations in Iscove's modified Dulbecco's medium (IMDM) with weekly feeding. An adherent layer was detected in 16 of 30 cultures, 12 of which were plated at cell concentrations higher than 2 x 10(6) cells/ml. In contrast to bone marrow cultures, in which the stroma is detected early, in most (10/16) positive cultures from HUCB the adherent layer was identified only after the fourth week of culture. The cells never reached confluence and detached from the plate approximately four weeks after detection. May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining of positive cultures revealed fibroblast- or endothelial-like adherent cells in an arrangement different from that of bone marrow stroma in 13 samples. In two of these, the adherent cells were organized into characteristic, delimited cords of cells. Unlike bone marrow cultures, fat cells were never observed in the adherent layers. A rapid development of large myeloid cells in the first week of culture was characteristic of negative cultures and these cells were maintained for up to 12 weeks. HUCB contains adherent cell precursors which occur in lower numbers than in bone marrow and may be at a different (possibly less mature) stage of differentiation.

  11. The occurrence of blood protozoa in North American birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.

    1957-01-01

    This report is based on review of literature and examination of a great number of blood smears from native birds in North America, particularly Passeriformes and Anseriformes. Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon occur most frequently, although various species of Plasmodium and, occasionally, other less known forms are recognized. Prevalence of these parasites in wild birds is related to season of year and age of host. Highest incidence occurs in spring and summer. Relapse of Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon is common in the spring. Blood smears of adult wood ducks, on the Atlantic flyway, in April and May show a high prevalence of Haemoproteus, while smears at other times are usually negative. Although the author (Herman, 1938) demonstrated that young redwings in Massachusetts primarily acquired Plasmodium infections after leaving the nest, in many cases infection is acquired by the nestling. Nestling magpies in northeastern California acquire a high incidence of infection with several parasites. The hypothesis, expressed by Manwell and Herman (1935), that a higher prevalence of infection can be expected in more southerly ranging species, is subject to question. Smears taken during the winter demonstrate higher parasite prevalence in birds at the southern limits of their range, such as juncos and white-throated sparrows, than do smears of other species with more southern range. Little is known of significance of these parasites to survival of the host, although O'Roke ( 1934) reported a high loss for ducklings from Leucocytozoon and there have been occasional reports of fatality in other species.

  12. An Audit of Sputum Smear Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis Cases in Kinta District, Perak, in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subashini A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available 58 cases of sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PtB were reported to Kinta Health Department between January and June 2011. It was found that 47 cases (81% were sputum smear negative cases. six cases (10.3% were actually sputum smear positive but were wrongly reported as smear negative. Five cases (8.6% were misdiagnosed as tuberculosis. Majority of these patients (82.7% sought consultation and treatment after two weeks of having cough. only 6.9% sought treatment for cough that was less than two weeks old. Accurate diagnosis of PtB is crucial and the Perak state Health Department needs to quickly adopt steps to improve the situation.

  13. The smear layer created by scaling and root planing is physiologically eliminated in a biphasic process

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernanda Regina Godoy, ROCHA; Daniela Leal, ZANDIM-BARCELOS; Carlos, ROSSA JUNIOR; José Eduardo Cezar, SAMPAIO.

    Full Text Available Mechanical instrumentation of the root surface causes the formation of a smear layer, which is a physical barrier that can affect periodontal regeneration. Although different procedures have been proposed to remove the smear layer, there is no information concerning how long the smear layer persists [...] on root surfaces after instrumentation in vivo. This study assessed the presence of the smear layer on root surfaces over a 28-day period after subgingival instrumentation with hand instruments. Fifty human teeth that were referred for extraction because of advanced periodontal disease were scaled and root planed (SRP) by a single experienced operator. Ten teeth were randomly assigned to be extracted 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after SRP. Another 10 teeth were extracted immediately after instrumentation (Day 0, control group). The subgingival area of the instrumented roots was evaluated with scanning electron microscopy. Representative photomicrographs were assessed by a blinded and calibrated examiner according to a scoring system. A rapid and significant (p

  14. Hematozoa of forest birds in American Samoa - Evidence for a diverse, indigenous parasite fauna from the South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, C.T.; Utzurrum, R.C.; Seamon, J.O.; Savage, Amy F.; Lapointe, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    Introduced avian diseases pose a significant threat to forest birds on isolated island archipelagos, especially where most passerines are endemic and many groups of blood-sucking arthropods are either absent or only recently introduced. We conducted a blood parasite survey of forest birds from the main islands of American Samoa to obtain baseline information about the identity, distribution and prevalence of hematozoan parasites in this island group. We examined Giemsa-stained blood smears from 857 individual birds representing 20 species on Tutuila, Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u islands. Four hematozoan parasites were identified - Plasmodium circumflexum (1%, 12/857), Trypanosoma avium (4%, 32/857), microfilaria (9%, 76/857), and an Atoxoplasma sp. (parasite infections. Given the central location of American Samoa in the South Pacific, it is likely that avian malaria and other hematozoan parasites are indigenous and widespread at least as far as the central South Pacific. Their natural occurrence may provide some immunological protection to indigenous birds in the event that other closely related parasites are accidentally introduced to the region.

  15. TTV and HPV co-infection in cervical smears of patients with cervical lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tachezy Ruth

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The female lower genital tract is a gateway for pathogens entering the host through the mucous membrane. One of the prevalent human viruses is Torque teno virus (TTV. The major reported routes of TTV transmission are fecal-oral and parenteral. Furthermore, other modes of transmission, e.g. sexual contact, are suggested. To investigate the sexual route of TTV transmission, cervical smears of healthy women and those with cervical lesions were screened for the presence of TTV DNA. Methods TTV DNA was studied in cervical smears of 95 patients with cervical lesions and 55 healthy women. Paired serum samples were available from 55 and 42 women, respectively. All healthy women had normal cytology while 44 patients had histologically confirmed low-grade lesion (LGL and 51 high-grade lesion (HGL. TTV DNA was detected with primers specific for the non-coding region. In 40 paired cervical smears and serum samples, the phylogenetic group of TTV isolates was determined. The presence of HPV DNA in cervical smears was detected by means of PCR with MY09/11 primers. Results The prevalence of TTV DNA in cervical smears of healthy women was 52.7% and was comparable with that in paired serum samples (50%. Symptomatic women had significantly higher prevalence of TTV DNA in cervical smears (74.7% than healthy controls. The TTV DNA prevalence in patient serum samples was 51%. The phylogenetic groups of TTV serum isolates were concordant with those of TTV from cervical smears of the same subjects. In cervical smears, a wider variety of TTV isolates was found. The viral loads in cervical smears were 10 to 1000 times as high as in sera. The HPV-positive study subjects had significantly higher TTV DNA prevalence than HPV negatives. The prevalence of TTV was not associated with disease severity. Conclusion High prevalence of TTV in cervical smears suggests that sexual transmission is another mode of expansion of TTV infection among the population. The higher viral load in cervical smears than in the respective serum samples might indicate active TTV replication in the female genital tract. Nevertheless, cooperation between TTV and HPV needs to be further investigated.

  16. The management of patients with inflammatory smear results in general practice.

    OpenAIRE

    Bates, C. M.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECT--To ascertain the management of inflammatory smear results by general practitioners. DESIGN--Postal questionnaire survey. SUBJECTS--All 200 general practitioners on Wirral Family Health Services Authority list as principals in 1990 and 1991. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Answers to questions covering a variety of aspects concerning the management of inflammatory smear results in general practice. RESULTS--One hundred and thirteen (57%) replied. Ninety per cent have facilities to test for Tric...

  17. Comparison Between Pap Smear and Via As Screening For Cervical Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshini V 1, Amritha Bhandary 2, Suchithra Thunga 3

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An important reason for higher cervical cancer incidence in developing countries is lack of effectivescreening programs like pap smear, aimed at detecting precancerous conditions before they progress to invasivecancer. The potential difficulties in implementing cervical cytology based screening in low-resource settings haveprompted the investigation of accuracy of alternative low technology tests such as Visual inspection with acetic acidapplication [VIA], Visual inspection with acetic acid application with magnification [VIAM], visual inspection onLugol’s Iodine application [VILI] in early detection of cervical neoplasia .In our study we compared pap smear withVIA to study the accurarcy of VIA as it is simpler and easier technique to be used as screening in low resourcesettings. Aim: This is a hospital based descriptive, prospective study to evaluate validity of pap smear and VIAtechniques as screening tests in identifying cervical lesions. Materials And Methods: After general and systemicexamination as a routine,visual local pelvic examination including visualisation of cervix and vagina per speculumand the findings are documented in the proforma .Then VIA and pap smear are done in that order, if any of thesetests are positive then cervical biopsy will be taken and further advise to the subject is given. Results: A total of 313women were involved in the study. The sensitivity of pap smear is 54.5% specificity is 98.9% while that of VIA95.4% and 97.9%respectively. We found that VIA accuracy was comparatively more than that of pap smear.Conclusion: In low resource settings, usefulness of VIA is more than that of pap smear. We suggest to perform VIAin all the women inspite of having pap smear facility to improve detection rate of cervical lesions and provide betterpatient councelling and treatment.

  18. Follow up of women with borderline cervical smears as defined by national guidelines.

    OpenAIRE

    Heatley, M. K.

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To determine the proportion of women with abnormalities in cervical smears corresponding to borderline nuclear change, as defined by national guidelines, which return to normal or persist as cytological or histological abnormalities. METHODS: 313 women with borderline nuclear change diagnosed by a single pathologist using the national criteria were followed up for up to two years. RESULTS: On initial follow up, 45% of women had a negative smear or biopsy, 46.5% had a low grade cytologica...

  19. Critical appraisal of current recommendations and practices for tuberculosis sputum smear microscopy [workshop report

    OpenAIRE

    Gilpin, C.; Kim, S. J.; Lumb, R; Rieder, H L; Van Deun, A.

    2007-01-01

    This report is the consensus-based, agreed position of the participants in a workshop for experts in sputum smear microscopy organised in August 2005 by the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union), and as such reflects their views, but not necessarily those of their respective organisations. The group reviewed current practices in sputum smear microscopy for tuberculosis (TB) and suggests considering certain changes in standard guidelines for the sputum collectio...

  20. Sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis: sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Mugusi Ferdinand M; Swai Hedwiga F; Mbwambo Jessie K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is complicated by the increased presence of sputum smear negative tuberculosis. Diagnosis of smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis is made by an algorithm recommended by the National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Programme that uses symptoms, signs and laboratory results. The objective of this study is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the tuberculosis treatment algorithm u...

  1. Are the perceptual effects of spectral smearing influenced by speaker gender?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishon-Rabin, Liat; Patael, Smadar; Menahemi, Maya; Amir, Noam

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the effect of loss of spectral detail on speech perception is influenced by the gender of the speaker. Spectral smearing was carried out by multiplying the speech signal by a series of low-passed white noise samples, causing tonal components in the signal to be replaced by noise. Smearing bandwidths of 0 Hz (no smearing), 250 Hz, 500 Hz, 1,000 Hz, 2,000 Hz, 4,000 Hz, 8,000 Hz and full bandwidth were used. Smearing was applied to 15 isophonemic lists, each with 10 one-syllable CVC Hebrew words. The words were recorded using two speakers, a male and a female, both native speakers of Hebrew. A total of 23 subjects participated in the study: eight listened to the male speaker and 15 to the female. The results show no significant differences in the effect of speaker on recognition of words, phonemes, vowels and consonants at the different smearing bandwidths. The results also show that regardless of the speaker's gender, vowels were adversely affected by spectral smearing, as compared to consonants. Interpolation of the results shows that smearing bandwidths of 1,080 Hz, 1,950 Hz, 1,590 Hz and 2,150 Hz are required to reduce word, phoneme, vowel and consonant recognition to 50%, respectively. Several tentative explanations are offered for the fact that the results were independent of gender: all smearing bandwidths were larger than the average interharmonic spacing for both speakers, and the difference between male and female formant frequencies is typically smaller then the difference in formant frequencies of the different vowels. PMID:15485129

  2. Incidence of cytological abnormalities within 24 months of a normal cervical smear in Soweto, South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Y, Adam; J A, McIntyre; G, de Bruyn.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A screening programme for cervical cancer has been implemented in South Africa (SA) with intervals of 10 years after a normal cytological result. There are no studies that evaluate repeat screening at a shorter interval in SA. OBJECTIVES: (i) To find the incidence of cytological abnormal [...] ities on a repeat test after a report of normal cytology or an inadequate Pap smear; and (ii) to explore the factors associated with an abnormal cytology on repeat testing. METHODS: This was a secondary data analysis of a randomised controlled trial of diaphragm, lubricant gel and condoms v. condoms in the prevention of HIV infection. HIV-negative women were recruited between November 2003 and December 2005, with a normal Pap smear at entry. Observation time was from the first Pap smear to the date of the repeat Pap smear. Explanatory variables used were baseline, excepting any new HIV infection. RESULTS: The incidence of cytological abnormalities was 6.48% yearly in women with a previously normal Pap smear and 11.71% yearly in women with an inadequate smear result (p=0.03). The incidence of high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (HSILs) was

  3. Time to Culture Positivity and Sputum Smear Microscopy during Tuberculosis Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaru, Ioana D.; Heyckendorf, Jan; Grossmann, Susanne; Lange, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Sputum smear microscopy is widely used for tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment monitoring. We evaluated the correlation between smear microscopy and time to liquid culture positivity during early tuberculosis treatment. The study included patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis hospitalized at a tuberculosis reference centre in Germany between 01/2012 and 05/2013. Patient records were reviewed and clinical, radiological and microbiological data were analysed. Sputum samples were collected before treatment initiation and weekly thereafter. A number of 310 sputum samples from 30 patients were analysed. Time to liquid culture positivity inversely correlated with smear grade (Spearman's rho ?0.439, p<0.001). There was a better correlation within the first two months vs. after two months of therapy (?0.519 vs. ?0.416) with a trend to a more rapid increase in time to positivity between baseline and week 2 in patients who culture-converted within the first two months (5.9 days vs. 9.4 days, p?=?0.3). In conclusion, the numbers of acid-fast bacilli in sputum smears of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and time to culture positivity for M. tuberculosis cultures from sputum are correlated before and during tuberculosis treatment. A considerable proportion of patients with culture conversion after two months of therapy continued to have detectable acid-fast bacilli on sputum smears. PMID:25171337

  4. Decline in overall, smear-negative and HIV-positive TB incidence while smear-positive incidence stays stable in Guinea-Bissau 2004-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvik, G; Rudolf, F

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To calculate Tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates in Guinea-Bissau over an 8-year period. METHODS: Since 2003, a surveillance system has registered all TB cases in six suburban districts of Bissau. In this population-based prospective follow-up study, 1205 cases of pulmonary TB were identified between January 2004 and December 2011. Incidence rates were calculated using census data from the Bandim Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). RESULTS: The overall incidence of pulmonary TB was 279 per 100 000 person-years of observation; the male incidence being 385, and the female 191. TB incidence rates increased significantly with age in both sexes, regardless of smear or HIV status. Despite a peak with unknown cause of 352 per 100 000 in 2007, the overall incidence of pulmonary TB declined over the period. The incidence of HIV infected TB cases declined significantly from 108 to 39 per 100 000, while the incidence of smear-positive TB cases remained stable; the overall figure was 188 per 100000. CONCLUSIONS: Overall incidence of pulmonary TB in Guinea-Bissau has declined from 2004 to 2011. The decline was also seen in the subgroups of smear-negative and HIV-positive TB cases, probably due to antiretroviral treatment. Smear-positive TB incidence remains stable over the period.

  5. A Comparison of Three Pap Smear Collection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mesdaghinia

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Pap smear test is considered the best screening method for cervical disease, especially for malignant lesions. The crucial factor here is obtaining high-quality samples, as poorly-prepared ones cause a great deal of confusion for patients and physicians alike. Attempts to define an ideal sampling technique have been going on for many years, and in this study we compare three different sampling methods to determine which one provides the best quality. Materials and Methods: This interventional study was performed in a private obstetrics-gynecology clinic and involved 600 women who met the criteria for cervical screening. The Pap test was done by three different methods: "Swab spatula", "Cytobrush – spatula" and "Spatula only". Results: Each method was performed on 200 randomly-selected patients. Cytopathologic examination was done by a single pathologist and in a blind fashion. For each specimen, a quality rating was reported as "satisfactory" or "unsatisfactory". Among the 200 samples obtained by the "Swabspatula” method, 150 (75% were of satisfactory quality and the remaining 50 cases (25% were rated as unsatisfactory. As for the cytobrush–spatula group, 88 samples (94% were satisfactory and 12 (6% were unsatisfactory. Finally, 179 samples (88% in “Spatula-only” group were satisfactory and 24 (12% were unsatisfactory. The difference in the proportion of good-quality samples was significant in pairwise comparisons between the three methods: swab-spatula versus spatula-only (P = 0.0013, swab-spatula versus cytobrush-spatula (P = 0.0001 and cytobrush-spatula versus spatula-only (P = 0.036. Conclusion: The study revealed that the cytobrush-spatula sampling method yielded the highest proportion of high-quality samples. Hence, it would be desirable to familiarize physicians, midwives and other health care workers in this country with the technique of cytobrush cervical sampling and its potential advantages. However, financial and cultural aspects must be taken into account before adopting the procedure for routine cervical screening in Iran.

  6. Blood culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - blood ... comes and goes, so a series of three blood cultures may be done to confirm results. ... rate, confusion, and very low blood pressure. The blood culture helps identify the type of bacteria causing the ...

  7. Blood Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Blood Transfusion? A blood transfusion is a safe, common procedure ... store your blood for your use. Alternatives to Blood Transfusions Researchers are trying to find ways to make ...

  8. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of markers — A, B, and Rh factor. Blood banks and hospitals keep careful tabs on blood type ... universal donors" and are in great demand at blood banks. Because Type AB-positive blood has all the ...

  9. Blood Thinners

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have some kinds of heart or blood vessel disease, or if you have poor blood flow to your brain, your doctor may recommend that you take a blood thinner. Blood thinners reduce the risk of heart ...

  10. Blood differential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differential; White blood cell differential count ... The health care provider will take blood from your vein. The blood collects into an airtight container. In infants or a young child, blood will be taken from a ...

  11. Effect of the smear layer on salivary bacterial leakage in endodontically treated teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abasali Khademi, ,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: The success of endodontic treatment depends on the method and quality of cleaning, disinfection and three-dimensional sealing of the root canal. The smear layer can play an important role in the success or failure of endodontic treatment. There is controversy over the presence or removal of the smear layer in relation to the success or failure of endodontic treatment. This study used standard methods of endodontic treatment and whole human saliva to evaluate the effect of the smear layer on salivary bacterial leakage in endodontically treated teeth.Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 48 human single- and multiple-rooted teeth were randomly divided into two experimental groups of 20 and two negative and positive control groups of 4 teeth. After access cavity preparation the root canals were prepared with crown-down technique and irrigated with 10 mL of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution. The canals in one group were irrigated with 17% EDTA and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite to remove the smear layer and in the other only with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite to leave the smear layer in place. Then the teeth were sterilized by autoclave and obturated with gutta-percha sterilized with ethylene oxide and Tubliseal sealer under aseptic conditions. Two mL of human saliva were collected from two persons and injected into the coronal portion of the samples, which was repeated for four months. Leakage of the samples was examined twice daily. Data was analyzed with chi-squared test at a confidence interval of 95%. Results: Presence or absence of the smear layer had no significant effect on salivary bacterial leakage of different root canals filled with gutta-percha and Tubliseal sealer (p value = 0.515, although the number of cases with contamination and leakage of saliva in the group with the smear layer (55% was more than that in the group without the smear layer (44%.Conclusion: The results showed no significant effect of the smear layer on coronal leakage of human saliva into obturated canals. Key words: Bacterial microleakage, Root canal therapy, Saliva, Smear layer, Tooth.

  12. Now ICT malaria Pf/Pv® frente a microscopía (gota gruesa- extendido) para diagnóstico de malaria en Urabá (Colombia) / Now ICT malaria Pf/Pv ® versus microscopy (thick-smear, thin smear) for diagnosis of malaria in Urabá (Colombia)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jaime, Carmona- Fonseca; Alexander, Franco Gallego; Eliana, Arango Flórez; Olga María, Agudelo García; Amanda, Maestre Buitrago.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Problema: solo conocemos tres informes para Colombia de la prueba diagnóstica de malaria Now ICT Malaria Pf/ Pv ® (NowICT); esos estudios tuvieron resultados de sensibilidad y especificidad muy diferentes. Objetivo: evaluar la capacidad diagnóstica de NowICT frente a la gota gruesa para el diagnósti [...] co de infección plasmodial en sangres periférica materna, del cordón umbilical y placentaria. Metodología: diseño paralelo y enmascarado para evaluación de una prueba diagnóstica. El tamaño de la muestra se calculó con parámetros epidemiológicos y estadísticos y fue de 131 muestras de sangre periférica materna; también se examinaron sendas muestras de sangre placentaria y de cordón umbilical. Resultados: se evaluaron en total 386 muestras. La sensibilidad de NowICT para P. vivax no alcanzó 70% en ninguna de las fuentes (madre, placenta, cordón). La especificidad mínima fue de 99% . Los valores para P. falciparum no se calcularon porque los casos fueron pocos. Conclusión: Now ICT malaria Pf/ Pv® no es una herramienta diagnóstica útil en Colombia porque su sensibilidad para P. vivax es muy deficiente y en el país esta especie es la que predomina en la generación de malaria en humanos. Esta interpretación concuerda con las conclusiones generales de la OMS sobre el estado de desarrollo de las pruebas diagnósticas rápidas para malaria. Abstract in english Problem: To date, there are only three reports from Colombia about the malaria diagnostic test Now ICT Malaria Pf / Pv ® (NowICT). The results from these studies showed major differences in sensitivity and specificity Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of NowICT compared to thick smea [...] r for the diagnosis of Plasmodium infection in matched blood samples from mothers (maternal peripheral blood), umbilical cord and placenta. Methods: We used a closed (blinded/ masked) and parallel design for the evaluation of a diagnostic test. The sample size was calculated with statistical and epidemiological parameters; this consisted of 131 thick smears from maternal peripheral blood. Blood samples from placenta and umbilical cord were also studied (386 samples tested in total). Results: The sensitivity of Now ICT for detection of P. vivax was below 70% in any of the samples (maternal blood, placental blood or cord blood). The specificity was greater than 99% . Values for P. falciparum infection were not calculated since too few cases were detected. Conclusions: Now ICT Malaria Pf / Pv ® is not a useful diagnostic tool in Colombia since the sensitivity for the most frequent species in the country, P. vivax, is poor. This interpretation is consistent with the WHO's general conclusions about the state of development of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria.

  13. Tuberculosis recurrence in smear-positive patients cured under DOTS in southern Ethiopia: retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datiko Daniel G

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decentralization of DOTS has increased the number of cured smear-positive tuberculosis (TB patients. However, the rate of recurrence has increased mainly due to HIV infection. Recurrence rate could be taken as an important measure of long-term success of TB treatment. We aimed to find out the rate of recurrence in smear-positive patients cured under DOTS in southern Ethiopia. Methods We did a retrospective cohort study on cured smear-positive TB patients who were treated from 1998 to 2006. Recurrence of smear-positive TB was used as an outcome measure. Person-years of observation (PYO were calculated per 100 PYO from the date of cure to date of interview. Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression methods were used to determine the survival and the hazard ratio (HR. Results 368 cured smear-positive TB patients which were followed for 1463 person-years. Of these, 187 patients (50.8% were men, 277 patients (75.5% were married, 157 (44.2% were illiterate, and 152 patients (41.3% were farmers. 15 of 368 smear-positive patients had recurrence. The rate of recurrence was 1 per 100 PYO (0.01 per annum. Recurrence was not associated with age, sex, occupation, marital status and level of education. Conclusion High recurrence rate occurred among smear-positive patients cured under DOTS. Further studies are required to identify factors contributing to high recurrence rates to improve disease free survival of TB patients after treatment.

  14. A case of transplacental transmission of Theileria equi in a foal in Trinidad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Karla C; Ezeokoli, Chuckwudozi D; Sparagano, Olivier; Pargass, Indira; Campbell, Mervyn; D'Abadie, Roger; Yabsley, Michael J

    2011-02-10

    Equine piroplasmosis due to Theileria equi and Babesia caballi is endemic in Trinidad. A case of equine piroplasmosis due to T. equi was diagnosed in a thoroughbred foal at 10h post-partum. A high parasitaemia (63%) of piroplasms was observed in a Wright-Giemsa(®) stained thin blood smear from the foal. In addition, the 18S rRNA gene for Babesia/Theileria was amplified from DNA extracted from the blood of the foal and the mare. Amplified products were subjected to a reverse line blot hybridization assay (RLB), which confirmed the presence of T. equi DNA in the foal. The mare was negative by RLB but was positive for T. equi using a nested PCR and sequence analysis. In areas where equine piroplasmosis is endemic, severe jaundice in a post-partum foal may be easily misdiagnosed as neonatal isoerythrolysis. Foals with post-partum jaundice should be screened for equine piroplasmosis, which may be confirmed using molecular methods if available. PMID:21051152

  15. Molecular detection and treatment of tick-borne pathogens in domestic dogs in Khon Kaen, northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laummaunwai, Porntip; Sriraj, Pranee; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Boonmars, Thidarut; Boonjaraspinyo, Sirintip; Sangmaneedet, Somboon; Potchimplee, Prapasara; Khianman, Parin; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2014-09-01

    We determined the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in domestic dogs using microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. A total of 303 EDTA blood samples were collected from domestic dogs in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand, in May 2013. Microscopic observation of Giemsa-stained smears and molecular diagnosis using conventional PCR were performed. Infected dogs were treated with imidocarb dipropionate, a combination of imidocarb dipropionate and doxycycline, or doxycycline alone. Seventy-one (23.4%) out of 303 dogs were positive for DNA of tick-borne pathogens. Of the 303 animals, 13.2% and 1.3% were positive for a single infection with Babesia spp or Ehrlichia canis, respec- tively using microscopy; whereas 19.5% and 3.0% were positive using the PCR technique. Co-infection with Babesia spp and E. canis was observed in 0.7%, and coinfection with Hepatozoon canis and E. canis in 0.3%. Infected dogs were treated with the assigned drugs, and elimination of the pathogens was demonstrated by microscopy and PCR. The results indicated that while both microscopic and PCR diagnostic techniques were useful for tick-borne pathogen detection, PCR was more effective. Imidocarb dipropionate and doxycycline were found to be effective for treatment of babesiosis and ehrlichiosis, respectively. The present study suggests that the PCR technique has high sensitivity and specificity for Babesia and Ehrlichia diagnosis as well as for detection of Babesia spp, E. canis and H. canis DNA in EDTA blood specimens. PMID:25507247

  16. Prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi infections in horses belonging to resource-poor farmers in the north-eastern Free State Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sugimoto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi infections in the north-eastern Free State Province of South Africa was determined by examination of thin and thick Giemsa-stained blood smears, IFAT and PCR. No parasites were detected by microscopy from any blood samples collected at five study sites, Qwaqwa, Kestell, Harrismith, Vrede and Warden. Of the tested serum samples, 28/29 (96.5%, 20/21 (95.2% nd 42/42( 100% were positive by IFAT for T. equi infections in Harrismith, Kestell and Qwaqwa, respectively, and 5/29 (17.2%, 13/21 (61.9% and 30/42 (71.4% were sero-positive for B. caballi infections in Harrismith, Kestell and Qwaqwa, respectively A. ll DNA samples from the study sites were negative for B. caballi infections by PCR, but five samples, two from each of Kestell and Warden and one from Vrede, were PCR positive for T. equi infections. The high prevalence of antibodies against T. equi and B. caballiin the sampled horses indicates that the animals had been exposed to T. equi and B. caballi infections but the absence of parasitaemia and very low number of positive PCR samples, however, imply that T. equi and B. caballie are endemically stable in the north-eastern Free State Province.

  17. Evaluation of DNA Recombinant Methodologies for the Diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum and their Comparison with the Microscopy Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Urdaneta

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 1984, DNA tests based on the highly repeated subtelomeric sequences of Plasmodium falciparum (rep 20 have been frequently used in malaria diagnosis. Rep 20 is very specific for this parasite, and is made of 21 bp units, organized in repeated blocks with direct and inverted orientation. Based in this particular organization, we selected a unique consensus oligonucleotide (pf-21 to drive a PCR reaction coupled to hybridization to non-radioactive labeled probes. The pf-21 unique oligo PCR (pf-21-I assay produced DNA amplification fingerprints when was applied on purified P. falciparum DNA samples (Brazil and Colombia, as well as in patient's blood samples from a large area of Venezuela. The performance of the Pf-21-I assay was compared against Giemsa stained thick blood smears from samples collected at a malaria endemic area of the Bolívar State, Venezuela, at the field station of Malariología in Tumeremo. Coupled to non-radioactive hybridization the pf-21-I performed better than the traditional microscopic method with a r=1.7:1. In the case of mixed infections the r value of P. falciparum detection increased to 2.5:1. The increased diagnostic sensitivity of the test produced with this homologous oligonucleotide could provide an alternative to the epidemiological diagnosis of P. falciparum being currently used in Venezuela endemic areas, where low parasitemia levels and asymptomatic malaria are frequent. In addition, the DNA fingerprint could be tested in molecular population studies

  18. Prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi infections in horses belonging to resource-poor farmers in the north-eastern Free State Province, South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.Y., Motloang; O.M.M., Thekisoe; A., Alhassan; M., Bakheit; M.P., Motheo; F.E.S., Masangane; M.I., Thibedi; N., Inoue; I., Igarashi; C., Sugimoto; P.A., Mbati.

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi infections in the north-eastern Free State Province of South Africa was determined by examination of thin and thick Giemsa-stained blood smears, IFAT and PCR. No parasites were detected by microscopy from any blood samples collected at five study [...] sites, Qwaqwa, Kestell, Harrismith, Vrede and Warden. Of the tested serum samples, 28/29 (96.5 %), 20/21 (95.2 %) and 42/42 (100 %) were positive by IFAT for T. equi infections in Harrismith, Kestell and Qwaqwa, respectively, and 5/29 (17.2 %>), 13/21 (61.9 %>) and 30/42 (71.4 %>) were sero-positive for B. caballi infections in Harrismith, Kestell and Qwaqwa, respectively. All DNA samples from the study sites were negative for B. caballi infections by PCR, but five samples, two from each of Kestell and Warden and one from Vrede, were PCR positive for T. equi infections. The high prevalence of antibodies against T. equi and B. caballi in the sampled horses indicates that the animals had been exposed to T. equi and B. caballi infections but the absence of parasitaemia and very low number of positive PCR samples, however, imply that T. equi and B. caballi are endemically stable in the north-eastern Free State Province.

  19. Prevalence and Significance of Haemoparasitic Infections of Cattle in North- Central, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Kamani.

    Full Text Available The prevalence and significance of hemoparasites of cattle from north-central Nigeria was determined using diagnostic records from Parasitology Division, National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI Vom, from May 2006 to April 2008. A total of 637 blood samples from cattle from four states (Plateau, Bauchi, Nasarawa and Kaduna of Nigeria in anticoagulant were submitted to the laboratory for parasitological diagnosis. Giemsa stained thin blood smears were examined for hemoparasites. Packed cell volume (PCV for each sample was determined and Hematocrit centrifuge technique (HCT was used to determine the presence of motile parasites. An overall prevalence of 25.7% was recorded for all samples examined. Babesia bigemina and B.bovis accounted for 16.0%, followed by Theileria mutans (3.1%, Trypanosoma spp (T.vivax and T. congolense (2.8%, Anaplasma marginale (1.9%, Microfilaria (1.4%. The hemoparasites identified alone or in combination with others had a significant (P<0.05 effect on the mean PCV of infected animals. Similarly, hemoparasites infection in young animals as well as during the dry season resulted in significant (P<0.05 reduction of PCV values. The result of this study shows these hemoparasites are endemic in cattle in the study area which may result in serious disease conditions when such animals are subjected to stressful condition. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(10.000: 445-448

  20. Optoelectronic parallel processing with smart pixel arrays for automated screening of cervical smear imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, John Langdon

    2000-10-01

    This thesis investigates the use of optoelectronic parallel processing systems with smart photosensor arrays (SPAs) to examine cervical smear images. The automation of cervical smear screening seeks to reduce human workload and improve the accuracy of detecting pre- cancerous and cancerous conditions. Increasing the parallelism of image processing improves the speed and accuracy of locating regions-of-interest (ROI) from images of the cervical smear for the first stage of a two-stage screening system. The two-stage approach first detects ROI optoelectronically before classifying them using more time consuming electronic algorithms. The optoelectronic hit/miss transform (HMT) is computed using gray scale modulation spatial light modulators in an optical correlator. To further the parallelism of this system, a novel CMOS SPA computes the post processing steps required by the HMT algorithm. The SPA reduces the subsequent bandwidth passed into the second, electronic image processing stage classifying the detected ROI. Limitations in the miss operation of the HMT suggest using only the hit operation for detecting ROI. This makes possible a single SPA chip approach using only the hit operation for ROI detection which may replace the optoelectronic correlator in the screening system. Both the HMT SPA postprocessor and the SPA ROI detector design provide compact, efficient, and low-cost optoelectronic solutions to performing ROI detection on cervical smears. Analysis of optoelectronic ROI detection with electronic ROI classification shows these systems have the potential to perform at, or above, the current error rates for manual classification of cervical smears.

  1. The Effect of Smear Layer on Apical Seal of Endodontically Treated Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Farhad

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of smear layer on apical seal of endodontically treated teeth. Methods: Sixty extracted single–rooted human teeth were randomly divided into two experimental groups (n=25 and two control groups (n=5. The teeth were instrumented with K–type files to size 40 and then flared. Apical patency was ensured in all teeth. 5% sodium hypochlorite and 17% Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid was used as irrigants to remove the smear layer in the second experimental group. The experimental groups were obturated by laterally condensed gutta – percha with Roth 801 sealer. The positive control group was obturated with gutta – percha without sealer. The root surfaces were then coated with nail polish and sticky wax except for the apex in the experimental groups and positive control group. The roots were completely covered in the negative control group. The samples were then immersed in India ink for 1 week at 37°C. Results: The statistical analysis of the results showed that the apical leakage was significantly increased in obturated canals with smear layer. Conclusion: The removal of smear layer might improve the long term apical seal and success of endodontically treated teeth. Keywords: Apical Seal, EDTA, Removal, Sodium Hypochlorite, Smear Layer.

  2. Improvements of the smearing technique for cross-stiffened thin rectangular plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luan, Yu; Ohlrich, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    New developments in the simplified smearing technique for modeling vibrations of cross-stiffened, thin rectangular plates are presented. The computationally efficient smearing technique has been known for many years, but so far the accuracy of, say, predicted natural frequencies has been inadequate. The reason is that only the stiffeners at a right angle to the axis of angular motion are taken into account when calculating the bending stiffness, whereas the stiffeners that are parallel to this axis of angular motion are neglected. To improve predictions, the parallel stiffeners are taken into account in this paper. The improved smearing technique results in better accuracy for predicted natural frequencies of flat stiffened plates, as demonstrated for both simply supported and clamped boundary conditions. The improved prediction accuracy is demonstrated by comparing results from a numerical model based on the current development with results from finite element (FE) simulations that include the exact cross-sectional geometries of the stiffened panel. In order to demonstrate applications of the improved smearing technique, the predicted forced response is compared with both experimental and FE results. Another improvement concerns the orientation of the stiffeners. The original smearing technique presupposes that the stiffeners are parallel to the edges of the plate, but simple considerations make it possible to relax this requirement. To test the validity of the resulting technique a series of plates are examined for stiffeners angled relative to the plate edges.

  3. Influence of addition of plasmin or mastitic milk to cheesemilk on quality of smear-ripened cheese

    OpenAIRE

    O Farrell, Ian P.; Sheehan, Jeremiah J.; Wilkinson, Martin G.; Harrington, Dermot; Kelly, Alan L.

    2002-01-01

    Smear-ripened cheese varieties are characterised by the growth of a smear culture, containing predominantly Brevibacterium linens, on the cheese surface during ripening. In such cheese, considerable zonal differences in biochemistry of ripening exist, due to moisture loss from, and growth and metabolic activity of smear microflora at, the cheese surface. In this study, the effects of adding exogenous plasmin or small amounts of mastitic milk to good quality milk on the quality of ...

  4. Gaussian smearing of the detector spectrum obtained from Monte Carlo simulation in FLUKA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte Carlo code FLUKA is used in the radiation detection applications to simulate the response of Phoswich, an array of HPGe detectors as well as various other detection systems for different photon energies using voxel phantoms such as ICRP adult male and female, knee and skull as well as BOMAB phantom etc. 'DETECT' card of FLUKA which is used to estimate energy deposited in the detector, gives output in 1024 channels for the selected energy region and step size without smearing. Therefore, there is a need to modify it depending upon the channels required in the detector spectrum for comparison with experimental spectrum as well as by Gaussian smearing, considering the resolution of the respective detector. It is now possible to generate the smeared spectrum for any detector output of FLUKA by knowing its variation of resolution with energy

  5. Uniform staining of Cyclospora oocysts in fecal smears by a modified safranin technique with microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visvesvara, G S; Moura, H; Kovacs-Nace, E; Wallace, S; Eberhard, M L

    1997-01-01

    Cyclospora, a coccidian protist, is increasingly being identified as an important, newly emerging parasite that causes diarrhea, flatulence, fatigue, and abdominal pain leading to weight loss in immunocompetent persons with or without a recent travel history as well as in patients with AIDS. Modified Kinyoun's acid-fast stain is the most commonly used stain to identify the oocyst of this parasite in fecal smears. Oocysts of Cyclospora stain variably by the modified acid-fast procedure, resulting in the possible misidentification of this parasite. We examined fecal smears stained by six different procedures that included Giemsa, trichrome, chromotrope, Gram-chromotrope, acid-fast, and safranin stains. We report on safranin-based stain that uniformly stains oocysts of Cyclospora a brilliant reddish orange, provided that the fecal smears are heated in a microwave oven prior to staining. This staining procedure, besides being superior to acid-fast staining, is fast, reliable, and easy to perform in most clinical laboratories. PMID:9041421

  6. Comparación de las coloraciones de Giemsa y Grocott en el diagnóstico de la histoplasmosis / Comparison of Giemsa and Grocott stains in the diagnosis of histoplasmosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Amadeo Javier, Bava; María Fernanda, Zuiani.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available El diagnóstico de histoplasmosis se realiza tradicionalmente mediante el reconocimiento de típicas levaduras intracelulares de Histoplasma capsulatum en preparaciones microscópicas teñidas con Giemsa. Se comparó la eficacia de una modificación rápida de la técnica de Grocott (MRG) y la tradicional d [...] e Giemsa para el diagnóstico de la histoplasmosis, a partir de la aplicación de ambas a 10 secreciones respiratorias, 8 escarificaciones de lesiones cutáneas y una biopsia ganglionar, pertenecientes todas a pacientes con sospecha clínica de esta micosis. En 15 de las 19 muestras no se encontraron diferencias significativas en la capacidad y rapidez para arribar al diagnóstico, mientras que en las 4 restantes, fueron reconocidas con la MRG estructuras que pasaron desapercibidas con la coloración de Giemsa. La modificación rápida permitió un reconocimiento más rápido del H. capsulatum en materiales donde este hongo se observó en escaso número y permitió además identificar con seguridad otros patógenos fúngicos diferentes de H. capsulatum, como Pneumocystis jiroveci, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis y Cryptococcus neoformans, difíciles de observar con la coloración de Giemsa. Se propone la técnica de Grocott o su modificación rápida para el diagnóstico de la histoplasmosis, especialmente cuando el empleo de la coloración de Giemsa da lugar a resultados negativos o dudosos. Abstract in english The diagnosis of histoplasmosis is traditionally achieved by recognizing the typical intracellular yeasts of Histoplasma capsulatum, in smears stained with Giemsa stain. The usefulness of a rapid modification of Grocott and of traditional Giemsa stains for the diagnosis of histoplasmosis was compare [...] d applying both techniques in 10 respiratory secretions, 8 cutaneous lesions scrapings and 1 adenomegaly biopsy, all of them belonging to patients with clinically suspected histoplasmosis. In 15 out of the 19 evaluated samples, no significant differences were found in the ability or speed to reach the diagnosis with the applied techniques; while in the remaining 4 samples, structures that had not been observed with Giemsa stain were recognized with the rapid modification. The modification enabled quicker recognition of H. capsulatum than Giemsa stain in those clinical samples where the number of these fungal pathogens was scant. Additionally, the rapid modification also enabled the recognition of fungal pathogens other than H. capsulatum, as Pneumocystis jiroveci, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Cryptococcus neoformans, difficult to observe with the Giemsa stain. Use of Grocott technique or rapid modification stain is proposed for the diagnosis of histoplasmosis, when the result obtained with the Giemsa stain is doubtful or negative.

  7. HPV DNA and Pap smear test results in cases with and without cervical pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabit Sinan Özalp

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the HPV prevalance and its relation to Pap smear, colposcopy and colposcopy directed biopsy in our region of Eskisehir, Turkey.Material and Methods: A total of 615 women who applied to the outpatient clinic between December 2009 and December 2010 constituted our study population. All patients underwent pelvic examination and Pap smear sampling. Patients who had pathological cervical appearance or Pap smear results of ASCUS, AGUS, LSIL or HSIL were referred to colposcopy. Cervical samples for HPV DNA were taken from the patients before Pap smear sampling during the routine examination or before the colposcopic evaluation. Results: Twenty six of 615 patients (4% were HPV positive. Of these 26 patients, 12 were positive for HPV type 16, 3 for type 18, 3 for type 51, 2 for type 6, 1 for type 52, 1 for type 33, 1 for type 16 and type 31, 1 for type 6 and 52, 1 for type 56 and 90, 1 for type 39 and 66. In 4 patients with cervical cancer, and in 3 of 4 CIN III cases both HPV DNA and Pap smear were positive. In the Pap smear examination of 615 patients, cytology revealed 35 ASCUS (5.6% 4 AGUS (0.6%, 2 CIN I (0.3% results who were negative for HPV DNA. These patients with abnormal cytology (n=41 underwent colposcopy directed biopsy, there were 3 CIN I and 1 CIN III and all the other cervical biopsy results of these patients were benign (inflammation, chronic cervicitis. Conclusion: HPV positivity in our hospital setting is low which is compatible with other studies in Turkey. In positive HPV cases there is a good correlation between HPV type and positive cervical biopsy results.

  8. Isolation of Babesia divergens from carrier cattle blood using in vitro culture

    OpenAIRE

    Malandrin, Laurence; L'Hostis, Monique; Chauvin, Alain

    2004-01-01

    - Babesia divergens, the main causative agent of bovine babesiosis in Western Europe, was isolated from naturally infected cattle. Ninety-six blood samples were examined by means of an in vitro culture technique in sheep erythrocytes: 19 of them were collected from animals in the acute phase of the disease with visible parasitemia on blood smears, while the 77 remaining animals showed no microscopically detectable parasites. B. divergens was cultured from the 19 first blood samples as well as...

  9. Impact of the track structure of heavy charged particles on cytogenetic damage in human blood lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ryonfa; Nasonova, Elena; Sommer, Sylwetster; Hartel, Carola; Durante, Marco; Ritter, Sylvia

    In space, astronauts are unavoidably exposed to charged particles from protons to irons. For a better estimate of the health risks of astronauts, further knowledge on the biological effects of charged particles, in particular the induction of cytogenetic damage is required. One im-portant factor that determines the biological response is the track structure of particles, i.e. their microscopic dose deposition in cells. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of track structure of heavy ions on the yield and the quality of cytogenetic damage in human peripheral blood lymphocytes representing normal tissue. Cells were irradiated with 9.5 MeV/u C-ions or 990 MeV/u Fe-ions which have a comparable LET (175 keV/µm and 155 keV/µm, respectively) but a different track radius (2.3 and 6200 µm, respectively). When aberrations were analyzed in first cycle metaphases collected at different post-irradiation times (48-84 h) following fluorescence plus Giemsa staining, an increase in the aberration yield with sampling time was observed for both radiation qualities reflecting a damage dependent cell cycle progression delay to mitosis. The pronounced differences in the aberration frequency per cell are attributable to the stochastic distribution of particle traversals per cell nucleus (radius: 2.8 µm). Following C-ion exposure we found a high fraction of non-aberrant cells in samples collected at 48 h which represent cells not directly hit by a particle and slightly damaged cells that successfully repaired the induced lesions. In addition, at higher C-ion fluences the aberra-tion yield saturated, suggesting that a fraction of lymphocytes receiving multiple particle hits is not able to reach mitosis. On the other hand, at 48 h after Fe-ion exposure the proportion of non-aberrant cells is lower than after C-ion irradiation clearly reflecting the track structure of high energy particles (i.e. more homogeneous dose deposition compared to low energy C-ions). Furthermore, the aberration yield increased linearly with Fe-ion fluence. When aberrations were analyzed in first cycle G2 -PCC cells to account for the prolonged G2 arrest of damaged cells, the same trend was detected. However, the increase in the aberration yield with time and the saturation effect were less pronounced compared to metaphase samples. Altogether, these data show that the aberration analysis with multiple samplings is necessary for a reliable estimate of cytogenetic damage induced by charged particles. In particular, when damage is measured at one early time-point the effectiveness of low energy particles will be considerably underestimated. When the aberration spectrum induced by low energy C-ions and high en-ergy Fe-ions was compared, we did not find a difference. Preliminary data obtained with the high resolution mFISH-technique confirm this observation. (Work supported by BMBF, Bonn, under contract 02S8497)

  10. A General Class of Regular Black Holes based on a Smeared Mass Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Larranaga, Alexis; Torres, Daniel Alexdy

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the behavior of a new class of regular black holes based on a non-Gaussian smeared mass distribution. It is shown that the smeared mass distribution consideration cures the well known problems in the terminal phase of black hole evaporation. We find that there is a finite maximum temperature that the black hole reaches before cooling down to absolute zero so that the evaporation ends up in a zero temperature extremal black hole. Finally, we probe the regular characteristic of the new black holes by showing that there is no curvature singularity at the origin.

  11. Cytological diagnosis of typical carcinoid on bronchoscopic brush smears in an HIV-positive patient

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Neeta; Sayed, Shahin; Das, Swati

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of typical carcinoid of the lung in a 60-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive man diagnosed on brush cytology smears. Bronchial carcinoids are rare tumors, accounting for 1% to 2% of all lung tumors. Although the exact incidence in HIV-infected individuals is not known, the paucity of their documentation in the literature indicates that they may be equally rare. Cytological diagnosis on brush smears is rarely documented as the tumor is covered with mucosa and ...

  12. Staggered fermions at ?=5.7: Smeared operators on large lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study staggered quenched QCD at a moderate value of ? on a large lattices. We introduce smeared Green functions for staggered fermions, and we analyze their effectiveness. We estimate the lattice spacing, and establish that staggered fermions undergo large systematic errors at low ? in the estimate of the lattice spacing from the ?-mass. The scale ratio of the baryonic and the mesonic sector (mP/m?) is, on the contrary, consistent with the one estimated by using Wilson fermions. Owing to the use of smeared operators on large lattices (up to 243x32), we are able to give reliable results for the baryonic states. (orig.)

  13. Development of portable and automatic smear sampler for measuring surface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In measuring radioactive contamination in radiation controlled area of nuclear facility, the technical criteria to evaluate surface contamination level and to sample by indirect method was established in this paper. Radioactive materials always present on surface within operating nuclear facilities. Because of the presence of interfering radiation field, health physicists take smear samples to monitoring surface contamination according to routine monitoring program. But there are some problems like great errors and difference of personnel. Then, to solve them, The portable and automatic smear sampling apparatus was designed and fabricated

  14. Antibodies against Mycobacterial Proteins as Biomarkers for HIV-Associated Smear-Negative Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Siev, Michael; Wilson, Douglas; Kainth, Supreet; Kasprowicz, Victoria O.; Feintuch, Catherine M.; Jenny-Avital, Elizabeth R.; Achkar, Jacqueline M.

    2014-01-01

    Serology data are limited for patients with sputum smear-negative HIV-associated active tuberculosis (TB). We evaluated the serum antibody responses against the mycobacterial proteins MPT51, MS, and echA1 and the 38-kDa protein via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in South African (S.A.) HIV-positive (HIV+) smear-negative TB patients (n = 56), U.S. HIV+ controls with a positive tuberculin skin test (TST+; n = 21), and S.A. HIV-negative (HIV?) (n = 18) and HIV+ (n = 24) controls. TB p...

  15. Development of portable and automatic smear sampler for measuring surface contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bong Jae; Chang, S. Y.; Kim, B. H.; Kim, J. S.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, C. K.; Swol, C. W

    2000-12-01

    In measuring radioactive contamination in radiation controlled area of nuclear facility, the technical criteria to evaluate surface contamination level and to sample by indirect method was established in this paper. Radioactive materials always present on surface within operating nuclear facilities. Because of the presence of interfering radiation field, health physicists take smear samples to monitoring surface contamination according to routine monitoring program. But there are some problems like great errors and difference of personnel. Then, to solve them, The portable and automatic smear sampling apparatus was designed and fabricated.

  16. Bilirubin - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... made by the liver. This article discusses the laboratory test that is done to measure bilirubin in the blood. A small amount of older red blood cells are replaced by new blood cells every day. ...

  17. Blood Transfusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is called autologous (pronounced: aw- tah -luh-gus) blood donation. Another option for blood transfusions is called directed ... infections, medicines, and health problems. In addition, all blood donations are tested for several viruses, including HIV (the ...

  18. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be reduced. That’s why an African-American blood donation may be the best hope for the needs ... and Complications History of Blood Transfusion Iron and Blood Donation Iron Info. for All Donors Iron Info. for ...

  19. Blood Transfusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these antigens. Blood is also Rh-positive or Rh-negative. This means that the patient either has the ... blood cells: Safe for people with Rh-positive Rh-negative red blood cells: Safe for people with Rh- ...

  20. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis ... A blood sample is needed. For information on how this is done, see: Venipuncture

  1. In vivo stimulation of granulopoiesis by recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmotic pumps containing Escherichia coli-derived recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) were attached to indwelling jugular vein catheters and implanted subcutaneously into Golden Syrian hamsters. Within 3 days, peripheral granulocyte counts had increased > 10-fold with a concomitant 4-fold increase in total leukocytes. Microscopic examination of Wright-Giemsa-stained blood smears from rhG-CSF hamsters showed that only the neutrophil subpopulation of granulocytes had increased. After subcutaneous injection at 35S-labeled rhG-CSF doses of up to 10 ?g x kg-1 x day-1 only granulocyte counts were affected. However, at higher dose levels, a transient thrombocytopenia was noted. Erythrocyte and lymphocyte/monocyte counts remained unaffected by rhG-CSF over the entire dose range studied. Total leukocyte counts increased 3-fold within 12 hr after a single s.c. injection of rhG-CSF. This early effect was associated with an increase in the total number of colony-forming cells and the percent of active cycling cells in the marrow. A sustained elevation of peripheral leukocyte and marrow progenitor counts was observed following seven daily s.c. injections of rhG-CSF. The ability of rhG-CSF to increase the production and release of granulocytes from the marrow may underlie the beneficial effect it produced on the restoration of peripheral leukocyte counts in hamsters made leukopenic by treatment with 5-fluorouracilnic by treatment with 5-fluorouracil

  2. PARASITISMO DE LEUCOCITOS Y TROMBOCITOS DE Gallus gallus L. POR Plasmodium (Novyella juxtanucleare (APICOMPLEXA: PLASMODIIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLEBER O SOARES

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se realizó una investigación del parasitismo de Plasmodium juxtanucleare en gallinas sin raza definida, provenientes de criaderos rústicos en el município de Seropédica, estado de Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Se realizaron frotis sanguineos periféricos, los cuales fueron coloreados con Giemsa diluído en tampon sorensen pH6,8. En el exámen hemoscópico se puede observar en aves con alto índice de parasitemia (>10% formas parasitarias de trofozoítas y esquizontes en el citoplasma de células de la linea leucocítica y trofozoítas en células de la linea trombocítica. Las observaciones en el presente estudio hacen inferir que la cepa de P. juxtanucleare que ocurre en Seropédica realiza esquizogonia fanerozóica. Este trabajo constituye el primer hallazgo de formas parasitárias de P. juxtanucleare en leucocitosPARASITISM OF LEUKOCYTES AND THROMBOCYTES OF Gallus gallus L. BY Plasmodium (Novyella juxtanucleare (APICOMPLEXA: PLASMODIIDAE A research about parasitism of the Plasmodium juxtanucleare in crossbred fowls from Seropédica municipality, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, were done. Blood smear were done, and stained by Giemsa stain diluted in sorensen buffer pH6.8. The hemoscopical exam of fowls with high parasitaemia (>10% showed trophozoite and meront forms in the cytoplasm of leukocytic cells; and trophozoite forms in the cytoplasm of the thrombocytic cells. These observation do conclude that P. juxtanucleare strain from Seropédica produce phanerozoic meronts. This report constitutes the first finding of P. juxtanucleare forms in the leukocytes.

  3. C-Reactive Protein (CRP in Early Diagnosis of Neonatal Septicemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setal B Chauhan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Early diagnosis of sepsis in the neonate is often difficult because symptoms and signs are usually non-specific. A study was conducted to evaluate C-reactive protein (CRP as a screening tool for neonatal sepsis. Method: The prospective observational study was conducted at NICU, V. S. Hospital, Ahmedabad from January 2008 to June 2009. 75 neonates were included with the age group of first 28days (4week of life (infant age in study, all of which were suspected to have sepsis in clinical settings. All peripheral smear of neonate stained with Giemsa stain were reviewed .CRP performed by semi quantitative latex agglutination method. Positive cultures were the “gold standard” against which the performance of CRP , abnormal white blood cell counts (WBC & absolute neutrophil counts (ANC were compared. Results: Among 75 septic screens, 39 (52% patients had positive cultures. The sensitivity and specificity of CRP 0.6 mg/dL was 92.30% and 85.71% respectively. Abnormal platelet count had the lowest specificity(45% and sensitivity(23.07% among them. Conclusion: CRP assay using semi quantitative latex agglutination method is a valuable adjunct in screening for neonatal sepsis, complementing clinical decision-making. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(3.000: 276-278

  4. Enhanced detection of gametocytes by magnetic deposition microscopy predicts higher potential for Plasmodium falciparum transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zborowski Maciej

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aggregated haemozoin crystals within malaria-infected erythrocytes confer susceptibility of parasitized cells to a magnetic field. Here the utility of this method for diagnosis of human malaria is evaluated in a malaria-endemic region of Papua New Guinea (PNG. Methods and findings Individuals with Plasmodium falciparum malaria symptoms (n = 55 provided samples for conventional blood smear (CBS and magnetic deposition microscopy (MDM diagnosis. Standard Giemsa staining and light microscopy was performed to evaluate all preparations. Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia observed on MDM slides was consistently higher than parasitaemia observed by (CBS for ring (CBS = 2.6 vs. MDM = 3.4%; t-test P-value = 0.13, trophozoite (CBS = 0.5 vs. MDM = 1.6%; t-test P-value = 0.01, schizont (CBS = 0.003 vs. MDM = 0.1%; t-test P-value = 0.08 and gametocyte (CBS = 0.001 vs. MDM = 0.4%; t-test P-value = 0.0002 parasitaemias. Gametocyte prevalence determined by CBS compared to MDM increased from 7.3% to 45%, respectively. Conclusion MDM increased detection sensitivity of P. falciparum-infected, haemozoin-containing erythrocytes from infected humans while maintaining detection of ring-stage parasites. Gametocyte prevalence five-fold higher than observed by CBS suggests higher malaria transmission potential in PNG endemic sites compared to previous estimates.

  5. Epidemiological studies (parasitological, serological and molecular techniques of Trypanosoma evansi infection in camels (Camelus dromedarius in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdel-Rady

    Full Text Available Trypanosomosis in camel caused by Trypanosoma evansi is still a serious problem in camel husbandry causes considerable economic losses in many camel-rearing regions of the world. In the present study 193 camels clinically suspected for surra were examined parasitologically by Giemsa stained blood smear (GSBS and haematocrit centrifugation technique, serologically for detection of anti-trypanosomal antibodies by card agglutination test for trypanosomes (CATT, and for DNA amplification, by Polymerase chain reaction (PCR, with primers yielding a 177 bp PCR product for the specific detection of Trypanozoan parasites. Out of 193, eight camels were positive by GSBS (4.1% while 12 were positive with haematocrit centrifugation technique (6.2%. Detection of anti-trypanosomal antibodies with CATT yielded 84 positive samples (43.5%. Using PCR 110 out of 193 were positive (56.9 %. PCR technique is accurate, more sensitive and specific method for diagnosis of trypanosome infected camels than parasitological techniques; it overcomes the problem of specificity and can detect low parasitemic camels in chronic cases. The PCR proved to be the best test used for detection of camel trypanosomosis in Egypt. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(11.000: 325-328

  6. Clinicopathological findings in dogs naturally infected dogs with Babesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egon Andoni

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to describe the clinicopathological findings in dogs naturally infected with Babesia. During the period of February 2011-February 2012 twenty-nine cases of Babesia Canis were diagnosed in the clinic of Small Animal at the Veterinary Faculty of Tirana. The animal was considered infected when pear shaped babesia was observed inside infected erythrocytes in Wright-Giemsa stained blood smears. The animal stay for one week in our clinic and during this period we evaluated the canine babesiosis cases by means of clinical history, physical examination, hematological and biochemical tests. Based in the clinical sing of babesia the animal was divided in two groups with uncomplicated and complicate babesia. The duration of clinical signs ranged from 1 to 5 days prior to the arrival at the clinic and all the animals were positive with B. c. canis infections. The main clinical signs were dehydration and anemia in (79%, apathy (74%, anorexia or decrease appetite (70% and fever (68%. The anemia was present in the dogs and classified severe (13% as mild (45%, and moderate (52% of all the cases. In conclusion, the main clinicopathological findings were a mild to moderate hemolytic anemia and mild to severe thrombocytopenia.

  7. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Leontopithecus rosalia at the Reserva Biológica de Poço das Antas, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristiane V, Lisboa; James, Dietz; Andrew J, Baker; Nédia N, Russel; Ana M, Jansen.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Wild golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) -- endangered primates that are native to the Brazilian Atlantic coastal forest -- were surveyed for the presence of Trypanosoma cruzi with the use of Giemsa-stained blood smears, hemocultures and an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFAT). Positiv [...] e IFAT with titers ranging from 1:20 to 1:1280 were observed in 52% of the 118 wild tamarins examined and the parasite was isolated from 38 tamarins. No patent parasitemia was observed among the tamarins from which T. cruzi was isolated. Serum conversion and positive hemoculture was observed for three animals that had yielded negative results some months earlier, which indicates that T. cruzi is actively transmitted among tamarins. In contrast to observations with other sylvatic isolates, those from the tamarins were significantly more virulent and most of them produced mortality in experimentally infected Swiss mice. Some variation in the kDNA restriction profiles among the isolates was observed. Electrophoresis with GPI, G6PDH, IDH, MDH and ME enzymes showed a Z2 profile.

  8. An Investigation on the Ecology of Triatoma vitticeps (Stal, 1859 and its Possible Role in the Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, in the Locality of Triunfo, Santa Maria Madalena Municipal District, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina M Gonçalves

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available From January 1989 to April 1995, 465 specimens of Triatoma vitticeps were collected in the locality of Triunfo, 2nd District of Santa Maria Madalena municipal district, State of Rio de Janeiro. The bugs were found indoors by local residents with predominance of adults. The flight activity was high in hot months when the incidence in the domicile also increased. Two hundred and two bugs (111 alive and 91 dead were examined for Trypanosoma cruzi infection. This was detected in 31 of the dead bugs (34% and 88 (79% of the live bugs examined. With a view to investigate the possible vertebrate hosts of the T. cruzi isolates, the blood of 122 mammals was examined through Giemsa-stained smears, hemocultures and xenodiagnosis. T. cruzi was detected in three specimens of Didelphis marsupialis and T. (M. theileri was detected in one specimen of Bos taurus. The parasites were isolated from triatomine feces, xenoculture and hemoculture. No evidence of human infection was detected in 58 inhabitants examined, as evaluated by indirect imunofluorescence technique using T. cruzi epimastigotes as antigens. These results show that T. vitticeps is still a sylvatic species although nymphs have been found inside the domicile. Thus, an epidemiological vigilance is necessary to know the behaviour of this species following the continuous modifications promoted by the presence of man.

  9. An Investigation on the Ecology of Triatoma vitticeps (Stal, 1859) and its Possible Role in the Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, in the Locality of Triunfo, Santa Maria Madalena Municipal District, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Teresa Cristina M, Gonçalves; Edson de, Oliveira; Lidiamara S, Dias; Magaly D, Almeida; Wagner O, Nogueira; Fernando Dias de Ávila, Pires.

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available From January 1989 to April 1995, 465 specimens of Triatoma vitticeps were collected in the locality of Triunfo, 2nd District of Santa Maria Madalena municipal district, State of Rio de Janeiro. The bugs were found indoors by local residents with predominance of adults. The flight activity was high i [...] n hot months when the incidence in the domicile also increased. Two hundred and two bugs (111 alive and 91 dead) were examined for Trypanosoma cruzi infection. This was detected in 31 of the dead bugs (34%) and 88 (79%) of the live bugs examined. With a view to investigate the possible vertebrate hosts of the T. cruzi isolates, the blood of 122 mammals was examined through Giemsa-stained smears, hemocultures and xenodiagnosis. T. cruzi was detected in three specimens of Didelphis marsupialis and T. (M.) theileri was detected in one specimen of Bos taurus. The parasites were isolated from triatomine feces, xenoculture and hemoculture. No evidence of human infection was detected in 58 inhabitants examined, as evaluated by indirect imunofluorescence technique using T. cruzi epimastigotes as antigens. These results show that T. vitticeps is still a sylvatic species although nymphs have been found inside the domicile. Thus, an epidemiological vigilance is necessary to know the behaviour of this species following the continuous modifications promoted by the presence of man.

  10. Search for Borrelia sp. in ticks collected from potential reservoirs in an urban forest reserve in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil: a short report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IP da Costa

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 128 ticks of the genus Amblyomma were recovered from 5 marsupials (Didelphis albiventris - with 4 recaptures - and 17 rodents (16 Bolomys lasiurus and 1 Rattus norvegicus captured in an urban forest reserve in Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Of the ticks collected, 95 (78.9% were in larval form and 22 (21.1% were nymphs; the only adult (0.8% was identified as A. cajennense. Viewed under dark-field microscopy in the fourth month after seeding, 9 cultures prepared from spleens and livers of the rodents, blood of the marsupials, and macerates of Amblyomma sp. nymphs revealed spiral-shaped, spirochete-like structures resembling those of Borrelia sp. Some of them showed little motility, while others were non-motile. No such structures could be found either in positive Giemsa-stained culture smears or under electron microscopy. No PCR amplification of DNA from those cultures could be obtained by employing Leptospira sp., B. burgdorferi, and Borrelia sp. primers. These aspects suggest that the spirochete-like structures found in this study do not fit into the genera Borrelia or Leptospira, requiring instead to be isolated for proper identification.

  11. Search for Borrelia sp. in ticks collected from potential reservoirs in an urban forest reserve in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil: a short report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    IP da, Costa; VLN, Bonoldi; NH, Yoshinari.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 128 ticks of the genus Amblyomma were recovered from 5 marsupials (Didelphis albiventris) - with 4 recaptures - and 17 rodents (16 Bolomys lasiurus and 1 Rattus norvegicus) captured in an urban forest reserve in Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Of the ticks collected, 95 [...] (78.9%) were in larval form and 22 (21.1%) were nymphs; the only adult (0.8%) was identified as A. cajennense. Viewed under dark-field microscopy in the fourth month after seeding, 9 cultures prepared from spleens and livers of the rodents, blood of the marsupials, and macerates of Amblyomma sp. nymphs revealed spiral-shaped, spirochete-like structures resembling those of Borrelia sp. Some of them showed little motility, while others were non-motile. No such structures could be found either in positive Giemsa-stained culture smears or under electron microscopy. No PCR amplification of DNA from those cultures could be obtained by employing Leptospira sp., B. burgdorferi, and Borrelia sp. primers. These aspects suggest that the spirochete-like structures found in this study do not fit into the genera Borrelia or Leptospira, requiring instead to be isolated for proper identification.

  12. Search for Borrelia sp. in ticks collected from potential reservoirs in an urban forest reserve in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil: a short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, I P da; Bonoldi, V L N; Yoshinari, N H

    2002-07-01

    A total of 128 ticks of the genus Amblyomma were recovered from 5 marsupials (Didelphis albiventris) - with 4 recaptures - and 17 rodents (16 Bolomys lasiurus and 1 Rattus norvegicus) captured in an urban forest reserve in Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Of the ticks collected, 95 (78.9%) were in larval form and 22 (21.1%) were nymphs; the only adult (0.8%) was identified as A. cajennense. Viewed under dark-field microscopy in the fourth month after seeding, 9 cultures prepared from spleens and livers of the rodents, blood of the marsupials, and macerates of Amblyomma sp. nymphs revealed spiral-shaped, spirochete-like structures resembling those of Borrelia sp. Some of them showed little motility, while others were non-motile. No such structures could be found either in positive Giemsa-stained culture smears or under electron microscopy. No PCR amplification of DNA from those cultures could be obtained by employing Leptospira sp., B. burgdorferi, and Borrelia sp. primers. These aspects suggest that the spirochete-like structures found in this study do not fit into the genera Borrelia or Leptospira, requiring instead to be isolated for proper identification. PMID:12219124

  13. A duplex PCR-based assay for simultaneous detection of Trypanosoma evansi and Theileria annulata infections in water buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudan, Vikrant; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Parashar, Rahul; Shanker, Daya

    2015-06-01

    Trypanosomosis and bovine tropical theileriosis are important vector-borne protozoan diseases imposing some of the serious constraints on the health and productivity of domestic cattle in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Following recovery from primary infection of both these conditions, animals become persistent carriers and act as reservoirs of infection thereby playing a critical role in disease epidemiology. The present study describes development and evaluation of duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for simultaneous detection of Trypanosoma evansi and Theileria annulata in buffaloes. Following in silico screening for candidate target genes representing each of the pathogens, an optimized duplex PCR assay was established using TBR F/R and TAMS F/R as primer sets encoding for products of 164 and 721 bp for T. evansi and T. annulata, respectively. The results were compared and correlated with conventional Giemsa-stained thin blood smear examination and the single PCR assay. The duplex PCR detected each pathogen with the same level of sensitivity, irrespective of whether its DNA was amplified in isolation or together with DNA of another pathogen. Moreover, single and duplex PCRs were able to detect each species with equal sensitivity in serially diluted DNA representing mixtures of T. evansi and T. annulata, and no evidence of nonspecific amplification from nontarget species was observed. The developed assay may be seen as a good tool for epidemiological studies aiming at assessing the burden of dual infections and improving control of the associated diseases in endemic regions. PMID:25846571

  14. Acute phase proteins in Andalusian horses infected with Theileria equi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Rocío; Cerón, José J; Riber, Cristina; Castejón, Francisco; Gómez-Díez, Manuel; Serrano-Rodríguez, Juan M; Muñoz, Ana

    2014-10-01

    Clinical and laboratory findings were determined in 23 Andalusian horses in southern Spain that were positive for Theileria equi by PCR, including 16 mares at pasture (group A1) and seven stabled stallions (group B1). Five healthy mares at pasture (group A2) and five stabled stallions (group B2), all of which were negative for T.?equi in Giemsa stained blood smears and by PCR, were used as controls. The most frequent clinical signs were anorexia, anaemia, depression and icterus (group A1), along with loss of performance or failure to train and depression (group B1). Thrombocytopoenia was evident in 5/7 horses in group B1. Lower serum iron concentrations were observed in both diseased groups compared with their respective control groups. There were no significant differences in APP concentrations between diseased and control groups; all affected horses had APP concentrations within reference limits. Serum haptoglobin, serum amyloid A and plasma fibrinogen concentrations were higher than the reference limits in 5/23, 3/23 and 1/23 diseased horses, respectively. It was concluded that horses with theileriosis exhibited only a mild systemic inflammatory response. PMID:25086769

  15. Parasitic infections among Karen in Kanchanaburi Province, western Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithikathkul, Choosak; Changsap, Bangon; Wannapinyosheep, Supaporn; Arnat, Naiyana; Kongkham, Somprathana; Benchawattananon, Rachadaporn; Leemingsawat, Somjai

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of intestinal parasitic and malarial infections during a period of low infection among the residents of remote Karen villages in Thailand. Fifty-five males and 64 females, aged 6 months to 70 years, were examined for malaria by thick blood smears using the Giemsa staining technique. Of the 119 subjects, 4 (3.36%) showed positive for malaria with vivax gametocytes. Results suggested that mass screening was not an effective way for diagnosing malaria. Stool samples were examined under a light microscope. The overall intestinal parasitic infection rates were 38.24% in 34 males, and 36.11% in 36 females. These were hookworm (17.14%), Ascaris lumbricoides (7.14%), Trichuris trichiura (1.43%), Strongyloides stercoralis (7.14%), Taenia spp (1.43%), Entamoeba histolytica (1.43%), Entamaeba coli (10.00%) and Giatdia lamblia (1.43%). The highest (55.55%) and lowest (16.66%) rates of infection were observed in age groups 0-5 and over 45, years respectively. In addition, A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura were found more frequently in children, while hookworms was found similarly in every age group. Results showed that the Karen living along the western border of Thailand possessed high rates of intestinal parasitic infections. Strict monitoring and control programs for these parasites should be implemented. PMID:19230576

  16. Chloroquine neither eliminates liver stage parasites nor delays their development in a murine Chemoprophylaxis Vaccination model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Tejram; Lambert, Lynn; Herrod, Jessica; Conteh, Solomon; Orr-Gonzalez, Sachy; Carter, Dariyen; Duffy, Patrick E.

    2015-01-01

    Chemoprophylaxis Vaccination (CVac) confers long lasting sterile protection against homologous parasite strains in humans, and involves inoculation of infectious sporozoites (SPZ) under drug cover. CVac using the drug chloroquine (CQ) induces pre-erythrocytic immunity in humans that includes antibody to SPZ and T-cell responses to liver stage (LS) parasites. The mechanism by which CVac with CQ induces strong protective immunity is not understood as untreated infections do not confer protection. CQ kills blood stage parasites, but its effect on LS parasites is poorly studied. Here we hypothesized that CQ may prolong or perturb LS development of Plasmodium, as a potential explanation for enhanced pre-erythrocytic immune responses. Balb/c mice with or without CQ prophylaxis were infected with sporozoite forms of a luciferase-expressing rodent parasite, Plasmodium yoelii-Luc (Py-Luc). Mice that received primaquine, a drug that kills LS parasites, served as a positive control of drug effect. Parasite burden in liver was measured both by bioluminescence and by qRT-PCR quantification of parasite transcript. Time to appearance of parasites in the blood was monitored by microscopic analysis of Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood smears. The parasite load in livers of CQ-treated and untreated mice did not significantly differ at any of the time points studied. Parasites appeared in the blood smears of both CQ-treated and untreated mice 3 days after infection. Taken together, our findings confirm that CQ neither eliminates LS parasites nor delays their development. Further investigations into the mechanism of CQ-induced protection after CVac are required, and may give insights relevant to drug and vaccine development. PMID:25914686

  17. Retroperitoneal endodermal sinus tumor. Report of a case with an abnormal cervicovaginal smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, S M; Wee, A; Yeoh, S C; Nilsson, B; Chan, S

    1994-01-01

    An unusual case of an endodermal sinus tumor arising in the retroperitoneum and invading the fallopian tube is reported. The patient presented with malignant cells mimicking adenocarcinoma in the cervicovaginal smear. The differential diagnoses of such cells in cervicovaginal cytology are discussed. The cytohistologic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings of the tumor are correlated. PMID:8042423

  18. "SPECIMEN ADEQUACY AND EFFECT OF HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS IN CERVICOVAGINAL SMEARS WITH SQUAMOUS INTRAEPITHELIAL ABNORMALITY"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Izadi Mood T. Hacopian

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract-Cervicovaginal cytology is still a widely used cancer screening method that is well established in most countries. The present study aims at detecting and classifying squamous intraepithelial abnormalities and effects of certain infectious agents, particularly the cytopathic effects of human papillomavirus (HPV in a series of cervicovaginal smears, according to the Bethesda system (TBS. The significance of specimen adequacy in revealing squamous intraepithelial abnormalities (SIEA was also evaluated. Overall, 9066 smears were examined according to TBS. For interpretation of atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance (ASCUS, certain quality control (QC guidelines were considered. While stressing on koilocytic atypia, the full spectrum of cytologic alterations due to HPV was investigated. Of all smears, 79% were satisfactory for evaluation and 15% were inadequately satisfactory due to absence of the endocervical/transformation zone (EC/TZ component. The proportion of SIEA was significantly (P< 0.05 higher in smears having such a component. Of 246 cases with SIEA, 173 (1.90% cases were classified as ASCUS, 46 (0.50% as low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL, and 27 (0.26% as high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL. Of the latter, 19 cases demonstrated HPV effects. ASCUS was the most frequent diagnosis for which QC criteria were fulfilled. On the basis of our study the adequacy of specimen is of paramount significance, with particular emphasis on the presence of EC/TZ component.

  19. [A multi-functional drug-smearing and drug-injection instrument].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-hua; Zhou, Huan-fa; Zheng, Zhong-tang

    2002-03-01

    This paper instroduces the components and operating priciples of a multi-functional drug smearing and drug injection instrument. The instrument has many advantages such as simple structure, convenient operation, no bacteria, drug-saving, little pain and etc. All these advantages make it fit for medical applications. PMID:16104183

  20. Development of manipulator system for decontamination and surface contamination monitering with smear method of recycled dram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In nuclear power plants, drums are used in carrying out volume reduction treatment of low-level combustible solid wastes. After the treatment process, these drums are decontaminated, subjected to smear testing, and then reutilized. Shikoku Electric Power Co., Ltd. and Meidensha Electric Mfg. Co., Ltd. worked jointly to develop an automatic manipulator system to perform decontamination operation and smear testing for surface contamination of these recycled drums. The system consists of a drum feeder, drum handling equipment, decontamination/testing robot, wiping paper feeder, radioactive ray measuring apparatus, drum conveyor and control system. Major features of the system are as follows: 1) both sides of the lid as well as the body and bottom plate of a drum is decontaminated automatically; 2) liquid secondary wastes are not generated since decontamination is performed by wiping the drum with paper; 3) smear testing is carried out automatically (unaccepted drums are sent back to the decontamination process); 4) three manipulating arms for wet and dry decontamination and smear testing are changed automatically; and 5) several drums are processed continuously. (Nogami, K.)

  1. Surface micro-distributions of pigment and the relation between smearing and local mass distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the process of smearing and its time evolution have been investigated. When smearing occurs, the print is removed from the printed paper and colours other parts of the paper or the printing press and destroys the final product. To study the re-distribution of ink, cyan ink with Cu as a tracer in the coloured pigment has been used. Non-printed paper has been pressed against the paper, 1 and 5 s after the printing. The micro-distributions of ink on both printed and non-printed papers have then been studied using particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Basis weight was measured with the off-axis scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) technique and this data was correlated with the data from the print. One conclusion is that the process of smearing is not dependent on the shape of the pigment distribution, i.e. copper, or the content of copper in a specific pixel. On the contrary, the smearing was found to be related to the structure of the paper and that it mainly occurs where the paper is thicker

  2. MICRONUCLEI AND OTHER NUCLEAR ANOMALIES IN BUCCAL SMEARS: FIELD TEST IN SNUFF USERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A revised protocol for the exfoliated cell micronucleus assay was ie d-teste in a population exposed to a genotoxic agent at levels associated with a significant increase in cancer risk. The standard assay involves microscope examination of epithelial smears 0 determine the preva...

  3. A STUDY ON CERVICAL PAP SMEAR EXAMINATION IN PATIENT LIVING WITH HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B M Jha

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Decline in morbidity & mortality due to cervical cancer in developed countries can be mainly attributed to early detection of precancerous & cancerous lesions due to extensive screening programmeof cervical Pap smear examination. HPV infection is a known etiological agent for cervical cancer. HIV infected women are at higher risk of contracting HPV infection due to immune compromised status. Objective: Present study has been undertaken mainly to detect precancerous & cancerous lesions as well as inflammatory lesions in female patients living with HIV & to emphasize the fact that Pap smear examination should be established as a part of routine protocol for examination in these women. Methods: The study was carried out on 407 HIV infected females attending Integrated Counseling &Testing Centre of government institute. As controls, 200 females (not falling under high risk category, attending the Obstetrics& Gynecology OPD with various gynecological complaints were taken & results were compared. Results: Squamous cell abnormalities were found about four times high as compared to control group(Pvalue <0.05. High incidences of squamous cell abnormalities were noted in patients with high parity (parity three or more. Conlcusion: Regular gynecological examination including Pap smear examinations is highly recommended for HIV infected females.Pap smear examination is a simple, cheap, safe & practical diagnostic tool for early detection of cervical cancer in high risk population. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(1.000: 81-84

  4. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy for the rapid diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Jung

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was aimed to investigate the diagnostic value of fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB with chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT for the rapid diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB in patients suspected of PTB but found to have a negative sputum acid-fast bacilli (AFB smear. Methods We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of results from FOB and HRCT in 126 patients at Gangnam Severance Hospital (Seoul, Korea who were suspected of having PTB. Results Of 126 patients who had negative sputum AFB smears but were suspected of having PTB, 54 patients were confirmed as having active PTB. Hemoptysis was negatively correlated with active PTB. Tree-in-bud appearance on HRCT was significantly associated with active PTB. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, and negative predictive value (NPV of FOB alone was 75.9%, 97.2%, 95.3%, and 84.3%, respectively, for the rapid diagnosis of active PTB. The combination of FOB and HRCT improved the sensitivity to 96.3% and the NPV to 96.2%. Conclusions FOB is a useful tool in the rapid diagnosis of active PTB with a high sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV in sputum smear-negative PTB-suspected patients. HRCT improves the sensitivity of FOB when used in combination with FOB in sputum smear-negative patients suspected of having PTB.

  5. Blood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your blood is living tissue made up of liquid and solids. The liquid part, called plasma, is made of water, salts and protein. Over half of your blood is plasma. The solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white ...

  6. Blood Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of time to maintain optimum function. The primary blood bag contains an anticoagulant that prevents the blood from ... both for the donor and the blood recipient. Blood is collected using a new sterile needle and bag after a meticulous cleaning of the donor’s arm. ...

  7. Efficiency of final irrigation of root canal in removal of smear layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miti? Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A smear layer forms on the root canal walls as the consequence of root instrumentation. The smear layer formed in such a way considerably influences the quality of root obturation and endodontic treatment outcome. Objective The aim of this study was to ultrastructurally analyze the surface of intracanal dentine after removal of the smear layer by the solution of doxycycline, citric acid and detergent Tween-80 (MTAD. Methods The study involved 60 single-rooted, extracted, human teeth divided into four groups. All samples were instrumented by a step-back technique and manual K-files, and rinsed during instrumentation by 2% CHX and H2O2. The first group of samples was exclusively rinsed by CHX and H2O2; in the second group, besides using CHX and H2O2, MTAD solution was used for the final irrigation. The samples which were rinsed by distilled water (+ control and the samples rinsed by 5.25% NaOCl and 17% Na EDTA (-control served as control groups. All samples were observed under the scanning electronic microscope JEOL-JSM-5300. The coronary, middle and apex thirds of the radix region were analyzed. Results The obtained results of the SEM analysis showed that the application of 2% chlorhexidine and hydrogen peroxide did not give clear dentine walls, and the smear layer could not be removed completely. The application of the same combination (CHX and H2O2, added by the final MTAD irrigation solution, led to the efficient removal of the smear layer, while the morphological structure of dentine surface remained unchanged. Statistical analysis showed that canal walls in the experimental group with MTAD as the final irrigation were significantly clearer compared to the control group (p<0.001. Conclusion Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that MTAD is an efficient solution for the final irrigation of the canal system.

  8. Comparison of different irrigation activation techniques on smear layer removal: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyuz Ekim, Sefika Nur; Erdemir, Ali

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of different irrigation activation techniques on smear layer removal. About 80 single-rooted human maxillary central teeth were decoronated to a standardized length.The samples were prepared by using ProTaper system to size F4 and divided into eight equal groups (n?=?10) according to the final irrigation activation technique; distilled water was used as an irrigant in Group 1. The other groups were treated with 2.5% NaOCl and 17% EDTA, respectively. Conventional syringe irrigation (CSI) was used in Group 2. Irrigation solutions were activated using passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI, Group 3), EndoVac apical negative pressure (ANP, Group 4), diode laser (Group 5), Nd:YAG laser (Group 6), Er:YAG laser (Group 7), and Er:YAG laser using with photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS™, Group 8). Teeth were split longitudinally and subjected to scanning electron microscope (SEM). PIPS showed the best removal of smear layer when compared with PUI, ANP, Nd:YAG, and Er:YAG, but the difference was not statistically significant (P?>?0.05). Smear layer scores obtained with PIPS technique were statistically significant different from those of obtained with control, CSI and diode laser groups (P?irrigation techniques except ANP and diode laser removed smear layer more effectively at the coronal and middle levels compared to the apical level (P?Irrigation activated/delivered techniques except diode laser have a positive effect on removing of smear layer. PMID:25582378

  9. Scanning electron microscopy of root canal walls after removing the smear layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaši? Jovanka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate ultrastructurally the effect of smear layer removal by applying different root canal irrigances: 3% HO2, 4% NaOCl and 15% Na-EDTA (in combination with 3% HO2, 4% NaOCl and establish the appearance of root canal dentine surface after treatment with 15% Na-EDTA for different time periods(1 min and 5 min using additional irrigant 3% HOor 4% NaOCl. 22 22 Teeth with single and double canals extracted for orthodontic reasons, were used in this study. After instrumentation, coronal and apical parts were removed. Middle parts were cut longitudinally into two equal segments. The specimens were grouped and treated: with HO2, NaOCl, and with combination of Na-EDTA+ HO2 and Na-EDTA+NaOCl where the irrigation with 2 Na-EDTA lasted 1 or 5 minutes. Control segments were enlarged and irrigated with distillate water to obtain the smear layer. The results obtained showed that irrigation with HOand NaOCl did 22 not remove the smear layer, one-minute application of 15% Na-EDTA followed by 4% NaOCl showed that the smear layer was completely removed. Using of 3% HOafter Na-EDTA over the same period of time obtained 22 less "clear" surfaces. Five-minute application of Na-EDTA caused excessive peritubular and intertubular dentinal erosion. It is concluded that for effective removal of smear layer with Na- EDTA, this procedure should not last longer than 1 minute and should be followed by NaOCl.

  10. Borrelia sp. in naturally infected Didelphis aurita (Wied, 1826) (marsupialia: didelphidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Isis dos Santos, Abel; Denclair Escobar de, Almeida Junior; Adivaldo Henrique da, Fonseca; Cleber Oliveira, Soares; Márcia Mayumi, Ishikawa.

    Full Text Available Cinquenta e seis gambás (Didelphis aurita) foram capturados no campus da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica - Rio de Janeiro, com o intuito de se investigar a ocorrência de Borrelia sp. entre eles, associada ao estudo da espiroquetemia e de seus ectoparasitos. Amostras de sangu [...] e dos animais foram examinadas à microscopia de campo escuro e contraste de fase, além deste ter se destinado à obtenção de esfregaços sanguíneos, corados pelo método de Giemsa. Não houve relação entre os resultados obtidos através dos exames diretos do sangue (13 gambás positivos para Borrelia sp.) e aqueles observados nos esfregaços sanguíneos (dois animais positivos), o que demonstra a baixa eficácia desta técnica. Estudos sobre a parasitemia de 37 animais mantidos em cativeiro, assim como as várias recapturas nas quais animais uma vez negativos mostraram-se positivos dias mais tarde, revelaram que os estudos hemoscópicos podem ser utilizados eficientemente como ferramentas de diagnóstico. Ectoparasitos colhidos de nove animais foram classificados. Houve ocorrência de ninfas Amblyomma cajennense e adultos Ctenocephalides sp. Abstract in english Fifty-six opossums (Didelphis aurita) were captured on the campus of Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica county, Rio de Janeiro state, in order to investigate the occurrence of Borrelia sp among them in relation with the study of spirochaetemia and its ectoparasites. Blood tests [...] were made through dark field and phase contrast microscopy, as well as the obtainment of blood smears. Smears were stained with Giemsa stain, which did not prove efficacy. There was no relation between results obtained through blood tests (13 opossum positive for Borreliasp.), and this technique (two positive animals). Parasitaemia studies of 37 animals kept in captivity as well as of several recaptures in which animals once negative proved to be positive days later, showed that haemoscopical studies could be used as an effective diagnosis tool. Ectoparasites from nine animals were classified; with the occurrence of nymphal Amblyomma cajennense and adult Ctenocephalides sp..

  11. Artificial blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Suman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  12. Pattern of abnormal Pap smears in developing countries : A report from a large referral hospital in Saudi Arabia using the revised 2001 Bethesda System

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Layla

    2007-01-01

    Background: Reports describing the frequency and pattern of abnormal Pap smears in developing countries using the revised Bethesda system for Pap smear are few. We studied the pattern of cervical intraepithelial le--sions and carcinoma detected in Pap smears of Saudi females in the western region of Saudi Arabia using the revised system. Methods: All cervical Pap smears reported in the Department of Pathology of King Abdulaziz Medical City, Jeddah, from 1 January 1998 to 31 August 2005 wer...

  13. Constraints on the Sealing Capacity of Faults with Clay Smears from Discrete Element Models Validated by Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    TerHeege, J. H.; Wassing, B. B. T.; Orlic, B.; Giger, S. B.; Clennell, M. B.

    2013-05-01

    Prediction of hydrocarbon column heights in structural traps critically depends on proper analysis of the sealing capacity of faults. Entrainment of clay in fault zones in upper crustal levels may lead to the development of continuous clay smears that dramatically increase the sealing capacity of faults. In this study, direct shear experiments on large-scale samples of layered sandstone-claystone-sandstone are simulated using two-dimensional discrete element numerical models to study the development of clay smears for different claystone types and normal stress conditions. Analysis of clay smear structures in terms of drag, slicing, wear and flow of clay reveals that drag is dominant at low shear displacements and high local stress concentrations, slicing and wear become important at higher shear displacement and low stresses at source bed near the fault zone. Correlation between critical fault displacements in the experiments and local stress ratios (shear stress divided by normal stress) in the models is used to determine smear failure and leakage for all claystones and normal stresses. A smear breach diagram with sealing/leaking conditions for faults containing clay smears shows that clay smears may be sealing at larger displacements than predicted by other fault seal algorithms, such as shale gouge ratio, in particular for low shale content and high normal stress.

  14. XMLComparison of Molecular (PCR and Pap Smear Methods in Diagnosis of Human Papiloma Virus (HPV in Women with Genital Warts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashi zadeh Fakhar, H. (MSc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Much research has shown that Human Papiloma Virus (HPV plays an important role in cervix cancer and it is the cause of 99% of cervix cancer worldwide. Lots of research has been done to find a proper method for HPV diagnosis and screening in patients with genital warts. This study aimed at comparing PCR method with Pap smear test in HPV screening. Material and Methods: Considering the presence of DNA of HPV, 45 vaginal and cervix swap samples of women with genital warts were tested by means of specific PCR and Pap smear from September 2010 to April 2011. Results: Out of 45 vaginal and cervix swap samples of women suffering genital warts, 37 samples (82.2% are positive. Of 45 Pap smear samples, 13 (29% are neoplasia and 32 (71% normal. Conclusion: The difference between the results of PCR and Pap smear is due to low specification and sensitivity of Pap smear. Thus it is recommended using diagnostic PCR method in addition to Pap smear in order to promote the quality of screening in individuals with genital warts. Keywords: Human Papiloma Virus (HPV; Genital Warts; Molecular (PCR; Pap Smear

  15. Associations of demographic variables and the Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McFarl

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ditsapelo M McFarland College of Nursing and Public Health, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA Purpose: Papanicolaou (Pap smear services are available in most urban areas in Botswana. Yet most women in such areas do not screen regularly for cancer of the cervix. The purpose of this article is to present findings on the associations of demographic variables and Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana. Sample and methods: The study included a convenience sample of 353 asymptomatic women aged 30 years and older who were living in Gaborone, Botswana. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and items of the Health Belief Model. Data analysis included descriptive statistics for demographic variables and bivariate and ordinal (logit regression to determine the associations of demographic variables. Results: Having health insurance and having a regular health care provider were significant predictors of whether or not women had a Pap smear. Women with health insurance were more likely to have had a Pap smear test than women without health insurance (91% vs 36%. Similarly, women who had a regular health care provider were more likely to have had a Pap smear test than women without a regular health care provider (94% vs 42%. Major barriers to screening included what was described as "laziness" for women who had ever had a Pap smear (57% and limited information about Pap smear screening for women who had never had a Pap smear (44%. Conclusion: There is a need for more information about the importance of the Pap smear test and for increased access to screening services in Botswana. Keywords: cervical, screening, barriers, access, beliefs

  16. Blood parameter analysis and morphological alterations as biomarkers on the health of Hoplias malabaricus and Geophagus brasiliensis

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Romão; Lucélia Donatti; Freitas, Matheus O.; Josiane Teixeira; Josiana Kusma

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the influence of the environment on fish health. Samples of Hoplias malabaricus and Geophagus brasiliensis, were collected from three different environments: area I was urban and areas II and III were rural. Analyses of red blood cell count, microhematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, white blood cell count and differential white cell count in blood smear were carried out. Mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were calculated. To analy...

  17. Donating Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... door of the blood bank. Eat a normal breakfast or lunch — this is not a good time ... who donate blood notice a few minor side effects like nausea, lightheadedness, dizziness, or fainting, but these ...

  18. BLOOD DONATION

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

  19. [Personal experience with ex tempore diagnosis of neurosurgical biopsies using the smear method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ili?, S; Bokun, R; Milosavljevi?, I; Dimitrijevi?, J

    1995-01-01

    The results obtained by the use of the smear method were analyzed in ex tempore diagnostics of 240 neurosurgical biopsies, done in the period from 1991 to 1993. Thirty three different pathologic lesions were found that had their special morphology on smears, indicating the high specificity of this method. In 226 cases (94.17%) the diagnosis was established correctly, but in 14 cases (5.83%) it was not: in three cases the diagnosis was falsely negative and in 11 falsely positive. The main causes of the diagnostic errors were analysed and they included the subjective factors and uncommonness of the analyzed tissue samples. The accuracy of 94.17% enabled sufficiently reliable use of this method in ex tempore diagnostics of neurosurgical biopsies. PMID:8629370

  20. Citologia de Tzanck: redescobrindo uma antiga ferramenta diagnóstica / Tzanck smears: an old but useful diagnostic tool

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Moema Mignac Cumming, Brito; Daniela Chaves, Tarquínio; Darlene, Arruda; Roberto Silva, Costa; Ana Maria, Roselino.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A citologia de Tzanck consiste em método simples e confiável para o diagnóstico de dermatoses virais, parasitárias, autoimunes e tumorais. Para exemplificar o emprego do teste de Tzanck em lesões vésico-bolhosas, um caso de pênfigo vulgar é descrito, cuja citologia e imunofluorescência direta, utili [...] zando-se esfregaço coletado de lesão oral, confirmaram o diagnóstico de forma rápida e fácil. Abstract in english Tzanck smears can be used for the diagnosis of cutaneous infections, autoimmune disorders and cutaneous tumors. To exemplify its use, we report a case of a female patient with pemphigus vulgaris whose diagnosis was confirmed by positive direct immunofluorescence and conventional cytology using smear [...] s obtained by scraping the cheek mucosa.

  1. Comparison of coronal leakage after smear layer removal with EDTA or Er:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pécora, Jesus D.; Mamere de Almeida, Yasmine M. E.; Marchesan, Melissa A.; Brugnera J"nior, Aldo, Jr.

    2002-10-01

    This study determined, in vitro, the coronal leakage of root canals evaluating the effect of smear layer removal by either EDTA or laser. Two sealers were also compared. Sixty-four canines were instrumented with the step-back technique and irrigated with 10 ml of 1% sodium hypochlorite. In Group 1, 10 teeth were sealed with Sealer 26 and 10 teeth were sealed with Grossman cement with no attempt of smear layer removal. Group 2 received a final irrigation of 15 ml of 17% EDTA, and was sealed as in Group 1. Group 3 received Er:YAG laser application (140 mJ, 15 Hz and 42 J), and sealed as in Group 1. Root canals sealed with Sealer 26 had significantly less coronal leakage than Grossman cement (Plaser was not statistically different (p>0.01).

  2. Citologia de Tzanck: redescobrindo uma antiga ferramenta diagnóstica Tzanck smears: an old but useful diagnostic tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moema Mignac Cumming Brito

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A citologia de Tzanck consiste em método simples e confiável para o diagnóstico de dermatoses virais, parasitárias, autoimunes e tumorais. Para exemplificar o emprego do teste de Tzanck em lesões vésico-bolhosas, um caso de pênfigo vulgar é descrito, cuja citologia e imunofluorescência direta, utilizando-se esfregaço coletado de lesão oral, confirmaram o diagnóstico de forma rápida e fácil.Tzanck smears can be used for the diagnosis of cutaneous infections, autoimmune disorders and cutaneous tumors. To exemplify its use, we report a case of a female patient with pemphigus vulgaris whose diagnosis was confirmed by positive direct immunofluorescence and conventional cytology using smears obtained by scraping the cheek mucosa.

  3. Effectiveness of a Canal Brush on Removing Smear Layer: A Scanning Electron Microscopic Study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eleni, Protogerou; Ioanna, Arvaniti; Ioannis, Vlachos; Marouan Georgios, Khabbaz.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia de um escova intra-canal (CanalBrush, Coltène) na remoção da smear layer das paredes do canal radicular, quando usada de acordo com as instruções do fabricante. Quarenta e quatro incisivos mandibulares unirradiculares foram instrumentados até o ápice co [...] m instrumentos 30/0.06 e aleatoriamente distribuidos em três grupos A, B e C, com regime de irrigação final de 10 mL a 17% EDTA e 10 mL NaOCl a 2,5% para o Grupo A; irrigação final de 10 mL EDTA, 5 mL NaOCl, uso da escovinha CanalBrush por 20 s a 450 rpm e 5 mL NaOCl para o Grupo B e 10 mL NaOCl, uso da escovinha CanalBrush e 10 mL NaOCl para o Grupo C. Foi utilizada escovinha CanalBrush de tamanho médio para cada canal e todas elas foram examinadas em microscópio para avaliação da deformação de cerdas. Depois as raízes foram cortadas longitudinalmente e a presença da smear layer foi avaliada por microscópio eletrônico de varredura. As escovinhas usadas apresentaram todas alguma deformação das cerdas. No Grupo C foi observada a maior média de área de smear layer em todos os terços dentais. Na comparação dos terços apicais de todos os grupos não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos A e B (3,64±0.48 e 3,68±0,62, respectivamente), enquanto que o Grupo C mostrou escores significativamente mais altos(3,9±0.28) que os outros dois grupos. Concluindo, a escovinha CanalBrush mostrou ser incapaz de remover a smear layer dos canais instrumentados, quando usada de acordo com as instruções do fabricante. Abstract in english This study evaluated the effectiveness of a highly flexible endodontic brush made of polypropylene canal brush (CanalBrush; Coltène) on smear layer removal from the canal walls when used according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Forty-four single-rooted mandibular incisors were prepared to ap [...] ical size 30/0.06 and randomly divided into three groups A, B and C, where the final irrigation regimen was 10 mL 17% EDTA and 10 mL 2.5% NaOCl for group A, 10 mL EDTA, 5 mL NaOCl, CanalBrush for 20 s at 450 rpm and 5 mL NaOCl for group B, 10 mL NaOCl, CanalBrush and 10 mL NaOCl for group C. One medium-sized CanalBrush was used for each root canal and all brushes were examined under the optical microscope after application to evaluate bristle deformation. Afterwards, roots were split longitudinally and the presence of smear layer was evaluated under a scanning electron microscope. Used brushes invariably exhibited bristle deformation. Group C exhibited the highest means of smear layer in all thirds. Comparing the apical thirds in all groups, there was no statistical difference between groups A and B (3.64±0.48 and 3.68±0.62 respectively), while group C exhibited significantly higher scores (3.9±0.28) than the other two groups. In conclusion, the CanalBrush proved unable to remove smear layer from the instrumented root canals, when used according to the manufacturers' instructions.

  4. Blood Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... whether he or she is Rh positive or Rh negative. Blood typing may be used to: Ensure compatibility between ... blood groups and types in the U.S. population: Blood Type Rh POSTIVE Rh NEGATIVE total O 38% 7% 45% A 34% 6% ...

  5. BLOOD FLOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARNEL DELA CRUZ

    2012-06-28

    The lesson is design to describe the factors affecting blood flow through the cardiovascular system. The lesson uses the 5E model as an approach for students to become engaged, analytical and inquisitive in learning about the mechanism of blood flow and the importance of this in our body. In addition, the lesson engages the student to test variables that may affect blood flow.

  6. Ploidy and chromatin pattern analysis as an aid for cervical smear diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Nemec, E.; Vandeputte, S.; Pachterbeke, C.; Vokaer, R.; Budel, V.; Deprez, C.; Kiss, R.; Decaestecker, C.

    2002-01-01

    In the present study we used computerassisted microscopy to analyze the morphology of Feulgen-stained cell nuclei in cell populations obtained at the same time as routinely performed cervical smears and in the same way. We investigated in a series of 110 cases whether the quantitative morphonuclear description of cytological cervical samples is able to aid pathologists to distinguish between benign and more suspect premalignant lesions. For this task nuclear DN...

  7. Morphological findings in bone marrow biopsy and aspirate smears of visceral kala azar: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Dhingra Kajal; Gupta Parul; Saroha Vijay; Setia Namrata; Khurana Nita; Singh Tejinder

    2010-01-01

    Context: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in India and may simulate and cause many hematological disorders like pancytopenia, myelofibrosis, myelodysplasia and hemophagocytosis. Aims: The study aims to investigate the hematological manifestation of Visceral Leishmaniasis and associated changes that may be observed in bone marrow aspirate smears and biopsy which may warn a pathologist of possible infections. Settings and Design: This is a retrospective study of 18 VL cases on B (b) ...

  8. Performance of the DNA-citoliq liquid-based cytology system compared with conventional smears

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Vena?ncio Avancini Ferreira; Castelo, A.; Filho, A. L.; Vianna, M. R.; Taromaru, Eliane; Namiyama, Gislene; Lo?rincz, A.; Do?res, Gerson B. Das

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of a new, manual, simplified liquid-based system, DNA-Citoliq (Digene Brasil), employed under routine conditions as compared to conventional smears collected from six collaborating private laboratories. Methods: A panel of cytopathologists, who served as the gold standard diagnosis, adjudicated discordant opinions. Results: Of 3206 pairs of slides considered valid for comparison, there were 3008 in full agreement (93.8%), 112 (3.5%) with one diagnostic catego...

  9. Tuning for Three-flavors of Anisotropic Clover Fermions with Stout-link Smearing

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Robert G.; Joo?, Ba?lint; Lin, Huey-wen

    2008-01-01

    In this work we perform the parameter tuning of three flavors of dynamical clover quarks on anisotropic lattices. The fermion action uses three-dimensional spatial stout-link smearing. The gauge anisotropy is determined in a small box with Schr\\"odinger background using Wilson-loop ratios. The fermion anisotropy is obtained from studying the meson dispersion relation with antiperiodic boundary conditions in the time direction. The spatial and temporal clover coefficients are...

  10. Molecular Diagnosis of Trichomoniasis in Negative Samples Examined by Direct Smear and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Z Valadkhani; Kazemi, F; M Assmar; Amirkhani, A; B Esfandeari; M Lotfi; S Ghobadi-rad; Hassan, N.; Aghighi, Z

    2010-01-01

    Background: Trichomoniasis is an extremely common sexually transmitted infection (STI) world­wide and is associated with important public health problems, including amplification of HIV transmission. This disease is in forms of symptomatic and asymptomatic in women and may de­pend on host as well as parasite variables. Most of the studies reported from females are based on examination of vaginal secretions and urine samples by direct smear and culture in modified Dia­mond's media. The aim of ...

  11. Test and Treat: A New Standard for Smear-Positive Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, J. Lucian; Dowdy, David W.; Den Boon, Saskia; Walter, Nicholas D.; Katamba, Achilles; Cattamanchi, Adithya

    2012-01-01

    Optimizing sputum smear microscopy, the principal method of tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis in high-burden settings around the world, is a critical priority for global TB control. To improve rates of testing, completion, and reporting, the World Health Organization (WHO) recently endorsed a policy of same-day diagnosis of TB by microscopy. Unfortunately, the implementation of this policy has emphasized same-day sputum collection alone, with patients required to return on a subsequent day to colle...

  12. Recognition of Pneumocystis carinii by gram stain in impression smears of lung tissue.

    OpenAIRE

    Felegie, T. P.; Pasculle, A. W.; Dekker, A.

    1984-01-01

    In 12 of 20 (60%) biopsy-proven cases of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, the diagnosis was first suggested by examination of routine Gram stains of impression smears made from infected lung tissue and later confirmed by methenamine-silver staining. The cysts appeared as 5- to 7-microns unstained spheres, each containing six to eight intracystic gram-negative bodies (sporozoites). Although the Gram stain does not appear to be as sensitive as more traditional staining techniques for the detecti...

  13. Cryptococcus neoformans: pitfalls in diagnosis through evaluation of gram-stained smears of purulent exudates.

    OpenAIRE

    Bottone, E. J.

    1980-01-01

    The recognition of Cryptococcus neoformans in Gram-stained smears of purulent exudates may be hampered by the presence of the large gelatinous capsule which apparently prevents definitive staining of the yeast-like cells. In such stained preparations, C. neoformans may appear either as round cells with gram-positive granular inclusions impressed upon a pale lavender cytoplasmic background or as gram-negative lipoid bodies.

  14. Validation of candidate smear microscope quality indicators, extracted from tuberculosis laboratory registers

    OpenAIRE

    Van Deun, A.; Zwahlen, M; Bola, V.; Lebeke, R.; Bahati, E.; Lubamba, P.; Rieder, H L

    2007-01-01

    SETTING: Kinshasa Province, Democratic Republic of Congo. OBJECTIVE: To identify and validate register-based indicators of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) microscopy quality. DESIGN: Selection of laboratories based on reliability and variation in routine smear rechecking results. Calculation of relative sensitivity (RS) compared to recheckers and its correlation coefficient (R) with candidate indicators based on a fully probabilistic analysis incorporating vague prior information using WinBUGS. RESUL...

  15. Uniform staining of Cyclospora oocysts in fecal smears by a modified safranin technique with microwave heating.

    OpenAIRE

    Visvesvara, G S; H. Moura; Kovacs-Nace, E; Wallace, S.; Eberhard, M L

    1997-01-01

    Cyclospora, a coccidian protist, is increasingly being identified as an important, newly emerging parasite that causes diarrhea, flatulence, fatigue, and abdominal pain leading to weight loss in immunocompetent persons with or without a recent travel history as well as in patients with AIDS. Modified Kinyoun's acid-fast stain is the most commonly used stain to identify the oocyst of this parasite in fecal smears. Oocysts of Cyclospora stain variably by the modified acid-fast procedure, result...

  16. Possibility of quantitative estimation of blood cell forms by the spatial-frequency spectrum analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiridonov, Igor N.; Safonova, Larisa P.; Samorodov, Andrey V.

    2000-05-01

    At present in hematology there are no quantitative estimates of such important for the cell classification parameters: cell form and nuclear form. Due to the absence of the correlation between morphological parameters and parameters measured by hemoanalyzers, both flow cytometers and computer recognition systems, do not provide the completeness of the clinical blood analysis. Analysis of the spatial-frequency spectra of blood samples (smears and liquid probes) permit the estimate the forms quantitatively. On the results of theoretical and experimental researches carried out an algorithm of the form quantitative estimation by means of SFS parameters has been created. The criteria of the quality of these estimates have been proposed. A test bench based on the coherent optical and digital processors. The received results could be applied for the automated classification of ether normal or pathological blood cells in the standard blood smears.

  17. Hematochezia before the First Feeding in a Newborn with Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Mizuno, Masanori; Masaki, Hiroshi; Yoshinare, Ryoko; Ito, Yujun; Morita, Hideyuki; Yoshio, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence and incidence of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) are clearly not known; its onset before first feeding at birth especially has been rarely reported. A female newborn was referred to our institution due to blood-stained diarrhea before her first feeding at birth. Examination of the stool with Wright-Giemsa staining on day 6 revealed numerous fecal eosinophils, including Charcot-Leyden crystals. Lymphocyte stimulation test (LST) against cow's milk protein also...

  18. Trypanosoma evansi isolated from capybara (Hidrochaeris hidrochaeris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Karina

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the morphological and biometric characteristics of Trypanosoma isolated from 50 capybaras animals, raised in captivity in the Peruvian Amazon. Trypanosoma was found in 14 blood samples using the microhaematocrit, wide drop, and Giemsa-stain methods and T. evansi was identified through morphological details in all 14 positive samples (the subterminal kinetoplast, the developed undulating membrane, and a long free flagellum were used for the identification of the agent.

  19. Trypanosoma evansi isolated from capybara (Hidrochaeris hidrochaeris)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Karina, Muñoz; Amanda, Chávez.

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the morphological and biometric characteristics of Trypanosoma isolated from 50 capybaras animals, raised in captivity in the Peruvian Amazon. Trypanosoma was found in 14 blood samples using the microhaematocrit, wide drop, and Giemsa-stain methods and T. evansi wa [...] s identified through morphological details in all 14 positive samples (the subterminal kinetoplast, the developed undulating membrane, and a long free flagellum were used for the identification of the agent).

  20. Development of a clinical scoring system for the diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Soto

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This study developed a clinical score based on clinical and radiographic data for the diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (SNPT. SNPT was defined as a positive culture in Ogawa in a patient with two negative sputum smears. Data from patients admitted to the emergency ward with respiratory symptoms and negative acid-fast bacilli (AFB smears was analyzed by means of logistic regression to develop the predictive score.Two hundred and sixty two patients were included. Twenty patients had SNPT. The variables included in the final model were hemoptysis, weight loss, age > 45 years old, productive cough, upper-lobe infiltrate, and miliary infiltrate. With those, a score was constructed. The score values ranged from -2 to 6. The area under the curve for the ROC curve was 0.83 (95% CI 0.74-0.90. A score of value 0 or less was associated with a sensitivity of 93% and a score of more than 4 points was associated with a specificity of 92% for SNPT. Fifty-two point twenty-nine percent of patients had scores of less than one or more than four, what provided strong evidence against and in favor, respectively, for the diagnosis of SNPT. The score developed is a cheap and useful clinical tool for the diagnosis of SNPT and can be used to help therapeutic decisions in patients with suspicion of having SNPT.

  1. Development of a clinical scoring system for the diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alonso, Soto; Lely, Solari; Juan, Agapito; Carlos, Acuna-Villaorduna; Marie-Laurence, Lambert; Eduardo, Gotuzzo; Patrick Van der, Stuyft.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This study developed a clinical score based on clinical and radiographic data for the diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (SNPT). SNPT was defined as a positive culture in Ogawa in a patient with two negative sputum smears. Data from patients admitted to the emergency ward with respir [...] atory symptoms and negative acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smears was analyzed by means of logistic regression to develop the predictive score.Two hundred and sixty two patients were included. Twenty patients had SNPT. The variables included in the final model were hemoptysis, weight loss, age > 45 years old, productive cough, upper-lobe infiltrate, and miliary infiltrate. With those, a score was constructed. The score values ranged from -2 to 6. The area under the curve for the ROC curve was 0.83 (95% CI 0.74-0.90). A score of value 0 or less was associated with a sensitivity of 93% and a score of more than 4 points was associated with a specificity of 92% for SNPT. Fifty-two point twenty-nine percent of patients had scores of less than one or more than four, what provided strong evidence against and in favor, respectively, for the diagnosis of SNPT. The score developed is a cheap and useful clinical tool for the diagnosis of SNPT and can be used to help therapeutic decisions in patients with suspicion of having SNPT.

  2. Molecular Diagnosis of Trichomoniasis in Negative Samples Examined by Direct Smear and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Valadkhani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichomoniasis is an extremely common sexually transmitted infection (STI world­wide and is associated with important public health problems, including amplification of HIV transmission. This disease is in forms of symptomatic and asymptomatic in women and may de­pend on host as well as parasite variables. Most of the studies reported from females are based on examination of vaginal secretions and urine samples by direct smear and culture in modified Dia­mond's media. The aim of this study was checking the samples, which were negative by direct smear and culture, with PCR technique.Methods: The urine samples and vaginal discharge of patients attending Gynecology Clinics of Ma­zandaran Province, Iran with different symptoms rechecked for Trichomonas vaginalis by PCR technique using primers targeting a conserved region of the beta-tubulin genes of the para­site. Data were analyzed by Epi Info software programResults: Out of 161 negative samples by direct smear and culture, seven samples (4.3% were posi­tive by PCR technique.Conclusion: Diagnosis of trichomoniasis by PCR is a sensitive and specific method that could play important role to help the physicians for properly treatment and control of infection.

  3. Influence of smear layer removal on the obturation of root canal ramifications

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elaine Vianna Freitas, Fachin; Roberta Kochenborger, Scarparo; Liliane Inês Sachet, Massoni.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated whether smear layer removal has any influence on the filling of the root canal system, by examining the obturation of lateral canals, secondary canals and apical deltas. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty maxillary and mandibular canines were randomly divided into two group [...] s, according to their irrigation regimen. Both groups were irrigated with 1% NaOCl during canal shaping, but only the teeth in Group II received a final irrigation with 17% EDTA for smear layer removal. The root canals were obturated with lateral condensation of gutta-percha and the specimens were cleared, allowing for observation under the microscope. RESULTS: In Groups I and II, 42.5% and 37.5% of the teeth, respectively, presented at least one filled canal ramification. Although a larger number of obturated ramifications was found in Group I, there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups (p = 0.4957). CONCLUSIONS: Smear layer removal under the conditions tested in this study did not affect the obturation of root canal ramifications when lateral condensation of gutta-percha was the technique used for root canal filling.

  4. The effect of pH of the sodium hypochlorite on smear layer removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadži? Branislav

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Canal irrigation is an important segment of endodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of 0.5% NaOCl solutions of different pH values on smear layer removal. Material and Methods. Thirty-two freshly extracted single rooted teeth with gangrenous pulp were used in the study. The samples were divided into four groups of eight teeth in each. Four solutions of 0.5% NaOCl having pH values 5, 7, 9 and 12 respectively, were used during chemomechanical instrumentation with hand instruments and using step back technique. SEM analysis was done to assess the quality of smear layer removal in apical, middle and coronal part of root canal. Presence and quantity of smear layer and detritus was quantified using the scale from 1 to 5. Results. SEM analysis results showed similar results for 0.5% NaOCl solutions of different pH values in root canal cleaning with no statistically significant differences. Conclusion. The most effective cleaning root canal was achieved with 0.5% NaOCl solution of pH 5.

  5. Development of automatic smear testing sampler for radioactive contamination of floor in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The floor contamination with radioactive substances in the controlled area of nuclear power stations is strictly controlled, and it is tested by the smear method, wiping the contaminants on floors with filter papers or cloths and measuring the radioactive intensity to obtain contamination density. The works are very laborious, therefore the automatic smear sampler was developed. Simple operation, shortening of time required for wiping, constant and high efficiency of wiping, and easy numbering of samples were the aims in the development. The method of wiping, the mechanisms of wiping, cloth feeding and running, the surface pressure at the time of wiping, the number of times of wiping and required motor torque were studied. The outline of the developed sampler is explained. The performance of the sampler was compared with manual wiping. The efficiency of wiping with the sampler was 92%, assuming manual wiping as 100. Difference was not observed between careful manual wiping and the wiping with the sampler, therefore it was confirmed that this automatic floor smear sampler can be put in practical use. By conventional manual sampling, the maximum limit was about 400 samples/man-day, but when this sampler is used, about 1000 samples/sampler-day is possible. At present, this sampler is operated in Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station. (Kako, I.)

  6. Antibodies against Mycobacterial proteins as biomarkers for HIV-associated smear-negative tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siev, Michael; Wilson, Douglas; Kainth, Supreet; Kasprowicz, Victoria O; Feintuch, Catherine M; Jenny-Avital, Elizabeth R; Achkar, Jacqueline M

    2014-06-01

    Serology data are limited for patients with sputum smear-negative HIV-associated active tuberculosis (TB). We evaluated the serum antibody responses against the mycobacterial proteins MPT51, MS, and echA1 and the 38-kDa protein via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in South African (S.A.) HIV-positive (HIV(+)) smear-negative TB patients (n = 56), U.S. HIV(+) controls with a positive tuberculin skin test (TST(+); n = 21), and S.A. HIV-negative (HIV(-)) (n = 18) and HIV(+) (n = 24) controls. TB patients had positive antibody reactivity against MPT51 (73%), echA1 (59%), MS (36%), and the 38-kDa protein (11%). Little reactivity against MPT51 and echA1 was observed in control groups at low risk for TB, i.e., S.A. HIV(-) (0% and 6%, respectively), and at moderate risk for TB development, i.e., U.S. HIV(+) TST(+) controls (14% and 10%, respectively). By contrast, more reactivity was detected in the S.A. HIV(+) control group at higher risk for TB (25% and 45%, respectively). Our data hold promise that antibody detection against MPT51 and echA1 might have adjunctive value in the detection of HIV(+) smear-negative TB and might reflect increasing Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection activity in asymptomatic HIV(+) individuals. PMID:24671553

  7. A scanning electron microscopy study of root surface smear layer removal after topical application of EDTA plus a detergent / Remoção de smear layer de superfícies radiculares com aplicação tópica de EDTA com detergente. Análise em microscopia eletrônica de varredura

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Eduardo Cezar, Sampaio; Flávia Pavan, Campos; Gibson Luiz, Pilatti; Letícia Helena, Theodoro; Fábio Renato Manzolli, Leite.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar, através de microscopia eletrônica de varredura, a remoção de smear layer de superfícies radiculares após aplicação tópica de gel de EDTA com gel de EDTA-T (Texapon). Foram utilizados dentes humanos que foram submetidos a remoção de cemento radicular e rasp [...] agem. As amostras dos dentes foram divididas em 3 grupos: Grupo I- (controle) (n=20); Grupo II- gel de EDTA (pH 7,0) nas concentrações de 5%,10%,15%,20% e 24% (n=100); Grupo II -gel de EDTA-T (pH 7,0) nas concentrações acima descritas (n=100). As fotomicrografias foram avaliadas através de um índice e os dados foram estatisticamente analisados. Ambos os tratamentos com EDTA foram efetivos na remoção de smear layer quando comparados ao grupo controle. O gel de EDTA a 5% demonstrou maior capacidade na remoção de smear layer quando comparado com as concentrações de 15%, 20% e 24% (p0,05). Os géis de EDTA foram mais efetivos que o EDTA-T nas concentrações de 5 e 10%. Os resultados sugerem que a aplicação tópica de EDTA ou EDTA-T é efetiva na remoção de smear layer, principamente em baixas concentrações e a adição do Texapon não promove vantagens neste tratamento. Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to compare root surface smear layer removal following topical application of EDTA and EDTA-T (Texapon). Extracted human teeth had their cementum removed and were mechanically scaled. A total of 220 root specimens were obtained and were randomly assigned to the follow [...] ing groups: I-saline solution (control), II-EDTA; III-EDTA-T. Groups II and III specimens were assigned to different EDTA gel concentrations: 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 24%. Smear layer removal score was assessed for each specimen by scanning electron microscopy. The results demonstrated that EDTA and EDTA-T gel led to a higher root surface smear layer removal when compared to the control group. The 5% EDTA gel also showed a higher smear layer removal than the 15%, 20% and 24% EDTA gels (p0.05). EDTA gels had statistically significantly lower smear layer scores than the EDTA-T gels for the 5% and 10% concentrations. The results suggested that topical application of EDTA or EDTA-T gel led to significant smear layer removal of the mechanically treated root surfaces. The addition of a detergent to the EDTA gel formula did not improve smear layer removal of the root surface.

  8. A scanning electron microscopy study of root surface smear layer removal after topical application of EDTA plus a detergent Remoção de smear layer de superfícies radiculares com aplicação tópica de EDTA com detergente. Análise em microscopia eletrônica de varredura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Cezar Sampaio

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare root surface smear layer removal following topical application of EDTA and EDTA-T (Texapon. Extracted human teeth had their cementum removed and were mechanically scaled. A total of 220 root specimens were obtained and were randomly assigned to the following groups: I-saline solution (control, II-EDTA; III-EDTA-T. Groups II and III specimens were assigned to different EDTA gel concentrations: 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 24%. Smear layer removal score was assessed for each specimen by scanning electron microscopy. The results demonstrated that EDTA and EDTA-T gel led to a higher root surface smear layer removal when compared to the control group. The 5% EDTA gel also showed a higher smear layer removal than the 15%, 20% and 24% EDTA gels (p0.05. EDTA gels had statistically significantly lower smear layer scores than the EDTA-T gels for the 5% and 10% concentrations. The results suggested that topical application of EDTA or EDTA-T gel led to significant smear layer removal of the mechanically treated root surfaces. The addition of a detergent to the EDTA gel formula did not improve smear layer removal of the root surface.O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar, através de microscopia eletrônica de varredura, a remoção de smear layer de superfícies radiculares após aplicação tópica de gel de EDTA com gel de EDTA-T (Texapon. Foram utilizados dentes humanos que foram submetidos a remoção de cemento radicular e raspagem. As amostras dos dentes foram divididas em 3 grupos: Grupo I- (controle (n=20; Grupo II- gel de EDTA (pH 7,0 nas concentrações de 5%,10%,15%,20% e 24% (n=100; Grupo II -gel de EDTA-T (pH 7,0 nas concentrações acima descritas (n=100. As fotomicrografias foram avaliadas através de um índice e os dados foram estatisticamente analisados. Ambos os tratamentos com EDTA foram efetivos na remoção de smear layer quando comparados ao grupo controle. O gel de EDTA a 5% demonstrou maior capacidade na remoção de smear layer quando comparado com as concentrações de 15%, 20% e 24% (p0,05. Os géis de EDTA foram mais efetivos que o EDTA-T nas concentrações de 5 e 10%. Os resultados sugerem que a aplicação tópica de EDTA ou EDTA-T é efetiva na remoção de smear layer, principamente em baixas concentrações e a adição do Texapon não promove vantagens neste tratamento.

  9. Prevalence and intensity of blood apicomplexan infections in reptiles from Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalca, A D; Racka, K; Gherman, C; Ionescu, D T

    2008-04-01

    In order to evaluate prevalence and intensity of apicomplexan hemoparasites in free-ranging reptiles from Romania, blood smears were collected from European pond turtles (Emys orbicularis), sand lizards (Lacerta agilis), and spur-thighed tortoises (Testudo graeca). All three host species were positive for blood parasites, with prevalence of infected individuals between 60.71% and 100% and variable intensity. Similarities and differences with other epidemiological data are discussed. PMID:18283494

  10. Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abroun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord blood is a sample of blood taken from a newborn baby's umbilical cord. It is a rich source of stem cells, umbilical cord blood and tissue are collected from material that normally has no use following a child’s birth. Umbilical cord blood and tissue cells are rich sources of stem cells, which have been used in the treatment of over 80 diseases including leukemia, lymphoma and anemia as bone marrow stem cell potency.  The most common disease category has been leukemia. The next largest group is inherited diseases. Patients with lymphoma, myelodysplasia and severe aplastic anemia have also been successfully transplanted with cord blood. Cord blood is obtained by syringing out the placenta through the umbilical cord at the time of childbirth, after the cord has been detached from the newborn. Collecting stem cells from umbilical blood and tissue is ethical, pain-free, safe and simple. When they are needed to treat your child later in life, there will be no rejection or incompatibility issues, as the procedure will be using their own cells. In contrast, stem cells from donors do have these potential problems. By consider about cord blood potency, cord blood banks (familial or public were established. In IRAN, four cord blood banks has activity, Shariati BMT center cord blood bank, Royan familial cord blood banks, Royan public cord blood banks and Iranian Blood Transfusion Organ cord blood banks. Despite 50,000 sample which storage in these banks, but the user centers are few, we hope in all providence the transplantation center will establish by good activity to improve social welfare. Key words: Bone marrow, Cord blood, Peripheral blood.

  11. Trends in treatment outcome of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Southeastern Nigeria, 1999 – 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley Nnanna Ukwaja

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: the Directly Observed Treatment Short Course (DOTS strategy was introduced into the tuberculosis control programme of Ebonyi, Southeastern, Nigeria in 1996. The impact of the programme on the treatment outcomes for smear-positive tuberculosis has not been assessed ever since. We assessed the trends in treatment outcome for new smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis between 1999 and 2008.

    Methods: we conducted a retrospective analysis of the Ebonyi state Ministry of Health quarterly smear-positive tuberculosis statistical returns. Patients were treated and treatment outcome categories computed according to the WHO/National Tuberculosis Control Programme’s guidelines. Chi-square for trends was used to determine significance.

    Results: the number of smear-positive cases who registered for treatment fell from 1 361 patients in 1999 to 977 in 2008 (Trend ?2=349; P<0.001. The follow-up smear results at month two were not available for 16% of the patients in 1999; this unavailability decreased to 1.7% in 2008. The negative conversion rate at month two increased from 77.5% in 1999 to 95.9% in 2008 (Trend ?2=16.5; P<0.001. Treatment success rose from 74.9% in 1999 to 88.7% in 2008 (Trend ?2=12.8; P<0.001, whilst default rate declined from 12% to 4.3% (Trend ?2=55.6; P<0.001. Though decreasing (Trend ?2=4.64; P=0.031, the annual death rate remained at around 5% during the study period.

    Conclusions: monitoring, supervision and home visits have improved, and our DOTS programme has achieved an 85% treatment success and declining default rates. However, with the current low case notification and high mortality rates, alternative mechanisms are needed to achieve global stop-TB targets in the State.

  12. Competency-based Learning: The Impact of Targeted Resident Education and Feedback on Pap Smear Adequacy Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Watkins, Raquel S.; Moran, William P.

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about assessing or improving competency in Papanicolau (Pap) smear sampling among internal medicine residents. We hypothesized that a 3-part targeted resident physician educational program (educational presentation by a knowledgeable instructor, skills workshop, and peer comparison feedback) would be effective in increasing the quality of Pap smears obtained by internal medicine residents. We conducted a randomized, pre-post comparison study over a 16-month period to assess th...

  13. Associations of demographic variables and the Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    McFarl; DM

    2013-01-01

    Ditsapelo M McFarland College of Nursing and Public Health, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA Purpose: Papanicolaou (Pap) smear services are available in most urban areas in Botswana. Yet most women in such areas do not screen regularly for cancer of the cervix. The purpose of this article is to present findings on the associations of demographic variables and Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana. Sample and methods: The study included a...

  14. Pap smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Katz VL, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Mosby; 2012:chap ... Gynecologists. Committee Opinion No. 463: Cervical cancer in adolescents: screening, evaluation, and management. Obstet Gynecol . 2010;116: ...

  15. Where to Donate Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Membership Directory Team Sites My Account Blood FAQ Blood Donation Information Why Donate Blood? Where to Donate Blood Currently selected Blood Donation FAQs Blood Donation Process Organize a Blood Drive ...

  16. Alternatives to Blood Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risks of blood transfusions Alternatives to blood transfusions Donating blood Blood donation by cancer survivors To learn more ... Topic Possible risks of blood transfusions Next Topic Donating blood Alternatives to blood transfusions Because transfusions carry risks ...

  17. Blood (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about the mysterious, life-sustaining fluid called blood. Blood Basics Two types of blood vessels carry blood ... mixture of blood cells and plasma. Continue Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (RBCs, also called erythrocytes) ...

  18. Has the ThinPrep method of cervical screening maintained its improvement over conventional smears in terms of specimen adequacy?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Treacy, A

    2009-04-01

    Liquid-based cytology (LBC) has replaced conventional smear assessment in many centers over recent years. In our laboratory this transfer took place in 1999. At that time we performed a split sample study comparing the conventional method of cervical smear evaluation with the ThinPrep system. This split sample study identified a dramatic improvement in specimen adequacy with LBC. While 11% of conventional preparations were reported as unsatisfactory and almost 9% were reported as suboptimal, evaluation of the same cases using LBC saw this combined figure reduced to 2.3%. AIM: To evaluate whether this dramatic fall in unsatisfactory smears has been maintained with the use of LBC. The database for all smears reported for 2005 (100% LBC) was interrogated. The number of unsatisfactory reports was calculated. The reason for an unsatisfactory report was recorded for each case. The overall unsatisfactory rate was compared with that reported in the 1999 split sample study. A total of 41,312 smear tests were reported in 2005. 1,342 (3.25%) were reported as unsatisfactory. Our findings support the ongoing value of LBC in a routine cervical screening laboratory in terms of continuing to maintain a low rate of unsatisfactory smears.

  19. Prevalence of Malaria from Blood Smears Examination: A Seven-Year Retrospective Study from Metema Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Getachew Ferede; Abiyu Worku; Alemtegna Getaneh; Ali Ahmed; Tarekegn Haile; Yenus Abdu; Belay Tessema; Yitayih Wondimeneh; Abebe Alemu

    2013-01-01

    Background. Malaria is a major public health problem in Ethiopia where an estimated 68% of the population lives in malarious areas. Studying its prevalence is necessary to implement effective control measures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine seven-year slide positive rate of malaria. Methods. A retrospective study was conducted at Metema Hospital from September 2006 to August 2012. Seven-year malaria cases data had been collected from laboratory registration book. Results. A...

  20. Histomorphometric study on blood cells in male adult ostrich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Tadjalli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to perform a histomorphometric study of blood cells in male adult ostrich, blood samples were obtained from jugular vein of 10 clinically healthy male adult ostriches (2 - 3 years old. The slides were stained with the Giemsa methods and the smears were evaluated for cellular morphology, with cellular size being determined by micrometry. The findings of this study revealed that the shape of the cell, cytoplasm and nucleus of erythrocytes in male adult ostriches were similar to those in other birds such as quails, chickens, Iranian green-head ducks.

  1. Atypical glandular cells in conventional cervical smears: Incidence and follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knolle Ulrich

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atypical glandular cells on cervical smears are often associated with clinically significant uterine lesions. The frequency and accuracy of AGC-NOS (i.e. atypical glandular cells, not otherwise specified diagnoses, regardless of the gland cell type or the degree of suspicion, and their outcome were investigated. Methods From January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1999 a total of 261 patients had an AGC-NOS diagnosis made by conventional cervical Papanicolaou smear interpretation representing 0.05% of all Pap-smears analyzed at the national level. 191 (73.2% patients had a subsequent histological examination, 8 samples were not representative by origin and were excluded. Results Out of 183 AGC-NOS diagnosed, 56.3% (103/183 were associated with tissue-proven precancerous and/or cancerous lesions, 44% being of endocervical and 56% of endometrial origin. 75% of all AGC-patients were asymptomatic. 66.7% (6/9 of the patients with subsequent invasive endocervical adenocarcinoma (AC and 56% (28/50 of those patients with invasive endometrial AC were without clinical symptoms. 3 patients out of 9 with an invasive endocervical AC were 35 years of age or less. 10.1% and 12.3% of all 'new' tissue-proven invasive endocervical or endometrial AC respectively recorded by the national Morphologic Tumour Registry (MTR were first identified by a cytological AGC-NOS diagnosis. Conclusion Our findings emphasize the importance of the cytological AGC-category even in the absence of a precise origin or cell type specification. 56% of the AGC-diagnoses being associated with significant cancerous or precancerous conditions, a complete and careful evaluation is required.

  2. Development of an automatic smear sampler and a polymer film for surface radioactive contamination assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of the surface contamination by an indirect method is subject to the various kinds of error according to the sampling person and needs much time and effort in the sampling and assay. In this research, an automatic smear sampler is developed. It improved efficiency for assay work of surface contamination level achieved periodically in a radiation controlled area. Using an automatic smear sampler developed, it is confirmed that radioactive contaminated materials are uniformly transferred to smear paper more than any sampling method by an operator. Also, Solid scintillation proximity membranes were prepared for measuring the amount of radioactive contamination in laboratories contaminated by the low energy beta-ray emitter, such as 3H and 14C. Polysulfone scintillation proximity membranes were prepared by impregnating Cerium Activated Yttrium Silicate (CAYS), an inorganic fluor, in a membrane structure. The inorganic fluor-impregnated membranes were applied to detect the radioactive surface contamination. The preparation of membranes was divided into two processes. A supporting polymer film was made of casting solutions consisting of polysulfone and solvent, their cast film being solidified by vacuum evaporation. CAYS-dispersed polymer solutions were cast over the first, solidified polymer films and coagulated either by evaporating solvent in the solution with non-solvent in a coagulation bath. The prepared membranes had two distinguished, but tightly attached, double layers : one is the supporting layer of dense polymer film and the other results revealed that the prepared membranes were efficient to monitor radioactive contamination with reliable counting ability. For enhancement of pick-up and measurement efficiency, the membrane was prepared with the condition of different membrane solidification. The scintillation produced by interaction with radiation and CAYS was measured with photomultiplier tube. The test results showed that the prepared membranes were efficient to monitor radionuclide-contaminated areas with the good counting ability. Treatment of the polymer film with DMF induced a change in surface morphology which allowed more radioactivity to be transferred from the surface.(author)

  3. Parasites of cattle in the trans-boundary areas of Ogun State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: An assessment of the parasites of cattle along a major trans-boundary route was carried out in Yewa division of Ogun State, Nigeria between February 2006 and July 2007. The location of study is bound to the west by the Republic of Benin, with which it shares 155 kilometres of International boundary, within latitude 6 deg. 151 N and 7 deg. 581 N in a deciduous/derived Savannah zone of Nigeria. A total of 62 herds of between 56 and 98 heads of cattle entering Nigeria from neighbouring West African Countries by hoof along the Iwoye - Imeko - Olodo - Abeokuta route were observed for various haemo- and ecto-parasites. About 5ml of blood was collected from the jugular vein of each of 245 randomly selected animals into sterile bijou bottles containing 250il of 200 mM disodium ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (Na2EDTA) as anticoagulant. Animals infested with ectoparasites were noted and the parasites on each of the animals were collected into universal bottles containing 1% formaldehyde. The pus expressed from skin nodules on 18 animals and skin scabs from 15 animals were also collected for Parasitology and Microbiology respectively. All the samples were analysed at the College of veterinary medicine, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta. The blood samples were screened for the presence of trypanosomes using the buffy coat centrifugation method and for other blood parasites by examination of Giemsa-stained thin blood smear. Of the f Giemsa-stained thin blood smear. Of the 245 blood samples analysed, 123 (50.20%) were positive for blood protozoans. Of these, Babesia spp. infection accounted for 50 (40.65%); Trypanosoma spp. accounted for 29 (23.58%); Anaplasma spp. 14 (11.38%); mixed Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp. 9 (7.32%) and mixed Babesia spp. and Trypanosoma spp. 21 (17.07%). All the animals sampled had varying degrees of tick infestation ranging from a total count of 26 to 280 ticks per cattle. Of the 3756 ticks collected, 1080 (28.75%) were Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, 917 (24.41%) were Amblyomma variegatum, 739 (19.68%) were Boophilus decoloratus, 487 (12.97%) were Boophilus microplus, 473 (12.59%) were Amblyomma hebraeum, 41 (1.09%) were Hyalomma spp. and 19 (0.51%) were Amblyomma Haematopinus was the only louse specie identified in this study. They were found on the upper eyelid, inner commissure of the pinna and tip of the tail in 16 animals. Demodex bovis was seen in all the 18 skin nodules, while Dermatophilus congolensis was isolated from all 15-skin scabs collected. The very high parasitic load observed in the animal population in this study is an indication that many parasites enter the country on daily basis via animate vectors. These animals may be carriers of a wide range of economic important diseases, the control of which may be very expensive. This may also result in additional cost of production to the owners of in-contact animals. Since the potential for increasing livestock production in Nigeria can only be fully realized if the animals are adequately protected against major diseases, the animals in border areas should be regularly monitored and screened for diseases of economic and/ or epizootic importance to minimize spread of trans-boundary diseases to the national herd. (author)

  4. PCR - based diagnosis to evaluate the performance of malaria reference centers / Diagnóstico baseado em PCR para avaliar o desempenho de centros de referência em malária

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvia Maria, Di Santi; Karin, Kirchgatter; Karen Cristina Sant' Anna, Brunialti; Alessandra Mota, Oliveira; Sergio Roberto Santos, Ferreira; Marcos, Boulos.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Embora a gota espessa corada por Giemsa (GTS) permaneça o padrão ouro para o diagnóstico de malária, métodos moleculares são mais sensíveis e específicos para detectar parasitas e podem ser utilizados em centros de referência para avaliar o desempenho da microscopia. A descrição das seqüências dos g [...] enes ssrRNA de Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae e P. ovale permitiu o desenvolvimento de uma reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) que tem sido utilizada para diferenciar as quatro espécies. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as espécies de Plasmodium através de PCR em 190 lâminas positivas de pacientes para verificar a qualidade do diagnóstico realizado no Laboratório de Malária da SUCEN. Considerando somente os 131 resultados positivos em ambas as técnicas, GTS detectou 4,6% de infecções mistas e 3,1% de P. malariae enquanto o PCR identificou 19,1% e 13,8%, respectivamente. Abstract in english Although the Giemsa-stained thick blood smear (GTS) remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of malaria, molecular methods are more sensitive and specific to detect parasites and can be used at reference centers to evaluate the performance of microscopy. The description of the Plasmodium falcipar [...] um, P. vivax, P. malariae and P. ovale ssrRNA gene sequences allowed the development of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that had been used to differentiate the four species. The objective of this study was to determine Plasmodium species through PCR in 190 positive smears from patients in order to verify the quality of diagnosis at SUCEN's Malaria Laboratory. Considering only the 131 positive results in both techniques, GTS detected 4.6% of mixed and 3.1% of P. malariae infections whereas PCR identified 19.1% and 13.8%, respectively.

  5. Blood irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viable lymphocytes are present in blood and cellular blood components used for transfusion. If the patient who receives a blood transfusion is immunocompetent these lymphocytes are destroyed immediately. However if the patient is immunodefficient or immunosuppressed the transfused lymphocytes survive, recognize the recipient as foreign and react producing a devastating and most often fatal syndrome of transfusion graft versus host disease [T-GVHD]. Even immunocompetent individuals can develop T-GVHD if the donor is a first degree relative since like the Trojan horse the transfused lymphocytes escape detection by the recipient's immune system, multiply and attack recipient tissues. T-GVHD can be prevented by irradiating the blood and different centers use doses ranging from 1.5 to 4.5 Gy. All transfusions where the donor is a first degree relative and transfusions to neonates, immunosuppressed patients and bone marrow transplant recipients need to be irradiated. Commercial irradiators specifically designed for irradiation of blood and cellular blood components are available: however they are expensive. India needs to have blood irradiation facilities available in all large tertiary institutions where immunosuppressed patients are treated. The Atomic Energy Commission of India needs to develop a blood irradiator which meets international standards for use in tertiary medical institutions in the country. (author)

  6. Blood donation

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A blood donation is organised by the Cantonal Hospital of Geneva On Thursday 19 March 2009 from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT 2 Number of donations during the last blood donations :135 donors in July 2008 122 donors in November 2008 Let’s do better in 2009 !!! Give 30 minutes of your time to save lives...

  7. Treatment outcome of new smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Penang, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background According to the World Health Organization’s recent report, in Malaysia, tuberculosis (TB) treatment success rate for new smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients is still below the global success target of 85%. In this study, we evaluated TB treatment outcome among new smear positive PTB patients, and identified the predictors of unsuccessful treatment outcome and longer duration of treatment (i.e., > 6 months). Methods The population in this study consisted of all new smear positive PTB patients who were diagnosed at the chest clinic of Penang General Hospital between March 2010 and February 2011. During the study period, a standardized data collection form was used to obtain socio-demographic, clinical and treatment related data of the patients from their medical charts and TB notification forms (Tuberculosis Information System; TBIS). These data sources were reviewed at the time of the diagnosis of the patients and then at the subsequent follow-up visits until their final treatment outcomes were available. The treatment outcomes of the patients were reported in line with six outcome categories recommended by World Health Organization. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to find the independent risk factors for unsuccessful treatment outcome and longer treatment duration. Data were analyzed using the PASW (Predictive Analysis SoftWare, version 19.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp). Results Among the 336 PTB patients (236 male and 100 female) notified during the study period, the treatment success rate was 67.26% (n?=?226). Out of 110 patients in unsuccessful outcome category, 30 defaulted from the treatment, 59 died and 21 were transferred to other health care facilities. The mean duration of TB treatment was 8.19 (SD 1.65) months. In multiple logistic regression analysis, risk factors for unsuccessful treatment outcome were foreign nationality, male gender and being illiterate. Similarly, risk factors for mortality due to TB included high-grade sputum and presence of lung cavities at the start of treatment, being alcoholic and elderly. Likewise, concurrent diabetes, presence of lung cavities at the start of the treatment and being a smoker were the significant predictors of longer treatment duration. Conclusion Our findings indicated that the treatment success rate among the new smear positive PTB patients was less than the success target set by World Health Organization. The proportion of patients in the successful outcome category may be increased by closely monitoring the treatment progress of the patients with aforementioned high risk characteristics. Similarly, more aggressive follow-up of the treatment defaulters and transferred out patients could also improve the TB treatment success rate. PMID:25037452

  8. Use of Polyphosphate to Decrease Uranium Leaching in Hanford 300 Area Smear Zone Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szecsody, James E.; Zhong, Lirong; Oostrom, Martinus; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Williams, Mark D.

    2012-09-30

    The primary objective of this study is to summarize the laboratory investigations performed to evaluate short- and long-term effects of phosphate treatment on uranium leaching from 300 area smear zone sediments. Column studies were used to compare uranium leaching in phosphate-treated to untreated sediments over a year with multiple stop flow events to evaluate longevity of the uranium leaching rate and mass. A secondary objective was to compare polyphosphate injection, polyphosphate/xanthan injection, and polyphosphate infiltration technologies that deliver phosphate to sediment.

  9. Scanning electron microscopy of root canal walls after removing the smear layer

    OpenAIRE

    Gaši? Jovanka; Da?i?-Simonovi? Dragica; Radi?evi? Goran; Miti? Aleksandar; Stojilkovi? Goran; Dakovi? Jelena

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate ultrastructurally the effect of smear layer removal by applying different root canal irrigances: 3% HO2, 4% NaOCl and 15% Na-EDTA (in combination with 3% HO2, 4% NaOCl) and establish the appearance of root canal dentine surface after treatment with 15% Na-EDTA for different time periods(1 min and 5 min) using additional irrigant 3% HOor 4% NaOCl. 22 22 Teeth with single and double canals extracted for orthodontic reasons, were used in this study. A...

  10. Effectiveness of EDTA and EDTA-T brushingm on the removal of root surface smear layer

    OpenAIRE

    Sampaio José Eduardo Cezar; Rached Ricardo Samih Georges Abi; Pilatti Gibson Luiz; Theodoro Letícia Helena; Batista Luiz Henrique Carvalho

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the removal of root surface smear layer following active application of EDTA gel and EDTA-T (texapon) gel in different concentrations (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 24%), using scanning electron microscopy. A total of 220 dentin blocks obtained from the root surfaces of extracted teeth were divided into 3 groups: Group I - (control) application of saline solution (n = 20); Group II - EDTA gel (pH 7.0) was applied in the following concentrations: 5%, 10%, 15%, ...

  11. Detection of mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical samples by smear and culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective study was carried out in order to compare the smear stained by ZN and Lowenstein-Jensen (U) medium for the detection of Mycobacterium in clinical samples from different categories. Study Design: Laboratory based, Retrospective. Place and Duration: Sir Ganga Ram Hospital Fatima Jinnah Medical College, Lahore over a 5 year period between Jan 2001 and June 2006. Material and Methods: A total of 798 clinical samples were collected from patients of both sexes and all ages with a provisional diagnosis of tuberculosis. A Ziehl-Neelsen stain (ZN) and culture on U medium was performed for the detection of Mycobacterium. The specimen categories were sputum, pus, lymph node aspirate, urine and endometrial curetting. Results: Out of 5 types of 798 specimens received over a period of five years, only 46.3%) (n=369) were respiratory whereas the remaining 53.7% (n=429) were non respiratory tract category samples including sputum, pus, lymph node aspirate, urine and endometrial curetting. All were examined for the presence of acid-fast-bacilli (AFB) in ZN smear. Among these 3.578% gave a positive ZN stain while 11.65% were positive on culture. Out of a total of 369 respiratory tract category samples, 38 (10.3%) sputum samples were positive for AFB on both ZN and culture. Among the non respiratory tract category, 47 (28.2%) pus, 26 (31%) LN aspirate, 5 (15.6%) urine, 5 (3.42%) endometrial curetting were reported positive. Only 15.16% of clinical samples belonging to 5 15.16% of clinical samples belonging to 5 different categories of specimens received from patients of both sexes with a provisional diagnosis of tuberculosis, tested positive for Mycobacterium by both ZN stain smear and culture on U medium. Among these, 3.57% were positive for AFB on ZN smear and 11.65% were positive on culture on U medium. Conclusion: These conventional techniques have proved to be reliable testing tools for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in our settings but there is an urgent need to promote the use of Biotic and Pcr for early detection and drug susceptibility keeping in view the rise in the number of multi-drug resistant cases of tuberculosis in the last few years. (author)

  12. X-ray reflection in galactic black hole candidates smeared edge profiles and resonant Auger destruction

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, R R; Brandt, W N

    1995-01-01

    We consider the spectra of Thomson-thick, geometrically-thin accretion discs around Galactic black hole candidates in the reflection model and compute their iron K edges and iron K\\alpha lines. We compare the smeared iron K edge profiles that we compute with observation and find them to be a satisfactory description of the data. We find that a combination of Doppler broadening and resonant Auger destruction of line photons can make iron K\\alpha lines very difficult to detect in highly ionized inclined discs. We detail the physics of resonant Auger destruction at the level it is currently understood and point out its implications.

  13. Audit of practice based cervical smear programme: completion of the cycle.

    OpenAIRE

    Creighton, P. A.; Evans, A. M.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To determine the effectiveness of a practice based cervical screening programme and the changing pattern of abnormal smear results and to improve the quality of care provided for patients. DESIGN--Audit of practice held data on cervical screening from 1980 to 1990. Changes in the programme were made after analysis of first five years' data. SETTING--Mixed urban and rural practice of 10,900 patients in Northumberland. SUBJECTS--Women aged 20-65 who had not had a hysterectomy. RESUL...

  14. The effect of pH of the sodium hypochlorite on smear layer removal

    OpenAIRE

    Karadži? Branislav 1; Dimitrijevi? Nina; Manojlovi? Dragica; Trišovi? Tomislav

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Canal irrigation is an important segment of endodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of 0.5% NaOCl solutions of different pH values on smear layer removal. Material and Methods. Thirty-two freshly extracted single rooted teeth with gangrenous pulp were used in the study. The samples were divided into four groups of eight teeth in each. Four solutions of 0.5% NaOCl having pH values 5, 7, 9 and 12 respectively, were used during chemomechanical i...

  15. Properties of a proto-neutron star with smeared trapped neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the structure of a proto-neutron star with trapped neutrinos by using quantum hadrodynamics. Ratios of the trapped neutrinos and corresponding leptons to the baryons are usually assumed to be constant. But relevant reactions associated with the ? equilibrium could be sensitive to the given density and temperature. By adopting a phenomenological lepton density that is smeared near the surface, we calculate and discuss populations of baryons and leptons, equations of state, and the mass-radius relation of a proto-neutron star in an isentropic process.

  16. Relativistic smearing of the reflection spectrum in Galactic Black Hole Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Done, C; Smith, D A

    1997-01-01

    We identify the reflected component in the GINGA spectra of Nova Muscae, a Black Hole transient system which has been used as the prototype for the recent advection dominated disk models. We see that the reflected spectrum is generally significantly relativistically smeared, and use this and the amount of reflection to track the innermost extent of the accretion disk. We see that the optically thick disk does retreat during the decline, but more slowly than predicted by the advective models, posing problems for this description of the accretion flow.

  17. Determining the interobserver reproducibility of Pap smears in the diagnosis of epithelial cell abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izadi-Mood N

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Cancer of uterine cervix is the second cause of death in women in the world and the most common cause in developing countries. Because the majority of women with invasive cervical cancer of the uterine have not previously undergone screening, many clinicians assume that Pap smear has a high degree of accuracy; but problems such as false positive and false negative interpretations, as well as interobserver variability have questioned its validity."n"nMethods : We retrieved 162 positive cervical smears that had been originally interpreted as ASC-US, ASC-H, LSIL, HSIL, SCC, AGC and adenocarcinoma from the cytology archives of Women's Hospital in Tehran, Iran. The slides were rescreened by an experienced pathologist and reclassified in the mentioned categories. All the 162 slides were reviewed by three more pathologists in a blind study using interpretative criteria utilized in their daily routine to evaluate interobserver reproducibility. To increase the level of interobserver agreement, the diagnostic categories were reduced to squamous Vs. glandular abnormalities and invasive (SCC and adenocarcinoma Vs. non-invasive abnormalities."n"nResults : The results obtained in this study indicated slight interobserver agreement (k=0.26. The most reproducible category was the invasive category (SCC in addition to adenocarcinoma and the least agreement was seen for HSIL (k=0.19. "n"nConclusion: This study showed that reproducibility of cytological interpretation of conventional Pap smears varies among interpretive categories and the overall interobserver agreement is slight. Since convening on the reduction of interobserver discrepancy in Pap smear interpretations necessitates more reliable information of interpretative variability, larger studies need to be undertaken.

  18. Myxobolus sp. (Myxozoa) in the circulating blood of Colossoma macropomum (Osteichthyes, Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Patricia Oliveira; Affonso, Elizabeth Gusmão; Boijink, Cheila de Lima; Tavares-Dias, Marcos; Inoue, Luis Antonio Kioshi Aoki

    2011-01-01

    Myxosporea parasitize many organs in fresh and saltwater fish. Species of the genus Myxobolus parasitizing the gills and other organs of the tambaqui Colossoma macropomum have been described. In the present study, blood smears were made from juvenile tambaqui and were stained with May Grunwald-Giemsa-Wright in order to identify myxozoan parasites. Out of a total of 36 fish examined, one specimen (2.7%) that was reared in a cage presented spores that were identified as M. colossomatis, whereas fish kept in 250 L tanks showed prevalence of 5.5%. This is the first report of M. colossomatis in the blood of farmed tambaqui in the Amazon region. These results indicate that myxozoan parasites should also be investigated in fish blood smears. Some myxosporean species may cause diseases in fish, and these species need to be identified so that adequate preventive sanitary control can be instituted. PMID:21439240

  19. Biology of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Google+ LinkedIn Merck Manual Home Edition Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Also of Interest ( ... to Consumer Version DOCTORS: Go to Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  20. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  1. Blood Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Blood > Blood Facts and Statistics Printable Version Blood Facts and Statistics Facts about blood needs Facts ... about American Red Cross Blood Services Facts about blood needs Every two seconds someone in the U.S. ...

  2. Theileria parva: effects of irradiation on a culture of parasitized bovine lymphoid cells. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvin, A.D.; Brown, C.G.D.; Stagg, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    Aliquots of a culture of Theileria parva-infected bovine lymphoid cells were irradiated at 0, 300, 600, 900, and 1200 rads. The short-term effects of irradiation were evaluated on examination of Giemsa-stained smears and on autoradiography of cells labeled with (/sup 3/H)thymidine. Irradiation inhibited cell division but parasite division did not appear to be inhibited and macroschizont nuclear particles increased in number, frequently to several hundred per schizont. There was no evidence of an increased percentage switch from macro- to microschizont. Apparently viable cells were still present in all cultures 4 days after irradiation.

  3. Indigenous cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed K

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available A 20 year old male from Nilambur of Malappuram district of Kerala developed an asymptomatic , single, well circumscribed erythomatous indurated plaque about 3x 2.5 cm in size with central crusting, on the left forearm just about the wrist on the lateral aspect, of six months duration. He had never gone out of his native place at any time in his life, Slit smear examination and staining with Giemsa stain showed plenty of extracelluar and intracellular Leishman, Donovan bodies, ,Histopathology of the lesion was consistent with diagnosis of cutaneous Leishmaniasis. He was treated with rifampicin?600 mg and the lesion showed signs of regression within one month.

  4. Autoinducer-2 activity produced by bacteria found in smear of surface ripened cheeses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gori, Klaus; Moslehi Jenabian, Saloomeh

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial strains of the species Arthrobacter nicotianae, Corynebacterium ammoniagenes, Corynebacterium casei, Microbacterium barkeri, Microbacterium gubbeenense and Staphylococcus equorum subsp. linens, all isolated from the smear of surface ripened cheeses, were found to possess autoinducer-2 (AI-2) activity using the Vibrio harveyi (BB170) bioluminescence assay. In contrast, Brevibacterium casei and Brevibacterium linens strains were not found to have AI-2 activity. When exposed to low pH and high NaCl concentrations, AI-2 activities increased between 5.0 and 11.6× for C. casei 44701, M. gubbeenense 15944 and S. equorum subsp. linens 15097, whereas AI-2 activities did not increase for A. nicotianae 20123, C. ammoniagenes 20305, C. ammoniagenes 20306 and M. barkeri 20145. The fact that AI-2 activity is produced by bacterial strains found in the smear of surface ripened cheeses, and also increased by dairy-relevant stress conditions, indicates that AI-2 signalling might be important in regulation of microbial succession during ripening of surface ripened cheeses.

  5. Vacuum Energy Density Fluctuations in Minkowski and Casimir States via Smeared Quantum Fields and Point Separation

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, N G; Phillips, Nicholas. G.

    2000-01-01

    We present calculations of the variance of fluctuations and of the mean of the energy momentum tensor of a massless scalar field for the Minkowski and Casimir vacua as a function of an intrinsic scale defined by a smeared field or by point separation. We point out that contrary to prior claims, the ratio of variance to mean-squared being of the order unity is not necessarily a good criterion for measuring the invalidity of semiclassical gravity. For the Casimir topology we obtain expressions for the variance to mean-squared ratio as a function of the intrinsic scale (defined by a smeared field) compared to the extrinsic scale (defined by the separation of the plates, or the periodicity of space). Our results make it possible to identify the spatial extent where negative energy density prevails which could be useful for studying quantum field effects in worm holes and baby universe, and for examining the design feasibility of real-life `time-machines'. For the Minkowski vacuum we find that the ratio of the var...

  6. Development of floor smear sampler (floor radioactive contamination measuring instrument) for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control of the floor contamination with radioactive substances in nuclear facilities is strictly carried out by smear method, in which the contaminants on floor surfaces are wiped off with filter papers or cloths, and the contamination density on the floor surfaces is measured through their intensity of radioactivity. This wiping work is laborious since it is carried out in leaning-over posture when many samples must be taken in wide floor area. Therefore, to achieve labor saving in this work, an automatic sampler was developed. In the floor smear sampler developed, samples are taken on long band type wiping cloths only by handle operation, and the sample numbers are printed. When many samples are taken in wide floor area, this is especially effective, and the labor saving by 1/3 to 1/2 can be achieved. At present, this sampler is put in practical use in Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station. At the time of trial manufacture, the method of wiping, the mechanisms of wiping, cloth feeding and running, the contact pressure and the number of times of wiping affecting wiping efficiency and the required torque of a motor were examined. The developed sampler is that of constant contact pressure, vibration wiping type, and the rate of sampling is 10 sec per one sample. 100 samples can be taken on one roll of wiping cloth. The results of performance test are reported. (Kako, I.)

  7. Intelligent and nature inspired optimization methods in medicine : The Pap smear cell classification problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinakis, Yannis; Marinaki, Magdalene

    2009-01-01

    The classification problem consists of using some known objects, usually described by a large vector of features, to induce a model that classifies others into known classes. Feature selection is widely used as the first stage of the classification task to reduce the dimension of the problem, decrease noise and improve speed by the elimination of irrelevant or redundant features. The present paper deals with the optimization of nearest neighbour classifiers via intelligent and nature inspired algorithms for a very significant medical problem, the Pap smear cell classification problem. The algorithms used include tabu search, genetic algorithms, particle swarm optimization and ant colony optimization. The proposed complete algorithmic scheme is tested on two sets of data. The first consists of 917 images of Pap smear cells and the second set consists of 500 images, classified carefully by expert cyto-technicians and doctors. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and the cells fall into seven classesrepresenting a variety of normal and abnormal cases. Nevertheless, from the medical diagnosis viewpoint, a minimum requirement corresponds to the general two-class problem of correct separation between normal and abnormal cells.

  8. Efficacy of different final irrigant activation protocols on smear layer removal by EDTA and citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Daniel R; Santos, Zarina T; Tay, Lidia Y; Silva, Emmanuel J; Loguercio, Alessandro D; Gomes, Brenda P F A

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different activation protocols for chelating agents used after chemo-mechanical preparation (CMP), for smear layer (SL) removal. Forty-five single-rooted human premolars with straight canals and fully formed apex were selected. The specimens were randomly divided into three groups depending on the chelating agent used for smear layer removal: distilled water (DW, control group); 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA); and 10% citric acid (CA). Each group was further divided into three subgroups according to the activation protocol used: no-activation (NA), manual dynamic activation (MDA), or sonic activation (SA). After CMP, all specimens were sectioned and processed for observation of the apical thirds by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Two calibrated evaluators attributed scores to each specimen. The differences between activation protocols were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Friedman and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used for comparison between each root canal third. When chelating agents were activated, either by MDA or SA, it was obtained the best cleaning results with no significant difference between EDTA and CA (P > 0.05). Sonic activation showed the best results when root canal thirds were analyzed, in comparison to MDA and NA groups (P root canals. PMID:23362115

  9. Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract on the radiolabelling of blood constituents and the morphometry of red blood cells: In vitro assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benarroz, M.O. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Avenida General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, 59010-180 Natal, RN (Brazil); Fonseca, A.S. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: adenilso@uerj.br; Rocha, G.S. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Frydman, J.N.G. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Avenida General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, 59010-180 Natal, RN (Brazil); Rocha, V.C.; Pereira, M.O. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)] (and others)

    2008-02-15

    Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) on the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99 m({sup 99m}Tc) and on the morphology of red blood cells were studied. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with cinnamon extract for 1hour or with 0.9% NaCl, as control. Labelling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc was performed. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC), soluble (SF-P and SF-BC) and insoluble (IF-P and IF-BC) fractions were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity incorporated (%ATI) was calculated. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphological analysis of the red blood cells was evaluated. The data showed that the cinnamon extract decreased significantly (p<0.05) the %ATI on BC, IF-P and IF-BC. No modifications were verified on shape of red blood cells. Cinnamon extracts could alter the labelling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc, and although our results were obtained with animals, precaution is suggested in interpretations of nuclear medicine examinations involving the labelling of blood constituents in patients who are using cinnamon.

  10. Fault transmissibility in clastic-argillaceous sequences controlled by clay smear evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The mechanical entrainment of clays and shales in fault zones of sedimentary sequences can exert fundamental control on fault-permeability. To estimate the influence of entrained clay bands on fluid flow, semi-empirical fault-seal algorithms are being used for hydrocarbon exploration (e.g. Yielding et al., 1997) and CO2 storage assessment (e.g. Bretan et al., 2011). To estimate clay distribution in the fault zone, these algorithms do not consider material properties or deformation conditions at the time of faulting, but rather they rely on the simplified assumption that fault gouge composition at any point along the fault reflects the 'mean' clay fraction of the slipped interval. Whether individual clay bands are breached or are continuous is not evaluated, yet this could have a dramatic effect on fault transmissibility. In this study, the sealing capacity of clay smears evolving in sealed direct shear experiments of initially intact sandstone-clay-stone sequences was quantified to large displacements up to more than ten times the thickness of the clay layer. A new type of direct shear cell was specifically designed for these experiments (Giger et al., 2011). The sample blocks consisted of a pre-consolidated clay-rich 'seal' layer, which was embedded and synthetically cemented in 'reservoir' quartz sand. The mineralogy and mechanical properties of the clay layer and the reservoir sandstones were constrained the reservoir sandstones were constrained in geomechanical tests. Discrete element modelling (DEM) was carried out in parallel to investigate a wider range of deformation conditions, and to explore the possibility to upscale the analogue test results. The fluid flow response across the fault zone could be monitored continuously during deformation. A tracer was also added to the clay layer, and the finite 3D smear structure could be resolved (using a medical CT scanner) and related to the flow response (Ciftci et al., 2011). Displacement at which seals break down is closely linked to the clay content in the seal layer. Contrary to expectations, softer seal layers do not seal better than stiff seal layers for given clay content. In the testing range between 4 - 24 MPa covering maximum burial depth conditions of ?800 m to ?4 km (assuming normal fault tectonics), a systematic trend is also observed indicating better smear continuity by increasing the effective normal stress. Predominantly brittle processes such as slicing and wear, and not ductile drag or plastic flow appear to be responsible for the generation of clay smears. The test results offer the prospect of incorporating critical shale smear factors (i.e. normalized displacement at which seal breakdown occurs) into probabilistic fault seal algorithms that take into account important properties that can be measured or estimated, namely, layer clay content, and fault normal effective stress. Such mechanistically improved fault seal algorithms are also relevant for the safety assessment of sediment formations above and below a potential radioactive waste repository. (authors)

  11. Amylase - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amylase is an enzyme that helps digest carbohydrates. It is produced in the pancreas and the glands ... saliva. When the pancreas is diseased or inflamed, amylase releases into the blood. A test can be ...

  12. What's Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protein called Rh protein. This protein is called "Rh" because scientists found it while studying Rhesus monkeys. If your blood is positive, you have this protein. If it's negative, you don't. Either way is totally fine. ...

  13. Effectiveness of EDTA and EDTA-T brushingm on the removal of root surface smear layer Efeito do EDTA e EDTA-T aplicado de forma ativa na remoção de "smear layer" de superfícies radiculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Cezar Sampaio

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the removal of root surface smear layer following active application of EDTA gel and EDTA-T (texapon gel in different concentrations (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 24%, using scanning electron microscopy. A total of 220 dentin blocks obtained from the root surfaces of extracted teeth were divided into 3 groups: Group I - (control application of saline solution (n = 20; Group II - EDTA gel (pH 7.0 was applied in the following concentrations: 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 24% (n = 100; Group III - EDTA-T gel (pH 7.0 applied in the same concentrations described above (n = 100. The photomicrographs were evaluated by one calibrated examiner using a smear layer removal index and following statistical analysis (Kruskal-Wallis test. The results demonstrated that the specimens treated with EDTA and EDTA-T gel presented a better smear layer removal than the control group (p 0.05. Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that all treatment modalities effectively removed the smear layer from the root surface. The addition of texapon into the EDTA gel formulation did not increase its effectiveness.O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar, através de microscopia eletrônica de varredura, o efeito da aplicação de gel de EDTA e de EDTA-T (texapon em diferentes concentrações (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% e 24% na remoção de "smear layer" de superfícies radiculares previamente raspadas com instrumentos manuais. Duzentos e vinte espécimes de superfícies radiculares submetidas à raspagem foram divididos em 3 grupos. Grupo I - (controle solução salina (n = 20; Grupo II - gel de EDTA (pH 7,0 nas concentrações de 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% e 24% (n = 100; Grupo III - gel de EDTA-T (pH 7,0 nas concentrações acima descritas (n = 100. As fotomicrografias obtidas foram avaliadas por um examinador calibrado através da aplicação de um índice de remoção de "smear layer", e os dados foram analisados através de análise estatística (teste de Kruskal-Wallis. Os resultados demonstraram que todos os tratamentos com EDTA e EDTA-T foram mais efetivos na remoção de "smear layer" quando comparados com o grupo controle (p 0,05. Dentro dos limites deste estudo, pode-se concluir que todas as modalidades de tratamento foram efetivas na remoção de "smear layer" e a adição de texapon ao gel de EDTA não aumentou a efetividade do tratamento.

  14. Effectiveness of EDTA and EDTA-T brushingm on the removal of root surface smear layer / Efeito do EDTA e EDTA-T aplicado de forma ativa na remoção de "smear layer" de superfícies radiculares

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Eduardo Cezar, Sampaio; Ricardo Samih Georges Abi, Rached; Gibson Luiz, Pilatti; Letícia Helena, Theodoro; Luiz Henrique Carvalho, Batista.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar, através de microscopia eletrônica de varredura, o efeito da aplicação de gel de EDTA e de EDTA-T (texapon) em diferentes concentrações (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% e 24%) na remoção de "smear layer" de superfícies radiculares previamente raspadas com instrumentos ma [...] nuais. Duzentos e vinte espécimes de superfícies radiculares submetidas à raspagem foram divididos em 3 grupos. Grupo I - (controle) solução salina (n = 20); Grupo II - gel de EDTA (pH 7,0) nas concentrações de 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% e 24% (n = 100); Grupo III - gel de EDTA-T (pH 7,0) nas concentrações acima descritas (n = 100). As fotomicrografias obtidas foram avaliadas por um examinador calibrado através da aplicação de um índice de remoção de "smear layer", e os dados foram analisados através de análise estatística (teste de Kruskal-Wallis). Os resultados demonstraram que todos os tratamentos com EDTA e EDTA-T foram mais efetivos na remoção de "smear layer" quando comparados com o grupo controle (p 0,05). Dentro dos limites deste estudo, pode-se concluir que todas as modalidades de tratamento foram efetivas na remoção de "smear layer" e a adição de texapon ao gel de EDTA não aumentou a efetividade do tratamento. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to compare the removal of root surface smear layer following active application of EDTA gel and EDTA-T (texapon) gel in different concentrations (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 24%), using scanning electron microscopy. A total of 220 dentin blocks obtained from the root surfaces [...] of extracted teeth were divided into 3 groups: Group I - (control) application of saline solution (n = 20); Group II - EDTA gel (pH 7.0) was applied in the following concentrations: 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 24% (n = 100); Group III - EDTA-T gel (pH 7.0) applied in the same concentrations described above (n = 100). The photomicrographs were evaluated by one calibrated examiner using a smear layer removal index and following statistical analysis (Kruskal-Wallis test). The results demonstrated that the specimens treated with EDTA and EDTA-T gel presented a better smear layer removal than the control group (p 0.05). Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that all treatment modalities effectively removed the smear layer from the root surface. The addition of texapon into the EDTA gel formulation did not increase its effectiveness.

  15. Evaluation of four molecular methods for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in pulmonary and blood samples from immunocompromised patients

    OpenAIRE

    Lyra, Juliana Maria Azevedo; Maruza, Magda; Verza, Mirela; Carneiro, Maria Madileuza; Albuquerque, Maria Fa?tima Milita?o; Rossetti, Maria Lu?cia; Ximenes, Ricardo; Braga, Maria Cynthia; Lucena-silva, Norma

    2014-01-01

    The present study analysed the concordance among four different molecular diagnostic methods for tuberculosis (TB) in pulmonary and blood samples from immunocompromised patients. A total of 165 blood and 194 sputum samples were collected from 181 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with upper respiratory complaints, regardless of suspicious for TB. The samples were submitted for smear microscopy, culture and molecular tests: a laboratory-developed conventional ...

  16. Vacuum structure revealed by over-improved stout-link smearing compared with the overlap analysis for quenched QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilgenfritz, E.M.; Leinweber, D.; Moran, P. [Adelaide Univ., SA (AU). Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter (CSSM); Koller, K. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Sektion Physik; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Weinberg, V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2008-01-11

    A detailed comparison is made between the topological structure of quenched QCD as revealed by the recently proposed over-improved stout-link smearing in conjunction with an improved gluonic definition of the topological density on one hand and a similar analysis made possible by the overlap-fermionic topological charge density both with and without variable ultraviolet cutoff {lambda}{sub cut}. The matching is twofold, provided by fitting the density-density two-point functions on one hand and by a point-by-point fitting of the topological densities according to the two methods. We point out the similar cluster structure of the topological density for moderate smearing and 200 MeV<{lambda}{sub cut}<600 MeV, respectively. We demonstrate the relation of the gluonic topological density for extensive smearing to the location of the overlap zero modes and the lowest overlap non-zero mode as found for the unsmeared configurations. (orig.)

  17. Vacuum structure revealed by over-improved stout-link smearing compared with the overlap analysis for quenched QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed comparison is made between the topological structure of quenched QCD as revealed by the recently proposed over-improved stout-link smearing in conjunction with an improved gluonic definition of the topological density on one hand and a similar analysis made possible by the overlap-fermionic topological charge density both with and without variable ultraviolet cutoff ?cut. The matching is twofold, provided by fitting the density-density two-point functions on one hand and by a point-by-point fitting of the topological densities according to the two methods. We point out the similar cluster structure of the topological density for moderate smearing and 200 MeVcut<600 MeV, respectively. We demonstrate the relation of the gluonic topological density for extensive smearing to the location of the overlap zero modes and the lowest overlap non-zero mode as found for the unsmeared configurations. (orig.)

  18. New Method for the Quantitative Analysis of Smear Slides in Pelagic and Hemi-Pelagic Sediments of the Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, M. K.; Aiello, I. W.; Ravelo, A. C.

    2014-12-01

    Petrographic microscopy of smear slides is the standard method to initially investigate marine sediments in core sediment studies (e.g. IODP expeditions). The technique is not commonly used in more complex analysis due to concerns over the subjectivity of the method and variability in operator training and experience. Two initiatives sponsored by Ocean Leadership, a sedimentology training workshop and a digital reference of smear slide components (Marsaglia et al., 2013) have been implemented to address the need for advanced training. While the influence of subjectivity on the quality of data has yet to be rigorously tested, the lack of standardization in the current method of smear slide analysis (SSA) remains a concern. The relative abundance of the three main components, (total diatoms, silt-to-sand sized siliciclastics, and clay minerals) of high and low density Bering Sea hemi-pelagic sediments from the ocean margin (Site U144; Site U1339) and pelagic sediments from the open-ocean (Site U1340) were analyzed. Our analyses show visual estimation is a reproducible method to quantify the relative abundance of the main sediment components. Furthermore, we present a modified method for SSA, with procedural changes objectively guided by statistical analyses, including constraints to increase randomness and precision in both the preparation and analysis of the smear slide. For example, repeated measure ANOVAs found a smear slide could be accurately quantified by counting three fields of view. Similarly, the use of replicate smear slides to quantify a sample was analyzed. Finally, the data produced from this modified SSA shows a strong correlation to continuously logged physical parameters of sediment such as gamma ray attenuation (Site U1339 r2= 0.41; Site U1340 r2= 0.36). Therefore, the modified SSA combined with other independent methods (e.g. laser particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and physical properties) can be a very effective tool for the interpretation and the quantitative analysis of lithologic variability in marine sediments.

  19. Antimicrobial Effect of Citrus Aurantifolia Extract on Enterococcus Faecalis Within the Dentinal Tubules in The Presence of Smear Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifian MR

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Instrumentation of the root canals results in formation of smear layer which covers the dentinal tubules. In infected teeth, it is ideal to achieve a material that has the ability to remove the smear layer besides antimicrobial activity. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of Citrus aurantifolia extracts (lime juice and rind extract on Enterococcus faecalis within dentinal tubules in the presence of smear layer.Materials and Methods: One-hundred and forty dentin tubes were prepared from bovine incisors. After removal the smear layer, the specimens were infected with Enterococcus faecalis. Then, the smear layer was reformed. Test solutions were used as the irrigants in study roups as follows: group 1: 5.25% NaOCl; group 2: 17% EDTA; group 3: NaOCl+EDTA; group 4: Lime juice; group 5: ethanolic rind extract of C.aurantifolia; group 6: 96% ethanol. Dentin chips were collected from inner and outer layers of dentinal walls and optical density was measured. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tamhane tests.Results: In outer layer of dentin, the efficacy of rind extract was less than that of NaOCl+EDTA (P<0.05. Also Lime juice was less effective than EDTA, NaOCl and NaOCl+EDTA (P<0.05. In inner layer of dentin, Lime juice was significantly less effective than NaOCl and NaOCl+EDTA (P<0.05. The efficacy of rind extract was less than that of NaOCl+EDTA (P<0.05.Conclusion: In the presence of smear layer, the antimicrobial activity of Lime juice was less than that of NaOCl but the efficacy of rind extract was similar to that of NaOCl.

  20. Clinico-pathological profile and treatment outcome in smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis patients at a teaching hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuberculosis remains the single highest contributor to the world's morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is essential to prevent its transmission. To see the treatment response of anti tuberculosis drugs in smear negative patients and study the predictors of culture positive among smear negative tuberculosis patients. Ninety four sputum smear negative patients clinically and radiologically suggestive of tuberculosis were selected. These patients were put on anti tuberculosis drugs without waiting for their culture results. They were then followed for 8 months to see their treatment outcome. A total of 94 smear negative patients were selected and given anti tuberculosis treatment. Of these 37(39%) were culture positive and 57(61%) were culture negative. Of the 37 culture positive patients 36(97%) showed clinical or radiological improvement as compared to 46(81%) out of 57 in culture negative cases. Symptoms of cough with sputum production was significantly associated with culture positivity. On x-ray chest moderate lesion with diffuse infiltration was more common finding in 64% while extensive and cavitatory lesion was seen in 24% of all cases. Association of extensive and cavitatory lesion were seen in culture positive group. Response to anti tuberculosis drugs in sputum smear negative tubercolosis suspects was found to be effective in majority of the patients. Cough, sputum and extensive cavitatory lung lesion were the predictors of culture pog lesion were the predictors of culture positive cases. There is need to train physicians on the use of anti tuberculosis therapy in smear negative suspected pulmonary tuberculosis cases, especially if they have productive cough and cavitatory lung lesions. (author)

  1. Evaluation of methods for H. pylori detection in PPI consumption using culture, rapid urease test and smear examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saniee, Parastoo; Khalili-Samani, Saman; Hosseini, Farideh; Malakutikhah, Fahimeh; Mamivand, Marzieh; Shahreza, Somayeh; Sharifi, Amir Houshang

    2015-01-01

    Background Culture, rapid urease test (RUT) and smear examination have been used as reliable methods for diagnosis of H. pylori infection. Accurate performance of these tests requires good quality biopsies with considerable number of bacterial cells. However, consumption of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) affects growth and urease activity of H. pylori, leading to false negative results. In this study the efficacy of culture, RUT and smear examination was assessed and the effect of PPI consumption was evaluated. Methods Two antral biopsies from 530 dyspeptic patients with and without PPI consumption were used for RUT, culture and smear examination. Statistical analysis was used to determine the association between results of culture, RUT or smear examination and PPI consumption. Sensitivity and specificity of three tests were calculated by standard methods. Results H. pylori infection was detected in 40% of patients by culture, 48.3% by RUT and 21.1% by smear examination and the overall detection rate was 54%. A strong correlation was found between PPI consumption and negative results of culture and RUT (P<0.05) but not smear examination. The sensitivity of RUT was reduced as a result of PPI consumption. This reduction was more profound in 1-hr RUT (92.2% to 74.4%) compared with 24-hr RUT (93.9% to 81.6%). Conclusions Prevalence of H. pylori was declined, compared with previous studies. This decrement could be due to false negative results of H. pylori diagnostic tests, among which culture and RUT are mostly affected by PPI. Accordingly, PPI consumption should be stopped before performance of endoscopy. PMID:25705643

  2. Radiologic Manifestations of Patients with Smear Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Zabol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Sajadi Nassab

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nIntroduction:Tuberculosis (TB is one of the most important causes of mortality in the world. If not treated, this disease will kill 50 – 65% of the patients in five years. Chest X ray has an important role in the diagnosis of TB. Diagnosis of this disease and starting the appropriate treatment interrupts tuberculosis transmission by rendering patients noninfectious. In this study, we evaluated the radiologic manifestations of patients with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Zabol. "nMaterials and Methods: In this cross–sectional study, 325 patients with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis from March 2004 to March 2005 were evaluated. Data were collected and analyzed using SPSS ver 15 software. "nResults: Of 325 patients with a smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis, 116 (35.7% were male and 209 (64.3% were female. The left upper lobe was the most frequent site involved 175 (53.8% and the second was the right upper lobe 134 (41.2%. The most frequently observed pulmonary involved form was bronchopneumonia 242 (74.4%. Patchy consolidation was detected in 99 (30.4% patients. Cavitary lesions and pleural effusion were observed in 68 (20.9% and 35 (10.7% patients, respectively. In 8 cases (2.4% the CXR was normal. After six months treatment, the CXR of the patients were evaluated. In 90 (27.7% patients CXRs were resolved entirely. In 169 (52% cases CXRs were resolved slightly and in 66 (20.3% patients, CXR did not show any changes. "nConclusion: Tuberculosis, one of the oldest diseases known to affect humans, is a major cause of death worldwide. HIV infection and other immunodeficiency states increase the prevalence of TB. It is one of the most important infectious diseases in Afghanistan (in the east border of Iran and immigration of Afghans causes TB to become a health problem. Pulmonary TB has different radiological manifestations and CXR has an important role in the diagnosis of TB. Consolidation, cavitations and other radiological manifestations especially in the upper lobes help the diagnosis of TB. This disease is one of the most important differential diagnoses of these changes.   

  3. Papillomavirus in cervicovaginal smears of women infected with human immunodefficiency virus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edenilson Eduardo, Galore; Maria José, Cavaliere; Neuza Kasumi, Shirata; Maria de Fátima, Araújo.

    1009-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Tem sido relatado que mulheres infectadas pelo HIV apresentam maior incidência de atipias citológicas nos esfregaços cérvico-vaginais, relacionadas principalmente com a infecção pelo HPV. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: O presente trabalho representa o estudo de esfregaços cérvico-vaginais de 147 mu [...] lheres HIV-soropositivas, submetidas a exame ginecológico de rotina. Os esfregaços foram corados pelo método de Papanicolaou. Sinais citopáticos de infecção por HPV foram encontrados em 38 (25,8%) casos. RESULTADOS: Atipias nucleares de neoplasia intra-epitelial cervical foram evidentes em 36 (24,5%) destes casos sendo 27 (18,4%) grau I (NIC I), 6 (4,0%) NIC II e 3 (2,0%) NIC III. Observaram-se 2(1,4%) casos de carcinoma invasor e 1 (0,7%) de displasia endocervical. Outros agentes encontrados foram: Cândida sp, 19 casos (12,9%), Gardnerella vaginalis, 19 (12,9%), Trichomonas vaginalis, 13 (8,4%), Chlamydia trachomatis, 5 (3,4%), Mobiluncus sp, 2 (1,4%) e Herpes simplex virus, 1 (0,7%). CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo ressalta a alta Incidência de HPV/NIC em pacientes HIV-positivas em nosso meio. É provável que fatores imunológicos e promiscuidade estejam envolvidos neste fenômeno. Abstract in english It has been described that women infected with the human immunodeffciency virus (HIV) present more frequent cytological abnormalities in cervicovaginal smears, generally related to infection by human papillomavirus (HPV). The present work is a study of cervicovaginal smears of 147 HIV-seropositive w [...] omen submitted to routine gynecological examinations. The smears were stained by the Papanicolaou method. Cytopathic effects of HPV were found in 38 (25.8%) cases. Nuclear atypias of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) were evident in 36 (24.5%) of these cases: 27 (18.4%), CIN I; 6 (4.0%), CIN II and 3 (2.0%) CIN III. Also 2 (1.4%) invasive carcinomas and one (0.7%) endocervical dysplasia were found. Other agents observed were: Candida sp, 19 (12.9%) cases, Gardnerella vaginalis, 19 (12.9%), Trichomonas vaginalis, 13 (8.4%), Chlamydia trachomatis 5 (3.4%), Mobiluncus sp 2 (1.4%) and Herpes simplex virus 1 (0.7%). This study emphasizes the high frequency of HPV/CIN cervicovaginal abnormalities in HIV-seropositive in our population. It is possible that immunological factors and sexual promiscuity are involved in this phenomenon.

  4. Vibrational smearing of deformation densities in diatomic molecules. An application of Hartree-Fock-Slater SCF calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The smearing of the deformation density in the diatomics H2, CH, BeH, CO and N2, caused by internal vibration, is calculated using a large number of LCAO Hartree-Fock-Slater electronic wave-functions. Both the effect of anharmonicity and the thermal population of rotational and vibrational states at 300 K are considered. The main conclusion is that the effect of the smearing is very small for these molecules. Compared to the anharmonic zero-point vibration upon the charge deformation density, the influence of including higher states at 300 K is negligible. (Auth.)

  5. Pap Smear Diagnosis Using a Hybrid Intelligent Scheme Focusing on Genetic Algorithm Based Feature Selection and Nearest Neighbor Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Marinakis, Yannis; Dounias, Georgios; Jantzen, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The term pap-smear refers to samples of human cells stained by the so-called Papanicolaou method. The purpose of the Papanicolaou method is to diagnose pre-cancerous cell changes before they progress to invasive carcinoma. In this paper a metaheuristic algorithm is proposed in order to classify the cells. Two databases are used, constructed in different times by expert MDs, consisting of 917 and 500 images of pap smear cells, respectively. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and ...

  6. Analysis of bone marrow aspiration fluid using automated blood cell counters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Onofrio, Giuseppe; Zini, Gina

    2015-03-01

    Cytomorphological examination of aspirate smears remains the basic method to diagnose hematologic disorders and to evaluate treatment-related changes. Last-generation hematological analyzers can count, besides cells normally circulating in peripheral blood, some types of immature and abnormal cells, such as erythroblasts and immature granulocytes. The complex nature of bone marrow fluid, however, has prevented until now the routine utilization of blood cell counters in this area. Recent studies have shown the possibility of using bone marrow fluid as a substitute for peripheral blood for clinical tests in particular situations and for repetitive cytologic examinations in specific clinical and research fields. PMID:25676370

  7. Fluorescence Spectrum and Decay Measurement for Hsil VS Normal Cytology Differentiation in Liquid Pap Smear Supernatant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitkuviene, A.; Gegzna, V.; Juodkazis, S.; Jursenas, S.; Miasojedovas, S.; Kurtinaitiene, R.; Rimiene, J.; Vaitkus, J.

    2009-06-01

    Cervical smear material contains endo and exocervical cells, mucus and inflammative, immune cells in cases of pathology. Just not destroyed keratinocytes lay on the glass for microscopy. Liquid cytology supernatant apart other diagnostics could be used for photodiagnostic. The spectroscopic parameters suitable for Normal and HSIL cytology groups supernatant differentiation are demonstrated. The dried liquid PAP supernatant fractions—sediment and liquid were investigated. Excitation and emission matrices (EEM), supernatant fluorescence decay measured under 280 nm diode short pulse excitation and fluorescence spectroscopy by excitation with 355 nm laser light were analyzed. The differences between Normal and HSIL groups were statistically proven in the certain spectral regions. Fluorescence decay peculiarities show spectral regions consisting of few fluorophores. Obtained results on fluorescence differences in Normal and HSIL groups' supernatant shows the potency of photodiagnosis application in cervical screening.

  8. On a general class of regular rotating black holes based on a smeared mass distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Larranaga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigate the behavior of a new general class of rotating regular black holes based on a non-Gaussian smeared mass distribution. It is shown that the existence of a fundamental minimal length cures the well-known problems in the terminal phase of black hole evaporation, since we find that there is a finite maximum temperature that the black hole reaches before cooling down to absolute zero, so that the evaporation ends up in a zero temperature extremal black hole whose mass and size depends on the value of the fundamental length and on the rotation parameter of the black hole. We also study the geodesic structure in these spacetimes and calculate the shadows that these black holes produce.

  9. On a general class of regular rotating black holes based on a smeared mass distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larranaga, Alexis; Cardenas-Avendano, Alejandro; Torres, Daniel Alexdy

    2015-04-01

    In this work we investigate the behavior of a new general class of rotating regular black holes based on a non-Gaussian smeared mass distribution. It is shown that the existence of a fundamental minimal length cures the well-known problems in the terminal phase of black hole evaporation, since we find that there is a finite maximum temperature that the black hole reaches before cooling down to absolute zero, so that the evaporation ends up in a zero temperature extremal black hole whose mass and size depends on the value of the fundamental length and on the rotation parameter of the black hole. We also study the geodesic structure in these spacetimes and calculate the shadows that these black holes produce.

  10. Tuning for Three-flavors of Anisotropic Clover Fermions with Stout-link Smearing

    CERN Document Server

    Edwards, Robert G; Lin, Huey-Wen

    2008-01-01

    In this work we perform the parameter tuning of three flavors of dynamical clover quarks on anisotropic lattices. The fermion action uses three-dimensional spatial stout-link smearing. The gauge anisotropy is determined in a small box with Schr\\"odinger background using Wilson-loop ratios. The fermion anisotropy is obtained from studying the meson dispersion relation with antiperiodic boundary conditions in the time direction. The spatial and temporal clover coefficients are fixed to the tree-level tadpole-improved values, and we demonstrate that they satisfy the nonperturbative conditions as determined by the Schr\\"odinger functional method. For the desired lattice spacing $a_s\\approx 0.12$ fm and renormalized anisotropy $\\xi=3.5$, we find the gauge and fermionic anisotropies can be fixed to quark mass independent values up through the strange quark mass. This work lays the foundation needed for further studies of the excited-state hadron spectrum.

  11. Tuning for three flavors of anisotropic clover fermions with stout-link smearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we perform the parameter tuning of three flavors of dynamical clover quarks on anisotropic lattices. The fermion action uses three-dimensional spatial stout-link smearing. The gauge anisotropy is determined in a small box with Schroedinger background using Wilson-loop ratios. The fermion anisotropy is obtained from studying the meson dispersion relation with antiperiodic boundary conditions in the time direction. The spatial and temporal clover coefficients are fixed to the tree-level tadpole-improved values, and we demonstrate that they satisfy the nonperturbative conditions as determined by the Schroedinger-functional method. For the desired lattice spacing as?0.12 fm and renormalized anisotropy ?=3.5, we find the gauge and fermionic anisotropies can be fixed to quark mass independent values up through the strange quark mass. This work lays the foundation needed for further studies of the excited-state hadron spectrum.

  12. Pacientes con Giardia lamblia diagnosticada por frotis duodenal / Patients with Giardia lamblia diagnosed through duodenal smear

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hidelisa, Herrero Aguirre; Jesús, Fernández Duharte; Suleidy, Vega Sam; José Antonio, Candel Herrero.

    1636-16-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 105 pacientes mayores de 15 años con infección por Giardia lamblia, diagnosticada por frotis duodenal mediante endoscopia en el Servicio de Gastroenterología del Policlínico de Especialidades del Hospital Provincial Docente Clinicoquirúrgico "Saturn [...] ino Lora Torres" de Santiago de Cuba, desde enero hasta diciembre del 2012, con vistas a caracterizarles. Entre las variables analizadas figuraron: edad, sexo, síntomas digestivos referidos, positividad del frotis e imagen endoscópica. Se utilizó el porcentaje como medida de resumen. Predominaron el sexo femenino (58,0 %), el grupo etario de 29-39 años (38,0 %), la epigastralgia como síntoma principal (66,6 %) y las imágenes endoscópicas grados I y II como las más frecuentes (68,4 y 41,3 %, respectivamente). El índice de positividad a la giardiasis fue relevante Abstract in english A descriptive and cross sectional study of 105 patients older than 15 years with infection by Giardia lamblia, diagnosed through duodenal smear by means of endoscopy was carried out in the Gastroenterology Service of the Specialties Polyclinic from "Saturnino Lora Torres" Teaching Provincial Clinica [...] l Surgical Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, from January to December, 2012, with the objective of characterizing them. Among the analyzed variables there were: age, sex, referred digestive symptoms, positivity of the smear and endoscopic image. The percentage was used as summary measure. Female sex (58.0%), the age group 29-39 years (38.0%), the epigastralgia as main symptom (66.6%) and the endoscopic images grades I and II prevailed as the most frequent (68.4 and 41.3%, respectively). The positivity index for giardiasis was relevant

  13. Young Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (; )

    2005-04-04

    Old muscles heal faster when they're exposed to young blood. That's the conclusion of a recent experiment in mice, led by Stanford University neurologist Thomas Rando. His team found that blood from younger mice stimulated stem cells in the muscles and livers of older mice. Those are the cells that generate new tissue. It's not clear what part of the young blood makes the difference, but Dr. Rando suspects it's a combination of factors. If scientists can solve the mystery, they may be able to develop new ways to help injuries and broken bones heal more quickly. This Science Update looks at the research, which leads to these findings and offers links to other resources for further inquiry. There are also links to Science Netlinks Lesson plans for use at the 6-8 grade level.

  14. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Toolkit Home / For Patients / Blood Disorders / Blood Clots Blood Clotting & Pregnancy If you are pregnant, or you ... g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots in Pregnant Women Treated? Typically, blood clots ...

  15. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Disorders Blood Clots Blood Clotting & Pregnancy If you are pregnant, or you ... g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots in Pregnant Women Treated? Typically, blood clots ...

  16. Types of Blood Transfusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Blood Transfusions Blood is transfused either as whole blood (with ... underway for Blood Transfusion, visit www.clinicaltrials.gov . Blood Transfusion in the News February 3, 2015 NHLBI Media ...

  17. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For Patients Blood Disorders Blood Clots Blood Clotting & Pregnancy If you are pregnant, or you have just ... The risk of developing a blood clot during pregnancy is increased by the following: Previous blood clots ...

  18. Blood and Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Learn About Blood > Blood and Diversity Printable Version Blood and Diversity People come in all different shapes, ... looking for a needle in a haystack. Rare Blood Types Red blood cells carry markers called antigens ...

  19. Blood Donation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Transfusion Medicine > Blood Donation Information > Blood Donation Process Blood Donation Process Page Content Donating blood is a safe, ... making your appointment. When You Arrive at the Blood Donation Center When you sign in, you will be ...

  20. Blood pressure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diastolic blood pressure; Systolic blood pressure; Blood pressure reading; Measuring blood pressure ... or your health care provider will wrap the blood pressure cuff snugly around your upper arm. The ...

  1. Cord Blood

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Abroun

    2014-01-01

      Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Co...

  2. Evaluation and optimization of membrane feeding compared to direct feeding as an assay for infectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagayogo Magaran

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria parasite infectivity to mosquitoes has been measured in a variety of ways and setting, includind direct feeds of and/or membrane feeding blood collected from randomly selected or gametocytemic volunteers. Anopheles gambiae s.l is the main vector responsible of Plasmodium falciparum transmission in Bancoumana and represents about 90% of the laboratory findings, whereas Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale together represent only 10%. Materials and methods Between August 1996 and December 1998, direct and membrane feeding methods were compared for the infectivity of children and adolescent gametocyte carriers to anopheline mosquitoes in the village of Bancoumana in Mali. Gametocyte carriers were recruited twice a month through a screening of members of 30 families using Giemsa-stained thick blood smears. F1 generation mosquitoes issued from individual female wild mosquitoes from Bancoumana were reared in a controlled insectary conditions and fed 5% sugar solution in the laboratory in Bamako, until the feeding day when they are starved 12 hours before the feeding experiment. These F1 generation mosquitoes were divided in two groups, one group fed directly on gametocyte carriers and the other fed using membrane feeding method. Results Results from 372 Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriers showed that children aged 4–9 years were more infectious than adolescents (p = 0.039, especially during the rainy season. Data from 35 carriers showed that mosquitoes which were used for direct feeding were about 1.5 times more likely to feed (p Conclusion Although intensity of infectivity was lower for membrane feeding, it could be a surrogate to direct feeding for evaluating transmission-blocking activity of candidate malaria vaccines. An optimization of the method for future trials would involve using about three-times more mosquitoes than would be used for direct feeding.

  3. Prevalence of congenital malaria in high-risk Ghanaian newborns: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enweronu-Laryea Christabel C

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital malaria is defined as malaria parasitaemia in the first week of life. The reported prevalence of congenital malaria in sub-Saharan Africa is variable (0 - 46%. Even though the clinical significance of congenital malaria parasitaemia is uncertain, anti-malarial drugs are empirically prescribed for sick newborns by frontline health care workers. Data on prevalence of congenital malaria in high-risk newborns will inform appropriate drug use and timely referral of sick newborns. Methods Blood samples of untreated newborns less than 1 week of age at the time of referral to Korle Bu Teaching hospital in Accra, Ghana during the peak malaria seasons (April to July of 2008 and 2010 were examined for malaria parasites by, i Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood smears for parasite count and species identification, ii histidine-rich protein- and lactic dehydrogenase-based rapid diagnosis tests, or iii polymerase chain reaction amplification of the merozoite surface protein 2 gene, for identification of sub-microscopic parasitaemia. Other investigations were also done as clinically indicated. Results In 2008, nine cases of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia were diagnosed by microscopy in 405 (2.2% newborns. All the nine newborns had low parasite densities (?50 per microlitre. In 2010, there was no case of parasitaemia by either microscopy or rapid diagnosis tests in 522 newborns; however, 56/467 (12% cases of P. falciparum were detected by polymerase chain reaction. Conclusion Congenital malaria is an uncommon cause of clinical illness in high-risk untreated newborns referred to a tertiary hospital in the first week of life. Empirical anti-malarial drug treatment for sick newborns without laboratory confirmation of parasitaemia is imprudent. Early referral of sick newborns to hospitals with resources and skills for appropriate care is recommended.

  4. Accidental infection by Trypanosoma cruzi follow-up by the polymerase chain reaction: case report / Infecção acidental pelo Trypanosoma cruzi acompanhada pela reação em cadeia da polimerase: relato de caso

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andréa Tieko, Kinoshita-Yanaga; Max Jean de Ornelas, Toledo; Silvana Marques de, Araújo; Berenice Pelizza, Vier; Mônica Lúcia, Gomes.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Reportamos caso de infecção acidental pelo Trypanosoma cruzi em paciente do gênero feminino, 42 anos, que apresentou chagoma de inoculação. A confirmação laboratorial foi realizada pelo exame de sangue a fresco, esfregaço corado com Giemsa, imunoenzimaensaio (ELISA-IgG), imunofluorescência indireta [...] (IFI-IgM, IgG) e reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR). Somente a PCR foi positiva e a ELISA foi inconclusiva. Dois tratamentos com benznidazol foram necessários. PCR foi a única técnica que permaneceu positiva por aproximadamente dois meses (65 dias ou 2,2 meses) após o segundo tratamento e negativa de 96 dias (3,2 meses) a 850 dias (28,3 meses). Concluimos que a presença do chagoma de inoculação e o uso da PCR foram importantes e decisivos para o diagnóstico e o acompanhamento do caso. Abstract in english We report a case of accidental infection by Trypanosoma cruzi in a 42-year-old female patient who presented an inoculation chagoma. Laboratory confirmation was based on examination of fresh blood, Giemsa-stained blood smear, immunoenzyme test (EIA-IgG), indirect immunofluorescence (IIF-IgM, IgG) and [...] polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Only the PCR gave a positive result, and the EIA test was inconclusive. Two treatments with benznidazole were necessary. PCR was the only technique that continued to give positive results for approximately two months (65 days, or 2.2 months) following the second treatment and negative results from 96 days (3.2 months) to 850 days (28.3 months). We concluded that the presence of an inoculation chagoma and use of PCR were important and decisive for diagnosis and follow-up of the case.

  5. Association of intestinal helminths and P. falciparum infections in co-infected school children in northwest Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazigoi, Humphrey D; Kidenya, Benson R; Ambrose, Emmanuela E; Zinga, Maria; Waihenya, Rebecca

    2010-10-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria and intestinal helminth infections are among the most common infections in the tropics and they share the same spatial distribution. The objective of this study was to explore the association between infections with intestinal helminths and P. falciparum infection as single helminth infections or co-infections among school children. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 400 school children in Nyamtongo, Sengerema District in Tanzania. The study involved examination of single stool and finger prick blood samples for intestinal helminths and malaria parasites. A Kato-Katz technique was employed to screen for intestinal helminths and Giemsa stained thin and thick blood smears were used to screen for malaria parasites. The results of logistic regression model adjusted for age and sex indicated no association between P. falciparum and S. mansoni (OR= 0.749, 95%CI 0.418-1.344), P. falciparum and hookworm (OR= 0.885, 95%CI 0.489-1.605) and P. falciparum and co-infection of S. mansoni and hookworm (OR=0.859, 95%CI 0.422-1.745). Using multinomial regression model adjusted for age and sex, no association was observed between P. falciparum with Schistosoma mansoni [Ratio of Relative Risk (RRR) = 0.651, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.331-1.363] and hookworm (RRR=0712, CI 0.280-1.765). Similarly, no association was observed between co-infections of S. mansoni + hookworm (RRR=0.635, CI 0.268-1.504) with P. falciparum infection. Coinfections of S. mansoni, hookworm and P. falciparum among school children is common in the Nyamatongo ward, Sengerema District. We recommend prospective longitudinal studies to elucidate the interactions of malaria and helminths and its health impact in risk groups. PMID:24409638

  6. On the uncertainties in the shell correction by Strutinsky smearing procedure for certain shapes relevant in fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is found that for level schemes obtained from a folded Yukawa potential, the Strutinsky smearing procedure for the evaluation of the shell correction to the total potential energy of nuclei does not lead to a unique value for nuclear shapes near and beyond the outer fission barrier deformations and consequently introduces uncertainties in the relative fission barrier heights. (author)

  7. Perception and Experience of Primary Care Physicians on Pap Smear Screening for Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Preliminary Finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Sung, Chang-Lin; Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Ta-Wen; Lin, Pei-Ying; Chen, Li-Mei; Chu, Cordia M.; Wu, Jia-Ling

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to establish evidence-based data to explore the perceptions and experience of primary care physicians in the Pap smear screening provision for women with intellectual disabilities (ID), and to analyze the associated factors in the delivery of screening services to women with ID in Taiwan. Data obtained by a cross-sectional survey…

  8. Blood flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body’s tissues and vital organs. These include the brain, liver, kidneys, stomach, and muscles, including the heart muscle itself. At the same time, the veins carry oxygen-poor blood (shown in blue) from the tissues back toward the heart. From ...

  9. DETECTION OF ABNORMAL CERVICAL CYTOLOGY BY PAP’S SMEAR AND COMPARISON BETWEEN RURAL AND URBAN WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : BACKGROUND: This study was carried out in department of ob stetrics and gynaecology G.R. Medical College Gwalior (MP. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study the incidence of malignant and pre malignant cases of cancer cervix in women attending outdoor patient department of G R medical college Gwalior. To find out the role of PAP's smear in early detection of premalignant and early carcinoma cervix and to compare the results between urban and rural women. MATERIAL AND METHOD: a total of 400 subjects were selected attending outdoor patient department of G R medical college G walior with equal number of urban and rural areas. Information about age, parity, age at marriage, complaints, clinical findings, Pap’s smears were prepared and histological interpretations were recorded. RESULTS : Maximum number of patients was in the age group of 31 - 40 years. Mean age at marriage was 17.5 years for woman of rural areas and that for urban woman was 21.5 years. In the rural patients highest number were P2 - P4 (53% followed by > P4 (46.5%. In urban patients too maximum number of patients had parity between P2 - P4 (69.5% followed by > P4 (28.5%. Grand multiparity was seen in 20.5% among rural women as compared to 1.5 % among urban women. Among the rural patients use of barrier method of contraception was only 12% while in urban areas it was 3 0%. Percentage of couples who were not using any contraception was 47.5% in rural area and 33% in urban area. The most common presenting complaint was white discharge among both rural and urban groups (75% vs. 72%. The most common clinical finding was cer vical erosion (57.5% Histopathological interpretation of Pap’s smear revealed cervical squamous epithelial lesions (LSIL and HSIL in 10.5% smears of rural and 4.5% smears of urban women. A total of 4% smears were found positive for malignancy in rural wo men as compared to 1.5% smears in urban women

  10. Assessment of a blood preservation protocol for use in ferrets before transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignon, C; Donnelly, T M; Todeschini, C; Deschamps, J Y; Roux, F A

    2014-03-15

    Blood transfusion has been described in ferrets as a treatment for oestrus-associated anaemia and as a life-saving therapy following trauma, iatrogenic (usually surgery-induced) anaemia, autoimmune haemolytic anaemia and pure red cell aplasia. Although blood banking is a common method for storage of feline and canine blood it is not currently done with ferret blood. The aim of this study was to determine the shelf-life of ferret blood using the anticoagulant citrate-phosphate-dextrose-solution with adenine (CPDA). Two male ferrets were used as blood donors. From each ferret, 6 ml of blood was taken from the cranial vena cava and stored in 10 ml polyethylene terephthalate (PET) blood tubes containing 1 ml of CPDA solution. Blood was taken from each ferret once per month for five months. These 10 blood samples were stored in a laboratory refrigerator at 4°C for four weeks. Biochemical (glucose, pH, lactate, potassium, sodium) and haematological (haematocrit, light microscopic blood smear examination) analyses were performed on the stored blood at days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Biochemical analyses revealed a progressive decrease from day seven in the stored blood pH, glucose and sodium, with a concomitant increase in lactate and potassium. These results are attributable to the ongoing metabolism and deterioration of the red blood cells (RBC) while in storage, and are more rapid than described for human or canine stored blood. Haematological analyses revealed a progressive elevation of the haematocrit due to the appearance of hypochromic red blood cells and echinocytes beginning at day 7. Haemolysis was observed in the microhaematocrit capillary tube sample by day 21, and microscopic clots were visible on the blood smear by day 28. The low blood pH and the appearance of many hypochromic RBCs and some echinocytes from day 7 in CPDA-stored ferret blood, suggest stored ferret blood has a short shelf-life when compared with stored human or canine blood. We recommend that ferret blood stored in CPDA should not be used for transfusion after seven days of storage at 4°C. PMID:24523302

  11. Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract on the radiolabelling of blood constituents and the morphometry of red blood cells: In vitro assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) on the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99 m(99mTc) and on the morphology of red blood cells were studied. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with cinnamon extract for 1hour or with 0.9% NaCl, as control. Labelling of blood constituents with 99mTc was performed. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC), soluble (SF-P and SF-BC) and insoluble (IF-P and IF-BC) fractions were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity incorporated (%ATI) was calculated. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphological analysis of the red blood cells was evaluated. The data showed that the cinnamon extract decreased significantly (p99mTc, and although our results were obtained with animals, precaution is suggested in interpretations of nuclear medicine examinations involving the labelling of blood constituents in patients who are using cinnamon

  12. Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum treatment on radiolabeling of blood constituents and morphology of red blood cells in Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of in vivo treatment with an aqueous cinnamon extract on the labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc and on the morphology of red blood cells from Wistar rats. Animals were treated with cinnamon extract at different doses and for different periods of time. As controls, animals treated with 0.9% NaCl. Labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc was performed. Plasma, blood cells and insoluble fractions were isolated. Radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) was calculated. Also, blood smears were prepared to morphological analysis of red blood cells from. Data showed that in vivo cinnamon extract did not significantly (p>0.05) modify the %ATI of blood constituents and morphology of red blood cells. The results suggest that in vivo aqueous cinnamon could not affect the membrane structures involved in transport of ions or the oxidation state of stannous and pertechnetate ions. (author)

  13. Utility of high-resolution computed tomography for predicting risk of sputum smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: To diagnose sputum smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is difficult and the ability of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for diagnosing PTB has remained unclear in the sputum smear-negative setting. We retrospectively investigated whether or not this imaging modality can predict risk for sputum smear-negative PTB. Methods: We used HRCT to examine the findings of 116 patients with suspected PTB despite negative sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). We investigated their clinical features and HRCT-findings to predict the risk for PTB by multivariate analysis and a combination of HRCT findings by stepwise regression analysis. We then designed provisional HRCT diagnostic criteria based on these results to rank the risk of PTB and blinded observers assessed the validity and reliability of these criteria. Results: A positive tuberculin skin test alone among clinical laboratory findings was significantly associated with an increase of risk of PTB. Multivariate regression analysis showed that large nodules, tree-in-bud appearance, lobular consolidation and the main lesion being located in S1, S2, and S6 were significantly associated with an increased risk of PTB. Stepwise regression analysis showed that coexistence of the above 4 factors was most significantly associated with an increase in the risk for PTB. Ranking of the results using our HRCT diagnostic criteria by blinded observers revealed good utility and agreement for predicting PTB ritility and agreement for predicting PTB risk. Conclusions: Even in the sputum smear-negative setting, HRCT can predict the risk of PTB with good reproducibility and can select patients having a high probability of PTB.

  14. A comparative scanning electron microscopy evaluation of smear layer removal with apple vinegar and sodium hypochlorite associated with EDTA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    George Táccio de Miranda, Candeiro; Isabela Barbosa de, Matos; Clarice Fernandes Eloy da, Costa; Cristiane Sá Roriz, Fonteles; Mônica Sampaio do, Vale.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) the removal of smear layer from the middle and apical root thirds after use of different irrigating solutions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty roots of permanent human teeth had their canals instrumented and were [...] randomly assigned to 4 groups (n=10), according to the irrigating solution: apple vinegar (group A), apple vinegar finished with 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (group B), 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) finished with 17% EDTA (group C) and saline (group D - control). After chemomechanical preparation, the roots were cleaved longitudinally and their middle and apical thirds were examined by SEM at ×1,000 magnification. Two calibrated examiners (kappa=0.92) analyzed the SEM micrographs qualitatively attributing scores that indicated the efficacy of the solutions in removing the smear layer from the surface of the dentin tubules (1 - poor, 2 - good and 3 - excellent). Data from the control and experimental groups were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's test, while the Wilcoxon test was used to compare the middle and apical thirds of the canals within the same group (a=0.05). RESULTS: The middle third presented less amount of smear layer than the apical third, regardless of the irrigant. There was statistically significant difference (p=0.0402) among the groups in the middle third. In the apical third, the apple vinegar/EDTA group showed the greatest removal of smear layer (p=0.0373). CONCLUSION: Apple vinegar associated or not with EDTA was effective in removing smear layer when used as an endodontic irrigant.

  15. A comparative scanning electron microscopy evaluation of smear layer removal with apple vinegar and sodium hypochlorite associated with EDTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Táccio de Miranda Candeiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate by scanning electron microscopy (SEM the removal of smear layer from the middle and apical root thirds after use of different irrigating solutions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty roots of permanent human teeth had their canals instrumented and were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n=10, according to the irrigating solution: apple vinegar (group A, apple vinegar finished with 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA (group B, 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl finished with 17% EDTA (group C and saline (group D - control. After chemomechanical preparation, the roots were cleaved longitudinally and their middle and apical thirds were examined by SEM at ×1,000 magnification. Two calibrated examiners (kappa=0.92 analyzed the SEM micrographs qualitatively attributing scores that indicated the efficacy of the solutions in removing the smear layer from the surface of the dentin tubules (1 - poor, 2 - good and 3 - excellent. Data from the control and experimental groups were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's test, while the Wilcoxon test was used to compare the middle and apical thirds of the canals within the same group (a=0.05. RESULTS: The middle third presented less amount of smear layer than the apical third, regardless of the irrigant. There was statistically significant difference (p=0.0402 among the groups in the middle third. In the apical third, the apple vinegar/EDTA group showed the greatest removal of smear layer (p=0.0373. CONCLUSION: Apple vinegar associated or not with EDTA was effective in removing smear layer when used as an endodontic irrigant.

  16. Comparison of Visual Inspection with acetic acid and Pap smear in cervical cancer screening at a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the accuracy of visual inspection with acetic acid in comparison with Pap smear against colposcopic directed biopsy, for detection of pre-cancerous lesion. Methods: The comparative cross-sectional study was conducted at the Maternal and Child Health Centre (MCHC), Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad, from January to December 2010. Every married women with age range 19 to 51 years underwent conventional cytology and visual inspection with 5% acetic acid. Distinct acetowhite areas were taken as positive, while cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia on cytology was labelled as Pap smear positive. Colposcopic directed biopsy was taken as the gold standard. SPSS 13 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of 519 subjects, 70(13.4%) were screened positive and 29(5.6%) were biopsy positive for cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia. Of these, 26(37.1 %) were positive on visual inspection; 14 (20 %) on cytology; and 30 (42.8%) on combined test. The sensitivity of visual inspection was 78.5% vs 61.1% for Pap smear (p<0.001). The specificity of visual inspection was 99.3% vs 99.4% for cytology (p<0.1). Significantly higher sensitivity and specificity was found for the combined test than either of the two alone; 93.1% and 99.1% respectively (p<0.001). The positive predictive value of visual inspection vs pap was 84.6% vs 78.5% (p<0.001) and negative predictive value was 98.6% vs 96.5% (p<0.1). Both values of combined test were significanth values of combined test were significantly higher than either of the two tests alone (p<0.01). Conclusion: Visual inspection with acetic acid has significantly higher sensitivity than Pap smear and may replace pap smear as a primary screening tool for universal screening. Combined test with higher predictive accuracy may be used for opportunistic screening. (author)

  17. Effectiveness of various irrigation activation protocols and the self-adjusting file system on smear layer and debris removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çapar, ?smail Davut; Aydinbelge, Hale Ari

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate smear layer generation and residual debris after using self-adjusting file (SAF) or rotary instrumentation and to compare the debris and smear layer removal efficacy of the SAF cleaning/shaping irrigation system against final agitation techniques. One hundred and eight maxillary lateral incisor teeth were randomly divided into nine experimental groups (n?=?12), and root canals were prepared using ProTaper Universal rotary files, with the exception of the SAF instrumentation group. During instrumentation, root canals were irrigated with a total of 16?mL of 5% NaOCl. For final irrigation, rotary-instrumented groups were irrigated with 10?mL of 17% EDTA and 10?mL of 5% NaOCl using different irrigation agitation regimens (syringe irrigation with needles, NaviTip FX, manual dynamic irrigation, CanalBrush, EndoActivator, EndoVac, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), and SAF irrigation). In the SAF instrumentation group, root canals were instrumented for 4?min at a rate of 4?mL/min with 5% NaOCl and received a final flush with same as syringe irrigation with needles. The surface of the root dentin was observed using a scanning electron microscope. The SAF instrumentation group generated less smear layer and yielded cleaner canals compared to rotary instrumentation. The EndoActivator, EndoVac, PUI, and SAF irrigation groups increased the efficacy of irrigating solutions on the smear layer and debris removal. The SAF instrumentation yielded cleaner canal walls when compared to rotary instrumentation. None of the techniques completely removed the smear layer from the root canal walls. PMID:25285423

  18. Utility of high-resolution computed tomography for predicting risk of sputum smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Masanori [Departments of Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23 Shimoaizuki Eiheizi-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan)], E-mail: mnakanishi@nifty.ne.jp; Demura, Yoshiki; Ameshima, Shingo [Departments of Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23 Shimoaizuki Eiheizi-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Kosaka, Nobuyuki [Departments of Radiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23 Shimoaizuki Eiheizi-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Chiba, Yukio [Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Hospital Organization, Fukui Hospital, Tsuruga, Fukui 914-0195 (Japan); Nishikawa, Satoshi [Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization, Fukui Hospital, Tsuruga, Fukui 914-0195 (Japan); Itoh, Harumi [Departments of Radiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23 Shimoaizuki Eiheizi-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Ishizaki, Takeshi [Departments of Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, 23 Shimoaizuki Eiheizi-cho, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    Background: To diagnose sputum smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is difficult and the ability of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for diagnosing PTB has remained unclear in the sputum smear-negative setting. We retrospectively investigated whether or not this imaging modality can predict risk for sputum smear-negative PTB. Methods: We used HRCT to examine the findings of 116 patients with suspected PTB despite negative sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). We investigated their clinical features and HRCT-findings to predict the risk for PTB by multivariate analysis and a combination of HRCT findings by stepwise regression analysis. We then designed provisional HRCT diagnostic criteria based on these results to rank the risk of PTB and blinded observers assessed the validity and reliability of these criteria. Results: A positive tuberculin skin test alone among clinical laboratory findings was significantly associated with an increase of risk of PTB. Multivariate regression analysis showed that large nodules, tree-in-bud appearance, lobular consolidation and the main lesion being located in S1, S2, and S6 were significantly associated with an increased risk of PTB. Stepwise regression analysis showed that coexistence of the above 4 factors was most significantly associated with an increase in the risk for PTB. Ranking of the results using our HRCT diagnostic criteria by blinded observers revealed good utility and agreement for predicting PTB risk. Conclusions: Even in the sputum smear-negative setting, HRCT can predict the risk of PTB with good reproducibility and can select patients having a high probability of PTB.

  19. Evaluation of a direct identification method for Staphylococcus aureus from blood culture broth.

    OpenAIRE

    Hamoudi, A. C.; Hribar, M. M.

    1988-01-01

    We evaluated the reliability of Staphaurex (Wellcome Diagnostics, Dartford, England) for the direct identification of staphylococci from blood culture broth with evidence of positivity and a suggestive Gram-stained smear. Our evaluation indicates that this application is of limited sensitivity, thus reducing the value of a negative test. However, since the test is highly specific, a positive test is significant in predicting the isolation of Staphylococcus aureus.

  20. Managing your blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control ... Know how to: Recognize and treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Recognize and treat high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) ...

  1. Detection of GBV-C/HGV RNA in cervico-vaginal smears from healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angelica Ehara Watanabe

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the sexual transmission of GBV-C/HGV, through RNA detection in cervicovaginal smears. Therefore the GBV-C/HGV RNA in cervicovaginal smears from apparently healthy women was investigated using routine proceedings for prophylactic screening to cervical cancer. GBV-C/HGV RNA was detected by reverse transcriptase and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Only one woman presented co-infection with human papilloma virus (HPV. The GBV-C/HGV RNA was detected in 13/73 (17.57% healthy women and it's prevalence in participating women between 28-43 years old was 53.85%. No association was found with GBV-C/HGV for the age of first sexual intercourse and number of pregnancies. In GBV-C/HGV RNA positive women, 69.23% were married. In conclusion, the present findings show that cervical and vaginal specimens could contain the GBV-C/HGV RNA.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a transmissão sexual de GBV-C/HBV, através da detecção do RNA viral em raspados cérvico-vaginais. Portanto, a presença do RNA GBV-C/HGV foi investigada em raspados cérvico-vaginais em mulheres aparentemente saudáveis que realizaram exames preventivos para câncer cervical. GBV-C/HGV RNA foi detectado por reação de transcriptase reversa e reação em cadeia da polimerase (RT-PCR. Apenas uma mulher apresentou a co-infecção com o papiloma vírus humano (HPV. O RNA GBV-C/HGV foi detectado em 13/73 (17,57% mulheres saudáveis e sua prevalência entre participantes da idade de 28-43 anos foi de 53,85%. Não foi observada relação entre a presença do RNA GBV-C/HGV com a idade de primeira relação sexual, nem com o número de gestações. Entre as mulheres que apresentavam o RNA viral, 69,23% eram casadas. O presente estudo demonstrou que secreções cérvico-vaginais podem conter o RNA viral GBV-C/HBV.

  2. Detection of GBV-C/HGV RNA in cervico-vaginal smears from healthy individuals

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Angelica Ehara, Watanabe; Ana Karina Melim Benthien, Miquelão; Carlos Eduardo Coral de, Oliveira; Karen Brajão de, Oliveira; Thiago Franco, Nasser; Mateus Nóbrega, Aoki; Patrícia Sayuri, Suzuki; Marla Karine, Amarante; Emerson José, Venâncio; Elbens Marcos Minoreli de, Azevedo.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a transmissão sexual de GBV-C/HBV, através da detecção do RNA viral em raspados cérvico-vaginais. Portanto, a presença do RNA GBV-C/HGV foi investigada em raspados cérvico-vaginais em mulheres aparentemente saudáveis que realizaram exames preventivos para câ [...] ncer cervical. GBV-C/HGV RNA foi detectado por reação de transcriptase reversa e reação em cadeia da polimerase (RT-PCR). Apenas uma mulher apresentou a co-infecção com o papiloma vírus humano (HPV). O RNA GBV-C/HGV foi detectado em 13/73 (17,57%) mulheres saudáveis e sua prevalência entre participantes da idade de 28-43 anos foi de 53,85%. Não foi observada relação entre a presença do RNA GBV-C/HGV com a idade de primeira relação sexual, nem com o número de gestações. Entre as mulheres que apresentavam o RNA viral, 69,23% eram casadas. O presente estudo demonstrou que secreções cérvico-vaginais podem conter o RNA viral GBV-C/HBV. Abstract in english The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the sexual transmission of GBV-C/HGV, through RNA detection in cervicovaginal smears. Therefore the GBV-C/HGV RNA in cervicovaginal smears from apparently healthy women was investigated using routine proceedings for prophylactic screening to cervical [...] cancer. GBV-C/HGV RNA was detected by reverse transcriptase and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Only one woman presented co-infection with human papilloma virus (HPV). The GBV-C/HGV RNA was detected in 13/73 (17.57%) healthy women and it's prevalence in participating women between 28-43 years old was 53.85%. No association was found with GBV-C/HGV for the age of first sexual intercourse and number of pregnancies. In GBV-C/HGV RNA positive women, 69.23% were married. In conclusion, the present findings show that cervical and vaginal specimens could contain the GBV-C/HGV RNA.

  3. Improved stochastic estimation of quark propagation with Laplacian Heaviside smearing in lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morningstar, C.; Lenkner, D.; Wong, C.H. [Pittsburgh Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Bulava, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Foley, J. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Juge, K.J. [University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Peardon, M. [Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland). School of Mathematics

    2011-08-15

    A new method of stochastically estimating the low-lying effects of quark propagation is proposed which allows accurate determinations of temporal correlations of single-hadron and multi-hadron operators in lattice QCD. The method is well suited for calculations in large volumes. Contributions involving quark propagation connecting hadron sink operators at the same final time can be handled in a straightforward manner, even for a large number of final time slices. The method exploits Laplacian Heaviside (LapH) smearing. Z{sub N} noise is introduced in a novel way, and variance reduction is achieved using judiciously-chosen noise dilution projectors. The method is tested using isoscalar mesons in the scalar, pseudoscalar, and vector channels, and using the two-pion system of total isospin I=0,1,2 on large anisotropic 24{sup 3} x 128 lattices with spatial spacing a{sub s} {proportional_to}0.12 fm and temporal spacing a{sub t} {proportional_to}0.034 fm for pion masses m{sub {pi}} {approx} 390 and 240 MeV. (orig.)

  4. LSIL/ASC-H (LSIL-H in Cervicovaginal Smear: Histopathological Outcomes and Clinical Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecmel I?IK KAYGUSUZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Conventional Pap smears exhibiting unequivocal features of ‘low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion' (LSIL are occasionally mixed with some cells suspicious for, but not diagnostic of ‘high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion' (HSIL on daily routine. The 2001 Bethesda System does not address the significance of such cytological entities. We have referred to these changes in our laboratory as ‘LSIL, atypical squamous cells cannot exclude HSIL' (LSIL/ASC-H. In this study, we aimed to compare the cytology and biopsy results of LSIL/ ASC-H to LSIL, ASC-H and HSIL.Material and Method: Out of 37884 cases which were evaluated between 2005-2009 in our laboratory, cases interpreted as LSIL, LSIL/ ASC-H, HSIL and ASC-H were reevaluated and 153 cases for which biopsy materials were available were selected.Results: The rate of histological CIN2 or worse associated with LSIL/ ASC-H (45% was between the rates of LSIL (10% and HSIL (65%, but not significantly different from ASC-H (50%. However, LSIL/ ASC-H was more frequently associated with a definitive histological diagnosis of any CIN2 than ASC-H (30% vs. 8%.Conclusion: Based on our results, we recommend LSIL/ASC-H to be added to Bethesda System, and Pap test cases of LSIL/ASC-H may need to be clinically followed-up in a manner similar to ASC-H, i.e., with colposcopy for all patients.

  5. Role of AgNORs in thyroid lesions on fine needle aspiration cytology smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asotra Sarita

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fine needle aspiration has an important role in diagnosis of thyroid neoplasm. However, it is difficult to differentiate between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma by cytology alone. Recently, silver staining has been performed for nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs to differentiate various tumors. Aims: The present study was undertaken to see if the AgNOR technique could distinguish between benign and malignant lesions, particularly, follicular neoplasm. Materials and Methods: One hundred forty cases of thyroid lesions were examined, which included colloid goiter (n = 36, multinodular goiter (n = 38, subacute thyroiditis (n = 6, Hashimoto?s thyroiditis (n = 17, lymphocytic thyroiditis (n = 3, follicular neoplasm (n = 18, Hurthle cell neoplasm (n = 3, papillary carcinoma (n = 16, and medullary carcinoma (n = 3. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology in 80 cases. The usual one-step silver colloidal reaction was performed at room temperature for 35 minutes and intranuclear dots of silver deposits were counted in 100 cells. Results: AgNOR counts of benign and malignant lesions were compared and were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.001. The mean AgNOR counts were higher in neoplastic lesions. Conclusions: AgNOR counting in fine needle aspiration smears is a simple, sensitive, and cost-effective method for differentiating benign from malignant thyroid follicular neoplasms.

  6. Predicting smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis with classification trees and logistic regression: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kritski Afrânio

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis (SNPT accounts for 30% of pulmonary tuberculosis cases reported yearly in Brazil. This study aimed to develop a prediction model for SNPT for outpatients in areas with scarce resources. Methods The study enrolled 551 patients with clinical-radiological suspicion of SNPT, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The original data was divided into two equivalent samples for generation and validation of the prediction models. Symptoms, physical signs and chest X-rays were used for constructing logistic regression and classification and regression tree models. From the logistic regression, we generated a clinical and radiological prediction score. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve, sensitivity, and specificity were used to evaluate the model's performance in both generation and validation samples. Results It was possible to generate predictive models for SNPT with sensitivity ranging from 64% to 71% and specificity ranging from 58% to 76%. Conclusion The results suggest that those models might be useful as screening tools for estimating the risk of SNPT, optimizing the utilization of more expensive tests, and avoiding costs of unnecessary anti-tuberculosis treatment. Those models might be cost-effective tools in a health care network with hierarchical distribution of scarce resources.

  7. Single-tube balanced heminested PCR for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis in smear-negative samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Quintanilla, A; Garcia, L; Tudó, G; Navarro, M; González, J; Jiménez de Anta, M T

    2000-03-01

    In order to achieve more sensitive and specific results for the rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis, we have developed a new method, named balanced heminested PCR, which avoids the inconvenience of asymmetric amplification and has the advantages of single-tube heminested PCR. This was achieved by replacing the outer primer that participates in both rounds of amplification in the standard heminested technique by another primer containing the sequence of the inner primer attached at its 5' end. When both techniques were tested for the IS6110 target of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in 80 smear-negative culture-positive sputum samples and 60 control samples, the results showed 100% specificity for both techniques and sensitivities of 60 and 75% for heminested PCR and balanced heminested PCR, respectively (P = 0.02). In conclusion, the balanced heminested technique shows a higher sensitivity than that of the standard heminested, and it could be applied to any PCR by attaching the inner primer at the 5' end of the opposite outer primer. Thus, the balanced heminested technique provides a target for the inner primer in both strands, avoiding asymmetric amplification and thereby resulting in a more efficient amplification, and, in practice, a higher sensitivity without loss of specificity and with a minimum risk of cross-contamination. PMID:10699014

  8. Production of carotenoids by Arthrobacter arilaitensis strains isolated from smear-ripened cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutthiwong, Nuthathai; Dufossé, Laurent

    2014-11-01

    Arthrobacter arilaitensis is one of the major microorganisms responsible for the coloration of cheese surface, particularly in smear-ripened cheeses. This study investigated the occurrence of pigment synthesis among A. arilaitensis strains in several aspects covering (1) UV-Vis absorption spectra and HPLC chromatograms of pigment extracts, (2) diversity of pigment production among strains, (3) influence of light on the production of pigment, and (4) kinetic of pigment synthesis. Based on absorption spectra and HPLC analysis, the 14 A. arilaitensis strains studied could be divided into two groups depending on their ability to produce carotenoids, carotenoid-producing, and nonpigmented strains. The methanolic extracts prepared from eight carotenoid-producing strains contained at least four carotenoids represented mainly as polar molecules. The diversity of pigment concentrations among these strains was low, with carotenoids ranging from 0.40 to 0.76 mg L(-1) culture and specific productivities from 0.14 to 0.25 mg pigment per g dry biomass, under light condition. When cultivating these A. arilaitensis strains under darkness condition, carotenoid biosynthesis was lower within a 0.17-0.25 mg L(-1) range. The pigment production time curve of a representative colored A. arilaitensis strain displayed a sigmoid shape which paralleled cell growth, probably indicating a growth-associated pigmentation. PMID:25236332

  9. Use of conventional PCR and smear microscopy to diagnose pulmonary tuberculosis in the Amazonian rainforest area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carniel, F; Dalla Costa, E R; Lima-Bello, G; Martins, C; Scherer, L C; Rossetti, M L

    2014-12-01

    The diagnostic usefulness of Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN)-stained sputum smears combined with conventional polymerase chain reaction (ZN/PCR) to amplify IS6110 region DNA extracted from ZN slides was evaluated. The objective was to verify if this association could improve tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis in patients at remote sites. The study was carried out in 89 patients with culture-confirmed pulmonary TB as defined by the Brazilian Manual for TB Treatment. The participants were recruited in a reference unit for TB treatment in Rondônia, a state in the Amazonian area in northern Brazil. ZN, PCR, and culture performed in the sputum samples from these patients were analyzed in different combinations (i.e., ZN plus PCR and ZN plus culture). The prevalence rates of pulmonary TB in these patients were 32.6 and 28.1% considering culture and ZN/PCR, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of ZN/PCR were 86 and 93%, respectively. ZN/PCR was able to detect more TB cases than ZN alone. This method could offer a new approach for accurate tuberculosis diagnosis, especially in remote regions of the world where culture is not available. PMID:25387666

  10. Internal friction and smearing of superconducting gap structures in high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For both BiSrCaCuO and TlBaCaCuO samples, the internal frictions, Q-1, in the kHz range reveal a plateau, Qp-1, above Tc and drop rapidly below Tc with the turning points located just at Tc for various samples with different Tc values. The kind of anomaly cannot be observed for non-superconducting samples. The drop of Qp-1 below Tc is found to be closely related to superconducting condensation. The existence of Qp-1 for high-Tc superconductors can be reasonably explained using the coupling-model among carriers with local dynamic distortion. Further, taking into account the smearing of the superconducting gap structure resulting from the recombination of quasi-particles and by modifying the BCS relative jump rate as S(E, E', ?)=Re[1-?2/(E-i?)(E'-i?)], the calculated results of the internal friction below Tc are in fair agreement with the experimental data. The superconducting gap, ?, and the damping rate, ?, for both BiSrCaCuO and TlBaCaCuO have also been obtained. These values are in accordance with those obtained by tunneling spectrum and NMR methods, etc. (orig.)

  11. Rapid monitoring of soil, smears, and air dusts by direct large-area alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental conditions to permit rapid monitoring of soils, smears, and air dusts for transuranic (TRU) radionuclides under field conditions are described. The monitoring technique involves direct measurement of alpha emitters by alpha spectrometry using a large-area detector to identify and quantify the radionuclides present. The direct alpha spectrometry employs a circular gridded ionization chamber 35 cm in diameter which accommodates either a circular sample holder 25 cm in diameter or a rectangular one 20 by 25 cm (8 by 10 in.). Soils or settled dusts are finely ground, suspended in 30% ethanol, and sprayed onto a 25-cm stainless steel dish. Air dusts are collected with a high-volume sampler onto 20- by 25-cm membrane filters. Removable contamination is collected from surfaces onto a 20- by 25-cm filter using an 18-cm (7-in.) paint roller to hold the large filter in contact with the surface during sample collection. All three types of samples are then counted directly in the alpha spectrometer and no other sample preparation is necessary. Some results obtained are described

  12. Nonlinear Analysis of Concrete Structural Components Using Co-axial Rotating Smeared Crack Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Heshmati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulation of concrete behavior in structural components and estimation of real crack profile under static and dynamic loads is one of the most interesting fields in structural engineering. In the present study, a co-axial rotating smeared crack model is proposed for mass concrete in 3D space. The advantages of this model are using variable shear transfer coefficient which is updated in each load step; utilizing an advanced failure criterion for concrete and ability of modeling concrete cracking in tension and also crushing in compression. The proposed model is verified considering concrete beams under concentrated loads and comparing the results with those available in the literature. In addition, a finite element model of prototype gravity dam-reservoir-foundation system is provided in order to investigation the nonlinear dynamic behavior of large concrete specimens considering fluid-structure-interaction. The responses of the dam as well as crack profiles are compared for constant and variable shear transfer coefficients under various types of dynamic loads. Results show great compatibility of numerical modeling and experimental tests. In addition, results confirm importance of shear transfer coefficients in dynamic analysis of concrete gravity dams.

  13. Use of conventional PCR and smear microscopy to diagnose pulmonary tuberculosis in the Amazonian rainforest area

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F., Carniel; E.R., Dalla Costa; G., Lima-Bello; C., Martins; L.C., Scherer; M.L., Rossetti.

    1016-10-01

    Full Text Available The diagnostic usefulness of Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN)-stained sputum smears combined with conventional polymerase chain reaction (ZN/PCR) to amplify IS6110 region DNA extracted from ZN slides was evaluated. The objective was to verify if this association could improve tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis in patien [...] ts at remote sites. The study was carried out in 89 patients with culture-confirmed pulmonary TB as defined by the Brazilian Manual for TB Treatment. The participants were recruited in a reference unit for TB treatment in Rondônia, a state in the Amazonian area in northern Brazil. ZN, PCR, and culture performed in the sputum samples from these patients were analyzed in different combinations (i.e., ZN plus PCR and ZN plus culture). The prevalence rates of pulmonary TB in these patients were 32.6 and 28.1% considering culture and ZN/PCR, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of ZN/PCR were 86 and 93%, respectively. ZN/PCR was able to detect more TB cases than ZN alone. This method could offer a new approach for accurate tuberculosis diagnosis, especially in remote regions of the world where culture is not available.

  14. REVALIDATION OF SMEAR NEGATIVE TUBERCULAR INFECTION BY CONVENTIONAL AND PCR APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchan Srivastava Dinesh K Tripathi, Kishore K Srivastava, Surya Kant*

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available IS6110 sequence based Polymerase Chain reaction (PCR was compared with conventional bacteriological techniques in the laboratory diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB. A retrospective study involving one hundred and twenty six, non-repeated clinical isolates patients being investigated for tuberculosis. The samples were also processed for Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN staining for acid fast bacilli (AFB and culture for MTB. All the samples were processed for PCR amplification with primer targeting 123 bp fragments of insertion sequences IS6110 of M. tuberculosis complex (MTC and the sensitivity of PCR was analyzed. Of the 126 patients, 100% and 97.3% were smears and culture positive for MTB respectively. Using culture as the gold standard, the overall sensitivity of PCR was 97.62%, and for either positive or either negative clinical isolates it was 97.06%% and 92.31%, respectively. The current study evaluated a PCR assay for the detection of MTC strains by targeting the IS6110 insertion element. This PCR has emerged as a rapid, reliable and a potent tool in establishing the diagnosis of tuberculosis with higher sensitivity than ZN microscopy and greater alacrity than culture.

  15. Comparison of Molecular (PCR and Pap Smear Methods in Diagnosis of Human Papiloma Virus (HPV in Women with Genit al Warts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashi zadeh Fakhar, H . (M S c

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Much research has shown that Human Papiloma Virus (HPV plays an important role in cervix cancer and it is the cause of 99% of cervix cancer worldwide. Lots of research has been done to find a proper method for HPV diagnosis and screening in patients with genital warts. This study aimed at comparing PCR method with Pap smear test in HPV screening. Material and Methods: Considering the presence of DNA of HPV, 45 vaginal and cervix swap samples of women with genital warts were tested by means of specific PCR and Pap smear from September 2010 to April 2011. Results: Out of 45 vaginal and cervix swap samples of women suffering genital warts, 37 samples (82.2% are positive. Of 45 Pap smear samples, 13 (29% are neoplasia and 32 (71% normal. Conclusion: The difference between the results of PCR and Pap smear is due to low specification and sensitivity of Pap smear. Thus it is recommended using diagnostic PCR method in addition to Pap smear in order to promote the quality of screening in individuals with genital warts. Keywords: Human Papiloma Virus (HPV; Genital Warts; Molecular (PCR; Pap Smear

  16. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and Travel DVT Myths vs Facts Blood Detectives Find a ... that occurs when a DVT breaks off and travels to the blood vessels of the lungs. DVT ...

  17. Cord blood testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the following in your baby’s blood: Bilirubin levels Blood culture (if an infection is suspected) Blood gases (to ... cord was compressed during labor or delivery. A blood culture that is positive for bacteria means you have ...

  18. Blood donation before surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... replace this blood, you may be given a blood transfusion. This is a safe and common procedure, during ... with hepatitis, HIV, or other viruses after a blood transfusion. Blood transfusions are not 100% safe. But the ...

  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In this section Living With Diabetes Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Testing Checking Your Blood Glucose A1C and eAG Hypoglycemia (Low blood glucose) Hyperglycemia (High blood glucose) Dawn ...

  20. Types of Blood Donations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Double Red Cell Plasma Platelets Red Cells What blood donation type is best for me? **If you do ... blood type, a whole blood donation is recommended** Blood Donation Types: Volunteer Donations The standard or most common ...

  1. Types of Blood Donations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Home > Donating Blood > Types of Donations Printable Version Types of Donations Donation of 'whole blood' is the most common type ... you would like to schedule a directed donation. Donating Blood Why Donate Blood? Eligibility Requirements Eligibility Criteria by ...

  2. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Programs and Awards View all Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Collections Submit to Blood View ... Attendance View all meeting information Publications Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood: How I Treat A ...

  3. Lead levels - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood lead levels ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is typically drawn from a vein located on the ... may be used to puncture the skin. The blood collects in a small glass tube called a ...

  4. Effect of the sodium hypochlorite and citric acid association on smear layer removal of primary molars Efeito da associação de hipoclorito de sódio e ácido cítrico na remoção de "smear layer" de molares decíduos

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela da Rosa Götze; Cristiane Beatriz Costa Sales Cunha; Laura Salignac de Souza Guimarães Primo; Lucianne Cople Maia

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the capacity of a sodium hypochlorite and citric acid (CA) association (the latter at different concentrations) in removing coronal smear layer (SL) of primary teeth. For this purpose, the pulp chamber roof and floor of 28 primary molars were removed to obtain enamel and dentine disks. SL was produced on the internal walls of the disks using high-speed drills. The disks were irrigated with 1% sodium hypochlorite and citric acid at different concentrations (CA-4%, CA...

  5. Self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Northern Italy: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghinelli Florio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of invasive cervical cancer in HIV-positive women is higher than in the general population. There is evidence that HIV-positive women do not participate sufficiently in cervical cancer screening in Italy, where cervical cancer is more than 10-fold higher in women with AIDS than in the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Italy in recent years. We also examined the sociodemographic, clinical, and organizational factors associated with adherence to cervical cancer screening. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between July 2006 and June 2007 in Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy. All HIV-positive women who received a follow-up visit in one of the 10 regional infectivology units were invited to participate. History of Pap-smear, including abnormal smears and subsequent treatment, was investigated through a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. The association between lack of Pap-smear in the year preceding the interview and selected characteristics was assessed by means of odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for study centre and age. Results A total of 1,002 HIV-positive women were interviewed. Nine percent reported no history of Pap-smear, and 39% had no Pap-smear in the year prior to the date of questionnaire (last year. The lack of Pap-smear in the last year was significantly associated with age Three hundred five (34% women reported a previous abnormal Pap-smear, and of the 178 (58% referred for treatment, 97% complied. Conclusions In recent years the self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women, in some public clinics in Italy, is higher than previously reported, but further efforts are required to make sure cervical cancer screening is accessible to all HIV-positive women.

  6. [Frequency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (A-376/202) in three Malian ethnic groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolo, A; Maiga, B; Guindo, A; Diakité, S A S; Diakite, M; Tapily, A; Traoré, M; Sangaré, B; Arama, C; Daou, M; Doumbo, O

    2014-08-01

    Erythrocyte G6PD deficiency is the most common worldwide enzymopathy. The aim of this study was to determine erythrocyte G6PD deficiency in 3 ethnic groups of Mali and to investigate whether erythrocyte G6PD deficiency was associated to the observed protection against malaria seen in Fulani ethnic group. The study was conducted in two different areas of Mali: in the Sahel region of Mopti where Fulani and Dogon live as sympatric ethnic groups and in the Sudanese savannah area where lives mostly the Malinke ethnic group. The study was conducted in 2007 in Koro and in 2008 in Naguilabougou. It included a total 90 Dogon, 42 Fulani and 80 Malinke ethnic groups. Malaria was diagnosed using microscopic examination after Giemsa-staining of thick and thin blood smear. G6PD deficiency (A-(376/202)) samples were identified using RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) assay and analysis of PCR-amplified DNA amplicon. G6PD deficiency (A-(376/202)) rate was 11.1%, 2.4%, and 13.3% in Dogon, Fulani, and Malinke ethnic group respectively. Heterozygous state for G6PD (A-(376/202)) was found in 7.8% in Dogon; 2.4% in Fulani and 9.3% in Malinke ethnic groups while hemizygous state was found at the frequency of 2.2% in Dogon and 4% in Malinke. No homozygous state was found in our study population.We conclude that G6PD deficiency is not differing significantly between the three ethnic groups, Fulani, Dogon and Malinke. PMID:24952161

  7. Distribution Patterns of Babesia gibsoni Infection in Hunting Dogs from Nine Japanese Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dakhly, Khaled Mohamed; Goto, Minami; Noishiki, Kaori; El-Nahass, El-Shaymaa; Sakai, Hiroki; Yanai, Tokuma; Takashima, Yasuhiro

    2015-04-01

    Canine babesiosis constitutes a major global veterinary medical problem caused by tick-borne hemoparasites Babesia gibsoni and Babesia canis. Babesia gibsoni induces more severe clinical signs and is mainly transmitted by the ixodid Haemaphysalis longicornis. In Japan, B. gibsoni is primarily found in the western districts, with few records in the eastern parts. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate distribution patterns of B. gibsoni infection in 9 Japanese islands and peninsulas using direct microscopy and PCR. Therefore, 196 hunting dogs were randomly sampled during the period from March to September 2011. Ages and sexes of dogs were identified. Direct microscopy of Giemsa-stained blood smear revealed pear-shaped piroplasms of B. gibsoni in 3 (1.6%) dogs. PCR was done initially with the universal primer set (B18S-F and B18S-R) amplifying the 1,665-bp portion of the 18S rRNA gene, followed by the specific primer set (Bg18F1 and Bg18R2) amplifying 2,363-bp fragments of the same gene. Accordingly, 84 (42.9%) and 8 (4.1%) dogs were positive, respectively. The current investigation shows that canine babesiosis was recorded in all islands except for Sado Island, Atsumi Peninsula, and Tanegashima Island. The highest infection rate was detected in the main island of Okinawa, while the lowest was on Ishigaki Island. Both sexes were non-significantly infected. However, the diversity of infection in islands was significantly different (P < 0.05). Although B. gibsoni has been previously found in western and eastern Japan, the present work highlights the prevalence of infection in many Japanese districts, including islands and peninsulas, giving realistic data that can facilitate treatment and control. PMID:25419881

  8. Trypanosome infection in dromedary camels in Eastern Ethiopia: Prevalence, relative performance of diagnostic tools and host related risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikru, Regassa; Andualem, Yimer; Getachew, Terefe; Menten, Joris; Hasker, Epco; Merga, Bekana; Goddeeris, Bruno Maria; Büscher, Philippe

    2015-07-30

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Chifra and Dewe districts of Afar region, Eastern Ethiopia, to determine the prevalence, agreement between diagnostic tests and host related risk factors of trypanosome infection in camel. An overall prevalence of 2%, 24.1%, 21.3%, 9.5% and 7.8% was recorded with respectively Giemsa stained thin blood smear, CATT/T. evansi, RoTat1.2 PCR, 18S PCR and ITS-1PCR in a cohort of 399 animals. Only one T. vivax infection was confirmed by TvPRAC PCR indicating T. evansi as the predominant species affecting camels in the study area. No single animal was positive when tested with T. evansi type B specific EVAB PCR. There was slight agreement between the CATT/T. evansi and the molecular tests. Among the PCR methods, RoTat 1.2 PCR yielded a significantly higher positivity rate compared to 18S PCR and ITS-1 PCR. There was no significant difference in the positivity rate observed in each gender of camels (p>0.05). The positivity rate was significantly higher in camels with poor body condition and in older animals when tested using the CATT/T.evansi or RoTat 1.2 PCR (p>0.05). Camels that tested positive with all tests had significantly lower PCV's (pEthiopia. The latent class analysis indicated an estimate overall prevalence of 19% (95% CI: 13-28). Moreover, the model indicated low sensitivity of CATT/T. evansi (43%) and the PCR tests (39-53%) but higher specificity of the PCR tests (86-99%) and low specificity of CATT/T. evansi (80%). This study suggests that improved sensitivity and reliability of the tests would help diagnosis of trypanosomosis. Further studies are required to determine the prevalence of clinical disease and losses due to trypanosomosis. PMID:26071981

  9. Molecular detection of natural Babesia bovis infection from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and crossbred cattle.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser

    Babesia bovis (B. bovis) is a major causative agent of bovine babesiosis, with a considerable worldwide impact. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of PCR assay and microscopical examination (ME) for detection of B. bovis in naturally infected and apparently healthy water buffaloes and crossbred cattle under field circumstances from Sharkia province of Egypt. A total 34 animals (20 crossbred cattle and 14 buffaloes) were clinically and laboratory investigated during the period from March to August 2008. Fifteen animals showed symptoms of bovine babesiosis while 19 animals were apparently healthy. Two blood samples were collected from each animal; one was used for preparation of Giemsa-stained smears for ME while the other sample was used for DNA extraction and PCR testing. Out of 34 cattle and buffaloes, ME identified 13 animals (38.2%) as infected by B. bovis whereas PCR identified 29 (85.3%). B. bovis infected animals showed high fever, anaemia, jaundice, haemoglobinuria, and accelerated heart and respiratory rates. Out of 15 animals clinically infected, PCR identified 14 animals (93.3%) as infected while ME identified only, 8 animals (53.3%). Out of 19 animals apparently healthy, 5 animals (26.3%) were identified as infected by ME meanwhile 15 animals (78.9%) were identified by PCR. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that water buffalos are likely to have a natural tolerance to B. bovis pathogen and/or more likely to be persistent carriers which were not picked up by microscopy. The severity of clinical symptoms of B. bovis infection on water buffaloes was less than the severity of clinical symptoms appeared on cattle. PCR assay is more sensitive technique than microscopical examination for detection of B. bovis in both clinically infected and apparently.

  10. Prevalence of Theileria equi, Babesia caballi, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in horses from the north of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Ana J; Cardoso, Luís; Maia, José M; Coutinho, Teresa; Cotovio, Mário

    2013-07-01

    Piroplasmid protozoa Theileria equi and Babesia caballi and zoonotic rickettsial bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum are important agents of equine vector-borne diseases (EVBD). This study aimed at investigating the prevalence of infections with or exposure to these pathogens in horses from the north of Portugal. Blood was randomly collected from 162 horses, living in 72 different stables, to prepare Giemsa-stained slide smears. Additionally, plasma samples were tested for antibodies to T. equi and B. caballi by two competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and to A. phagocytophilum by an indirect fluorescence antibody test. Five horses were positive to T. equi by microscopy (3.1 %), three to B. caballi (1.9 %), and none to A. phagocytophilum with no horse simultaneously positive for the two piroplasms. Clinically suspect animals had a significantly higher positivity to T. equi by microscopy in comparison with the nonsuspect ones (21.4 vs. 1.4 %). Twenty-nine horses were seropositive to T. equi (17.9 %), 18 to B. caballi (11.1 %), and 21 to A. phagocytophilum (13.0 %). Combined serology and microscopy positive results to T. equi and B. caballi were 19.1 and 11.7 %, respectively, with 33.3 % of the horses found positive to at least one agent. Forty horses were positive to single agents and 14 to more than one agent. An outdoor or mixed outdoor/indoor type of housing was found to be a risk factor for the combined positivity to T. equi. Infections with T. equi, B. caballi, and A. phagocytophilum are endemic in the north of Portugal. In addition to the treatment of positive horses, preventive measures should be put in practice to reduce exposure to and infection with agents of EVBD. PMID:23591484

  11. Prognostic factors in adult patients with acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimori, S; Nagao, T

    1983-12-01

    An analysis of prognostic factors was performed on a series of 50 adult patients with acute leukemia, treated in our department in the Tokai university Hospital between July, 1975 and June, 1980. The diagnosis was made in all cases on the basis of May-Grünwald-Giemsa-stained smears of peripheral blood and bone marrow. The patients were treated with two successive protocols. One course of induction chemotherapy consisted of 40 units/kg/day of neocarzinostatin, 1.2-1.6 mg/kg/day of cytosine arabinoside, 0.6-0.8 mg/kg/day of daunorubicin and 0.8-1.6 mg/kg/day of prednisolone on days 1-4 for acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, and the other consisted of 0.04 mg/kg/day of vincristine on day 1, 0.6-0.8 mg/kg/day of daunorubicin on days 1-4, 0.8-1.6 mg/kg/day of prednisolone on days 1-4 for acute lymphocytic leukemia. Consolidation and intensification therapies were given every 1-2 months after complete remission, and the protocols were basically the same as those of the induction therapy. Maintenance therapy consisted of 1.2-1.6 mg/kg/day of cytosine arabinoside, twice a week or 2 mg/kg/day of 6 MP orally. Risk factor leading to poor prognosis of acute leukemia were considered to be (1) advanced age (older than 50 years, P less than 0.05), (2) M5 (monocytic leukemia), (3) thrombocytopenia (less than 50,000 cmm-1), and (4) chromosome abnormalities of blast cells. PMID:6242082

  12. Antiplasmodial activity of certain medicinal plants against chloroquine resistant Plasmodium berghei infected white albino BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, C; Begam, M; Kumar, Dharmendra; Baruah, Indra; Gogoi, H K; Srivastava, R B; Veer, Vijay

    2014-06-01

    In the present study of antimalarial efficacy, aqueous extracts of leaves and unripe fruits of Psidium guajava, leaves of Ocimum sanctum and leaves of Murraya koenigii are evaluated against Plasmodium berghei (chloroquine resistant NK65 strain) infected white albino BALB/c mice. A 7 days oral administration was adopted with different dosage viz., 350 mg, 750 mg and 1,000 mg/kg body weight as treatment schedule along with parasite (Group I) and drug control with Chloroquine, 50 mg/kg body weight (Group II). All the parts were extracted based on the decoction method, which is commonly seen among the villagers/tribes as their usual method of preparation of decoction for most of the ailments. The antimalarial activities were evaluated from the giemsa stained blood smears collected from different treated groups of mice used in this experiment. The antiplasmodial effect that is percent parasitaemia and percent suppression (values in parenthesis) showed by the treated groups of mice at 350 mg/kg b. wt. by the aqueous extracts of P. guajava leaves (Group III) was 19.8 ± 1.22 (73.7 %), P. guajava unripe fruits (Group IV) was 52.7 ± 2.19 (30.0 %), leaves of O. sanctum (Group V) was 64.0 ± 0.73 (15.1 %) and leaves of M. koenigii (Group VI) was 28.9 ± 0.81 (61.6 %) whereas at 750 mg/kg b. wt., it all showed 10.3 ± 0.7 (80.2 %), 26.3 ± 0.52 (65.1 %), 42.0 ± 0.47 (44.2 %) and 14.9 ± 0.46 (71.5 %) whereas at 1,000 mg/kg b. wt. dose, it all showed 9.2 ± 0.39 (85.8 %), 25.6 ± 0.40 (62.0 %), 41.8 ± 0.29 (35.5 %) and 14.0 ± 0.42 (76.9 %) respectively. PMID:24808642

  13. HYDROCHLORIC ACID VS SULPHURIC ACID – AN ECONOMICAL DESTAINING REAGENT FOR ZIEHL NEELSEN STAINING TO DETECT ACID FAST BACILLI IN SPUTUM SMEARS

    OpenAIRE

    Jaya Chandra T, R. Selvaraj And Yv Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Ziehl Neelsen (ZN) staining is one of the simplest, rapid diagnostic tests to detect Acid fast bacilli in sputum smears. To compare 25% Sulphuric acid (H2SO4) and 6% Hydrochloric acid (HCl) in alcohol to differentiates acid fast bacilli in sputum smears. Department of Microbiology, GSL Medical College, Rajahmundry. A total of 187 sputum samples were stained by ZN acid and ZN acid alcohol method. Smear positivity was 31.6% for both the methods. HCl 6% in alcohol is recommended over 25% H2SO4 d...

  14. A Comparative Study of the Removal of Smear Layer by Two Endodontic Irrigants and Nd:YAG Laser: A Scanning Electron Microscopic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hasheminia, Seyed Mohsen; Birang, Reza; Feizianfard, Mahboobe; Nasouri, Mina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of 17% EDTA, 5% maleic acid, and Nd:YAG laser on smear layer removal by SEM. Eighty single-rooted teeth were divided into three groups of 25 according to the final procedure for smear layer removal: irrigation by 17% EDTA or 5% maleic acid or Nd:YAG laser irradiation. The other five teeth was used as control. Roots were sectioned into buccal and lingual parts, and smear layer presence was recorded in the coronal, middle, and apical thirds under ...

  15. A comparative study of cervical smears in an urban Hospital in India and a population-based screening program in Mauritius

    OpenAIRE

    Mulay Kaustubh; Swain Meenakshi; Patra Sushma; Gowrishankar Swarnalata

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study cervical smear abnormalities in urban women in India and women in Mauritius and to compare the results in the two groups. Study Design: An analysis of 6010 cervical smears taken as part of routine check-ups in an urban hospital was done and an analysis of 10,000 cervical smears taken from women participating in a National Cancer Screening Program in Mauritius was done. Emphasis was put on cervical epithelial cell abnormalities and the results in the two populations are ...

  16. In vitro evaluation of smear layer removal by Er:YAG laser application with five different fiberoptic tip withdrawl techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Zanello Guerisoli, Danilo M.; Marchesan, Melissa A.; Emboava Spano, Julio C.; Djalma Pecora, Jesus

    2003-06-01

    This study evaluated smear layer removal in apical and middle root thirds using five different fiberoptic tip withdrawal techniques. Thirty human canines were instrumented using 2.5% sodium hypochlorite, with a final irrigation of distilled water, and divided randomly in 6 different groups. Er:YAG laser was applied in 5 groups with a 50/28 fiberoptic tip (250 mJ input, 112 mJ output, 10 Hz, 1 mm from apex) with distinct withdrawal techniques. Group 6 did not receive laser irradiation. Two pieces of each root canal (middle and apical thirds) were obtained under the SEM and analyzed for the amount of smear layer. Results showed statistical differences (plaser irradiation.

  17. Pap smear diagnosis using a hybrid intelligent scheme focusing on genetic algorithm based feature selection and nearest neighbor classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinakis, Yannis; Dounias, Georgios; Jantzen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The term pap-smear refers to samples of human cells stained by the so-called Papanicolaou method. The purpose of the Papanicolaou method is to diagnose pre-cancerous cell changes before they progress to invasive carcinoma. In this paper a metaheuristic algorithm is proposed in order to classify the cells. Two databases are used, constructed in different times by expert MDs, consisting of 917 and 500 images of pap smear cells, respectively. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and the cells fall into 7 classes but a minimal requirement is to separate normal from abnormal cells, which is a 2 class problem. For finding the best possible performing feature subset selection problem, an effective genetic algorithm scheme is proposed. This algorithmic scheme is combined with a number of nearest neighbor based classifiers. Results show that classification accuracy generally outperforms other previously applied intelligent approaches. PMID:19147127

  18. Gymnemic acids inhibit rabbit glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and induce a smearing of its electrophoretic band and dephosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izutani, Yusuke; Murai, Takuya; Imoto, Toshiaki; Ohnishi, Masatake; Oda, Masayuki; Ishijima, Sumio

    2005-08-15

    Gymnemic acids (GA) inhibited rabbit muscle glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) activity. Binding of GA to GAPDH was observed by surface plasmon resonance measurement. Incubation of GAPDH with GA induced a smearing of the GAPDH band in SDS-PAGE. The GA-induced smearing was diminished by prior incubation of GA with gamma-cyclodextrin or by GA treatment with NAD. GA treatment did not affect the electrophoretic mobility of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and dehydrogenase. GA treatment diminished the GAPDH band detected by an antibody to phosphoserine, but did not affect the phosphoserine bands of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and dehydrogenase. These results indicated that GA specifically induced dephosphorylation of GAPDH. PMID:16054141

  19. Pap Smear Diagnosis Using a Hybrid Intelligent Scheme Focusing on Genetic Algorithm Based Feature Selection and Nearest Neighbor Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinakis, Yannis; Dounias, Georgios

    2009-01-01

    The term pap-smear refers to samples of human cells stained by the so-called Papanicolaou method. The purpose of the Papanicolaou method is to diagnose pre-cancerous cell changes before they progress to invasive carcinoma. In this paper a metaheuristic algorithm is proposed in order to classify the cells. Two databases are used, constructed in different times by expert MDs, consisting of 917 and 500 images of pap smear cells, respectively. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and the cells fall into 7 classes but a minimal requirement is to separate normal from abnormal cells, which is a 2 class problem. For finding the best possible performing feature subset selection problem, an effective genetic algorithm scheme is proposed. This algorithmic scheme is combined with a number of nearest neighbor based classifiers. Results show that classification accuracy generally outperforms other previously applied intelligent approaches.

  20. Liqui Prepâ„¢ a New Liquid Based Cervical Cytology Method in Comparison with Conventional Pap Smear in Developing Counteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare, the screening performance of a new liquid-based cytology method, Liquiprepâ„¢,with conventional Pap in a low risk population, using colposcopy followed histology as "gold standard". Methods: This prospective study was performed in a general gynecology clinic in ValiAsr University Hospital, Tehran, Iran from February 2004 to March 2005. The split-sample method was used for preparing conventional and liquid-based cytology. A new technique of liquid-based cytology; Liqui-prepâ„¢ was used in this study. All positive result of smears and 10% of negative results in each group were submitted to colposcopy and a biopsy taken when any atypical transformation zone was seen. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and overall accuracy of both conventional and Liquiprepâ„¢ methods were computed in relation to histology. A total of 506 patients were analyzed by two cytology methods and in 65 (12.84% of cases histologic diagnosis was performed. There were more adequate samples with Liquiprepâ„¢ (94.7% than with conventional (92.1% smears. There was not any LSIL and HSIL report in two groups. ASCUS was diagnosed significantly more with conventional than with Liquiprepâ„¢ smear (1.56 vs. 0.79%. Pathologically 50% of ASCUS in Liquiprepâ„¢ and 12.5% in CP had squamous abnormality. Liquiprepâ„¢ had a significantly higher sensitivity (66 vs. 83% and specificity (86 vs. 98% than the conventional Pap smear to detect ASCUS+ at histology. This study confirms the superiority of the Liquiprepâ„¢ method to detect cervical lesions.

  1. Evaluation of atypical squamous cells on conventional cytology smears: An experience from a screening program practiced in limited resource settings

    OpenAIRE

    Rekhi Bharat; Ajit Dulhan; Joseph Santhosh; Gawas Sonali; Deodhar Kedar

    2010-01-01

    Background: The Bethesda system (TBS) 2001 has subdivided the category of atypical squamous cells (ASC) into: ASC-US (undetermined significance) and ASC-H (cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL)). The present study is an analysis of ASC-US and ASC-H cases diagnosed in a screening program practiced in limited resource settings. Methods: During the period January 2005 to December 2008, a total of 9190 smears were received, of which 568 were unsatisfactory. Cases initia...

  2. Evaluation of a Worksite Cervical Screening Initiative to Increase Pap Smear Uptake in Malaysia: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Fauziah Abdullah; Michael O’Rorke; Liam Murray; Tin Tin Su

    2013-01-01

    Background. Despite the significant burden of cervical cancer, Malaysia like many middle-income countries relies on opportunistic cervical screening as opposed to a more organized population-based program. The aim of this study was to ascertain the effectiveness of a worksite screening initiative upon Papanicolaou smear test (Pap test) uptake among educated working women in Malaysia. Methods. 403 female teachers who never or infrequently attended for a Pap test from 40 public secondary school...

  3. The quality of sputum smear microscopy in public-private mix directly observed treatment laboratories in West Amhara region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manalebh, Almaw; Demissie, Meaza; Mekonnen, Daniel; Abera, Bayeh

    2015-01-01

    Ethiopia adopted Public-Private Mix Directly Observed Treatment Short Course Chemotherapy (PPM-DOTS) strategy for tuberculosis (TB) control program. Quality of sputum smear microscopy has paramount importance for tuberculosis control program in resource-poor countries like Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the quality of sputum smear microscopy in 37 Public-Private Mix laboratories in West Amhara, Ethiopia. The three external quality assessment methods (onsite evaluation, panel testing and blind rechecking) were employed. Onsite assessment revealed that 67.6% of PPM-DOTS laboratories were below the standard physical space (5 X 6) m2. The average monthly workload per laboratory technician was 19.5 (SD±2.9) slides with 12.8% positivity rate. The quality of Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) staining reagents was sub-standard. The overall agreement for blind rechecking of 1,123 AFB slides was 99.4% (Kappa = 0.97). Reading of 370 AFB panel slides showed 3.5% false reading (Kappa = 0.92). Moreover, the consistency of reading scanty bacilli slides was lower (93%) compared to 1+, 2+ and 3+ bacilli. Based on blind rechecking and panel testing results, PPM-DOTS site laboratories showed good agreement with the reference laboratory. Physical space and qualities of AFB reagents would be areas of intervention to sustain the quality of sputum smear microscopy. Therefore, regular external quality assessment and provision of basic laboratory supplies for TB diagnosis would be the way forward to improve the quality of sputum smear microscopy services in PPM-DOTS laboratories. PMID:25849516

  4. Bleach sedimentation: an opportunity to optimize smear microscopy for tuberculosis diagnosis in settings of high prevalence of HIV.

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnet, M.; Ramsay, A.; Githui, W; Gagnidze, L; Varaine, F.; Guerin, PJ

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the performance and feasibility of tuberculosis diagnosis by sputum microscopy after bleach sedimentation, compared with by conventional direct smear microscopy, in a setting of high prevalence of HIV. METHODS: In a community-based study in Kenya (a population in which 50% of individuals with tuberculosis are infected with HIV), individuals with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis submitted 3 sputum specimens during 2 consecutive days, which w...

  5. Células glandulares atípicas em esfregaços cervicovaginais: significância e aspectos atuais / Atypical glandular cells in cervical smears: significance and current aspects

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriana Bittencourt, Campaner; Maria Antonieta Longo, Galvão; Roberto Euzébio dos, Santos; Tsutomu, Aoki.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Células glandulares atípicas (AGC) em esfregaços cervicovaginais são achados citológicos raros, porém de significado representativo. Sua incidência varia, na literatura, de 0,08% a 0,81%. O sistema Bethesda de 2001 classifica estas lesões glandulares como AGCs sem outras especificações, AGCs provave [...] lmente neoplásicas, adenocarcinoma cervical in situ (AIS) e adenocarcinoma invasivo. Das mulheres portadoras de AGC, grande parte não apresentará qualquer tipo de alteração histológica em avaliação subseqüente. Entretanto, em 17,4% a 62,2% dos casos serão encontradas lesões histológicas significativas, como neoplasias intra-epiteliais cervicais, AIS, neoplasias escamosas e glandulares, cervicais e endometriais, bem como neoplasias de outras localizações. O risco de doença significativa está relacionado à subdivisão de AGC encontrada. Em virtude da elevada probabilidade de anormalidades histológicas significativas em casos de AGC, a simples repetição citológica é insuficiente para o seguimento dessa condição. Esta atualização descreve a epidemiologia, a avaliação e a conduta das pacientes portadoras dessa anormalidade citológica. Abstract in english Atypical glandular cells (AGC) on cervical smears are unusual but important cytologic diagnosis. The incidence of AGC ranges from 0.08% to 0.81 % of all cervical smears tests. The 2001 Bethesda System nomenclature classifies these glandular lesions as AGC not otherwise specified, AGC favor neoplasia [...] , endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and invasive adenocarcinoma. Of women with AGC smears, a great number will have no histologic abnormalities on further evaluation. However, 17.4% to 62.2% are found to have significant histologic lesions such as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, AIS, squamous and glandular cancers from sites farther the cervix and endometrium. The risk of significant disease is related to the AGC subclassification that was found. Because of the high likelihood that AGC is associated with significant histological disease, simply repeating the cytological smear is not sufficient for the management of this condition. This review describes the epidemiology, evaluation and management of patients with these citologic readings.

  6. A STUDY ON TREATMENT OUTCOME OF NEW SPUTUM SMEAR POSITIVE TUBERCULOSIS PATIENTS AMONG TRIBAL POPULATION IN KURNOOL DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.KasiSrinivas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: India accounts for nearly 20% of the global burden of tuberculosis, with global tuberculosis ranking of ‘one’. It is the leading infections cause of death in India. Around 1.8 million people are detected to have tuberculosis every year in India, of which about 0.8 million are new smear positive highly infections cases. Aims & Objectives: To find out various treatment outcome rates of tuberculosis patients among tribal population. To study on factors influencing cure rates among tribal population. Material & methods: The present study of treatment outcome of new sputum positive tuberculosispatients’ is a prospective, community based study. Patients diagnosed and registered from IVth quarter of 2006 to 1st quarter of 2008 in Athmakur tuberculosis unit, Kurnool district are selected for prospective study. They are followed from the time of registration and treatment till the completion of treatment. The study is continued till the last registered tuberculosis case completes the treatment. All the cases were followed for sputum smear conversions, smear examination at the end of treatment regimen. Duration of study is 1year and 3 months. Results: A total 45 tribal cases of Athmakur tuberculosis unit, Kurnool district were studied for treatment outcomes.31 (68.89% were males and 14 (31.11% were females. Male to Female ratio of 2.21:1 was observed among the patients. There is ahigh prevalence in .Conclusion: The expected treatment outcome norms (cure rate > 85%, failure rate 90% were observed in the present study. Cure rate of 91.11%, failure rate of 4.4%, death rate of 4.4%, smear conversion rate of 93.33% were observed in the study, which shows that the implementation of Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme in the study area has achieved the prescribed goals.

  7. Comparación de cuatro métodos de restauración del ADN en muestras de plasma y láminas de citología cérvico-uterina como una herramienta para mejorar la calidad de la muestra / Comparison of four methods of DNA restoration in samples from plasma and pap smears as a tool for better the samples

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Caterin, Márquez; Dabeiba Adriana, García-Robayo; Marcos, Castillo; Ignacio, Briceño; Jairo, Amaya; Fabio Ancízar, Aristizábal-Gutiérrez.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: comparar cuatro métodos de restauración del ADN en plasma y láminas cérvico-uterinas como una herramienta para mejorar la calidad de la muestra. Métodos: a 20 muestras de plasma sanguíneo y 20 muestras de láminas citológicas, se les realizó aislamiento de ADN mediante kit comercial y feno [...] l-cloroformo. A todas las muestras se les realizó un tratamiento pre-PCR con cuatro diferentes tipos de actividad de ADN polimerasa: 1. Exonucleasa y endonucleasa 5'-3'. 2. Exonucleasa 5'-3'. 3. Klenow, y 4. Klenow más ligasa. Los diferentes métodos se evaluaron mediante PCR en tiempo real con el gen ALU. Resultados: todos los métodos de restauración mejoran la calidad del ADN en los dos tipos de muestras. El método 3 mostró mejores resultados en plasma y en lámina, incrementando la concentración del ADN de 0,0022 ng/µL a 0,6474 ng/µL en láminas de citología y de 0,0039 ng/µL a 0,435 ng/µL en plasma sanguíneo. Conclusiones: ADN de las muestras de plasma y lámina al ser tratadas con un proceso de restauración aumenta la calidad del ADN en comparación a las muestras no tratadas. Abstract in english Objetives: To compare four methods of restoration of DNA in plasma and PAP smears as a tool to improve the quality of the samples. Methods: 20 blood samples and 20 PAP smears samples, we performed DNA isolation by commercial kit and phenol-chloroform respectively. Then all samples underwent a pre-PC [...] R treatment with four different types of activity DNA polymerase: 1. Exonuclease and endonuclease 5'-3'. 2. Exonuclease 5'-3'. 3. Klenow, and 4. Klenow more ligase. Different restoration methods were evaluated quantitatively by real-time PCR with gene ALU. Results: All restoration methods improve the quality of DNA in both types of samples. However, the 3th method showed better results in both plasma and PAP smears, increasing the concentration of DNA from 0.0022 ng/mL to 0.6474 ng/mL in PAP smears and 0.0039 ng/mL to 0.435 ng/mL in blood plasma. Conclusions: DNA from plasma samples and PAP smears to be treated with a restoration process increases the quality of DNA compared to untreated samples.

  8. CO2 laser vaporization in the treatment of cervical human papillomavirus infection in women with abnormal Papanicolaou smears.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruge, S; Felding, C

    1992-01-01

    In a randomized study, we have evaluated the treatment of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) lesions by CO2 laser vaporization. Fifty patients with abnormal Papanicolaou smears and histological evidence of cervical HPV infection associated or not with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade I were randomized to either a treatment or a control group. The cervical swabs were obtained every 3 months in both groups and examined for HPV type 16 DNA by the polymerase chain reaction. After a follow-up period of 12 months no significant differences were found between the laser treatment and the control groups in relation to the disappearance of the abnormal Papanicolaou smear. Two patients in the treatment group and 3 in the control group had a conization because of development of CIN I or aggravation of the concomitant CIN found at the initial visit. The percentage of women who demonstrated HPV in their cervical smears at 12 months' follow-up was identical in the two groups, supporting the hypothesis that HPV is a persistent infection during which the virus is widespread in the vaginal epithelium.

  9. Endocervical curettage and brushing during colposcopic evaluation in patients having suspected changes in pap smear and negative colposcopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borré-Arrieta Orlando

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of endocervical curettage and brushing during colposcopic evaluation in patients having suspected changes in Pap smear and negative colposcopy.Methodology: results from 43 women having abnormal Pap smear and negative satisfactory colposcopy; endocervical curettage during colposcopic evaluation were thus compared to endocervical brushing during colposcopic evaluation.Results: the endocervical curettage was useful to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia no suspected during satisfactory colposcopic evaluation. The endocervical brushings was useful too, but the endocervical curettage was better.Conclusion: this study suggests that endocervical curettage can be useful during negative satisfactory colposcopic evaluation of a patient with an abnormal Papnicolaou smear.RESUMENObjetivos: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la utilidad del cepillado y legrado endocervical durante la evaluación colposcópica en pacientes con citología anormal y colposcopia satisfactoria negativa. Materiales y métodos: Se incluyeron 43 mujeres con citología anormal y colposcopia satisfactoria negativa. Se realizó legrado y cepillado endocervical y se compararon los resultados.Resultados: El legrado endocervical fue útil en detectar neoplasia intraepitelial cervical no observada durante la evaluación colposcópica satisfactoria. El cepillado endocervical también fue útil, pero el legrado fue mejor.Conclusión: Este estudio sugiere que el legrado endocervical puede ser de utilidad durante la evaluación colposcópica satisfactoria negativa de pacientes con una citología anormal.

  10. Measuring the effects of spectral smearing and enhancement on speech recognition in noise for adults and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittrouer, Susan; Tarr, Eric; Wucinich, Taylor; Moberly, Aaron C; Lowenstein, Joanna H

    2015-04-01

    Broadened auditory filters associated with sensorineural hearing loss have clearly been shown to diminish speech recognition in noise for adults, but far less is known about potential effects for children. This study examined speech recognition in noise for adults and children using simulated auditory filters of different widths. Specifically, 5 groups (20 listeners each) of adults or children (5 and 7 yrs), were asked to recognize sentences in speech-shaped noise. Seven-year-olds listened at 0?dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) only; 5-yr-olds listened at +3 or 0?dB SNR; and adults listened at 0 or -3?dB SNR. Sentence materials were processed both to smear the speech spectrum (i.e., simulate broadened filters), and to enhance the spectrum (i.e., simulate narrowed filters). Results showed: (1) Spectral smearing diminished recognition for listeners of all ages; (2) spectral enhancement did not improve recognition, and in fact diminished it somewhat; and (3) interactions were observed between smearing and SNR, but only for adults. That interaction made age effects difficult to gauge. Nonetheless, it was concluded that efforts to diagnose the extent of broadening of auditory filters and to develop techniques to correct this condition could benefit patients with hearing loss, especially children. PMID:25920851

  11. The Effectiveness of Family-Based DOTS versus Professional-Family Mix DOTS in Treating Smears Positive Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Yekrang Sis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study compared the effectiveness of Family-Based DOTS (FB-DOTS versus Professional-Family Mix DOTS (PFM-DOTS in smear positive tuberculosis (TB patients. Methods: This semi-experimental study was performed in Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases Research Center of Tabriz in 2011-2012, among 57 TB patients recruited into either FB-DOTS or PFM-DOTS groups. At the baseline of the study, knowledge of both patients and their supervisors were assessed while at the end point, smear and culture of sputum, quality of life, knowledge and satisfaction of the patients along with the knowledge and satisfaction of their super-visors were assessed. Results: The difference for sputum smear negative (culture was 16.2 (4.8% and 7.7(6.9% for the PFM-DOTS in comparison with FB DOTS by the end of the second and forth months of treatment, respectively. A significant difference was observed between the two groups in relation to knowledge, satisfaction (patients and supervisors and all four domains of quality of life: physical health (P=0.036, psychological health (P<0.001, social relations (P=0.026 and environmental health (P<0.001. Conclusion: The PFM-DOTS treatment strategy in which health experts follow the patients in their homes seems to be among most appropriate strategies in treating TB.

  12. Manual liquid based cytology for Pap smear preparation and HPV detection by PCR in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Shehla; Pervez, Shgufta Nasir; Shah, Walayat

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted on female patients with different gynecological problems attending the gynecology out-patient departments of two tertiary care hospitals in Peshawar city of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan between August 2012 and October 2013. The 200 patients had an age range of 21-65 years. Smears were taken with cervical brushes and preserved in preservative medium and processed for manual liquid based cytology (MLBC) for Pap staining. Out of 200 collected samples, 30 samples were found inadequate on cytology. Of the remaining 170 samples, 164 (96.47%) were normal, 5 (2.94%) were of atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASCUS) and 1 (0.6%) was of high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). On PCR all the samples were positive for beta globin gene fragment including those reported inadequate on cytology. Out of the 5 ASCUS samples, 2 samples were positive for HPV, one each for HPV 16 and HPV 18, and the rest of the 3 samples were negative for HPV DNA. The 1 sample of HSIL was positive for HPV 16 on PCR. Out of 164 normal samples on cytology, only 1 sample was HPV 16 positive. So overall, 4 (2%) out of 200 samples were positive for HPV DNA, where 3 were HPV 16 (1.5%), and 1 was HPV 18 (0.5%) positive, and thus the ratio of infection with of HPV 16 to HPV 18 was 3:1 in the general population. In conclusion, PCR based HPV detection is a more sensitive method for screening of HPV infection than cytology as sample inadequacy does not affect the results. However, it can be combined with cytology methods in a HPV positive female to achieve the maximum results. PMID:25684490

  13. Prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis among prisoners in North Gondar Zone Prison, northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moges Beyene

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People concentrated in congregated systems, such as prisons, are important but often neglected reservoirs for TB transmission, and threaten those in the outside community. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis in a prison system of North Gondar Zone. Methods An active case-finding survey in North Gondar Prison was carried out from March to May 2011. All prison inmates who had history of cough for at least a week were included in the study. Three morning sputum samples were collected from suspected inmates and examined through fluorescence microscopy. Fine needle aspiration cytology was done for those having significant lymphadenopathy. Pre and post HIV test counseling was provided after written consent. Binary logistic and multivariable analysis was performed using SPSS version 16. Results A total of 250 prisoners were included in the survey. Among these, 26 (10.4% prisoners were found to have TB giving a point prevalence of 1482.3 per 100,000 populations of smear positive TB among the TB suspects. All the inmates who participated in the study volunteered for HIV testing and a total of 19(7.6% inmates were found to be reactive for the HIV antibody test amongst of which 9(47.4% had TB co-infection. The prevalence of HIV infection in the TB infected inmates was found to be 34.6% (9/26. From the 26 TB cases identified 12 (46.2% were having under nutrition (BMI?2. Conclusions There is high prevalence of TB in North Gondar Prison with possible active transmission of TB within the prison. There was a high prevalence of HIV among the TB suspects. Strong cooperation between prison authorities and the national tuberculosis control programmes is urgently required to develop locally appropriate interventions to reduce transmission. The determinants for poor nutrition in the prison need also further investigation.

  14. Knowledge Attitude and Practice of Women in Shiraz about Cervical Cancer and Pap Smear 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi N

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is one of the prevalent and mortal cancers. The aim of the study is to assess knowledge, atti tude and practice of women toward this cancer and Pap smear. Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study among 402 women through a questionnaire with 5 socio-demographi c parameters and 14 questions about knowledge, attitude and practice. We ai med to know how knowledge, attitude and practice are affected by socio-demographic stat us and how practice is affected by knowledge and attitude. Results: The mean score was 4.09. Knowledge and age did not correlate directly. Old aged women had the best knowledg e. As the number of children rose, knowledge deteriorated, vi ce versa about the age of marriage and education. The clerks were better than housewives and businesswomen. Just 3.5% did not consider the regular Pap as necessary (with the lower educational level. Almost 99% intended to get more information. The minority (28.1% had the incorrect attitude toward the curability of the c ancer. Most of the women referred to do Pap due to health center personnel’s advice. About 80% had undesired practice. Discussion: The educated ones had more approp riate and optimistic incorrect attitude compared to the uneducated ones . As more years pass from the age of marriage, practice gets worse. All the newly married women had the desired practice, correct attitude and intended to get more inform ation. All the women who knew it unnecessary had undesired practice . Women with the desired practice had 9% more correct attitude and 9% more optimistic incorre ct attitude compared to the undesirably practicing ones. Totally, prac tice is not much influenced by attitude.

  15. Comparison of predicted far-field temperatures for discrete and smeared heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fundamental concern in the design of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is the response of the host rock to the emplacement of heat-generating waste. The thermal perturbation of the rock mass has implications regarding the structural hydrologic, and geochemical performance of the potential repository. The phenomenological coupling of many of these performance aspects makes repository thermal modeling a difficult task. For many of the more complex, coupled models, it is often necessary to reduce the geometry of the potential repository to a smeared heat-source approximation. Such simplifications have impacts on induced thermal profiles that in turn may influence other predicted responses through one- or two-way thermal couplings. The effect of waste emplacement layout on host-rock thermal response was chosen as the primary emphasis of this study. Using a consistent set of modeling and input assumptions, far-field thermal response predictions were made for discrete-source as well as plate source approximations of the repository geometry. Input values used in the simulations are consistent with a design-basis areal power density (APD) of 80 kW/acre as would be achieved assuming a 2010 emplacement start date, a levelized receipt schedule, and a limitation on available area as published in previous design studies. It was found that edge effects resulting from general repository layout have a significant influence on the shapes and extents of isothermal pron the shapes and extents of isothermal profiles, and should be accounted for in far-field modeling efforts

  16. Associação do teste sorológico ML Flow com a baciloscopia / Association of the ML Flow serologic test to slit skin smear

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandra, Lyon; Rozana Castorina da, Silva; Ana Cláudia, Lyon; Maria Aparecida de Faria, Grossi; Sílvia Helena, Lyon; Maria de Lourdes, Azevedo; Samira, Bührer-Sékula; Manoel Otávio da Costa, Rocha.

    Full Text Available Realizou-se estudo descritivo e exploratório relacionando as covariáveis aos resultados do teste sorológico ML Flow e baciloscopia. Foram estudados 60 casos novos de hanseníase diagnosticados no Centro de Referência em Dermatologia Sanitária. Para a baciloscopia, foi utilizada a coleta de esfregaço [...] dérmico em quatro sítios, sendo o resultado expresso pelo índice bacilocópico. O ML Flow foi registrado de modo qualitativo e semi-quantitativo. Para o estudo da concordância, foi utilizado o índice de Kappa e, para sua interpretação, os critérios de Landis e Koch. Para análise estatística foram realizados a regressão logística e o teste de Kruskal-Wallis. O ML Flow mostrou forte associação com a baciloscopia, observou-se que o aumento gradativo do índice baciloscópico foi acompanhado pelo aumento semi-quantitativo dos níveis de anticorpos medidos pelo ML Flow, tendo sido positivo em 100% dos casos com baciloscopia positiva. Os resultados deste estudo evidenciaram que o ML Flow, por estar fortemente correlacionado à bacilocopia, poderá tornar-se um valioso instrumento auxiliar na classificação e alocação dos pacientes para fins de tratamento. Abstract in english A descriptive, exploratory study was conducted analyzing the association of covariables in the results of the ML Flow serological test and slit skin smear. A total of 60 leprosy cases diagnosed at the state Sanitary Dermatology Referral Center were investigated. Slit skin smear samples were collecte [...] d from four sites and the results were expressed by the bacillary index. ML Flow was registered in both qualitative and semi-quantitative terms. Cohen's kappa coefficient was used to study the agreement with Landis and Koch's observer criteria for interpretation. For statistical analysis, the logistic regression model and Kruskal-Wallis test were used. ML Flow showed a strong association with slit skin smear results, since a gradual increase in BI was accompanied by a semi-quantitative rise in antibody levels measured by ML Flow, with 100% positivity in cases presenting a positive slit skin smear. Given its strong correlation to slit skin smear, the results of this study provide evidence that the ML Flow test could be a valuable auxiliary tool in the classification and treatment of leprosy patients.

  17. Autologous blood donation

    OpenAIRE

    Goodnough, Lawrence T.

    2004-01-01

    Although preoperative autologous blood donation is employed in elective surgery, this is declining because of the increasingly safe allogeneic blood supply. However, it continues to be used because of the public's perception of allogeneic blood risks and increasing blood shortages. Patients may donate a unit of blood (450 ± 45 ml) as often as twice weekly, up to 72 hours before surgery. Preoperative autologous blood is most beneficial in procedures that cause significant blood loss. It has b...

  18. Epitel hücre anormalli?i saptanan servikal smear olgular?nda sitolojik tan? da??l?m? ve sito-histopatolojik korelasyon

    OpenAIRE

    O?zer, Hatice; Tuncer, Ersin; C?iftc?i, Ays?e; Keser, Hande; Aker, Handan; Elago?z, S?ahande; Boztosun, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Özet Amaç. Anabilim Dal?’m?zda incelenen ve epitel hücre anormalli?i saptanan servikovajinal smear sonuçlar?n?n de?erlendirilmesi ve histopatolojik incelemesi bulunan olgularda sito-histopatolojik korelasyonun ara?t?r?lmas?. Yöntem. Ocak 2008-May?s 2011 tarihleri aras?nda Cumhuriyet Üniversitesi T?p Fakültesi Patoloji Anabilim Dal?’na gönderilen ve 2001 Bethesda sistemine göre tan? alan toplam 8102 servikal smear örne?ine ait raporlar retrospektif olarak incelend...

  19. Why is high grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia under-diagnosed on cytology in a quarter of cases? Analysis of smear characteristics in discrepant cases

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta Sanjay; Sodhani P

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND : The accuracy of cervical cytology has been quwstioned due to high false negative rate. In order to improve the sensitivity of cytology it is prudent to analyze the factors which hamper with the diagnosis of high grade lesions. AIMS : To study the cyto-histologic agreement in High grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) of uterine cervix and to analyze the smear characteristics in discrepant cases. SETTINGS AND DESIGN : Cervical smears of 100 histology proven cases of Cervic...

  20. Accuracy of fine needle aspiration biopsy processed by cytologic smear and cell block techniques for the diagnosis of lacrimal gland tumors: a study of 48 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiangning; Jiang QIAN; Yuan, Yifei; Bo PING; Feng, Liqing; Bi, Yingwen; Li, Xiaping

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the accuracy of fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) processed by smear cytology and cell block (CB) techniques for the diagnosis of lacrimal gland tumors (LGTs). Study Design: In a prospective study, we enrolled 48 consecutive patients with LGTs. Immediately after excision of LGTs, the tissues were underwent FNAB with 23-gauge needles. The FNAB samples were processed to produce cytologic smears and CB from which slides were cut for immunohistochemical staining. The remain...

  1. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Gen-Probe Amplified Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Direct Test as Used Routinely on Smear-Positive Respiratory Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Dowdy, David W.; Maters, Amelia; Parrish, Nicole; Beyrer, Christopher; Dorman, Susan E.

    2003-01-01

    A decision analysis was conducted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of programs in which the Amplified Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Direct test (MTD) (Gen-Probe) is used to rapidly exclude Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex as a cause of disease in smear-positive respiratory specimens. MTD sensitivity, specificity, and probability of inhibition for smear-positive specimens were estimated from literature reports. Costs and laboratory performance characteristics were determined from review of re...

  2. Eficacia de una prueba rápida para el diagnóstico de Plasmodium vivax en pacientes sintomáticos de Chiapas, México / Eficacia de una prueba rápida para el diagnóstico de Plasmodium vivax en pacientes sintomáticos de Chiapas, México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lilia, González-Cerón; Mario H, Rodríguez; Angel F, Betanzos; Acatl, Abadía.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar en condiciones de laboratorio la sensibilidad y especificidad de una prueba rápida de diagnóstico (OptiMAL), basada en tiras inmunorreactivas para detectar Plasmodium vivax en pacientes febriles del sur de Chiapas, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Entre diciembre de 2000 a abril de 2002 [...] se investigó la presencia de parásitos en muestras sanguíneas de 893 pacientes por examen microscópico de gotas gruesas teñidas con Giemsa (prueba de referencia). Otra gota de sangre de la misma punción fue empleada en las tiras inmunorreactivas para investigar la presencia de pLDH del parásito. Los resultados discordantes se resolvieron por PCR del gen de la subunidad ribosomal 18S del parásito para descartar infección. RESULTADOS: OptiMAL mostró una sensibilidad de 93.3% y especificidad de 99.5%, con valores predictivo positivo y negativo de 96.5 y 98.9%, respectivamente. La intensidad de las reacciones en las tiras OptiMAL correlacionaron con la densidad parasitaria (r=0.601, p=0.0001). CONCLUSIONES: La prueba rápida presentó sensibilidad y especificidad aceptables para detectar P. vivax en condiciones de laboratorio y podría ser útil para el diagnóstico de paludismo en operaciones de campo en México. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate, under laboratory conditions, the sensitivity and specificity of a rapid diagnostic test (OptiMAL), based on immunoreactive strips, to detect Plasmodium vivax infection in febrile patients in Southern Chiapas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The presence of parasites in blood sa [...] mples of 893 patients was investigated by Giemsa-stained thick blood smear microscopic examination (gold standard). A blood drop from the same sample was smeared on immunoreactive strips to investigate the presence of the parasite pLDH. Discordant results were resolved by PCR amplification of the parasite's 18S SSU rRNA, to discard infection. RESULTS: OptiMAL had an overall sensitivity of 93.3% and its specificity was 99.5%. Its positive and negative predictive values were 96.5% and 98.9%, respectively. Signal intensity in OptiMAL strips correlated well with the parasitemia density in the blood samples (r= 0.601, p= 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: This rapid test had acceptable sensitivity and specificity to detect P. vivax under laboratory conditions and could be useful for malaria diagnosis in field operations in Mexico.

  3. Eficacia de una prueba rápida para el diagnóstico de Plasmodium vivax en pacientes sintomáticos de Chiapas, México Eficacia de una prueba rápida para el diagnóstico de Plasmodium vivax en pacientes sintomáticos de Chiapas, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia González-Cerón

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar en condiciones de laboratorio la sensibilidad y especificidad de una prueba rápida de diagnóstico (OptiMAL, basada en tiras inmunorreactivas para detectar Plasmodium vivax en pacientes febriles del sur de Chiapas, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Entre diciembre de 2000 a abril de 2002 se investigó la presencia de parásitos en muestras sanguíneas de 893 pacientes por examen microscópico de gotas gruesas teñidas con Giemsa (prueba de referencia. Otra gota de sangre de la misma punción fue empleada en las tiras inmunorreactivas para investigar la presencia de pLDH del parásito. Los resultados discordantes se resolvieron por PCR del gen de la subunidad ribosomal 18S del parásito para descartar infección. RESULTADOS: OptiMAL mostró una sensibilidad de 93.3% y especificidad de 99.5%, con valores predictivo positivo y negativo de 96.5 y 98.9%, respectivamente. La intensidad de las reacciones en las tiras OptiMAL correlacionaron con la densidad parasitaria (r=0.601, p=0.0001. CONCLUSIONES: La prueba rápida presentó sensibilidad y especificidad aceptables para detectar P. vivax en condiciones de laboratorio y podría ser útil para el diagnóstico de paludismo en operaciones de campo en México.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate, under laboratory conditions, the sensitivity and specificity of a rapid diagnostic test (OptiMAL, based on immunoreactive strips, to detect Plasmodium vivax infection in febrile patients in Southern Chiapas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The presence of parasites in blood samples of 893 patients was investigated by Giemsa-stained thick blood smear microscopic examination (gold standard. A blood drop from the same sample was smeared on immunoreactive strips to investigate the presence of the parasite pLDH. Discordant results were resolved by PCR amplification of the parasite's 18S SSU rRNA, to discard infection. RESULTS: OptiMAL had an overall sensitivity of 93.3% and its specificity was 99.5%. Its positive and negative predictive values were 96.5% and 98.9%, respectively. Signal intensity in OptiMAL strips correlated well with the parasitemia density in the blood samples (r= 0.601, p= 0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: This rapid test had acceptable sensitivity and specificity to detect P. vivax under laboratory conditions and could be useful for malaria diagnosis in field operations in Mexico.

  4. Large granular lymphocytic leukaemia complicated with histiocytic sarcoma in a dog : clinical communication

    OpenAIRE

    Kishikawa, S.; Shida, T.; Lynch, J.; Kunihiro, A.; Namikawa, K.; Maruo, T.

    2012-01-01

    A 10-year-old castrated male Golden retriever, weighing 36.3 kg was referred for evaluation owing to a decline in general condition. Findings from the complete blood count revealed a marked lymphocytosis (113 000/µ?). Examination of Wright-Giemsa-stained films of peripheral blood revealed the presence of large granular lymphocytes (LGL). Seventy-two per cent (81 360/µ?) of the lymphocytes were found to be 12-17 µm in diameter, containing nuclei with mature clumped chromatin and abundan...

  5. Effects of fenoprofen on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m, the morphology of red blood cells and the plasmid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of fenoprofen on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium- 99m, on the morphology of red blood cells and on the plasmid DNA. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with fenoprofen and the assay of labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc) was performed. Blood cells, plasma, soluble and insoluble fractions of blood cells and plasma were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) was determined. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphology of the red blood cells (RBC) was evaluated. Plasmid (pBSK) was incubated with fenoprofen with stannous chloride, and agarose gel electrophoresis procedure was carried out to evaluate genotoxic and the protection of this drug against stannous chloride effect on DNA. In conclusion, under the conditions used in this work, our data suggest that fenoprofen would not affect the fixation of the 99mTc on the blood constituents, alter the RBC membrane and present genotoxic and redox effects. (author)

  6. Aberrant blood lymphocytes in children evacuated from town Pripyat after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aberrant lymphocytes have been found in blood smears of 49.5 % of cases from 975 examined children 5-6 years after the Chernobyl accident. The morphological changes in nuclei of cells (fragmentation, multilobulation etc.) is a sensitive indicator of small doses of the ionizing radiation action. Immunophenotyping with monoclonal antibodies has revealed that abnormal lymphocytes can belong to the population of T-lymphocytes or natural killer cells

  7. Possible Risks of Blood Transfusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood transfusions Alternatives to blood transfusions Donating blood Blood donation by cancer survivors To learn more References Previous ... no test is 100% accurate. Bacterial contamination Rarely, blood ... skin bacteria during donation. Platelets are the most likely blood component to ...

  8. Analysis of the p53 gene and papillomavirus detection in smears from cervical lesions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ledy do Horto dos Santos, Oliveira; André de Paula, Fernandez; Brunno Lessa Saldanha, Xavier; Eliana de Vasconcelos Machado, Rodrigues; Silvia Maria Baeta, Cavalcanti.

    2002-01-03

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Alterações no gene supressor de tumor p53 estão associadas a uma fase crítica no desenvolvimento de muitos canceres humanos. As funções desse gene incluem a regulação do ciclo celular e da resposta a danos no DNA, iniciação do reparo e da replicação do DNA, indução da apoptose e promoção d [...] a diferenciação celular. A inativação da p53 é o resultado de vários eventos incluindo mutações no gene p53 (com ou sem deleções alélicas associadas), ligação da p53 a proteínas virais ou celulares, e apreensão citoplasmática da proteína. RELATO DE CASO: Esfregaços de 10 pacientes com lesões cervicais foram analisados para verificação de mutações nos exons 5 a 8 do gene para a p53 por PCR/SSCP. Infecção por HPV foi também investigada por PCR utilizando-se dois conjuntos de oligonucleotídeos marcadores. Alterações no gene para p53 foram observadas em um caso de carcinoma escamoso e um de neoplasia epitelial cervical grau III (NIC III). Tipos de HPV de alto risco foram detectados em ambos os casos, confirmando que infecção por HPV e mutações na p53 não são eventos excludentes. Abstract in english CONTEXT: Alterations of the p53 tumor suppressor gene are correlated with a critical step in the development of many human cancers.The tumor suppressor gene functions include regulation of the cell cycle and the cellular response to DNA damage, initiation of DNA repair and replication, induction of [...] apoptosis and promotion of cell differentiation. CASE REPORT: Smears from ten cases of cervical lesions were analyzed for status of exons 5-8 of the p53 gene using PCR/SSCP. HPV infection was also screened by the PCR method using two PCR primer sets. Changes in the p53 gene were observed in a case of squamous carcinoma and a case of asymptomatic cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade III (CIN III). High-risk HPV was detected in both cases showing that HPV infection and p53 mutation are not exclusive events.

  9. Characterization of positive air ions in boreal forest air at the Hyytiälä SMEAR station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Hõrrak

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of the concentration of positive small (or cluster air ions and naturally charged nanometer aerosol particles (aerosol ions has been studied on the basis of measurements carried out in a boreal forest at the Hyytiälä SMEAR station, Finland, during the BIOFOR III campaign in spring 1999. Statistical characteristics of the concentrations of cluster ions, two classes of aerosol ions of the sizes of 2.5–8 nm and 8–ca. 20 nm and the quantities that determine the balance of small ions in the atmosphere have been given for the nucleation event days and non-event days. The dependence of small ion concentration on the ion loss (sink due to aerosol particles was investigated applying a model of bipolar diffusion charging of particles by small ions. The small ion concentration and the ion sink were closely correlated (correlation coefficient –87% when the fog events and the hours of high relative humidity (above 95%, as well as nocturnal calms and weak wind (wind speed <0.6 m s?1 had been excluded. However, an extra ion loss term presumably due to small ion deposition on coniferous forest with a magnitude equal to the average ion loss to pre-existing particles is needed to explain the observations. Also the hygroscopic growth correction of measured aerosol particle size distributions was found to be necessary for proper estimation of the ion sink. In the case of nucleation burst events, variations in the concentration of small positive ions were in accordance with the changes caused by the ion sink due to aerosols; no clear indication of positive ion depletion by ion-induced nucleation was found. The estimated average ionization rate of the air at the Hyytiälä station in early spring, when the ground was partly covered with snow, was about 6 ion pairs cm?3 s?1. The study of the charging state of nanometer aerosol particles (2.5–8 nm revealed a strong correlation (correlation coefficient 88% between the concentrations of particles and positively charged particles (positive air ions during nucleation bursts. The estimated charged fraction of particles, which varied from 3% to 6% considering various nucleation event days, confirms that these particles are almost quasi-steady state charged. Also the particles and air ions in the size range of 8–ca. 20 nm showed a good qualitative consistency; the correlation coefficient was 92%.

  10. Transfusion of blood and blood products

    OpenAIRE

    Seyhan Ördekçi

    2006-01-01

    Blood is an alive tissue composed of specific elements with each having a spesific function. In current practice transfusion acts in the principle of determining required components of the blood. Like all the other treatments, availability and efficacy of blood transfusion is possible with considering the contents, composition and adverse effects of products. As blood transfusion is life saving, misuse could result life treating complications. The aim of this study is to remind health care wo...

  11. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CME/Certificate of Attendance View all meeting information Publications Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood: How ... Consultative Hematology Course ASH Meeting on Lymphoma Biology Publications Blood The Hematologist ASH Clinical News ASH Self- ...

  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & ...

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose ... Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips ...

  14. Blood Gases Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as: Arterial Blood Gases; ABGs Formal name: Arterial Blood Gas Analysis Related tests: Electrolytes , Bicarbonate , BUN , Creatinine , Emergency and ... Back to top When is it ordered? A blood gas analysis is ordered when someone has symptoms of an ...

  15. Battling High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Latest Health News ? Battling High Blood Pressure URL of this page: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videos/news/High_Blood_032615.html Battling High Blood Pressure ...

  16. Controlling Blood Sugar

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Latest Health News ? Controlling Blood Sugar URL of this page: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videos/news/Controlling_Blood_060415.html Controlling Blood Sugar HealthDay ...

  17. Blood Transfusion (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a match. Back Continue Transfusing the Blood The blood bag is hung upside down from an IV pump that controls the speed of the flow. The nurse will measure your child's blood pressure, body temperature, and pulse several times throughout ...

  18. Blood Culture (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sports: Keeping Kids Safe Concussions: What to Know Blood Culture KidsHealth > Parents > General Health > Sick Kids > Blood Culture ... or fungi has been determined. Why Do a Blood Culture? During some illnesses, certain infection-causing bacteria and ...

  19. Blood Sugar and Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sheets Permission to Use Fact Sheets Sponsors and Advertising Privacy Policy Project Staff Contact Us ... Sheet 123 Blood Sugar and Fats SIDE EFFECTS OF ANTIRETROVIRAL MEDICATIONS (ARVs)? BLOOD SUGAR BLOOD FATS ...

  20. Blood Transfusion and Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people in the United States receive life-saving blood transfusions. During a transfusion, you receive whole blood or ... have liver failure or a severe infection. Most blood transfusions go very smoothly. Some infectious agents, such as ...

  1. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Housing Travel Information Abstracts View all meeting information Publications Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood: How ... Consultative Hematology Course ASH Meeting on Lymphoma Biology Publications Blood The Hematologist ASH Clinical News ASH Self- ...

  2. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots in Pregnant Women Treated? Typically, blood ... safe to use during pregnancy. back to top Are Blood Clots Preventable? There are a few things ...

  3. Blood Glucose Log

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here ¢ cut here ¢ If you have high blood glucose , make notes in your log and talk with ... physical activity, or diabetes medicines. Having low blood glucose means that your blood glucose level is too ...

  4. Low blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low blood pressure; Blood pressure - low; Postprandial hypotension; Orthostatic hypotension; Neurally mediated hypotension; NMH ... blood pressure occurs after eating, it is called postprandial ... hypotension. This type most often affects older adults, those ...

  5. Controlling Blood Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... videos/news/Controlling_Blood_060415.html Controlling Blood Sugar HealthDay News Video - June 5, 2015 To use ... page, please enable JavaScript. Play video: Controlling Blood Sugar For closed captioning, click the CC button on ...

  6. High Blood Pressure Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... facts about high blood pressure [PDF-255K] . High Blood Pressure in the United States About 70 million ...

  7. What Is Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our Member Blood Centers Our Partners What is blood? PUBLICATIONS PRESS ROOM BLOG CAREERS CONTACT ABC Newsletter ... for patients who need it. One unit of blood can be separated into the following components: Nearly ...

  8. Blood Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you aren't eligible to donate? How much blood is donated each year? AABB estimates that 9. ... individual, each with different needs. Top Who needs blood? The need for blood is great. Every day ...

  9. CEA blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcinoembryonic antigen blood test ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick or stinging sensation. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. ...

  10. Evaluating red-cockaded woodpeckers for exposure to West Nile Virus and blood parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, R.J.; Richardson, D.; Egstad, K.F.; Heisey, Dennis M.

    2006-01-01

    A marked decline in the Picoides borealis (Red-cockaded Woodpecker [RCW]) population at Noxubee National Wildlife Refuge, MS, was observed in 2002. Demographic changes - including absence of hatch-year birds, decreases in size of known groups, and loss of known groups-were identified during annual fall surveys and are uncharacteristic of RCW populations. In 2003, a serosurvey of 28 adult RCWs was conducted to investigate the presence of West Nile virus (WNV) exposure in the population, possibly providing insight into whether WNV may have been responsible for this decline. Blood smears were also examined from these birds for blood parasites. We found no evidence of West Nile virus exposure or blood parasites in any of the RCWs sampled. Further monitoring of the RCW population and WNV activity in other species at Noxubee NWR is recommended to further evaluate the potential role of WNV and blood parasites in their decline.

  11. Modelisation of transport in fractured media with a smeared fractures modeling approach: special focus on matrix diffusion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourno, A.; Grenier, C.; Benabderrahmane, H.

    2003-04-01

    Modeling flow and transport in natural fractured media is a difficult issue due among others to the complexity of the system, the particularities of the geometrical features, the strong parameter value contrasts between the fracture zones (flow zones) and the matrix zones (no flow zones). This lead to the development of dedicated tools like for instance discrete fracture network models (DFN). We follow here another line applicable for classical continuous modeling codes. The fracture network is not meshed here but presence of fractures is taken into account by means of continuous heterogeneous fields (permeability, porosity, head, velocity, concentration ...). This line, followed by different authors, is referred as smeared fracture approach and presents the following advantages: the approach is very versatile because no dedicated spatial discretization effort is required (we use a basic regular mesh, simulations can be done on a rough mesh saving computer time). This makes this kind of approach very promising for taking heterogeneity of properties as well as uncertainties into account within a Monte Carlo framework for instance. Furthermore, the geometry of the matrix blocks where transfers proceed by diffusion is fully taken into account contrary to classical simplified 1D approach for instance. Nevertheless continuous heterogeneous field representation of a fractured medium requires a homogenization process at the scale of the mesh considered. Literature proves that this step of homogenization for transport is still a challenging task. Consequently, the level precision of the results has to be estimated. We precedently proposed a new approach dedicated to Mixed and Hybrid Finite Element approach. This numerical scheme is very interesting for such highly heterogeneous media and in particular guaranties exact conservation of mass flow for each mesh leading to good transport results. We developed a smeared fractures approach to model flow and transport limited to the fractured network. For a long time scale, the diffusion process can't be neglected. It plays an important retention role for the transport of plume. This is why we focus here on the evaluation of the approach for matrix diffusion. In addition, this is, here, a key issue because one of the specificities of the smeared fractures method is that it can deal with the actual rock block volume. Nevertheless we only devote a limited number of meshes to rock matrix blocks so that the limits of the approach in terms of time and space discretization level as well as transport regimes have to be addressed. So, having implemented the developed smeared fracture approach in our code CAST3M, we study the diffusion process for different transport regimes from dominant fracture network transport to dominant matrix diffusion transport and we estimate the validity as well as the precision of the results for different mesh sizes. This is done by comparing the smeared fracture approach results to reference calculations obtained by explicitly meshing the fractured system. Results show that the smeared fracture approach fairly well captures the main features of transport and reduces the simulation costs. For the cases studied, we succeed in having a good precision with different discretization levels. This finally makes this approach an interesting compromise between precision and versatility associated to low computer costs in the perspective of Monte Carlo simulations. A more realistic application is provided based on data from the Äspö underground laboratory (Sweden) and discussed. Future steps include extension of the approach to 3D cases.

  12. Blood Transfusion: Safer Than Ever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... safer. This improvement is a result of: Better management of the blood-banking process, including donation procedures, patient and blood product identification, blood-preserving techniques, blood ...

  13. Clinical Manifestations and usual and unusual CXR manifestation of smear positive Pulumonary tuberculosis; in Sari, Qaemshahr and Neka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar Alian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available , , , (Received 7 June, 2009; Accepted 22 July, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Clinical and radiological manifestations of Pulumonary tuberculosis are well known. However, it appears there is an increasing rate of unusual radiological patterns in immuno-competent adults, with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (based on our experience. The aim of this study was to analyze chest X-ray (CXR findings and clinical patterns among immuno-competent men and women with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB in Sari, Qaemshahr and Neka, during March 2006 to March of 2007.Materials and methods: All new cases of pulmonary TB diagnosed during 12 months in 3 districts in Northern Iran, (Mazandaran Province were included in a cross-sectional study. Inclusion criteria's were: positive smear of sputum and absence of any immuno-suppressive state. 65 cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Descriptive methods were used for data analysis.Results: The common presenting symptoms were: coughing at 83%, hemoptysis at 24.6%, night sweating at 55%, anorexia at 60%, weight loss at 73.8 %, and fever at 60%. Usual radiological patterns was found in 70.8% of patients (upper lobe lesion with or without the remaining part and incidence of an unusual radiographic pattern was 29.2%(middle and lower lob infiltration without upper lob lesion, milliary pattern, hilar lymphadenopathy and normal CXR.Conclusion: This study showed that TB with atypical radiographic manifestations is more common than reported previously.These varieties of radiologic manifestations can mimic other disease entities. Therefore, recognition and understanding of radiologic manifestations and complication of tuberculosis are important to facilitate a diagnosis.Key words: J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 19(70: 61-66 (Persian

  14. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... these blood conditions and increase research on the causes, prevention, and treatment. Blood clots are also potentially ... immobility (e.g., bedrest, long distance travel) ...

  15. Risk factors for non-cure among new sputum smear positive tuberculosis patients treated in tuberculosis dispensaries in Yunnan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Yubang Qiu; Lin Xu; van den Hof Susan; Jianzhao Hua; Jinglong Hou; van der Werf Marieke J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Yunnan province in China has a high tuberculosis (TB) burden. Cure rates in general are high, but they were below the target of 85% in 26 out of 129 counties in 2005. In these 26 counties we assessed which patient-related and treatment-related factors were associated with non-cure. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study. Smear positive pulmonary TB patients treated at the local Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) were interviewed before start of treatm...

  16. Er:YAG 2,940-nm laser fiber in endodontic treatment: a help in removing smear layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, Rebecca; Merigo, Elisabetta; Fornaini, Carlo; Rocca, Jean-Paul; Medioni, Etienne; Vescovi, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Cleaning and disinfection of the root canal system are some of the most important goals in endodontic therapy. The aim of this preliminary study is to assess the effectiveness of Er:YAG laser fiber in removing the smear layer produced during root canal walls instrumentation. Forty-eight single-rooted teeth were prepared with manual and rotary Ni-Ti instruments, in addition to 2.5% NaOCl irrigation. Samples were randomly subdivided into groups and treated with: three irradiations of 5 s each, with 300-?m Er:YAG endodontic fiber, 1 W and 2.5% NaOCl solution (A Group); two laser irradiations with 17% EDTA solution and 2.5% NaOCl solution (B Group); laser irradiation plus 17% EDTA solution and 2.5% NaOCl (C Group); only in the final wash of 17% EDTA (control group D). During laser treatment, temperature variations were analyzed by using thermocouple and thermal camera devices in order to test both deep and superficial temperatures. Each sample was finally observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) at the coronal, medium, and apical thirds at ×500 magnification and blindly scored depending on the amount of smear layer. Statistical analysis of the results was conducted using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney test to determine the eventual significant differences between the quantity of smear layer in each group and between the groups at coronal, medium, and apical third: a p value laser endodontic fiber produces an average deep temperature increase of 3.5?±?0.4 °C; analysis performed with a thermal camera showed an average superficial temperature increase of 1.3?±?0.2 °C produced by laser endodontic fiber use. Deep and superficial temperatures fall immediately after irradiation possibly without causing structural damage or anatomical alteration inside the root canal and neither on periodontal tissues. SEM analysis showed that specimens of group B had the highest level of cleaning in every third, with a significant difference with groups D and A; group C samples showed a good percentage of cleaned tubules in apical and middle thirds, while group D teeth showed open dentinal tubules in coronal third, with a statistical difference with group A samples which were the worst cleaned. The Er:YAG fiber double irradiation with EDTA 17% and NaOCl 2.5% has been demonstrated to be effective in removing smear layer, even in the apical third which is described as the hardest area to clean during endodontic treatment. PMID:23212445

  17. A Scanning Electron Microscope Study on the Effect of an Experimental Irrigation Solution on Smear Layer Removal

    OpenAIRE

    Zand, Vahid; Mokhtari, Hadi; Lotfi, Mehrdad; Rahimi, Saeed; Sohrabi, Aydin; Badamchi Zadeh, Sina; Mojaver Kahnamooie, Hanieh; Tehranchi, Pardis

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of an experimental irrigation solution, containing two different concentrations of papain, Tween 80, 2% chlorhexidine and EDTA, on removal of the smear layer. Methods and Materials: Thirty-six single-rooted teeth were divided into two experimental groups (n=12) and two positive and negative control groups of six. The canals were prepared with BioRaCe instruments up to BR7 (60/0.02). In group 1, canals were irrigated with ...

  18. Sporobolomyces koalae sp. nov., a basidiomycetous yeast isolated from nasal smears of Queensland koalas kept in a Japanese zoological park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Kazuo; Makimura, Koichi

    2008-12-01

    Three strains (JCM 15063(T), JCM 15098 and JCM 15099) of a novel basidiomycetous yeast species belonging to the genus Sporobolomyces were isolated from nasal smears of Queensland koalas kept in a Japanese zoological park. Analyses of sequences of the nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer region and the 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain and morphological studies indicated that these strains represent a novel species with a close phylogenetic relationship to Sporobolomyces carnicolor and Sporobolomyces japonicus in the Sporidiobolus lineage, for which the name Sporobolomyces koalae sp. nov. is proposed (type strain JCM 15063(T) =CBS 10914(T) =DSM 19992(T)). PMID:19060093

  19. Diagnosis of the primary infection by pneumocystis in autopsy specimens from two infants using lung impression smears (touch preps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina A. Ponce

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The primary infection by Pneumocystis of normal, healthy infants is asymptomatic and goes undiagnosed. Microscopy diagnosis of Pneumocystis was sought in lung impression smears (LIS from two ~3-month-old infants dying unexpectedly in the community. Pneumocystis nuclei and cysts were identified using Hema-Gurr with subsequent Gomori–Grocott staining in the same spot documenting that these stains may be complementary. LIS provide for an observer–dependent, inexpensive, and ready-available method for detection of Pneumocystis in infant lungs.

  20. Smear layer removal capacity of disinfectant solutions used with and without EDTA for the irrigation of canals: a SEM study

    OpenAIRE

    Menezes Ana Carolina Silveira Cardoso de; Zanet Caio Gorgulho; Valera Márcia Carneiro

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to carry out a scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis of the cleaning qualities and smear layer removal from root canal walls, instrumented and irrigated with 2.5% NaOCl, 2.0% chlorhexidine and saline solutions. Fifty extracted teeth were used in this study. All teeth were radiographed to determine the existence of a single canal. The crowns were cut at the cervical limit and the root canals were instrumented with K-type files up to size 45. During root can...