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1

Automated detection of malaria in Giemsa-stained thin blood smears.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The current gold standard of malaria diagnosis is the manual, microscopy-based analysis of Giemsa-stained blood smears, which is a time-consuming process requiring skilled technicians. This paper presents an algorithm that identifies and counts red blood cells (RBCs) as well as stained parasites in order to perform a parasitaemia calculation. Morphological operations and histogram-based thresholding are used to extract the red blood cells. Boundary curvature calculations and Delaunay triangulation are used to split clumped red blood cells. The stained parasites are classified using a Bayesian classifier with their RGB pixel values as features. The results show 98.5% sensitivity and 97.2% specificity for detecting infected red blood cells.

Mushabe MC; Dendere R; Douglas TS

2013-07-01

2

Molecular typing of Plasmodium falciparum from Giemsa-stained blood smears confirms nosocomial malaria transmission.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this report, we describe the partial molecular characterisation of Plasmodium falciparum isolates obtained from two individuals who were involved in a probable case of accidental malaria transmission after admission to a hospital in the metropolitan area of S鉶 Paulo, Brazil. Molecular analysis of polymorphic stretches of the merozoite surface protein 1 and 2 genes using PCR-typing and nucleotide sequencing revealed that the two isolates were identical and that the identified msp-1 gene was different from all others published to date. Additional anamnestic data supported our findings and made all other possible routes of infection unlikely. The methodology used here is simple to perform and needs as little as one Giemsa-stained blood smear as starting material. PMID:12443798

Kirchgatter, K; Wunderlich, G; Branquinho, M S; Salles, T M; Lian, Y C; Carneiro-Junior, R A; Di Santi, S M

2002-12-01

3

Molecular typing of Plasmodium falciparum from Giemsa-stained blood smears confirms nosocomial malaria transmission.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this report, we describe the partial molecular characterisation of Plasmodium falciparum isolates obtained from two individuals who were involved in a probable case of accidental malaria transmission after admission to a hospital in the metropolitan area of S鉶 Paulo, Brazil. Molecular analysis of polymorphic stretches of the merozoite surface protein 1 and 2 genes using PCR-typing and nucleotide sequencing revealed that the two isolates were identical and that the identified msp-1 gene was different from all others published to date. Additional anamnestic data supported our findings and made all other possible routes of infection unlikely. The methodology used here is simple to perform and needs as little as one Giemsa-stained blood smear as starting material.

Kirchgatter K; Wunderlich G; Branquinho MS; Salles TM; Lian YC; Carneiro-Junior RA; Di Santi SM

2002-12-01

4

A novel semi-automatic image processing approach to determine Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia in Giemsa-stained thin blood smears  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria parasitemia is commonly used as a measurement of the amount of parasites in the patient's blood and a crucial indicator for the degree of infection. Manual evaluation of Giemsa-stained thin blood smears under the microscope is onerous, time consuming and subject to human error. Although automatic assessments can overcome some of these problems the available methods are currently limited by their inability to evaluate cases that deviate from a chosen "standard" model. Results In this study reliable parasitemia counts were achieved even for sub-standard smear and image quality. The outcome was assessed through comparisons with manual evaluations of more than 200 sample smears and related to the complexity of cell overlaps. On average an estimation error of less than 1% with respect to the average of manually obtained parasitemia counts was achieved. In particular the results from the proposed approach are generally within one standard deviation of the counts provided by a comparison group of malariologists yielding a correlation of 0.97. Variations occur mainly for blurred out-of-focus imagery exhibiting larger degrees of cell overlaps in clusters of erythrocytes. The assessment was also carried out in terms of precision and recall and combined in the F-measure providing results generally in the range of 92% to 97% for a variety of smears. In this context the observed trade-off relation between precision and recall guaranteed stable results. Finally, relating the F-measure with the degree of cell overlaps, showed that up to 50% total cell overlap can be tolerated if the smear image is well-focused and the smear itself adequately stained. Conclusion The automatic analysis has proven to be comparable with manual evaluations in terms of accuracy. Moreover, the test results have shown that the proposed comparison-based approach, by exploiting the interrelation between different images and color channels, has successfully overcome most of the inherent limitations possibly occurring during the sample preparation and image acquisition phase. Eventually, this can be seen as an opportunity for developing low-cost solutions for mass screening.

Le Minh-Tam; Bretschneider Timo R; Kuss Claudia; Preiser Peter R

2008-01-01

5

Automated estimation of parasitaemia of Plasmodium yoelii-infected mice by digital image analysis of Giemsa-stained thin blood smears  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasitaemia, the percentage of infected erythrocytes, is used to measure progress of experimental Plasmodium infection in infected hosts. The most widely used technique for parasitaemia determination is manual microscopic enumeration of Giemsa-stained blood films. This process is onerous, time consuming and relies on the expertise of the experimenter giving rise to person-to-person variability. Here the development of image-analysis software, named Plasmodium AutoCount, which can automatically generate parasitaemia values from Plasmodium-infected blood smears, is reported. Methods Giemsa-stained blood smear images were captured with a camera attached to a microscope and analysed using a programme written in the Python programming language. The programme design involved foreground detection, cell and infection detection, and spurious hit filtering. A number of parameters were adjusted by a calibration process using a set of representative images. Another programme, Counting Aid, written in Visual Basic, was developed to aid manual counting when the quality of blood smear preparation is too poor for use with the automated programme. Results This programme has been validated for use in estimation of parasitemia in mouse infection by Plasmodium yoelii and used to monitor parasitaemia on a daily basis for an entire challenge infection. The parasitaemia values determined by Plasmodium AutoCount were shown to be highly correlated with the results obtained by manual counting, and the discrepancy between automated and manual counting results were comparable to those found among manual counts of different experimenters. Conclusions Plasmodium AutoCount has proven to be a useful tool for rapid and accurate determination of parasitaemia from infected mouse blood. For greater accuracy when smear quality is poor, Plasmodium AutoCount, can be used in conjunction with Counting Aid.

Ma Charles; Harrison Paul; Wang Lina; Coppel Ross L

2010-01-01

6

Giemsa-stained thick blood films as a source of DNA for Plasmodium species-specific real-time PCR  

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BACKGROUND: This study describes the use of thick blood films (TBF) as specimens for DNA amplification with the Plasmodium species-specific real-time PCR that was recently validated on whole blood samples. METHODS: The panel of 135 Giemsa-stained clinical TBFs represented single infections of the fo...

Cnops, L.; Van Esbroeck, M.; Bottieau, E.; Jacobs, J.

7

Blood smear  

Science.gov (United States)

Peripheral smear ... may be examined by an automated machine. The smear shows the number and kinds of white blood ... lighter-colored area in the center. The blood smear is considered normal if there is: Normal appearance ...

8

Identifying different types of chromatin using giemsa staining.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mixtures of polychrome methylene blue-eosin Y (i.e., Giemsa stain) are widely used in biological staining. They induce a striking purple coloration of chromatin DNA (the Romanowsky-Giemsa effect), which contrasts with the blue-stained RNA-containing cytoplasm and nucleoli. After specific prestaining treatments that induce chromatin disorganization (giving banded or harlequin chromosomes), Giemsa staining produces a differential coloration, with C- and G-bands appearing in purple whereas remaining chromosome regions are blue. Unsubstituted (TT) and bromo-substituted (BT) DNAs also appear purple and blue, respectively. The same occurs in the case of BT and BB chromatids.In addition to discussing the use of Giemsa stain as a suitable method to reveal specific features of chromosome structure, some molecular processes and models are also described to explain Giemsa staining mechanisms of chromatin.

Stockert JC; Bl醶quez-Castro A; Horobin RW

2014-01-01

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Sensitivity and specificity of polymerase chain reaction in Giemsa-stained slides for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the detection of Leishmania DNA in archived Giemsa-stained bone marrow slides for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), and to compare PCR with conventional diagnostic techniques, like direct microscopy and parasite culture. Specimens of archived Giemsa-stained bone marrow slides from 91 patients with VL and from 79 controls with other diseases or conditions were studied. PCR showed the highest sensitivity (92.3%) and had good specificity (97.5%). Direct examination detected 79.1% and culture 59% of positive samples. In addition, PCR was able to detect VL in 16 of 19 patients (84.2%) with negative microscopy. PCR in Giemsa-stained bone marrow slides is a suitable tool for confirming diagnosis in patients with VL and may be useful in the diagnosis of difficult cases. Slide smears are easily stored, do not require special storage conditions such as low temperatures, and can be easily mailed to centers where PCR is available, making it an excellent option for diagnosis in the field.

Yvone Maia Brustoloni; Rosimar Batista Lima; Rivaldo Ven鈔cio da Cunha; Maria Elizabeth Dorval; Elisa Teruya Oshiro; Ana L鷆ia Lyrio de Oliveira; Claude Pirmez

2007-01-01

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A rapid method for counting nucleated erythrocytes on stained blood smears by digital image analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Measures of parasitemia by intraerythrocytic hematozoan parasites are normally expressed as the number of infected erythrocytes per n erythrocytes and are notoriously tedious and time consuming to measure. We describe a protocol for generating rapid counts of nucleated erythrocytes from digital micrographs of thin blood smears that can be used to estimate intensity of hematozoan infections in nonmammalian vertebrate hosts. This method takes advantage of the bold contrast and relatively uniform size and morphology of erythrocyte nuclei on Giemsa-stained blood smears and uses ImageJ, a java-based image analysis program developed at the U.S. National Institutes of Health and available on the internet, to recognize and count these nuclei. This technique makes feasible rapid and accurate counts of total erythrocytes in large numbers of microscope fields, which can be used in the calculation of peripheral parasitemias in low-intensity infections.

Gering, E.; Atkinson, C. T.

2004-01-01

11

Purpose and criteria for blood smear scan, blood smear examination, and blood smear review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A microscopic examination of an appropriately prepared and well-stained blood smear by a knowledgeable laboratory professional is necessary and clinically useful in a number of circumstances and for a variety of reasons. In this article, an attempt is made to delineate the purpose and criteria for blood smear examination in a variety of circumstances that are encountered in everyday laboratory hematology practice. A blood smear scan serves to at least (a) verify the flagged automated hematology results and (b) determine if a manual differential leukocyte count needs to be performed. Blood smear examination/manual differential leukocyte count with complete blood count (CBC) provides the complete hematologic picture of the case, at least from the morphologic standpoint. Blood smear review with or without interpretation serves to ensure that no clinically significant finding is missed, besides providing diagnosis or diagnostic clue(s), particularly if and when interpreted by a physician.

Gulati G; Song J; Florea AD; Gong J

2013-01-01

12

Studies on the chromosome by scanning electron microscope--a new trial with long-term Giemsa staining.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chromosomes, which can be seen under a light microscope (LM) as bands, are too thin to see with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). We noticed that chromosomes increase in thickness with Giemsa staining, so that scanning microscopic specimens could be prepared by long-time Giemsa staining for SEM observation, and in the present study the following results were obtained. 1) When the duration of the trypsin treatment was kept constant, and the Giemsa staining was performed from 30-min to 24-h, it was found that the thickness of the chromosomes increased with the length of treatment time, and the fibrous structures were clearly seen. 2) While a sufficient thickness of the chromosomes was obtained with the long-time Giemsa staining, the bands became unclear as the time of staining was extended. 3) A long-time Giemsa staining without trypsin treatment showed more "highly packed" fibers, so that the trypsin treatment was felt to be related to the dispersion of the fibers.

Sasaki H; Takabayashi T; Ozawa N; Sasamoto K; Shintaku Y; Yajima A

1988-07-01

13

Avian malaria in Brazilian passerine birds: parasitism detected by nested PCR using DNA from stained blood smears.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The microscopical examination of Giemsa-stained thin blood smears and a nested PCR were performed to detect avian Plasmodium in 275 passerine birds from small and large fragments of Atlantic Forest, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The 275 blood smears were used both for the microscopical examination and nested PCR providing the DNA template used for the reactions. The sensitivity of the nested PCR assay was higher than that observed for blood smears through microscopical examination. High prevalence (39.6%) of Plasmodium infections was detected by nested PCR while the microscopical examination detected only 16.5 % positive birds. Poor agreement was observed between the results of the two different tests. The PCR data obtained were correlated to the forest fragment size of the Atlantic Forest and also correlated to the biological characteristics of the birds (nest type construction, diet, participation in mixed-species flocks, age and sex). Birds captured in the large forest areas were more infected than birds captured in the small areas (51.9 % and 28.5 %, respectively). Diet and participation in mixed-species flocks were correlated to the Plasmodium parasitism. The insectivorous birds and those that participated in mixed-species flocks were more frequently infected (47% and 41.5%, respectively) than the other groups.

Ribeiro SF; Sebaio F; Branquinho FC; Marini MA; Vago AR; Braga EM

2005-03-01

14

Avian malaria in Brazilian passerine birds: parasitism detected by nested PCR using DNA from stained blood smears.  

Science.gov (United States)

The microscopical examination of Giemsa-stained thin blood smears and a nested PCR were performed to detect avian Plasmodium in 275 passerine birds from small and large fragments of Atlantic Forest, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The 275 blood smears were used both for the microscopical examination and nested PCR providing the DNA template used for the reactions. The sensitivity of the nested PCR assay was higher than that observed for blood smears through microscopical examination. High prevalence (39.6%) of Plasmodium infections was detected by nested PCR while the microscopical examination detected only 16.5 % positive birds. Poor agreement was observed between the results of the two different tests. The PCR data obtained were correlated to the forest fragment size of the Atlantic Forest and also correlated to the biological characteristics of the birds (nest type construction, diet, participation in mixed-species flocks, age and sex). Birds captured in the large forest areas were more infected than birds captured in the small areas (51.9 % and 28.5 %, respectively). Diet and participation in mixed-species flocks were correlated to the Plasmodium parasitism. The insectivorous birds and those that participated in mixed-species flocks were more frequently infected (47% and 41.5%, respectively) than the other groups. PMID:15796008

Ribeiro, S F; Sebaio, F; Branquinho, F C S; Marini, M A; Vago, A R; Braga, E M

2005-03-01

15

[Examination of the role of C. trachomatis in genitourinary infections using enzyme immunoassay and Giemsa staining  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the past decade C. trachomatis (serotype D-K) has been established as an important etiologic agent in genitouriner tract infections in both women and men. Laboratory diagnostic tests for Chlamydia include direct microbiologic isolation and serologic and cytologic techniques. In studies lasting from Oct. 11th 1985 - to the Feb. 21st 1986, a total of 600 people were tested in parallel by EIA and giemsa staining. These people comprised three groups. The largest group, 380 patients, had genitourinary infections, the second, control group, of 127 people were healthy and the third, risk group (contacts of infected or suspected people) of 93 people were also healthy. C. trachomatis was found in 10.7% of the patients group, 7.2% of the risk group and 1.5% of the control group.

K鰇sal F; G黮mezo?lu E; Akan E; Ozcan K

1986-07-01

16

Leishmania identification by PCR of Giemsa-stained lesion imprint slides stored for up to 36 years.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the ability of PCR to amplify Leishmania DNA, stored on Giemsa-stained slides, from American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) patients. In total, 475 slides stored for up to 36 years were obtained from an outpatient clinic in a Brazilian ACL-endemic region, and Leishmania DNA was amplified from 395 (83.2%) of the DNA samples using primers specific for the minicircle kinetoplast DNA. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of these amplicons demonstrated that Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis was the only species present in these samples. The results demonstrated that archived Giemsa-stained slides can provide a Leishmania DNA source for performing clinical and epidemiological studies of leishmaniasis. PMID:16842583

Volpini, A C; Marques, M J; Lopes dos Santos, S; Machado-Coelho, G L; Mayrink, W; Romanha, A J

2006-08-01

17

Comparison of the novel Partec rapid malaria test to the conventional Giemsa stain and the gold standard real-time PCR.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Malaria remains the single most frequent cause of death in Africa, killing one child every 30 s, but treatment decisions are often made only on clinical diagnosis, as laboratory techniques to confirm the clinical suspicion are labor intensive and costly. In this study, we evaluated the recently developed Partec rapid malaria test (PM) for the detection of Plasmodium spp. in human blood from patients in an area where malaria is endemic and compared the results with those of thick blood film Giemsa stain (GS) in terms of its performance and operational characteristics, using real-time (RT) PCR as the gold standard. The sensitivities of the PM and the GS were 62.2% (95% CI, 56.3 to 67.8) and 61.8% (95% CI, 55.9 to 67.4), respectively, while the specificities were 96.0% (95% CI, 92.3 to 98.3) and 98% (95% CI, 95.0 to 99.5), respectively. There was an excellent agreement between the results for the PM and those of the GS (k [level of agreement] = 0.96; P < 0.001). The results for the PM were obtained more quickly and at less cost than those for the GS. The performance characteristics of the PM were almost equal to those of the GS, but the operational characteristics were better, and the PM can therefore be considered as an alternative method for GS.

Nkrumah B; Agyekum A; Acquah SE; May J; Tannich E; Brattig N; Nguah SB; von Thien H; Adu-Sarkodie Y; Huenger F

2010-08-01

18

Comparison of the novel Partec rapid malaria test to the conventional Giemsa stain and the gold standard real-time PCR.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaria remains the single most frequent cause of death in Africa, killing one child every 30 s, but treatment decisions are often made only on clinical diagnosis, as laboratory techniques to confirm the clinical suspicion are labor intensive and costly. In this study, we evaluated the recently developed Partec rapid malaria test (PM) for the detection of Plasmodium spp. in human blood from patients in an area where malaria is endemic and compared the results with those of thick blood film Giemsa stain (GS) in terms of its performance and operational characteristics, using real-time (RT) PCR as the gold standard. The sensitivities of the PM and the GS were 62.2% (95% CI, 56.3 to 67.8) and 61.8% (95% CI, 55.9 to 67.4), respectively, while the specificities were 96.0% (95% CI, 92.3 to 98.3) and 98% (95% CI, 95.0 to 99.5), respectively. There was an excellent agreement between the results for the PM and those of the GS (k [level of agreement] = 0.96; P < 0.001). The results for the PM were obtained more quickly and at less cost than those for the GS. The performance characteristics of the PM were almost equal to those of the GS, but the operational characteristics were better, and the PM can therefore be considered as an alternative method for GS. PMID:20554822

Nkrumah, Bernard; Agyekum, Alex; Acquah, Samuel E K; May, J黵gen; Tannich, Egbert; Brattig, Norbert; Nguah, Samuel Blay; von Thien, Heidrun; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Huenger, Frank

2010-06-16

19

Diagnosis and identification of Leishmania spp. from Giemsa-stained slides, by real-time PCR and melting curve analysis in south-west of Iran.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The aim of present study was describing a real-time PCR assay for the diagnosis and direct identification of Leishmania species on Giemsa-stained slides in south-west of Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Altogether, 102 Giemsa-stained slides were collected from different part of south-west of Iran between 2008 and 2011. All the Giemsa-stained slides were examined under light microscope. After DNA extraction, real-time PCR amplification and detection were conducted with fluorescent SYBR Green I. For identification, PCR products were analysed with melting curve analysis. RESULTS: One hundred and two archived slides from suspected lesion examined by microscopy and real-time PCR. The sensitivity of the real-time PCR on Giemsa-stained slid was 98% (96/102). The melting curve analysis (T(m)) were 88򉀬2癈 for L. tropica (MHOM/IR/02/Mash10), 86򉨄2癈 for L. major (MHOM/IR/75/ER) and 89򉔘3癈 for L. infantum (MCAN/IR/97/LON 49), respectively. CONCLUSION: This study is first report in use of real-time PCR for diagnosis and identification of Leishmania spp. in Iran. Up to now, in Iran, the majority of identification of Leishmania species is restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of ITS1 and kinetoplast DNA. Our data showed that Giemsa-stained slides that were stored more than 3 years, can be use for Leishmania DNA extraction and amplification by real-time PCR. Compared to conventional PCR-based methods, the real-time PCR is extremely rapid with results and more samples can be processed at one time.

Khademvatan S; Neisi N; Maraghi S; Saki J

2011-12-01

20

Comparison of methenamine silver nitrate and Giemsa stain for detection of Pneumocystis carinii in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens from HIV infected patients.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Seventy-seven bronchoalveolar lavages from human immunosuppressive virus infected patients with pulmonary symptoms were examined routinely for the presence of Pneumocystis carinii, using Giemsa stain to detect trophozoites and methenamine silver nitrate to detect cysts. Thirty-seven samples were found positive with both methods, but a further 10 were diagnosed with Giemsa indicating that the trophozoite stain is more sensitive. As Giemsa stain is simple, quick, cheap and familiar to most microbiological laboratories it should be used for screening of samples to be examined for Pneumocystis carinii. In cases where trophozoites are not detected by Giemsa a supplementary cyst stain may be performed in order to rule out the presumably few cases where cysts are present as the only evidence of Pneumocystis carinii infection.

Holten-Andersen, W; Kolmos, H J

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

From Blood Smear to Lipid Disorder: A Case Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neutral lipid storage disease (Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of lipid metabolism, characterized by systemic accumulation of neutral lipids in multiple tissues. We report a case of a 14-year-old girl with generalized ichthyosis, liver cirrhosis, and a hearing impairment. A peripheral blood smear demonstrated marked cytoplasmatic vacuoles in most polymorphonuclear cells (Jordan's anomaly). Bone marrow examination revealed vacuoles in myeloid precursors. Genetic analysis showed that the patient was homozygous for the p.Arg312Ter mutation in the CGI-58 gene, a key enzyme in lipid metabolism. The peripheral blood smear is diagnostic, and should be performed in any patient with ichthyosis. PMID:23042024

Elitzur, Sarah; Yacobovich, Joanne; Dgany, Orly; Krasnov, Tatyana; Rosenbach, Yoram; Tamary, Hannah

2012-10-01

22

From Blood Smear to Lipid Disorder: A Case Report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Neutral lipid storage disease (Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of lipid metabolism, characterized by systemic accumulation of neutral lipids in multiple tissues. We report a case of a 14-year-old girl with generalized ichthyosis, liver cirrhosis, and a hearing impairment. A peripheral blood smear demonstrated marked cytoplasmatic vacuoles in most polymorphonuclear cells (Jordan's anomaly). Bone marrow examination revealed vacuoles in myeloid precursors. Genetic analysis showed that the patient was homozygous for the p.Arg312Ter mutation in the CGI-58 gene, a key enzyme in lipid metabolism. The peripheral blood smear is diagnostic, and should be performed in any patient with ichthyosis.

Elitzur S; Yacobovich J; Dgany O; Krasnov T; Rosenbach Y; Tamary H

2012-10-01

23

[Microangiopathy in preeclampsia: the usefulness of the peripheral blood smear].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Endothelial dysfunction is a fundamental characteristic in the physiopathology of preeclampsia. Currently, a series of markers which explain endothelial dysfunction have been identified. The recognition of endothelial dysfunction has been used to realize an early diagnosis of preeclampsia, as soon as the classification of a possible prognosis. Nevertheless the detection of these markers is not accessible to the majority of hospitable centers that treat patients with preeclampsia. One indirect marker of endothelial dysfunction with a greater accessibility is the assessment of peripheral blood smear. Several studies had proved the presence of endothelial dysfunction by identification of red blood cells crenated in peripheral blood smear led us also to measure the impact in the evolution of the disease.

Duarte-Mote J; Espinosa-L髉ez RF; Romero-Figueroa S; Lee Eng-Castro VE; Verduzco-Pineda J; Calvo-Colindres J; S醤chez-Rojas G

2012-09-01

24

RBCs and Parasites Segmentation from Thin Smear Blood Cell Images  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Manually examine the blood smear for the detection of malaria parasite consumes lot of time for trend pathologists. As the computational power increases, the role of automatic visual inspection becomes more important. An automated system is therefore needed to complete as much work as possible for the identification of malaria parasites. The given scheme based on used of RGB color space, G layer processing, and segmentation of Red Blood Cells (RBC) as well as cell parasites by auto-thresholding with offset value and use of morphological processing. The work compare with the manual results obtained from the pathology lab, based on total RBC count and cells parasite count. The designed system successfully detects malaria parasites and RBC cells in thin smear image.

Vishal V. Panchbhai; Lalit B. Damahe; Ashwini V. Nagpure; Priyanka N. Chopkar

2012-01-01

25

Candida albicans blastoconidia in peripheral blood smears from non-neutropenic surgical patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An 80 year old woman developed fever 11 days after volvulus surgery. A peripheral blood smear showed numerous yeast cells--both extraleucocytic and intraleucocytic--as well as leucoagglutination. The fungal elements included blastospores, pseudohyphae, and germ tubes. Two days later, blood cultures yielded Candida albicans, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Staphlococcus aureus. The patient had no medical history of immunodeficiency. Several reports indicate that fungal elements may be detected in peripheral blood smears from patients who have a severe intestinal disease.

Berrouane Y; Bisiau H; Le Baron F; Cattoen C; Duthilleul P; Dei Cas E

1998-07-01

26

Scanning electron microscopy of peripheral blood smears: comparison of normal blood with some common leukemias.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Peripheral blood smears prepared routinely from nonneoplastic and leukemia cases were studied using the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The peripheral blood glass slide is examined directly in the SEM following application of a thin carbon coat. The morphology of the nonneoplastic and neoplastic smears is described in detail utilizing the SEM secondary electron detector and backscattered electron detectors. Certain cell features are measured as well with the use of the measuring software resident in the SEM. The appearance of the SEM images of peripheral smear slides is compared to that of slides from fixed, processed, and sectioned bone marrow cases previously reported. The problem of cell constituent loss and overall shrinkage in the routinely processed and sectioned material is noted. The lack of these problems in the peripheral blood smear slides and their better appearance is emphasized. The resemblance of neoplastic cells to their normal counterparts is discussed. The monoblast resembles the normal monocyte but both cell size and nuclear size are greater; the moderately reticulated nuclear chromatin distinguishes the monoblast. Neoplastic lymphoid cells maintain the wispy extensions of the cytoplasm perimeter resembling microvilli and thereby differ from myeloid and monocytic cells. The neoplastic lymphoid cell shows coarse clumping of nuclear chromatin and in some instances coarse chromatin anastomoses to distinguish it from the normal lymphocyte. Lymphoid cells of acute lymphoblastic leukemia are 33% larger than those of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and normal lymphocytes. The neoplastic myeloblast has a finely granular nuclear chromatin, maintains a smooth cytoplasmic perimeter, and may show cytoplasmic reticulations. The myeloblast differs from the lymphoblast in that the former has a smooth cytoplasm perimeter. Further, myeloblasts show nuclear lobulations more frequently than lymphoblasts. Comparison of SEM findings with the three case studies by flow cytometry indicates satisfactory correlation. In case 15, flow cytometry indicated a monocyte subset positive for CD14 and CD64 among the neoplastic myeloid forms. A candidate for such a cell is recognized morphologically as well. The availability for SEM ultrastructural study of all the cells, both neoplastic and nonneoplastic, on a routine diagnostic smear slide is emphasized.

Terzakis JA; Santagada E; Hernandez A; Taskin M

2005-01-01

27

Scanning electron microscopy of peripheral blood smears: comparison of normal blood with some common leukemias.  

Science.gov (United States)

Peripheral blood smears prepared routinely from nonneoplastic and leukemia cases were studied using the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The peripheral blood glass slide is examined directly in the SEM following application of a thin carbon coat. The morphology of the nonneoplastic and neoplastic smears is described in detail utilizing the SEM secondary electron detector and backscattered electron detectors. Certain cell features are measured as well with the use of the measuring software resident in the SEM. The appearance of the SEM images of peripheral smear slides is compared to that of slides from fixed, processed, and sectioned bone marrow cases previously reported. The problem of cell constituent loss and overall shrinkage in the routinely processed and sectioned material is noted. The lack of these problems in the peripheral blood smear slides and their better appearance is emphasized. The resemblance of neoplastic cells to their normal counterparts is discussed. The monoblast resembles the normal monocyte but both cell size and nuclear size are greater; the moderately reticulated nuclear chromatin distinguishes the monoblast. Neoplastic lymphoid cells maintain the wispy extensions of the cytoplasm perimeter resembling microvilli and thereby differ from myeloid and monocytic cells. The neoplastic lymphoid cell shows coarse clumping of nuclear chromatin and in some instances coarse chromatin anastomoses to distinguish it from the normal lymphocyte. Lymphoid cells of acute lymphoblastic leukemia are 33% larger than those of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and normal lymphocytes. The neoplastic myeloblast has a finely granular nuclear chromatin, maintains a smooth cytoplasmic perimeter, and may show cytoplasmic reticulations. The myeloblast differs from the lymphoblast in that the former has a smooth cytoplasm perimeter. Further, myeloblasts show nuclear lobulations more frequently than lymphoblasts. Comparison of SEM findings with the three case studies by flow cytometry indicates satisfactory correlation. In case 15, flow cytometry indicated a monocyte subset positive for CD14 and CD64 among the neoplastic myeloid forms. A candidate for such a cell is recognized morphologically as well. The availability for SEM ultrastructural study of all the cells, both neoplastic and nonneoplastic, on a routine diagnostic smear slide is emphasized. PMID:15931777

Terzakis, John A; Santagada, Eugene; Hernandez, Ascension; Taskin, Metin

28

Historical data decrease complete blood count reflex blood smear review rates without missing patients with acute leukaemia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The availability of historical data decreases the rate of blood smear review rates in outpatients, but we are unaware of studies done at referral centres. In the following study, we determined the effect of historical data on the rates of peripheral blood smears over a 3-month period and then the detection rate of patients with acute leukaemia. METHODS: All results of complete blood counts (CBCs) tested on three ADVIA 120 analyzers at the regional Rabin Medical Centre, Beilinson Campus over a 3-month period were accessed on a computerised laboratory information system. Over a 3-month period, we determined the proportion of total CBC and patients with criteria for a manual differential count and the actual number of peripheral blood smears done. Finally, we determined the proportion of 100 consecutive patients with acute leukaemia detected using our criteria that included limiting reflex testing according to historical data. RESULTS: Over the 3-month period, there were 34,827 tests done in 12,785 patients. Without historical data, our smear rate would have been 24.5%, but with the availability of historical data, the blood smear review rate was 5.6%. The detection rate for cases of acute leukaemia was 100%. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the availability of previous test results significantly reduces the need for blood smear review without missing any patients with acute leukaemia.

Rabizadeh E; Pickholtz I; Barak M; Froom P

2013-08-01

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Investigations of significance of blood smear results in diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases in dogs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The microscopic examination of stained smears of peripheral blood is of vital significance in the speedy diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases, in particular during the stage of infection when the cause is present in the blood, or blood cells. It is sometimes possible to make a definitive diagnosis of an infectious or parasitic disease following an examination of a stained smear of the peripheral blood. Since microscopic examinations of a peripheral blood smear are applied increasingly rarely in clinical practice, due to the development of other methods for the diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases in dogs, as well as the lack of knowledge of the morphology of the numerous causes that can be present in the blood, we carried out an investigation into the presence and spread of infections whose causes can be present in dog blood. The investigations covered 100 dogs from which peripheral blood smears were taken and then stained with a Giemsa solution according to the standard protocol and examined under a microscope with an immersion lens. The examination of peripheral blood smears stained according to Giemsa resulted in the identification of the presence of an Ehrlichia spp. morula in a neutrophil granulocyte in one dog. The presence of hemotropic mycoplasmas was established in erythrocytes of eleven dogs, while the presence of the protozoa Babesia canis in erythrocytes was identified in five dogs included in the investigations. A microscopic examination of dog peripheral blood smears stained according to Giemsa was shown as a speedy, practical, simple, and inexpensive method for making a definitive etiological diagnosis of these infections, and it should be included regularly in standard protocols for the diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases.

Potkonjak Aleksandar; Lako Branislav; Beli? Branislava; Milo歟vi? Nikolina; Stevan?evi? Ognjen; Cincovi? Marko; Lako Bjanka

2010-01-01

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[Free and intracellular bacteria on peripheral blood smears: an uncommon situation related to an adverse prognosis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacterial infections are responsible for several changes in the cell blood count, which are usually non specific, although some morphological changes of polymorphonuclear neutrophils may be indicative of sepsis. The presence of bacteria on peripheral blood smears is a rare but extreme situation, related in most instances to a fatal prognosis. The presence of both free and intracellular bacteria was observed in the peripheral blood smear of a critically ill patient with a pneumococcal septicaemia which led to a fatal outcome within the next following hours. If the finding of bacteria on the blood smear is a sign of severe sepsis, the literature review shows that less than 10% of septic patients demonstrate bacteria on the blood smear, and routine search for the diagnosis of sepsis is not recommended. Samples taken from infected central venous catheters are another situation of bacteraemia which must be known, but prognosis is usually not fatal if prompt medical care is performed. Some preanalytical conditions are also associated with the presence of bacteria on the peripheral blood smear, but unrelated to infection of the relevant patient. PMID:17264045

G閞ard, J; Lebas, E; Godon, A; Blanchet, O; Genevi鑦e, F; Mercat, A; Zandecki, M

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Molecular identification of leishmania species using samples obtained from negative stained smears.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is a parasitic skin disease. Diagnosis primarily is based on clinical signs and microscopic observation of parasite on direct stained smears or tissue sections. Sensitivity of direct smear is not as high as molecular methods. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize Leishmania species among the negative direct smears obtained from skin ulcers suspected to CL by PCR method. METHODS: Among 81 patients with suspicious skin lesions to CL referred to the Parasitology lab, negative Giemsa stained smears were collected. DNA extraction performed by scraping stained smears, then PCR was performed. RESULTS: Among the DNA extracted from smears, L. tropica was isolated from 9 (11.1%) of the smears and L.major was not isolated from any samples. CONCLUSION: Direct microscopy on stained smears for diagnosis of leishmaniasis is not enough accurate. PCR is recommended for clinically suspected lesions with negative result of direct smear.

Mohaghegh M; Fata A; Salehi G; Berenji F; Bazzaz MM; Rafatpanah H; Parian M; Movahedi A

2013-04-01

32

Morphological variations in microfilaria of Wuchereria bancrofti in cytology smears: a morphometric study of 32 cases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Microfilaria of Wuchereria bancrofti has been described in many cytological specimens, where typical blood film morphology has been used for evaluation. However, these studies have not documented the morphological variations in microfilaria in cytological smears. In the present study, cytological findings in 32 clinically unsuspected cases of filariasis were reviewed with emphasis on morphological details and image morphometric measurements. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective analysis of 32 cases of clinically unsuspected filariasis diagnosed by cytology from April 2001 to March 2011 was carried out. RESULTS: All microfilariae were characterized as W. bancrofti and showed a wide variation in their length (202 to 300 祄) and width (6.2 to 8.4 祄). Terminal and subterminal swellings were seen in one of the cases causing diagnostic confusion with Brugia malayi. Microfilariae were shorter and wider in May-Gr黱wald-Giemsa stain than in Papanicolaou-stained smears. CONCLUSIONS: Natural variations in the size of microfilariae of W. bancrofti are the probable reason for the range of these findings. The overlapping features with microfilaria of B. malayi might be related to subspecies variations in W. bancrofti. Fixation, degeneration and staining procedure also seem to influence the morphological features. This morphometric study highlights the morphological disparities of microfilaria and the differential diagnostic considerations.

Kaushal S; Iyer VK; Mathur SR

2012-01-01

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What is your diagnosis? Blood smear from an injured red-tailed hawk.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An injured juvenile red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) was evaluated at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital at the University of California, Davis. The hawk was quiet, alert, and emaciated, and had a closed comminuted, mid-diaphyseal ulnar fracture. CBC results included heterophilia with a left shift, monocytosis, and increased plasma fibrinogen concentration. The blood smear included rare heterophils containing small, dark blue inclusions approximately 1-2 mum in diameter that ranged from round to coccobacillary in shape and formed variably shaped aggregates; the morphology of the inclusions was suspicious for Chlamydophila or Ehrlichia spp. pathogens. The hawk died, and histopathologic examination of tissues obtained at necropsy found severe multifocal histiocytic and heterophilic splenitis in addition to chronic hepatitis, myocarditis and epicarditis, meningoencephalitis, and airsacculitis. Using immunohistochemistry the presence of Chlamydia/Chlamydophila spp. antigen within multiple tissues was confirmed. Chlamydophila psittaci DNA was demonstrated in whole blood and fresh splenic tissue via real-time PCR. Direct fluorescent antibody staining of air-dried blood smears was positive in rare leukocytes for Chlamydia/Chlamydophila spp. antigen, and immunocytochemical staining of blood smears for Chlamydia/Chlamydophila spp. antigen was focally positive in rare heterophils. These findings may represent the first reported diagnosis of natural avian C. psittaci infection by visualization of organisms in peripheral blood heterophils. Immunocytochemical evaluation of blood smears was valuable in confirming the diagnosis and may be a useful antemortem test to discriminate between bacteria and other inclusions within heterophils.

Johns JL; Luff JA; Shooshtari MP; Zehnder AM; Borjesson DL

2009-06-01

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[The association between cellular morphological changes in peripheral blood smear and complications in pediatric burn cases].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Mortality and morbidity in burn cases can be reduced with early diagnosis. Many markers are used for early diagnosis of burn complications like sepsis. In this current study, the relationship between numerical/morphologic granulocyte abnormalities and complications was investigated in pediatric burns. It was aimed to introduce histopathologic marker(s) for burn-related complications. METHODS: Thirty-two pediatric burn cases hospitalized between December 2006 and December 2009 were included in the study. A total of 192 complete blood count and peripheral blood smear results were analyzed comparatively. Findings were used to identify any correlation among white blood cell count and peripheral blood smear changes (the appearance of immature granular cells, toxic granulation, purple granules and D鰄le bodies) and complications such as bacteriemia, sepsis, wound infections, severe anemia, and graft failure. RESULTS: White blood cell count changes and the appearance of immature granular cells were not suitable for use as a diagnostic marker for complications. Nevertheless, there was a statistically significant correlation between the appearance of toxic granulation, purple granules and D鰄le bodies and subsequent complications (p: <0.0001, 0.041, 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSION: Toxic granulation, purple granules and D鰄le bodies appear to be helpful in predicting burn-related complications. Therefore, peripheral blood smear is a suitable test for predicting future complications.

Bozkurt M; Kuvat SV; Kap? E; Karakol P; Ozel A; Baykan H

2011-03-01

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A comparative study of blood smear, QBC and antigen detection for diagnosis of malaria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rapid diagnosis is prerequisite for effective treatment and reducing mortality and morbidity of malaria. This study was taken up to compare the efficacy of various methods available, i.e., thick and thin smear, quantitative buffy coat (QBC), plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase and aldolase in blood of patient. A total of 411 samples were collected from patients presenting with classic symptoms of malaria. For traditional microscopy; thick and thin smears were prepared and stained with Leishman?s stain, taking thick smear as gold standard, thin smear had a sensitivity and specificity of 54.8% and 100%, respectively. QBC and antigen detection was done using commercially available kits; out of 411 samples, QBC and Malariagen were positive in 66 and 62 cases, with a sensitivity of 78% and 75%, respectively. Leishman?s thick smear, although cost effective, is difficult to interpret for inexperienced microscopists; so if facilities are available, QBC should be used for routine diagnosis. In places where facilities are not available, rapid, simple and easy to interpret antigen detection test can be used despite low sensitivity.

Parija S; Dhodapkar Rahul; Elangovan Subashini; Chaya D

2009-01-01

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A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BLOOD SMEAR, QBC AND ANTIGEN DETECTION FOR DIAGNOSIS OF MALARIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background & objectives:Rapid diagnosis is prerequisite for effective treatment and reducing mortality and morbidity of malaria. Microscopy has been the Gold standard for malaria diagnosis for decades. We made an attempt to compare blood smear, Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC) and rapid antigen detection methods for the rapid diagnosis of malaria.Methods & materials:A Cross sectional prospective study was conducted for 6 months in G.G.Hospital, Jamnagar. A total number of 90 hospitalized clinically suspected malarial cases were collected and confirmed by conventional blood smear, QBC and antigen based Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT). Blood smears were prepared and stained with Leishman抯 stain. QBC and Rapid Diagnostic tests were done using commercially available kits. Patients were followed-up for signs of clinical recovery.Results:Malaria was diagnosed in 50, 54 and 59 patients by Leishman staining technique, QBC method and Rapid antigen detection test respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of Antigen detection test were 94%, 70% 79% & 90%, respectively while, those of QBC were 84%, 77%, 82% & 79%, respectively. The sensitivity of rapid diagnostic test is high with grade 3 & 4 parasitemia.Conclusion:In our study, rapid diagnostic tests were found more accurate than PBS & QBC. Microscopy is cost effective but microscopy and QBC requires technical expertise to interpret the results. In places where facilities are not available, rapid, simple and easy to interpret antigen detection test can be used, especially in endemic areas.

Dr. Mitesh N. Suthar; Dr. Amita K. Mevada; Dr. Neha H. Pandya; Dr. Kinnar S. Desai; Dr. Vaishali Patel; Dr. Toral Goswami

2013-01-01

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A comparison of two different techniques for the detection of blood parasite, Theileria annulata, in cattle from two districts in Khyber Pukhtoon Khwa Province (Pakistan).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Theileria annulata in large ruminants from two districts, Peshawar and Kohat, in Khyber Pukhtoon Khwa (Pakistan). Blood samples were collected from 95 cattle. Data on the characteristics of animals and herds were collected through questionnaires. No significant risk factors were found associated with the spread of tropical theileriosis in the study area. Two different parasite detection techniques, PCR amplification and screening of Giemsa stained slides, were compared and it was found that PCR amplification is a more sensitive tool (33.7% parasite detection), as compared to smear scanning (5.2% parasite detection) for the detection of Theileria annulata. 32 out of 95 animals, from both districts, produced the 721-bp fragment specific for Theileria annulata.

Khattak RM; Rabib M; Khan Z; Ishaq M; Hameed H; Taqddus A; Faryal M; Durranis S; Gillani QU; Allahyar R; Shaikh RS; Khan MA; Ali M; Iqbal F

2012-02-01

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Evaluation of Peripheral Blood Smear for Myelodysplasia in Breast Cancer Patients who Received Adjuvant Antracycline  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN) account for approximately 10% to 20% of all cases of AML (acute myeloid leukemia), MDS (myelodysplastic syndrome) and MDS/MPN (myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasms), MDS, and MDS/MPN. In our study, we evaluated peripheral blood smear samples and hemogram values in breast cancer patients who were receiving adjuvant anthracycline regimens and were in remission. Materials and Methods: A total of 78 patients receiving anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy treatment from Kayseri Research and Training Hospital and Mersin State Hospital were enrolled in the study. Their adjuvant treatments had been completed at least 18 months prior to the study. Results: Two patients complained of anemia (2.2%) (Hb<11 mg/dl), leukopenia was observed in seven patients (7.7%) (leukocytes<4000/mm3), and thrombocytopenia was observed in four patients (4.4%) (PLT<150.000/mm3). In the blood smear samples, the following were observed: ovalomacrocytes (14%), macrocytes (37%), acanthocytes (1%), stomatocytes (12%), teardrops (12%), nucleated erythrocytes (1%), basophilic stippling (14%), and Howell-Jolly bodies (1%). Additionally, hypo-granulation (38%), Pelger-Huet abnormalities (26%), hypersegmentation (20%), immature granulocytes (8%), and blasts (6%) were observed. We also confirmed the presence of giant platelets (50%) and platelet hypogranulation (19%). Conclusion: According to the peripheral blood smear assessments in our study, we suggest that breast cancer patients should be evaluated for MDS in the early stages, starting from month 18, even if the automated blood counts are normal.

Hasan Mutlu; Zeki Akca; Havva Uskudar Teke; Hediye Ugur

2011-01-01

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[The impact of blood smear preparation on effectiveness of functioning of Vision Hema--the digital system of automatic blood analysis].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The article deals with study of the impact of standardization of blood smears preparation on effectiveness of functioning of Vision Hema system. The analysis was applied to the results of counting of 200 leukocytes in 30 blood smears prepared from venous blood stabilized with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid using thoroughly degreased slide plates and applying automatic device to prepare blood smears (comparative group) and in 49 preparations prepared manually from non-stabilized capillary blood (control group). The standardization of the procedure of preparation of glass samples resulted in five time decrease of total amount of artifacts and in disappearance of thrombocytes aggregates and pavement epithelium cells. The absolute amount of destroyed leukocytes decreased in 2.4 times and particles of dirt in 9.5 time. The proposed technique of preparation of smear increased velocity of automatic analysis of leukogram by the Vision Hema system in 2 times and speeded up validation by physician of derived results in 3 times.

Sosnin DIu; Nenasheva OIu; Falkov BF; Trusheva LA

2013-04-01

40

Detection of malarial parasite by blood smear examination and antigen detection: A comparative study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At present about 100 countries in the world are considered malarious, is thought to kill between 1.1 and 2.7 million people worldwide each year, of which about 1 million are children under the age of 5 years in these areas. Under ideal circumstances, the clinical suspicion of malaria would be confirmed by a laboratory test that is simple to perform, rapid, sensitive, specific and expensive. At the present time, no such test exists. The most common test for malaria diagnosis remains the microscopic examination of giemsa or the fields 杝tained blood smears. The test is based on the detection of Plasmodium falciparum specific histidine rich protein ii (hrp) and a pan malarial species specific enzyme aldolose, produced by the respective parasites and released into the blood and the test is based on immune chromatography, the test is highly sensitive. Method: In this study included 100 patients, 60% of patients had history suggestive of malaria, another 40% gave the history of irregular fever; For each patient peripheral blood sample was collected, thin and thick smear blood films were made immediately after blood collection, stained with Leishman stain and examined for malaria parasite by light microscopy. Results: The blood films results indicated that 40 (20%) patients were infected with malaria and the rest 171 (85.5%) were malaria negative. Among positive patients Plasmodium vivax was detected in 24 cases (60%) and Plasmodium falciparum in 10 cases (31%) and 6 cases mixed infection (PV + PF) (15%) correspondingly, the Para HIT Test results indicated that 29 (14.5%) of the patient sample were positive for malaria parasites and 171 (85.5) were malaria negative out 29 patients cases. Infection with Plasmodium vivax accounted for 17 (58.6%) while infection with Plasmodium falciparum accounted for 9 (25%) and 3 (1.3%) with mixed infection of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodiumfalciparum

Erumalla Naveen, Dimple Arora, Vinod Agarwal, Neelam sharma, Anuradha B, Vijay Durga S

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Crowdsourcing malaria parasite quantification: an online game for analyzing images of infected thick blood smears.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: There are 600,000 new malaria cases daily worldwide. The gold standard for estimating the parasite burden and the corresponding severity of the disease consists in manually counting the number of parasites in blood smears through a microscope, a process that can take more than 20 minutes of an expert microscopist's time. OBJECTIVE: This research tests the feasibility of a crowdsourced approach to malaria image analysis. In particular, we investigated whether anonymous volunteers with no prior experience would be able to count malaria parasites in digitized images of thick blood smears by playing a Web-based game. METHODS: The experimental system consisted of a Web-based game where online volunteers were tasked with detecting parasites in digitized blood sample images coupled with a decision algorithm that combined the analyses from several players to produce an improved collective detection outcome. Data were collected through the MalariaSpot website. Random images of thick blood films containing Plasmodium falciparum at medium to low parasitemias, acquired by conventional optical microscopy, were presented to players. In the game, players had to find and tag as many parasites as possible in 1 minute. In the event that players found all the parasites present in the image, they were presented with a new image. In order to combine the choices of different players into a single crowd decision, we implemented an image processing pipeline and a quorum algorithm that judged a parasite tagged when a group of players agreed on its position. RESULTS: Over 1 month, anonymous players from 95 countries played more than 12,000 games and generated a database of more than 270,000 clicks on the test images. Results revealed that combining 22 games from nonexpert players achieved a parasite counting accuracy higher than 99%. This performance could be obtained also by combining 13 games from players trained for 1 minute. Exhaustive computations measured the parasite counting accuracy for all players as a function of the number of games considered and the experience of the players. In addition, we propose a mathematical equation that accurately models the collective parasite counting performance. CONCLUSIONS: This research validates the online gaming approach for crowdsourced counting of malaria parasites in images of thick blood films. The findings support the conclusion that nonexperts are able to rapidly learn how to identify the typical features of malaria parasites in digitized thick blood samples and that combining the analyses of several users provides similar parasite counting accuracy rates as those of expert microscopists. This experiment illustrates the potential of the crowdsourced gaming approach for performing routine malaria parasite quantification, and more generally for solving biomedical image analysis problems, with future potential for telediagnosis related to global health challenges.

Luengo-Oroz MA; Arranz A; Frean J

2012-01-01

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Detection of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in blood donors: comparison of new method to the conventional one.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Malaria is a parasitic infection caused by Plasmodium species and it is especially seen in tropical and subtropical areas. Our aim was to determine whether or not malaria is transmitted by blood transfusion in Turkey and to define the rate and the differences between endemic and non-endemic areas. During this study, blood samples were taken from donors who applied to Blood Banks in Istanbul (non-endemic area) and in Adana (endemic area). 2229 donors were screened using the OptilMAL Rapid Malaria Test and Giemsa staining method. Neither the OptiMAL Rapid Malaria Test nor the gold standard Giemsa staining method detected infected erythrocytes and Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase.

Ali Oner Y; Akin H; Kocazeybek B

2004-02-01

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How-to-Do-It: Infection Control Guidelines for Blood Typing & Blood Smear Labs.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Provides a set of guidelines for infection control of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and the serum hepatitis viruses during blood typing procedures. Emphasizes that disposal of blood contaminated materials should comply with local health department recommendations. (RT)|

Vetter, Edwin A.

1989-01-01

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Clinical performance evaluation of the CellaVision Image Capture System in the white blood cell differential on peripheral blood smears.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Differential counting and morphological analysis of peripheral blood smears is of great diagnostic importance to the clinician. For economic and time-saving reasons, automated imaging processes have been successfully introduced over the years. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a new morphology system, the CellaVision Image Capture System (CICS), can be used to perform a white blood cell (WBC) differential on peripheral blood smears. METHODS: WBCs in 200 peripheral blood smears were analysed with the CICS method and compared with the DM96 method to establish accuracy, short-term imprecision and clinical sensitivity and specificity for morphology. For establishing long-term imprecision, two blood smears were analysed for 20 days with the CICS method. RESULTS: Evaluation of accuracy in 199 samples demonstrated a good correlation for the CICS when compared with the postclassification on the DM96. Regression coefficients ranged from 0.97 for monocyte counts to 0.99 for neutrophil counts. All regression lines showed slopes with 1 and intercepts with 0 within the 95% CI. Long-term imprecision was less than 5% for neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes and monocytes. Comparison of the short-term imprecision demonstrated that the SD did not differ by more than 1.1% between the DM96 method and the CICS method. Clinical sensitivity of the CICS was 93.5% and specificity was 97.8%. Specificity and sensitivity for blasts was 100%. CONCLUSIONS: The CICS has proven to be a reliable and accurate tool in the differential WBC count on peripheral blood smears and provides small laboratories with a 24 h available real-time digital differential WBC count on peripheral blood smears and consultation for patients in remote locations.

Smits SM; Leyte A

2013-09-01

45

Blood parasites in passerine birds from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Parasites may lead bird species to extinction, affect host temporal and spatial population dynamics, alter community structure and alter individual' social status. We evaluated blood parasite prevalence and intensity according to bird families and species, among 925 birds that were caught in 2000 and 2001, in the Atlantic Forest in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. We applied Giemsa staining to thin blood smears, to detect blood parasites. The birds (n = 15.8%) in 11 families, were infected by at least one parasite genus, especially Muscicapidae (28.3%) and Conopophagidae (25%). Among the 146 infected birds, Plasmodium was detected in all bird families and had the highest prevalence (54.8%). Trypanosoma, Haemoproteus and microfilaria had lower prevalence rates (23.3, 23.3 and 2.1%, respectively). Birds caught during the rainy season were more infected than birds caught during the dry season. The overall low prevalence of blood parasites in birds is similar to the patterns found elsewhere in the Neotropical region.

Sebaio F; Braga EM; Branquinho F; Fecchio A; Marini M

2012-01-01

46

Blood parasites in passerine birds from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parasites may lead bird species to extinction, affect host temporal and spatial population dynamics, alter community structure and alter individual' social status. We evaluated blood parasite prevalence and intensity according to bird families and species, among 925 birds that were caught in 2000 and 2001, in the Atlantic Forest in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. We applied Giemsa staining to thin blood smears, to detect blood parasites. The birds (n = 15.8%) in 11 families, were infected by at least one parasite genus, especially Muscicapidae (28.3%) and Conopophagidae (25%). Among the 146 infected birds, Plasmodium was detected in all bird families and had the highest prevalence (54.8%). Trypanosoma, Haemoproteus and microfilaria had lower prevalence rates (23.3, 23.3 and 2.1%, respectively). Birds caught during the rainy season were more infected than birds caught during the dry season. The overall low prevalence of blood parasites in birds is similar to the patterns found elsewhere in the Neotropical region. PMID:22534938

Sebaio, Fabiane; Braga, Erika Martins; Branquinho, Felipe; Fecchio, Alan; Marini, Miguel 耼gelo

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Validation and optimization of criteria for manual smear review following automated blood cell analysis in a large university hospital.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: Each laboratory should have criteria for manual smear review that limit workload without affecting patient care. The International Consensus Group for Hematology Review established guidelines for action after automated blood cell analysis in 2005. OBJECTIVE: To compare the consensus group criteria with our laboratory criteria and optimize them for better efficiency. DESIGN: A total of 2114 first-time samples were collected consecutively from daily workload and were used to compare 2 criteria as well as establish the optimized criteria. Another set of 891 samples was used to validate the optimized criteria. All samples were run on either Sysmex XE-5000 or Coulter LH750 hematology analyzers and were investigated by manual smear review. The efficiency of each set of criteria was compared and optimized to obtain better efficiency, an acceptable review rate, and a low false-negative rate. RESULTS: From 2114 samples, 368 (17.40%) had positive smear results. Compared with that of our laboratory criteria, the efficiency of the consensus group criteria was higher (83.63% versus 78.86%, P < .001), the review rate was higher (29.33% versus 22.37%, P < .001), and the false-negative rate was lower (2.22% versus 8.09%, P < .001). After optimizing the rules, we obtained an efficiency of 87.13%, a review rate of 24.22%, and a false-negative rate of 2.98%. We validated the optimized criteria with another set of samples, and the efficiency, review rate, and false-negative rate were 87.32%, 25.25%, and 1.12%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Each laboratory should verify the criteria for smear review, based on the International Consensus Group for Hematology Review, and optimize them to maximize efficiency.

Pratumvinit B; Wongkrajang P; Reesukumal K; Klinbua C; Niamjoy P

2013-03-01

48

The useful preliminary diagnosis of Niemann-Pick disease type C by filipin test in blood smear.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal lipid storage disorder characterized with accumulation of cholesterol in endosomes and lysosomes. The diagnosis of NP-C is difficult due to its heterogeneous group of diseases. Biochemical diagnosis of NP-C is conducted by cholesterol staining with cultured skin fibroblasts and confirmed by the analysis of genetic mutations of NPC1 or NPC2 gene. Here, we report an easier biochemical diagnostic method with blood smear by filipin staining.

Takamura A; Sakai N; Shinpoo M; Noguchi A; Takahashi T; Matsuda S; Yamamoto M; Narita A; Ohno K; Ohashi T; Ida H; Eto Y

2013-08-01

49

The useful preliminary diagnosis of Niemann-Pick disease type C by filipin test in blood smear.  

Science.gov (United States)

Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal lipid storage disorder characterized with accumulation of cholesterol in endosomes and lysosomes. The diagnosis of NP-C is difficult due to its heterogeneous group of diseases. Biochemical diagnosis of NP-C is conducted by cholesterol staining with cultured skin fibroblasts and confirmed by the analysis of genetic mutations of NPC1 or NPC2 gene. Here, we report an easier biochemical diagnostic method with blood smear by filipin staining. PMID:24001525

Takamura, Ayumi; Sakai, Norio; Shinpoo, Michiko; Noguchi, Atsuko; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Matsuda, Shin; Yamamoto, Masanari; Narita, Aya; Ohno, Kosaku; Ohashi, Toya; Ida, Hiroyuki; Eto, Yoshikatsu

2013-08-17

50

Immunoglobulin and enzyme-conjugated dextran polymers enhance u-PAR staining intensity of carcinoma cells in peripheral blood smears.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The presence of disseminated carcinoma cells in bone marrow and peripheral blood has prognostic importance in patients with carcinomas. Much evidence indicates that dissemination of tumor cells may depend on activation of a variety of degradative enzymes. A strong positive correlation has been shown between the expression of tumor cell proteases and tumor invasion. Therefore, phenotypic characterization of disseminated carcinoma cells for expression of protease activators might define the invasive potential of the cells. We present an immunocytochemically enhanced staining method that allows phenotyping of disseminated carcinoma cells in bone marrow and peripheral blood smears. In the first step, the cells were incubated with antibodies against urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (u-PAR) and subsequently with secondary antibodies conjugated to peroxidase-labeled dextran polymers. A brown color reaction was developed with diaminobenzidine as chromogen. In the second step, the cells were incubated with alkaline phosphatase-conjugated murine monoclonal antibodies against a common cytokeratin epitope and a red color reaction was developed with new fuchsin as substrate. This method allows simultaneous and unambiguous immunolabeling of intracellular cytokeratin and of u-PAR intracellularly and on the surface of carcinoma cells. This novel approach can be used for detection and phenotyping of carcinoma cells in blood smears for u-PAR or, presumably, for any other heterogeneously expressed antigen on the surface of the detected cells.

Werther, K; Normark, M

1999-01-01

51

Pap Smear  

Science.gov (United States)

Pap Smear Introduction Cancer of the cervix affects more than 10,000 women in the United States every year. ... be analyzed. Surface of Cervix During a Pap Smear First you will be asked to undress, at ...

52

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Pap Smear Introduction Cancer of the cervix affects more than 10,000 women in the United States every year. ... be analyzed. Surface of Cervix During a Pap Smear First you will be asked to undress, at ...

53

Prospective randomized controlled study comparing cell block method and conventional smear method for bile cytology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND AIM: There is a paucity of data on the cell block (CB) method for bile cytology. We compared the diagnostic efficacy of the CB method with that of conventional smear cytology for bile obtained by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in a randomized controlled trial manner. METHODS: A total of 137 patients with biliary tract lesions suspicious of malignancy who had undergone bile collection under ERCP were recruited to this study. After sampling, the bile was randomized to the CB method (n?=?69) or to smear cytology (n?=?68). CB sections were prepared using the sodium alginate method and subjected to hematoxylin-eosin, Alcian blue-periodic acid-Schiff stain, and immunohistochemical stains. Both Papanicolaou and Giemsa stains were used for smear cytology. RESULTS: The final diagnosis was malignancy in 94 patients: bile duct cancer, 42; pancreatic head cancer, 34; gallbladder cancer, 16; and ampullary cancer, two. The diagnostic accuracy of the CB method and that of smear cytology were 64% and 53%, respectively (P?=?0.20). The sensitivity of the CB method (53%) was significantly better than that of smear cytology (28%; P?=?0.014). Their respective sensitivities were 80% and 31% (P?=?0.002) for bile duct cancer, 20% and 15% (P?=?1.0) for pancreatic head cancer, and 30% and 67% (P?=?0.30) for gallbladder cancer. CONCLUSION: The CB method for bile cytology showed a higher diagnostic yield than smear cytology. Its diagnostic sensitivity was satisfactory in cases of bile duct cancer.

Noda Y; Fujita N; Kobayashi G; Ito K; Horaguchi J; Hashimoto S; Koshita S; Ishii S; Kanno Y; Ogawa T; Masu K; Tsuchiya T; Oikawa M; Honda H; Sawai T; Uzuki M; Fujishima F

2013-07-01

54

The estimation of platelet count from a blood smear on the basis of the red cell: platelet ratio  

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Full Text Available Objective: The estimation of platelet count from blood smears is a daily routine laboratory test, which should be systematic each time the automated count is erroneous.In our laboratory, we estimate the platelet count indirectly by using the automated red blood cell (RBC) and calculating the platelet count on the basis of the red cell: platelet ratio in a stained blood film. In this study, we attempted to verify the reliability of this technique.Material and Methods: One hundred ninety-one platelet counts were executed by two laboratory methods: an automated count using an impedance cell counter and then a manual method by reviewing microscopic blood smears. The number of platelets per 1000 erythrocytes was multiplied by the automated RBC (x106 cells/祃) to give an approximate manual count (x103 cells/祃). Two paired t-test was used for comparison of the two methods.Results: The regression analyses for the entire data set collected in our study with the two laboratory methods gave the following least squares equation by comparing the automated (y) to the manual method (x): y=0.8548x + 12.013 (r=0.908). The paired t-test showed no significant difference between the two methods (p>0.05) and the Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) was equal to 0.905.The plot of the differences between the automated and manual values against their means according to Band and Altman design showed that the difference mean was 3.209 with a standard deviation SD=46.331.We noticed that 93% of the differences were within the agreement limits (mean2SD), and that 77% of the differences were less than 20,000 platelets/祃.Conclusion: Estimating platelet count on the basis of the red cell: platelet ratio is a reliable technique and it should be proposed as a method of reference.

Mohamed Brahimi; Soufi Osmani; Abdessamad Arabi; Badra Enta-Soltan; Zohra Taghezout; Belkheir Smain Elkahili; Mohamed Amine Bekadja

2009-01-01

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Labelling of T cell subsets under field conditions in tropical countries. Adaptation of the immuno-alkaline phosphatase staining method for blood smears.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Immuno-alkaline phosphatase (AP) staining for T cell subsets (CD4 and CD8) of smears from fingerprick blood functioned well under tropical climatic conditions when smears were stored frozen with silica gel before being labelled. Unlabelled smears were stored for up to 12 months and could be transferred abroad without antigenic damage. Identical total CD4 and CD8 counts were obtained on venous and capillary blood, when compared using a FACS analyser. Although the AP method gave somewhat higher total CD4 and CD8 counts, the ratio remained the same. The major advantages of the method are: (i) no expensive equipment is required, (ii) only minute amounts of blood are needed, and (iii) slides can be stored for long periods before labelling and can be preserved for later reading. The method is suitable for community studies where there is a need for assessing the immune status of the population.

Lisse, I M; Whittle, H

1990-01-01

56

A study of eosinophil count in nasal and blood smear in allergic respiratory diseases in a rural setup  

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Full Text Available Allergic respiratory disorders are fairly common visiting cases in pediatrics outpatient department (OPD). With an appropriate history and detailed examination, diagnosis may not be problematic. Routine investigation may not contribute much to the final diagnosis but may help in ruling out other possibilities. This study was done to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of blood or nasal eosinophilia in subjects suffering from allergic respiratory disorders and also to assess the feasibility of nasal cytogram which is a simple, economical and reliable investigation in allergic respiratory disorders. This is a prospective clinical correlation study of patients attending outpatient department. 100 subjects aged between 2-18 years of either sex were selected for the estimation of eosinophil count in nasal and peripheral smear in allergic respiratory disorders. All allergic respiratory cases based on eosinophillia. The nasal and blood eosinophilia were compared with each other and clinical findings of allergic rhinitis with or without asthma were studied. In this study peak age incidence was seen between 11-18 years and it was more common in males. Rhinorrhoea, pale mucosa and nasal obstruction were common findings in allergic rhinitis with bronchial asthma. Nasal eosinophilia was seen in 52.4% and 64.9% of cases of allergic rhinitis and allergic rhinitis with asthma respectively. Blood eosinophilia was seen in 54% and 56.8% of cases of allergic rhinitis with asthma respectively. Nasal cytogram which is a simple, economical and non- invasive procedure can be used as an alternative to invasive peripheral smear eosinophilia as both are equally efficacious in diagnosing allergic respiratory diseases.

Naveen Kumar; Kiran Bylappa; Ramesh AC; Swetha Reddy

2012-01-01

57

Practical uses of acridine orange fluorescence microscopy of centrifuged blood (QBC Malaria Test) and the QBCII Hematology System in patients attending malaria clinics in Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated the detection of malaria parasites using acridine orange fluorescence microscopy of centrifuged blood (AOFM/CB or "QBC Malaria Test") at two government malaria clinics in rural Thailand. In a subgroup of the patients, a QBC Hematology System for the determination of complete blood counts was also utilized. A Giemsa-stained thick smear (GTS) reading of 100 (1,000x) microscopic fields was used as standard. The AOFM/CB sensitivities were 97% overall and 95% for P. falciparum (Pf). Sensitivity was lower for P. vivax (Pv) (76%). Pv sensitivity depended largely on ameboid form density. A threshold for AOFM/CB to consistently detect Pv ameboid forms was estimated to be 10/100 WBC (700/microliters blood). AOFM/CB was capable of detecting Pf gametocytes and schizonts more frequently than GTS. The total Pf rings per microliter blood estimated from GTS was highly correlated with the number of Pf rings per Paralens microscopic field (PMF) suggesting that AOFM/CB could be used quantitatively. From a technical standpoint, the rural tropical settings of Thailand in this study were not an obstacle to the use of QBC Hematology. The system was found to be useful in conjunction with AOFM/CB. However, in patients heavily infected with Pf gametocytes of Pv ameboid forms, their total WBC and lymphocyte counts needed to be appropriately corrected. Overall, AOFM/CB appears to be a promising tool for field diagnosis of malaria if it is affordable to developing countries. PMID:1488693

Wongsrichanalai, C; Chuanak, N; Webster, H K; Prasittisuk, M

1992-09-01

58

Practical uses of acridine orange fluorescence microscopy of centrifuged blood (QBC Malaria Test) and the QBCII Hematology System in patients attending malaria clinics in Thailand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We evaluated the detection of malaria parasites using acridine orange fluorescence microscopy of centrifuged blood (AOFM/CB or "QBC Malaria Test") at two government malaria clinics in rural Thailand. In a subgroup of the patients, a QBC Hematology System for the determination of complete blood counts was also utilized. A Giemsa-stained thick smear (GTS) reading of 100 (1,000x) microscopic fields was used as standard. The AOFM/CB sensitivities were 97% overall and 95% for P. falciparum (Pf). Sensitivity was lower for P. vivax (Pv) (76%). Pv sensitivity depended largely on ameboid form density. A threshold for AOFM/CB to consistently detect Pv ameboid forms was estimated to be 10/100 WBC (700/microliters blood). AOFM/CB was capable of detecting Pf gametocytes and schizonts more frequently than GTS. The total Pf rings per microliter blood estimated from GTS was highly correlated with the number of Pf rings per Paralens microscopic field (PMF) suggesting that AOFM/CB could be used quantitatively. From a technical standpoint, the rural tropical settings of Thailand in this study were not an obstacle to the use of QBC Hematology. The system was found to be useful in conjunction with AOFM/CB. However, in patients heavily infected with Pf gametocytes of Pv ameboid forms, their total WBC and lymphocyte counts needed to be appropriately corrected. Overall, AOFM/CB appears to be a promising tool for field diagnosis of malaria if it is affordable to developing countries.

Wongsrichanalai C; Chuanak N; Webster HK; Prasittisuk M

1992-09-01

59

Pap Smear  

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Full Text Available Pap Smear Introduction Cancer of the cervix affects more than 10,000 women in the United States every year. Thanks to a procedure ... Pap smear test, many early stages of cervical cancer can be detected and treated. Your doctor has ...

60

Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Technique based Prevalence of Surra in Equines  

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Full Text Available This project was carried out to find the prevalence of trypanosomiasis in equine in District Gujranwala by using indirect fluorescent antibody technique and thin smear method. Blood samples were collected from a total of 200 horses and donkeys of different ages and either sex. Duplicate thin blood smears were prepared from each sample and remaining blood samples were centrifuged to separate the serum. Smears from each animal were processed for giemsa staining and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Giemsa stained smears revealed Trypanosome infection in 4/200 (2.0%) samples and IFAT in 12/200 (6.0%) animals.

Ahsan Nadeem, Asim Aslam*, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary, Kamran Ashraf1, Khalid Saeed1, Nisar Ahmad1, Ishtiaq Ahmed and Habib ur Rehman2

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

[Features and differentiation of smear cytology in ocular fungal infection].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cytological feature and differentiate diagnosis of ocular fungal infections by smear cytology. METHODS: Experimental study. One thousand two hundred and twenty-six specimens of smear cytology were collected retrospectively during January 2007- December 2010 from Microbial Laboratory of Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology. The 1226 specimens analyzed in this study were collected from patients who suffered from ocular fungal infections. The corneal scraping cells were observed by Giemsa staining, and the photographic record was saved. The morphological characteristics of fungal pathogens and the surrounding cells were analyzed by light microscopy. RESULTS: Nine hundred and ninety eight of 1226 (81.40%) specimens were positive with fungal pathogens, 228 of 1226 (18.60%) specimens were fungal negative by smear cytology. 976 of 998 (97.80%) fungal positive specimens were filamentous fungi positive, and 22 of 998 (2.20%) specimens were yeast positive. Among the 998 fungal positive specimens analyzed in this study, twenty-seven (2.71%) were collected from the vitreous, twelve (1.20%) were collected from aqueous humors, thirteen (1.30%) were collected from conjunctiva, seven (0.70%) were collected from eyelid margin, three (0.30%) were collected from lachrymal, and 8 were collected from other parts. The fungal pathogens should be differentiated from the deformed corneal epithelial cells, vacuoles, amebic cyst and other tissue cells during scraping. CONCLUSIONS: The smear cytology test for the diagnosis of ocular fungal infections has advantages of higher detection rate, less time-consuming and easier operation. The identification of fungal like ingredients is very important to improve the accuracy of diagnosis of ocular fungal infections.

Wang ZQ; Li R; Zhang Y; Hou WB; Jiang C; Sun XG

2013-01-01

62

Differential Giemsa staining of sister chromatids after extraction with acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chromosomes of Chinese hamster strain cells were air-dried on slides after BrdU substitution for two or three rounds of replication. The preparations were treated with 20% PCA at 55 degrees C for 20-30 min, or 5N HCl at 55 degrees C for 15-20 min. After staining with Giemsa, unifilarly BrdU-substituted chromatids stained faintly and bifilarly substituted chromatids stained darkly. Such a pattern of sister chromatid differential staining was confirmed by the examination of metaphase cells grown with BrdU for three rounds of replication. PMID:72637

Takayama, S; Sakanishi, S

1977-11-14

63

Differential Giemsa staining of sister chromatids after extraction with acids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chromosomes of Chinese hamster strain cells were air-dried on slides after BrdU substitution for two or three rounds of replication. The preparations were treated with 20% PCA at 55 degrees C for 20-30 min, or 5N HCl at 55 degrees C for 15-20 min. After staining with Giemsa, unifilarly BrdU-substituted chromatids stained faintly and bifilarly substituted chromatids stained darkly. Such a pattern of sister chromatid differential staining was confirmed by the examination of metaphase cells grown with BrdU for three rounds of replication.

Takayama S; Sakanishi S

1977-11-01

64

Factors involved in differential Giemsa-staining of sister chromatids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microspectrophotometric evaluation of differentially stained sister chromatids made it possible to analyse precisely the factors involved in the Giemsa methods. The concentration of Hoechst 33258, pH of the mounting medium temperature during UV-exposure and the quality (wavelength)of UV-light influenced the differential staining. Exposure of blacklight of 10(-5) M Hoechst 33528-stained brdU-labeled chromosome specimens mounted in McIlvaine buffer (pH 8.0) at 50 degrees C reproducibly allowed differential staining of sister chromatids within 15 min. On the other hand, Korenberg-Freedlender's method using no Hoechst 33258 was also UV-light-dependent. Thus, photolysis of BrdU-substituted DNA was considered the basic mechanism of the Giemsa methods where the photosensitive Hoechst 33258 played a role as a sensitizer. PMID:77756

Goto, K; Maeda, S; Kano, Y; Sugiyama, T

1978-05-16

65

Factors involved in differential Giemsa-staining of sister chromatids.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Microspectrophotometric evaluation of differentially stained sister chromatids made it possible to analyse precisely the factors involved in the Giemsa methods. The concentration of Hoechst 33258, pH of the mounting medium temperature during UV-exposure and the quality (wavelength)of UV-light influenced the differential staining. Exposure of blacklight of 10(-5) M Hoechst 33528-stained brdU-labeled chromosome specimens mounted in McIlvaine buffer (pH 8.0) at 50 degrees C reproducibly allowed differential staining of sister chromatids within 15 min. On the other hand, Korenberg-Freedlender's method using no Hoechst 33258 was also UV-light-dependent. Thus, photolysis of BrdU-substituted DNA was considered the basic mechanism of the Giemsa methods where the photosensitive Hoechst 33258 played a role as a sensitizer.

Goto K; Maeda S; Kano Y; Sugiyama T

1978-05-01

66

Pap Smear  

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Full Text Available ... procedure called a Pap smear test, many early stages of cervical cancer can be detected and treated. ... atypia could turn into cancer. In the early stages of cervical cancer, the cancer is limited to ...

67

Pap Smear  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... A Pap smear test is one of the best ways to detect cervical cancer in its early ... Talk to your healthcare provider about what is best for you. Women ages 21 to 29 should ...

68

Comparison of a real-time PCR method with serology and blood smear analysis for diagnosis of human anaplasmosis: importance of infection time course for optimal test utilization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis are emerging tick-borne diseases with clinically similar presentations caused by closely related pathogens. Currently, laboratories rely predominantly on blood smear analysis (for the detection of intracellular morulae) and on serologic tests, both of which have recognized limitations, for diagnostic purposes. We compared the performance of a published real-time PCR assay that incorporates melt curve analysis to differentiate Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species with blood smear and serologic methods in an upper Midwest population. Overall, 38.5% of the specimens selected for evaluation had one or more tests that were positive for anaplasmosis. The PCR positivity for all specimens was maximal (21.2%; 29/137) during the early acute phase of illness (0 to 4 days since illness onset) and significantly less frequent (11.5%; 20/174) during later phases (>4 days since illness onset). All positive specimens were Anaplasma phagocytophilum; no Ehrlichia species were identified. The real-time PCR detected 100% of infections that were detected by blood smear analysis (14/14) and broadened the detection window from a maximum of 14 days for smear positivity to 30 days for PCR. Additional infections were detected by real-time PCR in 12.9% (11/85) of smear-negative patients. There was poor agreement between the real-time PCR assay and serologic test results: 19.8% (19/96) and 13.7% (29/212) of seropositive and -negative patients, respectively, were PCR positive. Seropositivity increased with increasing days of illness, demonstrating that serologic detection methods are best utilized during presumed convalescence. Our results indicate that the optimal performance and utilization of laboratory tests for the diagnosis of anaplasmosis require knowledge regarding time of symptom onset or days of illness.

Schotthoefer AM; Meece JK; Ivacic LC; Bertz PD; Zhang K; Weiler T; Uphoff TS; Fritsche TR

2013-07-01

69

Rapid and reliable diagnosis of murine myeloid leukemia (ML) by FISH of peripheral blood smear using probe of PU. 1, a candidate ML tumor suppressor  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Murine myeloid leukemia (ML) provides a good animal model to study the mechanisms of radiation-induced leukemia in humans. This disease has been cytogenetically characterized by a partial deletion of chromosome 2 with G-banding. For the rapid diagnosis of ML, this study reports a FISH method using spleen cells and peripheral blood smears from ML mice exposed to gamma rays and neutrons with PU.1, a candidate ML tumor suppressor, as a probe. Results Among mice that were tentatively diagnosed with ML by clinical findings and blood smear examination, 85% carried spleen cells showing the loss of PU.1 although the frequency of these abnormal cells varied among individuals. Mice with very low frequencies of cells showing the loss of one copy of PU.1 (one-PU.1 frequency) were later diagnosed pathologically not with ML but with blastic or eosinophilic leukemia. Some neutron-irradiated mice had cells showing translocated PU.1, although no pathological features differentiated these ML mice from ML mice expressing the simple loss of PU.1. The one-PU.1 frequency can be detected from spleen metaphase cells, spleen interphase cells, and blood smears. There was a good correlation between the one-PU.1 frequency in spleen metaphase cells and that in spleen interphase cells (r = 0.96) and between one-PU.1 frequency in spleen interphase cells and that in blood cells (r = 0.83). Conclusion The FISH method was capable of detecting aberration of copy number of the PU.1 gene on murine chromosome 2, and using a peripheral blood smear is more practical and less invasive than conventional pathological diagnosis or the cytogenetic examination of spleen cells.

Kanda Reiko; Tsuji Satsuki; Ohmachi Yasushi; Ishida Yuka; Ban Nobuhiko; Shimada Yoshiya

2008-01-01

70

Detection of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in blood donors: comparison of new method to the conventional one.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaria is a parasitic infection caused by Plasmodium species and it is especially seen in tropical and subtropical areas. Our aim was to determine whether or not malaria is transmitted by blood transfusion in Turkey and to define the rate and the differences between endemic and non-endemic areas. During this study, blood samples were taken from donors who applied to Blood Banks in Istanbul (non-endemic area) and in Adana (endemic area). 2229 donors were screened using the OptilMAL Rapid Malaria Test and Giemsa staining method. Neither the OptiMAL Rapid Malaria Test nor the gold standard Giemsa staining method detected infected erythrocytes and Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase. PMID:14746815

Ali Oner, Ya?ar; Akin, Hacer; Kocazeybek, Bekir

2004-02-01

71

Direct acridine orange fluorescence examination of blood slides compared to current techniques for malaria diagnosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The renewed interest in the use of fluorochromes for malaria diagnosis prompted us to evaluate the acridine orange fluorescence technique on blood slides, and to compare it with established techniques using thick and thin blood films and the QBC malaria test, using the Giemsa-stained thick film technique as our standard method for comparison. We compared 123 positively diagnosed cases and 120 negative cases. For primary samples (day 0), the sensitivity of the thin blood film fluorescence acridine orange technique (AO) was 96.4%, and its specificity was 95.1%. In cases of imported malaria, with a prevalence rate of 16.2%, the positive predictive value was 79.2% and the negative predictive value 99.3%. Sensitivity of AO was significantly higher than that of Giemsa-stained thin blood films for parasitaemias < 5000/microL. The potential of AO for species diagnosis of Plasmodium was 85.2%, using Giemsa-stained thin films as the reference technique. Where QBC imposes a cost limitation, especially in developing countries, despite its high performance, the AO diagnostic technique is a valuable alternative, because of its simplicity, almost negligible cost, and its diagnostic reliability. The method may also have potential value in the diagnosis of other microbiological diseases. PMID:8944259

Gay, F; Traor, B; Zanoni, J; Danis, M; Fribourg-Blanc, A

72

Direct acridine orange fluorescence examination of blood slides compared to current techniques for malaria diagnosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The renewed interest in the use of fluorochromes for malaria diagnosis prompted us to evaluate the acridine orange fluorescence technique on blood slides, and to compare it with established techniques using thick and thin blood films and the QBC malaria test, using the Giemsa-stained thick film technique as our standard method for comparison. We compared 123 positively diagnosed cases and 120 negative cases. For primary samples (day 0), the sensitivity of the thin blood film fluorescence acridine orange technique (AO) was 96.4%, and its specificity was 95.1%. In cases of imported malaria, with a prevalence rate of 16.2%, the positive predictive value was 79.2% and the negative predictive value 99.3%. Sensitivity of AO was significantly higher than that of Giemsa-stained thin blood films for parasitaemias < 5000/microL. The potential of AO for species diagnosis of Plasmodium was 85.2%, using Giemsa-stained thin films as the reference technique. Where QBC imposes a cost limitation, especially in developing countries, despite its high performance, the AO diagnostic technique is a valuable alternative, because of its simplicity, almost negligible cost, and its diagnostic reliability. The method may also have potential value in the diagnosis of other microbiological diseases.

Gay F; Traor B; Zanoni J; Danis M; Fribourg-Blanc A

1996-09-01

73

Laboratory diagnosis of malaria by conventional peripheral blood smear examination with Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC) and Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT) - A comparative study  

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Full Text Available Aim: Rapid diagnosis is prerequisite for effective treatment and reducing mortality and morbidity of malaria. Microscopy has been the Gold standard for malaria diagnosis for decades. Recently, many new rapid diagnostic tests like Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC) examination and rapid antigen detection methods are being widely used. We made an attempt to compare peripheral smear, QBC and rapid antigen detection methods for the diagnosis of malaria. Materials and Methods: A total number of 500 samples were collected from patients presenting with classical symptoms of malaria. Thick and thin blood smears were prepared and stained with Leishman抯 stain. QBC, Histidine Rich Protein-II antigen test and plasmodium Lactate Dehydrogenase tests were done using commercially available kits. Results: Taking thick smear as gold standard, thin smear had sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 90.9%, 100%, 100% and 98.6% respectively. QBC showed sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 95.45%, 100%, 100% and 99.31% respectively. HRP-II antigen detection showed sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 56.06%, 100%, 100% and 94.20%. pLDH showed sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of 95.45%, 100%, 100% and 99.40% respectively. Conclusion: In our study, QBC had highest sensitivity followed by pLDH assay. Leishman抯 stained thick smear is cost effective but requires technical expertise to interpret the results, so if facilities are available, QBC can be used for routine diagnosis. In places where facilities are not available rapid diagnostic test devices can be used, especially in endemic areas.

Bhat Sandhya K; Sastry Apurba S; Nagaraj E.R.; Sharadadevi Mannur; Sastry Anand S

2012-01-01

74

Prevalence of malaria from peripheral blood smears examination: a 1-year retrospective study from the Serbo Health Center, Kersa Woreda, Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Malaria is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Over the past years, the disease has been consistently reported as the first leading cause of outpatient visits, hospitalization and death in health facilities across the country. Thus, a retrospective study was conducted to determine the prevalence of malaria from peripheral blood smear examination from the Serbo Health Center of Ethiopia. The case notes of all malaria cases treated between July 2007 and June 2008 were carefully reviewed and analyzed. Of the total 6863 smears, 3009 were found to be positive and contribute 43.8% of diagnostic yield. Plasmodium falciparum constituted the most predominant [64.6% (1946/3009 cases)], while Plasmodium vivax confirmed with 34.9% (1052/3009) cases. Among patients who underwent diagnostic testing and treatment for malaria, males [63.8% (1918/3009 cases)] were more prone to have a positive malaria smear than females [36.2% (1091/3009 cases)]. Chi-square statistical analysis shown that there was a statistically significant association found between male cases and number of positive blood smear (chi(2)=28.1; df=7; p-value=0.001). The present study results clearly suggest that the catchment area of Serbo Health Center is prone for epidemic malaria and the situation is quite deteriorating. At the moment, although we are not equipped with magic bullet for malaria effective low-cost strategies are available for its treatment, prevention, and control. Therefore, creating awareness by active health education campaigns and applying integrated malaria control strategy could bring the constructive outcome in the near future.

Karunamoorthi K; Bekele M

2009-01-01

75

Prevalence of malaria from peripheral blood smears examination: a 1-year retrospective study from the Serbo Health Center, Kersa Woreda, Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaria is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Over the past years, the disease has been consistently reported as the first leading cause of outpatient visits, hospitalization and death in health facilities across the country. Thus, a retrospective study was conducted to determine the prevalence of malaria from peripheral blood smear examination from the Serbo Health Center of Ethiopia. The case notes of all malaria cases treated between July 2007 and June 2008 were carefully reviewed and analyzed. Of the total 6863 smears, 3009 were found to be positive and contribute 43.8% of diagnostic yield. Plasmodium falciparum constituted the most predominant [64.6% (1946/3009 cases)], while Plasmodium vivax confirmed with 34.9% (1052/3009) cases. Among patients who underwent diagnostic testing and treatment for malaria, males [63.8% (1918/3009 cases)] were more prone to have a positive malaria smear than females [36.2% (1091/3009 cases)]. Chi-square statistical analysis shown that there was a statistically significant association found between male cases and number of positive blood smear (chi(2)=28.1; df=7; p-value=0.001). The present study results clearly suggest that the catchment area of Serbo Health Center is prone for epidemic malaria and the situation is quite deteriorating. At the moment, although we are not equipped with magic bullet for malaria effective low-cost strategies are available for its treatment, prevention, and control. Therefore, creating awareness by active health education campaigns and applying integrated malaria control strategy could bring the constructive outcome in the near future. PMID:20701879

Karunamoorthi, Kaliyaperumal; Bekele, Mammo

2009-11-06

76

Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA from peripheral blood in patients with HIV-seronegative and new cases of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis by polymerase chain reaction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tuberculosis is still one of the most important cause of mortality and morbidity in many countries and there is a need for new methods for accurate and rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis. To determine the sensitivity and specificity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, we have evaluated Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in peripheral blood samples with PCR technique in adult patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative and new cases of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis. We investigated the relationship between characteristic of the patients, radiological extension of the disease, sputum smear grade, presence of cavity, body-mass index (BMI) serum albumin level, total delay time and PCR positivity. Forty patients (33 male and 7 female; mean age 37.8 +/- 14.1) and 20 healthy control subjects (13 male and 7 female; mean age 35.6 +/- 7.3) were enrolled in this study. PCR was positive in 16 of 40 (40%) patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and negative in 24 of 40 (60%). None of the healthy controls had positive PCR results. The overall sensitivity specificity and accuracy of the PCR assay was 40, 100 and 60%, respectively. We found the positive correlation between PCR positivity and sputum smear grade (r=0.46, P=0.003) radiological extension of the disease (r=0.69, P=0.001), presence of cavity (r=0.90, P=0.001). We conclude that the detection of M. tuberculosis DNA from peripheral blood by PCR technique is useful for the rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis patients with HIV-negative. Hematogenous dissemination was important in tuberculosis patients and peripheral blood samples were suitable and easy materials. However, standardization of the PCR method must be ensured for the diagnosis of tuberculosis.

Taci N; Yurdakul AS; Ceyhan I; Berktas MB; O?retensoy M

2003-06-01

77

Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA from peripheral blood in patients with HIV-seronegative and new cases of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis by polymerase chain reaction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tuberculosis is still one of the most important cause of mortality and morbidity in many countries and there is a need for new methods for accurate and rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis. To determine the sensitivity and specificity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, we have evaluated Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in peripheral blood samples with PCR technique in adult patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative and new cases of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis. We investigated the relationship between characteristic of the patients, radiological extension of the disease, sputum smear grade, presence of cavity, body-mass index (BMI) serum albumin level, total delay time and PCR positivity. Forty patients (33 male and 7 female; mean age 37.8 +/- 14.1) and 20 healthy control subjects (13 male and 7 female; mean age 35.6 +/- 7.3) were enrolled in this study. PCR was positive in 16 of 40 (40%) patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and negative in 24 of 40 (60%). None of the healthy controls had positive PCR results. The overall sensitivity specificity and accuracy of the PCR assay was 40, 100 and 60%, respectively. We found the positive correlation between PCR positivity and sputum smear grade (r=0.46, P=0.003) radiological extension of the disease (r=0.69, P=0.001), presence of cavity (r=0.90, P=0.001). We conclude that the detection of M. tuberculosis DNA from peripheral blood by PCR technique is useful for the rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis patients with HIV-negative. Hematogenous dissemination was important in tuberculosis patients and peripheral blood samples were suitable and easy materials. However, standardization of the PCR method must be ensured for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. PMID:12814154

Taci, N; Yurdakul, A S; Ceyhan, I; Berktas, M B; O?retensoy, M

2003-06-01

78

Evaluation of the polymerase chain reaction analysis for diagnosis of falciparum malaria in Delhi, India  

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Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum infections are frequently fatal if untreated and hence need to be diagnosed and treated early. Malaria diagnosis, with conventional Giemsa staining as a gold standard, has had several limitations. New rapid and accurate methods are needed for diagnosis. In this study, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis specific for diagnosis of P. falciparum was evaluated. For the study, blood samples were collected from 310 patients suspected of having malaria. PCR analysis for P. falciparum from venous blood and at the same time Giemsa staining of thick and thin blood smears was done. A total of 160 (51.6 %) samples were positive for malarial parasite of which 63 (39.4 %) were positive for P. falciparum by Giemsa staining while 61 (38.1 %) were positive for P. falciparum by PCR analysis. Giemsa staining was time consuming, laborious and may give poor results in cases with low parasitaemia. The PCR analysis for P. falciparum was able to detect 3 cases of low parasitaemia missed initially on Giemsa staining, was 96.8 % sensitive, 100% specific but was very costly, needed a lot of practice and standardization and was time consuming. PCR analysis can be used to supplement the conventional Giemsa staining for reliable diagnosis of falciparum malaria especially in cases with low parasitaemia.

Nandwani S; Mathur M; Rawat S

2005-01-01

79

Diagn髎tico presuntivo de histoplasmosis en un frotis sangu韓eo Diagn髎tico presuntivo de histoplasmose em um esfrega鏾 de sangue Presumptive diagnosis of histoplasmosis in a blood smear  

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Full Text Available Se comunica el diagn髎tico de un caso de histoplasmosis asociada al SIDA a partir de la microscop韆 de un extendido hem醫ico realizado en oportunidad del procesamiento de una muestra enviada al laboratorio para un estudio hematol骻ico. El extendido, fijado con metanol y te駃do con soluci髇 de Giemsa al 10% revel, con objetivo de 100X, estructuras levaduriformes de 2-4 de di醡etro dentro de las c閘ulas leucocitarias sangu韓eas, con la t韕ica tinci髇 en casquete y la presencia de un halo claro perif閞ico, que caracterizan microsc髉icamente a Histoplasma capsulatum. Luego, para confirmar el hallazgo micol骻ico, se procedi a te駃r el mismo preparado con la t閏nica de Grocott, la cual puso de manifiesto levaduras de color pardo, dentro de los leucocitos sangu韓eos. El paciente, deteriorado cl韓ica e inmunol骻icamente (Comunica-se o diagn髎tico de um caso de histoplasmose associada AIDS, de uma microscopia de extens鉶 sangu韓ea realizada por ocasi鉶 do processamento de uma amostra enviada ao laborat髍io para um estudo hematol骻ico. A extens鉶, fixada com metanol e corada com solu玢o de Giemsa a 10%, revelou com objetivo de 100X, estruturas leveduriformes de 2-4 di鈓etro dentro de c閘ulas leucocit醨ias do sangue, com a t韕ica colora玢o em tamp鉶 e a presen鏰 de um halo claro perif閞ico, os quais caracterizam microscopicamente a Histoplasma capsulatum. Em seguida, para confirmar o achado micol骻ico, foi corada a mesma prepara玢o com a t閏nica de Grocott, que mostrou leveduras de cor parda, dentro dos leuc骳itos sangu韓eos. O paciente cl韓ica e imunologicamente deteriorado (A case of AIDS-associated histoplasmosis diagnosed by microscopy from a blood smear performed during a hematologic study was reported. The smear, fixed with methanol and stained with 10% Giemsa solution, revealed with a 100X objective, 2-4 -diameter yeast - like structures within the leuMicrobiolog韆 contakocytes, showing a typical staining in cap and a peripheral clear halo, characteristic of Histoplasma capsulatum. To confirm the mycological finding, the same smear was stained with the Grocott technique, showing brownish yeasts in the leucocytes. The patient, clinically deteriorated and with advanced immunological disorder (<50 T CD4+ lymphocytes/礚), died the next day after the diagnosis was made, in spite of the established treatments. This finding highlights the need to have operators trained in the recognition of microbiological structures of diagnostic importance in hematological smears in a Reference Center of Infectious Diseases, and even in the General Laboratory. The immediate diagnosis of this and other serious infections, as Malaria, enables the etiologic treatment and increases the possibilities of therapeutic success.

Agustina Daniela Tkach; Jorge Daniel Moreno; Amadeo Javier Bava

2012-01-01

80

Significado da presen鏰 de esquiz骳itos no sangue perif閞ico de gestantes com pr-ecl鈓psia/ Ming of the presence of schistocytes in blood smear of preeclamptic pregnat women  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: avaliar o significado da presen鏰 de esquiz骳itos em esfrega鏾 de sangue perif閞ico de gestantes com pr-ecl鈓psia, identificando-os e correlacionando-os com outros marcadores de hem髄ise e da gravidade da doen鏰. M蒚ODOS: foram avaliadas 76 l鈓inas de esfrega鏾 de sangue perif閞ico de gestantes portadoras de pr-ecl鈓psia. Ap髎 a realiza玢o do esfrega鏾, as l鈓inas foram submetidas ao corante de Leishman e armazenadas at a leitura, feita em (more) microsc髉io modelo DLMB, da marca Leica, com aumento de 40 vezes e imers鉶 em 髄eo. O microsc髉io era dotado de software Qwin Lite 2.5, que permitia gravar as imagens dos campos escolhidos em CD-ROM. Em cada l鈓ina foram contados dez campos com aproximadamente 100 eritr骳itos. Foi considerada presen鏰 de esquiz骳itos (fragmento irregular ou em forma de capacete, de mordida ou tri鈔gulo) quando a porcentagem dos mesmos era maior ou igual que 0,2%. A presen鏰 de esquiz骳itos foi correlacionada com outros marcadores de hem髄ise (hemoglobina, bilirrubina total, desidrogenase l醫ica e reticul骳itos), marcadores da pr-ecl鈓psia (protein鷕ia e n鷐ero de plaquetas) e com a gravidade da pr-ecl鈓psia. Para an醠ise estat韘tica foi utilizado o programa Statistical Package in Social Science (SPSS), vers鉶 10.0, com valor de p Abstract in english PURPOSE: to evaluate the significance of schizocytes presence in peripheral blood smear of pregnant women with pre-eclampsia, identifying and correlating them with other markers of hemolysis and of the disease severity. METHODS: Seventh six glass slides of peripheral blood smear of pregnant women with pre-eclampsia have been evaluated. After the smear, the slides have been stained with Leishman's dye and stored till they were examined with a Leica, model DLMB microscope, (more) provided with the Qwin Lite 2.5 software that made it possible to record the images of selected fields in CD-ROM. Ten fields with approximately 100 erythrocytes were counted in each glass slide. Schizocytes (irregular fragment or helmet-shaped, bite-shaped or triangular) were considered as present, when their percentage was equal or higher than 0.2%, their presence being correlated with other hemolysis markers (hemoglobin, total bilirubin, lactic desidrogenasis and reticulocytes), pre-eclampsia markers (proteinuria and platelet number). The Statistical Package in Social Science for Windows (SPSS), 10.0 version has been used for statistical analysis, at p

Silva, Ros鈔gela de F醫ima do Nascimento e; Resende, Lucilene Silva Ruiz e; Cardoso, Bruno Rabelo; Abbade, Jo閘cio Francisco; Pera鏾li, Jos Carlos

2008-08-01

 
 
 
 
81

Significado da presen鏰 de esquiz骳itos no sangue perif閞ico de gestantes com pr-ecl鈓psia Ming of the presence of schistocytes in blood smear of preeclamptic pregnat women  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o significado da presen鏰 de esquiz骳itos em esfrega鏾 de sangue perif閞ico de gestantes com pr-ecl鈓psia, identificando-os e correlacionando-os com outros marcadores de hem髄ise e da gravidade da doen鏰. M蒚ODOS: foram avaliadas 76 l鈓inas de esfrega鏾 de sangue perif閞ico de gestantes portadoras de pr-ecl鈓psia. Ap髎 a realiza玢o do esfrega鏾, as l鈓inas foram submetidas ao corante de Leishman e armazenadas at a leitura, feita em microsc髉io modelo DLMB, da marca Leica, com aumento de 40 vezes e imers鉶 em 髄eo. O microsc髉io era dotado de software Qwin Lite 2.5, que permitia gravar as imagens dos campos escolhidos em CD-ROM. Em cada l鈓ina foram contados dez campos com aproximadamente 100 eritr骳itos. Foi considerada presen鏰 de esquiz骳itos (fragmento irregular ou em forma de capacete, de mordida ou tri鈔gulo) quando a porcentagem dos mesmos era maior ou igual que 0,2%. A presen鏰 de esquiz骳itos foi correlacionada com outros marcadores de hem髄ise (hemoglobina, bilirrubina total, desidrogenase l醫ica e reticul骳itos), marcadores da pr-ecl鈓psia (protein鷕ia e n鷐ero de plaquetas) e com a gravidade da pr-ecl鈓psia. Para an醠ise estat韘tica foi utilizado o programa Statistical Package in Social Science (SPSS), vers鉶 10.0, com valor de pPURPOSE: to evaluate the significance of schizocytes presence in peripheral blood smear of pregnant women with pre-eclampsia, identifying and correlating them with other markers of hemolysis and of the disease severity. METHODS: Seventh six glass slides of peripheral blood smear of pregnant women with pre-eclampsia have been evaluated. After the smear, the slides have been stained with Leishman's dye and stored till they were examined with a Leica, model DLMB microscope, provided with the Qwin Lite 2.5 software that made it possible to record the images of selected fields in CD-ROM. Ten fields with approximately 100 erythrocytes were counted in each glass slide. Schizocytes (irregular fragment or helmet-shaped, bite-shaped or triangular) were considered as present, when their percentage was equal or higher than 0.2%, their presence being correlated with other hemolysis markers (hemoglobin, total bilirubin, lactic desidrogenasis and reticulocytes), pre-eclampsia markers (proteinuria and platelet number). The Statistical Package in Social Science for Windows (SPSS), 10.0 version has been used for statistical analysis, at p<0.05. RESULTS: schizocytes have been present in 31.6% of the pregnant women with pre-eclampsia. In most (75%) of the blood smears there have been three or four schizocytes. There has been no correlation between schizocyte presence and any other hemolysis marker, any pre-eclampsia marker or disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: schizocytes have been identified in a small number and in less than a third of the pregnant women with pre-eclampsia. There has been no correlation with other hemolysis marker parameters or with the disease severity. This way, the presence of schizocytes is not a marker of the clinical evolution of pre-eclampsia.

Ros鈔gela de F醫ima do Nascimento e Silva; Lucilene Silva Ruiz e Resende; Bruno Rabelo Cardoso; Jo閘cio Francisco Abbade; Jos Carlos Pera鏾li

2008-01-01

82

The occurrence of hepatozoon in the gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis)  

Science.gov (United States)

Hepatozoon sciuri (Coles, 1914) is reported from gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) in Washington, D.C. and Maryland. Blood smears stained with Giemsa's stain revealed a parasitemia in 16 to 71% of the squirrels examined. A technique for laking the red cells and concentrating the white cells in blood samples demonstrated this protozoon to be present in every squirrel so tested.

Herman, C.M.; Price, D.L.

1955-01-01

83

Diagn髎tico presuntivo de histoplasmosis en un frotis sangu韓eo/ Presumptive diagnosis of histoplasmosis in a blood smear/ Diagn髎tico presuntivo de histoplasmose em um esfrega鏾 de sangue  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Comunica-se o diagn髎tico de um caso de histoplasmose associada AIDS, de uma microscopia de extens鉶 sangu韓ea realizada por ocasi鉶 do processamento de uma amostra enviada ao laborat髍io para um estudo hematol骻ico. A extens鉶, fixada com metanol e corada com solu玢o de Giemsa a 10%, revelou com objetivo de 100X, estruturas leveduriformes de 2-4 di鈓etro dentro de c閘ulas leucocit醨ias do sangue, com a t韕ica colora玢o em tamp鉶 e a presen鏰 de um (more) halo claro perif閞ico, os quais caracterizam microscopicamente a Histoplasma capsulatum. Em seguida, para confirmar o achado micol骻ico, foi corada a mesma prepara玢o com a t閏nica de Grocott, que mostrou leveduras de cor parda, dentro dos leuc骳itos sangu韓eos. O paciente cl韓ica e imunologicamente deteriorado ( Abstract in spanish Se comunica el diagn髎tico de un caso de histoplasmosis asociada al SIDA a partir de la microscop韆 de un extendido hem醫ico realizado en oportunidad del procesamiento de una muestra enviada al laboratorio para un estudio hematol骻ico. El extendido, fijado con metanol y te駃do con soluci髇 de Giemsa al 10% revel, con objetivo de 100X, estructuras levaduriformes de 2-4 de di醡etro dentro de las c閘ulas leucocitarias sangu韓eas, con la t韕ica tinci髇 en casq (more) uete y la presencia de un halo claro perif閞ico, que caracterizan microsc髉icamente a Histoplasma capsulatum. Luego, para confirmar el hallazgo micol骻ico, se procedi a te駃r el mismo preparado con la t閏nica de Grocott, la cual puso de manifiesto levaduras de color pardo, dentro de los leucocitos sangu韓eos. El paciente, deteriorado cl韓ica e inmunol骻icamente ( Abstract in english A case of AIDS-associated histoplasmosis diagnosed by microscopy from a blood smear performed during a hematologic study was reported. The smear, fixed with methanol and stained with 10% Giemsa solution, revealed with a 100X objective, 2-4 -diameter yeast - like structures within the leuMicrobiolog韆 contakocytes, showing a typical staining in cap and a peripheral clear halo, characteristic of Histoplasma capsulatum. To confirm the mycological finding, the same smear w (more) as stained with the Grocott technique, showing brownish yeasts in the leucocytes. The patient, clinically deteriorated and with advanced immunological disorder (

Tkach, Agustina Daniela; Moreno, Jorge Daniel; Bava, Amadeo Javier

2012-12-01

84

Morphological findings in bone marrow biopsy and aspirate smears of visceral kala azar: A review  

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Full Text Available Context: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in India and may simulate and cause many hematological disorders like pancytopenia, myelofibrosis, myelodysplasia and hemophagocytosis. Aims: The study aims to investigate the hematological manifestation of Visceral Leishmaniasis and associated changes that may be observed in bone marrow aspirate smears and biopsy which may warn a pathologist of possible infections. Settings and Design: This is a retrospective study of 18 VL cases on B (b) one marrow aspirate and biopsy in the department of Pathology in a tertiary care teaching hospital in New Delhi. Methods and Material: Giemsa stained slides of bone marrow aspirates and hematoxylin and Eosin stained biopsy slides were reviewed in detail by two competent pathologists. All the findings were tabulated and discussed and comparisons made with the previous similar studies. Results: Hyper cellular marrow, increased lymphocytes and plasma cells, marrow granulomas, hemophagocytosis, myelofibrosis, myelodysplasia and gelatinous transformation of the marrow were notable features the presence of which together or individually should caution a pathologist to search for Leishman Donovan (LD) bodies in patients especially in a non-endemic zone in a tropical country.

Dhingra Kajal; Gupta Parul; Saroha Vijay; Setia Namrata; Khurana Nita; Singh Tejinder

2010-01-01

85

Evaluation of platelet count by automatic blood counter QBC Vet Autoread compared with blood smear estimative and count by hemocytometer Avalia玢o da contagem plaquet醨ia pelo contador autom醫ico QBC Vet Autoread comparado com estimativa em esfrega鏾 sangu韓eo e contagem em hemocit鬽etro  

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Full Text Available The platelet blood count in laboratorial routine provides to the clinician important information about the hemostasis of the patient. There are many techniques described, however the gold standard techniques realized in hemocytometer spent a lot of time, making this technique impracticable in great routines. This research had the intent to evaluate if the automatic veterinary blood counter QBC Vet Autoread, whose results get five minutes to be ready, is capable to offer a trustworthy platelet count number. To this end, were evaluated the correlations among three different forms of platelets count in dogs: count in automatic blood counter QBC Vet Autoread, estimative in blood smear and the gold standard method by manual count in hemocytometer. The viability and confidence use of automatic blood counters of the medicine veterinary routine. Seventeen dogs were chosen randomly way, in the medical and surgical routine of HOVET-USP. The analysis revel high correlation between the hemocytometer and the estimative in blood smear (r=0,875) and between the hemocytometer and automatic blood count by QBC Vet Autoread (r=0,939). Conclude that the platelet blood cont by QBC Vet Autoread, in addition to be fast, it抯 more truthful when compared with estimative in blood smear, although the latter one also had elevated correlation. However, morphological analysis through the smears cannot be dismissed because none of the other two techniques evaluated have the ability to assess platelet morphological changes.A contagem plaquet醨ia na rotina laboratorial fornece ao cl韓ico importantes informa珲es sobre a hemostasia do paciente. H v醨ias t閏nicas descritas, entretanto a t閏nica padr鉶 realizada em hemocit鬽etro demanda muito tempo, inviabilizando sua realiza玢o em rotinas volumosas. Este estudo visou avaliar se o aparelho automatizado veterin醨io QBC VetAutoread, cujo resultado leva cerca de cinco minutos, capaz de fornecer o n鷐ero de plaquetas de forma confi醰el. Para tal, avaliou-se a correla玢o entre tr阺 diferentes formas de determina玢o do n鷐ero de plaquetas em c鉶: a contagem pelo contador de c閘ulas autom醫ico QBC Vet Autoread , estimativa em esfrega鏾 sangu韓eo corado e o m閠odo padr鉶 considerado prova ouro de contagem manual em hemocit鬽etro. Determinou-se tamb閙 a viabilidade e confiabilidade do uso da contagem autom醫ica na rotina laboratorial da medicina veterin醨ia. Foram avaliados 17 c鉫s, escolhidos de forma aleat髍ia de acordo com a rotina de colheita do Banco de sangue e rotina da cl韓ica m閐ica e cir鷕gica do HOVET USP. As an醠ises revelaram alta correla玢o entre a contagem em hemocit鬽etro comparados a estimativa em esfrega鏾 sangneo (r=0,875) e entre a contagem em hemocit鬽etro e a contagem autom醫ica do QBC Vet Autoread (r=0,939). Conclui-se a contagem plaquet醨ia pelo QBC Vet Autoread , al閙 de r醦ida, mais confi醰el quando comparada com a estimativa em esfrega鏾 sangu韓eo, apesar deste 鷏timo tamb閙 possuir alta correla玢o. Entretanto, a an醠ise morfol骻ica atrav閟 do esfrega鏾 sanguineo n鉶 pode ser descartada, pois nenhuma das outras duas t閏nicas avaliadas tem capacidade de avaliar altera珲es morfol骻icas plaquetarias.

Augusto Schweirgert; F醔io Hosoi Rezende; Denise Tabacchi Fantoni; Ludmila Rodrigues Moroz

2010-01-01

86

Literacy Measure B - Smear  

Science.gov (United States)

... Literacy Measure B - Smear. SMEAR. Frequency. Percent. Valid Percent. Cumulative Percent. Valid, Correct, 868, 96.0, 96.0, 96.0. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess/developmentresources

87

Buccal smear (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

A buccal smear is a test where cells are taken from the tongue. Cells are collected by scraping the tongue with ... in a normal female sex chromosome). The buccal smear test can confirm whether the patient is a ...

88

Pleural fluid smear  

Science.gov (United States)

Pleural fluid smear is a laboratory procedure to check for bacteria, fungi, or abnormal cells in the fluid that may be ... of pleural fluid under the microscope. If the smear detects bacteria or fungi, other methods may be ...

89

Pap smear (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

During a Pap smear, cells from the outside and the canal of the cervix are retrieved by gently scraping the outside of the cervix. The Pap smear is performed to detect cancerous or precancerous conditions ...

90

Small bowel tissue smear  

Science.gov (United States)

Small bowel tissue smear is a laboratory test that checks for disease in a sample of tissue from the small intestine. ... A laboratory smear poses no risks to the patient. For risks related to obtaining a sample of intestinal tissue, see EGD .

91

Compara玢o de nested-PCR com o diagn髎tico direto na detec玢o de Ehrlichia canis e Anaplasma platys em c鉫s/ Comparison of nested-PCR with blood smear examination in detection of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in dogs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Os sinais cl韓icos das infec珲es por Ehrlichia canis e Anaplasma platys s鉶 similares, e o diagn髎tico desses pat骻enos feito por esfrega鏾s sangu韓eos corados dif韈il devido sensibilidade e especificidade. Por outro lado, os diagn髎ticos moleculares s鉶 altamente sens韛eis e espec韋icos, e nested-PCRs t阭 sido otimizadas para o diagn髎tico preciso desses pat骻enos em c鉫s. Em um Hospital Veterin醨io Escola, amostras de sangue total com EDTA foram (more) obtidas de 100 c鉫s, e esfrega鏾s foram feitos das amostras de sangue para busca dos parasitos intracelulares. Para cada amostra, DNA foi extra韉o e submetido nPCR para detec玢o de E. canis e A. platys. Os resultados dos esfrega鏾s sangu韓eos mostraram que 9% dos animais foram positivos para E. canis e 21% para A. platys. Com rela玢o nPCR, 57 e 55% dos c鉫s foram positivos para E. canis e A. platys, respectivamente. Quando comparados com a nPCR, os esfrega鏾s sangu韓eos corados revelaram resultados falso-negativos para E. canis e A. platys. Os resultados indicam que a nPCR altamente sens韛el e espec韋ica para detec玢o de ambos os pat骻enos, e os diagn髎ticos moleculares podem ser mais 鷗eis nos Hospitais Veterin醨ios. Abstract in english The clinical signs of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys infection are similar, and the diagnosis of these pathogens made by stained blood smears is poor due sensibility and specificity. On the other hand, the molecular diagnosis is highly sensitive and specific and nested-PCR have been optimized for accurate diagnosis these pathogens in dogs. At the veterinary teaching hospital, whole-blood samples with EDTA were obtained from 100 dogs and smears were made from blood s (more) amples for evaluation for intracellular parasites. For each sample, DNA was extracted and submitted to nPCR analysis for detection of E. canis and A. platys. The results of stained blood smears showed 9% of the animals were positive for E. canis and 21% for A. platys. Regarding of nPCR analysis, 57 and 55% of dogs were positive for E. canis and A. platys respectively. As compared to a nested PCR, the stained blood smears revealed false-negative results for both E. canis and A. platys. The results indicate that the nPCR is highly sensitive and specific for detection of both pathogens and the molecular diagnosis could be more useful at veterinary hospital.

Ramos, Carlos A. N.; Ramos, Rafael A. N.; Ara鷍o, Fl醔io R.; Guedes Jr, Daniel S.; Souza, Ingrid I. F.; Ono, Tatiana M.; Vieira, Anahi S.; Pimentel, Danillo S.; Rosas, Eduardo O.; Faustino, Maria A. G.; Alves, Leucio C.

2009-12-01

92

Compara玢o de nested-PCR com o diagn髎tico direto na detec玢o de Ehrlichia canis e Anaplasma platys em c鉫s Comparison of nested-PCR with blood smear examination in detection of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in dogs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os sinais cl韓icos das infec珲es por Ehrlichia canis e Anaplasma platys s鉶 similares, e o diagn髎tico desses pat骻enos feito por esfrega鏾s sangu韓eos corados dif韈il devido sensibilidade e especificidade. Por outro lado, os diagn髎ticos moleculares s鉶 altamente sens韛eis e espec韋icos, e nested-PCRs t阭 sido otimizadas para o diagn髎tico preciso desses pat骻enos em c鉫s. Em um Hospital Veterin醨io Escola, amostras de sangue total com EDTA foram obtidas de 100 c鉫s, e esfrega鏾s foram feitos das amostras de sangue para busca dos parasitos intracelulares. Para cada amostra, DNA foi extra韉o e submetido nPCR para detec玢o de E. canis e A. platys. Os resultados dos esfrega鏾s sangu韓eos mostraram que 9% dos animais foram positivos para E. canis e 21% para A. platys. Com rela玢o nPCR, 57 e 55% dos c鉫s foram positivos para E. canis e A. platys, respectivamente. Quando comparados com a nPCR, os esfrega鏾s sangu韓eos corados revelaram resultados falso-negativos para E. canis e A. platys. Os resultados indicam que a nPCR altamente sens韛el e espec韋ica para detec玢o de ambos os pat骻enos, e os diagn髎ticos moleculares podem ser mais 鷗eis nos Hospitais Veterin醨ios.The clinical signs of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys infection are similar, and the diagnosis of these pathogens made by stained blood smears is poor due sensibility and specificity. On the other hand, the molecular diagnosis is highly sensitive and specific and nested-PCR have been optimized for accurate diagnosis these pathogens in dogs. At the veterinary teaching hospital, whole-blood samples with EDTA were obtained from 100 dogs and smears were made from blood samples for evaluation for intracellular parasites. For each sample, DNA was extracted and submitted to nPCR analysis for detection of E. canis and A. platys. The results of stained blood smears showed 9% of the animals were positive for E. canis and 21% for A. platys. Regarding of nPCR analysis, 57 and 55% of dogs were positive for E. canis and A. platys respectively. As compared to a nested PCR, the stained blood smears revealed false-negative results for both E. canis and A. platys. The results indicate that the nPCR is highly sensitive and specific for detection of both pathogens and the molecular diagnosis could be more useful at veterinary hospital.

Carlos A. N. Ramos; Rafael A. N. Ramos; Fl醔io R. Ara鷍o; Daniel S. Guedes Jr; Ingrid I. F. Souza; Tatiana M. Ono; Anahi S. Vieira; Danillo S. Pimentel; Eduardo O. Rosas; Maria A. G. Faustino; Leucio C. Alves

2009-01-01

93

Florid erythrophagocytosis on the peripheral smear.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Erythrophagocytosis is a relatively rare observation on blood smears. It has been reported in auto immune hemolytic anemias and sporadically in few other conditions. Here, we report a case of florid erythrophagocytosis with severe anemia following a viral infection in an 18-year-old girl. Her complete blood count (CBC) revealed hemoglobin of 3.6 gm/dl and a hematocrit of 10%. The peripheral smear showed erythrophagocytosis by neutrophils and rosetting of erythrocytes around neutrophils. The direct Coombs test and direct Donath- Landsteiner tests were positive.

Chandrashekar V; Soni M

2012-01-01

94

Blood parasites in passerine birds from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest/ Hemoparasitos em passeriformes da Mata Atl鈔tica Brasileira  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Parasitos podem levar esp閏ies de aves extin玢o, afetar as din鈓icas temporais e espaciais dos hospedeiros, alterar a estrutura de comunidades e o status social de indiv韉uos. Avaliou-se a preval阯cia e a intensidade de parasitos em fam韑ias e esp閏ies de 925 aves capturadas, entre 2000 e 2001, na Mata Atl鈔tica de Minas Gerais. Foram coradas com Giemsa extens鮡s de sangue para detectar parasitos hematozo醨ios. As aves (n= 15,8%) 11 fam韑ias estavam infecta (more) das por pelo menos um g阯ero de parasito, especialmente Muscicapidae (28,3%) e Conopophagidae (25%). Entre as 146 aves infectadas, Plasmodium foi detectado em todas as fam韑ias e possuiu a maior preval阯cia (54,8%). Trypanosoma,Haemoproteus e microfilaria possu韗am baixas preval阯cias (23,3, 23,3 e 2,1%, respectivamente). Aves capturadasdurante a esta玢o chuvosa estavam mais infectadas do que aves capturadas durante a esta玢o seca. A baixa preval阯cia geral de parasitos do sangue das aves semelhante aos padr鮡s encontrados em outras localidades da regi鉶 Neotropical. Abstract in english Parasites may lead bird species to extinction, affect host temporal and spatial population dynamics, alter community structure and alter individuals? social status. We evaluated blood parasite prevalence and intensity according to bird families and species, among 925 birds that were caught in 2000 and 2001, in the Atlantic Forest in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. We applied Giemsa staining to thin blood smears, to detect blood parasites. The birds (n = 15.8%) in 11 f (more) amilies, were infected by at least one parasite genus, especially Muscicapidae (28.3%) and Conopophagidae (25%). Among the 146 infected birds, Plasmodium was detected in all bird families and had the highest prevalence (54.8%). Trypanosoma, Haemoproteus and microfilaria had lower prevalence rates (23.3, 23.3 and 2.1%, respectively). Birds caught during the rainy season were more infected than birds caught during the dry season. The overall low prevalence of blood parasites in birds is similar to the patterns found elsewhere in the Neotropical region.

Sebaio, Fabiane; Braga, 蓃ika Martins; Branquinho, Felipe; Fecchio, Alan; Marini, Miguel 耼gelo

2012-03-01

95

Blood parasites in passerine birds from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Hemoparasitos em passeriformes da Mata Atl鈔tica Brasileira  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Parasites may lead bird species to extinction, affect host temporal and spatial population dynamics, alter community structure and alter individuals social status. We evaluated blood parasite prevalence and intensity according to bird families and species, among 925 birds that were caught in 2000 and 2001, in the Atlantic Forest in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. We applied Giemsa staining to thin blood smears, to detect blood parasites. The birds (n = 15.8%) in 11 families, were infected by at least one parasite genus, especially Muscicapidae (28.3%) and Conopophagidae (25%). Among the 146 infected birds, Plasmodium was detected in all bird families and had the highest prevalence (54.8%). Trypanosoma, Haemoproteus and microfilaria had lower prevalence rates (23.3, 23.3 and 2.1%, respectively). Birds caught during the rainy season were more infected than birds caught during the dry season. The overall low prevalence of blood parasites in birds is similar to the patterns found elsewhere in the Neotropical region.Parasitos podem levar esp閏ies de aves extin玢o, afetar as din鈓icas temporais e espaciais dos hospedeiros, alterar a estrutura de comunidades e o status social de indiv韉uos. Avaliou-se a preval阯cia e a intensidade de parasitos em fam韑ias e esp閏ies de 925 aves capturadas, entre 2000 e 2001, na Mata Atl鈔tica de Minas Gerais. Foram coradas com Giemsa extens鮡s de sangue para detectar parasitos hematozo醨ios. As aves (n= 15,8%) 11 fam韑ias estavam infectadas por pelo menos um g阯ero de parasito, especialmente Muscicapidae (28,3%) e Conopophagidae (25%). Entre as 146 aves infectadas, Plasmodium foi detectado em todas as fam韑ias e possuiu a maior preval阯cia (54,8%). Trypanosoma,Haemoproteus e microfilaria possu韗am baixas preval阯cias (23,3, 23,3 e 2,1%, respectivamente). Aves capturadasdurante a esta玢o chuvosa estavam mais infectadas do que aves capturadas durante a esta玢o seca. A baixa preval阯cia geral de parasitos do sangue das aves semelhante aos padr鮡s encontrados em outras localidades da regi鉶 Neotropical.

Fabiane Sebaio; 蓃ika Martins Braga; Felipe Branquinho; Alan Fecchio; Miguel 耼gelo Marini

2012-01-01

96

Considerations on the mechanism of differential Giemsa staining of BrdU-substituted chromosomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The staining properties of unifilarly bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-substituted chromatids were compared using fluorescent-plus-Giemsa (FPG) staining methods. It was found that the staining intensity of chromatids which had incorporated BrdU in the next to last S-phase is less than that of chromatids whose BrdU-containing strand came from the last cell cycle. Thus, FPG-staining is not a function of the number of BrdU-substituted DNA strands alone. These findings lead to the conclusion that the primary point of action of PFG staining leading to sister chromatid differentiation (SCD) are chromosomal proteins which have been altered in the replication of BrdU-substituted DNA and that the demonstration of the SCD and replication patterns with the same staining procedure is based on different mechanisms. PMID:6469241

Speit, G

1984-01-01

97

Considerations on the mechanism of differential Giemsa staining of BrdU-substituted chromosomes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The staining properties of unifilarly bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-substituted chromatids were compared using fluorescent-plus-Giemsa (FPG) staining methods. It was found that the staining intensity of chromatids which had incorporated BrdU in the next to last S-phase is less than that of chromatids whose BrdU-containing strand came from the last cell cycle. Thus, FPG-staining is not a function of the number of BrdU-substituted DNA strands alone. These findings lead to the conclusion that the primary point of action of PFG staining leading to sister chromatid differentiation (SCD) are chromosomal proteins which have been altered in the replication of BrdU-substituted DNA and that the demonstration of the SCD and replication patterns with the same staining procedure is based on different mechanisms.

Speit G

1984-01-01

98

Evaluation of buffalo semen by Trypan blue/Giemsa staining and related fertility in vitro  

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Full Text Available The aim of this work was to verify the feasibility of an easy, quick double staining technique for evaluation of frozen-thawed semen to predict the fertilizing capability in vitro of buffalo bulls. In Experiment 1, frozen-thawed semen from 6 bulls was stained with double Trypan blue/ Giemsa and the incidence of acrosome-intact live (AIL), acrosome-intact dead (AID), acrosome-lost live (ALL) and acrosome-lost dead (ALD) sperm was recorded. In Experiment 2, sperm from the same bulls were used to fertilize in vitro matured oocytes. The data obtained confirm that there is a strong 揵ull effect in buffalo species, with differences in the percentage of AIL sperm at thawing, in cleavage and blastocyst rates among bulls. Interestingly, it was found that this staining technique can be used for a preliminary screening to select semen to use for IVF, as shown by the correlation existent between the percentages of acrosome-intact viable sperm cells at thawing and the blastocyst yields for 4/6 bulls.

L. Boccia; R. Di Palo; A. De Rosa; L. Attanasio; E. Mariotti; B. Gasparrini

2010-01-01

99

Automatic Smear Counter.  

Science.gov (United States)

An automatic system to detect alpha and beta radiation emitted from either ''smeared'' IBM cards or special IBM cards with a filter paper window, as used in air sampling systems, has been designed and fabricated. A modified card reader is used to input da...

E. R. Rogers L. E. White

1986-01-01

100

A sensitive method for accurate estimation of radiation induced apoptosis on peripheral blood mononuclear cells by acridine orange stain  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A rapid and sensitive method for quantification of Apoptotic cells is presented. The value of the method is demonstrated on peripheral blood mononuclear cells, which constitutively undergo programmed cell death and which show an increase in the rate of apoptosis after exposure to the irradiation with {sub 137} Cs {gamma} -ray. After staining with Acridine orange post irradiation, three distinct cell populations (live, apoptosis, and necrosis) shown by analysis of fluorescence profiles. This Acridine orange stain method is directly compared with the stain method of Wright-Giemsa on duplicated slides and Apoptosis to quantify cell events following exposure to dose of in vitro {gamma} -irradiation and post-irradiation incubation times. The apoptosis frequency of three healthy volunteers obtained with both stain methods was steep below 100cGy and flatter at high doses. A significantly higher number of radiation induced apoptotic cells were observed after stain with Acridine orange compared with Wright-Giemsa stain post irradiation. Our results demonstrated that the Acridine orange stain is superior methods with greater sensitivity and accuracy in comparison with the Wright-Giemsa stain tested. This method may be allows rapid measurement of a large number of cells for samples of radiation biological effect.

Park, S. Y.; Kim, H. S.; Choi, J. M.; Yang, K.H.; Kim, C.S.; Lee, E.H.; Chjoi, K.H.; Lim, Y.K.; Kim, C.S. [Radiation Health Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2002-07-01

 
 
 
 
101

Incidence of malaria--three years prospective study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Malaria continues to be one of the major health problems in India. The India has witnessed a spectacular achievement in 1960's (1964) but a comeback lateron. A continued rise of Plasmodium falciparum was observed in many areas. The study was undertaken to analyze the incidence of malaria and compare the rapid diagnostic test--Immunochromatographic technique (ICT-Malaria) with conventional Giemsa staining. A total of 14,092 peripheral blood smears were screened for malaria. Plasmodium falciparum (57.82%) was major species followed by Plasmodium vivax (42.18%). More cases were found in males (54.56%) and in younger age group (1-12 yrs) and (21-30 yrs). We found the ICT Malaria test sensitivity (99.03%) and specificity (99.9%) as compared to blood smear positivity. The ICT Malaria test found to be easy, less time consuming and with diagnostic accuracy as equivalent to gold standard that is conventional Giemsa staining.

Kinikar AG; Kulkarni SG; Roushani SB; Bhalerao DS

2011-12-01

102

Incidence of malaria--three years prospective study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaria continues to be one of the major health problems in India. The India has witnessed a spectacular achievement in 1960's (1964) but a comeback lateron. A continued rise of Plasmodium falciparum was observed in many areas. The study was undertaken to analyze the incidence of malaria and compare the rapid diagnostic test--Immunochromatographic technique (ICT-Malaria) with conventional Giemsa staining. A total of 14,092 peripheral blood smears were screened for malaria. Plasmodium falciparum (57.82%) was major species followed by Plasmodium vivax (42.18%). More cases were found in males (54.56%) and in younger age group (1-12 yrs) and (21-30 yrs). We found the ICT Malaria test sensitivity (99.03%) and specificity (99.9%) as compared to blood smear positivity. The ICT Malaria test found to be easy, less time consuming and with diagnostic accuracy as equivalent to gold standard that is conventional Giemsa staining. PMID:23781643

Kinikar, A G; Kulkarni, S G; Roushani, S B; Bhalerao, D S

2011-12-01

103

Automatic smear counter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An automatic system to detect alpha and beta radiation emitted from either ''smeared'' IBM cards or special IBM cards with a filter paper window, as used in air sampling systems, has been designed and fabricated. A modified card reader is used to input data from the punched IBM card into the controlling computer, as well as retain the card under the solid-state detector for the required counting period. The instrument was assembled by using the drawings provided and components listed on the drawings.

Rogers, E.R. Jr.; White, L.E.

1986-02-26

104

Smudge cells in peripheral blood smears did not differentiate chronic lymphocytic leukemia from other B-cell chronic lymphoprolipherative diseases/ Sombras nucleares no esfrega鏾 do sangue perif閞ico n鉶 diferenciam a leucemia linfoc韙ica cr鬾ica das outras doen鏰s linfoproliferativas B cr鬾icas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese As sombras nucleares t阭 sido classicamente associadas leucemia linfoc韙ica cr鬾ica (LLC), embora possam ser encontradas nos esfrega鏾s do sangue perif閞ico de outras doen鏰s linfoproliferativas B cr鬾icas (DLBC). Nesse estudo, n髎 investigamos se a porcentagem de sombras nucleares nos esfrega鏾s do sangue perif閞ico pode ser utilizada na pr醫ica cl韓ica da hematologia para diferenciar a LLC das outras DLBC. Foram analisados os esfrega鏾s do sangue perif閞 (more) ico de 63 pacientes com o diagn髎tico de LLC e 62 com outras DLPC. Trezentas c閘ulas, entre c閘ulas linfoides e sombras nucleares, foram contadas em cada esfrega鏾. A compara玢o da porcentagem de sombras nucleares entre os dois grupos foi realizada e, subsequentemente, foram fixados 5 cut-offs de mais de 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% e 50% de sombras nucleares com o prop髎ito de definir um caso como "positivo para sombras nucleares" e verificar se havia diferen鏰s entre a LLC e as outras DLBC. A porcentagem das sombras nucleares em pacientes com LLC (mediana 26%, 4%-86%) foi maior do que em pacientes com DLBC (mediana 14%, 1%-64%). Entretanto, nenhum dos cut-offs testados apresentou valores apropriados de sensibilidade, especificidade e valor preditivo positivo para distinguir os dois grupos. Desde que necess醨io se dispor de um 鷑ico valor de cut-off com alta sensibilidade, especificidade e valor preditivo positivo para inferir o diagn髎tico de CLL na pr醫ica cl韓ica, conclui-se que as sombras nucleares n鉶 s鉶 鷗eis para diferenciar a LLC das outras DLBC. Abstract in english Smudge cells has been classically associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), but they are found in peripheral blood tests for other chronic B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases (CLD). We investigated whether the percentage of smudge cells in peripheral blood smears can be used in the clinical practice to differentiate CLL from other B-cell CLD. The peripheral blood smears of 63 patients with the diagnosis of CLL and 62 with other B-cell CLD were analyzed. Three hu (more) ndred cells (both lymphoid cells and smudge cells) were counted for each peripheral blood smear. A comparison of the percentage of smudge cells between the two groups was performed and, subsequently, 5 cut-off values were fixed (10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of smudge cells) with the aim of defining cases as "positive" or "negative" for smudge cells and verifying whether there are any differences between CLL and the other B-cell CLD. The percentage of smudge cells in patients with CLL (median 26%, 4%-86%) was higher than in patients with B-cell CLD (median 14%, 1%-64%). However, none of the cut-off values tested presented suitable values of sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value to separate the two groups. As it is necessary to have a single cut-off value with high sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value to infer the diagnosis of CLL in the clinical practice, we concluded that smudge cells are not fitting to differentiate CLL from other B-cell CLD.

Matos, Daniel M.; Perini, Guilherme; Kruzich, Carlos; Rego, Eduardo M.; Falc鉶, Roberto P.

2009-01-01

105

Smudge cells in peripheral blood smears did not differentiate chronic lymphocytic leukemia from other B-cell chronic lymphoprolipherative diseases Sombras nucleares no esfrega鏾 do sangue perif閞ico n鉶 diferenciam a leucemia linfoc韙ica cr鬾ica das outras doen鏰s linfoproliferativas B cr鬾icas  

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Full Text Available Smudge cells has been classically associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), but they are found in peripheral blood tests for other chronic B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases (CLD). We investigated whether the percentage of smudge cells in peripheral blood smears can be used in the clinical practice to differentiate CLL from other B-cell CLD. The peripheral blood smears of 63 patients with the diagnosis of CLL and 62 with other B-cell CLD were analyzed. Three hundred cells (both lymphoid cells and smudge cells) were counted for each peripheral blood smear. A comparison of the percentage of smudge cells between the two groups was performed and, subsequently, 5 cut-off values were fixed (10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of smudge cells) with the aim of defining cases as "positive" or "negative" for smudge cells and verifying whether there are any differences between CLL and the other B-cell CLD. The percentage of smudge cells in patients with CLL (median 26%, 4%-86%) was higher than in patients with B-cell CLD (median 14%, 1%-64%). However, none of the cut-off values tested presented suitable values of sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value to separate the two groups. As it is necessary to have a single cut-off value with high sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value to infer the diagnosis of CLL in the clinical practice, we concluded that smudge cells are not fitting to differentiate CLL from other B-cell CLD.As sombras nucleares t阭 sido classicamente associadas leucemia linfoc韙ica cr鬾ica (LLC), embora possam ser encontradas nos esfrega鏾s do sangue perif閞ico de outras doen鏰s linfoproliferativas B cr鬾icas (DLBC). Nesse estudo, n髎 investigamos se a porcentagem de sombras nucleares nos esfrega鏾s do sangue perif閞ico pode ser utilizada na pr醫ica cl韓ica da hematologia para diferenciar a LLC das outras DLBC. Foram analisados os esfrega鏾s do sangue perif閞ico de 63 pacientes com o diagn髎tico de LLC e 62 com outras DLPC. Trezentas c閘ulas, entre c閘ulas linfoides e sombras nucleares, foram contadas em cada esfrega鏾. A compara玢o da porcentagem de sombras nucleares entre os dois grupos foi realizada e, subsequentemente, foram fixados 5 cut-offs de mais de 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% e 50% de sombras nucleares com o prop髎ito de definir um caso como "positivo para sombras nucleares" e verificar se havia diferen鏰s entre a LLC e as outras DLBC. A porcentagem das sombras nucleares em pacientes com LLC (mediana 26%, 4%-86%) foi maior do que em pacientes com DLBC (mediana 14%, 1%-64%). Entretanto, nenhum dos cut-offs testados apresentou valores apropriados de sensibilidade, especificidade e valor preditivo positivo para distinguir os dois grupos. Desde que necess醨io se dispor de um 鷑ico valor de cut-off com alta sensibilidade, especificidade e valor preditivo positivo para inferir o diagn髎tico de CLL na pr醫ica cl韓ica, conclui-se que as sombras nucleares n鉶 s鉶 鷗eis para diferenciar a LLC das outras DLBC.

Daniel M. Matos; Guilherme Perini; Carlos Kruzich; Eduardo M. Rego; Roberto P. Falc鉶

2009-01-01

106

A case report of relapsing fever  

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Full Text Available Relapsing fever is an acute febrile illness caused by spirochetes of the genus Borrelia. The high fevers of presenting patients spontaneously abate and then recur. Here we report a 50-year-old woman having relapsing fever associated with thrombocytopenia. Giemsa staining of peripheral blood smear revealed spiral organisms morphologically resembling Borrelia. A rare case of relapsing fever which was successfully treated with doxycycline is discussed.

Aher Atul; Shah Harshada; Rastogi Vichal; Tukaram Prabhu; Choudhury Reshmi

2008-01-01

107

Time Smear and Frequency Smear Studies of the BIFI Range.  

Science.gov (United States)

The BIFI range is a shallow water acoustic range in Long Island Sound, about 19 miles long and 120 feet deep. Results of time smear and frequency smear studies made on this range are presented. It is shown how these results may be used to predict signal f...

B. Sussman W. G. Kanabis

1970-01-01

108

Flow cytometric readout based on Mitotracker Red CMXRos staining of live asexual blood stage malarial parasites reliably assesses antibody dependent cellular inhibition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Functional in vitro assays could provide insights into the efficacy of malaria vaccine candidates. For estimating the anti-parasite effect induced by a vaccine candidate, an accurate determination of live parasite count is an essential component of most in vitro bioassays. Although traditionally parasites are counted microscopically, a faster, more accurate and less subjective method for counting parasites is desirable. In this study mitochondrial dye (Mitotracker Red CMXRos) was used for obtaining reliable live parasite counts through flow cytometry. METHODS: Both asynchronous and tightly synchronized asexual blood stage cultures of Plasmodium falciparum were stained with CMXRos and subjected to detection by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. The parasite counts obtained by flow cytometry were compared to standard microscopic counts obtained through examination of Giemsa-stained thin smears. A comparison of the ability of CMXRos to stain live and compromised parasites (induced by either medium starvation or by anti-malarial drug treatment) was carried out. Finally, parasite counts obtained by CMXRos staining through flow cytometry were used to determine specific growth inhibition index (SGI) in an antibody-dependent cellular inhibition (ADCI) assay. RESULTS: Mitotracker Red CMXRos can reliably detect live intra-erythrocytic stages of P. falciparum. Comparison between staining of live with compromised parasites shows that CMXRos predominantly stains live parasites with functional mitochondria. Parasite counts obtained by CMXRos staining and flow cytometry were highly reproducible and can reliably determine the ability of IgG from hyper-immune individuals to inhibit parasite growth in presence of monocytes in ADCI assay. Further, a dose-dependent parasite growth inhibitory effect could be detected for both total IgG purified from hyper-immune sera and affinity purified IgGs against the N-terminal non-repeat region of GLURP in ADCI assays coupled with determination of parasite counts through CMXRos staining and flow cytometry. CONCLUSIONS: A flow cytometry method based on CMXRos staining for detection of live parasite populations has been optimized. This is a rapid and sensitive method with high inter-assay reproducibility which can reliably determine the anti-parasite effect mediated by antibodies in functional in vitro assays such as ADCI assay.

Jogdand PS; Singh SK; Christiansen M; Dziegiel MH; Singh S; Theisen M

2012-01-01

109

Flow cytometric readout based on Mitotracker Red CMXRos staining of live asexual blood stage malarial parasites reliably assesses antibody dependent cellular inhibition  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional in vitro assays could provide insights into the efficacy of malaria vaccine candidates. For estimating the anti-parasite effect induced by a vaccine candidate, an accurate determination of live parasite count is an essential component of most in vitro bioassays. Although traditionally parasites are counted microscopically, a faster, more accurate and less subjective method for counting parasites is desirable. In this study mitochondrial dye (Mitotracker Red CMXRos) was used for obtaining reliable live parasite counts through flow cytometry. Methods Both asynchronous and tightly synchronized asexual blood stage cultures of Plasmodium falciparum were stained with CMXRos and subjected to detection by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. The parasite counts obtained by flow cytometry were compared to standard microscopic counts obtained through examination of Giemsa-stained thin smears. A comparison of the ability of CMXRos to stain live and compromised parasites (induced by either medium starvation or by anti-malarial drug treatment) was carried out. Finally, parasite counts obtained by CMXRos staining through flow cytometry were used to determine specific growth inhibition index (SGI) in an antibody-dependent cellular inhibition (ADCI) assay. Results Mitotracker Red CMXRos can reliably detect live intra-erythrocytic stages of P. falciparum. Comparison between staining of live with compromised parasites shows that CMXRos predominantly stains live parasites with functional mitochondria. Parasite counts obtained by CMXRos staining and flow cytometry were highly reproducible and can reliably determine the ability of IgG from hyper-immune individuals to inhibit parasite growth in presence of monocytes in ADCI assay. Further, a dose-dependent parasite growth inhibitory effect could be detected for both total IgG purified from hyper-immune sera and affinity purified IgGs against the N-terminal non-repeat region of GLURP in ADCI assays coupled with determination of parasite counts through CMXRos staining and flow cytometry. Conclusions A flow cytometry method based on CMXRos staining for detection of live parasite populations has been optimized. This is a rapid and sensitive method with high inter-assay reproducibility which can reliably determine the anti-parasite effect mediated by antibodies in functional in vitro assays such as ADCI assay.

Jogdand Prajakta S; Singh Susheel K; Christiansen Michael; Dziegiel Morten H; Singh Subhash; Theisen Michael

2012-01-01

110

Flow cytometric readout based on Mitotracker Red CMXRos staining of live asexual blood stage malarial parasites reliably assesses antibody dependent cellular inhibition  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Functional in vitro assays could provide insights into the efficacy of malaria vaccine candidates. For estimating the anti-parasite effect induced by a vaccine candidate, an accurate determination of live parasite count is an essential component of most in vitro bioassays. Although traditionally parasites are counted microscopically, a faster, more accurate and less subjective method for counting parasites is desirable. In this study mitochondrial dye (Mitotracker Red CMXRos) was used for obtaining reliable live parasite counts through flow cytometry. METHODS: Both asynchronous and tightly synchronized asexual blood stage cultures of Plasmodium falciparum were stained with CMXRos and subjected to detection by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. The parasite counts obtained by flow cytometry were compared to standard microscopic counts obtained through examination of Giemsa-stained thin smears. A comparison of the ability of CMXRos to stain live and compromised parasites (induced by either medium starvation or by anti-malarial drug treatment) was carried out. Finally, parasite counts obtained by CMXRos staining through flow cytometry were used to determine specific growth inhibition index (SGI) in an antibody-dependent cellular inhibition (ADCI) assay. RESULTS: Mitotracker Red CMXRos can reliably detect live intra-erythrocytic stages of P. falciparum. Comparison between staining of live with compromised parasites shows that CMXRos predominantly stains live parasites with functional mitochondria. Parasite counts obtained by CMXRos staining and flow cytometry were highly reproducible and can reliably determine the ability of IgG from hyper-immune individuals to inhibit parasite growth in presence of monocytes in ADCI assay. Further, a dose-dependent parasite growth inhibitory effect could be detected for both total IgG purified from hyper-immune sera and affinity purified IgGs against the N-terminal non-repeat region of GLURP in ADCI assays coupled with determination of parasite counts through CMXRos staining and flow cytometry. CONCLUSIONS: A flow cytometry method based on CMXRos staining for detection of live parasite populations has been optimized. This is a rapid and sensitive method with high inter-assay reproducibility which can reliably determine the anti-parasite effect mediated by antibodies in functional in vitro assays such as ADCI assay.

Jogdand, Prajakta S; Singh, Susheel K

2012-01-01

111

Uso de paneles de l醡inas estandarizadas para la evaluaci髇 de competencias en el diagn髎tico microsc髉ico de malaria en la Amazon韆 Peruana Use of standardized blood smear slide sets for competency assessment in the malaria microscopic diagnosis in the Peruvian Amazon  

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Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar la competencia de los microscopistas en el diagn髎tico de la malaria mediante paneles de l醡inas estandarizados en la Amazon韆 peruana. Materiales y m閠odos. Estudio transversal, realizado entre los meses de julio y septiembre de 2007, en 122 establecimientos de salud de primer nivel de atenci髇 de la Amazon韆 peruana. En el marco del Proyecto PAMAFRO, se evalu las competencias en el diagn髎tico de malaria en 68 microscopistas sin experiencia (un a駉), utilizando paneles estandarizados de 20 l醡inas siguiendo las recomendaciones de la Organizaci髇 Mundial de la Salud (OMS). Se defini concordancia como el porcentaje de aciertos que tuvo el microscopista en los diagn髎ticos (identificaci髇 de especie del par醩ito). Un microscopista con concordancia ?90% (?18 l醡inas acertadas) fue definido como "experto", 80 a Objectives. To assess the competency of microscopists for malaria diagnosis using standardized slide sets in the Peruvian Amazon. Material and methods. Cross-sectional study carried out in 122 first level health facilities of the Peruvian Amazon, between July and September 2007. Within the frame of the project "Control Malaria in the border areas of the Andean Region: A community approach" (PAMAFRO), we evaluated the malaria diagnosis performance in 68 microscopists without expertise ( 1 year) using standardized sets of 20 blood smear slides according to the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. A correct diagnosis (correct species identification) was defined as "agreement", a microscopist was qualified as an "expert" if they have an agreement ?90% (? 18 slides with correct diagnosis), as a "referent" with an agreement between 80% and <90%, "competent" if they are between 70 and <80% and "in training" if they have <70%. Results. Microscopists with expertise (68.6%) had more agreement than those without expertise (48.2%). The competency assessment was acceptable (competent, referent, or experts levels) in 11.8% of the microscopists without expertise and in 52.6% from those with expertise. The agreement was lower using blood smear slides with P. falciparum with low parasitaemia, with P. malariae and with mixed infections. Conclusions. Is the first assessment, we found only one of three microscopists from the Peruvian Amazon is competent fro malaria diagnosis according to the WHO standards. From this baseline data, we have to continue working in order to improve the competency assessment of the microscopists within the frame of a quality assurance system

羘gel Rosas-Aguirre; Dionicia Gamboa; Hugo Rodriguez; Fernando Llanos-Zavalaga; Kristhian Aguirre; Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas

2010-01-01

112

Production and validation of durable, high quality standardized malaria microscopy slides for teaching, testing and quality assurance during an era of declining diagnostic proficiency  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Sets of Giemsa-stained, blood smear slides with systematically verified composite diagnoses would contribute substantially to development of externally validated quality assurance systems for the microscopic diagnosis of malaria. Methods whole blood from Plasmodium-positive donors in Cambodia and Indonesia and individuals with no history of risk for malaria was collected. Using standard operating procedures, technicians prepared Giemsa-stained thick and thin smears from each donor. One slide from each of the first 35 donations was distributed to each of 28 individuals acknowledged by reputation as having expertise in the microscopic diagnosis of malaria. These reference readers recorded presence or absence of Plasmodium species and parasite density. A composite diagnosis for each donation was determined based on microscopic findings and species-specific small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssrRNA) DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. Results More than 12, 000 slides were generated from 124 donations. Reference readers correctly identified presence of parasites on 85% of slides with densities 350 parasites/?l. Percentages of agreement with composite diagnoses were highest for Plasmodium falciparum (99%), followed by Plasmodium vivax (86%). Conclusion Herein, a standardized method for producing large numbers of consistently high quality, durable Giemsa-stained blood smears and validating composite diagnoses for the purpose of creating a malaria slide repository in support of initiatives to improve training and competency assessment amidst a background of variability in diagnosis is described.

Maguire Jason D; Lederman Edith R; Barcus Mazie J; O'Meara Wendy; Jordon Robert G; Duong Socheat; Muth Sinuon; Sismadi Priyanto; Bangs Michael J; Prescott W Roy; Baird J Kevin; Wongsrichanalai Chansuda

2006-01-01

113

Frequency of tumor diathesis in the smears of cervical carcinoma in a University Hospital  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Tumor diathesis (TD) refers to the granular proteinaceous precipitates on the slide surface of cytologic (Pap) smears. Found in the background of smears from some, but not all, invasive carcinoma cases, TD is present in the majority of smears from large cell nonkeratinizing carcinoma. It is more pronounced than keratinizing SCC also is almost always present in small cell carcinoma. Smears from patients with adenocarcinoma are frequently associated with dense inflammatory and fresh blood exudates and less often there is a recognizable tumor diathesis. Methods: To determine the prevalence of TD in cervicovaginal smears from patients with uterine cervix carcinoma, cytologic smears and histologic slides of 46 patients with histologically-confirmed uterine cervix carcinoma were reviewed for the presence or absence of TD, red blood cells and neutrophils on cytologic smears, as well as depth of invasion, histologic types and grade of differentiation of tumor on histologic slides.Results: TD was identified in 28 smears (60.9%), 18 patients with squamous cell carcinoma (62.1%), seven patients with adenocarcinoma (58.3%), two patients with adenosquamous carcinoma (66.7%) and one patient with endometrial carcinoma that involved the uterine cervix. TD was seen in smears from four (33.3%) patients with uterine cervix carcinoma with invasion <5 mm and 17 (65.4%) carcinomas with invasion >5mm. However, some of the patients with invasive carcinoma lacked TD on the cytologic smears. Red blood cells were identified on 16 (34.8%) smears.Conclusions: Although TD is the hallmark of invasive carcinoma of the cervix on cytological smears, there have been few studies performed on it. We found that tumors with greater depth of invasion and reduced differentiation are associated with TD cytologic smears. TD was absent in some cases, particularly in micro-invasive carcinoma. This study reinforced what has been recognized from other studies.

Izadi Mood N.; Hakimi J.

2008-01-01

114

Continuous smearing of Wilson Loops  

CERN Document Server

Continuum smearing was introduced in section 4.1 of JHEP03, 064 (2006) as a meaningful continuum analogue of the well known set of lattice techniques by the same name. Here we apply continuous smearing in continuous space-time to Wilson loops in order to clarify what it does in the context of field theory and also in the context of the loop calculus of the Makeenko-Migdal equation.

Lohmayer, Robert

2011-01-01

115

Over-Improved Stout-Link Smearing  

CERN Multimedia

A new over-improved stout-link smearing algorithm, designed to stabilise instanton-like objects, is presented. A method for quantifying the selection of the over-improvement parameter, $\\epsilon$, is demonstrated. The new smearing algorithm is compared with the original stout-link smearing, and Symanzik improved smearing through calculations of the topological charge and visualisations of the topological charge density.

Moran, Peter J

2008-01-01

116

Ocorr阯cia de apoptose em leuc骳itos no esfrega鏾 de sangue perif閞ico e em sinc韈ios na infec玢o in vivo pelo v韗us da cinomose canina Occurrence of apoptosis in leukocytes in the peripheral blood smear and in syncytia in canine distemper infection in vivo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to report the occurrence of apoptosis in peripheral blood leukocytes and in syncytia induced by experimental infection of dogs with canine distemper virus. Blood was collected from nine puppies that were inoculated with the Snyder Hill strain of CDV, and stained with May Grunwaldt-Giemsa. Dogs were necropsied and retropharyngeal lymph nodes were collected and processed for paraffin embedding. Five micrometers thick sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and methyl green pyronin. Other sections were submitted to TUNEL reaction for in situ detection of apoptosis, and immunohistochemistry to detect CDV antigen. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of viral antigen. Syncytia were present in all retropharyngeal lymph nodes. Several syncytia contained apoptotic nuclei as detected by hematoxylin-eosin and methyl green pyronin stains. Apoptotic nuclei were labeled inside syncytia by the TUNEL reaction. Blood smear analyses indicated higher proportion of apoptotic leukocytes in the peripheral blood of infected dogs.

L. Moro; C.M. Alves; F.G.A. Santos; J.E.S. Nunes; R.A. Carneiro; A.C. Vasconcelos

2003-01-01

117

Analytical computation of the smear  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en]燱e explain an analytic computation of the map and the ''smear'' for a lattice composed of cells with random sextupole and octupole errors, as well as systematic chromatic sextupoles. Results are presented for the 60 degree and 90 degree lattices

1986-01-01

118

Smearing Formulas for Density Matrices  

CERN Document Server

We report on the development of a systematic variational perturbation theory for the euclidean path integral representation of the density matrix based on new smearing formulas for harmonic correlation functions. As a first application, we present the lowest-order approximation for the radial distribution function of an electron in a hydrogen atom.

Bachmann, Michael; Pelster, Axel

2011-01-01

119

Analytical computation of the smear  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We explain an analytic computation of the map and the smear'' for a lattice composed of cells with random sextupole and octupole errors, as well as systematic chromatic sextupoles. Results are presented for the 60{degree} and 90{degree} lattices.

Forest, E.

1986-10-01

120

Pap Smear: Still Necessary after Hysterectomy?  

Science.gov (United States)

Pap smear Basics In-Depth Multimedia Expert Answers Resources Reprints A single copy of this article may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Pap smear: Still needed after hysterectomy? By Mayo Clinic staff ...

 
 
 
 
121

Logarithmic link smearing for full QCD  

CERN Multimedia

A new Lie-algebra based recipe for analytic link smearing in lattice QCD is presented. It is more efficient in suppressing UV-noise than the standard ``stout'' smearing, roughly comparable to traditional APE smearing. It may be used together with the hypercubic nesting trick, and the advantage is that this LOG/HYL smearing yields differentiable ``fat'' links, which makes it attractive for a HMC approach to full QCD.

Durr, Stephan

2007-01-01

122

Factors associated with Pap smear taking in general practice: focusing public health initiatives.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study ascertained the relationships of patient, practitioner and consultation factors with: 1. taking a Pap smear or referral to a specialist in the consultation; and 2. an unsuccessful offer to take a Pap smear or making an appointment for a smear. In a cross-sectional study of 3478 women presenting to 230 randomly selected general practitioners in Brisbane and Toowoomba, information about most recent Pap smear, screening in the consultation, and independent variables were collected from patients and doctors. Relationships between three levels of outcome variable (no action, Pap smear taken or referral, appointment or refusal), and independent variables (practitioner variables, consultation variables, patient variables) were modelled using polytomous logistic regression. Presenting for a routine checkup and breast cancer screening were associated with all types of action. Younger age, longer consultations and consultations with a female practitioner were associated with Pap smear taking and referrals, and not appointments or refusals. Being due for a Pap smear, having blood pressure measured, consulting a younger general practitioner and one who ascribed to current guidelines on screening were associated with an appointment or a refusal, when compared with no action. Results identify different profiles of those who get a Pap smear and those who do not, the former indicating a more proactive patient group, while the latter suggest more active general practitioners who attempted opportunistic screening of passive patients, or women who do not specifically seek Pap smears. We have identified factors that have significance for developing public health programs focused on consumers and providers.

Heywood A; Firman D; Ring I

1996-06-01

123

The evolution of the Papanicolaou smear.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Papanicolaou smear or cervicovaginal cytology has been the mainstay of screening for cervical cancer in women of over 60 years. In this article, the origins of the Pap smear as a screening method and the many changes associated with the use of the Pap smear are detailed.

Tambouret RH

2013-03-01

124

An automatic device for detection and classification of malaria parasite species in thick blood film  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Current malaria diagnosis relies primarily on microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films. This method requires vigorously trained technicians to efficiently detect and classify the malaria parasite species such as Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) and Plasmodium vivax (Pv) for an appropriate drug administration. However, accurate classification of parasite species is difficult to achieve because of inherent technical limitations and human inconsistency. To improve performance of malaria parasite classification, many researchers have proposed automated malaria detection devices using digital image analysis. These image processing tools, however, focus on detection of parasites on thin blood films, which may not detect the existence of parasites due to the parasite scarcity on the thin blood film. The problem is aggravated with low parasitemia condition. Automated detection and classification of parasites on thick blood films, which contain more numbers of parasite per detection area, would address the previous limitation. Results The prototype of an automatic malaria parasite identification system is equipped with mountable motorized units for controlling the movements of objective lens and microscope stage. This unit was tested for its precision to move objective lens (vertical movement, z-axis) and microscope stage (in x- and y-horizontal movements). The average precision of x-, y- and z-axes movements were 71.481 7.266 ?m, 40.009 0.000 ?m, and 7.540 0.889 nm, respectively. Classification of parasites on 60 Giemsa-stained thick blood films (40 blood films containing infected red blood cells and 20 control blood films of normal red blood cells) was tested using the image analysis module. By comparing our results with the ones verified by trained malaria microscopists, the prototype detected parasite-positive and parasite-negative blood films at the rate of 95% and 68.5% accuracy, respectively. For classification performance, the thick blood films with Pv parasite was correctly classified with the success rate of 75% while the accuracy of Pf classification was 90%. Conclusions This work presents an automatic device for both detection and classification of malaria parasite species on thick blood film. The system is based on digital image analysis and featured with motorized stage units, designed to easily be mounted on most conventional light microscopes used in the endemic areas. The constructed motorized module could control the movements of objective lens and microscope stage at high precision for effective acquisition of quality images for analysis. The analysis program could accurately classify parasite species, into Pf or Pv, based on distribution of chromatin size.

Kaewkamnerd Saowaluck; Uthaipibull Chairat; Intarapanich Apichart; Pannarut Montri; Chaotheing Sastra; Tongsima Sissades

2012-01-01

125

Smeared BTZ Black Hole from Space Noncommutativity  

CERN Document Server

We study a smearing of black hole horizons from the effect of space noncommutativity. We present an explicit example in AdS_3 space which produces a smeared BTZ black hole. The horizons are smeared, due to a splitting of the Killing horizon and the apparent horizon, and there is a metric signature change to Euclidean in the smeared region. The inner boundary of the smeared region acts as a trapped surface for timelike particles but the outer as a classical barrier for ingoing particles. The lightlike signals can escape from or reach the smeared region in a "finite" time, which indicates that "the black hole is not so dark, even classically." In addition, it is remarked that the Hawking temperature can "not" be defined by the regularity in the Euclidean geometry except in the non-rotating case, and the origin can be smeared by a "new" (apparent) horizon.

Kim, Hyeong-Chan; Rim, Chaiho; Yee, Jae Hyung

2008-01-01

126

Pseudoelephantiasis of the penis following donovanosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pseudoelephantiasis of the penis, an unusual sequel of longstanding donovanosis with otherwise characteristics clinical expression, is reported in a young man. The diagnosis was confirmed by the demonstration of Donovan bodies in Giemsa stained tissue smears and tissue sections.

Sehgal VN; Sharma HK

1990-02-01

127

Shale Smear Quantification Using Well Logs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en]燜aults exert significant control on the migration, entrapment and subsequent compartmentalization of hydrocarbon in the Niger Delta. Some faults allow the passage of fluids across them, while other do not. Shale smear is a principal reason for the sealing effect of most of the faults in synsedimentary fault environment like the Niger Delta. Several different methods have been used to characterize shale smearing in previous studies. Wireline log data from several wells were used to quantify the shale smear properties of a particular fault in Okan Field, offshore Nigeria. Stratigraphic and structural correlation tools and concepts were used to identify and measure smeared shale thickness and fault offset values in wells penetrating fault zones. From the observations, shale smear thickness in the Niger Delta appears to show a decrease with increasing fault throw when a single shale source is involved. However, for smearing developed from multiple source units, smeared shale thicknesses appear not to show any regular trend with increase in fault throw.This study has demonstrated our ability to measure thicknesses of shale smear from common wireline data and proposed a procedure on how to interpret these data for the specific process and quantity of smearing with respect to original stratigraphy

2002-01-01

128

Comparaci髇 de la observaci髇 de leucocitos en el sedimento urinario con el recuento en c醡ara de Neubauer Comparison between the observation of white blood cells from centrifuged urine smear and the Neubauer chamber  

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Full Text Available Se compar la metodolog韆 rutinaria de observaci髇 del sedimento urinario entre porta y cubreobjetos con el recuento en c醡ara de Neubauer, tomado como m閠odo de referencia y se verific su capacidad de predicci髇 de bacteriuria significativa. En un per韔do de dos meses se realizaron 2.287 urocultivos. S髄o 1.153 resultaron evaluables seg鷑 los criterios de exclusi髇 y en 982 se pudo correlacionar ambos m閠odos microsc髉icos con el resultado de los cultivos. La correlaci髇 entre los recuentos en c醡ara y las observaciones del sedimento urinario fue del 96,4%. Las sensibilidades respectivas de la observaci髇 del sedimento y del recuento en c醡ara respecto del urocultivo fueron de 53,5% y 55,5%. Las especificidades respectivas fueron del 90,7% y 91,4%. A partir de los resultados obtenidos se infiere que la observaci髇 de leucocituria significativa es predictiva de la bacteriuria significativa. Por el contrario, su ausencia no puede ser un motivo para descartarla. La observaci髇 del sedimento entre porta y cubreobjetos result pr醕ticamente equivalente al m閠odo m醩 tedioso de recuento en c醡ara de Neubauer.The current method of centrifuged urine smear was compared to the Neubauer chamber method, using this technique as the gold standard. Their predictive ability for detecting significant bacteriuria was determined. During two months, 2.287 urine cultures were studied. Only 1.153 were evaluable. In 982 samples a comparison between the two microscopic methods could be established. The correlation between them was 96,4%. The sensitivity of the centrifuged urine smear and the Neubauer chamber method was 53.5% and 55.5% respectively. Specificities were 90.7% and 91.4%. Those results pointed out that seeing a significant number of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) both in the centrifuged urine smear and in the Neubauer chamber was predictive of significant bacteriuria. On the other hand, absence of PMNs is not an argument for not considering this possibility. Centrifuged urine was equivalent to the Neubauer chamber method in this comparative study.

Horacio Angel Lopardo; Jose Luis Pinheiro

2008-01-01

129

Ocorr阯cia de apoptose em leuc骳itos no esfrega鏾 de sangue perif閞ico e em sinc韈ios na infec玢o in vivo pelo v韗us da cinomose canina/ Occurrence of apoptosis in leukocytes in the peripheral blood smear and in syncytia in canine distemper infection in vivo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The aim of this paper is to report the occurrence of apoptosis in peripheral blood leukocytes and in syncytia induced by experimental infection of dogs with canine distemper virus. Blood was collected from nine puppies that were inoculated with the Snyder Hill strain of CDV, and stained with May Grunwaldt-Giemsa. Dogs were necropsied and retropharyngeal lymph nodes were collected and processed for paraffin embedding. Five micrometers thick sections were stained with hemat (more) oxylin-eosin and methyl green pyronin. Other sections were submitted to TUNEL reaction for in situ detection of apoptosis, and immunohistochemistry to detect CDV antigen. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of viral antigen. Syncytia were present in all retropharyngeal lymph nodes. Several syncytia contained apoptotic nuclei as detected by hematoxylin-eosin and methyl green pyronin stains. Apoptotic nuclei were labeled inside syncytia by the TUNEL reaction. Blood smear analyses indicated higher proportion of apoptotic leukocytes in the peripheral blood of infected dogs.

Moro, L.; Alves, C.M.; Santos, F.G.A.; Nunes, J.E.S.; Carneiro, R.A.; Vasconcelos, A.C.

2003-02-01

130

Effects of lithium heparin and tripotassium EDTA on hematologic values of Hermann's tortoises (Testudo hermanni).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In an effort to define the effect(s) of lithium heparin and tripotassium EDTA on various hematologic parameters in Testudo hermanni, we collected blood samples from 29 clinically healthy adult individuals of both sexes. Portions of each blood sample were transferred to tubes containing either lithium heparin or tripotassium EDTA. The following determinations were made on samples of blood from each anticoagulant: red and white cell counts, packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, red cell indices, and differential white cell counts. Due to hemolysis, hematocrits could not be determined from blood samples in EDTA. Further, red blood cell counts were lower in the EDTA samples than in the heparin samples, again due to hemolysis associated with EDTA. However, EDTA did not appear to interfere with hemoglobin determinations. Heparin blood samples provided more optimal blood smears than did EDTA samples, thus differential leucocyte counts were determined only from smears taken from heparin blood samples. Further, thrombocyte and leucocyte aggregation was not observed with heparin use. Thus, heparin is considered the anticoagulant of choice in chelonians for determining red blood cell counts, erythrocyte indices, and hematocrits. When May-Grunwald-Giemsa stain was compared with Diff-Quick, thrombocytes could be more easily differentiated from lymphocytes using the May-Brunwald-Giemsa stain. Heterophil granules seemed to coalese more when Diff-Quick was used. Eosinophils, basophils, and monocytes were similar in appearance with both staining methods.

Muro J; Cuenca R; Pastor J; Vinas L; Lavin S

1998-03-01

131

AFB (Acid-Fast Bacillus) Smear and Culture  

Science.gov (United States)

... this website will be limited. Search Help? AFB Smear and Culture Share this page: Was this page ... Also known as: TB culture and sensitivity; Mycobacterial smear and culture Formal name: Acid-fast bacillus smear ...

132

Blood and intestinal parasites of squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae) in Amazonian Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english We report the result of an examination for blood and intestinal protozoa in 12 specimens of the red squirrel Sciurus spadiceus (Rodentia: Sciuridae) from Birroque, municipality of Pl醕ido de Castro, state of Acre, Brazil. No parasites were detected in thin, Giemsa-stained blood films of the animals, but culture of the blood of three in Difco B45 medium blood-agar slants gave rise to isolates of epimastigotes. Inoculation of one isolate into laboratory mice resulted in th (more) e appearance of Trypanosoma cruzi-like trypomastigotes in their peripheral blood, and the other two isolates gave rise to transient infections with a T. lewisi-like parasite in inoculated mice and hamsters. The failure of the latter parasite to develop in the triatomine bug Rhodnius robustus suggests that it is probably not T. rangeli. This appears to be the first record of a T. lewisi-like trypanosome in neotropical squirrels. Oocysts of an Eimeria sp., were detected in the faeces of 10 animals (83.3%). The parasite develops in the epithelial cells of the intestine, where it may cause severe damage and sometimes results in death of the animal. No oocysts were detected in bile.

Lainson, Ralph; Br韌ido, Maria do Carmo de Oliveira; Silveira, Fernando Tobias

2004-10-01

133

Blood and intestinal parasites of squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae) in Amazonian Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report the result of an examination for blood and intestinal protozoa in 12 specimens of the red squirrel Sciurus spadiceus (Rodentia: Sciuridae) from Birroque, municipality of Pl醕ido de Castro, state of Acre, Brazil. No parasites were detected in thin, Giemsa-stained blood films of the animals, but culture of the blood of three in Difco B45 medium blood-agar slants gave rise to isolates of epimastigotes. Inoculation of one isolate into laboratory mice resulted in the appearance of Trypanosoma cruzi-like trypomastigotes in their peripheral blood, and the other two isolates gave rise to transient infections with a T. lewisi-like parasite in inoculated mice and hamsters. The failure of the latter parasite to develop in the triatomine bug Rhodnius robustus suggests that it is probably not T. rangeli. This appears to be the first record of a T. lewisi-like trypanosome in neotropical squirrels. Oocysts of an Eimeria sp., were detected in the faeces of 10 animals (83.3%). The parasite develops in the epithelial cells of the intestine, where it may cause severe damage and sometimes results in death of the animal. No oocysts were detected in bile.

Ralph Lainson; Maria do Carmo de Oliveira Br韌ido; Fernando Tobias Silveira

2004-01-01

134

Blood and intestinal parasites of squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae) in Amazonian Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report the result of an examination for blood and intestinal protozoa in 12 specimens of the red squirrel Sciurus spadiceus (Rodentia: Sciuridae) from Birroque, municipality of Placido de Castro, state of Acre, Brazil. No parasites were detected in thin, Giemsa-stained blood films of the animals, but culture of the blood of three in Difco B45 medium blood-agar slants gave rise to isolates of epimastigotes. Inoculation of one isolate into laboratory mice resulted in the appearance of Trypanosoma cruzi-like trypomastigotes in their peripheral blood, and the other two isolates gave rise to transient infections with a T. lewisi-like parasite in inoculated mice and hamsters. The failure of the latter parasite to develop in the triatomine bug Rhodnius robustus suggests that it is probably not T. rangeli. This appears to be the first record of a T. lewisi-like trypanosome in neotropical squirrels. Oocysts of an Eimeria sp., were detected in the faeces of 10 animals (83.3%). The parasite develops in the epithelial cells of the intestine, where it may cause severe damage and sometimes results in death of the animal. No oocysts were detected in bile.

Lainson R; Br韌ido Mdo C; Silveira FT

2004-10-01

135

Blood and intestinal parasites of squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae) in Amazonian Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the result of an examination for blood and intestinal protozoa in 12 specimens of the red squirrel Sciurus spadiceus (Rodentia: Sciuridae) from Birroque, municipality of Placido de Castro, state of Acre, Brazil. No parasites were detected in thin, Giemsa-stained blood films of the animals, but culture of the blood of three in Difco B45 medium blood-agar slants gave rise to isolates of epimastigotes. Inoculation of one isolate into laboratory mice resulted in the appearance of Trypanosoma cruzi-like trypomastigotes in their peripheral blood, and the other two isolates gave rise to transient infections with a T. lewisi-like parasite in inoculated mice and hamsters. The failure of the latter parasite to develop in the triatomine bug Rhodnius robustus suggests that it is probably not T. rangeli. This appears to be the first record of a T. lewisi-like trypanosome in neotropical squirrels. Oocysts of an Eimeria sp., were detected in the faeces of 10 animals (83.3%). The parasite develops in the epithelial cells of the intestine, where it may cause severe damage and sometimes results in death of the animal. No oocysts were detected in bile. PMID:15558167

Lainson, Ralph; Br韌ido, Maria do Carmo de Oliveira; Silveira, Fernando Tobias

2004-11-18

136

Investigation of malaria in blood donors and comparison of the optimal rapid malaria test to the classical method.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaria is still a problem in the southeastern region of Turkey despite all the effort to eradicate the disease. The spread of malaria is by the transfer of agents by mosquitoes, transfusions of blood and blood products, organ transplantations from infected individuals and the use of contaminated injectors. The numerical load of parasites in infected donors may be very low, therefore no clinical symptoms may be observed and Plasmodium species may live in the body of donors for years. As the agents may live long in the body of donors, the blood from donors must be examined thoroughly for agents. The aim of this study was to determine whether malaria which is endemic in our region is transmitted by transfusion products. The blood from 1850 donors, who presented at the Dicle University Faculty of Medicine Blood Bank (Diyarbakir) in 2006, was examined by the optimal rapid malaria test and by Giemsa stained preparations. No pathogens were detected by any of these methods. In conclusion, the screening tests for malaria may be useful but not sufficiently sensi-tive for blood banks. In endemic regions; a more specific questionnaire and physical examination can be used to exclude blood donors who are at the risk of malaria. PMID:18645936

Temiz, Hakan; G黮, Kadri

2008-01-01

137

Investigation of malaria in blood donors and comparison of the optimal rapid malaria test to the classical method.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Malaria is still a problem in the southeastern region of Turkey despite all the effort to eradicate the disease. The spread of malaria is by the transfer of agents by mosquitoes, transfusions of blood and blood products, organ transplantations from infected individuals and the use of contaminated injectors. The numerical load of parasites in infected donors may be very low, therefore no clinical symptoms may be observed and Plasmodium species may live in the body of donors for years. As the agents may live long in the body of donors, the blood from donors must be examined thoroughly for agents. The aim of this study was to determine whether malaria which is endemic in our region is transmitted by transfusion products. The blood from 1850 donors, who presented at the Dicle University Faculty of Medicine Blood Bank (Diyarbakir) in 2006, was examined by the optimal rapid malaria test and by Giemsa stained preparations. No pathogens were detected by any of these methods. In conclusion, the screening tests for malaria may be useful but not sufficiently sensi-tive for blood banks. In endemic regions; a more specific questionnaire and physical examination can be used to exclude blood donors who are at the risk of malaria.

Temiz H; G黮 K

2008-01-01

138

Comparison of Various Staining Procedures in the Identification of Hepatozoon canis Gamonts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The staining characteristics of gamonts of Hepatozoon canis in peripheral blood smears were evaluated. Three stains, Diff-Quik stain, Giemsa stain and a modification of the naphthol-ASD-chloroacetate esterase stain, were compared. The staining characteristics of the infected cell and the parasite were different in each stain used. The modified naphthol-ASD-chloroacetate esterase stain showed the most difference between the infected and noninfected cells, as well as a difference in staining characteristics of the parasite nucleus from those of the host nucleus. Although the parasite was identified with all stains, a definitive diagnosis was more easily obtained with the naphthol-ASD-chloroacetate esterase stain.

Mercer SH; Craig TM

1988-01-01

139

Smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis and lymphocyte subsets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en]燨bjective: To correlate and quantitate Iymphocyte subsets with clinically diagnosed smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis and severity of disease. Subjects and Methods: Freshly diagnosed, well-characterized smear-negative patients (n=15) of pulmonary tuberculosis were selected. Non-induced three-consecutive negative smears of sputum with simultaneous culture for AFB for 6-8 weeks, positive Mauntoux test (= or > 0 mm), blood complete picture with ESR and chest x-rays were done. Selected panel of monoclonal antibodies against specific CD markers were used. Statistical analysis done by student t-test or Mann-Whitney rank-sum test with the help of Sigma State software. Results: Hemoglobin and total lymphocyte counts were significantly reduced whereas total leukocyte counts with absolute neutrophil counts were increased. Fraction of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes with HLA-DR expression was reduced while no significant change in rest of the TB and NK lymphocytes. Conclusion: Low hemoglobin level, high neutrophil count and low total lymphocytes suggest possible direct relationship with extent of disease. The number of activated CD4+, CD8+, alpha beta and gamma delta TCR T cells have tendency to increase during Mycobacterium infection. This seems to have a potential of being a good, non-invasive prognostic indicator for patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. (author)

2004-01-01

140

Effects of interfering constituents on tritium smears  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en]燭ritium smears are performed by Health Protection Operations (HPO) to assess transferable contamination on work place surfaces, materials for movement outside Radiologically Controlled Areas (RCA), and product containers being shipped between facilities. Historically, gas proportional counters were used to detect transferable tritium contamination collected by smearing. Because tritium is a low-energy beta emitter, gas proportional counters do not provide the sensitivity or the counting efficiency to accurately measure the tritium activity on the smear. Liquid Scintillation Counters (LSC) provide greater counting efficiency for the low-energy beta particles along with greater reliability and reproducibility compared to gas flow proportional counters. The purpose of this technical evaluation was to determine the effects of interfering constituents such as filters, dirt and oil on the counting efficiency and tritium recoveries of tritium smears by LSC

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Effects of interfering constituents on tritium smears  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tritium smears are performed by Health Protection Operations (HPO) to assess transferable contamination on work place surfaces, materials for movement outside Radiologically Controlled Areas (RCA), and product containers being shipped between facilities. Historically, gas proportional counters were used to detect transferable tritium contamination collected by smearing. Because tritium is a low-energy beta emitter, gas proportional counters do not provide the sensitivity or the counting efficiency to accurately measure the tritium activity on the smear. Liquid Scintillation Counters (LSC) provide greater counting efficiency for the low-energy beta particles along with greater reliability and reproducibility compared to gas flow proportional counters. The purpose of this technical evaluation was to determine the effects of interfering constituents such as filters, dirt and oil on the counting efficiency and tritium recoveries of tritium smears by LSC.

Levi, G.D. Jr.; Cheeks, K.E.

1993-12-31

142

CLINICOPATHOLOGIC CORRELATION OF THE UNSATISFACTORY PAPANICOLAOU SMEAR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The 1991 Bethesda System for cervical/vaginal cytology reporting has defined adequacy criteria, including unsatisfactory designation. Most laboratories in USA and a few laboratories in Iran have implemented these criteria, but only few studies about clinical implications have been performed. All unsatisfactory Papanicolaou (Pap) smears taken between August 2000 and March 2002 were retrieved from the file of cytologic reports of Mirza Koochak Khan Hospital's Department of Pathology. Of 4,598 total Pap smears 204 (4.4%) were unsatisfactory (corresponding atypical rate of 2.5% and a SIL/carcinoma rate of 0.97%). About 20.2% of unsatisfactory Pap smears were from patients with a history of epithelial abnormalities. The majority (71 of 204 specimens; 35%) of follow-up Pap smears or biopsies occurred within 6 months,12% within 6-12 months,1% within 12-18 months and 1% after 18 months. Approximately 59% had no follow-up. The first repeat Pap smear or histologic specimen in 83 patients with follow-up was negative in 71 (85%), unsatisfactory in 2(2.4%), epithelial cell abnormality in 11 (13.2%) and atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance in 4(4.8%). Nonmalignant conditions contributing to the unsatisfactory smears on histologic specimens (23%) included cervicitis, endocervical polyp and endometritis. Majority of patients with unsatisfactory Pap smears were followed up within 6 months. A significant number(13.2%) of those with follow-up had eventual diagnosis of epithelial cell abnormality. Benign pathologic conditions also contributed to unsatisfactory smears. These patients were more likely to have a history of abnormalities. Unsatisfactory specimens are associated with benign as well as preneoplastic/neoplastic conditions. Clinical correlation should be the first step in delineating the cause of the unsatisfactory diagnosis.

N. Izadi Mood; S.N. Jazayeri Z. Eftekhar

2004-01-01

143

Detection of Theileria annulata by PCR and its Comparison With Smear Method in Native Carrier Cows  

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Full Text Available During March and April 2007, 140 native cows with the mean age of more than one year were selected randomly and their age and sex were registered in the related papers. Primarily, a thin layer smear was prepared from their ear sublime vein blood and was fixed with methanol and then it stained with Gimsa dye. Also, 9 mL blood from the jagular vein of the same cow was taken and collected in autoclaved tubes (containing 1 mL of 3.2% buffered citrate solution) conversely for extracting their DNA for PCR. Two primers were used: N516/N517 belonged to a huge gene (30 kDa) which is responsible for coding the surface antigen of Theileria annulata merozoite. By detection of 140 prepared blood smear with light microscope and lens 100, piroplasmic forms of Theileria annulata were seen in 12 smear (8.57%). By PCR method, 56 DNA of Theileria annulata was separated from 140 samples (40%). Statistical comparison of PCR and smear methods in diagnosing of Theileria annulata carriers can explain a significant difference between these two methods (pTheileria annulata carriers is more than common method of smear preparation and can be used in epidemiological studies for the sake of controlling, prevention and determining of immunological condition of cows in region.

Hamidreza Azizi; Behrooz Shiran; Amir Farzaneh Dehkordi; Fazlollah Salehi; Camellia Taghadosi

2008-01-01

144

Evaluation of 100% rapid rescreening of cervical smears  

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Full Text Available Advantage of rapid rescreening (RR) over conventional 10% random rescreening of all negative smears has been the topic of debate. RR of negative smears by cytopathologists/cytotechnologists have yielded good results. We undertook the rapid review of all the reported cervical smears to study its results as a means of strict quality control exercise on 2,500 smears.

Sood Neelam; Singh Vikas

2009-01-01

145

[Cervical-vaginal smears: an unpopular test!  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

No screening test for cancer in asymptomatic patients can match the performance level of the Pap smear, yet no other screening test has been so strongly criticized in the popular press. For a large part, this paradoxical situation, greatly influenced by public opinion in the United States, has arisen from a utopic desire for a "perfect" screening system. Actually, though the Pap smear will never be 100% effective, it has made it possible to greatly reduce the prevalence of invasive cervical cancer. The fact that total eradication has not been achieved is not a sign of poor performance, but rather a signal for further improvement. Public education should be reinforced so the entire population, especially high risk groups of older women and those living in socially underprivileged conditions, can benefit from Pap smear screening programs. Clinicians and cytologists must also continue their efforts to assure quality smears and cytopathological examinations. In France, the Association for quality assurance in anatomy and pathological cytology, the Centers for collecting information on anatomy and pathological cytology, and the High Counsel for Public Health have taken innovative steps in this direction. The cytology report must also be written in a clear language, including a statement regarding the adequacy of the specimen, the description of the cells observed, a diagnosis and the use of an internationally accepted classification. Finally, patient follow-up is mandatory since the Pap smear technique is a screening method and cannot provide a definitive diagnosis. All positive smears must be confirmed by colposcopy and histologic assessment. Correctly used, the Pap smear remains the method of choice for the eradication of cervical cancer.

Gompel C

1998-06-01

146

Factors predicting sputum smear conversion and treatment outcomes in new smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies indicated that the proportion of TB patients who remained smear-positive after two months of treatment could be greater than 20%. The lack of smear conversion in the second month of treatment was one of the predictors of treatment failure and relapse. OBJECTIVE: To determine factors associated with the persisting positive smear after two months of treatment and its value in predicting treatment failure. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A 3-year retrospective cohort study was conducted in a 1,200-bed government hospital in Thailand New smear-positive tuberculosis patients who had pretreatment drug susceptibility test, the result of 2-month sputum smear and treatment outcomes were selected. The pretreatment drug susceptibility pattern and statistically differences on variables between groups of patients were described RESULTS: Three hundred fifty six patients were included in the present study. The level of pretreatment isoniazid resistance and multi-drug resistance were 13.8% and 3.1% respectively. Factors associated with the 2-month positive smear were male sex, high initial sputum acid-fast bacilli grades, and cavitary diseases. The presence of human immuno-deficiency virus infection, drug resistance and the 2-month positive smear were significantly associated with treatment failure. CONCLUSION: Male sex, high initial sputum acid-fast bacilli grades, and cavitary diseases were factors associated with the 2-month positive smear and increasing risk of treatment failure.

Unsematham S; Kateruttanakul P

2013-06-01

147

Analytical calculations of smear and tune shift  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have applied and generalized the Lie algebraic formalism developed by E. Forest to calculate smear and tune shifts due to random and systematic multipole errors for the SSC. In particular, we have calculated smear to the first order in the multipole strength, and tune shifts to the second order. Systematic errors up to octupoles, random errors up to decapoles, and feed-down effects due to closed orbit distortions have been included. For random errors the spread of the smear for an ensemble of accelerators has also been calculated. The analytical results have been compared with extensive tracking results (averages over 100 seeds have been used for random errors). A histogram of the smear is presented. By Fourier analyzing the tracking results, we have been able to isolate and compare contributions to the smear from different multipoles. Calculations have been done to study the performance of candidates for the SSC lattice with 4, 5, or 6 dipoles per half cell, 1 or 2 TeV injection energy, and 4 or 5 cm magnet aperture. The improvement obtained by correcting the systematic multiple errors have also been included. 25 refs., 13 figs., 16 tabs.

Bengtsson, J.; Irwin, J.

1990-02-01

148

Analytical calculations of smear and tune shift  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en]燱e have applied and generalized the Lie algebraic formalism developed by E. Forest to calculate smear and tune shifts due to random and systematic multipole errors for the SSC. In particular, we have calculated smear to the first order in the multipole strength, and tune shifts to the second order. Systematic errors up to octupoles, random errors up to decapoles, and feed-down effects due to closed orbit distortions have been included. For random errors the spread of the smear for an ensemble of accelerators has also been calculated. The analytical results have been compared with extensive tracking results (averages over 100 seeds have been used for random errors). A histogram of the smear is presented. By Fourier analyzing the tracking results, we have been able to isolate and compare contributions to the smear from different multipoles. Calculations have been done to study the performance of candidates for the SSC lattice with 4, 5, or 6 dipoles per half cell, 1 or 2 TeV injection energy, and 4 or 5 cm magnet aperture. The improvement obtained by correcting the systematic multiple errors have also been included. 25 refs., 13 figs., 16 tabs

1990-01-01

149

Detection of Theileria annulata by PCR and its Comparison With Smear Method in Native Carrier Cows  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During March and April 2007, 140 native cows with the mean age of more than one year were selected randomly and their age and sex were registered in the related papers. Primarily, a thin layer smear was prepared from their ear sublime vein blood and was fixed with methanol and then it stained with G...

Hamidreza Azizi; Behrooz Shiran; Amir Farzaneh Dehkordi; Fazlollah Salehi; Camellia Taghadosi

150

Effect of smear layer on coronal microleakage.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of smear layer on coronal microleakage. Fifty-two single-rooted extracted human teeth with a straight root canal were chemomechanically prepared and equally divided into experimental groups A and B. The teeth in group B were treated with ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid and sodium hypochlorite to remove the smear layer. All teeth in the experimental groups were next obturated with gutta-percha and sealer. Finally they were tested for dye leakage with methylene blue. Linear and volumetric measurement of dye penetration was used to assess leakage. The results of this study suggest that the removal of smear layer significantly improves the tightness of the sealing in the coronal area.

Vassiliadis L; Liolios E; Kouvas V; Economides N

1996-09-01

151

Measurement of surface contamination by smear method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en]燤onitoring of surface contamination by smear method is considered in detail. It consists in determination of the activity sampled from the surface under control by a contact method with a sorbent (cotton fabric, gauze, cotton wool tampon, filter paper). The method of dry and wet smears is distinguished. The latter supposes sorbent wetting prior to sampling in diluted nitric acid or in ethylene alcohol. The method is applied in case of preferential estimation of unfixed contamination as well as when the ?-active substance contamination cannot be determined with devices because of a significant ?-background or when it is impossible to draw a transducer nearer to measured surface. The method of smears is preferentially to be used in case of measuring surface contamination by ?-active substances as a more accurate method. Attention is given to technical volume and procedure of monitoring as well as measurement periodicity

1980-01-01

152

Link smearing considered as MCRG transformation  

CERN Document Server

Gauge link smearing is widely used in lattice QCD computations. The idea is to remove the local (UV) fluctuations of the gauge field configurations while keeping the longer-range (IR) properties intact. Important applications are in the definitions of interpolating hadron operators as well as in updating the gauge field configurations with dynamical quarks in the so-called Hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) algorithm. Here we study the effectiveness of various smearing methods and try to quantify these with tools known from Monte Carlo Renormalization Group (MCRG).

Geles, F

2011-01-01

153

Etchback smear removal process characterization. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study evaluated variable limits for each chemical solution used in etchback smear removal on multilayer printed wiring boards (MLPWBs) to determine variables' influence on etchback behavior. Etchback smear removal is essential to fabricate about 40 different multilayer parts. However, erratic etchback behavior contributes to reduced yields among multilayer parts. The study, conducted on 172 multilayer printed wiring boards in 43 test runs, indicated that chemical interaction may not be a principal influence on etchback behavior. Study results also indicated that slight changes in process variables did not influence the presence of recessed conductors. The results verified the adequacy of existing tolerances on main process variables to produce uniformly etched holes.

Richardson, J.H.

1981-03-01

154

Differentiation of the microfilariae of Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens in stained blood films.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An examination was made of Giemsa-stained microfilariae in thin blood films from (n = 9) dogs naturally or experimentally infected with Dirofilaria immitis or Dirofilaria repens. Morphological measurements (total length, length of cephalic space, anterior end to nerve ring and last body nucleus, and nucleus-free tail tip) were made on 2-6 microfilariae from each dog with the use of digitally captured images and imaging software. The microfilariae of D. repens were significantly greater (P < 0.001) in all measured dimensions except for the length of the cephalic space, which was significantly shorter (P < 0.001) than that of D. immitis. The cephalic space of D. repens was characterized by being short and routinely being terminated by a distinct pair of nuclei that were separate from the remaining somatic nuclei of the microfilaria. The cephalic space of the smaller microfilaria of D. immitis was longer and did not have the distinct nuclei separated from the somatic column nuclei near the anterior end. The character of the cephalic space seems to be a criterion that could be routinely used for the easy differentiation of these 2 microfilariae in stained blood films.

Liotta JL; Sandhu GK; Rishniw M; Bowman DD

2013-06-01

155

Impact of sputum gross appearance and volume on smear positivity of pulmonary tuberculosis: a prospective cohort study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Although checking specimen quality upon sputum collection for acid-fast smear of suspected tuberculosis (TB) cases is recommended, this procedure is based on expert opinion. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the impact of sputum gross appearance and volume on smear positivity among patients with suspected pulmonary TB, according to sex. Methods From November 2010 through June 2011, we enrolled consecutive patients suspected to have active pulmonary TB. The association of sputum gross appearance and volume with smear positivity, along with other variables possibly affecting smear positivity such as symptoms, disease extent, and cavity on chest radiograph, were investigated. Results Among 2,439 patients undergoing TB examination, 170 (113 men, 57 women) with active pulmonary TB were enrolled. They submitted 492 sputa. There were 73 smear-positive patients (42.9%) and 164 smear-positive sputa (33.3%). While gross appearance was associated with smear positivity in both sexes (purulent or blood-tinged sputum (rather than mucoid sputum or saliva); odds ratio (OR), 2.05, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.213.47 in men; OR, 2.78, 95% CI, 1.236.26 in women), the amount of sputum specimens was associated with smear positivity in only female patients (?4?ml versus Conclusions Sputum gross appearance and volume were associated with smear positivity. A volume of 4?ml seems to be the the minimum sputum volume acceptable for smear microscopy in females suspected of TB. Those suspected of TB should be encouraged to expectorate grossly qualified sputum specimens.

Yoon Soon; Lee Nyoung; Yim Jae

2012-01-01

156

Removal factor determination of some local smear papers for surface contamination smear test  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en]燫emoval factor determination of some local smear papers has been done, using dry smear test method. The aim of this research is to find removal values of local smear papers on some surfaces, to replace import smear papers. Smear test was done on the various surfaces i.e.: porcelain, formica, glass, stainless steel, steel and PVC, with the local smear papers I.e.: Padalarang, Diagonal, Concorde, Marga, Hard Cloth, and import smear paper. The artificial contaminant which used were I-131 and P-32. The removal factor values of Padalarang paper for surfaces: porcelain, formica, glass stainless steel, steel and PVC were: 24.5%, 20.0%, 27.0%, 6.8%, 4.9%, and 13.6% respectively. The removal factor values of Diagonal paper were:18.4%, 15.9%, 5.7%, 3.5%, and 9.1% respectively. The removal factor values of concord paper were: 18.5%, 20.3%, 23.1%, 6.6%, 3.8%, and 9.0% respectively. The removal factor values of Marga paper were: 16.7%, 13.5%, 21.1%, 4.2%, 4.1% and 8.1% respectively. The removal factor values of Hard Cloth were: 18.6%, 12.6%, 20.5%, 8.2%, and 10.1% respectively. The removal factor values of import smear paper were: 17.8%, 15.0%, 18.8%, 9.1%, 4.8%, and 14.4% respectively . Substitution alternative of import smear paper is Padalarang. (author)

1996-01-01

157

Evaluation of remote smearing of DWPF canistered waste forms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en]燭he Savannah River Site (SRS) is evaluating the variables of the remote smearing process for monitoring transferable contamination on the waste glass canisters at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Smearing for transferable contamination is typically done by hand, but in this case, due to the nature of the high level waste within the canisters, remote smearing is required. The effectiveness of the smear pad was determined under varying conditions (distance traveled, force applied, and canister surface), as well as the relative importance of these factors. It was concluded that the remote smear is more reliable than the hand smear

1991-01-01

158

Evaluation of remote smearing of DWPF canistered waste forms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Savannah River Site (SRS) is evaluating the variables of the remote smearing process for monitoring transferable contamination on the waste glass canisters at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Smearing for transferable contamination is typically done by hand, but in this case, due to the nature of the high level waste within the canisters, remote smearing is required. The effectiveness of the smear pad was determined under varying conditions (distance traveled, force applied, and canister surface), as well as the relative importance of these factors. It was concluded that the remote smear is more reliable than the hand smear.

Payne, C.H.; Rankin, W.N.

1991-12-31

159

Evaluation of remote smearing of DWPF canistered waste forms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Savannah River Site (SRS) is evaluating the variables of the remote smearing process for monitoring transferable contamination on the waste glass canisters at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Smearing for transferable contamination is typically done by hand, but in this case, due to the nature of the high level waste within the canisters, remote smearing is required. The effectiveness of the smear pad was determined under varying conditions (distance traveled, force applied, and canister surface), as well as the relative importance of these factors. It was concluded that the remote smear is more reliable than the hand smear.

Payne, C.H.; Rankin, W.N.

1991-01-01

160

Combining Quark and Link Smearing to Improve Extended Baryon Operators  

CERN Multimedia

The effects of Gaussian quark-field smearing and analytic stout-link smearing on the correlations of gauge-invariant extended baryon operators are studied. Gaussian quark-field smearing substantially reduces contributions from the short wavelength modes of the theory, while stout-link smearing significantly reduces the noise from the stochastic evaluations. The use of gauge-link smearing is shown to be crucial for baryon operators constructed of covariantly-displaced quark fields. Preferred smearing parameters are determined for a lattice spacing a_s ~ 0.1 fm.

Lichtl, A; Edwards, R; Fleming, G T; Heller, U M; Morningstar, C; Richards, D; Sato, I; Wallace, S; Lichtl, Adam; Basak, Subhasish; Edwards, Robert; Fleming, George T; Heller, Urs M; Morningstar, Colin; Richards, David; Sato, Ikuro; Wallace, Stephen

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Stout smearing for twisted mass fermions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of Stout smearing is investigated in numerical simulations with twisted mass Wilson quarks. The phase transition near zero quark mass is studied on 12{sup 3} x 24,16{sup 3} x 32 and 24{sup 3} x 48 lattices at lattice spacings a{approx_equal}0.1-0.125 fm. (orig.)

Jansen, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; McNeile, C. [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Montvay, I. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Richards, C.; Urbach, C. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Scholz, E.E. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States). Physics Dept.; Wenger, U. [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland). Inst. for Theoretical Physics

2007-09-15

162

Stout Smearing for Twisted Mass Fermions  

CERN Multimedia

The effect of Stout smearing is investigated in numerical simulations with twisted mass Wilson quarks. The phase transition near zero quark mass is studied on 12^3x24, 16^3x32 and 24^3x48 lattices at lattice spacings a = 0.1 - 0.125 fm.

Jansen, K; Montvay, I; Richards, C; Scholz, E E; Urbach, C; Wenger, U

2007-01-01

163

Simulation of dynamical fermions with smeared links  

CERN Document Server

Smearing the gauge links of dynamical configurations removes small scale unphysical vacuum fluctuations und thus improves the chiral properties of lattice fermions. We present a new algorithm for the simulation of dynamical fermions coupled via smeared links based on the standard pure gauge overrelaxation and heatbath updatings. Smeared links play a fundamental role in making this algorithm effective. At fixed lattice spacing the computational cost of the algorithm has an extra volume factor due to the finite volume of the lattice region which can be updated. As the continuum limit is approached the physical volume of the updated region remains constant. We simulated four flavors of staggered fermions coupled via hypercubic (HYP) smeared links. The simulation cost of the new algorithm on 10 fm^4 volumes is a factor 2-8 larger than with the standard Hybrid Monte Carlo but the improved properties of the HYP action allow to gain a factor 2 in the lattice spacing. The new algorithm could be applicable to simulati...

Hasenfratz, Anna

2002-01-01

164

Smeared versus localised sources in flux compactifications  

CERN Document Server

We investigate whether vacuum solutions in flux compactifications that are obtained with smeared sources (orientifolds or D-branes) still survive when the sources are localised. This seems to rely on whether the solutions are BPS or not. First we consider two sets of BPS solutions that both relate to the GKP solution through T-dualities: (p+1)-dimensional solutions from spacetime-filling Op-planes with a conformally Ricci-flat internal space, and p-dimensional solutions with Op-planes that wrap a 1-cycle inside an everywhere negatively curved twisted torus. The relation between the solution with smeared orientifolds and the localised version is worked out in detail. We then demonstrate that a class of non-BPS AdS_4 solutions that exist for IASD fluxes and with smeared D3-branes (or analogously for ISD fluxes with anti-D3-branes) does not survive the localisation of the (anti) D3-branes. This casts doubts on the stringy consistency of non-BPS solutions that are obtained in the limit of smeared sources.

Bl錬鋍k, Johan; Junghans, Daniel; Van Riet, Thomas; Wrase, Timm; Zagermann, Marco

2010-01-01

165

Smearing Distributions and their use in Financial Markets  

CERN Document Server

It is shown that superpositions of path integrals with arbitrary Hamiltonians and different scaling parameters v ("variances") obey the Chapman-Kolmogorov relation for Markovian processes if and only if the corresponding smearing distributions for v have a specific functional form. Ensuing "smearing" distributions substantially simplify the coupled system of Fokker-Planck equations for smeared and un-smeared conditional probabilities. Simple application in financial models with stochastic volatility is presented.

Jizba, Petr

2007-01-01

166

Bacteriological safety of smears of surfacesio in catering facilities and food industry in Zenica-Doboj Canton in the period 2005-2007  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim To research bacteriological (hygienic) safety of surfaces(hands smear of staff involved in the process of work, smearof furniture used for work, smear from walls in offices) in thefacilities for production of meat and meat products (8), forproduction of milk and milk products (3), products of cakes(14), bakery and bakery products (4) sugar refinery and biscuits(1) and in objects of social sustenance in the territory of Zenica-Doboj Canton (Bosnia and Herzegovina B&H) in period2005-2007 and to point out the importance of this analysis inproviding food safety for consumers.Methods: Data from the protocol of the Laboratory for Clinicaland Sanitary Microbiology,of the Cantonal Institute for PublicHealth Zenica were used. Samples of smears were inoculatedon MacConkey and blood agar. Results were interpreted inaccordance with applicable law in B&H.Results From 5051 analyzed smears, 190 (3,/%) were notsatisfactory. The largest number of unsatisfactory smears wasnoted in Zenica, 75 (39; 47%), Visoko 49 (25.8%) and Te歛nj37 (19.5%). From 190 unsatisfactory smears, 57 (30%)were smears from dishes, 43 (22.6%) from furniture and worksurfaces 42 (22,1%) and 41 (21.6%) smears from hands. Themost frequently isolated was Escherichia coli, in 25 (22.6%)smears from machines, and 34 (17.2%) smears from dishes.Unsatisfactory smears were mostly found in objects of publicmaintenance, 96 (50.5%) and in objects for production ofmeat, 82 (43.2%).Conclusion Regular control (monitoring), hygienic sutabilityqualityof smears in objects and education of employees toimprove hygienic measures for the purpose of the preventionof food contamination.

Edina Garanovi?; Selma Uzunovi?

2013-01-01

167

Comparison of white and red blood cell estimates in urine sediment with hemocytometer and automated counts in dogs and cats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Therapeutic decisions regarding urinalysis are commonly based on the presence of white and red blood cells. Traditionally, numbers per high-power field are estimated using wet-mount microscopic examination. This technique is not standardized and counts are likely prone to inaccuracy. In addition, differentiation of leukocyte types is not possible. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to (1) compare WBC and RBC estimates using wet-mount examination with counts obtained using a hemocytometer, (2) assess if a hematology automated analyzer (Sysmex ST-2000iV/XT) provides reliable WBC and RBC counts in urine comparable to hemocytometer counts, and (3) evaluate air-dried Wright-Giemsa-stained urine drop sediment preparations for the determination of differential leukocyte counts. METHODS: WBC and RBC counts were obtained by performing wet-mount estimates, manual hemocytometer counts, and Sysmex automated counts on 219 canine and feline urine samples. Results were correlated using Spearman rank correlation. Air-dried Wright-Giemsa stained sediment drop preparations (n = 215) were examined for differential counts of leukocytes. RESULTS: A low but significant association was found between WBC estimates on wet-mount examination and hemocytometer counts (rho = 0.37, P < .01). There was a high and significant association when RBC counts were compared between wet-mount and hemocytometer evaluation (rho = 0.7, P < .01). There was very high and significant interassay correlation between Sysmex data from duplicate samples for what the analyzer classified as WBC (rho = 0.97, P < .01) and RBC (rho = 0.94, P < .01). Low correlations were found between the Sysmex RBC counts and both wet-mount estimates and hemocytometer RBC counts (rho = 0.43, P < .01 and rho = 0.39, P < .01, respectively). Cell preservation in the air-dried sediment preparations was so poor that differential counts could not be performed. CONCLUSION: WBC and RBC estimates on wet-mount examination agreed with hemocytometer counts and are therefore considered adequate. The Sysmex ST-2000iV/XT did not provide reliable cell counts under the conditions used.

O'Neil E; Burton S; Horney B; MacKenzie A

2013-03-01

168

Probability distributions of smeared quantum stress tensors  

CERN Document Server

We obtain in closed form the probability distribution for individual measurements of the stress-energy tensor of two-dimensional conformal field theory in the vacuum state, smeared in time against a Gaussian test function. The result is a shifted Gamma distribution with the shift given by the previously known optimal quantum inequality bound. For small values of the central charge it is overwhelmingly likely that individual measurements of the sampled energy density in the vacuum give negative results. For the case of a single massless scalar field, the probability of finding a negative value is 84%. We also report on computations for four-dimensional massless scalar fields showing that the probability distribution of the smeared square field is also a shifted Gamma distribution, but that the distribution of the energy density is not.

Fewster, Christopher J; Roman, Thomas A

2010-01-01

169

Probability distributions of smeared quantum stress tensors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We obtain in closed form the probability distribution for individual measurements of the stress-energy tensor of two-dimensional conformal field theory in the vacuum state, smeared in time against a Gaussian test function. The result is a shifted gamma distribution with the shift given by the previously known optimal quantum inequality bound. For small values of the central charge it is overwhelmingly likely that individual measurements of the sampled energy density in the vacuum give negative results. For the case of a single massless scalar field, the probability of finding a negative value is 84%. We also report on computations for four-dimensional massless scalar fields showing that the probability distribution of the smeared square field is also a shifted gamma distribution, but that the distribution of the energy density is not.

2010-06-15

170

Phenomenology with Wilson fermions using smeared sources  

CERN Document Server

We investigate the use of two types of non-local (``smeared'') sources for quark propagators in quenched lattice QCD at $\\beta=6.0$ using Wilson fermions at $\\kappa=0.154$ and $0.155$. We present results for the hadron mass spectrum, meson decay constants, quark masses, the chiral condensate and the quark distribution amplitude of the pion. The use of smeared sources leads to a considerable improvement over previous results. We find a disturbing discrepancy between the baryon spectra obtained using Wuppertal and wall sources. We find good signals in the ratio of correlators used to calculate the quark mass and the chiral condensate and show that the extrapolation to the chiral limit is smooth.

Daniel, D; Kilcup, G W; Patel, A; Sharpe, S

1992-01-01

171

Dynamics at a smeared phase transition  

CERN Multimedia

We investigate the effects of rare regions on the dynamics of Ising magnets with planar defects, i.e., disorder perfectly correlated in two dimensions. In these systems, the magnetic phase transition is smeared because static long-range order can develop on isolated rare regions. We first study an infinite-range model by numerically solving local dynamic mean-field equations. Then we use extremal statistics and scaling arguments to discuss the dynamics beyond mean-field theory. In the tail region of the smeared transition the dynamics is even slower than in a conventional Griffiths phase: the spin autocorrelation function decays like a stretched exponential at intermediate times before approaching the exponentially small equilibrium value following a power law at late times.

Fendler, B; Vojta, T; Fendler, Bernard; Sknepnek, Rastko; Vojta, Thomas

2005-01-01

172

Smear layer removal with citric acid solution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy in smear layer removal of 17% EDTA and 10% citric acid, using SEM. Material and method: Twenty human, extracted teeth with a single root canal were examined. Whilst instrumentation with step-back technique and manual K files, root canals were irrigated with 2 ml of 2.5% NaOCl, between each file size. After instrumentatio n, specimens were divided into two groups. The first group was irrigated with a final flush of 17% EDTA, during one minute, and the second group was irrigated with a 10% citric acid. Results: Irrigation with 17% EDTA and 10% citric acid removed smear layer from the root canals walls. There was not statistically significant differences (p>0.05) in cleaning ability between EDTA and citric acid groups.

Petrovi? Violeta; 巌vkovi? Slavoljub

2005-01-01

173

Diagnosis delay in smear positive tuberculosis patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is a major key for effective TB program. Evaluation of delay in diagnosis of smear positive TB is needed to evaluation of TB program situation in each country. The aim of this study was to evaluate of diagnosis delay in smear positive tuberculosis patients in Islamic Republic of Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross sectional study, all smear positive TB registered patients from 20 March 2009 to 20 March 2010 in Iran were assessed. Diagnosis delay is defined as the time interval between the first presentations of TB symptoms to the TB confirmation. Mann-Whitney test, chi-square and logistic regression was used to analysis. RESULTS: Diagnosis delay was 58 days in female and 53 days in male (P=0.004), 61 days in non-Iranian and 54 days in Iranian (P<0.001), 59 days in urban and 50 days in rural (P<0.001), 57 days in non-prisoner and 37 days in prisoner (P<0.001), 61 days in patients who chose private outpatients system and 52 days in patients who chose Public health outpatients system (P<0.001). 193 (9.4%) had 1-9 bacilli and 2132 (37.4%) were 3+ in sputum smear examination. CONCLUSION: Non-Iranian, urban, non-prisoner, old patients and the patients who chose private system are in risk of delay diagnosis of TB. Cooperation of private system through public-private mix model is an important key in successful national TB program (NTP).

Nasehi M; Hassanzadeh J; Rezaianzadeh A; Zeigami B; Tabatabaee H; Ghaderi E

2012-11-01

174

Smeared and unsmeared chiral vertex operators  

CERN Multimedia

We prove unboundedness and boundedness of the unsmeared and smeared chiral vertex operators, respectively. We use elementary methods in bosonic Fock space, only. Possible applications to conformal two - dimensional quantum field theory, perturbation thereof, and to the perturbative construction of the sine-Gordon model by the Epstein-Glaser method are discussed. From another point of view the results of this paper can be looked at as a first step towards a Hilbert space interpretation of vertex operator algebras.

Constantinescu, F; Constantinescu, Florin

1999-01-01

175

Impact of stout-link smearing in lattice fermion actions  

CERN Multimedia

The impact of stout-link smearing in lattice fermion actions is examined through the consideration of the mass and renormalization functions of the overlap quark propagator over a variety of smeared configurations. Up to six sweeps of stout-link smearing are investigated. For heavy quark masses, the quark propagator is strongly affected by the smearing procedure. For moderate masses, the effect appears to be negligible. A small effect is seen for light quark masses, where dynamical mass generation is suppressed through the smearing procedure.

Moran, Peter J; Leinweber, Derek B; Williams, Anthony G; Zhang, J B

2009-01-01

176

Experiments on clay smear formation along faults  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A ring shear apparatus was used to investigate the development of clay smear along faults in sand-clay sequences. Experiments were performed, using six different clay types, different stress conditions ({sigma}{sub n}=6-500 kPa) and different amounts of clay (4 and 12.5%). The development of clay smear seems to depend on the competence contrast between the clay and the surrounding sand. Clay, when it is less competent than sand, behaves in a ductile manner, resulting in the development of clay smears along the fault. Clay which is more competent than sand behaves in a brittle manner, resulting in the formation of angular fragments. Whether the clay is more or less competent than the sand is dependent on the stress conditions, the initial porosity of the sand and the mechanical properties of the clay. The results suggest that stress conditions allowing the sample to contract will result in the formation of fluid flow barriers, whereas dilation results in the formation of conducts. (Author)

Sperrevik, S. [Universitetet I Bergen, Geologisk Institutt, Bergen (Norway); Norsk Hydro Research Centre, Bergen (Norway); Faerseth, R.B. [Norsk Hydro ASA, Stabekk (Norway); Gabrielsen, R.H. [Universitetet I Bergen, Geologisk Institutt, Bergen (Norway)

2000-05-01

177

The Shape of Covariantly Smeared Sources in Lattice QCD  

CERN Multimedia

Covariantly smeared sources are commonly used in lattice QCD to enhance the projection onto the ground state. Here we investigate the dependence of their shape on the gauge field background and find that the presence of localized concentrations of magnetic field can lead to strong distortions which reduce the smearing radii achievable by iterative smearing prescriptions. In particular, as $a\\to 0$, iterative procedures like Jacobi smearing require increasingly large iteration counts in order to reach physically-sized smearing radii $r_{sm}\\sim$ 0.5 fm, and the resulting sources are strongly distorted. To bypass this issue, we propose a covariant smearing procedure (``free-form smearing'') that allows us to create arbitrarily shaped sources, including in particular Gaussians of arbitrary radius.

von Hippel, Georg M; Rae, Thomas D; Wittig, Hartmut

2013-01-01

178

A novel gauge invariant multi-state smearing technique  

CERN Document Server

We present an investigation of a gauge invariant smearing technique that allows the construction of smearing functions with arbitrary radial behaviour, by foresaking the space filling nature of traditional smearing techniques. This is applied to both heavy-heavy, heavy-light, and light-light systems with one particular choice of radial ``wavefunction'' - the hydrogenic solutions - and we find good stability for both fitted masses and amplitudes of the radially excited states. The dependence of the amplitudes on the smearing radius is demonstrated to be well understood, while near optimal smearing radii may be found with extremely low statistics using a property of the smeared-local correlator. The smearing technique is inexpensive since it is non-iterative, achieves a good signal to noise ratio, and can be altered to use wavefunctions from, say, potential models or the Bethe-Salpether equations in future simulations.

Boyle, P

1999-01-01

179

Smart-SMEAR: on-line data exploration and visualization tool for SMEAR stations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Smart-SMEAR is an interface to visualize the data measured at the SMEAR 2 station in Hyytiaelae, Finland. It is designed to be an additional tool for data mining and a simple tool for working together with trace gas and aerosol data, meteorological parameters and air mass back-trajectories, including numerous point sources. The web tool acts as an interface to the station database which can be reached with only few mouse clicks. The tool provides an overview of such a complicated dataset. The database contains all the data from the start of continuous SMEAR 2 measurements in 1996 until today. Here, we present also some examples of how to use Smart-SMEAR. We present examples of one typical atmospheric nucleation event day, one local pollution event with low photochemical activity, and one long-range-transport pollution day coupled with local pollution events with strong solar radiation. Smart-SMEAR, together with its search engine Smart-Search, has proven to be an efficient tool for studying atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric aerosol dynamics. (orig.)

Junninen, H.; Lauri, A.; Keronen, P.; Aalto, P.; Kulmala, M. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)); Hiltunen, V. (Hyytiaelae Foresty Field Station, Univ. of Helsinki, Korkeakoski (Finland)); Hari, P. (Dept. of Forest Ecology, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland))

2009-07-01

180

Improving the Quality of Clinician Pap Smear Technique and Management, Client Pap Smear Education, and the Evaluation of Pap Smear Laboratory Testing: A Resource Guide for Title X Family Planning Projects.  

Science.gov (United States)

The guide examines Pap smear quality; describes the disease of cervical cancer; and addresses clinician technique in taking Pap smears, laboratory processing and evaluation of Pap smears, standards for evaluating laboratory performance, clinician manageme...

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Prevalance of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in Donkeys from Eastern Turkey in Winter Season  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi by the examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears and c-ELISA method in donkeys, selected randomly from Erzurum, the largest province of Eastern Turkey. The specimens were consisted of 92 thin blood-smears and 75 sera during winter season. As result of microscopic examination no parasite was detected. Of the 75 sera, 3 (4%) and 1 (1.33%) samples were positive for the presence of T. equi and B. caballi antibodies, respectively. We couldn抰 detect mix infection with both parasites. This study indicated the prevalence of T. equi and B. caballi in donkeys for the first time from Eastern Turkey in winter season.

I. Balkaya*, A. E. Utuk1 and F. C. Piskin1

2010-01-01

182

Comparison of the Novel Partec Rapid Malaria Test to the Conventional Giemsa Stain and the Gold Standard Real-Time PCR ?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Malaria remains the single most frequent cause of death in Africa, killing one child every 30 s, but treatment decisions are often made only on clinical diagnosis, as laboratory techniques to confirm the clinical suspicion are labor intensive and costly. In this study, we evaluated the recently deve...

Nkrumah, Bernard; Agyekum, Alex; Acquah, Samuel E. K.; May, J黵gen; Tannich, Egbert; Brattig, Norbert; Nguah, Samuel Blay

183

May-Grunwald-Giemsa stain for detection of spermatogenic cells in the ejaculate: a simple predictive parameter for successful testicular sperm retrieval.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Testicular sperm extraction (TESE) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) have become standard treatments for patients with non-obstructive azoospermia. A diagnostic testicular biopsy for histopathological examination is not always predictive of TESE outcome. Moreover, it is not without potential complications. The aim of this study was to determine the value of various clinical and laboratory parameters, particularly identification of seminal spermatids using May-Gr黱wald-Giemsa (MGG) stain in predicting TESE results. METHODS: A total of 100 patients with non-obstructive azoospermia was subjected to clinical examination, serum FSH measurement, identification of seminal spermatids and spermatocytes using MGG staining and TESE with multiple testicular sampling. Spermatozoa were retrieved from 49% of patients. Results of TESE were compared with previous parameters in addition to histopathology. RESULTS: Testicular histopathology was, in general, an inaccurate parameter, and identification of testicular spermatids by histology predicted successful TESE in only 74% of cases. Testicular volume and serum FSH concentration also had poor predictive values. Round spermatids were identified in the ejaculate of 83.7% of TESE-positive cases, and in 22% of TESE-negative cases. CONCLUSIONS: The detection of round spermatids in semen by MGG staining provides the greatest predictive value for successful testicular sperm retrieval, and also has the advantages of simplicity, low cost and availability.

Amer M; Abd Elnasser T; El Haggar S; Mostafa T; Abdel-Malak G; Zohdy W

2001-07-01

184

Immunohistochemical staining of human sperm cells in smears from sexual assault cases  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the routine clinical examination of sexual assault victims, apart from documenting physical evidence of abuse, securing evidence, typically DNA from blood, semen, or saliva, is an important part of the process. Often the presence of semen is considered a most interesting piece of evidence. Not only does it often contain enough DNA for DNA profiling, but it also strongly indicates that an actual sexual act has taken place. The examination of smear slides obtained in sexual assault cases is a time-consuming task especially for the less trained and in cases where the smear only contains few sperm cells. In this work the goal was to develop a procedure to rapidly visualize human sperm cells in smear slides with the use of bright-field microscopy. Using SPERM HY-LITER (TM) by Independent Forensics, human sperm cells are visualized using a fluorescently labeled mouse antibody which significantly decreases the time used to screen smears. By further using an EnVision+ (DAKO) protocol, it was possible to create an immunohistochemical staining method to visualize sperm cells in bright-field microscopy with the same level of certainty as when using SPERM HY-LITER (TM).

Christoffersen, S.

2011-01-01

185

Analytical expressions for the smear due to nonlinear multipoles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An analytical derivation of the horizontal smear due to sextupoles and octupoles is presented. A generalized expression for the horizontal smear due to all multipoles is derived. A two degree of freedom calculation yields the smear due to sextupoles and octupoles. Experimental observations of the smear induced by special sextupoles have been made at the Fermilab Tevatron and our calculations agree very well with the data over a wide range of conditions. The smear due to random and systematic multipole errors in the dipoles, before and after the insertion of lumped correctors, is calculated for the SSC lattice. Finally the smear due to random and systematic multipole errors in the Tevatron dipoles is computed. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Merminga, Nikolitsa; Ng, King-Yuen

1989-03-01

186

Analytical expressions for the smear due to nonlinear multipoles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en]燗n analytical derivation of the horizontal smear due to sextupoles and octupoles is presented. A generalized expression for the horizontal smear due to all multipoles is derived. A two degree of freedom calculation yields the smear due to sextupoles and octupoles. Experimental observations of the smear induced by special sextupoles have been made at the Fermilab Tevatron and our calculations agree very well with the data over a wide range of conditions. The smear due to random and systematic multipole errors in the dipoles, before and after the insertion of lumped correctors, is calculated for the SSC lattice. Finally the smear due to random and systematic multipole errors in the Tevatron dipoles is computed. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

1989-01-01

187

Tuberculosis treatment among smear positive tuberculosis patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tuberculosis is a major health problem in many parts of the world. Delay in initiation of the treatment may result in prolonged infectious state, drug resistance, relapse and death. Objectives: To determine the factors responsible for not starting tuberculosis treatment among smear positive tuberculosis patients. Study type, settings and duration: This cross sectional study was done at Pakistan Medical Research Council TB Research Center, King Edward Medical University, Lahore, from fifth March 2010 to fifth December 2010. Patients and Methods: Fifty sputum smear positive patients of tuberculosis who did not register themselves in treatment register and presumably did not initiate anti tuberculosis treatment were contacted using telephone or traced by their home addresses. Once contact was established, they were inquired about the reasons for not starting tuberculosis treatment. Results: Of 50 patients 38(76%)belonged to the lower socio economic class and 12(24%) to the lower middle class. Fourteen patients (28%) were illiterate and 23(46%) had only 8 years of education. Of the 50 cases 41(82%) were taking treatment from traditional healers and 4% did not go back to the DOTS program. Physical condition of the patient, social, domestic and religious issues also played some role in default. Conclusions: Lack of health education and poverty were the main factors responsible for non compliance from treatment. Policy message: Sputum testing sites should have a paramedic who should educate the patients about the benefits of treatment and the dangers of default or partial treatment. (author)

2012-01-01

188

When Spectral Smearing Can Increase Speech Intelligibility.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sentences were reduced to an array of sixteen effectively rectangular bands (RBs) having center frequencies ranging from 0.25 to 8 kHz spaced at ?-octave intervals. Four arrays were employed, each having uniform subcritical bandwidths which ranged from 40 Hz to 5 Hz. The 40 Hz width array had intelligibility near ceiling, and the 5 Hz array about 1%. The finding of interest was that when the subcritical speech RBs were used to modulate RBs of noise having the same center frequency as the speech but having bandwidths increased to a critical (ERBn) bandwidth at each center frequency, these spectrally smeared arrays were considerably more intelligible in all but the 40 Hz (ceiling) condition. For example, when the 10 Hz bandwidth speech array having an intelligibility of 8% modulated the ERBn noise array, intelligibility increased to 48%. This six-fold increase occurred despite elimination of spectral fine structure and addition of stochastic fluctuation to speech envelope cues. (As anticipated, conventional vocoding with matching bandwidths of speech and noise reduced the 10-Hz-speech array intelligibility from 8% to 1%). These effects of smearing confirm findings by Bashford, Warren, and Lenz (2010) that optimal temporal processing requires stimulation of a critical bandwidth. [Supported by NIH].

Bashford JA; Warren RM; Lenz PW

2013-06-01

189

Smearing Distributions and Their Use in Financial Markets  

Science.gov (United States)

It is shown that superpositions of path integrals with arbitrary Hamiltonians and different scaling parameters ? ("variances") obey the Chapman-Kolmogorov relation for Markovian processes if and only if the corresponding smearing distributions for ? have a specific functional form. Ensuing "smearing" distributions substantially simplify the coupled system of Fokker-Planck equations for smeared and unsmeared conditional probabilities. Simple application in financial models with stochastic volatility is presented.

Jizba, P.; Kleinert, H.

2008-11-01

190

A new counting system for smear test sample  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en]燗 smear measurement system for a low-energy ? emitter has been developed, which uses a paraffin scintillator for a radiation detector. In sample preparation, the radioactive contamination on a smear sample can be solidified immediately by adding small amount of a liquid-solid reversible paraffin scintillator. This technique overcomes many disadvantages of a conventional liquid scintillation technique ever employed, and allows the smear sample to be measured repeatedly and stored. (author)

1997-01-01

191

A new counting system for smear test sample  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A smear measurement system for a low-energy {beta} emitter has been developed, which uses a paraffin scintillator for a radiation detector. In sample preparation, the radioactive contamination on a smear sample can be solidified immediately by adding small amount of a liquid-solid reversible paraffin scintillator. This technique overcomes many disadvantages of a conventional liquid scintillation technique ever employed, and allows the smear sample to be measured repeatedly and stored. (author)

Fujii, Haruo [Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan). Radioisotope Research Center; Aburai, Tamaru; Takiue, Makoto

1997-08-01

192

Diagnostic reliability of the Tzanck smear in dermatologic diseases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background? The Tzanck smear is a simple, easily applicable, rapid, and inexpensive test for the diagnosis of erosive vesiculobullous, tumoral, and granulomatous diseases. The diagnostic accuracy of the Tzanck smear is known, but its diagnostic reliability has been evaluated only in herpetic infections and basal cell carcinoma. Objectives? The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic reliability of the Tzanck smear in erosive vesiculobullous, tumoral, and granulomatous diseases. Methods? Patients evaluated by Tzanck smear at Ba?kent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Dermatology, between February 2009 and July 2010, were included. Three dermatologists were involved in the study. Dermatologist A performed a clinical dermatologic examination, took the smear material, made a clinical diagnosis, and compared the clinical and cytological diagnoses. Dermatologists B and C evaluated the smears. Agreement between the latter two dermatologists on the cytological diagnoses was determined. Results? In 500 patients, a total of 272 (54%) erosive vesiculobullous, 190 (38%) tumoral, and 38 (8%) granulomatous lesions were diagnosed. The diagnostic reliability of the Tzanck smear was reasonably substantial (??=?0.59) for all types of lesions, substantial for erosive vesiculobullous (??=?0.79) and granulomatous (??=?0.68) lesions, and moderate (??=?0.50) for tumoral lesions. Conclusions? The Tzanck smear may be used for the evaluation of erosive vesiculobullous and granulomatous lesions with brief training. However, the evaluation of tumoral lesions by Tzanck smear requires more experience.

Ery?lmaz A; Durdu M; Baba M; Y?ld?r?m FE

2013-04-01

193

Comparison of clinical and microbiological profiles in smear-positive and smear-negative cases of suspected microbial keratitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: To examine the hypothesis that initial smear examination results have a significant bearing on the management and outcome of suspected microbial keratitis. Materials and Methods: One hundred and seventy consecutive patients with suspected microbial keratitis were included in a prospective nonrandomized comparative study and their detailed clinical and microbiological data (smears and cultures of corneal scrapings) were captured on a predesigned corneal ulcer database. Patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 included 68 patients with corneal scrapings negative in smears while Group 2 included 102 patients with corneal scrapings positive in smears. The two groups were compared for their clinico-microbiological profile, management and clinical outcome. The outcome was noted at three months. Fisher?s exact test was applied for statistical analysis. Results: Cultures were sterile in 57.3% of patients in Group 1 compared to 17.6% in Group 2. Scrapings that grew S. pneumoniae , gram-negative organisms, fungi and Acanthamoeba were more often positive in smears (18.6%, 11.8%, 19.6% and 2.9% respectively). While data on duration of prior treatment was not available, prior medication made no significant difference to smear results. More (79.3%) patients of Group 1 had small infiltrate size ( Conclusions: Initial smear examination helps in instituting specific therapy thereby improving the outcome in cases of microbial keratitis. Positive smears indicate greater severity of disease and prior medication may not be a significant cause of smear negativity.

Sharma Savitri; Taneja Mukesh; Gupta Rakesh; Upponi Anjali; Gopinathan Usha; Nutheti Rishita; Garg Prashant

2007-01-01

194

Effect of Cervical Wiping with Sterile Cotton on the Quality of Pap-smear  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: There are conflicting reports about the effect of wiping cervix with cotton on Pap-smear results. Therefore, we aimed to do a research about this subject. Materials and Methods: 234 eligible women attended to have Pap-smear at an educational hospital in Rasht, Iran, from July to September 2011, were allocated by block randomization into two groups. In the intervention group, we cleaned cervix with a sterile cotton rotating 360 degrees and obtained samples using spatula for exocervix and cytobrush for endocervix. This method was performed without cleaning the cervix on the control group. Data collection, vulvovaginal examination, laboratory assay were done by investigators masked to the group allocation. Participants were also blind. The data were analyzed using logistic regression in SPSS-13.Results: Rate of sufficient endocervical cell of the slides in the intervention group was significantly higher than in the control group (70.3% vs. 57.8%, p=0.03). In the intervention group 42.4% of the slides were satisfactory and 57.6% had limited quality for interpretation. These figures in the control group were 37.1% and 62.9%, respectively. This difference was not statistically significant. Also, there was no significant difference between the groups on rate of slides with inadequacy of squamous cells and obscuring 75% or more of the slides with inflammatory exudate or blood (p>0.05).Conclusion: There were no significant differences between the groups on some quality indicators of the smears. However, frequency of smears with sufficient endocervical cells was higher in the group with cervical wipping. Therefore, it is recommended to clean cervix before obtaining the smears.

Mahin Kamalifard; Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi; Sedighe Rezaie-Chamani; S. Alireza Mesbah

2013-01-01

195

Sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis: sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is complicated by the increased presence of sputum smear negative tuberculosis. Diagnosis of smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis is made by an algorithm recommended by the National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Programme that uses symptoms, signs and laboratory results. The objective of this study is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the tuberculosis treatment algorithm used for the diagnosis of sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods A cross-section study with prospective enrollment of patients was conducted in Dar-es-Salaam Tanzania. For patients with sputum smear negative, sputum was sent for culture. All consenting recruited patients were counseled and tested for HIV. Patients were evaluated using the National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Programme guidelines and those fulfilling the criteria of having active pulmonary tuberculosis were started on anti tuberculosis therapy. Remaining patients were provided appropriate therapy. A chest X-ray, mantoux test, and Full Blood Picture were done for each patient. The sensitivity and specificity of the recommended algorithm was calculated. Predictors of sputum culture positive were determined using multivariate analysis. Results During the study, 467 subjects were enrolled. Of those, 318 (68.1%) were HIV positive, 127 (27.2%) had sputum culture positive for Mycobacteria Tuberculosis, of whom 66 (51.9%) were correctly treated with anti-Tuberculosis drugs and 61 (48.1%) were missed and did not get anti-Tuberculosis drugs. Of the 286 subjects with sputum culture negative, 107 (37.4%) were incorrectly treated with anti-Tuberculosis drugs. The diagnostic algorithm for smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis had a sensitivity and specificity of 38.1% and 74.5% respectively. The presence of a dry cough, a high respiratory rate, a low eosinophil count, a mixed type of anaemia and presence of a cavity were found to be predictive of smear negative but culture positive pulmonary tuberculosis. Conclusion The current practices of establishing pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis are not sensitive and specific enough to establish the diagnosis of Acid Fast Bacilli smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis and over treat people with no pulmonary tuberculosis.

Swai Hedwiga F; Mugusi Ferdinand M; Mbwambo Jessie K

2011-01-01

196

Detection of Philadelphia chromosome-positive cells from glass slide smears using the polymerase chain reaction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Southern and Northern blot hybridization studies and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have been used to analyze the bcr-abl gene complex in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Because fresh or cryopreserved cells may not always be available for molecular analyses, we investigated the possibility of using routinely prepared glass slide smears of blood or bone marrow as our source of cellular material. Cellular RNA was prepared directly from the blood or bone marrow smears using a modified RNA extraction procedure. cDNA was synthesized from RNA and amplified with PCR using bcr and abl-specific primers. Using this procedure, the bcr-abl fusion gene was detected by PCR in 21 of 21 patients with CML. Three patients who had undergone allogenic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for CML were also studied by PCR. bcr-abl was identified transiently in one patient, persisted in one patient after BMT for 2 years until relapse occurred, and was absent in one patient to 18 months after BMT. We have shown that PCR can detect the bcr-abl gene of CML using material from glass-slide smears. This technique may be useful as a general approach in evaluating archival hematologic specimens for the expression of critical gene products. Images Figure 2 Figure 3

Hanson, C. A.; Holbrook, E. A.; Sheldon, S.; Schnitzer, B.; Roth, M. S.

1990-01-01

197

Predictors of Papanicolaou Smear Use Among American Samoan Women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To explore the rate and predictors of Papanicolaou (Pap) smear use among American Samoans, we conducted a survey of 986 randomly selected adult, self-identified Samoan women in American Samoa (n = 323), Hawaii (n = 325), and Los Angeles (n = 338). Only 46% of the women reported having a Pap smears w...

Mishra, Shiraz I; Luce-Aoelua, Pat H; Hubbell, F Allan

198

A Study of 13315 Papanicolau Smear Diagnoses in Shohada Hospital  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to review Papanicolaou (Pap) smears in patients of Shohada hospital in Tehran.Materials and methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out and a database search of all Pap smear reports from 1995 to 2005 at cytopathology department was reviewed. The abnormal Pap smear reports based on the Bethesda System were assessed.Results: A total of 13315 Pap smear reports were reviewed from patients aging 20 to 79 years old. Totally 6065 (45.55%) cases had diagnosis of 憂egative', 293(2.21%) smears were labeled as 慽nadequate', and 6799 (51.06%) reports had 態enign cellular changes'. There were 158(1.18%) abnormal Pap smears consisting of 84 (53.18%) SIL with undetermined grade (ASC-US), 28(17.73%) low grade SIL (LSIL), 17(10.75%) high grade SIL (HSIL), 27(17.08%) carcinoma and 2(1.26%) atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS). Overall incidence of the cervical cancer among these samples was 0.2%. Benign cellular changes numbered 6799(51.06%), of which 5365 (78.9%) smears demonstrated infectious processes.Conclusion: The number of abnormal pap smears in this study is less than western countries, but is comparable with Middle East and Islamic regions. More prospective studies are recommended.

Maryam Afrakhteh; Nahid Khodakarami; Afshin Moradi; Ehsan Alavi; Farshad Hosseini Shirazi

2007-01-01

199

A Study of 13315 Papanicolau Smear Diagnoses in Shohada Hospital  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: This study aimed to review Papanicolaou (Pap) smears in patients of Shohada hospital in Tehran.Materials and methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out and a database search of all Pap smear reports from 1995 to 2005 at cytopathology department was reviewed. The ab...

Maryam Afrakhteh; Nahid Khodakarami; Afshin Moradi; Ehsan Alavi; Farshad Hosseini Shirazi

200

Cross Range Smear Characterization in Xpatch ISAR Images.  

Science.gov (United States)

This thesis investigates a cross range smear phenomenon seen in far field, frequency domain Xpatch calculations. The phenomenon is very subtle, manifesting itself in 2-D ISAR images as a low-level scatterer response smeared in the cross range direction. T...

P. E. Muend

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

A highly sensitive, PCR-based method for the detection of Plasmodium falciparum clones in microtiter plates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cloning of parasites by limiting dilution is an essential and rate-limiting step in many aspects of malaria research including genomic and genetic manipulation studies. The standard Giemsa-stained blood smears to detect parasites is time-consuming, whereas the more sensitive parasite lactate dehydrogenase assay involves multiple steps and requires fresh reagents. A simple PCR-based method was therefore tested for parasite detection that can be adapted to high throughput studies. Methods Approximately 1 ?L of packed erythrocytes from each well of a microtiter cloning plate was directly used as template DNA for a PCR reaction with primers for the parasite 18s rRNA gene. Positive wells containing parasites were identified after rapid separation of PCR products by gel electrophoresis. Results The PCR-based method can consistently detect a parasitaemia as low as 0.0005%, which is equivalent to 30 parasite genomes in a single well of a 96-well plate. Parasite clones were easily detected from cloning plates using this method and a comparison of PCR results with Giemsa-stained blood smears showed that PCR not only detected all the positive wells identified in smears, but also detected wells not identified otherwise, thereby confirming its sensitivity. Conclusion The PCR-based method reported here is a simple, sensitive and efficient method for detecting parasite clones in culture. This method requires very little manual labor and can be completely automated for high throughput studies. The method is sensitive enough to detect parasites a week before they can be seen in Giemsa smears and is highly effective in identifying slow growing parasite clones.

Maher Steven P; Balu Bharath; Shoue Doug A; Weissenbach Matthew E; Adams John H

2008-01-01

202

Evaluation of contextual analysis for computer classification of cervical smears.  

Science.gov (United States)

A procedure for automated analysis of cervical smears has been implemented in an image cytometry system. Smears are described exclusively in terms of global and contextual information extracted by pattern-recognition algorithms and represented by a vector of proportions of cellular object types. Linear discriminant functions, based on a Fisher criterion, are derived to classify smears with a cross-section of diagnoses into two broad categories, normal and abnormal. Results obtained from 83 smears indicate 78% correct classification. In contrast to most automated systems, good classification results were obtained in normal smears with benign changes caused by inflammation and with postmenopausal atrophia and in abnormals with mild dysplasia. These findings suggest that contextual analysis may be sensitive to subtle changes in cellular morphology and to progressive patterns of dysplasia. When used with standard isolated cell analysis, contextual analysis may provide additional complementary information for automated cervical prescreening. PMID:3556101

Garcia, G L; Kuklinski, W S; Zahniser, D J; Oud, P S; Vooys, P G; Brenner, J F

1987-03-01

203

Evaluation of contextual analysis for computer classification of cervical smears.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A procedure for automated analysis of cervical smears has been implemented in an image cytometry system. Smears are described exclusively in terms of global and contextual information extracted by pattern-recognition algorithms and represented by a vector of proportions of cellular object types. Linear discriminant functions, based on a Fisher criterion, are derived to classify smears with a cross-section of diagnoses into two broad categories, normal and abnormal. Results obtained from 83 smears indicate 78% correct classification. In contrast to most automated systems, good classification results were obtained in normal smears with benign changes caused by inflammation and with postmenopausal atrophia and in abnormals with mild dysplasia. These findings suggest that contextual analysis may be sensitive to subtle changes in cellular morphology and to progressive patterns of dysplasia. When used with standard isolated cell analysis, contextual analysis may provide additional complementary information for automated cervical prescreening.

Garcia GL; Kuklinski WS; Zahniser DJ; Oud PS; Vooys PG; Brenner JF

1987-03-01

204

Stout-link smearing in lattice fermion actions  

CERN Multimedia

The properties of the momentum space quark propagator in Landau gauge are studied for the overlap quark action in quenched lattice QCD. Numerical calculations are performed over four ensembles of gauge configurations, where three are smeared using either 1, 3, or 6 sweeps of stout-link smearing. We calculate the non-perturbative wave function renormalization function $Z(p)$ and the non-perturbative mass function $M(p)$ for a variety of bare quark masses. We find that the wave-function renormalization function is slightly sensitive to the number of stout-link smearing sweeps. For the mass function we find the effect of the stout-link smearing algorithm to be small for moderate to light bare quark masses. For a heavy bare quark mass we find a strong dependence on the number of smearing sweeps.

Zhang, J B; Bowman, Patrick O; Leinweber, Derek B; Williams, Anthony G

2009-01-01

205

Dentin smear layer: an asset or a liability for bonding?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite concerns and claims that the smear layer on dentin is undesirable for bonding, supportive evidence is lacking. The clinical efficacy of various agents for smear layer removal and the effect of smear layer removal on the bond strengths of a glass-ionomer cement and three representative dentin bonding agents were examined. For all but one dentin bonding agent (Gluma), a 15-second treatment with 17% EDTA caused a reduction in bond strength. For Gluma, no significant bond was obtained without EDTA treatment. While Gluma probably bonds via dentinal collagen, the other materials interact primarily with dentinal calcium. Removal of the smear layer for adhesives reliant on the presence of calcium is therefore undesirable. The clinical effects of some agents proposed for smear layer removal were examined by SEM of replicas.

White GJ; Beech DR; Tyas MJ

1989-11-01

206

Effect of 6-nonadecyl salicylic acid and its methyl ester on the induction of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes in mouse peripheral blood.  

Science.gov (United States)

The bark of Amphipterygium adstringens is widely used in the traditional Mexican medicine for treating ailments such as gastric ulcers, gastritis and stomach cancer. The 6-nonadecyl salicylic acid (anacardic acid) was isolated from the bark of this species. In previous papers have been informed that the anacardic acids possess anti-tumour, antimicrobial, antiacne, antibacterial and many others medicinal properties. Now we describe cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of this compound and its methyl ester. The cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of 6-nonadecyl salicylic acid (6NDSA) and its methyl ester (ME6NDSA) on CD1 male mice were determined with micronucleus assay at 24, 48 and 72h after oral administration of doses of 0.75, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0mg/kg. Peripheral blood samples were drawn from the caudal vein and analyzed by Giemsa-stained technique. The results obtained showed that the ratios of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) to normochromatic erythrocytes (NCE) in mice treated with 10mg/kg of 6NDSA were statistically lower after 24h compared with its negative control animals, and that after 72h, PCE/NCE ratios were reduced in animals treated with 6NDSA at all tested dose levels. The methyl ester ME6NDSA showed no such cytotoxic activity. Neither of the test compounds increased the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes from which it appears that administration of 6NDSA and ME6NDSA may not lead to chromosome damage at the evaluated doses. PMID:16857418

Acevedo, Hortensia Rosas; Rojas, Maritere Dom韓guez; Arceo, Sandra D韆z Barriga; Soto Hern醤dez, Marcos; Mart韓ez V醶quez, Mariano; Terrazas, Teresa; del Toro, Gustavo Valencia

2006-07-20

207

Chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes of prostate cancer patients treated with IMRT and carbon ions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background and purpose: To investigate the cytogenetic damage in blood lymphocytes of patients treated for prostate cancer with different radiation qualities and target volumes. Materials and methods: Twenty patients receiving carbon-ion boost irradiation followed by IMRT or IMRT alone for the treatment of prostate cancer entered the study. Cytogenetic damage induced in peripheral blood lymphocytes of these patients was investigated at different times during the radiotherapy course using Giemsa staining and mFISH. A blood sample from each patient was taken before initiation of radiation therapy and irradiated in vitro to test for individual radiosensitivity. In addition, in vitro dose-effect curves for the induction of chromosomal exchanges by X-rays and carbon ions of different energies were measured. Results: The yield of chromosome aberrations increased during the therapy course, and the frequency was lower in patients irradiated with carbon ions as compared to patients treated with IMRT with similar target volumes. A higher frequency of aberrations was measured by increasing the target volume. In vitro, high-LET carbon ions were more effective than X-rays in inducing aberrations and yielded a higher fraction of complex exchanges. The yield of complex aberrations observed in vivo was very low. Conclusion: The investigation showed no higher aberration yield induced by treatment with a carbon-ion boost. In contrast, the reduced integral dose to the normal tissue is reflected in a lower chromosomal aberration yield when a carbon-ion boost is used instead of IMRT alone. No cytogenetic 'signature' of exposure to densely ionizing carbon ions could be detected in vivo.

2010-01-01

208

Does smearing inoculum reflect the bacterial composition of the smear at the end of the ripening of a French soft, red-smear cheese?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The microbial community composition and dynamics during the production of a French soft, red-smear cheese were investigated. The colonization efficiency of the smearing inoculum was followed, and the parts played by the inoculum used and the resident microflora were tentatively estimated. Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP) was applied to 2 productions of a soft, red-smear cheese produced by the same dairy plant at 4-mo intervals. Microbial composition of the different cheese samples analyzed was found to be reproducible from one production to another. However, the composition of the surface flora of both cheeses at the end of the ripening did not reflect the composition of the smearing inoculum used, qualitatively as well as quantitatively. These results were confirmed by those obtained when assessing the microbial composition of the culturable flora by the spread plate technique. The inoculum used by the industry had low resiliency potentialities against colonization of cheeses by resident organisms. Therefore, fitness and colonization potential of smearing inocula should be carefully assessed by the industry before use. The use of Arthrobacter strains as part of the smearing inoculum should be evaluated.

Feurer C; Vallaeys T; Corrieu G; Irlinger F

2004-10-01

209

Does smearing inoculum reflect the bacterial composition of the smear at the end of the ripening of a French soft, red-smear cheese?  

Science.gov (United States)

The microbial community composition and dynamics during the production of a French soft, red-smear cheese were investigated. The colonization efficiency of the smearing inoculum was followed, and the parts played by the inoculum used and the resident microflora were tentatively estimated. Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP) was applied to 2 productions of a soft, red-smear cheese produced by the same dairy plant at 4-mo intervals. Microbial composition of the different cheese samples analyzed was found to be reproducible from one production to another. However, the composition of the surface flora of both cheeses at the end of the ripening did not reflect the composition of the smearing inoculum used, qualitatively as well as quantitatively. These results were confirmed by those obtained when assessing the microbial composition of the culturable flora by the spread plate technique. The inoculum used by the industry had low resiliency potentialities against colonization of cheeses by resident organisms. Therefore, fitness and colonization potential of smearing inocula should be carefully assessed by the industry before use. The use of Arthrobacter strains as part of the smearing inoculum should be evaluated. PMID:15377597

Feurer, C; Vallaeys, T; Corrieu, G; Irlinger, F

2004-10-01

210

How a Routine Pap Smear Ends Up Costing $1,000  

Science.gov (United States)

... page, please enable JavaScript. How a Routine Pap Smear Ends Up Costing $1,000 Family physician investigated ... they wouldn't normally consider a simple Pap smear. Pap smears are routine tests that doctors use ...

211

Analysis of cervical smears in a Muslim population  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Screening for the cancer of the cervix remains a neglected health care issue in Pakistan. To provide baseline data for future efforts to improve screening, we conducted a retrospective analysis of cervical smears taken in the obstetrics and gynaecological clinics of the Agha Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. We collected data on cervical smear cytology for cervical smears taken from January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1996. We assessed risk factors for dysplasia, including age, age at first marriage, and number of pregnancies. The overall prevalence of abnormal smears in our study was 0.5%. Of 20,995 cervical smears, showed non-specific inflammation, 7302 (34.8%) were reported as normal, 809 (3.85%) showed monillial infection, 148 (0.71%) showed atypia, 105 (0.5%) had dyplastic cytology and 52 (0.25%) samples were inadequate. The highest incidence of dysplastic smears was seen in the age group 35 to 44 years. Of 105 patients with dysplasia 12 were pregnant, and all were asymptomatic. The low prevalence of abnormal smears, compared with the data from Western populations, could be due to the internet bias of health awareness in the women who attended our hospital. The results of this study may serve as baseline for for future comparisons. A large community-based study may establish the exact prevalence of malignant and premalignant lesions so as to plan for future screening. (author)

2004-01-01

212

Effectiveness of nursing interventions to increase pap smear test screening.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a three-stage nursing intervention to increase Turkish women's participation in Pap smear testing. Knowledge and beliefs about cervical cancer screening and barriers to Pap smears also were explored. In a quasi-experimental study in a target population of 2,500 women, 237 completed pre-test measures to inform the intervention, and an educational brochure was distributed to all 2,500. As a result, 510 women (20.4%) accepted free Pap smears. Of the remaining 1,990 women, 417 were randomly selected for telephone interviews, 302 participated, and 158 of these (52.3%) participated in free Pap smear testing. Of the 144 who did not have Pap smears after participating in telephone interviews, 54 were then interviewed face-to-face, and 20 (37.0%) decided to accept free Pap smears. A total of 668 women had accepted free Pap smears by the end of the intervention period.

Guvenc G; Akyuz A; Yenen MC

2013-04-01

213

Evaluation of impression smear in the diagnosis of fungal keratitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate and compare impression smear with the conventional mechanical corneal scraping by potassium hydroxide (KOH) method in the diagnosis of fungal keratitis. Materials and Methods: Fifty consecutive cases of clinically suspected fungal keratitis were included. Under topical anesthesia, impression smear was obtained from the lesion, followed by the conventional mechanical scraping and both were transferred to sterile glass slides. The slides were examined under direct microscopy with KOH 10% wet mount. Impression smear KOH was compared with the scraping KOH and culture. Results: The KOH smear was positive in 36 (72%) patients with impression smear technique and positive in 35 (70%) patients from corneal scrapings. Sensitivity of impression smear technique as compared to scraping was 97.14%, specificity 92.86%, positive predictive value 94.4%, negative predictive value 92.86%, false positive rate 5.56%, false negative rate 7.14% and accuracy was 94%. As compared to culture, the sensitivity was 100%, specificity 46.67%, positive predictive value 55.56%, negative predictive value 100%, false positive rate 53.33%, false negative rate 0% and accuracy was 68%. Conclusion: Impression smear KOH examination is comparable to conventional mechanical corneal scraping KOH examination in making a tentative diagnosis of fungal keratitis and can be accurately relied upon for initiating anti-fungal therapy.

Jain Arun; Bansal Reema; Felcida Vinaya; Rajwanshi A

2007-01-01

214

Cerebral infarction in acute promyelocytic leukemia at initial presentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on a 3 year old girl with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) with cerebral infarction due to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) at initial presentation. She was hospitalized because of unconsciousness and petechiae on the chest wall and extremities. Cerebral ischemia and infarction were found on computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging. Peripheral blood content was hemoglobin 7.3 g/dL, white blood cells 1.0 x 10(3) cells/microL (31% blasts) and platelet count was 12 x 10(3) cells/microL. Fragmented erythrocytes were frequently observed on May-Giemsa stained blood smears. Bone marrow aspirates showed normal cellularity, with 60.4% blasts, containing faggot cells. The blasts were positive for peroxidase. Therapy was begun; however, the patient died 1 week after admission. PMID:8775558

Saitoh, E; Sugita, K; Kurosawa, H; Kurosaki, M; Eguchi, M; Furukawa, T; Nakajima, C; Kobayashi, Y

1995-12-01

215

Cerebral infarction in acute promyelocytic leukemia at initial presentation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report on a 3 year old girl with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) with cerebral infarction due to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) at initial presentation. She was hospitalized because of unconsciousness and petechiae on the chest wall and extremities. Cerebral ischemia and infarction were found on computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging. Peripheral blood content was hemoglobin 7.3 g/dL, white blood cells 1.0 x 10(3) cells/microL (31% blasts) and platelet count was 12 x 10(3) cells/microL. Fragmented erythrocytes were frequently observed on May-Giemsa stained blood smears. Bone marrow aspirates showed normal cellularity, with 60.4% blasts, containing faggot cells. The blasts were positive for peroxidase. Therapy was begun; however, the patient died 1 week after admission.

Saitoh E; Sugita K; Kurosawa H; Kurosaki M; Eguchi M; Furukawa T; Nakajima C; Kobayashi Y

1995-12-01

216

An endocrinology laboratory exercise demonstrating the effect of confinement stress on the immune system of mice  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes a simple laboratory exercise for examining the effect of stress on the immune system in mice. Mice are subjected to confinement stress for 1 h, after which a sample of blood is collected via the caudal vein. Blood samples are smeared onto microscope slides, air dried, and stained with Wright's Giemsa stain. When differential white blood cell counts are performed, there are noticeable differences between the neutrophil and lymphocyte counts of stressed versus control mice. The protocol is simple enough for students to perform, and the entire experiment can be completed within 3 h. Examples of ways in which the basic protocol can be modified to accommodate a shorter laboratory class are provided. This hands-on laboratory experiment provides students with experience using the scientific method to investigate the interaction between the endocrine and immune systems in response to stress.

Jacqueline Brehe (Carroll College Biology); Amy L. Way (Lock Haven University of Pennsylvania Clearfield Campus)

2008-03-04

217

Reliable enumeration of malaria parasites in thick blood films using digital image analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitation of malaria parasite density is an important component of laboratory diagnosis of malaria. Microscopy of Giemsa-stained thick blood films is the conventional method for parasite enumeration. Accurate and reproducible parasite counts are difficult to achieve, because of inherent technical limitations and human inconsistency. Inaccurate parasite density estimation may have adverse clinical and therapeutic implications for patients, and for endpoints of clinical trials of anti-malarial vaccines or drugs. Digital image analysis provides an opportunity to improve performance of parasite density quantitation. Methods Accurate manual parasite counts were done on 497 images of a range of thick blood films with varying densities of malaria parasites, to establish a uniformly reliable standard against which to assess the digital technique. By utilizing descriptive statistical parameters of parasite size frequency distributions, particle counting algorithms of the digital image analysis programme were semi-automatically adapted to variations in parasite size, shape and staining characteristics, to produce optimum signal/noise ratios. Results A reliable counting process was developed that requires no operator decisions that might bias the outcome. Digital counts were highly correlated with manual counts for medium to high parasite densities, and slightly less well correlated with conventional counts. At low densities (fewer than 6 parasites per analysed image) signal/noise ratios were compromised and correlation between digital and manual counts was poor. Conventional counts were consistently lower than both digital and manual counts. Conclusion Using open-access software and avoiding custom programming or any special operator intervention, accurate digital counts were obtained, particularly at high parasite densities that are difficult to count conventionally. The technique is potentially useful for laboratories that routinely perform malaria parasite enumeration. The requirements of a digital microscope camera, personal computer and good quality staining of slides are potentially reasonably easy to meet.

Frean John A

2009-01-01

218

[Disturbance of binocular vision by wiper smears on windshields].  

Science.gov (United States)

Sunlight or light from other sources can be scattered and refracted by the smears left on windshields by wipers. Under certain circumstances the resulting light phenomena can disturb binocular vision and distract the driver's attention. PMID:2709737

Reiner, J

1989-01-01

219

Relationship between Bone Mineral Density and Maturity Index in Cervical Smears, Serum Estradiol Levels and Body Mass Index  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease with a consequent increased risk of fracture, decreased quality of life and economic burdens for both the patients and health care system. While Dual energy X-Ray absorptiometry remains the gold standard for assessment of bone mineral density, it cannot be requested for all patients for obvious reasons. By determining other variables that may correlate with osteoporosis, we can identify individuals who may be at risk for osteoporosis earlier. Then, they can be treated at the earlier stages of the disease. In the present study, relationships between bone mineral density, maturity index in cervical smear, serum estradiol level and body mass index were examined. Materials & Methods: The present study performed on 128 women, who had been referred for bone mineral densitometry. Blood samples were obtained for determination of serum estradiol level. Cervical smear was taken for assessment of cell抯 maturity. Cervical smears were examined by a pathologist and were sorted as atrophic or mature. Body mass index was calculated too. Relationships among Body mass index, serum estradiol level, and maturity index and bone mineral densitometry were analyzed using proper statistical tests. Results: Maturity index had significant relationship with T Score in the spine and femoral neck (P Conclusion: Pap smear is a routine examination which is performed mainly for screening purposes in gynecology. It is non-invasive, simple and low-priced. Results of current study suggest that women with atrophic cervical smear should be examined more rigorously for osteoporosis. If any patient has atrophic maturity index in her cervical smear, she will be at much higher risk of osteoporosis.

Homayoun Sheikholeslami; Majid Sotodeh; Amir Javadi; Neda Nasirian; Amir Mohammad Kazemifar; Mahnaz Abbasi

2013-01-01

220

Diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis: pattern of tuberculosis, two-month smear conversion and treatment outcomes in Guangzhou, China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: There is a high burden of both diabetes (DM) and tuberculosis (TB) in China. We evaluated the association between DM and the pattern of disease, 2-month sputum smear conversion and treatment outcomes of patients with TB in Guangzhou, China. METHOD: All patients registered with TB from September 2011 to June 2012 were screened for DM and assessed for treatment outcomes in relation to presence or absence of DM and quality of DM control using patient registers, treatment cards and electronic record systems. RESULTS: There were 1589 patients with TB of whom 189 (12%) had DM. Among those with DM, there was a significantly higher proportion of men, persons aged 35爕ears and older and persons with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) (P<0.01). In patients with DM and new smear-positive PTB, there was a higher proportion who had positive sputum smears at 2爉onths (21.7% vs. 5.6%, RR 3.85, 95%CI 2.24-6.63), who were lost-to-follow-up (5.2% vs. 1.7%, RR 3.23, 95%CI 1.08-9.63) and who failed treatment (10.3% vs. 2.3%, RR 4.46, 95%CI 1.96-10.18) compared with patients who had no DM. There was no significant association between these adverse outcomes and DM control as measured by 2 and 6-month fasting blood glucose. CONCLUSION: Diabetes mellitus in new smear-positive patients with PTB was associated with failure to sputum smear convert at 2爉onths and adverse treatment outcomes of loss-to-follow-up and failure. Further research is needed to understand the reasons for these findings and to determine whether the current length of treatment of 6爉onths is adequate.

Mi F; Tan S; Liang L; Harries AD; Hinderaker SG; Lin Y; Yue W; Chen X; Liang B; Gong F; Du J

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
221

An alternate smearing method for Wilson loops in lattice QCD  

CERN Multimedia

A gauge field link smearing method developed for calculations with staggered fermions, namely the use of unitarized fat7 links, is applied to mesonic and baryonic Wilson loop calculations. This method is found to be very effective for reducing statistical fluctuations for large Wilson loops. Examination of chromo-electric field distributions shows that self-interactions of the static sources are reduced when unitarized fat7 smearing is used but long-distance inter-quark effects are unchanged.

Okiharu, F

2004-01-01

222

Significant pathologic findings in 41 Atypical Glandular Cell pap smears  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between atypical glandular cell (AGC) on Pap smear and significant pathologic finding to tailor management protocols. Methods: Between 2002 and 2005, Among 26893 Pap smears 122 women with AGC Pap smears (prevalence=0.45%) were referred to our colposcopy clinic. Forty one women underwent colposcopy directed biopsy, endocervical curettage, endometrial sampling and cervical conization to determine the cytologic and histologic correlations of AGC on pap smears. Results: A total of 122 women with AGC Pap smear were found. Only 41 women accepted to participate in the study and followed the workup procedures. The mean age of the patients was 46.92 11.48 years (range, 23-80 years). Of these patients 13 patients (31.7%) were post menopause and 28 patients (68.2%) were in reproductive age. We found 13 (31.7%) significant pathologic findings including 4 (9.7%) high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HG-SIL), 3(7.3%) low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LG-SIL), 2(4.8%) Endometrial hyperplasia, 1(2.4%) Endometrial adenocarci-noma, 1(2.4%) adenocarcinoma of cervix, 1(2.4%) squamous cell carcinoma of cervix and 1(2.4%) papillary serous tumor of ovary. There was not any significant difference in the prevalence of significant pathologic findings and subtype of squamous or adenomatous lesions between pre and postmenopausal group. Conclusion: AGC on Pap smear was associated with a clinically significant diagnosis in approximately one third of our cases. The women with a diagnosis of AGC on cervicovaginal smear are needed to be evaluated at least with colposcopy, endocervical and endometrial curettage. Clinicians should be careful about the significance of AGC in pap smears.

Behtash N; Fakhrejahani F; Khafaf A; Ghayouri Azar E

2007-01-01

223

Measurement of surface contamination using the smear method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en]燭he authors propose an enchantment of the smear method used for measuring the surface contamination in rooms and facilities in the strict regime zone of the Kozloduy NPP. The existing procedure of smear taking has low accuracy, efficiency and reproducibility due to unsuitable filter materials. 30 new materials have been tested and two of them - textile fabrics TT and WH - have been found appropriate for the purpose. Application of these materials will considerably reduce the uncertainties of measurement

1996-01-01

224

Analysis of inadequate cervical smears using Shewhart control charts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate cervical smears cannot be analysed, can cause distress to women, are a financial burden to the NHS and may lead to further unnecessary procedures being undertaken. Furthermore, the proportion of inadequate smears is known to vary widely amongst providers. This study investigates this variation using Shewhart's theory of variation and control charts, and suggests strategies for addressing this. Methods Cervical cytology data, from six laboratories, serving 100 general practices in a former UK Health Authority area were obtained for the years 2000 and 2001. Control charts of the proportion of inadequate smears were plotted for all general practices, for the six laboratories and for the practices stratified by laboratory. The relationship between proportion of inadequate smears and the proportion of negative, borderline, mild, moderate or severe dyskaryosis as well as the positive predictive value of a smear in each laboratory was also investigated. Results There was wide variation in the proportion of inadequate smears with 23% of practices showing evidence of special cause variation and four of the six laboratories showing evidence of special cause variation. There was no evidence of a clinically important association between high rates of inadequate smears and better detection of dyskaryosis (R2 = 0.082). Conclusions The proportion of inadequate smears is influenced by two distinct sources of variation general practices and cytology laboratories, which are classified by the control chart methodology as either being consistent with common or special cause variation. This guidance from the control chart methodology appears to be useful in delivering the aim of continual improvement.

Harrison Wayne N; Mohammed Mohammed A; Wall Michael K; Marshall Tom P

2004-01-01

225

Clinical Hepatozoon canis infection in a dog in Turkey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A five-year-old female dog was presented with a four-week history of inappetence, weight loss, and skin and gait abnormalities. Physical examination revealed weakness, depression, incoordination of the posterior limbs, emaciation, skin and hair coat alterations, peripheral lymphadenopathy, pale mucous membranes and fever. Laboratory analysis of samples revealed abnormalities which included anaemia, neutrophilic leucocytosis, thrombocytopenia, low serum glucose and albumin concentrations, and increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity. The diagnosis was confirmed microscopically, by demonstrating the presence of Hepatozoon canis gametocytes within neutrophils in Giemsa-stained peripheral blood smears. Treatment consisting of toltrazuril and a trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole combination was effective in relieving the clinical signs and clearing the blood of H. canis gametocytes. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first detailed clinical description of H. canis infection in a dog in Turkey.

Voyvoda H; Pasa S; Uner A

2004-12-01

226

A case of Plasmodium ovale malaria imported from West Africa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Malaria is a parasitic infection caused by Plasmodium species. Most of the imported malaria in Korea are due to Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum, and Plasmodium ovale infections are very rare. Here, we report a case of a 24-year-old American woman who acquired P. ovale while staying in Ghana, West Africa for 5 months in 2010. The patient was diagnosed with P. ovale malaria based on a Wright-Giemsa stained peripheral blood smear, Plasmodium genus-specific real-time PCR, Plasmodium species-specific nested PCR, and sequencing targeting 18S rRNA gene. The strain identified had a very long incubation period of 19-24 months. Blood donors who have malaria with a very long incubation period could be a potential danger for propagating malaria. Therefore, we should identify imported P. ovale infections not only by morphological findings but also by molecular methods for preventing propagation and appropriate treatment.

Kang Y; Yang J

2013-04-01

227

Clinical Hepatozoon canis infection in a dog in Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

A five-year-old female dog was presented with a four-week history of inappetence, weight loss, and skin and gait abnormalities. Physical examination revealed weakness, depression, incoordination of the posterior limbs, emaciation, skin and hair coat alterations, peripheral lymphadenopathy, pale mucous membranes and fever. Laboratory analysis of samples revealed abnormalities which included anaemia, neutrophilic leucocytosis, thrombocytopenia, low serum glucose and albumin concentrations, and increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity. The diagnosis was confirmed microscopically, by demonstrating the presence of Hepatozoon canis gametocytes within neutrophils in Giemsa-stained peripheral blood smears. Treatment consisting of toltrazuril and a trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole combination was effective in relieving the clinical signs and clearing the blood of H. canis gametocytes. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first detailed clinical description of H. canis infection in a dog in Turkey. PMID:15600273

Voyvoda, H; Pasa, S; Uner, A

2004-12-01

228

Molecular and parasitological survey of Hepatozoon canis (Apicomplexa: Hepatozoidae) in dogs from rural area of Sao Paulo state, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hepatozoon canis is a protozoan that infects dogs and is transmitted by the ingestion of the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Two distinct species of Hepatozoon genus can infect dogs, H. canis and H. americanum. Routine tests to detect the disease are based on direct examination of gametocytes on Giemsa-stained blood smears. The objectives of this study were the investigation of infection prevalence in rural area dogs, the comparison of diagnostics by blood smear examination and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the association of infection with tick infestation. Blood smears, collected by puncture of the cephalic vein and ear margin capillary bed from 150 dogs, were examined. This technique detected 17 positive animals (11.3%), with 14 (9.3%) in peripheral blood and seven (4.7%) in cephalic vein blood. PCR tests detected 80 (53.3%) positive animals. R. sanguineus and Amblyomma spp. were found in 36 of the dogs (24%), in equal proportions. The identified species for Amblyomma genus were A. cajennense and A. ovale. Data analysis showed that PCR was much more sensitive when compared to blood smear examination. Hepatozoon species was previously identified as closely related to H. canis. PMID:18188597

Rubini, Adriano Stefani; dos Santos Paduan, Karina; Von Ah Lopes, Viviane; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena

2008-01-06

229

Molecular and parasitological survey of Hepatozoon canis (Apicomplexa: Hepatozoidae) in dogs from rural area of Sao Paulo state, Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hepatozoon canis is a protozoan that infects dogs and is transmitted by the ingestion of the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Two distinct species of Hepatozoon genus can infect dogs, H. canis and H. americanum. Routine tests to detect the disease are based on direct examination of gametocytes on Giemsa-stained blood smears. The objectives of this study were the investigation of infection prevalence in rural area dogs, the comparison of diagnostics by blood smear examination and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the association of infection with tick infestation. Blood smears, collected by puncture of the cephalic vein and ear margin capillary bed from 150 dogs, were examined. This technique detected 17 positive animals (11.3%), with 14 (9.3%) in peripheral blood and seven (4.7%) in cephalic vein blood. PCR tests detected 80 (53.3%) positive animals. R. sanguineus and Amblyomma spp. were found in 36 of the dogs (24%), in equal proportions. The identified species for Amblyomma genus were A. cajennense and A. ovale. Data analysis showed that PCR was much more sensitive when compared to blood smear examination. Hepatozoon species was previously identified as closely related to H. canis.

Rubini AS; dos Santos Paduan K; Von Ah Lopes V; O'Dwyer LH

2008-04-01

230

Aggressive evaluation for atypical squamous cells in Papanicolaou smears.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A retrospective study was done on women who had atypical Papanicolaou smears and were referred for immediate colposcopy. The smears were obtained during January 1985 to March 1989 at Edwards Air Force Base, California. Excluded from the evaluation were abnormal Papanicolaou smears with hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis and koilocytotic atypia suggestive of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. The evaluation included colposcopy, colposcopically directed biopsies, endocervical curettage and repeat Papanicolaou smears. A total of 101 patients were included in the study. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) was seen in 29.7% (30 patients): 12.9% (13) CIN I, 12.9% (13) CIN II and 3.9% (4) CIN III. Carcinoma was seen in 3.9% (4) of the patients: 2.9% (3) was carcinoma in situ, and 0.99% (1) was invasive squamous cell carcinoma, stage IIb. HPV and dysplastic lesions were seen together in 19.8% (20) of the patients. HPV was seen alone in 45% (46). Twenty-one patients (20.8%) had no apparent lesions on colposcopy, although one developed microinvasive keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma within 36 months of colposcopy. Many significant lesions can go undetected for extended periods of time in women with atypical Papanicolaou smears, resulting in delayed management. Referral for immediate colposcopy is advocated strongly.

Lindheim SR; Smith-Nguyen G

1990-10-01

231

Incidence of smear-positive tuberculosis in Dabat, northern Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) in Dabat District, northern Ethiopia. METHODS: Using a population-based longitudinal design, a TB surveillance system was initiated among 46,165 residents at the Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System site. Trained field workers visited each household every third month and interviewed all individuals aged ?14 years using a uniform questionnaire to detect suspected cases of TB (cough ?15 days), at which time two sputum (spot-morning) samples were collected for smear microscopy. RESULTS: A total of 281,820 person-months were observed during the 1-year period, which generated 74 smear-positive TB cases. The incidence of smear-positive TB was calculated at 311 per 100,000 person-years (95%CI 240-382). Higher rates were observed among females (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 2.08, 95%CI 1.24-3.52), persons with no schooling (IRR 2.74, 95%CI 1.11-6.78) and urban residents (IRR 2.39, 95%CI 1.39-4.12). CONCLUSION: The incidence of smear-positive TB is high in Dabat District, suggesting a high risk of transmission in the communities. TB control programmes thus need to improve case-finding mechanisms at the community level in Ethiopia, with greater emphasis on risk groups.

Tadesse T; Demissie M; Berhane Y; Kebede Y; Abebe M

2013-05-01

232

A method for reducing the sloughing of thick blood films for malaria diagnosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The gold standard for malaria diagnosis is the examination of thick and thin blood films. Thick films contain 10 to 20 times more blood than thin films, correspondingly providing increased sensitivity for malaria screening. A potential complication of thick film preparations is sloughing of the blood droplet from the slide during staining or rinsing, resulting in the loss of sample. In this work, two methods for improving thick film slide adherence ('scratch' (SCM) and 'acetone dip' (ADM) methods) were compared to the 'standard method' (SM) of thick film preparation. METHODS: Standardized blood droplets from 26 previously examined EDTA whole blood specimens (22 positive and four negative) were concurrently spread on glass slides using the SM, ADM, and SCM. For the SM and ADM prepared slides, the droplet was gently spread to an approximate 22 millimeters in diameter spot on the slide using the edge of a second glass slide. For the SCM, the droplet was spread by carefully grinding (or scratching) it into the slide with the point of a second glass slide. Slides were dried for one hour in a laminar flow hood. For the ADM, slides were dipped once in an acetone filled Coplin jar and allowed to air dry. All slides were then Giemsa-stained and examined in a blinded manner. Adherence was assessed by blinded reviewers. RESULTS: No significant or severe defects were observed for slides prepared with the SCM. In contrast, 8 slides prepared by the ADM and 3 prepared using the SM displayed significant or severe defects. Thick films prepared by the three methods were microscopically indistinguishable and concordant results (positive or negative) were obtained for the three methods. Estimated parasitaemia of the blood samples ranged from 25 to 429,169 parasites/?L of blood. CONCLUSIONS: The SCM is an inexpensive, rapid, and simple method that improves the adherence of thick blood films to standard glass slides without altering general slide preparation, microscopic appearance or interpretability. Using the SCM, thick films can be reliably examined less than two hours after sample receipt. This represents a significant diagnostic improvement over protocols requiring extended drying periods.

Norgan AP; Arguello HE; Sloan LM; Fernholz EC; Pritt BS

2013-01-01

233

Investigation of Lattice QCD with Wilson fermions with Gaussian Smearing  

CERN Document Server

We present a detailed study of pion and rho mass, decay constants and quark mass in Lattice QCD with two flavors of dynamical quarks. We use Wilson gauge and fermion action at $\\beta=5.6$ on $ 16^3 \\times 32 $ lattice at eight values of the Wilson hopping parameter in the range 0.156 - 0.158. We perform a detailed investigation of the effect of gaussian smearing on both source and sink. We determine the optimum smearing parameter for various correlators for each value of the Wilson hopping parameter. The effects of smearing on observables are compared with those measured using local operators. We also investigate systematic effects in the extraction of masses and decay constants using different types of correlation functions for pion observables. We make interesting observations regarding chiral extrapolations and finite volume effects of different operators.

De, Asit K; Maiti, Jyotirmoy

2007-01-01

234

[Clinical mycoplasmosis outbreak due to Mycoplasma ovis in sheep from Shalta, Argentina. Clinical, microbiological and molecular diagnosis].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mycoplasma ovis is an obligatory parasite of the erythrocytes from small ruminants (sheep, goat), wherein it causes chronic or acute anaemia. This agent shows worldwide distribution. However, its dispersion is still unknown in Argentina. This work describes an outbreak of mycoplasmosis occurred in January 2007 in a sheep flock from Rosario de la Frontera, Salta, Argentina. Adult sheep became ill with a mortality rate of 17.8%. All blood smears (n = 11) examined by Giemsa stain showed the presence of small basophile bodies characteristic of M. ovis infection, indicating a high prevalence of the infection in the flock. The molecular diagnosis (n = 9) confirmed the findings through the amplification of two fragments from the 16S rRNA gene. This is the third report of M. ovis in Argentina and the first one concomitant with clinical signs at flock level.

Aguirre DH; Thompson C; Neumann RD; Salatin AO; Gaido AB; de Echaide ST

2009-10-01

235

[Therapeutic efficacy of buparvaquone (buparvon) in cattle with theileriosis].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of buparvaquone (Buparvon, ALKE, Istanbul) in the treatment of theileriosis in cattle. The causative agent T. annulata causes direct and indirect gross economical loss in Turkey. Theileriosis was microscopically diagnosed by determining the presence of piroplasms in erythrocytes in thin blood smears stained with Giemsa stain. Buparvaquone was administered intramuscularly to the cattle with theileriosis using a single dose of 2.5 mg/kg. Clinical and laboratory examinations in cattle with theileriosis were carried out before and on the first, third and seventh days after treatment. As a result, it was concluded that a single deep intramuscular dose of 2.5 mg/kg buparvaquone was effective in the treatment of cattle which are naturally infected with T. annulata. However, further studies are needed using control groups of the same breed and age including suitable numbers of naturally infected and experimentally infected cattle.

Saruhan B; Pa?a S

2008-01-01

236

Saurian malaria in Kenya: epidemiological features of malarial infections in lizard populations of the West Pokot District.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During investigations into the prevalence of malarial parasites among lizards in the West Pokot District in Kenya, 179 lizards comprising eight species were caught. Examination of the Giemsa-stained smears made from their blood showed that 34 lizards were infected with Plasmodium species. Fifteen lizards were infected with a single species of Plasmodium and 19 carried multiple infections, the maximum, in four lizards, was four species. There were 19 combinations of parasite infections. Seventeen Plasmodium species were identified, the commonest being P. icipeensis. Only two of the eight lizard species were infected: the skink Mabuya striata and the agamid Agama agama. Eight of the Plasmodium species infected both; another eight species infected M. striata only but three of these have been described from different lizard families elsewhere in Africa. P. robinsoni infected A. agama only, although it was first described from another lizard family in another part of Africa. The epidemiological significance of these results is discussed.

Mutinga MJ; Dipeolu OO

1990-04-01

237

Saurian malaria in Kenya: epidemiological features of malarial infections in lizard populations of the West Pokot District.  

Science.gov (United States)

During investigations into the prevalence of malarial parasites among lizards in the West Pokot District in Kenya, 179 lizards comprising eight species were caught. Examination of the Giemsa-stained smears made from their blood showed that 34 lizards were infected with Plasmodium species. Fifteen lizards were infected with a single species of Plasmodium and 19 carried multiple infections, the maximum, in four lizards, was four species. There were 19 combinations of parasite infections. Seventeen Plasmodium species were identified, the commonest being P. icipeensis. Only two of the eight lizard species were infected: the skink Mabuya striata and the agamid Agama agama. Eight of the Plasmodium species infected both; another eight species infected M. striata only but three of these have been described from different lizard families elsewhere in Africa. P. robinsoni infected A. agama only, although it was first described from another lizard family in another part of Africa. The epidemiological significance of these results is discussed. PMID:2332274

Mutinga, M J; Dipeolu, O O

1990-04-01

238

First case of visceral Leishmaniosis/HIV coinfection in Ni - southeastern Serbia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniosis (VL) has emerged as an important opportunistic parasitosis associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The aim of this paper is to report the first case of Leishmania/HIV coinfection in a patient from Ni (Southeastern Serbia). Microscopical examination of Giemsa-stained bone marrow (BM) smears show the presence of Leishmania spp. amastigotes based on their morphological characteristics. In spite of the parasitological finding, the serological test applied gave negative results. Molecular analyses confirmed the infection and allowed us to identify the leishmania species as Leishmania infantum (100% identity). VL/HIV coinfection has important clinical, diagnostic and epidemiological implications. In fact, the failure of serological tests is expected in this condition, and the application of molecular diagnostics to the blood may offer, apart from an easy and non-invasive diagnostic opportunity, the possibility of warning about the risk of possible nosocomial infections. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41018 and br. 175034

Marjanovi? G.; Miladinovi?-Tasi? Nata歛; Gabrielli Simona; Ota歟vi? Suzana; Popovi?-Dragonji? Lidija; Koci? Branislava; Arsi?-Arsenijevi? Valentina; Tadi? Ljiljana; Cancrini Gabriella

2012-01-01

239

Evaluation of Haematopoietic Cells and M/E Ratio in the Bone Marrow of the Partridge (Alectoris chukar)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to study the normal haematopoiesis, cellular components and M/E ratio in the bone marrow of the partridge (Alectoris chukar), bone marrow samples were collected from the proximal tibiotarsus bone of 16 clinically healthy adult partridge (9 male and 7 female). The bone marrow smears were stained using the Giemsa stain. The results indicated that the development and formation of blood cells in the bone marrow of partridge were similar to other birds, whereas the morphology of the cells was similar to chickens, ducks, quail and black-head gull. The mean Myeloid/Erythroid (M/E) ratio was 1.33, the mean erythroid percentage was 39.15%, the mean myeloid percentage was 52.34% and the mean percentage of all other cells percentage was 7.45 %. There was no significant difference in any of the cellular composition between male and female.

M. Tadjalli; S. Nazifi; R. Haghjoo

2012-01-01

240

Pap smear screening results for Turkish pregnant women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Cervix cancer is one of the most common gynecological cancer types that cause cancer deaths among women. This study was planned based on a descriptive method in order to evaluate the results of PAP smear screening during pregnancy for prevention of cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The research involved 110 pregnant women registered at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Polyclinic of Bagcilar Training and Research Hospital and 86 non-pregnant women of the same ages as a control group. As criteria for acceptance were conditions such as not being in coitus within the last 48 hours, not using vaginal ovule, and not performing vaginal lavage. A survey consisting of 33 questions was conducted and the results were processed using Bethesda. RESULTS: The average ages were 27.14.70 for the pregnant women and 28.84.24 for the control group. 60.7% of cases had previously heard of a PAP smear test, 49% were aware of why PAP smear tests were conducted, 26.4% of pregnant participants and 27.3% of non-pregnant participants had previously undergone a smear test. In this study, smear results of all cases were 95.4% sufficient. 18.2% of pregnant cases had an infection, 54.5% had reactive cellular change, and 0.9% had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US). 16.3% of non-pregnant cases had an infection, 58.1% had reactive cellular change, 3.5% had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US), and 1.2% had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LGSIL). CONCLUSION: PAP smear test is a good opportunity to identify pre-invasive lesions in early phases of pregnancy.

Dinc A

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Determination of plutonium in air and smear samples  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method has been developed for the determination of plutonium in air samples and smear samples that were collected on filter papers. The sample papers are digested in nitric acid, extracted into 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA)-xylene, and evaporated onto stainless steel disks. Alpha spectrometry is employed to determine the activity of each plutonium isotope. Each sample is spiked with plutonium-236. All glassware used in the procedure is disposable. The detection limits are 3 and 5 dpm (disintegrations per minute) for air and smear samples, respectively, with an average recovery of 87%.

Hinton, Jr., E. R.; Tucker, W. O.

1981-02-27

242

Smearing of a nonequilibrium phase transition by extended impurities  

CERN Document Server

We study the effects of quenched extended impurities on nonequilibrium phase transitions in the directed percolation universality class. We show that these impurities have a dramatic effect: they completely destroy the sharp phase transition by smearing. This is caused by rare strongly coupled spatial regions which can undergo the phase transition independently from the bulk system. We use extremal statistics to determine the stationary state as well as the dynamics in the tail of the smeared transition, and we illustrate the results by computer simulations.

Vojta, T

2004-01-01

243

Smearing Formula for Higher-Order Effective Classical Potentials  

CERN Multimedia

In the variational approach to quantum statistics, a smearing formula describes efficiently the consequences of quantum fluctuations upon an interaction potential. The result is an effective classical potential from which the partition function can be obtained by a simple integral. In this work, the smearing formula is extended to higher orders in the variational perturbation theory. An application to the singular Coulomb potential exhibits the same fast convergence with increasing orders that has been observed in previous variational perturbation expansions of the anharmonic oscillator with quartic potential.

Kleinert, H; Pelster, A; Kleinert, Hagen; K黵zinger, Werner; Pelster, Axel

1998-01-01

244

Determination of plutonium in air and smear samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en]燗 method has been developed for the determination of plutonium in air samples and smear samples that were collected on filter papers. The sample papers are digested in nitric acid, extracted into 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA)-xylene, and evaporated onto stainless steel disks. Alpha spectrometry is employed to determine the activity of each plutonium isotope. Each sample is spiked with plutonium-236. All glassware used in the procedure is disposable. The detection limits are 3 and 5 dpm (disintegrations per minute) for air and smear samples, respectively, with an average recovery of 87%

1981-01-01

245

Detecci髇 de mutaciones en los genes K-ras, H-ras y EGFR en muestras de plasma sangu韓eo y cepillado cervical de pacientes con neoplasia intraepitelial cervical (NIC) III y c醤cer de cuello uterino/ Detection of genes mutations in the K-RAS, H-RAS and EGFR in samples of blood plasma and cervical smears for patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia III and cervical cancer  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Introducci髇: El c醤cer cervical es el segundo c醤cer m醩 importante en mujeres a nivel mundial y la segunda causa de muerte en mujeres por c醤cer. Se ha demostrado que el proceso de carcinog閚esis cervical presenta componentes tanto gen閠icos, epigen閠icos y medio ambientales. En la actualidad, muchos estudios se encaminan en la b鷖queda de marcadores moleculares como mutaciones en oncogenes y/o genes tumor supresor que se asocien con la progresi髇 de esta enti (more) dad. Los genes candidatos m醩 estudiados en c醤cer cervical en distintas poblaciones han sido H-ras, K-ras, EGFR entre otros. Objetivos: Se identific el virus de papiloma humano (VPH) gen閞ico y espec韋ico en el ADN libre de plasma y de cepillado cervical de pacientes con c醤cer cervical invasivo y con neoplasia intraepitelial cervical (NIC) III adem醩 de evaluar alteraciones gen閠icas, como mutaciones en los genes H-ras, K-ras y EGFR. Metodolog韆: Para ello se detect el VPH gen閞ico mediante PCR con los iniciadores GP5+/GP6+, y espec韋ico para VPH 16 y 18 en la regi髇 E6/E7. Para detectar las mutaciones en el cod髇 12 de H-ras, codones 12 y 13 de K-Ras y el ex髇 21 de EGFR se realiz mediante secuenciaci髇 directa de los productos de PCR de estos fragmentos g閚icos. Resultados: Obteniendo una buena correlaci髇 entre las muestras de plasma sangu韓eo y los cepillados cervicales, tanto para los hallazgos de VPH p=0.0374 como para las mutaciones evaluadas p=0. En general, para EGFR en el ex髇 21 no se encontraron mutaciones, al igual que para los codones 12 y 13 en K-ras y cod髇 12 en H-ras. Conclusi髇: El uso del ADN presente en el plasma puede ser relevante para el an醠isis de mutaciones y de la presencia de marcadores tumorales cuando no se dispone de otras muestras. Abstract in english Introduction: Cervical cancer is the second most important cancer in women worldwide, and the second cause of cancer death in women. It has been shown that the process of cervical carcinogenesis presents as genetic and epigenetic components as environmental issues. At present, many studies are addressed in searching for molecular markers such as mutations in oncogenes and/or tumor suppressor genes that are associated with the progression of this disease, the most studied (more) candidate genes in cervical cancer in different populations have been H-ras, K-ras, EGFR among others. Objective: The present study identified human papilloma virus (HPV) generic and specific in DNA-free plasma and cervical smears of invasive cervical cancer patients and patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) III in addition to assessing genetic alterations, such as mutations in the genes H-ras, EGFR and K-ras. Methods: To do so generic HPV was detected by PCR with primers GP5+/GP6+, and specific HPV 16 and 18 in E6/E7 region; to detect mutations in codon 12 of H-ras, codons 12 and 13 of K-ras and EGFR exon 21 was conducted by direct sequencing of PCR products of these gene fragments. Results: Getting a good correlation between samples of blood plasma and cervical smears for both; the findings of HPV p=0.0374 and evaluated mutations p=0. In general, for EGFR in exon 21 mutations were not found, as for codons 12 and 13 in K-ras and codon 12 in H-ras. Conclusion: The use of DNA in plasma may be relevant to the analysis of mutations and the presences of tumor markers are not available from other samples.

Garc韆, Dabeiba Adriana; Arias, Yazm韓 Roc韔; Anc韟ar Aristiz醔al, Fabio

2009-03-01

246

Automated identification of cancerous smears using various competitive intelligent techniques.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study the performance of various intelligent methodologies is compared in the task of pap-smear diagnosis. The selected intelligent methodologies are briefly described and explained, and then, the acquired results are presented and discussed for their comprehensibility and usefulness to medical staff, either for fault diagnosis tasks, or for the construction of automated computer-assisted classification of smears. The intelligent methodologies used for the construction of pap-smear classifiers, are different clustering approaches, feature selection, neuro-fuzzy systems, inductive machine learning, genetic programming, and second order neural networks. Acquired results reveal the power of most intelligent techniques to obtain high quality solutions in this difficult problem of medical diagnosis. Some of the methods obtain almost perfect diagnostic accuracy in test data, but the outcome lacks comprehensibility. On the other hand, results scoring high in terms of comprehensibility are acquired from some methods, but with the drawback of achieving lower diagnostic accuracy. The experimental data used in this study were collected at a previous stage, for the purpose of combining intelligent diagnostic methodologies with other existing computer imaging technologies towards the construction of an automated smear cell classification device.

Dounias G; Bjerregaard B; Jantzen J; Tsakonas A; Ampazis N; Panagi G; Panourgias E

2006-01-01

247

Missed Opportunities for Health Education on Pap Smears in Peru  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite cervical cancer being one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru, cervical Pap smear coverage is low. This article uses findings from 185 direct clinician observations in four cities of Peru (representing the capital and each of the three main geographic regions of the country) to assess missed opportunities for

Bayer, Angela M.; Nussbaum, Lauren; Cabrera, Lilia; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.

2011-01-01

248

Critical analysis of cell block versus smear examination in effusions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the utility of the cell block preparation method in increasing the sensitivity of cytodiagnosis of serous fluids and to know the primary site of malignant effusions. Materials and Methods: A total of 190 cases were subjected to routine smear examination as well as cell block preparation. After the cytological diagnosis, each case was objectively analysed for cellularity, arrangement (acini, papillae, cell balls, and proliferation spheres), cytoplasmic, and nuclear details. Results: Out of 190 cases, 70 cases were found to be malignant and had been examined in smears and paraffin-embedded cell blocks. Using a combination of the cell block and smear techniques yielded 13% more malignant cases than what were detected using smears by themselves. The combined technique helped to ascertain the primary site of malignancy in 83.3% of the cases, whereas the primary site could not be ascertained in 17.7% of the cases. Conclusions: The cell block technique not only increased the positive results, but also helped to demonstrate better architectural patterns, which could be of great help in making correct diagnosis of the primary site. The cell block technique was also useful for special stains and immunohistochemistry and can give morphological details by preserving the architectural patterns.

Thapar Meenu; Mishra Rajiv; Sharma Amit; Goyal Vikas; Goyal Vibhuti

2009-01-01

249

Hard-surface contamination detection exercise. [Smears:a3  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this thesis is to create a practical exercise which demonstrates the techniques used by Health Physicists to detect surface contamination, including both instrumentation and smear survey techniques. By understanding the basic principles of the most commonly found instruments the intent is that a new Health Physics graduate can correctly choose, and apply an instrument to their detection situation. The exercise is also intended to acquaint students with the very basic principles of smear techniques. Smear surveys are probably the most universally applied technique in this industry, however, very little literature exists on the subject. The techniques are usually taught, on-the-job and by demonstration. By their seeing and participating in this presentation, it is intended that Health Physics students can accelerate their first few weeks at their new careers, and enable them to recognize common mistakes. Health Physicists are expected to have knowledge of the basic practices of their profession. This exercise will allow Health Physics students to become familiar with the use of hand-held detection devices and the technique of smear surveys. Adequate measurement and recording of surface contamination information is necessary to: meet licensing requirements; protect the health and safety of the workers; maintain accurate records in the case of litigation or dose reconstruction; and maintain high levels of professional competency. This exercise will assist students in obtaining the skills necessary to adequately measure and record levels of surface contamination. 41 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

Kawa, S.

1991-01-01

250

Metal Mesh Smear Sampling for Glow Discharge Analytical Spectroscopy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Metal mesh smear sampling is being developed and evaluated for use in a number of glow discharge and other optical and mass spectrometric techniques. Sensitive elemental and isotopic analyses thus will be coupled with a convenient sampling scheme similar to one that is common for radiological surveys.

Shaw, R.W.; Barshick, C.M.; Ramsey, J.M.; Smith, D.H.

2000-06-01

251

A comparison of thick smears, QBC malaria, PCR and PATH falciparum malaria test trip in Plasmodium falciparum diagnosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Blood samples from 182 patients presenting at the out-patient clinic in Richard-Toll. Senegal were analysed by Thick smear microscopy, the QBC, PCR and the new dipstick PATH Malaria assay which detects the histidine rich protein II antigen of Plasmodium falciparum. Thick smear microscopy was used as the reference method. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive positive and negative values were 100%, 83.6%, 93.4% and 100% QBC respectively; 100%, 72.7%, 89.4% and 100% for PCR; 96%, 92.7%, 96.8% and 91% for the PATH assay. PATH assay failed to detect one positive sample with Plasmodium malariae. Assays were also compared with regard to the expense of equipment and reagents and speed and ease of use. The rapid PATH assay can be performed with minimal training and may be specially useful in areas where P. falciparum is the predominant malaria species, in epidemic malaria regions, and where skilled microscopy is not readily available.

Gaye O; Diouf M; Diallo S

1999-09-01

252

ThinPrep are superior to conventional smears in the cytological diagnosis of subfertile men by testicular fine-needle aspiration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was the comparison of liquid-based cytology (ThinPrep, TS) to conventional smears (CS) in the investigation of subfertile men with testicular fine-needle aspiration (FNA). Between January and December 2004, testicular FNA biopsies were performed in 30 subfertile men. Both TS and CS were diagnosed according to Meng classification. Features specifically recorded in each smear included sample adequacy, tissue cells preservation, contamination with red blood cells, quality of smear background, ease of cell recognition, and the cytological diagnosis. There was agreement in the cytological diagnosis between TS and CS (P = 0.88) and sample adequacy (P = 0.73). TS was superior to CS regarding cell preservation, presence of red blood cells or tissue artifacts, quality of the smear background, and cell recognition (P < 0.0001). In testicular FNA cytology, TS appear to be superior to CS in respect to cell preservation, absence of red blood cells, background quality, and cell recognition. These advantages, however, are not translated in improved cytological diagnosis.

Grimbizis G; Mikos T; Pantazis K; Athanassiou E; Sevastiadou P; Papanicolaou A; Polychronou P; Goulis DG; Tarlatzis B; Bontis JN; Papadimas I

2008-01-01

253

Association of Pap Smear Abnormalities with Autoimmune Disorders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently, it is hypothesized that there might be an association between immunological disorders and cervical premalignant and malignant abnormalities. Related studies have been generally focused on some particular autoimmune disease, specially the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). This study aimed at comparing the rate of Pap smear abnormalities in female patients with autoimmune diseases and normal counterparts. In a case-control setting, 118 female patients with various autoimmune diseases (the case group) and 118 healthy female counterparts (the control group) were recruited in Tabriz Imam Reza Teaching Centre in a 24 months period of time. The two groups were matched for demographics and known risk factors of cervical malignancy. Frequencies of abnormal Pap smear testing were compared between the two groups. The autoimmune disorders were SLE (74 patients), rheumatoid arthritis or RA (32 patients), systemic sclerosis or SS (7 patients) and ankylosing spondylitis or AS (5 patients) in the case group. Frequency of abnormal Pap smear testing was significantly higher in the case group comparing with that in the controls (7.6% vs. 1.7%; p = 0.03). Frequency of abnormal Pap smear testing was higher in the patients with SLE (8.1%) and RA (9.3%) comparing with that in the controls; However, these differences were marginally nonsignificant (p = 0.06 and p = 0.07, respectively). Frequency of cases with abnormal Pap smear testing was not statistically different between the autoimmune disorders (p = 0.99). Based on these findings and in conclusion, there might be an association between the autoimmune disorders and occurrence of premalignant or malignant lesions in cervix. Further studies with larger samples sizes are recommended.

Heidarali Esmaeili; Kazem Ghahremanzadeh

2011-01-01

254

Influence of acetic acid on a pap smear of dysplastic lesion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer prevention is performed by taking Pap smears. The correct execution of the smear is crucial as an inadequate smear might result in underdiagnosis. The second means of cervical cancer prevention is visual inspection of the cervix uteri with acetic acid, while often both methods are combined. We investigated whether the application of acetic acid compromises the Pap smear. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 100 patients with dysplasia were prospectively included; Pap smears were obtained before and after the application of acetic acid. RESULTS: We observed an alteration of the result of the Pap smear after acetic acid application in 41%. However, these alterations did not result in a dysplastic case being classed as a normal smear or vice versa. CONCLUSION: The application of acetic acid to the transformation zone of the cervix uteri may enhance changes of the Pap smear in dysplasia, however, the changes affect subgroups of dysplasia and thus do not change therapeutic management.

Hoellen F; Bohlmann MK; Brade J; Rody A; Diedrich K; Husstedt WD; Hornemann A

2013-03-01

255

Effect of EDTA with and without surfactants or ultrasonics on removal of smear layer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study compared the in vitro efficacy of Smear Clear (Sybron Endo, CA), a 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution with surfactants, to 17% EDTA, with and without the use of ultrasonics, in removal of the smear layer. Seventy-five extracted teeth, randomly distributed into 5 test groups, were prepared by using ProFile rotary instruments (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and subjected to different final irrigating regimes; group A, 1% sodium hypochlorite; group B, 17% EDTA; group C, 17% EDTA with ultrasonics; group D, Smear Clear; and group E, Smear Clear with ultrasonics. Samples were examined under the scanning electron microscope and scored for debris and smear layer removal. Statistical analysis showed that groups D and E did not perform significantly better than groups B and C. Group C performed significantly better than group B. Addition of surfactants to EDTA in Smear Clear did not result in better smear layer removal. The use of ultrasonics with 17% EDTA improved smear layer removal.

Lui JN; Kuah HG; Chen NN

2007-04-01

256

Gauge Invariant Smearing and Matrix Correlators using Wilson Fermions at beta=6.2  

CERN Document Server

We present an investigation of gauge invariant smearing for Wilson fermions on a $24^3 \\times 48$ lattice at $\\beta = 6.2$. We demonstrate a smearing algorithm that allows a substantial improvement in the determination of the baryon spectrum obtained using propagators smeared at both source and sink, at only a small computational cost. We investigate the matrix of correlators constructed from local and smeared operators, and are able to expose excited states of both the mesons and baryons.

Collins, S

1993-01-01

257

Pap smear knowledge among young women following the introduction of the HPV vaccine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Investigate sexually active young women's knowledge of the term Pap smear since development of the HPV vaccine. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study conducted January-May 2007. SETTING: University health services clinic at a university in southern United States. PARTICIPANTS: Sexually active women, age 18-24, presenting for a Pap smear or STD testing (N=145). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pap smear knowledge was assessed by participants' written definition of the term Pap smear and by multiple choice responses indicating Pap smear as a test for cervical cancer/ HPV and not a pelvic exam, STD test, or pregnancy test. RESULTS: 9.7% provided accurate definitions; 12.4% checked appropriate Pap smear synonyms. 68.5% incorrectly responded that Pap smear was the same as "pelvic exam"; 42.5% indicated "STD test"; 11.7% indicated "pregnancy test." Indicators of HPV risk (age of sexual debut, previous abnormal Pap smear, previous STD diagnosis) were not associated with knowledge. Never using condoms, increasing age, and lower depression scores predicted accurate Pap smear definition rating (R2=0.08). Never using condoms, Caucasian race, and decreased lifetime number of sex partners predicted accurate identification of Pap smear synonyms (R2=0.15). RESULTS: Few participants understood the meaning of the term Pap smear; there does not appear to be improvement in women's knowledge after development of the HPV vaccine. Poor Pap smear knowledge may affect young women's understanding of their overall sexual health.

Head SK; Crosby RA; Moore GR

2009-08-01

258

Effects of grinding surgical tissue specimens and smear staining methods on Buruli ulcer microscopic diagnosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The definitive version is available at www3.interscience.wiley.com , To optimize Buruli ulcer (BU) microscopic diagnosis, we compared two smear preparation methods from tissue specimens: smears made with tissue suspension after grinding and smears made directly with unground tissue. We also compared tw...

Affolabi, D.; Bankol, H.; Ablordey, A.; Hounnouga, J.; Koutchakpo, P.; Sopoh, G.; Aguiar, J.; Dossou, A.; Johnson, R. C.

259

Sputum Conversion Among Patients With Smear Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: In the patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) bacteriologic assessment of sputum for detection of acid bacilli (AFB) Has essential role. This evaluation is accomplished by direct sputum smear & sputum culture. These examinations must be done in regular and preferably monthly after beginning of treatment. These tests have two important aims, including, determining of treatment efficacy & duration of isolation."nMethods and Materials: Most of the studies have that classic six month regimen led to sputum smear conversion & negative sputum culture in 85% of patient. This treatment regimen has two phases, including, attack phase and maintenance phase. In the attack phase we use four drugs, including, Isoniazid (INH), Rifampin (RMP), Pyrazinamide (PZA) and Ethambutol (EMB) for the first 2 months and if necessary until the end of third month. In the maintenance phase we use INH and Rif for the remaining of treatment course. The main objectives of this study were to determine the time needed for smear conversion and assessment of probable factors which may influence the smear conversion until 4 months after beginning of therapy. The factors that were assessed, were, Age, nationality, sex, clinical symptoms, underlying diseases, chest radiography (number of cavities), smoking, drug abuse and concentration of AF13 in the sputum Generally, we did this cross sectional study on the patient's records, who had been observed in Imam Khomeni Hospital, west health service center and masih daneshvary hospital between."nResults: This study showed that from totally 218 patients, 138(74.6%) patients had sputum conversion at the first 2 months of treatment and until the end of 3rd & 4th month this rate reached to 83.3% respectively. So in the end of fourth month only 32(14.7%) patients did not show sputum smear conversion. On the other hand this study showed that two factors including presence of cavities in chest radiography & concentration of AFB in the sputum are influencing this rate strongly."nConclusion: Role of other factors such as age, nationality , Smoking, diabetes mellitus and weigh loss are controversial and another studies are necessary for confirming their roles. Other factors including sex, clinical symptoms has not been show to be important. Some factors such as drug abuse and immunosuppresive therapy has not been assessed in this study, because number of cases were not enough for statistical analysis.

Soudbakhsh A R; Ahmadinejad Z; Sistanizadeh M

2003-01-01

260

Eggs containing larvae of Enterobius vermicularis in vaginal smear.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Enterobius vermicularis also known commonly as pinworm is the most common intestinal parasite. It is a nematode that inhabits the human terminal ileum, colon and appendix. The fertilized female migrates to the perianal area where eggs are deposited but occasionally introduces itself into adjacent orifices, most commonly the female genitourinary tract. Thus the eggs can be seen in the vaginal smear as a result of contamination. We report a case wherein the patient presented with signs and symptoms of vulvovaginitis. In her vaginal smear there were eggs of Enterobius vermicularis which showed a coiled larva within it. In the background there were plenty of acute inflammatory cells. This patient responded favorably to antihelminthics. We report this case to highlight the morphology of the parasite and also to emphasize that such findings should not be neglected. Timely reporting and appropriate treatment of such cases will prevent further complications of this parasite including endometritis, salphingitis and peritonitis.

Shetty JB; Kulkarni DV; Prabhu V

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Eggs containing larvae of Enterobius vermicularis in vaginal smear.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enterobius vermicularis also known commonly as pinworm is the most common intestinal parasite. It is a nematode that inhabits the human terminal ileum, colon and appendix. The fertilized female migrates to the perianal area where eggs are deposited but occasionally introduces itself into adjacent orifices, most commonly the female genitourinary tract. Thus the eggs can be seen in the vaginal smear as a result of contamination. We report a case wherein the patient presented with signs and symptoms of vulvovaginitis. In her vaginal smear there were eggs of Enterobius vermicularis which showed a coiled larva within it. In the background there were plenty of acute inflammatory cells. This patient responded favorably to antihelminthics. We report this case to highlight the morphology of the parasite and also to emphasize that such findings should not be neglected. Timely reporting and appropriate treatment of such cases will prevent further complications of this parasite including endometritis, salphingitis and peritonitis. PMID:22438633

Shetty, Jyothi B; Kulkarni, Dhanashri V; Prabhu, Vl

2012-01-01

262

The string tension from smeared Wilson loops at large N  

CERN Multimedia

We present the results of a high statistics analysis of smeared Wilson loops in 4 dimensional SU(N) Yang-Mills theory for various values of N. The data is used to analyze the behaviour of smeared Creutz ratios, extracting from them the value of the string tension and other asymptotic parameters. A scaling analysis allows us to extrapolate to the continuum limit for N=3,5,6 and 8. The results are consistent with a $1/N^2$ approach towards the large N limit. The same analysis is done for the TEK model (one-point lattice) for N=841 and a non-minimal symmetric twist with flux of $k=9$. The results match perfectly with the extrapolated large N values, confirming the validity of the reduction idea for this range of parameters.

Gonz醠ez-Arroyo, Antonio

2012-01-01

263

Station for measuring ecosystem-atmosphere relations (SMEAR II)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Here we present the ongoing SMEAR (Station for Measuring Forest Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) research program and also related future views. The main idea of SMEAR-type infrastructures is continuous, comprehensive measurements of fluxes, storages and concentrations in the land ecosystem-atmosphere continuum. The major coupling mechanisms between atmosphere and land surface are the fluxes of energy, momentum, water, carbon dioxide, atmospheric trace gases and atmospheric aerosols. Understanding of couplings and feedbacks is the basis for the prediction of changes in the system formed by atmosphere, vegetation and soil. A better quantification of the agents that cause climate change, as well as the emissions and removals of species, will provide more accurate projections of future atmospheric composition and hence climate. (orig.)

Hari, P. [Department of Forest Ecology, University of Helsinki (Finland); Kulmala, M. [Department of Physical Sciences, University of Helsinki (Finland)

2005-07-01

264

Delay in treatment seeking of smear positive tuberculous patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en]燭o assess and identify the causes and circumstances leading to delays in health seeking and diagnosis of tuberculosis patients as they often present with advance disease resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Settings Department of Tuberculosis, DOTS clinic DHQ Hospital, Vehari. Methodology One (author) inspiration diagnosed smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients were included. Information was gathered through interviews and from TB-01 card. Results Maximum patients were in age group of 16-40 years. Median patient delay was 4-6 months; jobless, homeless personnel had longer delay. The main reason for delay was that the symptoms were not considered serious enough. Delay in presentation of smear positive cases may be due to the lack of awareness of patients and the incompetence of some health workers. Training and supervision of staff and awareness campaigns targeted at the population and involvement of private sector will improve TB control in Vehari. (author)

2010-01-01

265

[The effect of smear layer on apical microleakage].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of smear layer on apical microleakage in extracted root-filled teeth by SEM and glucose penetration model. METHODS: 51 straight single-rooted human teeth were randomly divided into 5 groups, instrumented and irrigated differently by groups. 11 teeth in group A were irrigated with 17% EDTA and 1% NaClO,11 teeth in group B with 1% tetracycline hydrochloride and 1% NaClO,11 teeth in group C with 10% citric acid and 1% NaClO, 9 teeth in group D with 1% NaClO only and 9 teeth in group E with 0.9% NaCl. One tooth in each group was observed under scanning electron microscopy. The other teeth were obturated using lateral condensation technique. Leakage along the root filling was measured by the concentration of glucose in apical reservoir at 1, 2, 4, 7, 10, 15, 20 and 30 days respectively with glucose oxidase method. The data were analyzed with repeated measure ANOVA and SNK-q test using SPSS 16.0 software package. RESULTS: No smear layer on the root canal wall was observed in group A, B and C, the leakage was lower than that in group D and E (P<0.05). The smear layer occurred in quantity in group D, E and their leakage increased. The microleakage was higher in group E than that in group D (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Removal of smear layer on the root canal wall could reduce the root apical microleakage.

Xie XL; Chen MM; Liu LH; Yin LY; Jiang Y

2008-12-01

266

Temporal Smearing of Transient Radio Sources by the Intergalactic Medium  

Science.gov (United States)

The temporal smearing of impulsive radio events at cosmological redshifts probes the properties of the ionized intergalactic medium (IGM). We relate the degree of temporal smearing and the profile of a scattered source to the evolution of a turbulent structure in the IGM as a function of redshift. We estimate the degree of scattering expected by analyzing the contributions to the scattering measure of the various components of baryonic matter embedded in the IGM, including the diffuse IGM, intervening galaxies, and intracluster gas. These estimates predict that the amount of temporal smearing expected at 300 MHz is typically as low as ~1 ms and suggests that these bursts may be detectable with low-frequency widefield arrays. A generalization of the dispersion-measure-scattering-measure relation observed for Galactic scattering to the densities and turbulent conditions relevant to the IGM suggests that scattering measures on the order of 106 kpc m20/3 would be expected at z ~ 1. This scattering is sufficiently low enough that its effects would not, for most lines of sight, be manifested in existing observations of the scatter broadening in images of extragalactic compact sources. The redshift dependence on the temporal smearing discriminates between scattering that occurs in the host galaxy of the burst and the IGM, with ?hostvprop(1 + z)3 if the scattering probes length scales below the inner scale of the turbulence or ?hostvprop(1 + z)17/5 if the turbulence follows a Kolmogorov spectrum. This differs strongly from the expected IGM scaling ?IGM ~ z 2 for z ~ 1.

Macquart, Jean-Pierre; Koay, Jun Yi

2013-10-01

267

Determination of plutonium in smear samples and in air filters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en]燗 method was developed for the determination of plutonium (sup(239+240)Pu, 238Pu etc.) in smear samples and air filters for monitoring the working environment of persons working with plutonium. Plutonium is successively separated from inorganic macrocomponents present in samples and from other alpha emitters by the help of coprecipitation with LaF3 and extraction with TTA. The chemical yield of the separation of plutonium is about 80%. (author)

1981-08-28

268

Improvement via hypercubic smearing in triplet and sextet QCD  

CERN Document Server

We study non-perturbative improvement in SU(3) lattice gauge theory coupled to fermions in the fundamental and two-index symmetric representations. Our lattice action is defined with hypercubic smeared links incorporated into the Wilson-clover fermion kernel. Using standard Schroedinger-functional techniques we estimate the clover coefficient Csw and find that discretization errors are much smaller than in thin-link theories.

Shamir, Yigal; Yurkovsky, Evgeny

2010-01-01

269

Anatomy of a normal fault with shale smear  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Some faults are fluid pathways but others are barriers. The latter type is well known in the oil and gas industry and attributed to granulation and shale smear. Fault zone granulation has been the focus of many recent studies, but shale smearing remains relatively obscure. We describe the geometry and structure of a normal fault with shale smear in a 1500m thick sedimentary sequence of Cambrian to Neogene age in a graben 10km west of Elat in southern Israel. The fault has a trace length of about 2km and is marked entirely by what remains of a formation made up of a 60m lower shale unit, 25m of middle carbonates, and 35m of upper shale. Both shale units have been stretched over a planar discontinuity defined by the footwall cut-off planes of the underlying sandstone and limestone units for 250m, the magnitude of the normal slip. Thus, the fault geometry and the position of the shale units reveal a smearing process by which the shale units reduce their thickness or nearly vanish by thinning perpendicular to the fault and stretching parallel to the fault. In a few exposures, the lower shale unit is reduced from 60m to a thickness less than 0.5m. The middle carbonates display boudinage and form discontinuous lenses along the fault. The impact of the intense continuous deformation, the discontinuous deformation by the faults, joints and veins of the shale and surrounding competent rocks, and mixing of the shale with adjacent permeable units, on the hydraulics of the fault zone and its sealing potential need to be carefully evaluated. This study improves the present knowledge about how fault zones may incorporate shales therein act as lateral seals for hydrocarbons, and when and how this sealing potential may be breached.

Aydin, A. (Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)); Eyal, Yehuda (Ben-Gurion Univ., Beer-Sheva (Israel))

1996-01-01

270

Anatomy of a normal fault with shale smear  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Some faults are fluid pathways but others are barriers. The latter type is well known in the oil and gas industry and attributed to granulation and shale smear. Fault zone granulation has been the focus of many recent studies, but shale smearing remains relatively obscure. We describe the geometry and structure of a normal fault with shale smear in a 1500m thick sedimentary sequence of Cambrian to Neogene age in a graben 10km west of Elat in southern Israel. The fault has a trace length of about 2km and is marked entirely by what remains of a formation made up of a 60m lower shale unit, 25m of middle carbonates, and 35m of upper shale. Both shale units have been stretched over a planar discontinuity defined by the footwall cut-off planes of the underlying sandstone and limestone units for 250m, the magnitude of the normal slip. Thus, the fault geometry and the position of the shale units reveal a smearing process by which the shale units reduce their thickness or nearly vanish by thinning perpendicular to the fault and stretching parallel to the fault. In a few exposures, the lower shale unit is reduced from 60m to a thickness less than 0.5m. The middle carbonates display boudinage and form discontinuous lenses along the fault. The impact of the intense continuous deformation, the discontinuous deformation by the faults, joints and veins of the shale and surrounding competent rocks, and mixing of the shale with adjacent permeable units, on the hydraulics of the fault zone and its sealing potential need to be carefully evaluated. This study improves the present knowledge about how fault zones may incorporate shales therein act as lateral seals for hydrocarbons, and when and how this sealing potential may be breached.

Aydin, A. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Eyal, Yehuda [Ben-Gurion Univ., Beer-Sheva (Israel)

1996-12-31

271

[Diagnosis of cancer of the esophagus by sponge smears (II)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Forty-four patients with carcinoma of the esophagus, 21 with cancer of the gastric fundus with invasion of gastroesophageal junction, and 28 controls with non-tumoral esophageal problems were studied by the sponge smear technique, an effective procedure for cytologyc diagnosis of esophageal tumors. Several advantages of this technique over esophageal washings are described and its results are favorably compared with those obtained by esophageal washings.

1975-07-01

272

MORPHOMETRIC CRITERIA IN THE ASSESSMENT OF MAMMARY SMEARS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The applications of the computer-assisted image processing and analysis in the field of pathology are now developed in order to design, validate and implement supplementary and/or complementary tools for automated identification and classification, based on the characterization of the lesions in terms of the measurement values. The aim of our study is to create an original computerized technique for the investigation of the mammary smears. The study group included 20 Papanicolaou mammary smears, diagnosed as normal, benign and malign. From all smears, we captured digitized images, corresponding to significant microscopic fields as cellularity. By using the Zeiss KS400 software, we constructed the macro generically named MAMAR, which includes a sequence of the automated operations allowing the extraction of the morphometric parameters for the representative cells. For all defined parameters (cell area, nuclear area, nucleo-citoplasmic ratio, equivalent diameter and form factor), an automated measurement function was applied. The comparison between the morphometric parameters that characterize normal, benign and, respectively, malign cells offers a unbiased point of view that certainly increase the accuracy of the diagnosis. Within the framework of this morphometric analysis, the equivalent diameter and the form factor ensure the refinement of the numerical information given by the cellular and nuclear areas.

Daniela Mihalache; Simona-Eliza Giu?c?; Carmen Ionescu; Irina-Draga C?runtu; Adriana Grigora?

2011-01-01

273

Anorectal smear in the diagnosis of anorectal adenocarcinoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this case report is to point out the diagnostic value of cytologic smears in patients presenting with anorectal complaints, such as bleeding, pain or discomfort, which may suggest a neoplastic lesion. We present a case of a 64-year-old man with a 3 months' history of anal bleeding and pain during defecation. He was diagnosed as having hemorrhoids and a hemorrhoidectomy was performed. The patient developed an anal stricture postoperatively that required operative dilation. He continued to complain about anorectal pain for 2 months and a subsequent rectoscopy revealed the presence of tumor 5 to 7 cm above the dentate line. The tumor was resected laparoscopically and was reported as an adenocarcinoma. Rectal bleeding recurred 18 months postoperatively and a smear was procured from the anorectal mucosal surface for cytologic evaluation. A definitive diagnosis of adenocarcinoma was rendered based on cytologic and histologic examination of the material. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of anorectal adenocarcinoma diagnosed by cytologic smear in the English literature.

Demirel D; Ramzy I

2013-01-01

274

Taste symmetry breaking with HYP-smeared staggered fermions  

CERN Multimedia

We study the impact of HYP smearing on the size of taste breaking for staggered fermions, comparing to unimproved and to asqtad-improved staggered fermions. As in previous studies, we find a substantial reduction in taste-breaking compared to unimproved staggered fermions (by a factor of 4-7 on lattices with spacing $a\\approx 0.1 $fm). In addition, we observe that discretization effects of next-to-leading order in the chiral expansion (${\\cal O}(a^2 p^2)$) are markedly reduced by HYP smearing. Compared to asqtad valence fermions, we find that taste-breaking in the pion spectrum is reduced by a factor of 2.5-3, down to a level comparable to the expected size of generic ${\\cal O}(a^2)$ effects. Our results suggest that, once one reaches a lattice spacing of $a\\approx 0.09 $fm, taste-breaking will be small enough after HYP smearing that one can use a modified power counting in which ${\\cal O}(a^2) \\ll {\\cal O}(p^2)$, simplify fitting to phenomenologically interesting quantities.

Bae, Taegil; Jung, Chulwoo; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Jongjeong; Kim, Kwangwoo; Lee, Weonjong; Sharpe, Stephen R

2008-01-01

275

Temporal Smearing of Transient Radio Sources by the Intergalactic Medium  

CERN Document Server

The temporal smearing of impulsive radio events at cosmological redshifts probes the properties of the ionized Inter-Galactic Medium (IGM). We relate the degree of temporal smearing and the profile of a scattered source to the evolution of turbulent structure in the IGM as a function of redshift. We estimate the degree of scattering expected by analysing the contributions to the Scattering Measure (SM) of the various components of baryonic matter embedded in the IGM, including the diffuse IGM, intervening galaxies and intracluster gas. These estimates predict that the amount of temporal smearing expected at 300\\,MHz is typically as low as ~1 ms and suggests that these bursts may be detectable with low frequency widefield arrays. A generalization of the DM-SM relation observed for Galactic scattering to the densities and turbulent conditions relevant to the IGM suggests that scattering measures of order 10^{-6} kpc m {-20/3} would be expected at z ~ 1. This scattering is sufficiently low that its effects would...

Macquart, Jean-Pierre

2013-01-01

276

The Pap smear revisited. Controversies and recent developments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite the widespread acceptance of the Pap smear as an effective means to reduce morbidity and mortality due to cervical carcinoma, many experts now recommend less frequent screening for women with a negative cytologic history and factors carrying a low degree of risk. This view has been countered by those who feel that less frequent screening may result in a dangerous delay in diagnosis and treatment for some women. The trend toward a longer screening interval places a burden on the primary care physician, the pathologist, and cytotechnologists to minimize false-negative smears through optimum communication, technical preparation, and quality control. In addition to the changes in thinking regarding frequency of Pap smear screening, the concept of cervical carcinogenesis is undergoing striking modification. The human papillomavirus has been associated with many lesions that have classically been considered low-grade dysplasias. Termed flat condylomas, these lesions frequently regress spontaneously but may be associated with the full spectrum of preinvasive and invasive disease. Cervical condylomas require biopsy and appropriate treatment.

Zuna RE

1984-11-01

277

Intracytoplasmic vacuoles in cervical smears: relationship to chlamydial inclusions--morphology, mucin histochemistry, and immunocytochemistry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cytomorphology, mucin stains, and immunocytochemistry were used to determine the characteristics of intracytoplasmic vacuoles in cervical smears and their relationship to chlamydial infections. Three study groups were examined: A) cervical smears containing intracytoplasmic vacuoles suggesting chlamydial infection: B) cervical smears from patients known to be either culture positive or culture negative for chlamydia; and C) control smears of chlamydia-infected McCoy cell cultures. Forty-nine smears containing vacuoles suspected of being chlamydial inclusions were studied. In 21 of 31 smears the vacuoles were shown by histochemistry to contain mucin. Immunoperoxidase staining performed on the remaining 18 smears revealed only two vacuoles to be chlamydial inclusions. Of 38 smears from chlamydia-culture-positive patients, only 4 showed chlamydial inclusions by immunoperoxidase methods. Of 30 smears from chlamydia-culture-negative patients, none were positive by immunoperoxidase staining. The "nebular body" of Shiina appears to be the most specific cytomorphologic evidence of chlamydial infection in cervical smears, but distinction from mucin vacuoles and other nonspecific vacuoles is difficult. The immunoperoxidase technique is unlikely to be useful in diagnosis in cervical smears unless samples are specifically obtained from the endocervical canal by endocervical brushing.

Waters SA; Sterrett GF

1991-01-01

278

[Should the dentin smear layer be preserved or eliminated? (Review of the literature)].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The smear layer is a direct consequence of instrumentation of the root canal wall. Hand instrumentation as well as ultrasonic instrumentation produce a smear layer on the canal wall. This smear layer is composed of dentine, remnants of pulp tissue and odontoblastic processes and bacteria in an infected canal. Removal of the smear layer is accomplished by the irrigation of root canals with EDTA (17%) followed by NaOCl (5.25%). Permeability of the dentine is increased by the removal of smear layer. In this way the bacteria within the infected tubuli can be more easily destroyed by an intracanal dressing. Whether the removal of smear layer decreases the apical leakage is uncertain. To establish the clinical consequences from removal or preservation of the smear layer, further research is needed.

Wauters T; Wauters J

2000-01-01

279

Value of normal colposcopy after an abnormal cervical smear report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Colposcopy is a secondary screening test used after a cytological specimen is reported as abnormal. A negative or normal colposcopy is not an infrequent outcome, and clinicians need to be aware of the clinical value of a normal and satisfactory colposcopic assessment.To address this problem, the underlying causes need to be fully understood. To this end, we have analyzed a retrospective dataset relating to new referrals to an urban colposcopy service. METHOD: We have reviewed 1,927 consecutive new colposcopic attendances during a 4-year period (1996-2000). Of these cases, 1,589 (82.4%) had documented satisfactory colposcopy in that the whole transformation zone was identified, and any lesion seen within it was suitable for outpatient-directed biopsy. These cases form the basis of this dataset. Seven hundred seventy-one colposcopies were classified as normal (48%). RESULTS: The presenting smear was atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) (41.3%), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HiSIL) (42.2%), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LoSIL) (13.1%), and unsatisfactory in 3.4%. One hundred five patients (13.6%) eventually underwent loop diathermy excision (loop electrocautery excision procedure). The indications to treat were as follows: a high-grade smear (N=31; 29.5%), a colposcopic suspicion of any cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in the presence of any smear result (N=35; 33%), or a persisting minor cytological abnormality (N=39; 37%). Patients were treated either at their first visit if they had a high-grade smear or up to the 10th visit. Forty-eight (45%) of the treated patients had high-grade disease. No cases of invasive disease were recorded. CONCLUSION: Normal colposcopy in the presence of a low-grade cervical smear is associated with a very low risk of having or developing high-grade disease. The negative predictive value of normal colposcopy is a valuable clinical utility and underpins the importance of appropriate colposcopic training and the development of competencies that enable the confident exclusion of dysplasia.

Luesley D; Downey G

2009-01-01

280

A Framework for White Blood Cell Segmentation in Microscopic Blood Images Using Digital Image Processing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Evaluation of blood smear is a commonly clinical test these days. Most of the time, the hematologists are interested on white blood cells (WBCs) only. Digital image processing techniques can help them in their analysis and diagnosis. For example, disease like acute leukemia is detected based on the ...

Sadeghian, Farnoosh; Seman, Zainina; Ramli, Abdul Rahman; Abdul Kahar, Badrul Hisham; Saripan, M-Iqbal

 
 
 
 
281

A rapid stain for the diagnosis of granuloma inguinale.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tissue smears were prepared from 55 men and eight women with genital ulceration using two staining techniques and examined by direct microscopy for the presence of Donovan bodies. Twenty three smears were positive using the May-Grunwald-Giemsa staining method and 23 were positive using a rapid technique, the RapiDiff stain. The RapiDiff technique is suitable for use in the diagnosis of granuloma inguinale (donovanosis) in busy sexually transmitted diseases clinics in the developing world.

O'Farrell N; Hoosen AA; Coetzee K; van den Ende J

1990-06-01

282

Critical evaluation of peripheral smear in cases of anemia with high mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in children: A series of four cases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), a parameter that is reported as a part of a standard complete blood count by automated analyzer, is a measure of the concentration of hemoglobin in a given volume of packed red blood cell. Values of MCHC significantly above reference range are not physiologically possible due to limitations on solubility of hemoglobin. The high MCHC can give us a clue to certain type of hemolytic anemia and necessitate critical evaluation of peripheral smear to reach a definitive diagnosis. Here we are presenting a series of four cases with raised MCHC, emphasizing the importance of systematic and meticulous examination of the peripheral smear to render a definitive diagnosis.

Sharma Sunita; Pujani Meenu; Pahuja Sangeeta; Chandra Jagdish; Rath B; Labhchand

2010-01-01

283

No increased risk for cervical cancer after a broader definition of a negative Pap smear  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The definition of minimal relevant Pap smear abnormality is crucial for balancing the beneficial effects of screening (prevented mortality) with negative side-effects (the high positivity rate). After inflammation ceased to be defined as a borderline abnormal smear outcome in The Netherlands in 1996, the proportion of these smears dropped from 10% to less than 2%. Because this may have caused a loss in smear sensitivity, we analysed the changes in the incidence of cervical cancer after a negative Pap smear. All negative smears made at ages 30-64 in 1990-1995 (n = 1,546,252) and 1998-2006 (n = 3,552,716), registered in the national registry of histo- and cytopathology (PALGA), were followed for up to 9 years. During follow-up of the 1990-1995 smears, 377 women developed cervical cancer within 5,232,959 woman-years at risk, while during the follow-up of the 1998-2006 smears, 619 women developed cervical cancer within 11,210,675 woman-years at risk. The cumulative incidence after the definition change was not significantly higher than before: e.g. at 6 years, the cumulative incidence for smears made in 1990-1995 was 46 per 100,000 (95% CI: 41-52), and for smears in 1998-2006 was 48 per 100,000 (95% CI: 43-54), p = 0.59. The hazard ratio for 1998-2006 compared to 1990-1995 adjusted for age, number of previous negative smears and history of abnormalities was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.78-1.03). In The Netherlands, a setting with high-quality cytological screening, treating smears with only signs of inflammation as negative leads to a considerably lower positivity rate without increasing the risk for cervical cancer after a negative smear.

Rebolj, Matejka; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein

2008-01-01

284

Mass shell smearing effects in top pair production  

CERN Multimedia

The top quark pair production and decay are considered in the framework of the smeared-mass unstable particles model. The results for total and differential cross sections in vicinity of $t\\bar{t}$ threshold are in good agreement with the previous ones in the literature. The strategy of calculations of the higher order corrections in the framework of the model is discussed. Suggested approach significantly simplifies calculations compared to the standard perturbative one and can serve as a convenient tool for fast and precise preliminary analysis of processes involving intermediate time-like top quark exchanges in the near-threshold region.

Kuksa, V I; Vlasenko, D E

2011-01-01

285

Factorization in the model of unstable particles with smeared mass  

CERN Multimedia

The method of factorization based on the model of unstable particles with a smeared mass is applied to the processes with an unstable particle in an intermediate state. It is shown that in the framework of the model the amplitude squared of such processes is exactly factorable. Decay widths and cross sections can be represented in the universal factorized form for an arbitrary set of interacting particles. This exact factorization is caused by the specific structure of unstable particles propagators. We formulate the factorization method and perform a phenomenological analysis of the factorization effects.

Kuksa, V

2011-01-01

286

Tritium autoradiography of cell surfaces in smear preparations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experiments were performed in order to find out whether tritium-labeled cell surface markers can be quantified at the single cell level in autoradiographs of smear preparations. Mouse thymocytes were incubated with /sup 3/H-concanavalin A and subsequently spread on microscopic slides. The spreading techniques, either by cytocentrifugation or by the use of cover slips, were performed in such a way as to achieve preparations in which the mean flatness of the cells varied. By means of incident light microphotometry, the cellular areas and the grain counts of individual cells were determined. The results show a strong dependence of the mean grain yield per slide on the mean cellular area.

Doermer, P.; Jaeger, G.

1983-01-01

287

Higgs Inflation, Quantum Smearing and the Tensor to Scalar Ratio  

CERN Multimedia

In cosmic inflation driven by a scalar gauge singlet field with a tree level Higgs potential, the scalar to tensor ratio r is estimated to be larger than 0.036, provided the scalar spectral index n_s >= 0.96. We discuss quantum smearing of these predictions arising from the inflaton couplings to other particles such as GUT scalars, and show that these corrections can significantly decrease r. However, for n_s >= 0.96, we obtain r >= 0.02 which can be tested by the Planck satellite.

Rehman, Mansoor Ur

2010-01-01

288

Smearing and filtering methods in lattice QCD - a quantitative comparison  

CERN Multimedia

We systematically compare three filtering methods used to extract topological excitations from lattice gauge configurations, namely smearing, Laplace filtering and the filtered fermionic topological charge (with chirally improved fermions). Each of these techniques introduces ambiguities, like its parameter dependence. We show, however, that all these methods can be tuned to each other over a broad range of filtering levels and that they reveal very similar topological structures. For these common structures we find an interesting power-law relating the number and packing fraction of clusters of filtered topological charge.

Solbrig, Stefan; Gattringer, Christof; Ilgenfritz, Ernst-Michael; M黮ler-Preussker, Michael; Sch鋐er, Andreas

2008-01-01

289

Smearing Effect in Plane-Wave Matrix Model  

CERN Document Server

Motivated by the usual D2-D0 system, we consider a configuration composed of flat membrane and fuzzy sphere membrane in plane-wave matrix model, and investigate the interaction between them. The configuration is shown to lead to a non-trivial interaction potential, which indicates that the fuzzy sphere membrane really behaves like a graviton, giant graviton. Interestingly, the interaction is of r^{-3} type rather than r^{-5} type. We interpret it as the interaction incorporating the smearing effect due to the fact that the considered supersymmetric flat membrane should span and spin in four dimensional subspace of plane-wave geometry.

Shin, Hyeonjoon

2009-01-01

290

Pap-smear Benchmark Data For Pattern Classification  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This case study provides data and a baseline for comparing classification methods. The data consists of 917 images of Pap-smear cells, classified carefully by cyto-technicians and doctors. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and the cells fall into 7 classes. A basic data analysis includes scatter plots and linear classification results, in order to provide domain knowledge and lower bounds on the acceptable performance of future classifiers. Students and researchers can access the database on the Internet, and use it to test and compare their own classification methods.

Jantzen, Jan; Norup, Jonas

2005-01-01

291

Smearing of Observables and Spectral Measures on Quantum Structures  

CERN Multimedia

An observable on a quantum structure is any $\\sigma$-homomorphism of quantum structures from the Borel $\\sigma$-algebra of the real line into the quantum structure which is in our case a monotone $\\sigma$-complete effect algebras with the Riesz Decomposition Property. We show that every observable is a smearing of a sharp observable which takes values from a Boolean $\\sigma$-subalgebra of the effect algebra, and we prove that for every element of the effect algebra there is its spectral measure.

Dvure?enskij, Anatolij

2012-01-01

292

Finite amplitude surface waves in cooled plasmas with smeared interface  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nonlinear dynamics of surface wave propagation in cooled plasmas with smeared interface is discussed. The strong parametric instability with excitation of a short-wave spectrum of the Langmuir vibrations is shown to evolve in the inhomogeneous region near the plasma resonance. At the nonlinear stage of the process the short-wave spectrum exchanges energy with the surface wave. The small quasi-stationary perturbations of electrons density and plasma ions with broken quasi-neutrality condition arise in vicinity of the plasma resonance. 10 refs

1988-01-01

293

Should Sputum Smear Examination Be Carried Out at the End of the Intensive Phase and End of Treatment in Sputum Smear Negative Pulmonary TB Patients?  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The Indian guidelines on following up sputum smear-negative Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients differ from the current World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines in that the former recommends two follow up sputum examinations (once at the end of intensive phase and the other at the end of treatment) while the latter recommends only one follow up sputum smear microscopy examination, which is done at the end of the intensive phase. This study was conducted to examine if there was any added value in performing an additional sputum smear examination at the end of treatment within the context of a national TB program. Methods This study was a descriptive record based review conducted in nine tuberculosis (TB) units in Delhi, India. All consecutive new sputum smear-negative PTB patients registered in these nine TB units from 1st January 2009 to 31st December 2009 were included in the study. Results Of 2567 new sputum smear-negative TB patients, 1973 (90%) had sputum specimens examined at the end of the intensive phase, of whom 36 (2%) were smear-positive: the majority (n?=?28) successfully completed treatment with either the same or a re-treatment regimen. At treatment completion, 1766 (85%) patients had sputum specimens examined, of whom 16 (0.9%) were smear-positive: all these were changed to a re-treatment regimen. Amongst the sputum-positive patients identified as a result of follow up (n?=?52), four were diagnosed with multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB), three of whom were detected after smear examination at the end of treatment. Conclusions Given the high burden of TB in India, a 0.9% additional yield of smear-positive sputum smears at the end of treatment translates to 3,297 cases of smear-positive PTB. End-of-treatment smear is a low-yield strategy for detection of smear-positive TB cases, although further studies are needed to determine its population-level impact and cost, particularly in relation to other TB control interventions.

Malhotra, Sumit; Zodpey, Sanjay P.; Chandra, Shivani; Vashist, Ram Pal; Satyanaryana, Srinath; Zachariah, Rony; Harries, Anthony D.

2012-01-01

294

Should sputum smear examination be carried out at the end of the intensive phase and end of treatment in sputum smear negative pulmonary TB patients?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The Indian guidelines on following up sputum smear-negative Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients differ from the current World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines in that the former recommends two follow up sputum examinations (once at the end of intensive phase and the other at the end of treatment) while the latter recommends only one follow up sputum smear microscopy examination, which is done at the end of the intensive phase. This study was conducted to examine if there was any added value in performing an additional sputum smear examination at the end of treatment within the context of a national TB program. METHODS: This study was a descriptive record based review conducted in nine tuberculosis (TB) units in Delhi, India. All consecutive new sputum smear-negative PTB patients registered in these nine TB units from 1(st) January 2009 to 31(st) December 2009 were included in the study. RESULTS: Of 2567 new sputum smear-negative TB patients, 1973 (90%) had sputum specimens examined at the end of the intensive phase, of whom 36 (2%) were smear-positive: the majority (n?=?28) successfully completed treatment with either the same or a re-treatment regimen. At treatment completion, 1766 (85%) patients had sputum specimens examined, of whom 16 (0.9%) were smear-positive: all these were changed to a re-treatment regimen. Amongst the sputum-positive patients identified as a result of follow up (n?=?52), four were diagnosed with multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB), three of whom were detected after smear examination at the end of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Given the high burden of TB in India, a 0.9% additional yield of smear-positive sputum smears at the end of treatment translates to 3,297 cases of smear-positive PTB. End-of-treatment smear is a low-yield strategy for detection of smear-positive TB cases, although further studies are needed to determine its population-level impact and cost, particularly in relation to other TB control interventions.

Malhotra S; Zodpey SP; Chandra S; Vashist RP; Satyanaryana S; Zachariah R; Harries AD

2012-01-01

295

Field Comparison of the Sampling Efficacy of Two Smear Media: Cotton Fiber and Kraft Paper  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two materials were compared in field tests at the Defense Waste Processing Facility: kraft paper (a strong, brown paper made from wood pulp prepared with a sodium sulfate solution) and cotton fiber. Based on a sampling of forty-six pairs of smears, the cotton fiber smears provide a greater sensitivity. The cotton fiber smears collected an average of forty-four percent more beta activity than the kraft paper smears and twenty-nine percent more alpha activity. Results show a greater sensitivity with cotton fiber over kraft paper at the 95 percent confidence level. Regulatory requirements for smear materials are vague. The data demonstrate that the difference in sensitivity of smear materials could lead to a large difference in reported results that are subsequently used for meeting shipping regulations or evaluating workplace contamination levels.

Hogue, M.G.

2002-02-07

296

MALARIAL PARASITE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the slide positivity rate and to document the different species of malarial parasite at district Shikarpur, Sindh, Pakistan. Design: A retrospective study. Setting: This study was conducted at district Malaria control centre Shikarur with collaboration of Pathology Department CMC Larkana and Leishmaniaisis/Mosquito Zoology Lab: University of Balochistan Quetta over the period of one year i.e. 2006. Patients and Methods: During the study period blood smears were prepared from the suspected cases of malaria. The patients with differentiated fever referred from various areas of Shikarpur District by general practitioners, basic health units, rural health centres and taluka hospitals were included in the study for confirmation of malaria. The parasites were identified by using Giemsa stained thick and thin smears following Mansen-Bahar and Bell, 1987. Results: During the study period total of 67550 Blood smears were examined irrespective of age and se and 740 were confirmed for malarial parasites, giving an overall slide positivity rate of 1.09%. Plasmodium falciparum was identified in 267 (36.08%) cases and plasmodium vivax in 473 (63.92%) cases. Conclusion: The slide positivity rate of malarial parasite in this study was 1.09% and plasmodium vivax found as most predominant species in this part of the world.

FAROOQ RAHMAN SOOMRO

2009-01-01

297

MALARIAL PARASITES SPECIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To determine the pattern of malarial parasites species in Jacobabad District Sindh. Design: A retrospective observational study.Setting: This study was conducted at District Malarial control Centre Jacobabad with collaboration of pathology Department C.M.C Larkanaand Leishmaniasis / Mosquito Zoology Lab: University of Balochistan Quetta. Period: One year 2005. Patients & Methods: During the studyperiod blood smears were prepared from the suspected cases of malaria. The suspected cases with fever referred from various areas ofJacobabad District by General Practitioners, Basic Health Units, Rural Health Centres and Taluka Hospital were included in the study forconformation of malaria. The parasites were identified by using Giemsa stained thick and thin smears. Results: During the study period total of 58,989 blood smears were examined irrespective of age and sex and were conformed for malarial parasites, giving over all positivity rate of 0.91% (540 cases). Plasmodium falciparum was identified in 154 (28.52%) and Plasmodium vivax in 386 (71.48%) cases. Conclusions: Thepositive cases for malarial parasites were 0.91% and Plasmodium vivax found as most predominant species in the region.

FAROOQ RAHMAN SOOMRO; GHULAM MURTAZA PATHAN; DOULAT BAJAJ

2010-01-01

298

Inequalities in Pap smear screening for cervical cancer in Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the risk factors associated with never being screened for cervical cancer (CC) in Brazil. METHODS: Using the National Household Sample Survey 2008 (PNAD), we analyzed data from 102,108 Brazilian women ages 25-64 years. The patients were analyzed as having been or never having been screened with a Pap smear (Yes/No). Age-adjusted prevalence of never-screening was analyzed using a Chi-squared test. Crude and adjusted models using Poisson regression were performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of never-screened women for CC was 12.9%, 11.5% and 22.2% in Brazil in general, urban and rural areas, respectively. The Brazilian region with the highest prevalence of never-screening was the North (17.4%, 14.7% and 27.3% in general, urban and rural areas, respectively). The factors associated with a higher risk for never being screened were the following: poverty, younger age, lower educational level, non-white skin color, a greater number of children, no supplemental health insurance and not having visited a doctor in the past 12 months. CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic and demographic conditions lead to inequalities in access to Pap smear screening in Brazil. Public health policy addressing these risk groups is necessary.

Mart韓ez-Mesa J; Werutsky G; Campani RB; Wehrmeister FC; Barrios CH

2013-07-01

299

Association of Oral Contraceptives and Abnormal Pap Smear  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To assess the hypothesis that combined Oral Contraceptive (OCs) increase the risk of cervical neoplasia, we conducted a multicenter Case-Control study in Mashhad, the capital of Khorasan province. Seventy-eight women with moderate to severe dysplasia at Pap smear as case group and one hundred fifty nine women with normal Pap smear were selected as the control group for evaluation. The both case and control groups were matched by age, parity and socioeconomic status. All of the women in this study were single partner as husband and no smoker. 30 percent of cases and 64.8 percent of controls were used OCs. The duration of OCs use was the same in both. The odds ratio for OCs consumption was 0.2 with 95% confidence interval 0.11-0.4 in Logistic regression analysis. In contrast to some other studies, our findings showed an association between OCs and cervical dysplasia and there was a protective effect of OCs for cervical dysplasia.

Sayedmohsen Sayednozadi; Mohammadreza Hassany; Mohammad A. Ramezani

2005-01-01

300

DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF COLPOSCOPY IN PATIENTS WITH ABNORMAL PAP SMEAR  

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Full Text Available Introduction: In order to reduce invasive cervical cancer, it is necessary to follow presisly the patients with abnormal pap smear. Simply, repeating the cytologic assessment in patints with atypical pap smear will result in missing 26-83 percent of squamous intraepithelial lesions and most alarming 50 percent of invasive cancers. Considering the contraversy of different study reports about the diagnostic value of colposcopy in confirming the abnormal papsmear, this study was conducted to determine the sensitivity and specificity of colposcopy based on the results of biopsy in women referred to hospitals of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS).Methods: In a prospective study, we selected randomly 210 women from 700 patints who reffered to the hospitals of IUMS. These women were examined and biopsied simultaneously. The data was collected by a structured interview according to the demographic characteristics and then was analyzed using EPI software. Results. From 210 subjects, only 125 were reported to have abnormal cervical cytologic. The sensitivity came out to be 97.29 percent and specificity was 43.20 percent.Discussion. In Iran, according to the sensitivity and specificity for colposcpic examination, it can be suggested that in final evaluation of abnormal papsmears, colposcopic assesment of the cervix can be considered as the next appropriate step.

T ALLAMEH

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Atomic force microscopy of removal of dentin smear layers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The regular periodontal practice of scaling and root planing produces a smear layer on the root surface that is detrimental to the readhesion of tissues during subsequent regeneration therapy. Although it has been demonstrated that gels containing the chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) can assist in the removal of this contaminating layer, no quantitative method is yet available by which to evaluate the efficiency of the treatment. In this article, the power of atomic force microscopy (AFM) as a technique for monitoring and mapping the surfaces of dentinal roots is demonstrated. Roughness parameters of teeth that had been scaled and root planed were determined from AFM images acquired both before and after treatment with EDTA. The results confirmed that EDTA is an efficient cleaning agent and that dentinal samples free from a smear layer are significantly rougher than the same samples covered by a contaminating layer. AFM analysis is superior to alternative methods involving scanning electron microscopy because the same sample section can be analyzed many times, thus permitting it to be used as both the control and the treatment surface. PMID:17637073

Batista, Luiz Henrique Carvalho; J鷑ior, Jos Ginaldo da Silva; Silva, Milton Fernando Andrade; Tonholo, Josealdo

2007-08-01

302

Atomic force microscopy of removal of dentin smear layers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The regular periodontal practice of scaling and root planing produces a smear layer on the root surface that is detrimental to the readhesion of tissues during subsequent regeneration therapy. Although it has been demonstrated that gels containing the chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) can assist in the removal of this contaminating layer, no quantitative method is yet available by which to evaluate the efficiency of the treatment. In this article, the power of atomic force microscopy (AFM) as a technique for monitoring and mapping the surfaces of dentinal roots is demonstrated. Roughness parameters of teeth that had been scaled and root planed were determined from AFM images acquired both before and after treatment with EDTA. The results confirmed that EDTA is an efficient cleaning agent and that dentinal samples free from a smear layer are significantly rougher than the same samples covered by a contaminating layer. AFM analysis is superior to alternative methods involving scanning electron microscopy because the same sample section can be analyzed many times, thus permitting it to be used as both the control and the treatment surface.

Batista LH; J鷑ior JG; Silva MF; Tonholo J

2007-08-01

303

An international study of the interobserver variation between interpretations of vaginal smear criteria of bacterial vaginosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An international workshop on vaginal smear-based diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis was organized where 13 investigators scoring 258 slides with smears from vaginal fluid. Interobserver reproducibility of interpretations of Nugent scores, Hay/Ison scores and wet smear scores for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis was shown to be high. Detailed analysis of individual scoring results however indicated that basic standards of quality control to ensure robust individual readings of slides must be adhered to.

Forsum U; Jakobsson T; Larsson PG; Schmidt H; Beverly A; Bj鴕nerem A; Carlsson B; Csango P; Donders G; Hay P; Ison C; Keane F; McDonald H; Moi H; Platz-Christensen JJ; Schwebke J

2002-11-01

304

An international study of the interobserver variation between interpretations of vaginal smear criteria of bacterial vaginosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

An international workshop on vaginal smear-based diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis was organized where 13 investigators scoring 258 slides with smears from vaginal fluid. Interobserver reproducibility of interpretations of Nugent scores, Hay/Ison scores and wet smear scores for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis was shown to be high. Detailed analysis of individual scoring results however indicated that basic standards of quality control to ensure robust individual readings of slides must be adhered to. PMID:12596717

Forsum, U; Jakobsson, T; Larsson, P G; Schmidt, H; Beverly, A; Bj鴕nerem, A; Carlsson, B; Csango, P; Donders, G; Hay, P; Ison, C; Keane, F; McDonald, H; Moi, H; Platz-Christensen, J-J; Schwebke, J

2002-11-01

305

Smears and cultures for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in an asymptomatic immigrant population.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization estimated in 2010 that 8.8 million new tuberculosis (TB) cases. About one-third of the world's population is infected and 10% will develop active TB disease. While cultures remain the international gold standard for diagnosing TB disease, in many other low-income countries, sputum smears remain the only and most accessible tool with which to diagnose active TB disease. As a consequence, in patients with TB who have negative smears, their TB remains undetected. AIM: The objective of the study reported here was to demonstrate the proportion of smear-positive/culture-positive cases compared with smear-negative/culture-positive TB cases in Mexican immigrants bound for the USA. METHODS: A retrospective study was undertaken of the medical records of 122 active TB cases diagnosed at a clinic in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, from 2009 to 2012. All cases were confirmed by culture, regardless of the sputum smear results. RESULTS: Of the cases, 80% (97 active TB cases) had negative sputum smears, while only 25 cases (20%) had at least one positive smear. All of the cultures were confirmed as positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. CONCLUSION: The fact that 80% of the TB cases were smear negative and 20% smear positive shows that there is a clear gap between the actual state of active TB disease within patients under screening conditions, meaning that eight out of ten actual cases are being missed when sputum smear is the only diagnostic tool in asymptomatic patients with abnormal chest X-rays. Based on these results, it is highly recommended that countries that have not standardized culturing as the gold standard for the diagnosis of active TB do so, so that TB cases - which may endanger global public health - are not missed. It is also recommended that further studies be undertaken to determine the clinical background of the patients diagnosed by smear and culture to identify a direct relationship between clinical signs and symptoms and the smear result.

Assael R; Cervantes J; Barrera G

2013-01-01

306

Value of third sputum smear for detection of pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV infected patients  

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Full Text Available We evaluated diagnostic yield of third sputum smear in patients co infected with HIV for detection of pulmonary tuberculosis. Among 139 pulmonary tuberculosis cases confirmed with positive sputum culture, diagnostic yield of first smear of sputum with acid fast staining was 83.5%. Incremental yield of 2nd and 3rd samples was 11.2% and 5.2% respectively. So two sputum smears may be enough for primary evaluation of HIV infected patients suspected to TB.

Majid Marjani; Payam Tabarsi; Parvaneh Baghaei; Davoud Mansouri; Mohammad Reza Masjedi; Ali Akbar Velayati

2012-01-01

307

Making the Pap smear into the "right tool" for the job.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite being a rather recalcitrant tool, the "Pap smear" is today the major cancer screening technology in the world. This paper examines how and why hetrogeneous actors chose to advocate the Pap smear as a screen for cervical cancer in the late 1940's, and to tinker both in and far beyond the diagnostic laboratory for over 50 years to make the Pap smear "fit" as a screening and clinical technology. Tinkerings included gendering the division of labour, attempting to automate reading of smears, juggling costs, exploring alternative screening technologies, pushing for regulation of laboratories, and settling for locally-negotiated orders of clinical accuracy instead of global standardization, still elusive today.

Casper MJ; Clarke AE

1998-04-01

308

[Miniature squamous cells in gynecological smears: high association with epithelial lesions  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The frequence of abnormal smears in gynecological cytologies containing miniature squamous cells (MSC) was studied. Every smear containing MSC was collected from 5.000 consecutive smears. Two hundred thirty three cases (4.66%) containing MSC collected. The general frequence of abnormal smears was 2.04%, while this frequence was 24.89% in cases with MSC (p < 10(-8). 114 cases with MSC had an atrophic pattern, 10.5% of them being abnormal smears; 119 cases with MSC had an estrogenic/progestative pattern, 38.7% of them being abnormal smears (p < 0.05). 53.2% of smears containing MSC and keratohyaline granules had a cytological diagnosis of epithelial lesion or were atypic, while only 10.4% of cases with MSC and without keratohyaline granules had these diagnosis (p < 10(-6)). The frequence of abnormal smears was significantly higher in cases with MSC than the general frequence of abnormal smears, especially in cases also having a non-atrophic pattern or containing keratohyaline granules.

Chuaqui R; Verni J; Quintana ME

1994-01-01

309

Extraction and detection of Mycobacterium leprae DNA from ZNCF-stained skin smear slides for better identification of negative skin smears  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Identification of Mycobacterium leprae, which causes leprosy, is done by Ziehl Neelsen Carbol Fuchsin (ZNCF) stained slit skin smear microscopy that aids in the diagnosis and quantification of approximate bacterial load carried by the patient. We attempted M. leprae DNA extraction from 46 stained slit skin smear negative slides, using Proteinase K and SDS lysis, followed by ethanol precipitation. M. leprae specific primers (16SrRNA) were used for PCR-based amplification of DNA. We could detect M. leprae DNA in 15 (32.6%) samples. The method can be useful in the diagnosis of apparently slit skin smear negative leprosy cases.

Kamble R; Shinde V; Madhale S; Kamble A; Ravikumar B; Jadhav R

2010-01-01

310

Rehydration of Air-Dried Smears versus Wet Fixation: A Cross-Sectional Study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The Papanicolaou (Pap) smear is an effective method for early detection of cervical cancer. The routine practice of staining is to immediately fix the cervical smear in 95% ethyl alcohol. An alternative method of rehydrating the air-dried cervical smears followed by fixation and conventional staining method can overcome most of the problems associated with short supply and storage of alcohol, wet fixing of slides and transporting them to the cytology centre if the Pap smears are prepared at a peripheral centre. There are only few studies regarding rehydration of cervical smears as a substitute for wet fixation. AIM: The current study was undertaken to assess this technique as an alternative method for conventional wet-fixed smears. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was done over a period of 15 months in a tertiary care setup. Two sets of 461 cervical smears were examined; the smears in the first set were fixed in 95% ethyl alcohol and the other set of 461 smears was air dried, rehydrated and then fixed in 95% ethyl alcohol. Both the smears were stained with Pap stain, examined for preservation of cytomorphological features and evaluated using the modification of parameters given by Ng et al. [Acta Cytologica 1994;38:56-64]. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS: Two sets of 461 smears each, one air dried and rehydrated and the other wet fixed in alcohol, were evaluated for cytomorphological preservation, and comparison was done. In wet-fixed smears, morphology was excellent in the majority of cases (80.7%). Cytomorphology was optimal in 18% and suboptimal in 1.3% of the cases. The air-dried and rehydrated smears showed excellent morphological preservation in 67%, followed by 29.9% optimal and 2.8% suboptimal preservation. The p value was >0.05, which was not significant. CONCLUSION: Rehydration, followed by fixation of air-dried smears, is a simple, feasible, applicable and reliable fixation technique which is comparable to the wet-fixed conventional technique used for cervical smears and can be applied for evaluation on a routine basis.

Rupinder K; Shubra W; Kanwal M

2013-01-01

311

Pap smear screening in the primary health care setting: A study from Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is one of the ten most frequent cancers in Turkey. It is well known that cervical cancer morbidity and mortality could be significantly reduced with an active cervical smear screening (Pap smear) program. Aims: The aims of this study were: 1) to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of women about cervical smear testing; 2) to establish a cervical smear screening program and to evaluate the cervical cytological abnormalities that were found; 3) to determine the applicability, limitations and effectiveness of this screening in a primary health care unit. Patients and Methods: A total of 332 married women were included in our study. We collected data concerning socio-demographic and fertility characteristics, and knowledge about Pap smear testing was determined through printed questionnaires. A gynecological examination and Pap smear screening was performed on every woman in our study group. Results: Over ninety percent of our study group had never heard of and had not undergone Pap smear screening before. Of the 332 smears evaluated, 328 (98.8%) were accepted as normal, whereas epithelial cell anomalies were seen in 4 (1.2%), infection in 59 (17.7%), and reactive cell differences in 223 (67.2%) of the smears. Conclusions: The frequency of epithelial cell anomalies in our study group was less than the frequencies reported from Western countries. Knowledge regarding cervical cancer and Pap smear screening was very low. Pap smears can be easily taken and evaluated through a chain built between the primary health care unit and laboratory, and this kind of screening intervention is easily accepted by the population served.

Hande Celik Mehmetoglu; Ganime Sadikoglu; Alis Ozcakir; Nazan Bilgel

2010-01-01

312

Passive gravitational sedimentation of peripheral blood increases the sensitivity of microscopic detection of malaria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine if passive gravitational sedimentation of blood samples, followed by buffy coat thin smear preparation could increase the sensitivity of malaria diagnosis when compared to conventional thin smear preparation without the additional cost of centrifuges or molecular diagnostics. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 205 patients. Each patient sample was analyzed using all three methods of sample preparation. RESULTS: Buffy coat analysis of centrifuged blood samples greatly increased the sensitivity of malaria diagnosis when compared to standard thin smear techniques. Sensitivity between mechanically centrifuged samples and gravitationally sedimented samples showed equal improvement in sensitivity when compared to standard thin smear preparation. CONCLUSIONS: Passive gravitational sedimentation of red blood cells followed by buffy coat analysis dramatically improves the sensitivity of malaria diagnosis without the additional costs associated with centrifugation.

Davis R; Flanigan T; Wilson E

2013-07-01

313

Interpretation of follow-up cervicovaginal smears after radiation therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation has been used as a form of therapy alone or in combination with surgery and/or chemotherapy for a variety of malignant tumors. Its application in the treatment of gynecological cancers, particularly those of the uterine cervix, has been particularly successful, radiation therapy being recognized as the treatment of choice for infiltrating epidermoid carcinoma of the cervix that has spread to tissues beyond the cervix. The following discussion of cellular findings in cervicovaginal smears describes the cellular alterations and the types of changes that may cause difficulty in interpretation, reports on the attempts at correlating the reaction of benign squamous cells to radiation with prognosis, and reviews the value of long-term follow-up by cytology

1987-01-01

314

Body mass index and outcome of ASC-H-interpreted cervical smears in postmenopausal women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Patient age is one important factor used to evaluate the risk in women with ASC-H (atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion). This finding may be associated with atrophic changes reflecting a hypoestrogenic status and suggests that body mass index (BMI) can affect the outcome of ASC-H smears in postmenopausal women. STUDY DESIGN: We investigated the outcome of 154 postmenopausal women with an ASC-H smear and assessed relationships with BMI categories and serum estradiol levels. RESULTS: In patients with higher BMI, an underlying squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) was more frequent than in patients with lower BMI, and a higher BMI was also associated with increased serum estradiol levels. When samples were classified by preparation method, these findings were more pronounced in liquid-based smears than in conventional smears. Principal component analysis using three factors (BMI, age and human papilloma virus status) revealed two distinct groups: those with a negative cervical smear and those with a smear result indicating SIL+. CONCLUSION: Hormonal alterations can affect the outcome of ASC-H smears, and BMI is one factor that should be considered when evaluating the risk associated with ASC-H smears in postmenopausal women.

Ahn S; Lee YY; Sung JY; Lee JJ; Oh YL; Sung CO; Song SY

2012-01-01

315

Improvements of the smearing technique for cross-stiffened thin rectangular plates  

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New developments in the simplified smearing technique for modeling vibrations of cross-stiffened, thin rectangular plates are presented. The computationally efficient smearing technique has been known for many years, but so far the accuracy of, say, predicted natural frequencies has been inadequate....

Luan, Yu; Ohlrich, Mogens; Jacobsen, Finn

316

Wet smear method by a water sprayer and temporary decontamination method by a vacuum cleaner  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Improving the smear efficiency and the stability of smear method on the monitoring of radioactive floor surface contamination, wet smear method by a water sprayer was designed and examined. And as the temporary decontamination method applied to the wide spread radioactive floor surface contamination, the method by a vacuum cleaner (vacuum cleaner method) was examined. These examinations were carried out by the experiment using the lonleum floor sheets waxed and the various types of pharmaceutical compounds labeled with /sup 99m/Tc. On wet smear method, the smear efficiencies were larger than 50 % and coefficient of variations by far smaller than that of dry smear method (usual smear method) for all the radiopharmaceuticals examined. These results showed the effectiveness of wet smear method. On vacuum cleaner method, the decontamination coefficients were comparatively large and almost same to that by wet duster method (decontamination method by using the wet duster) except Ringer's solution and DMSA what had less removable part of contamination. These results showed the effectiveness of vacuum cleaner method for the removable parts of contamination. (author).

Kawano, Takao; Ebihara, Hiroshi

1989-03-01

317

Wet smear method by a water sprayer and temporary decontamination method by a vacuum cleaner  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en]營mproving the smear efficiency and the stability of smear method on the monitoring of radioactive floor surface contamination, wet smear method by a water sprayer was designed and examined. And as the temporary decontamination method applied to the wide spread radioactive floor surface contamination, the method by a vacuum cleaner (vacuum cleaner method) was examined. These examinations were carried out by the experiment using the lonleum floor sheets waxed and the various types of pharmaceutical compounds labeled with 99mTc. On wet smear method, the smear efficiencies were larger than 50 % and coefficient of variations by far smaller than that of dry smear method (usual smear method) for all the radiopharmaceuticals examined. These results showed the effectiveness of wet smear method. On vacuum cleaner method, the decontamination coefficients were comparatively large and almost same to that by wet duster method (decontamination method by using the wet duster) except Ringer's solution and DMSA what had less removable part of contamination. These results showed the effectiveness of vacuum cleaner method for the removable parts of contamination. (author)

1989-01-01

318

Air and smear sample calculational tool for Fluor Hanford Radiological control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A spreadsheet calculation tool was developed to automate the calculations performed for determining the concentration of airborne radioactivity and smear counting as outlined in HNF-13536, Section 5.2.7, Analyzing Air and smear Samples. This document reports on the design and testing of the calculation tool.

BAUMANN, B.L.

2003-09-24

319

Papanicolaou Smear Screening of Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Taiwan  

Science.gov (United States)

|Although little is known about the incidence of cervical cancer in women with intellectual disabilities (ID), Pap smear screening is an effective public health program to prevent cervical cancer to this group of people. The purposes of this study were to identify and evaluate the factors regarding the utilization of the Pap smears in women with

Lin, Lan-Ping; Lin, Jin-Ding; Sung, Chang-Lin; Liu, Ta-Wen; Liu, Yi-Lian; Chen, Li-Mei; Chu, Cordia M.

2010-01-01

320

Papanicolaou Smear Screening of Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Taiwan  

Science.gov (United States)

Although little is known about the incidence of cervical cancer in women with intellectual disabilities (ID), Pap smear screening is an effective public health program to prevent cervical cancer to this group of people. The purposes of this study were to identify and evaluate the factors regarding the utilization of the Pap smears in women with ID

Lin, Lan-Ping; Lin, Jin-Ding; Sung, Chang-Lin; Liu, Ta-Wen; Liu, Yi-Lian; Chen, Li-Mei; Chu, Cordia M.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Possible value of nasal smear in acute maxillary sinusitis: an experimental study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study is to determine the role of nasal smear in evaluating diagnosis and response to the treatment by the patient of acute maxillary sinusitis. We compared nasal smear and histopathological findings obtained from rabbits experimentally induced acute maxillary sinusitis. The animals were divided into two groups; one with blocked ostium and treated with antibiotic and the other applied natural ostiotomy, during a 4-week period. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in respect of recovery period. This conclusion was derived from nasal smear and biopsy findings. It was observed that nasal smear and biopsy findings were consistent with each other and with clinical findings. The results of this study revealed that nasal smear may be used in the diagnosis and treatment follow-up of acute maxillary sinusitis.

Kutluhan A; Ugra? S; Berkta? M; Dilek HF; Akpolat N; Inalka E

1997-05-01

322

[Cervical cancer screening by Pap smear: experience of the National Research Center in Reproductive Health. ONFP].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have analysed the result of 17,173 pap smears screened in the national research center in reproductive health of Ariana from 1 may 1993 to 30 april 1997. Among these pap smears, 613 colposcopy and 380 biopsy have been performed. The results show that: 1.9% of pap smears present cytological anomalies with 0.79% of low Squamous Intraepithelial lesions and 0.66% high Squamous Intraepithelial lesions. The incidence of CIN III is 1.8% and 0.9% for invasive cancer. The age interval 35-44 years is at high risk of CIN III and invasive cancer of the cervix. evaluation of our diagnostic approach shows that: positive predictive value of pap smears with low SLI is 43.2% positive predictive value of pap smears with high SLI is 37.3%.

Ben Aissa R; Bennour R; Ben Hamida A; Kammoun N; Mansour H; Mhamdi A; Landoulsi S; Cherif N; Gueddana N

2002-04-01

323

Now ICT malaria Pf/Pv frente a microscop韆 (gota gruesa- extendido) para diagn髎tico de malaria en Urab (Colombia)/ Now ICT malaria Pf/Pv versus microscopy (thick-smear, thin smear) for diagnosis of malaria in Urab (Colombia)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Problema: solo conocemos tres informes para Colombia de la prueba diagn髎tica de malaria Now ICT Malaria Pf/ Pv (NowICT); esos estudios tuvieron resultados de sensibilidad y especificidad muy diferentes. Objetivo: evaluar la capacidad diagn髎tica de NowICT frente a la gota gruesa para el diagn髎tico de infecci髇 plasmodial en sangres perif閞ica materna, del cord髇 umbilical y placentaria. Metodolog韆: dise駉 paralelo y enmascarado para evaluaci髇 de una prueba (more) diagn髎tica. El tama駉 de la muestra se calcul con par醡etros epidemiol骻icos y estad韘ticos y fue de 131 muestras de sangre perif閞ica materna; tambi閚 se examinaron sendas muestras de sangre placentaria y de cord髇 umbilical. Resultados: se evaluaron en total 386 muestras. La sensibilidad de NowICT para P. vivax no alcanz 70% en ninguna de las fuentes (madre, placenta, cord髇). La especificidad m韓ima fue de 99% . Los valores para P. falciparum no se calcularon porque los casos fueron pocos. Conclusi髇: Now ICT malaria Pf/ Pv no es una herramienta diagn髎tica 鷗il en Colombia porque su sensibilidad para P. vivax es muy deficiente y en el pa韘 esta especie es la que predomina en la generaci髇 de malaria en humanos. Esta interpretaci髇 concuerda con las conclusiones generales de la OMS sobre el estado de desarrollo de las pruebas diagn髎ticas r醦idas para malaria. Abstract in english Problem: To date, there are only three reports from Colombia about the malaria diagnostic test Now ICT Malaria Pf / Pv (NowICT). The results from these studies showed major differences in sensitivity and specificity Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of NowICT compared to thick smear for the diagnosis of Plasmodium infection in matched blood samples from mothers (maternal peripheral blood), umbilical cord and placenta. Methods: We used a closed (blinded/ (more) masked) and parallel design for the evaluation of a diagnostic test. The sample size was calculated with statistical and epidemiological parameters; this consisted of 131 thick smears from maternal peripheral blood. Blood samples from placenta and umbilical cord were also studied (386 samples tested in total). Results: The sensitivity of Now ICT for detection of P. vivax was below 70% in any of the samples (maternal blood, placental blood or cord blood). The specificity was greater than 99% . Values for P. falciparum infection were not calculated since too few cases were detected. Conclusions: Now ICT Malaria Pf / Pv is not a useful diagnostic tool in Colombia since the sensitivity for the most frequent species in the country, P. vivax, is poor. This interpretation is consistent with the WHO's general conclusions about the state of development of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria.

Carmona- Fonseca, Jaime; Franco Gallego, Alexander; Arango Fl髍ez, Eliana; Agudelo Garc韆, Olga Mar韆; Maestre Buitrago, Amanda

2010-06-01

324

A Patient with G6PD Deficiency and Falciparum Malaria  

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Full Text Available A 20 year old male patient from Afghanistan with a history of G6PD deficiency and clinical manifestations of malaria referred to Bou-Ali Hospital in Tehran, capital of Iran. Giemsa stained thick blood films revealed an infection of Plasmodium falciparum with 33700 parasite/?L of blood. The patient was successfully treated according to malaria treatment guideline.

M Nateghpour; A Miahipour; M Yousefi; A Mohammadiha; Y Fagani

2007-01-01

325

Prevalence of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae in cats in the south of Brazil: a molecular study  

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Full Text Available Bartonella spp are the causative agent of cat scratch disease in humans. Cats are the natural reservoir of these bacteria and may infect humans through scratches, bites or fleas. Blood samples from 47 cats aged up to 12 months were collected for this study. All animals were lodged in municipal animal shelters in the Vale do Sinos region, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Bartonella spp were detected by genus-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and when the PCR was positive, the species were determined by DNA sequencing. A Giemsa-stained blood smear was also examined for the presence of intraerythrocytic elements suggestive of Bartonella spp infection. Phylogenetic analysis was also performed for all positive samples. Using molecular detection methods, Bartonella spp were detected in 17.02% (8/47) of the samples. In seven out of eight samples confirmed to be positive for Bartonella spp, blood smear examination revealed the presence of intraerythrocytic elements suggestive of Bartonella spp. Phylogenetic analysis characterized positive samples as Bartonella henselae (5) or Bartonella clarridgeiae (3). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first molecular study demonstrating the presence of Bartonella spp in cats from the Southern Region of Brazil.

Rodrigo Staggemeier; Carolina Augusto Venker; Deisy Heck Klein; Mariana Petry; Fernando Rosado Spilki; Vlademir Vicente Cantarelli

2010-01-01

326

Prevalence of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae in cats in the south of Brazil: a molecular study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bartonella spp are the causative agent of cat scratch disease in humans. Cats are the natural reservoir of these bacteria and may infect humans through scratches, bites or fleas. Blood samples from 47 cats aged up to 12 months were collected for this study. All animals were lodged in municipal animal shelters in the Vale do Sinos region, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Bartonella spp were detected by genus-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and when the PCR was positive, the species were determined by DNA sequencing. A Giemsa-stained blood smear was also examined for the presence of intraerythrocytic elements suggestive of Bartonella spp infection. Phylogenetic analysis was also performed for all positive samples. Using molecular detection methods, Bartonella spp were detected in 17.02% (8/47) of the samples. In seven out of eight samples confirmed to be positive for Bartonella spp, blood smear examination revealed the presence of intraerythrocytic elements suggestive of Bartonella spp. Phylogenetic analysis characterized positive samples as Bartonella henselae (5) or Bartonella clarridgeiae (3). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first molecular study demonstrating the presence of Bartonella spp in cats from the Southern Region of Brazil.

Staggemeier R; Venker CA; Klein DH; Petry M; Spilki FR; Cantarelli VV

2010-11-01

327

A comparison of thick smears, QBC malaria, PCR and PATH falciparum malaria test trip in Plasmodium falciparum diagnosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Blood samples from 182 patients presenting at the out-patient clinic in Richard-Toll. Senegal were analysed by Thick smear microscopy, the QBC, PCR and the new dipstick PATH Malaria assay which detects the histidine rich protein II antigen of Plasmodium falciparum. Thick smear microscopy was used as the reference method. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive positive and negative values were 100%, 83.6%, 93.4% and 100% QBC respectively; 100%, 72.7%, 89.4% and 100% for PCR; 96%, 92.7%, 96.8% and 91% for the PATH assay. PATH assay failed to detect one positive sample with Plasmodium malariae. Assays were also compared with regard to the expense of equipment and reagents and speed and ease of use. The rapid PATH assay can be performed with minimal training and may be specially useful in areas where P. falciparum is the predominant malaria species, in epidemic malaria regions, and where skilled microscopy is not readily available. PMID:10511977

Gaye, O; Diouf, M; Diallo, S

1999-09-01

328

Rapid detection of chromosome 18 copy number in buccal smears using DNA probes and FISH  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rapid diagnosis of trisomy 18 in newborns is often critical to clinical management decisions that must be made in a minimum of time. DNA probes combined with FISH can be used to accurately to determine the copy number of chromosome 18 in interphase cells. We have used the D18Z1 alpha satellite DNA probe to determine signal frequency in normal, previously karyotyped subjects, 12 females and 6 males. We also present one clinical case of trisomy 18, confirmed by karyotype, for comparison to the results obtained from normal subjects. Buccal smears, unlike cytogenetic preparations from peripheral blood, are quite resistant to penetration of probes and detection reagents resulting in higher levels of false monosomy. We have studied 19 individuals and have obtained consistent FISH results, ranging from 64 to 90% disomy. False monosomy rates ranged from 10 to 36%, while false trisomy or tetrasomy was less than 1% in all samples. High rates of false monosomy make this test questionable for detection of low order mosaicism for monosomy, but the extremely low false hyperploidy rate suggests that this is a dependable procedure for detection of trisomy 18, enabling the use of buccal epithelium which can be collected easily from even premature and tiny infants.

Harris, C.; Nunez, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, WI (United States); Giraldez, R. [ONCOR, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

1994-09-01

329

Adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix: screening and diagnostic errors in Papanicolaou smears.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Little attention has been given to the reasons for failure to detect adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) of the uterine cervix in Papanicolaou (Pap) smears. In the current study, the authors examined a series of screening or diagnostic errors in cases in which the final histologic diagnosis was either AIS or AIS combined with a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (AIS + HSIL). METHODS: Smears obtained in the 3 years before histologically proven AIS or AIS + HSIL was diagnosed and within a specified 6-year period (1993-1998) were reviewed and reclassified. All were conventional Pap smears. The smears studied were those with a review diagnosis of possible or definite high-grade epithelial abnormality that initially were reported by a cytotechnologist to be negative (screening error) or that were reported by a pathologist to be negative, unsatisfactory, or indicative of a low-grade epithelial abnormality (diagnostic error). A semiquantitative, blinded assessment of the frequency of cytologic criteria for the diagnosis of AIS was made for smears with erroneous diagnoses compared with a series of smears that yielded true-positive findings. RESULTS: Sampling errors, which were defined as cases in which smears did not have sufficient evidence for a diagnosis of possible or definite AIS or HSIL on review, accounted for 35.1% and 36% of all smears from patients with a biopsy diagnosis of AIS and patients with a biopsy diagnosis of AIS + HSIL, respectively. With regard to AIS, there were 3 screening errors and 5 diagnostic errors, accounting for 10.4% of 77 smears. Minimal, poorly preserved material was evident in four smears, including three smears with only one sheet of abnormal glandular cells. In four other smears, there was a moderate amount of adequately preserved glandular material, mainly in large sheets, with varying degrees of crowding and hyperchromasia. With regard to AIS + HSIL, there were 6 screening errors and 6 diagnostic errors, accounting for 13.5% of 89 smears. In those smears, there generally was a moderate amount of abnormal material in the form of crowded groups of suboptimally preserved, hyperchromatic squamous cells. Only two of those smears yielded findings of possible abnormal glandular cells. Only 3 of 20 errors occurred in smears that were examined during the last 3 years of the study. In the semiquantitative assessment, smears with erroneous findings were shown to contain far less abnormal material than true-positive smears and to exhibit a corresponding paucity of diagnostic criteria. CONCLUSIONS: Sampling errors were the main cause of false-negative reports in cases of AIS and AIS + HSIL. The primary factors that contributed to screening or diagnostic errors in AIS were minimal, poorly preserved abnormal material and an overly conservative approach to the assessment of unusual large sheets or aggregates of glandular cells. With regard to AIS + HSIL, most laboratory errors were related to the presence of crowded groups of squamous epithelial cells. There were fewer errors in the last 3 years of the study, raising the possibility of improvement over time.

Ruba S; Schoolland M; Allpress S; Sterrett G

2004-10-01

330

Diagnostic Value of Protein Ki67 (MIB-1) in Atypical Pap Smears of Postmenopausal Women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: Atrophic epithelium of cervix sampled from postmenopausal women may mimic high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in Papanicolaou-stained (Pap) smears. Ki-67 (MIB-1) protein presents on proliferating cells, and percentage of cells with positive nuclei provides a reliable tool for rapid evaluation of the growth fraction. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of protein Ki67 staining in atypical pap smears of postmenopausal women. Methods: In a case-control setting, pap smears of 75 women with an atypical pap smear (case group) and 75 with normal pap smears (controls) were obtained before and after estrogen treatment. Afterward, samples were exposed to the monoclonal antibody Ki-67 (MIB-1) and the immunohistochemically demonstrated Ki-67+ cells were compared. Results: Mean ages of cases and controls were 60.44.5 and 59.94.3 years respectively (P=0.50). There was one (2.7%) positive Ki-67 specimen in the case group, without any positive Ki-67 specimen in the control group (P=0.50). Conclusions: Measurement of proliferative activity index in Pap smears restrained with MIB1 is a simple, reliable, and cost-effective method for excluding negatives. This would imply that it might allow a substantial reduction of diagnostic estrogen courses and subsequent Pap smears in postmenopausal women with atypical findings.

Fakhrjou A; Dastranj-Tabrizi A; Ghojazadeh M; Ghorashi S; Velayati A; Piri R; Vahedi A; Sayyah-Melli M; Smaeili HA; Bonakdari A; Halimi M; Naghavi-Behzad M

2013-01-01

331

Are Unstained Smears, Effective Tools in the Evaluation of the Cytological Sample Adequacy?  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Cytologists are often under time pressure due to a constant need and a demand for quick despatch of reports, which calls for an early assessment of sample adequacy. Objective To study whether unstained smears are effective in evaluation of sample adequacy of cytology aspirates. Materials and Methods The study had 3 groups. Assessment of sample adequacy of cytology aspirates was done on unstained smears in Group I (200 cases), Group II (100 cases out of Group I) and Group III ( 80 cases out of Group II ) by a Professor, Assistant Professor and a junior resident respectively. The results were compared with assessment of adequacy on stained smears and statistical analysis was done. Results Evaluation of adequacy of cytology aspirates by examination of unstained and stained smears by 3 observers of varied experience revealed no significant difference between the observers and between the stained and unstained smears (p<0.001). Conclusion Unstained smear study offered advantages over the stained smears in the evaluation of sample adequacy. Hence, it maybe recommended as a routine practice in cytology clinics.

A.L., Hemalatha; M.K., Umarani; U., Asha; M.N., Gayathri

2012-01-01

332

PROFILE OF CERVICAL SMEAR CYTOLOGY IN WOMEN ATTENDING HEALTH CENTER IN RURAL AREA OF WESTERN MAHARASHTRA  

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Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer caused by infection with a sexually transmitted agent human papillomavirus (HPV), can be readily prevented by identifying and treating women with HPV-induced precancerous lesions of the cervix.Objective: To study the profile of cervical smear cytology in rural women in western Maharashtra.Methods: The study was designed to look at the previous reports of the Pap smear present at the health center Pravaranagar in rural area of Western Maharashtra. The reports of 186 smears were analyzed.Results: Maximum numbers of the women (70.43%) were less than 40 years of age. 聽Majority of the women were from lower socio-economic status. There were 29.03 % Pap smears, negative for intraepithelial lesion. Intraepithelial neoplasia of various grade and invasive cervical carcinoma were diagnosed in some cases. Other infections were also detected on Pap smear like bacterial vaginosis, candidial infection and trichomonas vaginalis infestation. Conclusion: An Awareness and education program needs to be implemented to target women about cervical cancer and Pap smear screening. The goal of any screening programme should be to pick up majority of the precursor lesions and not frank cancers; it is desirable to initiate Pap smear screening in women from lower socio-economic status before the 40 years of age.

Jayant D Deshpande; Deepak B Phalke; Vaishali D Phalke

2012-01-01

333

Sensitivity of a papanicolaou smear in the diagnosis of candida albicans infection of the cervix  

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Full Text Available Background: Candida albicans infections of the cervix are not adequately diagnosed in Papanicolaou smears when compared with culture in Sabouraud dextrose agar. Methods: Cervical smears were collected from 1000, non-pregnant, asymptomatic women. The specimens were prepared using the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear method examined by microscopy and subsequently cultured in Sabouraud dextrose agar. Results: The overall incidences of C. albicans in cervical smears cultured in Sabouraud dextrose agar was 30.10%, while the incidence in the Pap smears was 7.60%, making the sensitivity of Pap smears for the diagnosis of C. albicans to be 25.25%. Mild, and some moderate, infections detectable in Sabouraud dextrose agar could not be detected in the Pap smear specimens. Vulnerability to C. albicans infection decreased with age, the highest infection rate being between 20 and 39 years of age while the least was between 60 and 69 years of age. Papanicolaou抯 method stained the nuclei, chromatin and nucleoli very well and enhanced differentiation between malignant and non-malignant cells. It also stained the cytoplasm and its contents such as keratin, vacuoles and granules and differentiated between acidophilic and basophilic materials. Non-cellular substances such as fibrin, crystals and pigments were also stained using this method. In addition, Papanicolaou抯 method also stained some fungal and bacterial species, but did not provide differential staining characteristics seen in Gram staining technique. Conclusions: Papanicolaou stain should not be used as an alternative to culture in the diagnosis of Candida albicans.

Avwioro Og; Olabiyi Oe; Avwioro To

2010-01-01

334

Cervical biopsies and cytological smears - a comparison of sample materials in HPV diagnostics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is causally related to cervical infections by oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes. To improve the quality of diagnosis evaluation of screening methods and their HPV type detection rate is an important part for this item. OBJECTIVES: Two different cervical specimens of the same patients were analysed simultaneously with molecular HPV subtyping methods to find the most sensitive sample material for cervical cancer screening. STUDY DESIGN: Biopsy specimens and cytological smears of the cervix of 443 patients were analysed for human papilloma virus (HPV) subtyping by a macroarray from Chipron, Germany, which allows a differentiation of 16 high and 16 low risk types. Results were compared for reliability and differences were studied. RESULTS: Both sample material groups showed HPV conformity of 70%, 23% more subtypes could be detected in smears in contrary to biopsies but only 6% vice versa. 14 biopsies and 7 smears were HPV negative although the concerning second sample type of the patients was HPV positive. HPV 16 as one of the most relevant subtypes in cervical cancer pathogenesis was missed in the biopsies' group with 34.3% out of 35 HPV 16 positive smear cases, whereas only one smear failed to discover this subtype contrariwise. CONCLUSION: Comparison of the examination results shows that subtyping of smear samples is able to detect more subtypes than by biopsy specimens. The probability to underdiagnose HPV 16 and to get a false negative result in bioptic sample material favours smear as method of choice for HPV subtyping.

Webersinke C; Doppler S; Roithmeier F; Stummvoll W; Silye R

2013-01-01

335

Diagnosing sputum/smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis: Does fibre-optic bronchoscopy play a significant role?  

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Full Text Available Background : Diagnosis of sputum/smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis patients can be both challenging and time consuming with many patients being put on empirical anti-tubercular treatment. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy may provide a confirmative and early diagnosis in such patients. Aims: To assess the role of fibreoptic bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of sputum /smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 75 suspected sputum / smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis cases attending Pulmonary Medicine Department of Mamata Medical College and Hospital, Khammam, AP. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy was performed; culture of sputum and bronchial washings for Mycobacterium tuberculosis was done by BACTEC method. Results: A final diagnosis of sputum /smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis was made in 60 patients. Bronchial washings smear for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) was positive in 21 patients while culture of bronchial washings was positive in 39 patients. In 29 patients, smear or culture of bronchial washing alone contributed to the final diagnosis. Total yield of bronchoscopy in diagnosis of sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis was 83.33% (50/60); bronchoscopy was the only diagnostic method in 66% cases (40/60) with bronchial washings being the only diagnostic method in 48.33%. Bronchial washings smear for AFB and histopathological evidence of caseating granuloma made immediate diagnosis possible in 48.33% (29/60) patients. Conclusion: Our study suggests that fibreoptic bronchoscopy can provide excellent material for diagnosis of suspected cases of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in whom smears of expectorated sputum do not reveal mycobacteria.

Bachh Arshad; Gupta Rahul; Haq Inaamul; Varudkar Hanumant

2010-01-01

336

[Abnormalities in cervical smears stored in plastic bags: potential cause of false negatives].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Cervical smear is the most economic and efficient diagnostic tool for the screening of cervical cancer. However, since plastic bags have been used in Guanajuato to transport and store smears, we have observed cytological abnormalities which difficult the diagnosis and lead to false negatives. OBJECTIVE: To describe those abnormalities. METHODS: Out of 340 women registered in a primary care center in Mexico, 68 were selected through systematic random sampling during 2007. A cervical smear was obtained and placed on two slides. The first sample was allowed to dry but the second one was placed into the plastic bag immediately after fixation. After 15 days all the smears were stained with the Papanicolaou technique. A certified pathologist, blinded about the variable of study, interpreted the samples according to the Bethesda system, and evaluated the presence of necrosis, edema, holes, and opportunistic microorganisms. RESULTS: Of the 68 smears exposed to a humid storage, 36 (53%) were inadequate for diagnosis (Fisher's exact probability < 0.001). From them, 36 (53%) had holes or lagoons, 34 (50%) had edema, 31 (46%) had necrosis, and 15 (22%) had fungus. On the other hand, the 68 dried cervical smears were all adequate for diagnosis and none had the changes or cytological abnormalities. CONCLUSION: The humid transport and storage of cervical smears produced abnormalities in the normal morphology that could lead to false negative results. The guideline for the handling of cervical smears must stress the importance of allowing the smears to dry completely after fixation and before storing them in plastic bags.

Ortega-Gonz醠ez P; Gonz醠ez-Bravo MS; Jim閚ez-Mu駉z-Ledo G; Mac韆s AE

2011-05-01

337

Target time smearing with short transmissions and multipath propagation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In active sonar the target echo level is often estimated with a propagation model that adds all multipath arrivals. If the (post-correlator) transmitted pulse is short compared to the multipath time spread then there is effectively an extra loss (which may be substantial) since only a few of the paths contribute to the target echo at any one instant. This well known "time-smearing" loss is treated in a self-consistent manner with previous calculations of reverberation [Harrison, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 114, 2744-2756 (2003)] to estimate the target response and the signal-to-reverberation-ratio. Again isovelocity water, Lambert's law, and reflection loss proportional to angle are assumed. In this important short pulse regime the target response becomes independent of boundary reflection properties but proportional to transmitted pulse length. Thus the signal-to-reverberation-ratio becomes independent of pulse length. The effect on signal-to-ambient-noise is also investigated and the resulting formulas presented in a table.

Harrison CH

2011-09-01

338

Tritium autoradiography of cell surfaces in smear preparations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en]燛xperiments were performed in order to find out whether tritium-labeled cell surface markers can be quantified at the single cell level in autoradiographs of smear preparations. Mouse thymocytes were incubated with 3H-concanavalin A and subsequently spread on microscopic slides. The spreading techniques, either by cytocentrifugation or by the use of cover slips, were performed in such a way as to achieve preparations in which the mean flatness of the cells varied. By means of incident light microphotometry, the cellular areas and the grain counts of individual cells were determined. The results show a strong dependence of the mean grain yield per slide on the mean cellular area. Cytocentrifuge preparations resulted in larger mean cellular areas and higher mean grain counts than cover slip preparations. With the use of cytocentrifugation, however, the differences in the flatness of the cells were of such a magnitude that a reproducible quantification of 3H-labeled cell surface markers was not possible. Conventional techniques of spreading cells on slides failed to provide a degree of flatness that could approach the saturation grain count per cell without completely destroying the cellular morphology

1983-01-01

339

Comparison of visual inspection of cervix and pap smear for cervical cancer screening  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en]燨bjective: To evaluate the performance of visual inspection of cervix (VIA) after application of 3% acetic acid in cervical cancer screening in comparison with PAP smear. Results: Out of 540 subjects, 356 were negative with both screening techniques. One hundred and fifty-six subjects were positive with VIA (28.9%) while PAP smear was positive in seventy-eight subjects (14.4%). The sensitivity of VIA was 93.9% and of PAP smear was 46.9%. Corresponding specificities were 30.4% and 69.5%. There was no significant difference between the positive predictive value (PPV) of both test (p

2003-01-01

340

Predicting results of mycobacterial culture on sputum smear reversion after anti-tuberculous treatment: a case control study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is currently known regarding sputum smear reversion (acid-fast smear becomes positive again after negative conversion) during anti-tuberculous treatment. This study aimed to evaluate its occurrence in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and identify factors predicting results of mycobacterial culture for smear-reversion of sputum samples. Methods The retrospective review was performed in a tertiary referral center and a local teaching hospital in Taiwan. From 2000 to 2007, patients with smear-positive culture-confirmed pulmonary TB experiencing smear reversion after 14 days of anti-tuberculous treatment were identified. Results The 739 patients with smear-positive pulmonary TB had 74 (10%) episodes of sputum smear reversion that grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 22 (30%) (Mtb group). The remaining 52 episodes of culture-negative sputum samples were classified as the non-Mtb group. The anti-tuberculous regimen was modified after confirming smear reversion in 15 (20%). Fourteen episodes in the Mtb group and 15 in the non-Mtb group occurred during hospitalization. All were admitted to the negative-pressure rooms at the time of smear reversion. Statistical analysis showed that any TB drug resistance, smear reversion within the first two months of treatment or before culture conversion, and the absence of radiographic improvement before smear reversion were associated with the Mtb group. None of the smear reversion was due to viable M. tuberculosis if none of the four factors were present. Conclusions Sputum smear reversion develops in 10% of patients with smear-positive pulmonary TB, with 30% due to viable M. tuberculosis bacilli. Isolation and regimen modification may not be necessary for all drug-susceptible patients who already have radiographic improvement and develop smear reversion after two months of treatment or after sputum culture conversion.

Shu Chin-Chung; Wang Jann-Tay; Lee Chih-Hsin; Wang Jann-Yuan; Lee Li-Na; Yu Chong-Jen

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Sputum smear microscopy at two months into continuation-phase: should it be done in all patients with sputum smear-positive tuberculosis?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP) of India recommends follow-up sputum smear examination at two months into the continuation phase of treatment. The main intent of this (mid-CP) follow-up is to detect patients not responding to treatment around two-three months earlier than at the end of the treatment. However, the utility of mid-CP follow-up under programmatic conditions has been questioned. We undertook a multi-district study to determine if mid-CP follow-up is able to detect cases of treatment failures early among all types of patients with sputum smear-positive TB. METHODOLOGY: We reviewed existing records of patients with sputum smear-positive TB registered under the RNTCP in 43 districts across three states of India during a three month period in 2009. We estimated proportions of patients that could be detected as a case of treatment failure early, and assessed the impact of various policy options on laboratory workload and number needed to test to detect one case of treatment failure early. RESULTS: Of 10055 cases, mid-CP follow-up was done in 6944 (69%) cases. Mid-CP follow-up could benefit 117/8015 (1.5%) new and 206/2040 (10%) previously-treated sputum smear-positive cases by detecting their treatment failure early. Under the current policy, 31 patients had to be tested to detect one case of treatment failure early. All cases of treatment failure would still be detected early if mid-CP follow-up were discontinued for new sputum smear-positive cases who become sputum smear-negative after the intensive-phase of treatment. This would reduce the related laboratory workload by 69% and only 10 patients would need to be tested to detect one case of treatment failure early. CONCLUSION: Discontinuation of mid-CP follow-up among new sputum smear-positive cases who become sputum smear-negative after completing the intensive-phase of treatment will reduce the laboratory workload without impacting overall early detection of cases of treatment failure.

Gandhi MP; Kumar AM; Toshniwal MN; Reddy RH; Oeltmann JE; Nair SA; Satyanarayana S; Dewan PK; Mannan S

2012-01-01

342

[Factors associated with lack of Pap smear screening in a group of postmenopausal Brazilian women].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aimed to analyze risk factors for lack of Pap smear screening among menopausal women. This population-based study evaluated 456 women 45-69 years of age (mean 58.7; SD 5.7), with age at menopause 48.0 years (SD 5.0) living in the urban area of Maring, Paran State, Brazil. Most reported having 7 years of schooling or less, were married or living with a partner, had paid work, were sedentary, and were not on hormone replacement therapy. Coverage of Pap smear screening was 84.5%. After adjustment by multivariate analysis, the 45-69-year age bracket, paid work, no visit to the gynecologist in the previous year, and no mammogram in the two previous years were statistically associated with lack of Pap smear screening. Efforts to improve cervical cancer screening should focus on women's knowledge and reduce the factors that hinder women from performing Pap smear tests.

Brischiliari SC; Dell'Agnolo CM; Gil LM; Romeiro TC; Gravena AA; Carvalho MD; Pelloso SM

2012-10-01

343

Leishmania life cycle images in the cutaneous cytologic smear of an immunocompetent patient  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cutaneous leishmania life cycle images on cytology smears are very rare. We report herein a gallery of cytologic images from a case of sporadic cutaneous leishmaniasis in a 61 year old man presenting with ulcerative skin lesion.

Zappacosta Roberta; Claudi Roberta; Magnasco Salvatore; Dell?Osa Emma

344

Improvement of the pion spectrum with HYP-smeared staggered fermions  

CERN Multimedia

We extend our previous study of taste-symmetry breaking using HYP-smeared staggered fermions in two ways. First, we improve the statistics of a comparison of unimproved and HYP-smeared staggered fermions on quenched lattices with $a\\approx 0.1 $fm. This allows us to obtain a signal for all pion tastes, rather than just a subset, and thus to make a complete comparison. In addition, it allows us to differentiate between wall and local sources. Second, we compare HYP-smeared valence quarks to asqtad valence quarks on 2+1 flavor unquenched MILC lattices. We find that taste breaking is substantially reduced by HYP-smearing, bringing the size of this discretization effect (which is the dominant such effect with staggered fermions) down to the size expected generically for any fermion type.

Bae, Taegil; Jung, Chulwoo; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Jongjeong; Kim, Kwangwoo; Lee, Weonjong; Sharpe, Stephen R

2007-01-01

345

[Effect of smear layer removal on bevelled and retrofilled teeth in vitro  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The "smear layer" is composed of debris that cover and insert into dentinal tubules. It is not really known if this form of debris may harbon viable bacterias or does form a barrier that enhances endodontic fillings by lining or plugging the tubules. The purpose of this study is to determine the role of the smear layer in leakage by using two groups of teeth in which the smear layer was removed of the root canals, in the first group and left into the roots in the second group. Some samples were beveled and all teeth were retrofilled after Root Canal Preparation, and then filled with India Ink. After examination of leakage under various conditions, it has been found a correlation between leakage and removal of smear layer.

Carlson E; Simon J

1990-03-01

346

Leishmania life cycle images in the cutaneous cytologic smear of an immunocompetent patient  

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Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmania life cycle images on cytology smears are very rare. We report herein a gallery of cytologic images from a case of sporadic cutaneous leishmaniasis in a 61 year old man presenting with ulcerative skin lesion.

Zappacosta Roberta; Claudi Roberta; Magnasco Salvatore; Dell?Osa Emma

2010-01-01

347

An Audit of Sputum Smear Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis Cases in Kinta District, Perak, in 2011  

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Full Text Available 58 cases of sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PtB) were reported to Kinta Health Department between January and June 2011. It was found that 47 cases (81%) were sputum smear negative cases. six cases (10.3%) were actually sputum smear positive but were wrongly reported as smear negative. Five cases (8.6%) were misdiagnosed as tuberculosis. Majority of these patients (82.7%) sought consultation and treatment after two weeks of having cough. only 6.9% sought treatment for cough that was less than two weeks old. Accurate diagnosis of PtB is crucial and the Perak state Health Department needs to quickly adopt steps to improve the situation.

Subashini A; Lau KM; Habibur Rahman ZA

2012-01-01

348

Papanicolaou Smear Waiting Times at General Leonard Wood Army Community Hospital.  

Science.gov (United States)

From July to December 1994, the average waiting time or a Papanicolaou (Pap) smear at General Leonard Wood Army Community Hospital was greater than 50 days. Satisfaction surveys and patient complaints revealed that beneficiaries found this waiting time to...

R. Meaney

1996-01-01

349

Comparative evaluation of three and six month therapeutic regimens for smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis  

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Full Text Available Both smears positive and negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) patients are routinely treated by six month therapeutic regimen. The aim of this study was to compare three and six month regimens chemotherapy for smear negative PTB among tuberculosis patients. Fifty-two patients with smear negative PTB randomly divided into two groups took part in this comparative clinical trial study. The patients in first group were treated with our recommended regimen (rifampicin, isoniazide, and ofloxacin) and another group with standard regimen according directly observed treatment short course strategy. Cure rates in first and second group were 96.5% and 100% respectively. There was no difference between two groups in responding to anti tuberculosis chemotherapy (p>0.05). This study showed that three month therapeutic regimen is as effective as six month therapeutic regimen and may be considered effective treatment for adult patients with unprogressive smear negative PTB.

Seyed Mohammad Alavi

2009-01-01

350

TTV and HPV co-infection in cervical smears of patients with cervical lesions  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The female lower genital tract is a gateway for pathogens entering the host through the mucous membrane. One of the prevalent human viruses is Torque teno virus (TTV). The major reported routes of TTV transmission are fecal-oral and parenteral. Furthermore, other modes of transmission, e.g. sexual contact, are suggested. To investigate the sexual route of TTV transmission, cervical smears of healthy women and those with cervical lesions were screened for the presence of TTV DNA. Methods TTV DNA was studied in cervical smears of 95 patients with cervical lesions and 55 healthy women. Paired serum samples were available from 55 and 42 women, respectively. All healthy women had normal cytology while 44 patients had histologically confirmed low-grade lesion (LGL) and 51 high-grade lesion (HGL). TTV DNA was detected with primers specific for the non-coding region. In 40 paired cervical smears and serum samples, the phylogenetic group of TTV isolates was determined. The presence of HPV DNA in cervical smears was detected by means of PCR with MY09/11 primers. Results The prevalence of TTV DNA in cervical smears of healthy women was 52.7% and was comparable with that in paired serum samples (50%). Symptomatic women had significantly higher prevalence of TTV DNA in cervical smears (74.7%) than healthy controls. The TTV DNA prevalence in patient serum samples was 51%. The phylogenetic groups of TTV serum isolates were concordant with those of TTV from cervical smears of the same subjects. In cervical smears, a wider variety of TTV isolates was found. The viral loads in cervical smears were 10 to 1000 times as high as in sera. The HPV-positive study subjects had significantly higher TTV DNA prevalence than HPV negatives. The prevalence of TTV was not associated with disease severity. Conclusion High prevalence of TTV in cervical smears suggests that sexual transmission is another mode of expansion of TTV infection among the population. The higher viral load in cervical smears than in the respective serum samples might indicate active TTV replication in the female genital tract. Nevertheless, cooperation between TTV and HPV needs to be further investigated.

Sal醟ov Martina; N?me?ek Vratislav; Tachezy Ruth

2009-01-01

351

[Frequency of Pap smear testing in young women with an obstetric history in Teresina, Piaui, Brazil].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the frequency of Pap smear testing in young women with at least one pregnancy in Teresina, capital of the state of Piau, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken from May to December 2008. A convenience sample of 464 young women was selected, and data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Women giving birth in the first four months of 2006, in six hospitals in Teresina, were included. Inadequate Pap smear frequency was defined as an interval of more than 1 year between tests. RESULTS: Mean age was 20 years. The frequency of Pap smear testing was every 6 months in 180 women (39.0%) and yearly in 160 (34.5%). Fifteen women (3.2%) had never had a Pap smear test. Simple logistic regression showed an increase of 48.0% in the risk of inadequate Pap smear frequency (P = 0.049) in women who did not use any contraceptive method at their first sexual intercourse, and 49.0% (P = 0.044) in those who were not able to choose between a male or female gynecologist when seeking health care services. On multivariate logistic regression, having more than one pregnancy increased the risk of inadequate Pap smear frequency by 71.4% in comparison to having only one pregnancy (P = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: The fact that many young women had Pap smear testing at intervals shorter than 1 year does not improve cervical cancer screening and may burden the health care system. Multiparity was a risk factor for inadequate Pap smear frequency, an aspect that must be taken into account when providing gynecological care to young women.

Barroso MF; Gomes KR; Andrade JX

2011-03-01

352

Comparison of direct versus concentrated smear microscopy in detection of pulmonary tuberculosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Sputum smear microscopy is fast and inexpensive technique for detecting tuberculosis (TB) in high incidence areas but has low sensitivity. Physical and chemical sputum processing along with centrifugation have been found to show promise in overcoming this limitation. Our objective was to compare the sensitivity of smear microscopy obtained with smears made directly from respiratory specimens to those from concentrated specimens. METHODS: By active screening, 915 TB suspects were identified from Dhaka Central Jail and sputum specimens were aseptically collected. Direct smears were prepared by taking a small portion of the purulent part of the sputum with a sterile loop. The specimens were then processed by a standard N-acetyl-L-cysteine-NaOH digestion-decontamination method to prepare concentrated specimens. Both smears were then air dried, heat fixed, and stained by the Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. The stained slides were examined under oil immersion and were graded following International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases guidelines. All the specimens were inoculated into Lowenstein-Jensen (L-J) media and culture results were considered as gold standard to calculate sensitivity. RESULTS: Of 915 specimens, 73 (8%) specimens were positive both on direct and concentrated methods, one sample was positive on direct microscopy but was negative on concentrated method. An extra 14 (1.5%) samples were positive on concentrated method which were negative on direct smear. In L-J media 105 specimens were found positive for TB bacilli and of them, 74 (70.5%) and 87 (82.9%) were positive in direct and concentrated smear, respectively. The sensitivity of direct and concentrated smear microscopy was different when using positive culture as the gold standard (71% vs. 83%). CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that concentrated technique increases the sensitivity of microscopy up to 12%. Therefore, the national programs in high TB burden countries may consider incorporating the technique into their guidelines at least in the district and higher level laboratories to improve case finding strategy.

Uddin MK; Chowdhury MR; Ahmed S; Rahman MT; Khatun R; van Leth F; Banu S

2013-01-01

353

Comparison Between Pap Smear and Via As Screening For Cervical Lesions  

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Full Text Available Introduction: An important reason for higher cervical cancer incidence in developing countries is lack of effectivescreening programs like pap smear, aimed at detecting precancerous conditions before they progress to invasivecancer. The potential difficulties in implementing cervical cytology based screening in low-resource settings haveprompted the investigation of accuracy of alternative low technology tests such as Visual inspection with acetic acidapplication [VIA], Visual inspection with acetic acid application with magnification [VIAM], visual inspection onLugol抯 Iodine application [VILI] in early detection of cervical neoplasia .In our study we compared pap smear withVIA to study the accurarcy of VIA as it is simpler and easier technique to be used as screening in low resourcesettings. Aim: This is a hospital based descriptive, prospective study to evaluate validity of pap smear and VIAtechniques as screening tests in identifying cervical lesions. Materials And Methods: After general and systemicexamination as a routine,visual local pelvic examination including visualisation of cervix and vagina per speculumand the findings are documented in the proforma .Then VIA and pap smear are done in that order, if any of thesetests are positive then cervical biopsy will be taken and further advise to the subject is given. Results: A total of 313women were involved in the study. The sensitivity of pap smear is 54.5% specificity is 98.9% while that of VIA95.4% and 97.9%respectively. We found that VIA accuracy was comparatively more than that of pap smear.Conclusion: In low resource settings, usefulness of VIA is more than that of pap smear. We suggest to perform VIAin all the women inspite of having pap smear facility to improve detection rate of cervical lesions and provide betterpatient councelling and treatment.

Harshini V 1, Amritha Bhandary 2, Suchithra Thunga 3

2013-01-01

354

Confusion about Pap smears: lack of knowledge among high-risk women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The impact of the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear on the prevention of cervical cancer is one of the greatest public health success stories. However, it is not clear if women understand the purpose of the Pap smear despite recent advancements and national attention over cervical cancer prevention. The purpose of this study was to examine Pap smear knowledge among three high-risk populations at different points in time. METHODS: Women from three separate human papillomavirus (HPV) psychosocial studies completed surveys assessing Pap smear knowledge: (1) HPV-positive women (prevaccine population in 2005-2006, n=154, mean age 23.5), (2) college women (postvaccine population in 2008, n=276, mean age 18.9), and (3) minority college women (postvaccine population in 2011, n=711, mean age 23.3). Frequencies and logistic regression were employed to examine associations between demographic factors and accurate knowledge of Pap smear testing within each study. RESULTS: Approximately one quarter of participants across all three samples did not know that the Pap smear is a test for cervical cancer. Participants also incorrectly believed that the Pap smear tests for HPV (82%-91%), vaginal infections (76%-92%), yeast infections (65%-86%), gonorrhea (55%-81%), herpes (53%-80%), HIV/AIDS (22%-59%), and pregnancy (17%-38%). Among all three studies, older age was the only factor significant with higher Pap knowledge. Higher HPV knowledge scores were significantly associated with higher Pap knowledge in studies 2 and 3 only. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge about the purpose of the Pap smear remains low. Findings underscore the significant need for clear and consistent messages among high-risk women regarding the prevention of cervical cancer and other reproductive health conditions.

Daley E; Perrin K; Vamos C; Hernandez N; Anstey E; Baker E; Kolar S; Ebbert J

2013-01-01

355

Preconditioning Maximal Center Gauge with Stout Link Smearing in SU(3)  

CERN Document Server

Center vortices are studied in SU(3) gauge theory using Maximal Center Gauge (MCG) fixing. Stout link smearing and over-improved stout link smearing are used to construct a preconditioning gauge field transformation, applied to the original gauge field before fixing to MCG. We find that preconditioning successfully achieves higher gauge fixing maxima. We observe a reduction in the number of identified vortices when preconditioning is used, and also a reduction in the vortex-only string tension.

Cais, Alan ; Langfeld, Kurt; Lasscock, Ben; Leinweber, Derek; Moran, Peter; Sternbeck, Andre; von Smekal, Lorenz

2008-01-01

356

A comparison of digitized frozen section and smear preparations for intraoperative neurotelepathology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Intraoperative consultations in neuropathology are often assessed by smear preparations rather than by frozen sections. Both techniques are standard practice for light microscopic examination on site, but there is little data comparing these techniques in a telepathology setting. METHODS: Thirty cases of brain tumours submitted for intraoperative consultation at our institution between July and December 2010 were identified in which both frozen section and tissue smear preparations were available for digitization at 20 magnification. Slides were digitized using a Hamamatsu Nanozoomer 2.0 HT whole slide scanner, and resulting digital images were visualized at 1680 1050 pixel resolution with NDP. view software. RESULTS: The original intraoperative diagnosis was concordant with the sign out diagnosis in 29/30 cases; one tumeur was initially interpreted as a high grade glioma but proved to be a lymphoma at sign out. Digitized frozen section slides were sufficient for diagnosis at 10 magnification in 27/30 cases. Digitized tissue smears were sufficient for diagnosis at 10 magnification in 28/30 cases. In two cases tumour was present on the tissue smear but not the frozen section (one case of recurrent astrocytoma, one case of meningeal carcinomatosis). In one case of lymphoma, tumour was present on frozen section only. These discrepancies were attributed to tissue sampling rather than image quality. Examination of digitized slides at higher magnfication (20) permitted confirmation of mitoses and Rosenthal fibers on tissue smear preparations, but did not change the primary diagnosis. Intra-slide variations in tissue thickness on smear preparations led to variable loss of focus in digitized images, but did not affect image quality in thinner areas of the smear or impede diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Digitized tissue smears are suitable for intraoperative neurotelepathology and provide comparable information to digitized frozen sections at medium power magnification.

Gould PV; Saikali S

2012-01-01

357

Granuloma inguinale (Donovanosis).  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors present images of two of the most common clinical forms of granuloma inguinale (donovanosis) in males and females. Donovanosis is considered a sexually transmitted disease that is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Two microscopic images are also shown, one of a direct smear (the presence of Donovan bodies within large mononuclear cells identified using Giemsa stain) and the other of typical histological findings (rod-shaped Donovan bodies within a mononuclear histiocyte). PMID:21738983

Bezerra, Sarita Maria de F醫ima Martins de Carvalho; Jardim, Marcio Martins Lobo; Silva, Valdir Bandeira da

358

Granuloma inguinale (Donovanosis).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The authors present images of two of the most common clinical forms of granuloma inguinale (donovanosis) in males and females. Donovanosis is considered a sexually transmitted disease that is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Two microscopic images are also shown, one of a direct smear (the presence of Donovan bodies within large mononuclear cells identified using Giemsa stain) and the other of typical histological findings (rod-shaped Donovan bodies within a mononuclear histiocyte).

Bezerra SM; Jardim MM; Silva VB

2011-05-01

359

Effects of different irrigation solutions on root dentine microhardness, smear layer removal and erosion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aimed to compare the effects of different irrigants on root dentine microhardness, erosion and smear layer removal. A total of 72 root dentine slices were divided into six groups, according to the final irrigants used: Group 1: 17% ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) + 2.5% NaOCl, Group 2: 7% maleic acid (MA) + 2.5% sodium hypochloride (NaOCl), Group 3: 1.3% NaOCl + mixture of tetracycline, acid and detergent (MTAD), Group 4: Smear Clear + 2.5% NaOCl, Group 5: 5% NaOCl, Group 6: saline. Vickers microhardness values were measured before and after treatment. In total, 42 root-halves were prepared for scanning electron microscope to evaluate the amount of smear and erosion in the coronal, middle and apical thirds. Data were analysed using two-way anova, Duncan and two-proportion z-tests. Maleic acid showed the greatest reduction in dentine microhardness (P < 0.05), followed by EDTA and MTAD. EDTA, maleic acid, MTAD and Smear Clear removed smear layer efficiently in the coronal and middle thirds of root canal. However, in the apical region, maleic acid showed more efficient removal of the smear layer than the other irrigants (P < 0.05).

Ulusoy ?; G鰎g黮 G

2013-08-01

360

An In Vitro SEM Study on the Effectiveness of Smear Layer Removal of Four Different Irrigations  

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Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this study was to compare the smear layer removal efficacies of 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 17% Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), SmearClear and BioPure MTAD using a common irrigation protocol. Materials and Methods: Fifty freshly extracted human single rooted maxillary and mandibular teeth were prepared by a ProTaper rotary system up to an apical preparation file size F3. Prepared teeth were randomly divided into five groups (n=10); distilled water (Group A; negative control), EDTA (Group B), SmearClear (Group C), BioPure MTAD (Group D) and NaOCl (Group E). After final irrigation with tested irrigants the teeth were decoronated, split into two halves longitudinally and observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) for removal of the smear layer. The SEM images were then analyzed for the amount of smear layer present using a three score system. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Intergroup comparison of groups B, C, and D showed no statistical significant differences in the coronal and middle thirds, however, in the apical third the canal surfaces were cleaner in samples from group D (P<0.05). Conclusion: BioPure MTAD was the most effective agent for the purpose of smear layer removal in the apical third of the root canals.

ASHOK KUMAR; SYED MUKHTAR -UN-NISAR ANDRABI; RAJENDRA K; TEWARI; SURRENDRA K; MISHRA; HUMA IFTEKHAR

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Colposcopic evaluation of cervix with persistent inflammatory Pap smear: A prospective analytical study  

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Full Text Available Background: Inflammatory Pap smear is the most common report received by a gynecologist. The cervical screening algorithm for benign cellular changes on the Pap smear recommends treatment of infection if indicated and a repeat Pap smear in 4 to 6 months time. If the inflammatory changes still persist, subject the patient to colposcopy. However, in practice, this is not followed, especially in developing countries like ours where proper screening protocols are not available. Hence, a good number of patients in the premalignant stage are being missed. This study was undertaken to evaluate patients with persistent inflammatory Pap smears without atypia using colposcopy. Methods: A prospective analytical study of 150 gynecologial patients with persistent inflammatory Pap smear between 2006 and 2008 in an out-patient setting. All of them were subjected to colposcopy and biopsy from the abnormal areas. The incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)/invasive carcinoma was calculated by proportions/percentages. Results: The incidence of invasive carcinoma was in situ were present in 6.9% of the cases. Conclusions: Patients with persistent inflammatory Pap smears can harbour a high proportion of CIN and hence these patients will need further evaluation.

Dasari Papa; Rajathi S; Kumar Surendra

2010-01-01

362

Front-loaded smear microscopy for the diagnosis of pulmonary TB in Tripoli, Libya.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of pulmonary TB by conventional smear microscopy requires patient attendance on 2 consecutive days. We investigated whether collecting sputum on-the-spot for smear microscopy on the day the patient presented was as sensitive and specific for diagnosis as the conventional spot-morning-spot scheme. METHOD: We enrolled 412 adults who presented between January 2009 and October 2010 at the National Centre for TB Control in Tripoli, Libya, with cough of >2 weeks' duration, into a cross-sectional survey collecting four sputum specimens: on-the-spot and Xspot on Day 1; morning and on-the-spot on Day 2. RESULTS: 97 (24%) of 401 culture results were culture positive. Spot-Xspot and spot-morning smear microscopy had, respectively, 65% and 66% sensitivity and 97% and 96% specificity (p > 0.5). Spot-Xspot-morning and Spot-morning-spot smear-microscopy had, respectively, 67% and 66% sensitivity and 96% and 96% specificity (p > 0.5). CONCLUSION: For the diagnosis of pulmonary TB, the sensitivity and specificity of front-loaded (same-day) smear microscopy is similar to that of the standard smear microscopy scheme.

Gammo M; Lamaric W; Hadida M; Abuazza A; Askar NA; Yassin MA; Cuevas LE

2013-02-01

363

Ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsy of hepatocellular carcinoma: comparison between smear cytology and microhistology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to evaluate the typing accuracy of smear cytology and microhistology and of their association in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma arising in liver cirrhosis, and to analyze the usefulness of smear cytology in the diagnosis of well-differentiated neoplasms. METHODS: One hundred sixty patients with hepatocellular carcinoma underwent an ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsy, providing material for cytological and histological study. In 73 patients, a double biopsy with noncutting and cutting needles was performed (double-needle group), whereas in the remaining 87, a single biopsy with cutting needle was carried out (single-needle group). RESULTS: In the whole population examined, smear cytology, microhistology, and their association, provided the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in 128 (80%), 98 (61%), and 144 (90%) cases, respectively. The double-needle and the single-needle groups did not differ significantly as to typing accuracy. Smear cytology correctly diagnosed 54 of 64 neoplasms classified histologically as well-differentiated. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that both smear cytology and microhistology should be applied immediately, when diagnosing hepatocellular carcinoma arising in liver cirrhosis, and that smear cytology is effective in the diagnosis of well-differentiated neoplasms.

Rapaccini GL; Pompili M; Caturelli E; Fusilli S; Trombino C; Gomes V; Squillante MM; Castelvetere M; Aliotta A; Grattagliano A

1994-06-01

364

Ovarian serous borderline tumor detected by conventional papanicolaou smear: a case report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Although the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear was originally designed to detect premalignant cervical lesions and cancer, it has become apparent that malignant cells from extrauterine primaries may also appear in the smears. Here, we report a case of a serous borderline tumor (SBT) of the ovary that was detected by a conventional Pap smear. CASE REPORT: In a 34-year-old woman, who was operated on for a left borderline ovarian tumor 2 years ago, glandular dysplasia was discovered in a Pap smear screening. The Pap smear showed a large number of atypical glandular cells forming 3-dimensional papillary clusters. The cell clusters were enlarged and had variably sized round or oval nuclei. The background was clean, and this finding pointed to the noncervical origin of the malignant cells. A right ovarian cystic mass was discovered and a laparotomy performed. A histologic examination of the ovarian mass revealed a SBT of the ovary. CONCLUSION: This case illustrates the value of the Pap smear in discovering unsuspected extrauterine malignancies, including SBTs of the ovary.

Tepeo?lu M; Ozen O; Ayhan A

2013-01-01

365

Characterization of a Metallic Fuelled B and BR with Non uniform Smear Density  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A small and compact 250 MWth sodium-cooled breed-and-burn fast reactor (B and BR) for recycling PWR spent fuel has been studied from the neutronic point of view. The PWR spent fuel is used as the blanket fuel, and the Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) is used in the initial core. It was found from the previous study that the peak discharge burnup in the initial LEU core region and in the blanket region is about 35% and 20%, respectively. This high discharge burnup particularly in the initial LEU core could lead to the fuel/cladding mechanical interaction (FCMI). The smear density concept usually is introduced for the metallic fuel in the fast reactor to accommodate this swelling due to high burnup. It is concluded from the Ref. 5 that a 75% smear density will allow the fuel to achieve burnup up to {approx}20% without any FCMI occurring. In the previous work, the uniform 75% smear density was used for both fuels in initial LEU core and blanket region. In this work, non-uniform smear density is proposed. For the region with over 20% burnup, a lower smear density of 70% is applied, and for the region with a lower burnup <20%, the standard smear density of 75% is applied. Several important reactor parameters are characterized to identify the major technical issues and challenges. The neutronic analyses were all performed by the Monte Carlo code McCARD.

Hartanto, Donny; Kim, Yong Hee [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Eng., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2012-10-15

366

Application of nose smear method to the assessment of internal contamination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en]燗t PNC Tokai Works, the plutonium fuel fabrication facility has been operating since 1967. Lung counting and bioassay for urine are performed routinely for internal radiation dosimetry in this facility. The nose smear method is used for assessing the significance of intake whenever an incident involving inhalation of radioactive material occurs. It was found empirically on the basis of 22 inhalation cases that nose smear samples were useful for assessing tentatively the intake in an incidental inhalation of plutonium aerosol. In 80% of the cases of plutonium inhalation, the amount in the early faecal excretion (5 days after inhalation) is less than 10 times the plutonium in the nose smear samples over the activity region from 0.074 to 28 Bq of nose smear samples. It is suggested that the amount of plutonium in early excreted faeces be estimated by applying the factor of 10 to the activity in nose smear samples. As an example, when PuO2 (class Y, AMAD 1 ?m) 0.074 Bq corresponding to the minimum detectable amount is measured in the nose smear samples, the early faecal excretion and the total intake can be estimated approximately to be 0.74 Bq and 1.55 Bq, respectively, applying the clearance model of ICRP 30, and the committed dose equivalent of bone surface is estimated as 1.6 mSv. (author)

1985-01-01

367

A note on Rome-Southampton Renormalization with Smeared Gauge Fields  

CERN Multimedia

We have calculated continuum limit step scaling functions of bilinear and four-fermion operators renormalized in a Rome-Southampton scheme using various smearing prescriptions for the gauge field. Also, for the first time, we have calculated non-perturbative anomalous dimensions of operators renormalized in a Rome-Southampton scheme. The effect of such smearing first enters connected fermionic correlation functions via radiative corrections. We use off-shell renormalisation as a probe, and observe that the upper edge of the Rome-Southampton window is reduced by link smearing. This can be interpreted as arising due to the fermions decoupling from the high momentum gluons and we observe that the running of operators with the scale at large lattice momenta shows enhanced lattice artefacts. We find that the effect is greater for HEX smearing than for Stout smearing, but that in both cases additional care must be taken when using off-shell renormalisation with smeared gauge fields compared to thin link simulations...

Arthur, R; Hashimoto, S; Hudspith, R

2013-01-01

368

Inflammatory events as detected in cervical smears and squamous intraepithelial lesions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Dutch cytological coding system, KOPAC, enables to code for eight inflammatory events, that is koilocytosis (related to human papillomavirus (HPV)), Trichomonas, dysbacteriosis [related to bacterial vaginosis (BV)], Candida, Gardnerella, Actinomyces, Chlamydia, and non-specific inflammation (leucocytosis). This study presents an analysis of 1,008,879 smears. Of each smear, the age of the woman and the reason for smear taking (screening or indication) was available. The cytoscores (per mille) for these codes were calculated. For the screening smears, the cytoscores were for koilocytosis (HPV) 2.6, for Trichomonas vaginalis 1.9, for dysbacteriosis 31.4, for Candida albicans 9.8, for Gardnerella vaginalis 0.7, for Actinomyces 6.9, for Chlamydia 0.8, and for non-specific inflammatory changes 66.4. For the calculation of the Odds Ratio (OR), normal smears were used as a reference. The cytoscores for Chlamydia and Gardnerella covaried with high grade SIL (HSIL), with an OR of 7 and 12, respectively. In addition, the OR for Trichomonas vaginalis, for dysbacteriosis, and for leucocytosis proved to be significantly high in the indication smears. This study provides an oversight of HSIL and the full range of cervical infections as detected by cytology, proving that this infectious byproduct of screening can be very valuable.

Roeters AM; Boon ME; van Haaften M; Vernooij F; Bontekoe TR; Heintz AP

2010-02-01

369

Diagnostic yield of post-bronchoscopy sputum smear in pulmonary tuberculosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The early definitive diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is important for control of the disease in the community. We performed this study to evaluate the additional gain of post-bronchoscopy sputum in the diagnosis of pulmonary TB. METHODS: Bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage were performed for 126 patients suspected of pulmonary TB who either had 3 negative sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli or could not expectorate. After bronchoscopy the patients were asked to give sputum samples for 3 consecutive days. All of the obtained specimens were investigated for Mycobacterium tuberculosis by smear and culture. RESULTS: Pulmonary TB was confirmed in 56 patients. Among all confirmed cases, the sensitivity of bronchoalveolar lavage smear was 57.1% (32 of 56), sensitivity of post-bronchoscopy smear was 76.7% (43 of 56), and the yield of a combination of the 2 methods was 83.9% (47 of 56). Results of post-bronchoscopy sputum smears were not significantly related to sex, age, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, presence of cavitary lesions on chest X-ray, or the ability to expectorate before bronchoscopy (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Evaluation of post-bronchoscopy sputum smears is helpful for earlier diagnosis of pulmonary TB and is an inexpensive and accessible assay.

Malekmohammad M; Marjani M; Tabarsi P; Baghaei P; Sadr Z; Naghan PA; Mansouri D; Masjedi MR; Velayati AA

2012-05-01

370

Diagnostic yield of post-bronchoscopy sputum smear in pulmonary tuberculosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: The early definitive diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is important for control of the disease in the community. We performed this study to evaluate the additional gain of post-bronchoscopy sputum in the diagnosis of pulmonary TB. Methods: Bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage were performed for 126 patients suspected of pulmonary TB who either had 3 negative sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli or could not expectorate. After bronchoscopy the patients were asked to give sputum samples for 3 consecutive days. All of the obtained specimens were investigated for Mycobacterium tuberculosis by smear and culture. Results: Pulmonary TB was confirmed in 56 patients. Among all confirmed cases, the sensitivity of bronchoalveolar lavage smear was 57.1% (32 of 56), sensitivity of post-bronchoscopy smear was 76.7% (43 of 56), and the yield of a combination of the 2 methods was 83.9% (47 of 56). Results of post-bronchoscopy sputum smears were not significantly related to sex, age, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, presence of cavitary lesions on chest X-ray, or the ability to expectorate before bronchoscopy (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Evaluation of post-bronchoscopy sputum smears is helpful for earlier diagnosis of pulmonary TB and is an inexpensive and accessible assay.

Malekmohammad M; Marjani M; Tabarsi P; Baghaei P; Sadr Z; Naghan PA; Mansouri D; Masjedi MR; Velayati AA

2012-01-01

371

Diagnosis of malaria by acridine orange fluorescent microscopy in an endemic area of Venezuela  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fluorescent (acridine orange) microscopical examination of capillary centrifuged blood (quantitative buffy coat [QBC甝 analysis) and Giemsa stained thick blood smears (GTS) were compared for diagnosis of malaria in blood specimens from adults living in malaria transmission areas of the States of Bolivar and Amazonas in southeastern and south Venezuela, respectively. Of a total of 198 GTS examined, 95 subjects (48%) showed parasitaemia. Among the 95 blood films with a positive GTS, 94 were judged positive by the QBC. However, positive QBC tubes were found in 29 out of 103 blood specimens with a negative GTS. Thus, relative to a GTS standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the QBC-test was 99.2% and 72%, respectively. Young trophozoites of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum could not be distinguished with certainty. It is confirmed that the QBC offers many advantages compared with the standard diagnosis of malaria parasites, specifically in the speed of staining and ease of interpretation. However, in places where P. falciparum and P. vivax occur, species and stage differentiation should be confirmed with the GTS.

Irene Bosch; Carmen Bracho; Hilda A P閞ez

1996-01-01

372

Molecular Study of Sheep Malignant Theileriosis at Barka Region in the Sultanate of Oman  

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Full Text Available Background: We used the PCR technique based on the abovementioned primer pair and sequenc璱ng to demonstrate the Theileria infection in the sheep samples collected from Sultanate of Oman.Methods: According to the frame work of "integrated control of ticks and tick borne diseases in global璱zed world managed by EU-ICTTD-3 project, the samples from blood, liver, spleen, lymph node and lung were sent to the laboratory of Iranian Research Center for Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases (IRCTTD). Sam璸les from blood smear and impression smears from liver, spleen, lymph node, and lung were analyzed by Geimsa staining. The DNA was extracted from the abovemen璽ioned samples and analyzed by PCR tech璶ique using specific primers derived from the nucleo璽ide sequences of 18S rRNA gene of T. lestoquardi, which can amplify the common region in other Theileria and Babesia spp. Subsequently the amplified DNA was sequenced.Results: The analysis of blood smears of the sheep was negative for piroplasmosis performed through the Giemsa staining. The impression smears prepared from liver, spleen, lymph node, and lung showed suspi璫ious structures mimicking Theileria schizonts in some cells. The results showed an expected PCR prod璾ct of 428 bp in length, which is specific for Theileria spp. The PCR products were subsequently se璹uenced. The corresponding nucleotide sequence is registered under accession number JF309152 in Gen瑽ank. The sequence alignment in GenBank showed that the PCR products had 99% homology to the known T. lestoquardi registered under accession number AF081135 in the GenBank. Conclusion: Oman sheep are highly susceptible for Theileria infection and the infected sheep mostly die before the microschizonts or erythrocytic form of Theileria appears in the nucleated or ery璽rocytic cells respectively.

P Shayan; E Ebrahimzadeh; MH Tageldin; N Amininia; B Eckert

2011-01-01

373

Detection and molecular characterization of a canine piroplasm from Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the beginning of the 20th century, a new canine disease was reported in Brazil under the name "nambiuv", whose etiological agent was called Rangelia vitalii, a distinct piroplasm that was shown to parasitize not only erythrocytes, but also leucocytes and endothelial cells. In this new century, more publications on R. vitalii were reported from Brazil, including an extensive study on its ultrastructural analysis, in addition to clinical, pathological, and epidemiological data on nambiuv. However, a molecular analysis of R. vitalii has not been performed to date. In the present study, we performed molecular phylogenetic analyses of R. vitalii based on fragments of the genes 18S rRNA and the heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), amplified by PCR performed on blood samples derived from five clinical cases of dogs presumably infected with R. vitalii in southern Brazil. In addition, we examined Giemsa-stained thin blood smears from these same dogs. DNA sequences (604-bp) of the 18S rRNA gene obtained from the five dogs were identical to each other, and by Blast analysis, this sequence shared the highest degree of sequence identity (95%) with Babesia sp. China-BQ1. DNA sequences (1056-bp) of the hsp70 gene obtained from the five dogs were identical to each other, and by Blast analysis, this sequence shared the highest degree of sequence identity (87%) with Babesia bigemina. Phylogenetic analyses inferred from either of the two genes resulted in the newly genotype being placed in the Babesia spp. sensu stricto clade with very high bootstrap support (95-100%) in three analyses (Neighbor-Joining, Maximum parsimony, and Maximum likelihood). Giemsa-stained thin blood smears from the dogs were shown to contain piroplasm organisms within erythrocytes, monocytes and neutrophils (individual forms), and schizont-like forms within neutrophils, in accordance with literature reports of R. vitalii. Based on these results, we conclude that R. vitalii, the etiological agent of "nambiuv" in southern Brazil, is a valid species of piroplasm. Further studies are required to evaluate the validity of the genus Rangelia. PMID:21489694

Soares, Jo鉶 F; Girotto, Aline; Brand鉶, Paulo E; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Fran鏰, Raqueli T; Lopes, Sonia T A; Labruna, Marcelo B

2011-04-13

374

Comparison of amrad ICT test with microscopic examination for rapid diagnosis of malaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en]燨bjective: To assess the sensitivity and specificity of an alternate and easy technique to diagnose malaria. Design: A prospective study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of pathology, DHQ Hospital, Timergara District, Dir, North-west Frontier Province of Pakistan, from 19th September to 5th October 2000. Subjects and Methods: Smear positive 50 patients (27 males and 23 females, age ranging 2 years to 70 years) were included. Thick and thin smears were stained with Giemsa's stain and examined by the principal author. The ICT malaria test was performed according to the instruction sheet of the manufacturer. Results: on microscopy there were 29 cases of Plasmodium falciparum (P.f) and 21 of Plasmodiium vivax (P.v.). On ICT malaria P.f/P.v, there were 29 samples positive for P. Falciparum and 17 for P. vivax. These results demonstrated that the ICT malaria P.f/P.v test had sensitivity of 100% for P. falciparum and 81% for P. vivax and specificity of 100% for both, when compared to traditional blood films for the detection of P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria. Conclusion: The ICT malaria P.f/P.v test is an effective tool for the rapid diagnosis of malaria and may be used as a first line diagnostic tool. (author)

2002-01-01

375

Incidence of cytological abnormalities within 24 months of a normal cervical smear in Soweto, South Africa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: A screening programme for cervical cancer has been implemented in South Africa (SA) with intervals of 10 years after a normal cytological result. There are no studies that evaluate repeat screening at a shorter interval in SA. OBJECTIVES: (i) To find the incidence of cytological abnormalities on a repeat test after a report of normal cytology or an inadequate Pap smear; and (ii) to explore the factors associated with an abnormal cytology on repeat testing. METHODS: This was a secondary data analysis of a randomised controlled trial of diaphragm, lubricant gel and condoms v. condoms in the prevention of HIV infection. HIV-negative women were recruited between November 2003 and December 2005, with a normal Pap smear at entry. Observation time was from the first Pap smear to the date of the repeat Pap smear. Explanatory variables used were baseline, excepting any new HIV infection. RESULTS: The incidence of cytological abnormalities was 6.48% yearly in women with a previously normal Pap smear and 11.71% yearly in women with an inadequate smear result (p=0.03). The incidence of high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (HSILs) was <0.5%. Factors associated with abnormal cytology were a history of ectopic pregnancy (odds ratio (OR) 9.25; confidence interval (CI) 1.78 - 48.02; p=0.01), number of male partners (OR 1.12; CI 1.03 - 1.22; p=0.01), history of vaginal discharge (OR 13.95; CI 1.18 - 164.47; p=0.04), and incident HIV infection (OR 6.56; CI 1.14 - 38.16; p=0.04). CONCLUSION: The incidence of HSILs is low in the first 2 years after a normal or inadequate Pap smear, even in a setting with a high prevalence of cytological abnormalities.

Adam Y; McIntyre JA; De Bruyn G

2013-01-01

376

Use of computer-assisted rescreening as an ancillary tool to subclassify AGUS cervical smears.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A substantial percentage of women with a diagnosis of atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS) on cervical smears harbor a significant squamous or glandular, preneoplastic or neoplastic lesion on subsequent follow-up. Attempts to subclassify AGUS smears by conventional methods have had mixed results. To determine whether subclassification of AGUS cervical smears using computer-assisted rescreening based on the neural network would improve correlation with subsequent histologic follow-up, 91 cervical smears, conventionally diagnosed as AGUS without concomitant squamous lesions, were subjected to analysis by a computer-assisted automated screening system. Computer-generated images were evaluated by a cytotechnologist without the knowledge of the histologic outcomes. Prior to manual review, each case was classified as either within normal limits, no review required; or abnormal, review required. Based on the degree of abnormality, the latter category was further subclassified into either low probability or high probability of abnormality. The results of the computer-assisted reclassification were then compared with the histologic follow-up of all patients. Thirty-three cases (38.8%) had a significant lesion on histologic follow-up. The lesions included 4 CIN I, 7 CIN II/III, 12 endocervical adenocarcinomas (ACA), and 10 endometrial ACA. Based on computer-generated images, 65% of the smears that were triaged as high probability of abnormality, 11.5% that were triaged as low probability of abnormality, and 10.5% that were triaged as within normal limits had a significant lesion on subsequent follow-up. We conclude that computer-assisted rescreening aids in the triage of AGUS smears and that computer-assisted rescreening based on the neural network or other algorithms may be a useful ancillary tool for subclassifying AGUS cervical smears.

Chhieng DC; Elgert PA; Xiong Y; Cangiarella JF; Cohen JM

2000-09-01

377

Use of computer-assisted rescreening as an ancillary tool to subclassify AGUS cervical smears.  

Science.gov (United States)

A substantial percentage of women with a diagnosis of atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS) on cervical smears harbor a significant squamous or glandular, preneoplastic or neoplastic lesion on subsequent follow-up. Attempts to subclassify AGUS smears by conventional methods have had mixed results. To determine whether subclassification of AGUS cervical smears using computer-assisted rescreening based on the neural network would improve correlation with subsequent histologic follow-up, 91 cervical smears, conventionally diagnosed as AGUS without concomitant squamous lesions, were subjected to analysis by a computer-assisted automated screening system. Computer-generated images were evaluated by a cytotechnologist without the knowledge of the histologic outcomes. Prior to manual review, each case was classified as either within normal limits, no review required; or abnormal, review required. Based on the degree of abnormality, the latter category was further subclassified into either low probability or high probability of abnormality. The results of the computer-assisted reclassification were then compared with the histologic follow-up of all patients. Thirty-three cases (38.8%) had a significant lesion on histologic follow-up. The lesions included 4 CIN I, 7 CIN II/III, 12 endocervical adenocarcinomas (ACA), and 10 endometrial ACA. Based on computer-generated images, 65% of the smears that were triaged as high probability of abnormality, 11.5% that were triaged as low probability of abnormality, and 10.5% that were triaged as within normal limits had a significant lesion on subsequent follow-up. We conclude that computer-assisted rescreening aids in the triage of AGUS smears and that computer-assisted rescreening based on the neural network or other algorithms may be a useful ancillary tool for subclassifying AGUS cervical smears. PMID:10945903

Chhieng, D C; Elgert, P A; Xiong, Y; Cangiarella, J F; Cohen, J M

2000-09-01

378

Is a liquid-based cytology more sensitive than a conventional Pap smear?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The comparative sensitivity of liquid-based cytology (LBC) test and conventional Papanicolaou (Pap) smears is controversial. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study analyses the distribution of cytology, histology, colposcopy and large loop excision of the transformation zone among women screened in Iceland with LBC at the Cancer Detection Clinic in Reykjavik and with a conventional Pap smear outside the Detection Clinic in 2007-2011. The study material included 42 654 LBC tests from 20 439 women and 103 909 Pap smears from 61 574 women. The period 2000-2004 is used to correct for potential bias as a result of unequal distribution of the studied parameters between the study sites before the introduction of LBC. RESULTS: The observed results indicated that women screened with an LBC sample had significantly decreased detection rates of inadequate smears, increased detection of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL)/atypical cytology and referrals to colposcopy, and an increased detection rate of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) irrespective of age. LBC increased significantly the detection rates of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worse (HSIL+) cytology and CIN3+ histology only in women under 40 years of age. Taking into consideration the unequal prevalence of the studied parameters between the study sites in 2000-2004 indicated, however, that LBC only affected the rate of inadequate and low-grade cytology tests under the age of 40?years. Positive predictive values for CIN2+ were not significantly different between the tests. CONCLUSIONS: The study results support the view that LBC is no more sensitive than Pap smears for the detection of HSIL+ and CIN2+ irrespective of age. LBC decreased the rate of inadequate smears, but increased the rate of low-grade cytology under the age of 40 years and decreased the total rate of abnormal smears over the age of 40 years.

Sigurdsson K

2013-08-01

379

Interpretation of automated blood cell counts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Complete blood count (CBC) tests are rapid, inexpensiveand universally available, and often aid primary clinicianswith decision making about patients with severaldisorders. Thus the rapid availability of the results of CBCcould provide considerable advantage for both patientsand clinicians. Furthermore, physicians can also avoidunnecessary peripheral blood smear examination usingCBC parameters. Many hematology analyzers, which enabledus simultaneously, measure several different CBCparameters, are available for early diagnosis. Herein theimpact of both pre and post analytic variations on the interpretationof the CBC results with case reports are reviewedin the light of the latest literature.Key words: Complete blood count, interpretation

Z黨re Kaya

2013-01-01

380

The effect of an experimental anhydrous stannous fluoride dentifrice on the acid resistance of dentin smear layers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To compare the relative performance, in an in vitro assay, of a standard dentifrice (Colgate Cavity Protection) with an experimental anhydrous 0.454% w/w stannous fluoride dentifrice at protecting the dentin smear layer against dietary acids. METHODS: Artificial smear layers were created on bovine dentin, contacted with slurries of the dentifrices, then exposed to a dietary acid (Coca Cola) for periods up to 10 minutes. Both the stability of the smear layer and tubule occlusion were assessed qualitatively by scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. RESULTS: Smear layers treated with the standard dentifrice were removed after 2 minutes of exposure to cola with the smear plugs progressively eroded by longer acid challenges, leaving patent tubules. Treatment with the experimental stannous fluoride dentifrice provided extensive protection of the smear layer against cola for up to 10 minutes, with very few tubules unoccluded.

Burnett GR

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
381

Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis by smear microscopy and culture in a tertiary health care facility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Smear microscopy and culture forms the backbone of tuberculosis (TB) laboratory investigations in tertiary healthcare facilities which have a large number of cases and financial constraints. The present study aimed to re-evaluate the efficiency of smear microscopy and culture on Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) medium for acid fast bacilli (AFB) isolated from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. 210 samples were processed for detection of AFB by Ziehl Neelsen (ZN)staining. Concentration method of N-acetly-L-cystein-NaOH was used and the samples were isolated on LJ medium.AFB was seen in 168 (80.0%) primary smear samples. The primary smear missed 5 (11.9%) samples that were detected by secondary smear (Sensitivity 93.45%, Specificity 88.10%, Positive predictive value (PPV) 96.91% and Negative Predictive value (NPV) 77.08%). Growth was observed in 155 (83.30%) samples (Sensitivity 95.39%,Specificity 70.59%, PPV 93.55%and NPV 77.42%). The values were statistically significant. The present study reconfirms the efficiency of conventional ZN staining method and culture on LJ medium in the detection of AFB in sputum samples of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.

SI Khatib

2012-01-01

382

SEM Analysis of MTAD Efficacy for Smear Layer Removal from Periodontally Affected Root Surfaces  

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Full Text Available Objective: Biopure MTAD (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, USA) has been developed as a final irrigant following root canal shaping to remove intracanal smear layer. Many of the unique properties of MTAD potentially transfer to the conditioning process of tooth roots during periodontal therapy. The aim of this ex vivo studywas to evaluate the effect of MTAD on the removal of smear layer from root surfaces.Materials and Methods: Thirty two longitudinally sectioned specimens from 16 freshly extracted teeth diagnosed with advanced periodontal disease were divided into four groups. In group 1 and 2, the root surfaces were scaled using Gracey curettes. In group 3 and 4, 0.5 mm of the root surface was removed using a fissure bur. The specimens in group 1 and 3 were then irrigated by normal saline. Thespecimens in groups 2 and 4 were irrigated with Biopure MTAD.All specimens were prepared for SEM and scored according to the presence of smear layer.Results: MTAD significantly increased (P=0.001) the smear layer removal in both groups 2 and 4 compared to the associated control groups, in which only saline was used.Conclusion: MTAD increased the removal of the smear layer from periodontally affected root surfaces. Use of MTAD as a periodontal conditioner may be suggested.

B. Houshmand; M. Ghandi; MH. Nekoofar; Gh. A.Gholamii; R. K. Tabor; P. M. H. Dummer

2011-01-01

383

SEM Analysis of MTAD Efficacy for Smear Layer Removal from Periodontally Affected Root Surfaces.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Biopure MTAD (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, USA) has been developed as a final irrigant following root canal shaping to remove intracanal smear layer. Many of the unique properties of MTAD potentially transfer to the