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Sample records for giemsa-stained blood smears

  1. A novel semi-automatic image processing approach to determine Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia in Giemsa-stained thin blood smears

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    Kuss Claudia

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria parasitemia is commonly used as a measurement of the amount of parasites in the patient's blood and a crucial indicator for the degree of infection. Manual evaluation of Giemsa-stained thin blood smears under the microscope is onerous, time consuming and subject to human error. Although automatic assessments can overcome some of these problems the available methods are currently limited by their inability to evaluate cases that deviate from a chosen "standard" model. Results In this study reliable parasitemia counts were achieved even for sub-standard smear and image quality. The outcome was assessed through comparisons with manual evaluations of more than 200 sample smears and related to the complexity of cell overlaps. On average an estimation error of less than 1% with respect to the average of manually obtained parasitemia counts was achieved. In particular the results from the proposed approach are generally within one standard deviation of the counts provided by a comparison group of malariologists yielding a correlation of 0.97. Variations occur mainly for blurred out-of-focus imagery exhibiting larger degrees of cell overlaps in clusters of erythrocytes. The assessment was also carried out in terms of precision and recall and combined in the F-measure providing results generally in the range of 92% to 97% for a variety of smears. In this context the observed trade-off relation between precision and recall guaranteed stable results. Finally, relating the F-measure with the degree of cell overlaps, showed that up to 50% total cell overlap can be tolerated if the smear image is well-focused and the smear itself adequately stained. Conclusion The automatic analysis has proven to be comparable with manual evaluations in terms of accuracy. Moreover, the test results have shown that the proposed comparison-based approach, by exploiting the interrelation between different images and color channels, has successfully overcome most of the inherent limitations possibly occurring during the sample preparation and image acquisition phase. Eventually, this can be seen as an opportunity for developing low-cost solutions for mass screening.

  2. DNA Comet Giemsa Staining for Conventional Bright-Field Microscopy

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    Andreyan Osipov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate the compatibility of Giemsa staining protocol with the comet assay. We showed, for the first time, that DNA comets can be visualized and analyzed using Giemsa staining. We generated DNA damage dose response curves for human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to X-ray radiation using the comet assay with either SybrGreen I or Giemsa stain. The dose response curves were fitted by linear regressions (R2 > 0.977. The SybrGreen I results showed only ~1.2-fold higher slope coefficient (method sensitivity compared to the Giemsa results. The unexpectedly high sensitivity of Giemsa staining for the comet assay is due to the Romanowsky-Giemsa effect, the stain photo-stability and the higher resolution of bright-field imaging compared to fluorescence imaging. Our results demonstrate that Giemsa staining can effectively be used for measuring DNA damage by the comet assay. The low cost and availability of Giemsa stain makes this method affordable for any low budget research and will facilitate new applications of the comet assay in biology and medicine.

  3. External quality assessment of Giemsa-stained blood film microscopy for the diagnosis of malaria and sleeping sickness in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

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    Pierre Mukadi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report the findings of a second external quality assessment of Giemsa-stained blood film microscopy in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, performed one year after the first. METHODS: A panel of four slides was delivered to diagnostic laboratories in all provinces of the country. The slides contained: (i Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes; (ii P. falciparum trophozoites (reference density: 113 530 per µl; (iii Trypanosoma brucei subspecies; and (iv no parasites. FINDINGS: Of 356 laboratories contacted, 277 (77.8% responded. Overall, 35.0% of the laboratories reported all four slides correctly but 14.1% reported correct results for 1 or 0 slides. Major errors included not diagnosing trypanosomiasis (50.4%, not recognizing P. falciparum gametocytes (17.5% and diagnosing malaria from the slide with no parasites (19.0%. The frequency of serious errors in assessing parasite density and in reporting false-positive results was lower than in the previous external quality assessment: 17.2% and 52.3%, respectively, (P < 0.001 for parasite density and 19.0% and 33.3%, respectively, (P < 0.001 for false-positive results. Laboratories that participated in the previous quality assessment performed better than first-time participants and laboratories in provinces with a high number of sleeping sickness cases recognized trypanosomes more frequently (57.0% versus 31.2%, P < 0.001. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests were used by 44.3% of laboratories, almost double the proportion observed in the previous quality assessment. CONCLUSION: The overall quality of blood film microscopy was poor but was improved by participation in external quality assessments. The failure to recognize trypanosomes in a country where sleeping sickness is endemic is a concern.

  4. Acridine orange fluorescence techniques as alternatives to traditional Giemsa staining for the diagnosis of malaria in developing countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Lowe, BS; Jeffa, NK; New, L; Pedersen, C; Engbaek, K; Marsh, K.

    1996-01-01

    Traditional Giemsa-stained thick blood films were compared with 2 fluorescence microscopy techniques, acridine orange (AO) staining of thin blood films and the quantitative buffy coat (QBC) method, for the microscopical diagnosis of malaria. Of 200 samples examined, 141 were positive by Giemsa staining, 146 by AO and 137 by QBC. Overall sensitivities for the 2 fluorescence techniques compared to Giemsa staining were good: AO 97.9% and QBC 93.6%. However, with parasitaemias < 100/microL the QB...

  5. Blood smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bodies may indicate: Alpha thalassemia Congenital hemolytic anemia Disorder in which red blood cells break down when the body is exposed to certain drugs or the stress of infection ( G6PD deficiency ) Unstable form of hemoglobin ...

  6. Image Analysis Approach for Development of a Decision Support System for Detection of Malaria Parasites in Thin Blood Smear Images

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad, Keerthana; Winter, Jan; Bhat, Udayakrishna M.; Acharya, Raviraja V; Prabhu, Gopalakrishna K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes development of a decision support system for diagnosis of malaria using color image analysis. A hematologist has to study around 100 to 300 microscopic views of Giemsa-stained thin blood smear images to detect malaria parasites, evaluate the extent of infection and to identify the species of the parasite. The proposed algorithm picks up the suspicious regions and detects the parasites in images of all the views. The subimages representing all these parasites are put toget...

  7. Reliable DNA Extraction on Historical Malaria Negative Smears Conducted to Nested PCR in South-East of Iran

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    A. Ebrahimzadeh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of PCR depends on many factors, such as high quality DNA pellets obtained from fixed Giemsa-stained blood samples, good reagents and adequate conditions of amplification. In account of this limitations, a retrospective epidemiological study for malaria diagnosis was conducted in a hypoendemic area, Sistan and Baluchestan province of south-east of Iran. For the first time this research designed to perform a nested PCR protocol using new and modified method of DNA extraction from negative Fixed and Giemsa Stained smears. This study demonstrated 11.55% PCR positive for Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum which were undetectable by microscopy.

  8. Systematic comparison of two methods to measure parasite density from malaria blood smears

    OpenAIRE

    Prudhomme O’Meara, Wendy; Remich, Shon; Ogutu, Bernhards; Lucas, Martin; Mtalib, Ramadan; Obare, Peter; Oloo, Frederick; Onoka, Caroline; Osoga, Joseph; Ohrt, Colin; McKenzie, F. Ellis

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to directly compare the accuracy, reproducibility, and efficiency of three methods commonly used to measure blood-stage malaria parasite density from Giemsa-stained blood films. Parasites and white blood cells (WBCs) were counted in 154 thick films by two independent microscopists. Forty-six slides were read by counting parasitized red blood cells (RBCs) in the thin film. Using these same slides, parasites were again counted by two independent microscopists using an oc...

  9. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI, BIOPSY SAMPLES FROM DIFFERENT GASTRIC LESIONS WITH TRIPLE STAINING AND MODIFIED GIEMSA STAINING

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    Pavan Kumar Pindi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori are associated with most of the disorders of gastro-duodenal tract, such as gastritis, gastric ulcers, dyspepsia and gastric carcinoma. Many staining methods have been developed for the detection of these bacteria from gastric biopsies. However most of the methods adopted were shown to be more expensive, less sensitive, time consuming with less background information. In view of this, the present study was carried out to check the validity of triple staining method against modified Giemsa staining. For this study, 60 biopsy specimens were selected from different gastric lesions as chronic gastritis (30, gastric ulcers (10 and gastric carcinoma (20. These specimens were subjected to modified Giemsa staining showed purple to dark purple bacteria with bluish background. The results showed 56.66, 40 and 15 percentage positivity for chronic gastritis, benign gastric ulcers and malignant gastric lesions, respectively. The stained sections of triple staining showed black to dark brown bacteria with pink colored background with 70, 50 and 10 percentage positivity for chronic gastritis, benign gastric ulcers and malignant gastric lesions, respectively. From the present study it is clear that triple staining method is more sensitive than the modified Giemsa staining.

  10. Trypan blue/giemsa staining to assess sperm membrane integrity in salernitano stallions and its relationship to pregnancy rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, R; Longobardi, V; Spadetta, M; Neri, D; Ariota, B; Gasparrini, B; Di Palo, R

    2014-02-01

    Aim of this study was to test the reliability of Trypan blue/Giemsa staining to evaluate sperm membrane integrity, acrosomal intactness and morphology in stallion to verify whether it could be applied in vitro as useful tool for sperm fertilizing ability. Fertility data on inseminated mares were collected to evaluate the relationship of sperm quality to pregnancy rates. Forty-one ejaculates were collected from 3 stallions of Salernitano Horse Breed and evaluated for gross appearance, volume, visual motility and membrane integrity with Trypan blue/Giemsa staining and thirty-five mares were inseminated during the breeding season from April to July. Differences among stallions were found in volume, sperm concentration (p < 0.05) and visual motility (p < 0.01). A decrease in sperm motility, concentration (p < 0.05) and total sperm number was found in June-July (p < 0.01). Live sperm with intact acrosome (LSIA) and proximal droplets (PD) were lower (p < 0.01) in June-July, while acrosome reacted sperm (ARS) percentage increased (p < 0.05). No fertility differences were found among stallions with an average fertility per cycle of 44.6% and a pregnancy rate of 68.6%. Higher percentages of LSIA were found in the ejaculates used to inseminate mares that became pregnant vs those used in mares not pregnant (p < 0.05). The significance of LSIA as test variable to verify the reliability of Trypan blue/Giemsa staining was confirmed by Receiver operating characteristic ROC analysis and the sensitivity of the test was 85% at a cut-off value of 48% LSIA. Trypan blue-Giemsa showed to be an accurate method that can be applied on field to evaluate sperm membrane integrity and to identify poor-quality ejaculates. PMID:23889365

  11. External quality assessment of Giemsa-stained blood film microscopy for the diagnosis of malaria and sleeping sickness in the Democratic Republic of the Congo / Évaluation externe de la qualité de la microscopie de frottis sanguins colorés au Giemsa pour le diagnostic du paludisme et de la maladie du sommeil en République démocratique du Congo / Evaluación de calidad externa de la microscopía en frotis de sangre con tinción de Giemsa para el diagnóstico de la malaria y la enfermedad del sueño en la República Democrática del Congo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pierre, Mukadi; Philippe, Gillet; Albert, Lukuka; Benjamin, Atua; Nicole, Sheshe; Albert, Kanza; Jean Bosco, Mayunda; Briston, Mongita; Raphaël, Senga; John, Ngoyi; Jean-Jacques, Muyembe; Jan, Jacobs; Veerle, Lejon.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Informar de los resultados de una segunda evaluación de calidad externa de la microscopía en frotis de sangre con tinción de Giemsa en la República Democrática del Congo, llevada a cabo un año después de la primera. MÉTODOS: Se entregó un panel de cuatro muestras a laboratorios de diagnóst [...] ico de todas las provincias del país. Las muestras contenían: (i) gametocitos Plasmodium falciparum; (ii) trofozoítos P. falciparum (densidad de referencia: 113 530 por µl); (iii) subespecies de Trypanosoma brucei y (iv) ningún parásito. RESULTADOS: De los 356 laboratorios contactados, respondieron 277 (77,8%). En total, el 35,0% de los laboratorios informó de las cuatro muestras correctamente, pero el 14,1% informó de resultados correctos en una o ninguna de las muestras. Los principales errores consistieron en no diagnosticar la tripanosomiasis (50,4%), no reconocer los gametocitos P. falciparum (17,5%) y diagnosticar malaria en la muestra sin parásitos (19,0%). La frecuencia de errores graves en la evaluación de la densidad de los parásitos y en informar de resultados con falsos positivos fue menor que en la evaluación de calidad externa anterior. El 17,2% y el 52,3%, respectivamente (P Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To report the findings of a second external quality assessment of Giemsa-stained blood film microscopy in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, performed one year after the first. METHODS: A panel of four slides was delivered to diagnostic laboratories in all provinces of the country. The [...] slides contained: (i) Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes; (ii) P. falciparum trophozoites (reference density: 113 530 per µl); (iii) Trypanosoma brucei subspecies; and (iv) no parasites. FINDINGS: Of 356 laboratories contacted, 277 (77.8%) responded. Overall, 35.0% of the laboratories reported all four slides correctly but 14.1% reported correct results for 1 or 0 slides. Major errors included not diagnosing trypanosomiasis (50.4%), not recognizing P. falciparum gametocytes (17.5%) and diagnosing malaria from the slide with no parasites (19.0%). The frequency of serious errors in assessing parasite density and in reporting false-positive results was lower than in the previous external quality assessment: 17.2% and 52.3%, respectively, (P

  12. Gram negative septicaemia diagnosed on peripheral blood smear appearances.

    OpenAIRE

    Fife, A; Hill, D.; BARTON, C; Burden, P

    1994-01-01

    Buffy coat smears from febrile patients may contain visible bacteria and therefore detect bacteraemia before conventional blood cultures become positive. However, it is unusual to see micro-organisms in an otherwise untreated peripheral blood smear. The case of a febrile neutropenic patient is reported. A Wright's stained peripheral blood smear contained bacterial elements, thus making earlier diagnosis of septicaemia and identification of the causative bacterium possible.

  13. Feature extraction of Giemsa-stained chromosomes and classification error of a backpropagation neural-network-based classifier

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    Ryu, Seung-Yun; Cho, Jongman

    2002-04-01

    Many studies for computer-based chromosome analysis using artificial neural network (ANN) have shown that it is possible to classify chromosomes into 24 subgroups. It is important to select optimum features for training the ANN. Our purpose was to select features that had the low classification error and the best ability for human chromosome classification. We applied the medial axis transformation for the medial line, extended the line to the boundary and obtained relative length, relative area and centromeric index. The Giemsa-stained human chromosome has a sequence of banding pattern that is perpendicular to the medial axis of the chromosome. Density profile is a one-dimensional graph of the banding pattern property of the chromosome computed at a sequence of points along the possibly curved chromosome medial axis. Some studied used relative length, centromeric index and 62 density profile as features, but we prepared two data sets as features that one set was relative length, centromeric index and 80 density profile considered No. 1 chromosome's length and the other was relative length, centromeric index, the 80 density profile and relative area and compared classification error of each set. We found that the classification error showed to be decreased by adding relative area to the other features.

  14. Prevalence of theileriosis in cross-bred cattle: its detection through blood smear examination and polymerase chain reaction in Dehradun district, Uttarakhand, India

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    Shweta Kohli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Theileriosis is a major threat to dairy and related industries. Theileria is a protozoan parasite that causes theileriosis, a fatal disease. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of theileriosis in crossbred cattle belonging to Dehradun district, Uttarakhand, India. Materials and Methods: We screened 301 blood samples each month from apparently normal/healthy crossbred cattle from various locations of Dehradun district. Samples were tested using Giemsa's staining technique and specific PCR test. Result: Microscopic examination of blood smears revealed 27.2% (82 overall prevalence of theileriosis. The highest prevalence was found in rainy season with a prevalence rate 45.4%. By Theileria genus specific PCR test, 98 samples (32.5 % were found to be positive for theileriosis. Conclusion: Our study suggests that theileriosis is spreading to even the temperate region in Uttarakhand and immediate screening norms/policies are needed to reduce the extent of spread. There is a need for further investigation using molecular technique.

  15. Comparison of PCR-Based Diagnosis with Centrifuged-Based Enrichment Method for Detection of Borrelia persica in Animal Blood Samples

    OpenAIRE

    SR Naddaf; Kishdehi, M; Siavashi, MR

    2011-01-01

    Background: The mainstay of diagnosis of relapsing fever (RF) is demonstration of the spirochetes in Giemsa-stained thick blood smears, but during non fever periods the bacteria are very scanty and rarely detected in blood smears by mi­cros­copy. This study is aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of different methods developed for detection of low-grade spi­ro­chetemia. Methods: Animal blood samples with low degrees of spirochetemia were tested with two PCRs and a nested PCR tar­get­ing flaB, Gl...

  16. RBCs and Parasites Segmentation from Thin Smear Blood Cell Images

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    Vishal V. Panchbhai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Manually examine the blood smear for the detection of malaria parasite consumes lot of time for trend pathologists. As the computational power increases, the role of automatic visual inspection becomes more important. An automated system is therefore needed to complete as much work as possible for the identification of malaria parasites. The given scheme based on used of RGB color space, G layer processing, and segmentation of Red Blood Cells (RBC as well as cell parasites by auto-thresholding with offset value and use of morphological processing. The work compare with the manual results obtained from the pathology lab, based on total RBC count and cells parasite count. The designed system successfully detects malaria parasites and RBC cells in thin smear image.

  17. Low-magnification image analysis of Giemsa stained, electroporation and bleomycin treated endothelial monolayers provides reliable monolayer integrity data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulenberg, Cécil J W; Cemazar, Maja

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an in vitro cell model for studying the in vivo observed vascular effect, induced by exposing blood vessels to changing electric field strengths. Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) were cultured as monolayers on 8 chamber glass slides as a model of capillary wall. Exposed to electric pulses alone, or in the presence of bleomycin (electrochemotherapy), monolayers were incubated with culture medium, fixed with methanol, stained with Giemsa, and photographed. Images of high-contrast low-magnification monolayers made under identical optimal light exposure were converted to greyscale, and the use of a threshold tool yielded a binary distribution, from which we determined two parameters of monolayer integrity: the covered surface area and the number of cells. We show that this low-magnification image analysis method for attached endothelial cells provides reliable control parameters of monolayer integrity, representing capillary wall. Besides, already within 2h post-treatment the data show distinct effects in the monolayer integrity parameters for electric pulses alone, or in the presence of bleomycin. The present method can be readily introduced to short and long-term toxicity assays with a variety of treatment conditions. PMID:24412537

  18. COMPARABLE CYTOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTIC OF BLOOD SMEARS ON BABESIA INFECTION

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    Pokhyl S.?.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In last time Babesiosis as a tick-borne hemoprotozoans human disease have a very important role in differentil diagnostics of modern infectious medicine. It caused by protozon of the genus Babesia, which invade and destory erythrocytes. Babesiosis olso has been called tick fever. So, Babesia has been known by other genus names, including Nuttallia, Microbabesia, Babesialla, and Gonderia. Because all Babesia species are piroplasms, a more inclusive term for anthropozoonotic infections caused by these organisms would be piroplasmosis.They detective complicacy are bild that, tick-borne disease agents from prolongate life cycles involving arthropod and vertebrate host. The complexity is enhanced by the diversity of hosts in different biotopes, which depends on factors life type of vegetation, climate and/or human influence, such as restoration of former industrial sites, which leads to the development of new biotopes. So, on the one hand, new habitats for plants and animals including ticks, and nature are created. About the first case of babesiosis infection was reported as a cause of human sickness in 1969 in northeastern United State. Several hundred cases are now reported from this region each year. The disease is characterized by a grandual oncet of malaise with anorexia, fever, headaches, myalgia, and other vague symptoms, which may persist for long period. Occasionally dangerous fulminating infections occur particularly in immunocompromised or aged individuals. The purpose of the present research was to study of the cytological diagnostic of blood smears from object’s with the Babesia infection. Materials and methods. Blood smears (by Romanovsky- Gimze (standart, Wright’s standart and staining, the author’s modification, 2014 of domestic dogs (n = 31 of both sexes with Babesia infection at the age from 3 months to 6 years served as the material for the study. The preparations were fixed during 1-2 seconds with 96 % ethyl alcohol. Then warmed (t = 36.0 ± 2.0°? commercial matrix solutions of eosin, azure and methylene blue were applied one by one. The smears were rinsed (1-2 seconds in distilled water and dehydrated. The procedure ended with short-term drying in a diffused stream of warm dry air (Samsung house fan, power 220 W. The results were compared with intact control. Smears were contrasted and analysed under a microscope LOMU (LOMO, Russia: x 300; x400; x1000; x1350 and photographed with a digital camera “Canon EOS-3000”. Results. Blood samples infected with Babesia species were collected (may-october from naturally (promenade in forest-park tick-borne infected dogs (Canis familiaris in all Kharkov region and sity. All (experimental animals were monitored twice daily by veterinary doctors for clinical signs and had rectal temperatures taken (authors have a greate thankness for the cooperation and consolidation Chif -Mr. Yu. V. Al’okhin and veterinary personal of Kharkov Center of Clinical Veterinary. Blood was drawn daily for hematocrit determination and peripheral blood smear were made from ear vien blood to determine parasitemia status. As result of the analysis of blood smears it was found out that against a background of orange erythrocyte cytoplasm the preparation area easily revealed crimson- and red-lilac pyriform (n = 8-12 in the field of vision of the preparation, annular (n = 9-16 in the field of vision, amoebiform haemoparasites and those with other shapes (?=13, thereby indicating a high level of infection (81.8 %. Owing to their own chromatophilic feature, protozoan cells looked geometrically marked and clearly contrasted against a background of the saturated red-violet colour of nuclei. The developed technique of staining facilitated: a more qualitative analysis of ontogenetic staging (III of Babesia (trophozoites, merozoites, sporozoites; improvement of differential diagnosis of the haemoparasites with blood platelets (the latter were distinguished from cells of the causative agent by the presence of marked ovaloid azurophilic granules in the cytoplasm of young fo

  19. Comparison of PCR-Based Diagnosis with Centrifuged-Based Enrichment Method for Detection of Borrelia Persica in Animal Blood Samples

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    SR Naddaf

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mainstay of diagnosis of relapsing fever (RF is demonstration of the spirochetes in Giemsa-stained thick blood smears, but during non fever periods the bacteria are very scanty and rarely detected in blood smears by mi­cros­copy. This study is aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of different methods developed for detection of low-grade spi­ro­chetemia. Methods: Animal blood samples with low degrees of spirochetemia were tested with two PCRs and a nested PCR tar­get­ing flaB, GlpQ, and rrs genes. Also, a centrifuged-based enrichment method and Giemsa staining were per­formed on blood samples with various degrees of spirochetemia. Results: The flaB-PCR and nested rrs-PCR turned positive with various degrees of spirochetemia including the blood samples that turned negative with dark-field microscopy. The GlpQ-PCR was positive as far as at least one spi­ro­chete was seen in 5-10 microscopic fields. The sensitivity of GlpQ-PCR increased when DNA from Buffy Coat Layer (BCL was used as template. The centrifuged-based enrichment method turned positive with as low concentra­tion as 50 bacteria/ml blood, while Giemsa thick staining detected bacteria with concentrations ? 25000 bacteria/ml. Conclusion: Centrifuged-based enrichment method appeared as much as 500-fold more sensitive than thick smears, which makes it even superior to some PCR assays. Due to simplicity and minimal laboratory requirements, this method can be considered a valuable tool for diagnosis of RF in rural health centers.

  20. Investigations of significance of blood smear results in diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases in dogs

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    Potkonjak Aleksandar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The microscopic examination of stained smears of peripheral blood is of vital significance in the speedy diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases, in particular during the stage of infection when the cause is present in the blood, or blood cells. It is sometimes possible to make a definitive diagnosis of an infectious or parasitic disease following an examination of a stained smear of the peripheral blood. Since microscopic examinations of a peripheral blood smear are applied increasingly rarely in clinical practice, due to the development of other methods for the diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases in dogs, as well as the lack of knowledge of the morphology of the numerous causes that can be present in the blood, we carried out an investigation into the presence and spread of infections whose causes can be present in dog blood. The investigations covered 100 dogs from which peripheral blood smears were taken and then stained with a Giemsa solution according to the standard protocol and examined under a microscope with an immersion lens. The examination of peripheral blood smears stained according to Giemsa resulted in the identification of the presence of an Ehrlichia spp. morula in a neutrophil granulocyte in one dog. The presence of hemotropic mycoplasmas was established in erythrocytes of eleven dogs, while the presence of the protozoa Babesia canis in erythrocytes was identified in five dogs included in the investigations. A microscopic examination of dog peripheral blood smears stained according to Giemsa was shown as a speedy, practical, simple, and inexpensive method for making a definitive etiological diagnosis of these infections, and it should be included regularly in standard protocols for the diagnostics of infectious and parasitic diseases.

  1. Counting of RBCs and WBCs in noisy normal blood smear microscopic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibzadeh, M.; Krzyzak, A.; Fevens, T.; Sadr, A.

    2011-03-01

    This work focuses on the segmentation and counting of peripheral blood smear particles which plays a vital role in medical diagnosis. Our approach profits from some powerful processing techniques. Firstly, the method used for denoising a blood smear image is based on the Bivariate wavelet. Secondly, image edge preservation uses the Kuwahara filter. Thirdly, a new binarization technique is introduced by merging the Otsu and Niblack methods. We have also proposed an efficient step-by-step procedure to determine solid binary objects by merging modified binary, edged images and modified Chan-Vese active contours. The separation of White Blood Cells (WBCs) from Red Blood Cells (RBCs) into two sub-images based on the RBC (blood's dominant particle) size estimation is a critical step. Using Granulometry, we get an approximation of the RBC size. The proposed separation algorithm is an iterative mechanism which is based on morphological theory, saturation amount and RBC size. A primary aim of this work is to introduce an accurate mechanism for counting blood smear particles. This is accomplished by using the Immersion Watershed algorithm which counts red and white blood cells separately. To evaluate the capability of the proposed framework, experiments were conducted on normal blood smear images. This framework was compared to other published approaches and found to have lower complexity and better performance in its constituent steps; hence, it has a better overall performance.

  2. SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT FOR DETECTING MALARIA TROPIKA ON BLOOD SMEARS IMAGE USING SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE

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    Sri Widodo * ,

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical malaria is a disease caused by protozoan parasites of genus Plasmodium that infect red blood cells of patients. Tropical malaria falciparum is the most severe form of malaria. Process is performed by physicians to diagnosing tropical malaria diseases in blood smear with directly observed using a microscope. This procedure is certainly not effective. Purpose of research is to develop a software that can automatically detect tropical malaria of blood smear image as a diagnostic aid. This study consists of three steps. First step is to create a user interface. Second step is to develop software to perform segmentation of blood smears image using active contour method, and the third step is development of software for malaria detection by classification of blood smears images suspected containing plasmodium malaria using support vector machine (SVM. The results of testing that has been done for normal blood obtained accuracy 100 % , thropozoit phase with accuracy 100 %, Schizont phase with accuracy 85 %, and gamethozit phase with accuracy 95%.

  3. High throughput imaging of blood smears using white light diffraction phase microscopy

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    Majeed, Hassaan; Kandel, Mikhail E.; Bhaduri, Basanta; Han, Kevin; Luo, Zelun; Tangella, Krishnarao; Popescu, Gabriel

    2015-03-01

    While automated blood cell counters have made great progress in detecting abnormalities in blood, the lack of specificity for a particular disease, limited information on single cell morphology and intrinsic uncertainly due to high throughput in these instruments often necessitates detailed inspection in the form of a peripheral blood smear. Such tests are relatively time consuming and frequently rely on medical professionals tally counting specific cell types. These assays rely on the contrast generated by chemical stains, with the signal intensity strongly related to staining and preparation techniques, frustrating machine learning algorithms that require consistent quantities to denote the features in question. Instead we opt to use quantitative phase imaging, understanding that the resulting image is entirely due to the structure (intrinsic contrast) rather than the complex interplay of stain and sample. We present here our first steps to automate peripheral blood smear scanning, in particular a method to generate the quantitative phase image of an entire blood smear at high throughput using white light diffraction phase microscopy (wDPM), a single shot and common path interferometric imaging technique.

  4. A novel method of combining Periodic Acid Schiff staining with Wright-Giemsa staining to identify the pathogens Penicillium marneffei, Histoplasma capsulatum, Mucor and Leishmania donovani in bone marrow smears

    OpenAIRE

    QIN, LINGYAN; ZHAO, LIGANG; Tan, Chunyan; Chen, Xu; Yang, Zheng; Mo, Wuning

    2015-01-01

    Penicillium marneffei, Histoplasma capsulatum, Mucor and Leishmania donovani can lead to penicilliosis marneffei, histoplasmosis, mucormycosis and leishmaniasis, respectively, which, to a certain extent, share similar clinical manifestations. These pathogens are approximately the same size, therefore it is relatively difficult to rapidly diagnose the diseases. The aim of the present study was to explore a novel method that attempts to rapidly identify the pathogens of these diseases. In the W...

  5. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BLOOD SMEAR, QBC AND ANTIGEN DETECTION FOR DIAGNOSIS OF MALARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Mitesh N. Suthar; Dr. Amita K. Mevada; Dr. Neha H. Pandya; Dr. Kinnar S. Desai; Dr. Vaishali Patel; Dr. Toral Goswami

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives:Rapid diagnosis is prerequisite for effective treatment and reducing mortality and morbidity of malaria. Microscopy has been the Gold standard for malaria diagnosis for decades. We made an attempt to compare blood smear, Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC) and rapid antigen detection methods for the rapid diagnosis of malaria.Methods & materials:A Cross sectional prospective study was conducted for 6 months in G.G.Hospital, Jamnagar. A total number of 90 hospitalized...

  6. Crowdsourcing Malaria Parasite Quantification: An Online Game for Analyzing Images of Infected Thick Blood Smears

    OpenAIRE

    Luengo Oroz, Miguel Ángel; Arranz, Asier; Frean, John

    2012-01-01

    Background: There are 600,000 new malaria cases daily worldwide. The gold standard for estimating the parasite burden and the corresponding severity of the disease consists in manually counting the number of parasites in blood smears through a microscope, a process that can take more than 20 minutes of an expert microscopist’s time. Objective: This research tests the feasibility of a crowdsourced approach to malaria image analysis. In particular, we investigated whether anonymous volunteer...

  7. Blood Smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Values can fluctuate at times of illness or stress; intense exercise or smoking can also affect cell counts. ^ Back to top ... Health Professionals Get the Mobile App iTunes | Android | Kindle ...

  8. Evaluation of Peripheral Blood Smear for Myelodysplasia in Breast Cancer Patients who Received Adjuvant Antracycline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Mutlu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN account for approximately 10% to 20% of all cases of AML (acute myeloid leukemia, MDS (myelodysplastic syndrome and MDS/MPN (myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasms, MDS, and MDS/MPN. In our study, we evaluated peripheral blood smear samples and hemogram values in breast cancer patients who were receiving adjuvant anthracycline regimens and were in remission. Materials and Methods: A total of 78 patients receiving anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy treatment from Kayseri Research and Training Hospital and Mersin State Hospital were enrolled in the study. Their adjuvant treatments had been completed at least 18 months prior to the study. Results: Two patients complained of anemia (2.2% (Hb<11 mg/dl, leukopenia was observed in seven patients (7.7% (leukocytes<4000/mm3, and thrombocytopenia was observed in four patients (4.4% (PLT<150.000/mm3. In the blood smear samples, the following were observed: ovalomacrocytes (14%, macrocytes (37%, acanthocytes (1%, stomatocytes (12%, teardrops (12%, nucleated erythrocytes (1%, basophilic stippling (14%, and Howell-Jolly bodies (1%. Additionally, hypo-granulation (38%, Pelger-Huet abnormalities (26%, hypersegmentation (20%, immature granulocytes (8%, and blasts (6% were observed. We also confirmed the presence of giant platelets (50% and platelet hypogranulation (19%. Conclusion: According to the peripheral blood smear assessments in our study, we suggest that breast cancer patients should be evaluated for MDS in the early stages, starting from month 18, even if the automated blood counts are normal.

  9. Use of dried blood smears for detection of feline hemoplasmas using real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Jane E; Owens, Sean D; Terry, Jeralyn C; Lindsay, Leann L; Pusterla, Nicola

    2008-09-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) for feline hemoplasmas when applied to DNA extracted from dried whole-blood smears in comparison to that for DNA extracted from liquid whole blood. Blood samples were collected into ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid tubes from 305 cats with possible or suspected hemoplasmosis, and dried blood smears from each sample were prepared. DNA was extracted from blood smears and a 160-microl aliquot of each liquid blood sample by using a robotic extractor and was subjected to real-time PCR for feline glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (liquid blood), 18S ribosomal RNA (dried blood), and "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum", Mycoplasma haemofelis, and "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis" DNA. When using the results for liquid whole blood as the gold standard, the sensitivity of each assay for "Ca. M. haemominutum", M. haemofelis, and "Ca. M. turicensis" was 49 of 66 (74%), 11 of 13 (85%), and 11 of 20 (55%), respectively. The specificity of each assay was 224 of 234 (96%), 287 of 287 (100%), and 280 of 280 (100%), respectively. When possible, liquid blood samples should be submitted for detection of feline hemoplasmas by using real-time PCR. The improved sensitivity of real-time PCR on blood smears for M. haemofelis compared with that of the other hemoplasma species may reflect the higher organism burdens associated with infection with this species. PMID:18776095

  10. Detection of Theileria annulata in blood samples of native cattle by PCR and smear method in Southeast of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourollahi-Fard, Saeid R; Khalili, Mohammad; Ghalekhani, Nima

    2015-06-01

    Theileria annulata, a protozoan parasite of cattle is causes tropical theileriosis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to assess the presence and the frequency of T. annulata infection in blood samples obtained from carrier cattle in Kerman, Southeast of Iran. Blood samples were collected in citrate solution from 150 native cattle with mean age of 1 year which selected randomly. Primarily, a thin layer smear was prepared from their ear sublime vein blood and was fixed with methanol and stained with Giemsa dye. Blood smears were examined for the presence of parasites, and blood samples were analyzed by PCR. Piroplasmic forms of T. annulata were seen in 16 of 150 (10.66 %) by examination the blood smears with light microscope, whereas 68 of 150 (45.33 %) cattle were positive by PCR method. All animals that were positive by blood smears were also positive by PCR. Difference between these methods was significant (P < 0.05). Our results demonstrate that this PCR assay in diagnosing T. annulata parasites in carrier cattle is more sensitive than method of smear preparation and can be used in epidemiological studies. PMID:26064010

  11. Selection of the best features for leukocytes classification in blood smear microscopic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrafzadeh, Omid; Rabbani, Hossein; Talebi, Ardeshir; Banaem, Hossein Usefi

    2014-03-01

    Automatic differential counting of leukocytes provides invaluable information to pathologist for diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. The main objective of this paper is to detect leukocytes from a blood smear microscopic image and classify them into their types: Neutrophil, Eosinophil, Basophil, Lymphocyte and Monocyte using features that pathologists consider to differentiate leukocytes. Features contain color, geometric and texture features. Colors of nucleus and cytoplasm vary among the leukocytes. Lymphocytes have single, large, round or oval and Monocytes have singular convoluted shape nucleus. Nucleus of Eosinophils is divided into 2 segments and nucleus of Neutrophils into 2 to 5 segments. Lymphocytes often have no granules, Monocytes have tiny granules, Neutrophils have fine granules and Eosinophils have large granules in cytoplasm. Six color features is extracted from both nucleus and cytoplasm, 6 geometric features only from nucleus and 6 statistical features and 7 moment invariants features only from cytoplasm of leukocytes. These features are fed to support vector machine (SVM) classifiers with one to one architecture. The results obtained by applying the proposed method on blood smear microscopic image of 10 patients including 149 white blood cells (WBCs) indicate that correct rate for all classifiers are above 93% which is in a higher level in comparison with previous literatures.

  12. Detection of malarial parasite by blood smear examination and antigen detection: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erumalla Naveen, Dimple Arora, Vinod Agarwal, Neelam sharma, Anuradha B, Vijay Durga S

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At present about 100 countries in the world are considered malarious, is thought to kill between 1.1 and 2.7 million people worldwide each year, of which about 1 million are children under the age of 5 years in these areas. Under ideal circumstances, the clinical suspicion of malaria would be confirmed by a laboratory test that is simple to perform, rapid, sensitive, specific and expensive. At the present time, no such test exists. The most common test for malaria diagnosis remains the microscopic examination of giemsa or the fields –stained blood smears. The test is based on the detection of Plasmodium falciparum specific histidine rich protein ii (hrp and a pan malarial species specific enzyme aldolose, produced by the respective parasites and released into the blood and the test is based on immune chromatography, the test is highly sensitive. Method: In this study included 100 patients, 60% of patients had history suggestive of malaria, another 40% gave the history of irregular fever; For each patient peripheral blood sample was collected, thin and thick smear blood films were made immediately after blood collection, stained with Leishman stain and examined for malaria parasite by light microscopy. Results: The blood films results indicated that 40 (20% patients were infected with malaria and the rest 171 (85.5% were malaria negative. Among positive patients Plasmodium vivax was detected in 24 cases (60% and Plasmodium falciparum in 10 cases (31% and 6 cases mixed infection (PV + PF (15% correspondingly, the Para HIT Test results indicated that 29 (14.5% of the patient sample were positive for malaria parasites and 171 (85.5 were malaria negative out 29 patients cases. Infection with Plasmodium vivax accounted for 17 (58.6% while infection with Plasmodium falciparum accounted for 9 (25% and 3 (1.3% with mixed infection of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodiumfalciparum

  13. Analysis of blood and bone marrow smears using multispectral imaging analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiongshui; Zeng, Libo; Ke, Hengyu; Xie, Wenjuan; Zheng, Hong; Zhang, Yan

    2005-04-01

    Counting of different classes of white blood cells in bone marrow smears can give pathologists valuable information regarding various cancers. But it is tedious to manually locate, identify, and count these classes of cells, even by skilled hands. This paper presents a novel approach for automatic detection of White Blood Cells in bone marrow microscopic images. Different from traditional color imaging method, we use multispectral imaging techniques for image acquisition. The combination of conventional digital imaging with spectroscopy can provide us with additional useful spectral information in common pathological samples. With our spectral calibration method, device-independent images can be acquired, which is almost impossible in conventional color imaging method. A novel segmentation algorithm using spectral operation is presented in this paper. Experiments show that the segmentation is robust, precise, with low computational cost and insensitive to smear staining and illumination condition. Once the nuclei and cytoplasm have been segmented, more than a hundred of features are extracted under the direction of a pathologist, including shape features, textural features and spectral ratio features. In pattern recognition, a maximum likelihood classifier(MLC) is implemented in a hierarchical tree. The classification results are also discussed. This paper is focused on image acquisition and segmentation.

  14. Diagnosis of Carrion’s Disease by Direct Blood PCR in Thin Blood Smear Negative Samples

    OpenAIRE

    del Valle Mendoza, Juana; Silva Caso, Wilmer; Tinco Valdez, Carmen; Pons, Maria J.; del Valle, Luis J.; Oré, Verónica Casabona; Michelena, Denisse Champin; Mayra, Jorge Bazán; Gavidea, Víctor Zavaleta; Vargas, Martha; Ruiz, Joaquim

    2014-01-01

    Bartonella bacilliformis is the etiologic agent of Carrion's disease. This disease has two well established phases, the most relevant being the so called Oroya Fever, in which B. bacilliformis infect the erythrocytes resulting in severe anemia and transient immunosuppression, with a high lethality in the absence of adequate antibiotic treatment. The presence of B. bacilliformis was studied in 113 blood samples suspected of Carrion’s disease based on clinical criteria, despite the absence of a...

  15. Counting White Blood Cells from a Blood Smear Using Fourier Ptychographic Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jaebum; Ou, Xiaoze; Kulkarni, Rajan P; Yang, Changhuei

    2015-01-01

    White blood cell (WBC) count is a valuable metric for assisting with diagnosis or prognosis of various diseases such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, or infection. Counting WBCs can be done either manually or automatically. Automatic methods are capable of counting a large number of cells to give a statistically more accurate reading of the WBC count of a sample, but the specialized equipment tends to be expensive. Manual methods are inexpensive since they only involve a conventional light microscope setup. However, it is more laborious and error-prone because the small field-of-view (FOV) of the microscope necessitates mechanical scanning of a specimen for counting an adequate number of WBCs. Here, we investigate the use of Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM) to bypass these issues of the manual methods. With a 2x objective, FPM can provide a FOV of 120 mm2 with enhanced resolution comparable to that of a 20x objective, which is adequate for non-differentially counting WBCs in just one FOV. A specialist was able to count the WBCs in FPM images with 100% accuracy compared to the count as determined from conventional microscope images. An automatic counting algorithm was also developed to identify WBCs from FPM's captured images with 95% accuracy, paving the way for a cost-effective WBC counting setup with the advantages of both the automatic and manual counting methods. PMID:26186353

  16. Estudio de la infección de Leishmanias del complejo Viannia mediante citometría de flujo y coloración de Giemsa empleando líneas de macrófagos humanos y murinos (U-937 y J-774) / Study of Leishmania Viannia infection by means of flow cytometry and Giemsa stain using human and murine macrophage lines (U-937 and J-774)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yuly Andrea, Gamboa Marín; Gabriela, Delgado Murcia.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ante las dificultades frente al tratamiento de la leishmaniasis, es importante buscar alternativas terapéuticas que deben ser analizadas empleando modelos in vitro e in vivo adecuadamente estandarizados. Con este propósito, se implementó un modelo de infección in vitro de Leishmania conmacrófagos U- [...] 937 y J-774, para evaluar la internalización de promastigotes a distintos puntos tiempo (2 a 6 horas) y por dos técnicas: coloración de Giemsa (CG) y citometría de flujo (CF). En el análisis por CF, se evaluó la invasión teniendo en cuenta la emisión de fluorescencia de los parásitos transfectados con la proteína verde de fluorescencia (GFP) y el aumento de la densidad citoplasmática de los macrófagos debida a los parásitos internalizados, lo cual fue verificado con el recuento microscópico realizado con CG; se encontró que a una proporción 1:35 (células:parásitos) se pueden establecer cambios densitométricos asociados con la infección empleando cepas de parásitos no transfectadas. También se describe que las J774 internalizan más eficientemente promastigotes de Leishmania que las células U937 (P valor: 0,0006), y se observa a su vez para la línea murina un aumento del número de parásitos por célula, respecto a los macrófagos humanos empleados en este ensayo (P valor 0,0038). Este estudio nos permite concluir: (i) que los cambios en la densidad citoplasmática evidenciados por CF son suficientes para establecer el porcentaje de infección parasitaria, aun para aquellos parásitos no transfectados; (ii) que la CG es menos costosa que el uso de la CF para evaluar infección parasitaria, aunque por su carácter semicuantitativo, la variabilidad intra- e inter-observadores la hace menos precisa; (iii) que los resultados cuantitativos obtenidos por la CF se correlacionan con los observados en la CG, y permiten sugerir que estas dos técnicas resultan complementarias; y (iv) que el porcentaje de infección y el número de parásitos internalizados para la J-774 son mayores que lo encontrado para la U-937, lo cual puede deberse a que un mayor número de receptores de complemento sobre la línea murina favorece la internalización de patógenos intracelulares, proceso menos favorecido en la línea humana por los niveles reducidos de este tipo de receptores en su membrana celular. Abstract in english The treatment for Leishmaniasis has presented some difficulties related with adverse effects and resistance. For these reasons it is important to search therapeutic alternatives which must be analyzed using adequately standardized in vitro and in vivo models. With this purpose, we implemented an in [...] vitro model for leishmania infection using U-937 and J-774macrophages, and evaluating promastigote internalization at consecutive time spans (from 2 to 6 hours). The first approximation assayed involves the flow cytometric (CF) analysis for invasion quantification by measuring the fluorescence emitted by parasites previously transfected with green fluorescence protein (GFP). In the alternative strategy, parasitized cells were subjected to Giemsa stain and CF was applied to measure the increase of macrophages cytoplasm density owed to internalized parasites. Giemsa stain also allowed us to estimate the number of parasites within each cell. We report that the presence of 35 parasites per macrophage produces an increase in cytoplasmic density enough to be detected by CF so that infection can be clearly reported. We also found that J-774 macrophages internalize Leishmania promastigotes more efficiently than U-937 cells (P value: 0.0006). Cells of the murine line were infected by a higher number of parasites than the human counterparts used in this study (P value 0.0038). From the resultas, we conclude: (i) the change in macrophage cytoplasm density demonstrated by CF after Giemsa stain are sufficient to estimate the percentage of infection. (ii) Giemsa stain provides a less expensive strategy to evaluate Leishmania infection than the fluorescence based option, although the intra and

  17. Development and evaluation of a computer program to grade student performance on peripheral blood smears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Donald Clifford

    Today's medical laboratories are dealing with cost containment health care policies and unfilled laboratory positions. Because there may be fewer experienced clinical laboratory scientists, students graduating from clinical laboratory science (CLS) programs are expected by their employers to perform accurately in entry-level positions with minimal training. Information in the CLS field is increasing at a dramatic rate, and instructors are expected to teach more content in the same amount of time with the same resources. With this increase in teaching obligations, instructors could use a tool to facilitate grading. The research question was, "Can computer-assisted assessment evaluate students in an accurate and time efficient way?" A computer program was developed to assess CLS students' ability to evaluate peripheral blood smears. Automated grading permits students to get results quicker and allows the laboratory instructor to devote less time to grading. This computer program could improve instruction by providing more time to students and instructors for other activities. To be valuable, the program should provide the same quality of grading as the instructor. These benefits must outweigh potential problems such as the time necessary to develop and maintain the program, monitoring of student progress by the instructor, and the financial cost of the computer software and hardware. In this study, surveys of students and an interview with the laboratory instructor were performed to provide a formative evaluation of the computer program. In addition, the grading accuracy of the computer program was examined. These results will be used to improve the program for use in future courses.

  18. Immunoglobulin and enzyme-conjugated dextran polymers enhance u-PAR staining intensity of carcinoma cells in peripheral blood smears.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werther, K; Normark, M

    1999-01-01

    The presence of disseminated carcinoma cells in bone marrow and peripheral blood has prognostic importance in patients with carcinomas. Much evidence indicates that dissemination of tumor cells may depend on activation of a variety of degradative enzymes. A strong positive correlation has been shown between the expression of tumor cell proteases and tumor invasion. Therefore, phenotypic characterization of disseminated carcinoma cells for expression of protease activators might define the invasive potential of the cells. We present an immunocytochemically enhanced staining method that allows phenotyping of disseminated carcinoma cells in bone marrow and peripheral blood smears. In the first step, the cells were incubated with antibodies against urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (u-PAR) and subsequently with secondary antibodies conjugated to peroxidase-labeled dextran polymers. A brown color reaction was developed with diaminobenzidine as chromogen. In the second step, the cells were incubated with alkaline phosphatase-conjugated murine monoclonal antibodies against a common cytokeratin epitope and a red color reaction was developed with new fuchsin as substrate. This method allows simultaneous and unambiguous immunolabeling of intracellular cytokeratin and of u-PAR intracellularly and on the surface of carcinoma cells. This novel approach can be used for detection and phenotyping of carcinoma cells in blood smears for u-PAR or, presumably, for any other heterogeneously expressed antigen on the surface of the detected cells.

  19. The estimation of platelet count from a blood smear on the basis of the red cell: platelet ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Brahimi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The estimation of platelet count from blood smears is a daily routine laboratory test, which should be systematic each time the automated count is erroneous.In our laboratory, we estimate the platelet count indirectly by using the automated red blood cell (RBC and calculating the platelet count on the basis of the red cell: platelet ratio in a stained blood film. In this study, we attempted to verify the reliability of this technique.Material and Methods: One hundred ninety-one platelet counts were executed by two laboratory methods: an automated count using an impedance cell counter and then a manual method by reviewing microscopic blood smears. The number of platelets per 1000 erythrocytes was multiplied by the automated RBC (x106 cells/µl to give an approximate manual count (x103 cells/µl. Two paired t-test was used for comparison of the two methods.Results: The regression analyses for the entire data set collected in our study with the two laboratory methods gave the following least squares equation by comparing the automated (y to the manual method (x: y=0.8548x + 12.013 (r=0.908. The paired t-test showed no significant difference between the two methods (p>0.05 and the Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC was equal to 0.905.The plot of the differences between the automated and manual values against their means according to Band and Altman design showed that the difference mean was 3.209 with a standard deviation SD=46.331.We noticed that 93% of the differences were within the agreement limits (mean±2SD, and that 77% of the differences were less than 20,000 platelets/µl.Conclusion: Estimating platelet count on the basis of the red cell: platelet ratio is a reliable technique and it should be proposed as a method of reference.

  20. Labelling of T cell subsets under field conditions in tropical countries. Adaptation of the immuno-alkaline phosphatase staining method for blood smears.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Whittle, H

    1990-01-01

    Immuno-alkaline phosphatase (AP) staining for T cell subsets (CD4 and CD8) of smears from fingerprick blood functioned well under tropical climatic conditions when smears were stored frozen with silica gel before being labelled. Unlabelled smears were stored for up to 12 months and could be transferred abroad without antigenic damage. Identical total CD4 and CD8 counts were obtained on venous and capillary blood, when compared using a FACS analyser. Although the AP method gave somewhat higher total CD4 and CD8 counts, the ratio remained the same. The major advantages of the method are: (i) no expensive equipment is required, (ii) only minute amounts of blood are needed, and (iii) slides can be stored for long periods before labelling and can be preserved for later reading. The method is suitable for community studies where there is a need for assessing the immune status of the population.

  1. A study of eosinophil count in nasal and blood smear in allergic respiratory diseases in a rural setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic respiratory disorders are fairly common visiting cases in pediatrics outpatient department (OPD. With an appropriate history and detailed examination, diagnosis may not be problematic. Routine investigation may not contribute much to the final diagnosis but may help in ruling out other possibilities. This study was done to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of blood or nasal eosinophilia in subjects suffering from allergic respiratory disorders and also to assess the feasibility of nasal cytogram which is a simple, economical and reliable investigation in allergic respiratory disorders. This is a prospective clinical correlation study of patients attending outpatient department. 100 subjects aged between 2-18 years of either sex were selected for the estimation of eosinophil count in nasal and peripheral smear in allergic respiratory disorders. All allergic respiratory cases based on eosinophillia. The nasal and blood eosinophilia were compared with each other and clinical findings of allergic rhinitis with or without asthma were studied. In this study peak age incidence was seen between 11-18 years and it was more common in males. Rhinorrhoea, pale mucosa and nasal obstruction were common findings in allergic rhinitis with bronchial asthma. Nasal eosinophilia was seen in 52.4% and 64.9% of cases of allergic rhinitis and allergic rhinitis with asthma respectively. Blood eosinophilia was seen in 54% and 56.8% of cases of allergic rhinitis with asthma respectively. Nasal cytogram which is a simple, economical and non- invasive procedure can be used as an alternative to invasive peripheral smear eosinophilia as both are equally efficacious in diagnosing allergic respiratory diseases.

  2. Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Technique based Prevalence of Surra in Equines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan Nadeem, Asim Aslam*, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary, Kamran Ashraf1, Khalid Saeed1, Nisar Ahmad1, Ishtiaq Ahmed and Habib ur Rehman2

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This project was carried out to find the prevalence of trypanosomiasis in equine in District Gujranwala by using indirect fluorescent antibody technique and thin smear method. Blood samples were collected from a total of 200 horses and donkeys of different ages and either sex. Duplicate thin blood smears were prepared from each sample and remaining blood samples were centrifuged to separate the serum. Smears from each animal were processed for giemsa staining and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT. Giemsa stained smears revealed Trypanosome infection in 4/200 (2.0% samples and IFAT in 12/200 (6.0% animals.

  3. Extraction of Nucleolus Candidate Zone in White Blood Cells of Peripheral Blood Smear Images Using Curvelet Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Soltanzadeh, Ramin; Rabbani, Hossein; Talebi, Ardeshir

    2012-01-01

    The main part of each white blood cell (WBC) is its nucleus which contains chromosomes. Although white blood cells (WBCs) with giant nuclei are the main symptom of leukemia, they are not sufficient to prove this disease and other symptoms must be investigated. For example another important symptom of leukemia is the existence of nucleolus in nucleus. The nucleus contains chromatin and a structure called the nucleolus. Chromatin is DNA in its active form while nucleolus is composed of protein ...

  4. Extraction of Nucleolus Candidate Zone in White Blood Cells of Peripheral Blood Smear Images Using Curvelet Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanzadeh, Ramin; Rabbani, Hossein; Talebi, Ardeshir

    2012-01-01

    The main part of each white blood cell (WBC) is its nucleus which contains chromosomes. Although white blood cells (WBCs) with giant nuclei are the main symptom of leukemia, they are not sufficient to prove this disease and other symptoms must be investigated. For example another important symptom of leukemia is the existence of nucleolus in nucleus. The nucleus contains chromatin and a structure called the nucleolus. Chromatin is DNA in its active form while nucleolus is composed of protein and RNA, which are usually inactive. In this paper, to diagnose this symptom and in order to discriminate between nucleoli and chromatins, we employ curvelet transform, which is a multiresolution transform for detecting 2D singularities in images. For this reason, at first nuclei are extracted by means of K-means method, then curvelet transform is applied on extracted nuclei and the coefficients are modified, and finally reconstructed image is used to extract the candidate locations of chromatins and nucleoli. This method is applied on 100 microscopic images and succeeds with specificity of 80.2% and sensitivity of 84.3% to detect the nucleolus candidate zone. After nucleolus candidate zone detection, new features that can be used to classify atypical and blast cells such as gradient of saturation channel are extracted. PMID:22666305

  5. Comparison of a Real-Time PCR Method with Serology and Blood Smear Analysis for Diagnosis of Human Anaplasmosis: Importance of Infection Time Course for Optimal Test Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Schotthoefer, A. M.; Meece, J. K.; Ivacic, L. C.; Bertz, P. D.; ZHANG, K; Weiler, T; Uphoff, T. S.; Fritsche, T. R.

    2013-01-01

    Anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis are emerging tick-borne diseases with clinically similar presentations caused by closely related pathogens. Currently, laboratories rely predominantly on blood smear analysis (for the detection of intracellular morulae) and on serologic tests, both of which have recognized limitations, for diagnostic purposes. We compared the performance of a published real-time PCR assay that incorporates melt curve analysis to differentiate Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species with ...

  6. Laboratory diagnosis of malaria by conventional peripheral blood smear examination with Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC and Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT - A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhat Sandhya K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Rapid diagnosis is prerequisite for effective treatment and reducing mortality and morbidity of malaria. Microscopy has been the Gold standard for malaria diagnosis for decades. Recently, many new rapid diagnostic tests like Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC examination and rapid antigen detection methods are being widely used. We made an attempt to compare peripheral smear, QBC and rapid antigen detection methods for the diagnosis of malaria. Materials and Methods: A total number of 500 samples were collected from patients presenting with classical symptoms of malaria. Thick and thin blood smears were prepared and stained with Leishman’s stain. QBC, Histidine Rich Protein-II antigen test and plasmodium Lactate Dehydrogenase tests were done using commercially available kits. Results: Taking thick smear as gold standard, thin smear had sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 90.9%, 100%, 100% and 98.6% respectively. QBC showed sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 95.45%, 100%, 100% and 99.31% respectively. HRP-II antigen detection showed sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 56.06%, 100%, 100% and 94.20%. pLDH showed sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of 95.45%, 100%, 100% and 99.40% respectively. Conclusion: In our study, QBC had highest sensitivity followed by pLDH assay. Leishman’s stained thick smear is cost effective but requires technical expertise to interpret the results, so if facilities are available, QBC can be used for routine diagnosis. In places where facilities are not available rapid diagnostic test devices can be used, especially in endemic areas.

  7. Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Technique based Prevalence of Surra in Equines

    OpenAIRE

    Ahsan Nadeem, Asim Aslam*, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary, Kamran Ashraf1, Khalid Saeed1, Nisar Ahmad1, Ishtiaq Ahmed and Habib ur Rehman2

    2011-01-01

    This project was carried out to find the prevalence of trypanosomiasis in equine in District Gujranwala by using indirect fluorescent antibody technique and thin smear method. Blood samples were collected from a total of 200 horses and donkeys of different ages and either sex. Duplicate thin blood smears were prepared from each sample and remaining blood samples were centrifuged to separate the serum. Smears from each animal were processed for giemsa staining and indirect fluorescent antibod...

  8. The occurrence of hepatozoon in the gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.; Price, D.L.

    1955-01-01

    Hepatozoon sciuri (Coles, 1914) is reported from gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) in Washington, D.C. and Maryland. Blood smears stained with Giemsa's stain revealed a parasitemia in 16 to 71% of the squirrels examined. A technique for laking the red cells and concentrating the white cells in blood samples demonstrated this protozoon to be present in every squirrel so tested.

  9. Comparison of a quantitative PCR assay with peripheral blood smear examination for detection and quantitation of Babesia microti infection in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guiqing; Villafuerte, Patrick; Zhuge, Jian; Visintainer, Paul; Wormser, Gary P

    2015-06-01

    Using a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), we determined the number of DNA copies/mL of blood of a Babesia microti gene in infected patients. Thirty-six patients (whose median age was 62.5years and 75.0% were male) with at least 1 qPCR-positive blood sample were included in this analysis, including 16 with serial blood samples. Based on testing of serial blood samples, it could be demonstrated that the smear became negative while the qPCR remained positive. A moderate to strong correlation was found between the DNA copy number and the number of infected erythrocytes per milliliter of blood (Pearson's r=0.68, P<0.001). Based on limited data, the DNA copy number fell by a mean of 4.1-12.9% per day on active treatment and by 3.5-7.1% per day off therapy. qPCR methodology may permit systematic evaluations of the relative efficacy of various antiparasitic drug regimens and other therapeutic modalities, although a limitation of such testing is that DNA detection per se does not establish the presence of viable parasites. PMID:25861873

  10. Diagnóstico presuntivo de histoplasmosis en un frotis sanguíneo Diagnóstico presuntivo de histoplasmose em um esfregaço de sangue Presumptive diagnosis of histoplasmosis in a blood smear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Daniela Tkach

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se comunica el diagnóstico de un caso de histoplasmosis asociada al SIDA a partir de la microscopía de un extendido hemático realizado en oportunidad del procesamiento de una muestra enviada al laboratorio para un estudio hematológico. El extendido, fijado con metanol y teñido con solución de Giemsa al 10% reveló, con objetivo de 100X, estructuras levaduriformes de 2-4 µ de diámetro dentro de las células leucocitarias sanguíneas, con la típica tinción en casquete y la presencia de un halo claro periférico, que caracterizan microscópicamente a Histoplasma capsulatum. Luego, para confirmar el hallazgo micológico, se procedió a teñir el mismo preparado con la técnica de Grocott, la cual puso de manifiesto levaduras de color pardo, dentro de los leucocitos sanguíneos. El paciente, deteriorado clínica e inmunológicamente (Comunica-se o diagnóstico de um caso de histoplasmose associada à AIDS, de uma microscopia de extensão sanguínea realizada por ocasião do processamento de uma amostra enviada ao laboratório para um estudo hematológico. A extensão, fixada com metanol e corada com solução de Giemsa a 10%, revelou com objetivo de 100X, estruturas leveduriformes de 2-4 µ diâmetro dentro de células leucocitárias do sangue, com a típica coloração em tampão e a presença de um halo claro periférico, os quais caracterizam microscopicamente a Histoplasma capsulatum. Em seguida, para confirmar o achado micológico, foi corada a mesma preparação com a técnica de Grocott, que mostrou leveduras de cor parda, dentro dos leucócitos sanguíneos. O paciente clínica e imunologicamente deteriorado (A case of AIDS-associated histoplasmosis diagnosed by microscopy from a blood smear performed during a hematologic study was reported. The smear, fixed with methanol and stained with 10% Giemsa solution, revealed with a 100X objective, 2-4 µ-diameter yeast - like structures within the leuMicrobiología contakocytes, showing a typical staining in cap and a peripheral clear halo, characteristic of Histoplasma capsulatum. To confirm the mycological finding, the same smear was stained with the Grocott technique, showing brownish yeasts in the leucocytes. The patient, clinically deteriorated and with advanced immunological disorder (<50 T CD4+ lymphocytes/µL, died the next day after the diagnosis was made, in spite of the established treatments. This finding highlights the need to have operators trained in the recognition of microbiological structures of diagnostic importance in hematological smears in a Reference Center of Infectious Diseases, and even in the General Laboratory. The immediate diagnosis of this and other serious infections, as Malaria, enables the etiologic treatment and increases the possibilities of therapeutic success.

  11. Significado da presença de esquizócitos no sangue periférico de gestantes com pré-eclâmpsia / Ming of the presence of schistocytes in blood smear of preeclamptic pregnat women

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosângela de Fátima do Nascimento e, Silva; Lucilene Silva Ruiz e, Resende; Bruno Rabelo, Cardoso; Joélcio Francisco, Abbade; José Carlos, Peraçoli.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o significado da presença de esquizócitos em esfregaço de sangue periférico de gestantes com pré-eclâmpsia, identificando-os e correlacionando-os com outros marcadores de hemólise e da gravidade da doença. MÉTODOS: foram avaliadas 76 lâminas de esfregaço de sangue periférico de ges [...] tantes portadoras de pré-eclâmpsia. Após a realização do esfregaço, as lâminas foram submetidas ao corante de Leishman e armazenadas até a leitura, feita em microscópio modelo DLMB, da marca Leica, com aumento de 40 vezes e imersão em óleo. O microscópio era dotado de software Qwin Lite 2.5, que permitia gravar as imagens dos campos escolhidos em CD-ROM. Em cada lâmina foram contados dez campos com aproximadamente 100 eritrócitos. Foi considerada presença de esquizócitos (fragmento irregular ou em forma de capacete, de mordida ou triângulo) quando a porcentagem dos mesmos era maior ou igual que 0,2%. A presença de esquizócitos foi correlacionada com outros marcadores de hemólise (hemoglobina, bilirrubina total, desidrogenase lática e reticulócitos), marcadores da pré-eclâmpsia (proteinúria e número de plaquetas) e com a gravidade da pré-eclâmpsia. Para análise estatística foi utilizado o programa Statistical Package in Social Science (SPSS), versão 10.0, com valor de p Abstract in english PURPOSE: to evaluate the significance of schizocytes presence in peripheral blood smear of pregnant women with pre-eclampsia, identifying and correlating them with other markers of hemolysis and of the disease severity. METHODS: Seventh six glass slides of peripheral blood smear of pregnant women wi [...] th pre-eclampsia have been evaluated. After the smear, the slides have been stained with Leishman's dye and stored till they were examined with a Leica, model DLMB microscope, provided with the Qwin Lite 2.5 software that made it possible to record the images of selected fields in CD-ROM. Ten fields with approximately 100 erythrocytes were counted in each glass slide. Schizocytes (irregular fragment or helmet-shaped, bite-shaped or triangular) were considered as present, when their percentage was equal or higher than 0.2%, their presence being correlated with other hemolysis markers (hemoglobin, total bilirubin, lactic desidrogenasis and reticulocytes), pre-eclampsia markers (proteinuria and platelet number). The Statistical Package in Social Science for Windows (SPSS), 10.0 version has been used for statistical analysis, at p

  12. First field investigation report on the prevalence of trypanosomosis in camels in northern Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    E. S. Swai,; W. Moshy,; E. Mbise,; J. Kaaya; S. Bwanga

    2011-01-01

    Parasitological evaluation of equine trypanosomosis in 193 camels (49 male and 144 female) from 8 geographical localities of northern, Tanzania were carried out during the period of June-August 2010. The evaluation was carried out using Giemsa stained microscopy examination of blood smear. The overall detected prevalence of camel trypanosomosis was 8.2% with highest prevalence in Kilindi district...

  13. Accurate automated leucocyte differential counts despite profound leucopenia.

    OpenAIRE

    Kinsey, S E; Watts, M. J.

    1988-01-01

    The differential white cell counts produced by the Technicon H*1 Autoanalyser in profoundly leucopenic specimens were compared with those carried out by manual differential counting by light microscopy of peripheral blood smears stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain. The correlation achieved allowed the H*1 derived differential count to be reported with confidence.

  14. Diagnóstico presuntivo de histoplasmosis en un frotis sanguíneo / Presumptive diagnosis of histoplasmosis in a blood smear / Diagnóstico presuntivo de histoplasmose em um esfregaço de sangue

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Agustina Daniela, Tkach; Jorge Daniel, Moreno; Amadeo Javier, Bava.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Comunica-se o diagnóstico de um caso de histoplasmose associada à AIDS, de uma microscopia de extensão sanguínea realizada por ocasião do processamento de uma amostra enviada ao laboratório para um estudo hematológico. A extensão, fixada com metanol e corada com solução de Giemsa a 10%, revelou com [...] objetivo de 100X, estruturas leveduriformes de 2-4 µ diâmetro dentro de células leucocitárias do sangue, com a típica coloração em tampão e a presença de um halo claro periférico, os quais caracterizam microscopicamente a Histoplasma capsulatum. Em seguida, para confirmar o achado micológico, foi corada a mesma preparação com a técnica de Grocott, que mostrou leveduras de cor parda, dentro dos leucócitos sanguíneos. O paciente clínica e imunologicamente deteriorado ( Abstract in spanish Se comunica el diagnóstico de un caso de histoplasmosis asociada al SIDA a partir de la microscopía de un extendido hemático realizado en oportunidad del procesamiento de una muestra enviada al laboratorio para un estudio hematológico. El extendido, fijado con metanol y teñido con solución de Giemsa [...] al 10% reveló, con objetivo de 100X, estructuras levaduriformes de 2-4 µ de diámetro dentro de las células leucocitarias sanguíneas, con la típica tinción en casquete y la presencia de un halo claro periférico, que caracterizan microscópicamente a Histoplasma capsulatum. Luego, para confirmar el hallazgo micológico, se procedió a teñir el mismo preparado con la técnica de Grocott, la cual puso de manifiesto levaduras de color pardo, dentro de los leucocitos sanguíneos. El paciente, deteriorado clínica e inmunológicamente ( Abstract in english A case of AIDS-associated histoplasmosis diagnosed by microscopy from a blood smear performed during a hematologic study was reported. The smear, fixed with methanol and stained with 10% Giemsa solution, revealed with a 100X objective, 2-4 µ-diameter yeast - like structures within the leuMicrobiolog [...] ía contakocytes, showing a typical staining in cap and a peripheral clear halo, characteristic of Histoplasma capsulatum. To confirm the mycological finding, the same smear was stained with the Grocott technique, showing brownish yeasts in the leucocytes. The patient, clinically deteriorated and with advanced immunological disorder (

  15. Description of dogs naturally infected with Hepatozoon canis in the Aegean region of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    PA?A, Serdar; KIRAL, Funda; Karagenç, Tülin; ATASOY, Abidin; SEYREK, Kamil

    2009-01-01

    Clinical and laboratory findings recorded in 10 dogs naturally infected with Hepatozoon canis in the Aegean region of Turkey were reported. The diagnosis was made by finding H. canis gamonts within leucocytes in Giemsa-stained blood smears. H. canis parasitaemia level was calculated manually by counting 500 neutrophils in blood smears. Parasitaemia varied from 1% to 23% of the circulating neutrophils. Anorexia, fever, depression, weight loss, and lymphadenopathy are the main clinical signs in...

  16. Borrelia sp. in naturally infected Didelphis aurita (Wied, 1826) (marsupialia: didelphidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Isis dos Santos Abel; Denclair Escobar de Almeida Junior; Adivaldo Henrique da Fonseca; Cleber Oliveira Soares; Márcia Mayumi Ishikawa

    2000-01-01

    Fifty-six opossums (Didelphis aurita) were captured on the campus of Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica county, Rio de Janeiro state, in order to investigate the occurrence of Borrelia sp among them in relation with the study of spirochaetemia and its ectoparasites. Blood tests were made through dark field and phase contrast microscopy, as well as the obtainment of blood smears. Smears were stained with Giemsa stain, which did not prove efficacy. There was no relation be...

  17. Smear layer in endodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Živkovi? Slavoljub; Brkani? Tatjana; Da?i? Dragoslav; Opa?i? Vanja; Pavlovi? Violeta; Medojevi? Milica

    2005-01-01

    Modern methods of root canal cleaning and filing are causing formation of the smear layer on treated surfaces. The aim of this paper was to review clinical aspect of smear layer in endodontics. Smear layer is the consequence of instrumentation of root canal walls and is consisted of organic and inorganic particles of cut dentine, necrotic and/or vital pulp fragments, microorganisms and their products. Existence of smear layer is affecting permeability of the radicular dentine, thus decreasing...

  18. The use of fluorescence enhancement to improve the microscopic diagnosis of falciparum malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Paul

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giemsa staining of thick blood smears remains the "gold standard" for detecting malaria. However, this method is not very good for diagnosing low-level infections. A method for the simultaneous staining of Plasmodium-parasitized culture and blood smears for both bright field and fluorescence was developed and its ability to improve detection efficiency tested. Methods A total of 22 nucleic acid-specific fluorescent dyes were tested for their ability to provide easily observable staining of Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized red blood cells following Giemsa staining. Results Of the 14 dyes that demonstrated intense fluorescence staining, only SYBR Green 1, YOYO-1 and ethidum homodimer-2 could be detected using fluorescent microscopy, when cells were first stained with Giemsa. Giemsa staining was not effective when applied after the fluorescent dyes. SYBR Green 1 provided the best staining in the presence of Giemsa, as a very high percentage of the parasitized cells were simultaneously stained. When blood films were screened using fluorescence microscopy the parasites were more readily detectable due to the sharp contrast between the dark background and the specific, bright fluorescence produced by the parasites. Conclusion The dual staining method reported here allows fluorescence staining, which enhances the reader's ability to detect parasites under low parasitaemia conditions, coupled with the ability to examine the same cell under bright field conditions to detect the characteristic morphology of Plasmodium species that is observed with Giemsa staining.

  19. Blood parasites in passerine birds from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Hemoparasitos em passeriformes da Mata Atlântica Brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Sebaio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Parasites may lead bird species to extinction, affect host temporal and spatial population dynamics, alter community structure and alter individuals’ social status. We evaluated blood parasite prevalence and intensity according to bird families and species, among 925 birds that were caught in 2000 and 2001, in the Atlantic Forest in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. We applied Giemsa staining to thin blood smears, to detect blood parasites. The birds (n = 15.8% in 11 families, were infected by at least one parasite genus, especially Muscicapidae (28.3% and Conopophagidae (25%. Among the 146 infected birds, Plasmodium was detected in all bird families and had the highest prevalence (54.8%. Trypanosoma, Haemoproteus and microfilaria had lower prevalence rates (23.3, 23.3 and 2.1%, respectively. Birds caught during the rainy season were more infected than birds caught during the dry season. The overall low prevalence of blood parasites in birds is similar to the patterns found elsewhere in the Neotropical region.Parasitos podem levar espécies de aves à extinção, afetar as dinâmicas temporais e espaciais dos hospedeiros, alterar a estrutura de comunidades e o status social de indivíduos. Avaliou-se a prevalência e a intensidade de parasitos em famílias e espécies de 925 aves capturadas, entre 2000 e 2001, na Mata Atlântica de Minas Gerais. Foram coradas com Giemsa extensões de sangue para detectar parasitos hematozoários. As aves (n= 15,8% 11 famílias estavam infectadas por pelo menos um gênero de parasito, especialmente Muscicapidae (28,3% e Conopophagidae (25%. Entre as 146 aves infectadas, Plasmodium foi detectado em todas as famílias e possuiu a maior prevalência (54,8%. Trypanosoma,Haemoproteus e microfilaria possuíram baixas prevalências (23,3, 23,3 e 2,1%, respectivamente. Aves capturadasdurante a estação chuvosa estavam mais infectadas do que aves capturadas durante a estação seca. A baixa prevalência geral de parasitos do sangue das aves é semelhante aos padrões encontrados em outras localidades da região Neotropical.

  20. Blood parasites in passerine birds from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest / Hemoparasitos em passeriformes da Mata Atlântica Brasileira

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabiane, Sebaio; Érika Martins, Braga; Felipe, Branquinho; Alan, Fecchio; Miguel Ângelo, Marini.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Parasitos podem levar espécies de aves à extinção, afetar as dinâmicas temporais e espaciais dos hospedeiros, alterar a estrutura de comunidades e o status social de indivíduos. Avaliou-se a prevalência e a intensidade de parasitos em famílias e espécies de 925 aves capturadas, entre 2000 e 2001, na [...] Mata Atlântica de Minas Gerais. Foram coradas com Giemsa extensões de sangue para detectar parasitos hematozoários. As aves (n= 15,8%) 11 famílias estavam infectadas por pelo menos um gênero de parasito, especialmente Muscicapidae (28,3%) e Conopophagidae (25%). Entre as 146 aves infectadas, Plasmodium foi detectado em todas as famílias e possuiu a maior prevalência (54,8%). Trypanosoma,Haemoproteus e microfilaria possuíram baixas prevalências (23,3, 23,3 e 2,1%, respectivamente). Aves capturadasdurante a estação chuvosa estavam mais infectadas do que aves capturadas durante a estação seca. A baixa prevalência geral de parasitos do sangue das aves é semelhante aos padrões encontrados em outras localidades da região Neotropical. Abstract in english Parasites may lead bird species to extinction, affect host temporal and spatial population dynamics, alter community structure and alter individuals’ social status. We evaluated blood parasite prevalence and intensity according to bird families and species, among 925 birds that were caught in 2000 a [...] nd 2001, in the Atlantic Forest in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. We applied Giemsa staining to thin blood smears, to detect blood parasites. The birds (n = 15.8%) in 11 families, were infected by at least one parasite genus, especially Muscicapidae (28.3%) and Conopophagidae (25%). Among the 146 infected birds, Plasmodium was detected in all bird families and had the highest prevalence (54.8%). Trypanosoma, Haemoproteus and microfilaria had lower prevalence rates (23.3, 23.3 and 2.1%, respectively). Birds caught during the rainy season were more infected than birds caught during the dry season. The overall low prevalence of blood parasites in birds is similar to the patterns found elsewhere in the Neotropical region.

  1. Smear layer in endodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živkovi? Slavoljub

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern methods of root canal cleaning and filing are causing formation of the smear layer on treated surfaces. The aim of this paper was to review clinical aspect of smear layer in endodontics. Smear layer is the consequence of instrumentation of root canal walls and is consisted of organic and inorganic particles of cut dentine, necrotic and/or vital pulp fragments, microorganisms and their products. Existence of smear layer is affecting permeability of the radicular dentine, thus decreasing effects of canal medicaments and impairing adhesion of obturation materials in root canal. Removal of the smear layer from canal walls is possible with use of various chemical agents, ultrasonic or laser techniques. Regardless to contradictory attitudes and opinions, removing the smear layer is required for possible bacterial contamination, compromised effects of root canal medication and in order to obtain better obturation of canals 'system. .

  2. Comparação de nested-PCR com o diagnóstico direto na detecção de Ehrlichia canis e Anaplasma platys em cães / Comparison of nested-PCR with blood smear examination in detection of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys in dogs

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos A. N., Ramos; Rafael A. N., Ramos; Flábio R., Araújo; Daniel S., Guedes Jr; Ingrid I. F., Souza; Tatiana M., Ono; Anahi S., Vieira; Danillo S., Pimentel; Eduardo O., Rosas; Maria A. G., Faustino; Leucio C., Alves.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Os sinais clínicos das infecções por Ehrlichia canis e Anaplasma platys são similares, e o diagnóstico desses patógenos feito por esfregaços sanguíneos corados é difícil devido à sensibilidade e especificidade. Por outro lado, os diagnósticos moleculares são altamente sensíveis e específicos, e nest [...] ed-PCRs têm sido otimizadas para o diagnóstico preciso desses patógenos em cães. Em um Hospital Veterinário Escola, amostras de sangue total com EDTA foram obtidas de 100 cães, e esfregaços foram feitos das amostras de sangue para busca dos parasitos intracelulares. Para cada amostra, DNA foi extraído e submetido à nPCR para detecção de E. canis e A. platys. Os resultados dos esfregaços sanguíneos mostraram que 9% dos animais foram positivos para E. canis e 21% para A. platys. Com relação à nPCR, 57 e 55% dos cães foram positivos para E. canis e A. platys, respectivamente. Quando comparados com a nPCR, os esfregaços sanguíneos corados revelaram resultados falso-negativos para E. canis e A. platys. Os resultados indicam que a nPCR é altamente sensível e específica para detecção de ambos os patógenos, e os diagnósticos moleculares podem ser mais úteis nos Hospitais Veterinários. Abstract in english The clinical signs of Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys infection are similar, and the diagnosis of these pathogens made by stained blood smears is poor due sensibility and specificity. On the other hand, the molecular diagnosis is highly sensitive and specific and nested-PCR have been optimized [...] for accurate diagnosis these pathogens in dogs. At the veterinary teaching hospital, whole-blood samples with EDTA were obtained from 100 dogs and smears were made from blood samples for evaluation for intracellular parasites. For each sample, DNA was extracted and submitted to nPCR analysis for detection of E. canis and A. platys. The results of stained blood smears showed 9% of the animals were positive for E. canis and 21% for A. platys. Regarding of nPCR analysis, 57 and 55% of dogs were positive for E. canis and A. platys respectively. As compared to a nested PCR, the stained blood smears revealed false-negative results for both E. canis and A. platys. The results indicate that the nPCR is highly sensitive and specific for detection of both pathogens and the molecular diagnosis could be more useful at veterinary hospital.

  3. Evaluation of buffalo semen by Trypan blue/Giemsa staining and related fertility in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    B. Gasparrini; Mariotti, E.; L. Attanasio; De Rosa, A.; R. Di Palo; Boccia, L.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to verify the feasibility of an easy, quick double staining technique for evaluation of frozen-thawed semen to predict the fertilizing capability in vitro of buffalo bulls. In Experiment 1, frozen-thawed semen from 6 bulls was stained with double Trypan blue/ Giemsa and the incidence of acrosome-intact live (AIL), acrosome-intact dead (AID), acrosome-lost live (ALL) and acrosome-lost dead (ALD) sperm was recorded. In Experiment 2, sperm from the same bulls were used t...

  4. Evaluation of buffalo semen by Trypan blue/Giemsa staining and related fertility in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gasparrini

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to verify the feasibility of an easy, quick double staining technique for evaluation of frozen-thawed semen to predict the fertilizing capability in vitro of buffalo bulls. In Experiment 1, frozen-thawed semen from 6 bulls was stained with double Trypan blue/ Giemsa and the incidence of acrosome-intact live (AIL, acrosome-intact dead (AID, acrosome-lost live (ALL and acrosome-lost dead (ALD sperm was recorded. In Experiment 2, sperm from the same bulls were used to fertilize in vitro matured oocytes. The data obtained confirm that there is a strong “bull effect” in buffalo species, with differences in the percentage of AIL sperm at thawing, in cleavage and blastocyst rates among bulls. Interestingly, it was found that this staining technique can be used for a preliminary screening to select semen to use for IVF, as shown by the correlation existent between the percentages of acrosome-intact viable sperm cells at thawing and the blastocyst yields for 4/6 bulls.

  5. In vitro isolation of equine piroplasms derived from Cape Mountain zebra ( Equus zebra zebra) in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Zweygarth, Erich; Meyer, P; Lopez-Rebollar, Laura M.

    2002-01-01

    Twenty blood samples of zebras ( Equus zebra zebra) from the Karoo National Park and the Bontebok National Park in South Africa, all seropositive for Theileria equi, were subjected to in vitro culture to identify carrier animals and to isolate the parasites. Sixteen animals had a detectable parasitaemia in Giemsa-stained blood smears examined before culture initiation, the remaining four animals were identified as T. equi carriers by in vitro culture. Cultures were initiated either in an oxyg...

  6. Asymptomatic carriage of plasmodium in urban Dakar: the risk of malaria should not be underestimated

    OpenAIRE

    Diallo, Abdoulaye; Tuikue Ndam, Nicaise; Moussiliou, Azizath; Dos Santos, Stéphanie; Ndonky, Alphousseyni; Borderon, Marion; Sébastien OLIVEAU; Lalou, Richard; Le Hesran, Jean-Yves

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to measure the rate of asymptomatic carriage of plasmodium in the Dakar region two years after the implementation of new strategies in clinical malaria management. Methodology Between October and December 2008, 2952 households selected in 50 sites of Dakar area, were visited for interviews and blood sampling. Giemsa-stained thick blood smears (TBS) were performed for microscopy in asymptomatic adult women and children aged 2 to 10 years. To ensure ...

  7. Prevalence of Hemoprotozoan Diseases in Cattle Population of Chittagong Division, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Abdul Alim*, Shubhagata Das, Krisna Roy§, Md. Masuduzzaman, Suchandan Sikder1, Mohammad Mahmudul Hassan2, A. Z. Siddiki and Mohammad Alamgir Hossain

    2012-01-01

    A one year (2009-10) prevalence study on hemoprotozoan diseases was conducted in crossbred and indigenous cattle, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Blood samples were collected randomly from 216 crossbred and 432 indigenous cattle of four representative areas in three consecutive seasons. Samples were examined by Giemsa's stained blood smear method. The effect of topography, season, age and sex was observed in cattle during this study. The overall prevalence of hemoprotozoan diseases was 16.18 and 12.0...

  8. Prevalence of hemoprotozoan diseases in cattle population of chittagong division, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Alim, Md. Abdul; Das, Shubhagata; Roy, Krisna; Masuduzzaman, Md.; Sikder, Suchandan; Hassan, Mohammad Mahmudul; Siddiki, A. Z.; Hossain, Mohammad Alamgir

    2012-01-01

    A one year (2009-10) prevalence study on hemoprotozoan diseases was conducted in crossbred and indigenous cattle, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Blood samples were collected randomly from 216 crossbred and 432 indigenous cattle of four representative areas in three consecutive seasons. Samples were examined by Giemsa's stained blood smear method. The effect of topography, season, age and sex was observed in cattle during this study. The overall prevalence of hemoprotozoan diseases was 16.18 and 12.0...

  9. Prevalence of hemoprotozoan diseases in cattle population of chittagong division, Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alim, Md. Abdul; Das, Shubhagata; Roy, Krisna; Masuduzzaman, Md.; Sikder, Suchandan; Hassan, Mohammad Mahmudul; Siddiki, A. Z.; Hossain, Mohammad Alamgir

    2012-01-01

    A one year (2009-10) prevalence study on hemoprotozoan diseases was conducted in crossbred and indigenous cattle, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Blood samples were collected randomly from 216 crossbred and 432 indigenous cattle of four representative areas in three consecutive seasons. Samples were examined by Giemsa's stained blood smear method. The effect of topography, season, age and sex was observed in cattle during this study. The overall prevalence of hemoprotozoan diseases was 16.18 and 12.02% ...

  10. Intravascular hemolysis associated with Candidatus Mycoplasma hematoparvum in a non-splenectomized dog in the south region of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Sharifiyazdi, Hassan; Abbaszadeh Hasiri, Mohammad; Amini, Amin Hosein

    2014-01-01

    A 2-year-old male Pekingese dog was referred to Shiraz University’s Veterinary Teaching Hospital for anorexia and depression. The case had no history of surgery. Physical examination revealed no abnormalities except mild depression and fever. Small, coccoid, epicellular bacteria were detected on erythrocytes by microscopic examination of the Giemsa-stained blood smears. Abnormalities noted in the complete blood count included regenerative anemia characterized by a marked reticulocytosis. Exam...

  11. Small bowel tissue smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small bowel tissue smear is a lab test that checks for disease in a sample of tissue from the small intestine. ... 142. Giannella RA. Infectious enteritis and proctocolitis and bacterial food poisoning. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt ...

  12. Concordancia entre gota gruesa, inmunocromatografía y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa para el diagnóstico de malaria / Concordance between thick blood smear, immunochromatography and polymerase chain reaction for malaria diagnosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Astrid Elena, Montoya; José, Menco; Natalia, Osorio; María Alejandra, Zuluaga; Juliana, Duque; Giovanny, Torres; Marcos, Restrepo.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El diagnóstico oportuno y efectivo del paludismo, o malaria, son condiciones determinantes para hacer un tratamiento adecuado de la enfermedad y un control de la misma. Objetivo. Se evaluó la concordancia de la sensibilidad, especificidad, valor diagnóstico positivo y negativo de una p [...] rueba rápida y de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR), con la prueba estándar, la gota gruesa, para el diagnóstico de la malaria. Materiales y métodos. Se analizó una población de 100 pacientes con signos y síntomas indicativos de paludismo, procedentes de las zonas de Urabá, Córdoba, Bajo Cauca y de otras regiones de Colombia, como Valle, Chocó y Vichada, todas áreas endémicas de la enfermedad. A cada paciente se le practicó una gota gruesa, la prueba rápida OptiMAL® y la amplificación a través de una PCR de secuencias de ADN específicas para género y para Plasmodium falciparum y Plasmodium vivax. Resultados. La sensibilidad de la prueba rápida frente a la gota gruesa, para el diagnóstico de ambas especies de Plasmodium fue de 93,85% (IC95% 87,23-100) y la especificidad de 94,29% (IC95% 85,17-100). La PCR comparada con la gota gruesa mostró una sensibilidad de 100% (IC95% 99,23-100) y una especificidad de 97,14% (IC95% 90,19-100). Conclusiones. Estos hallazgos muestran que la sensibilidad y especificidad de la prueba rápida y la PCR para el diagnóstico de malaria son comparables con el examen al microscopio de la gota gruesa, recomendada por su eficacia y bajo costo. Abstract in english Introduction. The rapid and effective diagnosis of malaria is the determining condition for an appropriate treatment and control of the disease. Objective. The sensitivity, specificity and the positive and negative predictive values were evaluated in cases of suspected malaria in Colombia in a compa [...] rison of a rapid diagnostic test. the PCR test and the thick blood smear-the traditional ‘gold standard.’ Materials and methods. A group of 100 patients with symptoms compatible with malaria, were included in the study. They were selected from the following Colombian regions: Urabá, Córdoba, lower Cauca, and relatively fewer from other malaria endemic areas of Colombia including the provinces of Valle, Chocó in the central west of Colombia and Vichada to the east. To each patient the following three tests were performed: the rapid OptiMAL® test, the PCR identification and the thick blood smear. The PCR amplified specific DNA sequences with primers designed to identify the genus Plasmodium, and the two species present in Colombia, P. falciparum and P. vivax. Results. The sensitivity of the rapid test versus the thick smear, for the diagnosis of both species of Plasmodium was 93.9% (95% CI: 87-100%) and the specificity was 94.3% (95% CI:.253 85-100%). The PCR compared with the thick smear showed a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 99-100%) and a specificity of 97.1% (95% CI: 90-100%). Conclusions. The sensitivity and specificity of the three tests did not present statistically significant differences. However, the thick blood smear was recommended as the standard test, mainly due to its low cost.

  13. Concordancia entre gota gruesa, inmunocromatografía y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa para el diagnóstico de malaria Concordance between thick blood smear, immunochromatography and polymerase chain reaction for malaria diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Restrepo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Introducción. El diagnóstico oportuno y efectivo del paludismo, o malaria, son condiciones determinantes para hacer un tratamiento adecuado de la enfermedad y un control de la misma.
    Objetivo. Se evaluó la concordancia de la sensibilidad, especificidad, valor diagnóstico positivo y negativo de una prueba rápida y de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR, con la prueba estándar, la gota gruesa, para el diagnóstico de la malaria.
    Materiales y métodos. Se analizó una población de 100 pacientes con signos y síntomas indicativos de paludismo, procedentes de las zonas de Urabá, Córdoba, Bajo Cauca y de otras regiones de Colombia, como Valle, Chocó y Vichada, todas áreas endémicas de la enfermedad.
    A cada paciente se le practicó una gota gruesa, la prueba rápida OptiMAL® y la amplificación a través de una PCR de secuencias de ADN específicas para género y paraPlasmodium falciparum y Plasmodium vivax.
    Resultados. La sensibilidad de la prueba rápida frente a la gota gruesa, para el diagnóstico de ambas especies de Plasmodium fue de 93,85% (IC95% 87,23-100 y la especificidad de 94,29% (IC95% 85,17-100.
    La PCR comparada con la gota gruesa mostró una sensibilidad de 100% (IC95% 99,23-100 y una especificidad de 97,14% (IC95% 90,19-100.
    Conclusiones. Estos hallazgos muestran que la sensibilidad y especificidad de la prueba rápida y la PCR para el diagnóstico de malaria son comparables con el examen al microscopio de la gota gruesa, recomendada por su eficacia y bajo costo.

    Introduction. The rapid and effective diagnosis of malaria is the determining condition for an appropriate treatment and control of the disease.
    Objective. The sensitivity, specificity and the positive and negative predictive values were evaluated in cases of suspected malaria in Colombia in a comparison of a rapid diagnostic test. the PCR test and the thick blood smear-the traditional gold standard.
    Materials and methods. A group of 100 patients with symptoms compatible with malaria, were included in the study. They were selected from the following Colombian regions: Urabá, Córdoba, lower Cauca, and relatively fewer from other malaria endemic areas of Colombia including the provinces of Valle, Chocó in the central west of Colombia and Vichada to the east. To each patient the following three tests were performed: the rapid OptiMAL® test, the PCR identification and the thick blood smear. The PCR amplified specific DNA sequences with primers designed to identify the genus Plasmodium, and the two species present in Colombia, P. falciparum and P. vivax.
    Results. The sensitivity of the rapid test versus the thick smear, for the diagnosis of both species of Plasmodium was 93.9% (95% CI: 87-100% and the specificity was 94.3% (95% CI:.253 85-100%. The PCR compared with the thick smear showed a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 99-100% and a specificity of 97.1% (95% CI: 90-100%.
    Conclusions. The sensitivity and specificity of the three tests did not present statistically significant differences. However, the thick blood smear was recommended as the standard test, mainly due to its low cost.

  14. A Case of Plasmodium ovale wallikeri Infection in a Chinese Worker Returning from West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuchun; Wang, Guangze; Sun, Dingwei; Meng, Feng; Lin, Shigan; Hu, Ximin; Wang, Shanqing

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to the gradual reduction in the number of locally transmitted malaria cases in China, the number of imported malaria cases has been increasing since 2008. Here, we report a case of a 39-year-old Chinese man who acquired Plasmodium ovale wallikeri infection while staying in Ghana, West Africa for 6 months in 2012. Microscopic examinations of Giemsa-stained thin and thick blood smears indicated Plasmodium vivax infection. However, the results of rapid diagnostic tests, which were co...

  15. Clinicopathological findings in dogs naturally infected dogs with Babesia

    OpenAIRE

    Egon Andoni; Dhimiter Rapti; Rezart Postoli; Elenica Dimco; Jeta Abeshi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the clinicopathological findings in dogs naturally infected with Babesia. During the period of February 2011-February 2012 twenty-nine cases of Babesia Canis were diagnosed in the clinic of Small Animal at the Veterinary Faculty of Tirana. The animal was considered infected when pear shaped babesia was observed inside infected erythrocytes in Wright-Giemsa stained blood smears. The animal stay for one week in our clinic and during this period we evaluated ...

  16. Camel trypanosomosis in the Canary Islands: assessment of seroprevalence and infection rates using the card agglutination test (CATT/T. evansi) and parasite detection tests

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez, C; Juste, M. C.; Corbera, J. A.; Magnus, E; Verloo, D.; Montoya, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    Trypanosomosis due to Trypanosoma evansi (surra) is a major enzootic disease of the dromedary camel. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to assess seroprevalence and infection rates in the Canary Islands using antibody(-card agglutination test-CATT/T. evansi) and parasite detection tests (micro-Haematocrit Centrifugation technique, Giemsa stained blood smears, microscopic examination of lymph node aspirates and mouse inoculation). PCV was also determined. 745 dromedary camels (483 fema...

  17. Intralesional autotherapy of cutaneous leishmaniasis with buffy coat cells: cytological findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabiri, S; Meymandi, S S; Hayes, M M; Soleimani, F; Kharazmi, A

    2000-01-01

    The skin lesions of five patient volunteers with dry-type cutaneous leishmaniasis were treated by intralesional injection of auto-leukocytes prepared from buffy coat of the patient's own blood. Giemsa stained, air-dried cytological smear preparations were prepared from scrapings taken from the margins of the lesions. The cellular interaction between the organism and the inflammatory response of the host was studied. All lesions showed clinical evidence of regression. The cytological findings sug...

  18. Flow cytometric readout based on Mitotracker Red CMXRos staining of live asexual blood stage malarial parasites reliably assesses antibody dependent cellular inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jogdand Prajakta S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional in vitro assays could provide insights into the efficacy of malaria vaccine candidates. For estimating the anti-parasite effect induced by a vaccine candidate, an accurate determination of live parasite count is an essential component of most in vitro bioassays. Although traditionally parasites are counted microscopically, a faster, more accurate and less subjective method for counting parasites is desirable. In this study mitochondrial dye (Mitotracker Red CMXRos was used for obtaining reliable live parasite counts through flow cytometry. Methods Both asynchronous and tightly synchronized asexual blood stage cultures of Plasmodium falciparum were stained with CMXRos and subjected to detection by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. The parasite counts obtained by flow cytometry were compared to standard microscopic counts obtained through examination of Giemsa-stained thin smears. A comparison of the ability of CMXRos to stain live and compromised parasites (induced by either medium starvation or by anti-malarial drug treatment was carried out. Finally, parasite counts obtained by CMXRos staining through flow cytometry were used to determine specific growth inhibition index (SGI in an antibody-dependent cellular inhibition (ADCI assay. Results Mitotracker Red CMXRos can reliably detect live intra-erythrocytic stages of P. falciparum. Comparison between staining of live with compromised parasites shows that CMXRos predominantly stains live parasites with functional mitochondria. Parasite counts obtained by CMXRos staining and flow cytometry were highly reproducible and can reliably determine the ability of IgG from hyper-immune individuals to inhibit parasite growth in presence of monocytes in ADCI assay. Further, a dose-dependent parasite growth inhibitory effect could be detected for both total IgG purified from hyper-immune sera and affinity purified IgGs against the N-terminal non-repeat region of GLURP in ADCI assays coupled with determination of parasite counts through CMXRos staining and flow cytometry. Conclusions A flow cytometry method based on CMXRos staining for detection of live parasite populations has been optimized. This is a rapid and sensitive method with high inter-assay reproducibility which can reliably determine the anti-parasite effect mediated by antibodies in functional in vitro assays such as ADCI assay.

  19. Leukocytes Detection, Classification and Counting in Smears of Peripheral Blood / Detección, Clasificación y Conteo de Leucocitos en Frotis de Sangre Periférica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., Martínez-Castro; S., Reyes-Cadena; E., Felipe-Riverón.

    Full Text Available Mediante un clasificador k-NN en combinación con la primera métrica de Minkowski y técnicas de procesamiento digital de imágenes, se desarrolló un sistema computacional independiente de la plataforma, capaz de identificar, clasificar y contar cinco formas normales de leucocitos: neutrófilos, eosinóf [...] ilos, basófilos, monocitos y linfocitos. Es importante enfatizar que este trabajo no intenta diferenciar entre muestras de leucocitos provenientes de gente sana y enferma, debido a que la mayoría de las enfermedades se detectan principalmente por un cambio en el conteo diferencial de leucocitos más que por cambios en su forma. Finalmente, el contador de leucocitos puede ser usado en áreas emergentes como la hematología topográfica y la cronobiología. Abstract in english Using the k-NN classifier in combination with the first Minkowski metric, in addition to techniques of digital image processing, we developed a computational system platform-independent, which is able to identify, to classify and to count five normal types of leukocytes: neutrophils, eosinophils, ba [...] sophils, monocytes and lymphocytes. It is important to emphasize that this work does not attempt to diferentiate between smears of leukocytes coming from healthy and sick people; this is because most diseases produce a change in the differential count of leukocytes rather than in theirs forms. In the other side, the system could be used in emerging areas such as the topographic hematology and the chronobiology.

  20. Smudge cells in peripheral blood smears did not differentiate chronic lymphocytic leukemia from other B-cell chronic lymphoprolipherative diseases Sombras nucleares no esfregaço do sangue periférico não diferenciam a leucemia linfocítica crônica das outras doenças linfoproliferativas B crônicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. Matos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Smudge cells has been classically associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, but they are found in peripheral blood tests for other chronic B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases (CLD. We investigated whether the percentage of smudge cells in peripheral blood smears can be used in the clinical practice to differentiate CLL from other B-cell CLD. The peripheral blood smears of 63 patients with the diagnosis of CLL and 62 with other B-cell CLD were analyzed. Three hundred cells (both lymphoid cells and smudge cells were counted for each peripheral blood smear. A comparison of the percentage of smudge cells between the two groups was performed and, subsequently, 5 cut-off values were fixed (10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of smudge cells with the aim of defining cases as "positive" or "negative" for smudge cells and verifying whether there are any differences between CLL and the other B-cell CLD. The percentage of smudge cells in patients with CLL (median 26%, 4%-86% was higher than in patients with B-cell CLD (median 14%, 1%-64%. However, none of the cut-off values tested presented suitable values of sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value to separate the two groups. As it is necessary to have a single cut-off value with high sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value to infer the diagnosis of CLL in the clinical practice, we concluded that smudge cells are not fitting to differentiate CLL from other B-cell CLD.As sombras nucleares têm sido classicamente associadasà leucemia linfocítica crônica (LLC, embora possam ser encontradas nos esfregaços do sangue periférico de outras doenças linfoproliferativas B crônicas (DLBC. Nesse estudo, nós investigamos se a porcentagem de sombras nucleares nos esfregaços do sangue periférico pode ser utilizada na prática clínica da hematologia para diferenciar a LLC das outras DLBC. Foram analisados os esfregaços do sangue periférico de 63 pacientes com o diagnóstico de LLC e 62 com outras DLPC. Trezentas células, entre células linfoides e sombras nucleares, foram contadas em cada esfregaço. A comparação da porcentagem de sombras nucleares entre os dois grupos foi realizada e, subsequentemente, foram fixados 5 cut-offs de mais de 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% e 50% de sombras nucleares com o propósito de definir um caso como "positivo para sombras nucleares" e verificar se havia diferenças entre a LLC e as outras DLBC. A porcentagem das sombras nucleares em pacientes com LLC (mediana 26%, 4%-86% foi maior do que em pacientes com DLBC (mediana 14%, 1%-64%. Entretanto, nenhum dos cut-offs testados apresentou valores apropriados de sensibilidade, especificidade e valor preditivo positivo para distinguir os dois grupos. Desde queé necessário se dispor de um único valor de cut-off com alta sensibilidade, especificidade e valor preditivo positivo para inferir o diagnóstico de CLL na prática clínica, conclui-se que as sombras nucleares não são úteis para diferenciar a LLC das outras DLBC.

  1. Smudge cells in peripheral blood smears did not differentiate chronic lymphocytic leukemia from other B-cell chronic lymphoprolipherative diseases / Sombras nucleares no esfregaço do sangue periférico não diferenciam a leucemia linfocítica crônica das outras doenças linfoproliferativas B crônicas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniel M., Matos; Guilherme, Perini; Carlos, Kruzich; Eduardo M., Rego; Roberto P., Falcão.

    Full Text Available As sombras nucleares têm sido classicamente associadasà leucemia linfocítica crônica (LLC), embora possam ser encontradas nos esfregaços do sangue periférico de outras doenças linfoproliferativas B crônicas (DLBC). Nesse estudo, nós investigamos se a porcentagem de sombras nucleares nos esfregaços d [...] o sangue periférico pode ser utilizada na prática clínica da hematologia para diferenciar a LLC das outras DLBC. Foram analisados os esfregaços do sangue periférico de 63 pacientes com o diagnóstico de LLC e 62 com outras DLPC. Trezentas células, entre células linfoides e sombras nucleares, foram contadas em cada esfregaço. A comparação da porcentagem de sombras nucleares entre os dois grupos foi realizada e, subsequentemente, foram fixados 5 cut-offs de mais de 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% e 50% de sombras nucleares com o propósito de definir um caso como "positivo para sombras nucleares" e verificar se havia diferenças entre a LLC e as outras DLBC. A porcentagem das sombras nucleares em pacientes com LLC (mediana 26%, 4%-86%) foi maior do que em pacientes com DLBC (mediana 14%, 1%-64%). Entretanto, nenhum dos cut-offs testados apresentou valores apropriados de sensibilidade, especificidade e valor preditivo positivo para distinguir os dois grupos. Desde queé necessário se dispor de um único valor de cut-off com alta sensibilidade, especificidade e valor preditivo positivo para inferir o diagnóstico de CLL na prática clínica, conclui-se que as sombras nucleares não são úteis para diferenciar a LLC das outras DLBC. Abstract in english Smudge cells has been classically associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), but they are found in peripheral blood tests for other chronic B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases (CLD). We investigated whether the percentage of smudge cells in peripheral blood smears can be used in the clinica [...] l practice to differentiate CLL from other B-cell CLD. The peripheral blood smears of 63 patients with the diagnosis of CLL and 62 with other B-cell CLD were analyzed. Three hundred cells (both lymphoid cells and smudge cells) were counted for each peripheral blood smear. A comparison of the percentage of smudge cells between the two groups was performed and, subsequently, 5 cut-off values were fixed (10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of smudge cells) with the aim of defining cases as "positive" or "negative" for smudge cells and verifying whether there are any differences between CLL and the other B-cell CLD. The percentage of smudge cells in patients with CLL (median 26%, 4%-86%) was higher than in patients with B-cell CLD (median 14%, 1%-64%). However, none of the cut-off values tested presented suitable values of sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value to separate the two groups. As it is necessary to have a single cut-off value with high sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value to infer the diagnosis of CLL in the clinical practice, we concluded that smudge cells are not fitting to differentiate CLL from other B-cell CLD.

  2. Diagnóstico de leishmaniosis visceral por frotis de sangre periférica. A propósito de un caso en Cojedes, Venezuela / Visceral leishmaniasis diagnosis for smear of peripheral blood. A case report from Cojedes, Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wladimir, Ochoa; Luis, Gutiérrez; Rafael, Guevara; Milagros, Oviedo; Lisbeth, Loaiza; Gilberto, Bastidas.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En Venezuela se conoce la existencia de Leishmaniosis visceral desde 1941, y desde 1990 se notifican en promedio 50 casos por año, en focos separados ubicados en el centro, oeste sur y este del país. La incidencia de Leishmaniosis visceral en el Estado Cojedes en Venezuela es baja, reportándose únic [...] amente tres casos en la década de 1998 al 2007. En este artículo, se informa el primer caso de Leishmaniosis visceral en adulto en este Estado, diagnosticado por demostración del parásito por frotis de sangre periférica. Se resalta, el tener la posibilidad de efectuar diagnóstico a partir de sangre periférica, como un método alternativo y menos invasivo en fase aguda, particularmente en regiones donde no se dispone de otras herramientas de escrutinio. Abstract in english In Venezuela, known to exist Visceral leishmaniasis since 1941, and since 1990 are reported on average 50 cases per year, separate sources located in central, west south and east of country. The incidence of visceral Leishmaniasis in Venezuela Cojedes state is low, being reported only three cases in [...] the decade 1998 to 2007. In this article, we reported the first case of visceral leishmaniasis in adult in this state, diagnosed by demonstration of the parasite by peripheral blood smear. Is highlighted, having the possibility of diagnosis from peripheral blood, as an alternative and less invasive in the acute phase, particularly in regions where there are no other screening tools.

  3. Complete Blood Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Formal name: Complete Blood Count Related tests: Blood Smear ; Hemoglobin ; Hematocrit ; Red Blood Cell Count ; White Blood ... HIV/AIDS ) Known as leukocytosis Infection , most commonly bacterial or viral Inflammation Leukemia , myeloproliferative disorders Allergies , asthma ...

  4. Prevalence of bovine theileriosis in North Central region of Algeria by real-time polymerase chain reaction with a note on its distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziam, Hocine; Kelanamer, Rabah; Aissi, Miriem; Ababou, Assia; Berkvens, Dirk; Geysen, Dirk

    2015-06-01

    To determine the presence and distribution of bovine theileriosis in the North Central region of Algeria, 358 DNA samples and 359 blood smears were analyzed from nine provinces. Theileria DNA extracted from cattle blood was amplified by fluorescence resonance energy transfer polymerase chain reaction (FRET-PCR). Blood smears were examined for Theileria piroplasms by microscopical examination (ME) of Giemsa-stained slides. While microscopical identification revealed only 42 animals being infected with Theileria piroplasms, PCR-positive amplification using Theileria genus-specific primers was obtained from 132 Theileria spp. (P?land use. PMID:25827097

  5. Ocorrência de apoptose em leucócitos no esfregaço de sangue periférico e em sincícios na infecção in vivo pelo vírus da cinomose canina / Occurrence of apoptosis in leukocytes in the peripheral blood smear and in syncytia in canine distemper infection in vivo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L., Moro; C.M., Alves; F.G.A., Santos; J.E.S., Nunes; R.A., Carneiro; A.C., Vasconcelos.

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english The aim of this paper is to report the occurrence of apoptosis in peripheral blood leukocytes and in syncytia induced by experimental infection of dogs with canine distemper virus. Blood was collected from nine puppies that were inoculated with the Snyder Hill strain of CDV, and stained with May Gru [...] nwaldt-Giemsa. Dogs were necropsied and retropharyngeal lymph nodes were collected and processed for paraffin embedding. Five micrometers thick sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and methyl green pyronin. Other sections were submitted to TUNEL reaction for in situ detection of apoptosis, and immunohistochemistry to detect CDV antigen. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of viral antigen. Syncytia were present in all retropharyngeal lymph nodes. Several syncytia contained apoptotic nuclei as detected by hematoxylin-eosin and methyl green pyronin stains. Apoptotic nuclei were labeled inside syncytia by the TUNEL reaction. Blood smear analyses indicated higher proportion of apoptotic leukocytes in the peripheral blood of infected dogs.

  6. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI, BIOPSY SAMPLES FROM DIFFERENT GASTRIC LESIONS WITH TRIPLE STAINING AND MODIFIED GIEMSA STAINING

    OpenAIRE

    Pavan Kumar Pindi

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori are associated with most of the disorders of gastro-duodenal tract, such as gastritis, gastric ulcers, dyspepsia and gastric carcinoma. Many staining methods have been developed for the detection of these bacteria from gastric biopsies. However most of the methods adopted were shown to be more expensive, less sensitive, time consuming with less background information. In view of this, the present study was carried out to check the validity of triple staining method against...

  7. Over-Improved Stout-Link Smearing

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Peter J.; Leinweber, Derek B

    2008-01-01

    A new over-improved stout-link smearing algorithm, designed to stabilise instanton-like objects, is presented. A method for quantifying the selection of the over-improvement parameter, $\\epsilon$, is demonstrated. The new smearing algorithm is compared with the original stout-link smearing, and Symanzik improved smearing through calculations of the topological charge and visualisations of the topological charge density.

  8. Debris removal in Pap-smear images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, Patrik; Balakrishnan, Byju N; Sujathan, Vilayil K; Kumar, Rajesh; Bengtsson, Ewert

    2013-07-01

    Since its introduction in the 1940s the Pap-smear test has helped reduce the incidence of cervical cancer dramatically in countries where regular screening is standard. The automation of this procedure is an open problem that has been ongoing for over fifty years without reaching satisfactory results. Existing systems are discouragingly expensive and yet they are only able to make a correct distinction between normal and abnormal samples in a fraction of cases. Therefore, they are limited to acting as support for the cytotechnicians as they perform their manual screening. The main reason for the current limitations is that the automated systems struggle to overcome the complexity of the cell structures. Samples are covered in artefacts such as blood cells, overlapping and folded cells, and bacteria, that hamper the segmentation processes and generate large number of suspicious objects. The classifiers designed to differentiate between normal cells and pre-cancerous cells produce unpredictable results when classifying artefacts. In this paper, we propose a sequential classification scheme focused on removing unwanted objects, debris, from an initial segmentation result, intended to be run before the actual normal/abnormal classifier. The method has been evaluated using three separate datasets obtained from cervical samples prepared using both the standard Pap-smear approach as well as the more recent liquid based cytology sample preparation technique. We show success in removing more than 99% of the debris without loosing more than around one percent of the epithelial cells detected by the segmentation process. PMID:23582663

  9. UV Suppression by Smearing and Screening Correlators

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Sourendu

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the mechanism of smearing in the APE, Stout, HYP and HEX schemes through their effect on glue and quark Fourier modes. Using this, we non-perturbatively tune the smearing parameters to their optimum values. Smearing causes a super-linear improvement in taste symmetry breaking in the high temperature phase of QCD. We use optimal smearing in the high temperature phase and find close agreement of meson screening masses with weak coupling predictions.

  10. Occurrence of Babesia species in captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegmann, Lisa; Silaghi, Cornelia; Obiegala, Anna; Karnath, Carolin; Langer, Sandra; Ternes, Kerstin; Kämmerling, Jens; Osmann, Christine; Pfeffer, Martin

    2015-06-30

    Two cases of acute babesiosis in captive reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in two German zoos in 2009 and 2012 triggered this study to investigate the occurrence and species diversity of Babesia parasites infecting reindeer in different zoos and deer parks in Germany. Between June and December 2013, blood samples were taken from 123 clinically inapparent reindeer from 16 different facilities. Samples were tested for the presence of Babesia species DNA by conventional PCR and sequence analysis of part of the 18S rRNA gene. Also, Giemsa-stained smears of reindeer blood samples were examined for parasitaemia by light microscopy. The overall PCR-prevalence in blood samples was 23.6% (n=29). Comparison of sequenced amplicons with GenBank entries possibly revealed up to five different Babesia species: B. venatorum (n=19), B. capreoli (n=2) and B. capreoli-like (n=4), B. odocoilei-like (n=2) and B. divergens (n=1), while one sample turned out to be a Theileria sp. Out of the 16 facilities in the study, 12 housed at least one positive animal. In Giemsa-stained blood smears, intra-erythrocytic Babesia parasites were detected in samples of three reindeer from three locations. The high prevalence of Babesia infections implicates babesiosis to be a relevant infectious disease threat for captive reindeer in Germany. Consequently, reindeer with clinical signs compatible to those of acute babesiosis should either be tested for the presence of Babesia spp. DNA or blood smears should be examined for parasitaemia. PMID:25986326

  11. First detection and molecular identification of Babesia gibsoni in two dogs from the Ayd?n Province of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    AYSUL, Nuran; URAL, Kerem; ULUTA?, Bülent; Eren, Hasan; Karagenç, Tülin

    2013-01-01

    Small (1-3 µm in diameter, ring, oval, or comma shaped) piroplasms suggestive of Babesia spp. were observed upon microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained peripheral blood smears from a 3.5-year-old American Pit Bull Terrier with clinical signs of pyrexia, weakness, mucous membrane pallor, and depression living in Ayd?n, Turkey, in February, 2009. To confirm the presence and to identify the species of Babesia spp., a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was performed using primers amplif...

  12. Isolation of Theileria taurotragi and Theileria mutans from cattle in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binta, M G; Losho, T; Allsopp, B A; Mushi, E Z

    1998-06-15

    Two Theileria species demonstrated in peripheral Giemsa-stained blood smears of sick cattle from various parts of Botswana were subsequently identified as Theileria mutans and T. taurotragi using DNA hybridization and the polymerase chain reaction. Initial screening for Theileria species was done using microscopy, the indirect fluorescent antibody technique and the micro Elisa test. The syndrome was characteristically that of high morbidity but low mortality and vague malaise. A low parasitaemia of pleomorphic intra-erythrocytic piroplasms and the absence of schizont stages in circulating lymphocytes and lymph node aspirates were evident. Dual infections were common and often complicated by intercurrent disease conditions. PMID:9746278

  13. Vector identification and clinical, hematological, biochemical, and parasitological characteristics of camel (Camelus dromedarius) theileriosis in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Shereen Youssef; Yasien, Safaa; Mousa, Waheed Mohamed Ali; Nasr, Soad Mohamed; El-Kelesh, Eman Ahmed Mohamed; Mahran, Khalid Mohamed; Abd-El-Rahman, Azza Hassan

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of the present study were to identify a possible tick vector and to determine the prevalence of camel theileriosis in Egypt using blood smears stained with Giemsa's stain and PCR assay. Hemogram and serum biochemical constituents were also investigated. A total of 243 camels, aged 3-5 years, were examined. The results revealed that 75 (30.86 %) camels were infected with Theileria spp. of Giemsa-stained blood smears. Hyalomma dromedarii was identified as the carrier tick of Theileria spp. Multinucleated sporoblast and free sporozoite were observed in the salivary gland smears from collecting ticks. PCR result revealed that Theileria annulata was the most abundant in camels (60 %) followed by Theileria spp. (10 %). Macrocytic hypochromic anemia was recorded in the infected camels with T. annulata. Leukocytosis, neutrophilia, eosinophilia, and lymphopenia were also observed in the infected group. In the serum of infected camels, total proteins, albumin, ?-globulin, and A/G ratio were significantly decreased (P?Theileria, indicating a role in transmission. Camels infected with T. annulata induced alterations in the cellular and biochemical constituents. PMID:25677167

  14. Locally-smeared operator product expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monahan, Christopher; Orginos, Kostantinos

    2014-12-01

    We propose a "locally-smeared Operator Product Expansion" (sOPE) to decompose non-local operators in terms of a basis of locally-smeared operators. The sOPE formally connects nonperturbative matrix elements of smeared degrees of freedom, determined numerically using the gradient flow, to non-local operators in the continuum. The nonperturbative matrix elements do not suffer from power-divergent mixing on the lattice, provided the smearing scale is kept fixed in the continuum limit. The presence of this smearing scale prevents a simple connection to the standard operator product expansion and therefore requires the construction of a two-scale formalism. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach using the example of real scalar field theory.

  15. Clinical and hematological study of canine Ehrlichiosis with other hemoprotozoan parasites in Kolkata, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Mousam; Konar, Sabyasachi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe other hemoprotozoan diseases with canine ehrlichiosis and to evaluate the clinical and hematological aspects of dogs naturally infected with ehrlichiosis with other hemoprotozoan diseases. Methods Blood was collected for hematological value and Giemsa stained blood smear was made for diagnosis of Ehrlichia sp. and other hemoprotozoan parasites from naturally infected dogs. Case history was taken from the owner and clinical signs and symptoms were noted. Results A total of 47 cases of ehrlichiosis in dogs were reported with babesiosis (8.51%) and hepatozoonosis (6.38%) hemoprotozoan diseases. Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia ewingii, Brucella canis, Babesia gibsoni and Hepatozoon canis were observed under oil immersion lense of microscope in Giemsa stained peripheral blood smears. Marked anaemia and neutrophilic leukocytosis were observed. Conclusions The results of this study stated that clinical and haematological changes occurred in canine ehrlichiosis with babesiosis and hepatozoonosis due to parasitemia. In mixed infection, the disease more severe, and also it depended on immunity of animals. Babesia gibsoni and Hepatozoon canis with Ehrlichia sp. were first reported from West Bengal state of India by this study.

  16. Epidemiological studies on tick-borne diseases of cattle in Central Equatoria State, Southern Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, D A; El Hussein, A M; Seitzer, U; Ahmed, J S

    2007-09-01

    A herd-based study was carried out in Central Equatoria State, Southern Sudan, to study epidemiological aspects of tick-borne diseases. Six herds of cattle situated in three different locations were selected and investigated every 3 months during the year 2005. Blood smears for Giemsa staining and blood spots on filter paper for deoxyribonucleic acid extraction were collected from 600 apparently healthy indigenous cattle. A total of 69 (11.5%) samples showed the presence of piroplasms in Giemsa-stained blood smears, and polymerase chain reaction increased the detection limit to 297 (49.5%). Using reverse line blot, it was possible to detect and differentiate eight different piroplasms namely, Theileria parva (71.2%), Theileria mutans (73%), Theileria velifera (45.3%), Theileria taurotragi (2.7%), Theileria buffeli (0.5%), Theileria annulata (0.2%), Babesia bovis (1.7%), and Babesia bigemina (0.3%). Mixed infections were detected in 406 samples (67.7%) accounting for 17 different combinations. High infection of Theileria parva was reported among young calves compared to older cattle. The highest prevalence of Theileria parva was reported in the rainy season (October). The implications of these results on the epidemiology of tick-borne diseases are discussed with emphasis on East Coast fever. PMID:17530477

  17. Smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis and lymphocyte subsets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To correlate and quantitate Iymphocyte subsets with clinically diagnosed smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis and severity of disease. Subjects and Methods: Freshly diagnosed, well-characterized smear-negative patients (n=15) of pulmonary tuberculosis were selected. Non-induced three-consecutive negative smears of sputum with simultaneous culture for AFB for 6-8 weeks, positive Mauntoux test (= or > 0 mm), blood complete picture with ESR and chest x-rays were done. Selected panel of monoclonal antibodies against specific CD markers were used. Statistical analysis done by student t-test or Mann-Whitney rank-sum test with the help of Sigma State software. Results: Hemoglobin and total lymphocyte counts were significantly reduced whereas total leukocyte counts with absolute neutrophil counts were increased. Fraction of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes with HLA-DR expression was reduced while no significant change in rest of the TB and NK lymphocytes. Conclusion: Low hemoglobin level, high neutrophil count and low total lymphocytes suggest possible direct relationship with extent of disease. The number of activated CD4+, CD8+, alpha beta and gamma delta TCR T cells have tendency to increase during Mycobacterium infection. This seems to have a potential of being a good, non-invasive prognostic indicator for patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. (author)

  18. Detection of Theileria annulata by PCR and its Comparison With Smear Method in Native Carrier Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Azizi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During March and April 2007, 140 native cows with the mean age of more than one year were selected randomly and their age and sex were registered in the related papers. Primarily, a thin layer smear was prepared from their ear sublime vein blood and was fixed with methanol and then it stained with Gimsa dye. Also, 9 mL blood from the jagular vein of the same cow was taken and collected in autoclaved tubes (containing 1 mL of 3.2% buffered citrate solution conversely for extracting their DNA for PCR. Two primers were used: N516/N517 belonged to a huge gene (30 kDa which is responsible for coding the surface antigen of Theileria annulata merozoite. By detection of 140 prepared blood smear with light microscope and lens 100, piroplasmic forms of Theileria annulata were seen in 12 smear (8.57%. By PCR method, 56 DNA of Theileria annulata was separated from 140 samples (40%. Statistical comparison of PCR and smear methods in diagnosing of Theileria annulata carriers can explain a significant difference between these two methods (p<0.05. The results of this study shows that sensitivity and accuracy of PCR method in diagnosing of Theileria annulata carriers is more than common method of smear preparation and can be used in epidemiological studies for the sake of controlling, prevention and determining of immunological condition of cows in region.

  19. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) Assays for Diagnosing Malaria in Endemic Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Jyotsna; Mark, Olivia; Weltman, Helena; Barcelo, Nicolas; Lo, Wai; Wronska, Danuta; Kakkilaya, Srinivas; Rao, Aravinda; Bhat, Shalia T.; Sinha, Ruchi; Omar, Sabah; Moro, Manuel; Gilman, Robert H.; Harris, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is a responsible for approximately 600 thousand deaths worldwide every year. Appropriate and timely treatment of malaria can prevent deaths but is dependent on accurate and rapid diagnosis of the infection. Currently, microscopic examination of the Giemsa stained blood smears is the method of choice for diagnosing malaria. Although it has limited sensitivity and specificity in field conditions, it still remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of malaria. Here, we report the development of a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) based method for detecting malaria infection in blood smears and describe the use of an LED light source that makes the method suitable for use in resource-limited malaria endemic countries. The Plasmodium Genus (P-Genus) FISH assay has a Plasmodium genus specific probe that detects all five species of Plasmodium known to cause the disease in humans. The P. falciparum (PF) FISH assay and P. vivax (PV) FISH assay detect and differentiate between P. falciparum and P. vivax respectively from other Plasmodium species. The FISH assays are more sensitive than Giemsa. The sensitivities of P-Genus, PF and PV FISH assays were found to be 98.2%, 94.5% and 98.3%, respectively compared to 89.9%, 83.3% and 87.9% for the detection of Plasmodium, P. falciparum and P. vivax by Giemsa staining respectively. PMID:26333092

  20. Detection of theileriosis in cattle and buffaloes by polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundave, V R; Patel, A K; Patel, P V; Hasnani, J J; Joshi, C G

    2015-09-01

    Bovine tropical theileriosis caused by Theileria annulata is a tick-borne disease of great economic importance in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The present study was undertaken to detect theilerosis in cattle and buffaloes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The diagnosis of theileriosis is usually carried out by blood smear staining technique, which is not sufficiently sensitive to detect the piroplasms in the carrier animals. In this study, a total of 116 samples were collected from infected as well as apparently healthy cattle and buffaloes. Screening of blood smears by Giemsa staining detected 15 samples (12.93 %) positive for Theileria piroplasms out of 116 samples. However, the PCR based screening using the specific primers from the major merozoite-piroplasm surface antigen sequence of T. annulata (Tams1) gene detected 74 samples (63.79 %) positive for T. annulata which included 59 samples found negative by Giemsa staining. Our study suggests that the PCR based screening is more sensitive and accurate method for diagnosis of tropical theileriosis in cattle and buffaloes. PMID:26345061

  1. Women's understanding of the term 'Pap smear'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David L; Hostetter, Sarah Smith; Hunter, Jennifer; Johnson, Nicole; Cooper, Saladin; Malnar, Gerard

    2015-07-01

    To assess the understanding of the term 'Pap smear' among women across the entire adult lifespan after recent changes to the guidelines on cervical cancer screening. Women attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology clinic at a large safety net teaching hospital in a Midwestern city were provided one of two versions of a confidential and anonymous survey to complete. The difference between the two versions was the way the primary research question was worded. There were 174 participants ranging in age from 15 to 69 (mean = 33.9) years. Of the 73 women who completed version A of the survey, 74 % were able to identify at least one correct descriptor for the term 'Pap smear.' Women who could identify at least one correct descriptor for the term 'Pap smear' were on average older than those who could not (mean = 36.9 vs. 28.7 years; p = 0.012). Of the 94 patients completing survey version B, 67 % could not differentiate a pelvic exam from a Pap smear. There was no association between age and ability to differentiate a pelvic exam from a Pap smear. The majority of women cannot distinguish a Pap smear from a pelvic exam. The unexpected finding of less understanding among younger women prompts a need for further research and invites discussion of whether more cervical cancer prevention education, with more emphasis on HPV vaccines in recent years, has neglected the importance of Pap smears-which is beginning to show up in knowledge of younger women. Both these findings suggest a need for increased patient education during female preventive health clinic visits. PMID:25630404

  2. Cytologic differential diagnosis of follicular lymphoma grades 1 and 2 from reactive follicular hyperplasia: cytologic features of fine-needle aspiration smears with Pap stain and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis to detect t(14;18)(q32;q21) chromosomal translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Koji; Kitamura, Takashi; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Tate, Genshu; Mitsuya, Toshiyuki

    2006-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a well-established technique for diagnosis of malignant lymphoma (ML). Generally, Giemsa but not Pap stain is used in FNAC. However, cytologic features obtained from Pap stain are also valuable. Very few studies on the cytologic characteristics of ML, as determined by Pap stain, are available. It is easier to observe nuclear irregularity and to identify nucleoli in ML cells by Pap stain than by Giemsa stain. Here, we applied Pap stain for cytomorphologic differential diagnosis of follicular lymphoma (FL) from reactive follicular hyperplasia (RFH). Eighteen biopsy-confirmed cases of FL grades 1 and 2, with available FNAC smears, and six cases of RFH were selected for this study. Low-power magnification showed well-known features, and tingible body macrophages and lymphoid cell aggregates were observed frequently in RFH and FL, respectively. In addition, the so-called two-nuclei-like cleaved cells were observed frequently in FL. These cells showed notably cleaved nuclei, and therefore, appeared to possess two nuclei. Under high-power magnification, the occurrence of cells with nucleoli >1 microm and of cleaved cells was high in FL compared to RFH. It is believed that FL derives from centrocytes and that FL cells are slightly larger than non-neoplastic small lymphocytes. However, analysis of cell diameter in this study indicated that small lymphoma cells were predominant in half the cases of FL grades 1 and 2, and the percentage of these cells was similar to that in RFH, showing why false-negative diagnosis of FL grades 1 and 2 occasionally occurs. There are limitations of FNAC in the diagnosis of FL. However, we believe that the appearance of two-nuclei-like cleaved cells and the high percentage of nucleoli-possessing cells, which we describe here, provide significant and valuable clues for the differential diagnosis of FL from RFH. Of 18 cases of FL grades 1 and 2, t(14;18)(q32;q21) was found in 13 cases with the use of destained FNAC smears. Our study suggests that, together with the cytomorphologic findings described earlier, FISH analysis for the chromosomal translocation, t(14;18)(q32;q21), is crucial for final cytologic diagnosis of FL grades 1 and 2. PMID:16355396

  3. Prevalance of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in Donkeys from Eastern Turkey in Winter Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Balkaya*, A. E. Utuk1 and F. C. Piskin1

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi by the examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears and c-ELISA method in donkeys, selected randomly from Erzurum, the largest province of Eastern Turkey. The specimens were consisted of 92 thin blood-smears and 75 sera during winter season. As result of microscopic examination no parasite was detected. Of the 75 sera, 3 (4% and 1 (1.33% samples were positive for the presence of T. equi and B. caballi antibodies, respectively. We couldn’t detect mix infection with both parasites. This study indicated the prevalence of T. equi and B. caballi in donkeys for the first time from Eastern Turkey in winter season.

  4. Molecular Diagnostic of Anaplasma marginale in Carrier Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Noaman

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Anaplasmosis belongs to the complex of several tick-borne diseases and can cause diseases in the livestock with high economical losses. Cattle that recover from acute infection become carriers and the parasite can persist most probably for the lifetime in the blood. The aim of the present study was the determination of the persistently infected cattle in a region of Iran with the previous history of acute anaplasmosis."nMethods: One hundred and fifty blood samples and corresponding blood smears of cattle without any signs of diseases were prepared from a region in Isfahan/ Iran with the previous history of acute anaplasmosis from March 2007 to July 2007 for cross sectional study of carriers of Anaplasma. The blood smears were first screened by Giemsa staining, the extracted DNA from blood cells were analyzed by Anaplasma marginale specific nested PCR, and PCR-RFLP using primers derived from 16S rRNA gene and restriction endonuclease Bst1107 I."nResults: Anaplasma like structures could be identified in the limited amount of erythrocytes of 75 blood smears. In these samples, the percentage of erythrocytes harboring Anaplasma like structures varied from 10-3% to 10-2%. Nested-PCR and PCR-RFLP analysis showed 58 A. marginale positive cases within 75 Anaplasma suspected blood samples. In 150 total blood samples, 50% were A. marinale positive."nConclusion: Our results revealed that the traditional Giemsa staining method is not applicable for the determination of the persistently infected cattle. In addition, the results showed that the carrier animals must be widespread in the Anaplasma endemic areas in Iran.

  5. The significance of microbiopsies in cytological smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana K Sherwani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC in the diagnosis of malignant lesions is well documented. Conventionally obtained fine needle aspiration (FNA smears frequently contain well preserved viable intact tissue fragments (microbiopsies. Aims: The present study was aimed at evaluating the microbiopsies and carrying out further cyto-histopathologic correlation in order to assess what additional information they could provide. Materials and Methods: A total of 116 FNA smears from clinically suspected malignant lesions were examined, of which 81 smears (70.0% contained representative tissue fragments of the tumors. Histopathological details were available in 75 cases. Immunocytochemistry (ICC was applied in selected smears as and when required. Results: Tumors in which microbiopsies aided in diagnosis chiefly included soft tissue malignancies (12 cases, typed into malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, fibrosarcoma, spindle cell sarcoma and malignant melanoma; lung tumors (14 cases classified as small cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, squamous carcinoma and adenocarcinoma; breast tumors (08 cases, typed into ductal, medullary and lobular carcinoma; and lymph node metastasis (19 cases from primaries in lung, larynx and thyroid. The cyto-histopathologic concordance was raised from 81.2% in the absence of microbiopsies to 93.2% in their presence. Conclusions: FNA smears containing microbiopsies are of ample help in establishing firm diagnosis, tumor typing, and predicting possible primary sites in metastatic tumors which were not possible by cytology alone. Hence, this technique can be utilized to enhance the diagnostic accuracy of FNAC, if put into practice in evaluation of routine cytology smears, without increasing any financial burden on patients.

  6. Detection of tropical bovine theileriosis by polymerase chain reaction in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatoon, S; Kolte, S W; Kurkure, N V; Chopde, N A; Jahan, A

    2015-03-01

    Tropical bovine theileriosis, a tick borne disease, caused by, Theileria annulata with marked clinical signs of pyrexia (102-105 °F), enlargement of lymphnodes etc., causes heavy economic losses in terms of high mortality and morbidity rates. Diagnosis of theileriosis is mainly based on clinical symptoms and microscopic examination of stained blood smears and lymph node biopsy smears but limitations of these methods against Theileria sp. limits the specificity. Hence, to overcome the limitations, the present study reports the detection of T. annulata in blood samples of cattle by polymerase chain reaction. The study was conducted on 155 cattle having typical clinical symptoms and blood smear after staining with Giemsa stain was examined for the presence of T. annulata in RBC. The Primer sequences were used as per d'Oliveira et al. The assay employs primers specific for the gene encoding the 30-kDa major merozoite surface antigen of T. annulata and the amplification of 721 bp was done. Out of the total 155 animals, 34 were positive for T. annulata by blood smear method whereas 134 samples were positive by PCR. So diagnosis of blood samples by PCR is found to be the most sensitive and specific methodology as compared to cytological blood smear examination. The sensitivity was 23.88 % and specificity was 90.47 % of blood smear method considering PCR as gold standard and it was found that PCR is more sensitive than the conventional method of examination. PMID:25698860

  7. Evaluation of remote smearing of DWPF canistered waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is evaluating the variables of the remote smearing process for monitoring transferable contamination on the waste glass canisters at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Smearing for transferable contamination is typically done by hand, but in this case, due to the nature of the high level waste within the canisters, remote smearing is required. The effectiveness of the smear pad was determined under varying conditions (distance traveled, force applied, and canister surface), as well as the relative importance of these factors. It was concluded that the remote smear is more reliable than the hand smear

  8. Squash smear cytology of Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahm, Ji Hae; Yoon, Gun; Do, Sung-Im; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Squash smear cytology of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) has rarely been reported. We described squash cytological findings of cranial LCH. Additionally, based on recent data that suggests an association of LCH with either viral infection or genetic alteration, we investigated the presence of several viruses or mutation of TP53 and BRAF in LCH tissue samples. Intraoperative squash smears of a small tissue fragment excised from the lesion demonstrated a mixed population of eosinophils, neutrophils, small lymphocytes and a high content of histiocytes. The histiocytes possessed abundant dense cytoplasm with round cell shape and eccentrically located nuclei with fine chromatin, delicate nuclear membranes and prominent nuclear grooves, indentations and pseudoinclusions. The cytologic features were consistent with Langerhans cells (LCs). Subsequent histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of LCH. Immunohistochemically, the LCs were positive for S-100, CD1a and langerin, but negative for adenovirus, CMV, EBV, HHV-8, HPV, HSV, SV 40 and p53. BRAF V600E mutation was absent. Our findings did not support the role of viruses and genetic abnormalities in the pathogenesis of LCH. In summary, the presence of a mixed population of inflammatory cells and a high content of histiocytes with characteristic cytomorphology, along with radiologic evidence and appropriate clinical findings, is highly suggestive of LCH on the intraoperative squash smears. Awareness of characteristic cytological features of LCH is necessary for rapid and accurate diagnosis. Squash smear cytology is a potentially useful tool in the intraoperative diagnosis of LCH. PMID:26339366

  9. Report: Nuclei segmentation of leukocytes in blood smear digital images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Naveed; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Saba, Tanzila; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah

    2015-09-01

    The Leukocytes are differentiated from each other on the basis of their nuclei, demanded in many Medical studies, especially in all types of Leukemia by the Hematologists to note the disorder caused by specific type of Leukocyte. Leukemia is a life threatening disease. The work for diagnosing is manually carried out by the Hematologists involving much labor, time and human errors. The problems mentioned are easily addressed through computer vision techniques, but still accuracy and efficiency are demanded in terms of the basic and challenging step segmentation of Leukocyte's nuclei. The underlying study proposed better method in terms of accuracy and efficiency by designing a dynamic convolution filter for boosting low intensity values in the separated green channel of an RGB image and suppressing the high values in the same channel. The high values in the green channel become 255 (background) while the nuclei always have low values in the green channel and thus clearly appear as foreground. The proposed technique is tested on 365 images achieving an overall accuracy of 95.89%, while improving the efficiency by 10%. The proposed technique achieved its targets in a realistic way by improving the accuracy as well as the efficiency and both are highly required in the area. PMID:26408877

  10. AFB (Acid-Fast Bacillus) Smear and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mycobacteria Smear; Mycobacteria Culture; TB NAAT Formal name: Acid-Fast Bacillus Smear and Culture and Sensitivity; Mycobacteria tuberculosis Nucleic Acid Amplification Test Related tests: TB Screening Tests ; Bacterial ...

  11. Bacteriological safety of smears of surfacesio in catering facilities and food industry in Zenica-Doboj Canton in the period 2005-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edina Garanovi?

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim To research bacteriological (hygienic safety of surfaces(hands smear of staff involved in the process of work, smearof furniture used for work, smear from walls in offices in thefacilities for production of meat and meat products (8, forproduction of milk and milk products (3, products of cakes(14, bakery and bakery products (4 sugar refinery and biscuits(1 and in objects of social sustenance in the territory of Zenica-Doboj Canton (Bosnia and Herzegovina B&H in period2005-2007 and to point out the importance of this analysis inproviding food safety for consumers.Methods: Data from the protocol of the Laboratory for Clinicaland Sanitary Microbiology,of the Cantonal Institute for PublicHealth Zenica were used. Samples of smears were inoculatedon MacConkey and blood agar. Results were interpreted inaccordance with applicable law in B&H.Results From 5051 analyzed smears, 190 (3,/% were notsatisfactory. The largest number of unsatisfactory smears wasnoted in Zenica, 75 (39; 47%, Visoko 49 (25.8% and Tešanj37 (19.5%. From 190 unsatisfactory smears, 57 (30%were smears from dishes, 43 (22.6% from furniture and worksurfaces 42 (22,1% and 41 (21.6% smears from hands. Themost frequently isolated was Escherichia coli, in 25 (22.6%smears from machines, and 34 (17.2% smears from dishes.Unsatisfactory smears were mostly found in objects of publicmaintenance, 96 (50.5% and in objects for production ofmeat, 82 (43.2%.Conclusion Regular control (monitoring, hygienic sutabilityqualityof smears in objects and education of employees toimprove hygienic measures for the purpose of the preventionof food contamination.

  12. Smear layer dissolution by peracetic acid of low concentration

    OpenAIRE

    De-Deus, G; E.M Souza; Marins, J R; Reis, C.; Paciornik, S; Zehnder, M

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To test the effect of a noncaustic concentration of peracetic acid (PAA) in a standardized smear layer model. METHODOLOGY: The smear layer dissolution kinetics of 0.5% PAA on human dentine were compared to those of 2.25% PAA and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solutions. Coronal dentine discs were prepared from six human maxillary molars. A standardized smear layer was produced on the pulpal side of each disc. The smear layer-covered surface was divided into three s...

  13. Survival of tubercle bacilli in heat-fixed sputum smears.

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, B W

    1981-01-01

    Tubercle bacilli, which survived heat fixation, were detected with a slide culture technique which allowed the entire smear to be examined. Both conventional flame fixation and the use of a controlled hot-plate failed to render tuberculous sputum smears safe for further handling. Smears which were stained with the phenol-auramine method failed to yield growth on culture. If delay between preparation and staining is unavoidable, it is recommended that smears are given additional treatment to ...

  14. The Anal Pap Smear: Cytomorphology of squamous intraepithelial lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Arain Shehla; Walts Ann; Thomas Premi; Bose Shikha

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Anal smears are increasingly being used as a screening test for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs). This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness and limitations of anal smears in screening for ASILs. Methods The cytomorphological features of 200 consecutive anal smears collected in liquid medium from 198 patients were studied and findings were correlated with results of surgical biopsies and/or repeat smears that became available for 71 patients within six...

  15. Unusual presentation of cutaneous leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Lahiry Anup Kumar

    2002-01-01

    Cutaneous leis hmaniasis is endemic in some regions of Saudi Arabia. A case with uncommon hyperkeratotic type of lesion was seen. Being an endemic zone, a slit- skin smear was done and stained with Giemsa?s stain. Smears howed Leishman Donovan bodies within and outside the macrophages. Significant improvement, followed by complete resolution of the lesion was seen with ketoconazole treatment.

  16. Comparison of molecular and microscopic technique for detection of Theileria spp. in carrier cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Noaman, Vahid

    2012-01-01

    In Iran, theileriosis is normally diagnosed with traditional Giemsa staining method. This is not applicable for identification of the carrier animals. The aim of this study was to compare conventional Giemsa staining method with the PCR technique in the detection of Theileria organisms. In this study, examinations were performed on 150 blood samples from cattle without clinical signs. Sensitivity and specificity of 50 microscopic fields were compared with Theileria specific PCR. The degree of...

  17. Dynamics at a smeared phase transition

    CERN Document Server

    Fendler, B; Vojta, T; Fendler, Bernard; Sknepnek, Rastko; Vojta, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the effects of rare regions on the dynamics of Ising magnets with planar defects, i.e., disorder perfectly correlated in two dimensions. In these systems, the magnetic phase transition is smeared because static long-range order can develop on isolated rare regions. We first study an infinite-range model by numerically solving local dynamic mean-field equations. Then we use extremal statistics and scaling arguments to discuss the dynamics beyond mean-field theory. In the tail region of the smeared transition the dynamics is even slower than in a conventional Griffiths phase: the spin autocorrelation function decays like a stretched exponential at intermediate times before approaching the exponentially small equilibrium value following a power law at late times.

  18. Smeared and unsmeared chiral vertex operators

    CERN Document Server

    Constantinescu, F; Constantinescu, Florin

    1999-01-01

    We prove unboundedness and boundedness of the unsmeared and smeared chiral vertex operators, respectively. We use elementary methods in bosonic Fock space, only. Possible applications to conformal two - dimensional quantum field theory, perturbation thereof, and to the perturbative construction of the sine-Gordon model by the Epstein-Glaser method are discussed. From another point of view the results of this paper can be looked at as a first step towards a Hilbert space interpretation of vertex operator algebras.

  19. Urothelial cells in smears from cervix uteri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaoro, Luis Alberto; Guerra, Fernando; Angeleri, Anabela; Palamas, Marta; Melba, Sardi-Segovia; Rocher, Adriana Esther

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To establish the cytological criteria to identify the urothelial cells in cervical smears in order to avoid mistakes in the cytological diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Cervical smears from 34 post menopausal women with vesicovaginal fistulas, advanced bladder prolapse and genital erosive lichen planes (vulvar kraurosis) (Group 1) and transitional cell metaplasia of the cervix (TCM, Group 2) were stained with Papanicolaou technique. The cervical samples were taken during the routine annual examination for prevention of the uterine cancer. Results: The smears of cervix from Group 1 showed urothelial cells from the three layers of the transitional epithelium. The umbrella cells are the bigger ones with relatively large nuclei. Frequently, they are multinucleated with single or multiple nucleoli and a typical “frothy” cytoplasm (cytoplasmic vacuoles). The cells of the Group 2 showed nuclei with oval to spindled shapes, some tapered ends, less cytoplasm than squamous metaplastic cells, powdery chromatin, small nucleoli and nuclear grooves. Conclusions: The umbrella cells may be mistaken for dysplastic cells originating in low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions lesions (LSILs) due to their nuclear and cytoplasm sizes. Therefore, it is important to know the possibility of their appearance in the cervical smears, especially in post menopausal patients in order to avoid a false diagnosis of an intraepithelial lesion. It is unlikely that deeper cells of urothelium would be confused with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) cells. However, their presence might be a reason of mistake in the diagnosis. TCM is an under-recognized metaplastic phenomenon of the cervix and vagina, which is a mimicker of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. The differential characteristic between umbrella cells, cells from TCM and the deeper urothelial cells, and LSIL and HSIL are detailed in the present paper. PMID:22438615

  20. Microbial consortia from smear-ripened cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Goerges, Stefanie

    2009-01-01

    The present work was performed as part of the EU project QLK1-CT-2001-02228 “Biodiversity and anti-listerial activity of surface microbial consortia from Limburger, Reblochon, Livarot, Tilsit and Gubbeen cheese”, Acronym SCM (Smear cheese microflora). It was initiated to analyze the yeast and bacterial floras of these cheeses at different ripening stages using a polyphasic approach including several phenotypic and genotypic methods and to test cheese yeasts for their anti-listerial properties...

  1. The Shape of Covariantly Smeared Sources in Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    von Hippel, Georg M; Rae, Thomas D; Wittig, Hartmut

    2013-01-01

    Covariantly smeared sources are commonly used in lattice QCD to enhance the projection onto the ground state. Here we investigate the dependence of their shape on the gauge field background and find that the presence of localized concentrations of magnetic field can lead to strong distortions which reduce the smearing radii achievable by iterative smearing prescriptions. In particular, as $a\\to 0$, iterative procedures like Jacobi smearing require increasingly large iteration counts in order to reach physically-sized smearing radii $r_{sm}\\sim$ 0.5 fm, and the resulting sources are strongly distorted. To bypass this issue, we propose a covariant smearing procedure (``free-form smearing'') that allows us to create arbitrarily shaped sources, including in particular Gaussians of arbitrary radius.

  2. Immunohistochemical staining of human sperm cells in smears from sexual assault cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, S.

    2011-01-01

    In the routine clinical examination of sexual assault victims, apart from documenting physical evidence of abuse, securing evidence, typically DNA from blood, semen, or saliva, is an important part of the process. Often the presence of semen is considered a most interesting piece of evidence. Not only does it often contain enough DNA for DNA profiling, but it also strongly indicates that an actual sexual act has taken place. The examination of smear slides obtained in sexual assault cases is a time-consuming task especially for the less trained and in cases where the smear only contains few sperm cells. In this work the goal was to develop a procedure to rapidly visualize human sperm cells in smear slides with the use of bright-field microscopy. Using SPERM HY-LITER (TM) by Independent Forensics, human sperm cells are visualized using a fluorescently labeled mouse antibody which significantly decreases the time used to screen smears. By further using an EnVision+ (DAKO) protocol, it was possible to create an immunohistochemical staining method to visualize sperm cells in bright-field microscopy with the same level of certainty as when using SPERM HY-LITER (TM).

  3. Association of ABO blood group and P. falciparum malaria related outcomes: a cross-sectional study in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degarege, Abraham; Medhin, Girmay; Animut, Abebe; Legess, Mengistu; Erko, Berhanu

    2012-09-01

    Studies elucidate conflicting results about the relationships between ABO blood groups and Plasmodium infection outcomes in humans. This study examined association between ABO blood group and Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) malaria related outcomes among 1065 malaria suspected febrile patients who attended Dore Baafano Health Center, southern Ethiopia, between December, 2010 and February, 2011. Blood specimens were collected and examined for malaria using Giemsa-staining, while stool specimens were examined for helminth infections using Kato-Katz method. Haemoglobin level and blood group were determined using hemocue machine and antisera hemagglutination test, respectively. Clinical data were also collected for the patients. Among the study participants, the proportion of O, A, B and AB blood groups were 40.1%, 30.1%, 29.0% and 14.3%, respectively, and P. falciparum malaria cases in the corresponding blood groups were 14.8%, 14.0%, 13.4% and 15.7%. The odds of non-severe P. falciparum malaria were not significantly different between individuals of blood group A versus O or B versus O or AB versus O. Mean haemoglobin concentration was significantly lower in P. falciparum infected blood type A individuals compared to P. falciparum infected blood type O (?=-1.25, 95% CI=-2.31 to -0.19) or non-A (?=-1.27, 95% CI=-2.23 to -0.32) individuals. The odds of P. falciparum malaria related anaemia was about three times higher in individuals with blood type A compared to those with blood type O (adjusted OR=2.82, 95% CI=1.05-7.56) or non-A individuals (adjusted OR=2.84, 95% CI=1.15-7.01). However, mean P. falciparum density did not significantly differ among patients according to their blood groups. In conclusion, individuals with blood group A had higher risk of anaemia compared to those with O and non-A phenotypes among P. falciparum malaria patients. However, there is a need to investigate the mechanism. PMID:22569530

  4. Analytical expressions for the smear due to nonlinear multipoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merminga, Nikolitsa; Ng, King-Yuen

    1989-03-01

    An analytical derivation of the horizontal smear due to sextupoles and octupoles is presented. A generalized expression for the horizontal smear due to all multipoles is derived. A two degree of freedom calculation yields the smear due to sextupoles and octupoles. Experimental observations of the smear induced by special sextupoles have been made at the Fermilab Tevatron and our calculations agree very well with the data over a wide range of conditions. The smear due to random and systematic multipole errors in the dipoles, before and after the insertion of lumped correctors, is calculated for the SSC lattice. Finally the smear due to random and systematic multipole errors in the Tevatron dipoles is computed. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Tuberculosis treatment among smear positive tuberculosis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuberculosis is a major health problem in many parts of the world. Delay in initiation of the treatment may result in prolonged infectious state, drug resistance, relapse and death. Objectives: To determine the factors responsible for not starting tuberculosis treatment among smear positive tuberculosis patients. Study type, settings and duration: This cross sectional study was done at Pakistan Medical Research Council TB Research Center, King Edward Medical University, Lahore, from fifth March 2010 to fifth December 2010. Patients and Methods: Fifty sputum smear positive patients of tuberculosis who did not register themselves in treatment register and presumably did not initiate anti tuberculosis treatment were contacted using telephone or traced by their home addresses. Once contact was established, they were inquired about the reasons for not starting tuberculosis treatment. Results: Of 50 patients 38(76%)belonged to the lower socio economic class and 12(24%) to the lower middle class. Fourteen patients (28%) were illiterate and 23(46%) had only 8 years of education. Of the 50 cases 41(82%) were taking treatment from traditional healers and 4% did not go back to the DOTS program. Physical condition of the patient, social, domestic and religious issues also played some role in default. Conclusions: Lack of health education and poverty were the main factors responsible for non compliance from treatment. Policy message: Sputum testing sites should have a paramedic who should educate the patients about the benefits of treatment and the dangers of default or partial treatment. (author)

  6. The resurgence of trypanosomosis in Botswana : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Sharma

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available No sleeping sickness or nagana cases have been reported in Botswana since 1985. In view of several confirmed clinical cases of nagana and reports of heavy bovine mortality, a parasitological survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of trypanosome infection in cattle in Maun and Shakawe areas of Ngamiland district. Wet blood films, buffy coat and Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood smears were used to detect trypanosomes in animals. Overall,trypanosome infection rate was 15.98%, with 5.94% and 27.29% in Maun and Shakawe respectively. The urgent need to combat trypanosomosis in Ngamiland, particularly in the Shakawe area, is highlighted, and a 3-phase integrated tsetse control strategy for this disease problem is discussed.

  7. Prevalence of hemoprotozoan diseases in cattle population of chittagong division, Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alim, Md. Abdul; Das, Shubhagata

    2012-01-01

    A one year (2009-10) prevalence study on hemoprotozoan diseases was conducted in crossbred and indigenous cattle, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Blood samples were collected randomly from 216 crossbred and 432 indigenous cattle of four representative areas in three consecutive seasons. Samples were examined by Giemsa's stained blood smear method. The effect of topography, season, age and sex was observed in cattle during this study. The overall prevalence of hemoprotozoan diseases was 16.18 and 12.02% in crossbred and indigenous cattle, respectively where babesiosis and anaplasmosis were predominant. Babesiosis was found to be consistent in all the four different areas but highest prevalence (9.25%)was found in hilly area. Hemoprotozoan diseases were predominant in summer season followed by rainy and winter seasons. Adult cattle were significantly (P

  8. Concentrated gram stain smears prepared with a cytospin centrifuge.

    OpenAIRE

    Shanholtzer, C J; Schaper, P J; Peterson, L R

    1982-01-01

    A Cytospin slide centrifuge was used to concentrate 0.05- to 0.5-ml samples of cerebrospinal and other body fluids for Gram stain. Trials with cerebrospinal fluid containing known numbers of microorganisms indicated that the Cytospin increased the sensitivity of cerebrospinal fluid Gram stains by up to 2 logs compared with unconcentrated and conventional centrifuge smears. Cytospin-concentrated smears were prospectively compared with unconcentrated Gram-stained smears and bacteriological cult...

  9. Molecular and parasitological survey of Hepatozoon canis (Apicomplexa: Hepatozoidae) in dogs from rural area of Sao Paulo state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubini, Adriano Stefani; dos Santos Paduan, Karina; Von Ah Lopes, Viviane; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena

    2008-04-01

    Hepatozoon canis is a protozoan that infects dogs and is transmitted by the ingestion of the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Two distinct species of Hepatozoon genus can infect dogs, H. canis and H. americanum. Routine tests to detect the disease are based on direct examination of gametocytes on Giemsa-stained blood smears. The objectives of this study were the investigation of infection prevalence in rural area dogs, the comparison of diagnostics by blood smear examination and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the association of infection with tick infestation. Blood smears, collected by puncture of the cephalic vein and ear margin capillary bed from 150 dogs, were examined. This technique detected 17 positive animals (11.3%), with 14 (9.3%) in peripheral blood and seven (4.7%) in cephalic vein blood. PCR tests detected 80 (53.3%) positive animals. R. sanguineus and Amblyomma spp. were found in 36 of the dogs (24%), in equal proportions. The identified species for Amblyomma genus were A. cajennense and A. ovale. Data analysis showed that PCR was much more sensitive when compared to blood smear examination. Hepatozoon species was previously identified as closely related to H. canis. PMID:18188597

  10. Bulk staining of smears: no demonstrated risk of bacilli transfer from a positive to a negative smear

    OpenAIRE

    Affolabi, D.; Odoun, M.; Sanoussi, C. N.; Tanimomo-Kledjo, B.; Saïzonou, D.; Soumaïla, K.; Kestens, L.; Anagonou, S. Y.; Portaels, F

    2008-01-01

    Despite a theoretical risk of transfer of bacilli from a positive to a negative smear, bulk staining is routinely performed in many laboratories. To assess this risk in our laboratory, two smears were made from each sputum specimen and stained with auramine: one smear was stained on a rack and the second using the bulk method. Smears were read blind using a fluorescence microscope. A total of 811 sputum specimens were analysed. No acid-fast bacilli transfer was observed even when staining sol...

  11. Interdisciplinary research at the SMEAR Estonia station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noe, Steffen M.; Niinemets, Ülo; Kangur, Ahto; Hõrrak, Urmas; Soosaar, Kaido; Mander, Ülo

    2014-05-01

    Interdisciplinary research on ecosystem-atmosphere relations has been an issue since many years in Estonia. Since 2008, these activities have been intensified and led to the build up of a SMEAR (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) type station in Estonia. It is part of the Estonian Environmental Observatory, a delocalized research infrastructure that is operated by several Estonian universities and research institutions. It's core is located in the experimental forestry district in Järvselja where a major portion of the ecosystem and atmospheric research activities take place. Here, we present an overview of the current state of research which especially takes care of the hemiboreal forest ecosystem. Continuous build up of comprehensive measurements at diverse sites has led to a network of stations over Estonia. It's location in the transition zone between boreal and temperate forest ecosystems allows for new and updated hypothesis regarding fluxes of energy and matter in a globally changing climate system.

  12. Who is getting Pap smears in urban Peru?

    OpenAIRE

    Paz Soldan, Valerie A; Lee, Frank H; Carcamo, Cesar; Holmes, King K; Garnett, Geoff P; Garcia, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer, although usually preventable by Pap smear screening, remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru. The percentages and characteristics of women in Peru who have or have not had a Pap smear have not been defined.

  13. The Anal Pap Smear: Cytomorphology of squamous intraepithelial lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arain Shehla

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anal smears are increasingly being used as a screening test for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs. This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness and limitations of anal smears in screening for ASILs. Methods The cytomorphological features of 200 consecutive anal smears collected in liquid medium from 198 patients were studied and findings were correlated with results of surgical biopsies and/or repeat smears that became available for 71 patients within six months. Results Adequate cellularity was defined as an average of 6 or more nucleated squamous cells/hpf. A glandular/transitional component was not required for adequacy. Dysplastic cells, atypical parakeratotic cells and bi/multinucleated cells were frequent findings in ASIL while koilocytes were infrequent. Smears from LSIL cases most frequently showed mildly dysplastic and bi/multinucleate squamous cells followed by parakeratotic cells (PK, atypical parakeratotic cells (APK, and koilocytes. HSIL smears contained squamous cells with features of moderate/severe dysplasia and many APKs. Features of LSIL were also found in most HSIL smears. Conclusions In this study liquid based anal smears had a high sensitivity (98% for detection of ASIL but a low specificity (50% for predicting the severity of the abnormality in subsequent biopsy. Patients with cytologic diagnoses of ASC-US and LSIL had a significant risk (46–56% of HSIL at biopsy. We suggest that all patients with a diagnosis of ASC-US and above be recommended for high resolution anoscopy with biopsy.

  14. Camel trypanosomosis in the Canary Islands: assessment of seroprevalence and infection rates using the card agglutination test (CATT/T. evansi) and parasite detection tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, C; Juste, M C; Corbera, J A; Magnus, E; Verloo, D; Montoya, J A

    2000-06-10

    Trypanosomosis due to Trypanosoma evansi (surra) is a major enzootic disease of the dromedary camel. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to assess seroprevalence and infection rates in the Canary Islands using antibody(-card agglutination test-CATT/T. evansi) and parasite detection tests (micro-Haematocrit Centrifugation technique, Giemsa stained blood smears, microscopic examination of lymph node aspirates and mouse inoculation). PCV was also determined. 745 dromedary camels (483 females and 262 males) were examined. Trypanosomes were detected in seven animals. 36 animals yielded CATT positive results while 709 animals were negative. All parasitologically positive animals were also CATT positive. Results showed a good correlation between CATT positive and low PCV and a higher seroprevalence in older animals. Trypanocidal drugs have not been registered in Spain and, consequently, if vigilance is not exercised the prevalence could be increased in the future. PMID:10828522

  15. Filarial infections in domestic dogs in Lusaka, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwila, Joyce; Mwase, Enala T

    2015-01-01

    Filariae are common parasites of dogs in many parts of the world, but little is known about the status of these infections in sub-Saharan Africa. A study was carried out to determine the occurrence and species of filariae among 272 dogs in Lusaka, Zambia. Giemsa stained blood smear and Knott's concentration methods revealed microfilariae in 16 (5.9%) of the dogs. PCR confirmed that most of these dogs had Acanthocheilonema reconditum infection. Ten (4.0%) of the examined dogs were positive for Dirofilaria immitis circulating antigen (by DiroCHEK(®) test), but D. immitis microfilariae were not identified in any of the dogs and the status of this infection remains unclear. Further studies are needed to explore the occurrence of filariae in Zambian dogs and the zoonotic potential for humans.

  16. Severe human Babesia divergens infection in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mørch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Human babesiosis is a rare but potentially life-threatening parasitic disease transmitted by ixodid ticks, and has not previously been reported in Norway. We report a case of severe babesiosis that occurred in Norway in 2007. The patient had previously undergone a splenectomy. He was frequently exposed to tick bites in an area endemic for bovine babesiosis in the west of Norway. The patient presented with severe haemolysis and multiorgan failure. Giemsa-stained blood smears revealed 30% parasitaemia with Babesia spp. He was treated with quinine in combination with clindamycin, apheresis, and supportive treatment with ventilatory support and haemofiltration, and made a complete recovery. This is the first case reported in Norway; however Babesia divergens seroprevalence in cattle in Norway is high, as is the risk of Ixodes ricinus tick bite in the general population. Babesiosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained febrile haemolytic disease.

  17. Severe human Babesia divergens infection in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørch, K; Holmaas, G; Frolander, P S; Kristoffersen, E K

    2015-04-01

    Human babesiosis is a rare but potentially life-threatening parasitic disease transmitted by ixodid ticks, and has not previously been reported in Norway. We report a case of severe babesiosis that occurred in Norway in 2007. The patient had previously undergone a splenectomy. He was frequently exposed to tick bites in an area endemic for bovine babesiosis in the west of Norway. The patient presented with severe haemolysis and multiorgan failure. Giemsa-stained blood smears revealed 30% parasitaemia with Babesia spp. He was treated with quinine in combination with clindamycin, apheresis, and supportive treatment with ventilatory support and haemofiltration, and made a complete recovery. This is the first case reported in Norway; however Babesia divergens seroprevalence in cattle in Norway is high, as is the risk of Ixodes ricinus tick bite in the general population. Babesiosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained febrile haemolytic disease. PMID:25541295

  18. Analysis of cervical smears in a Muslim population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Screening for the cancer of the cervix remains a neglected health care issue in Pakistan. To provide baseline data for future efforts to improve screening, we conducted a retrospective analysis of cervical smears taken in the obstetrics and gynaecological clinics of the Agha Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. We collected data on cervical smear cytology for cervical smears taken from January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1996. We assessed risk factors for dysplasia, including age, age at first marriage, and number of pregnancies. The overall prevalence of abnormal smears in our study was 0.5%. Of 20,995 cervical smears, showed non-specific inflammation, 7302 (34.8%) were reported as normal, 809 (3.85%) showed monillial infection, 148 (0.71%) showed atypia, 105 (0.5%) had dyplastic cytology and 52 (0.25%) samples were inadequate. The highest incidence of dysplastic smears was seen in the age group 35 to 44 years. Of 105 patients with dysplasia 12 were pregnant, and all were asymptomatic. The low prevalence of abnormal smears, compared with the data from Western populations, could be due to the internet bias of health awareness in the women who attended our hospital. The results of this study may serve as baseline for for future comparisons. A large community-based study may establish the exact prevalence of malignant and premalignant lesions so as to plan for future screening. (author)

  19. Usefulness of crush smears in intraoperative consultation of neurosurgical biopsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate accuracy of intraoperative crush smears diagnosis of neurosurgical biopsies. One hundred, neurosurgical biopsies were received for intraoperative consultation over a period of one year. Clinical information regarding age, gender, history, and CT scan or MRI findings were recorded. Crush smears were prepared, fixed in 95% alcohol and stained with rapid haemotoxylin and eosin (H and E) stains. Diagnosis was categorized into inflammatory, benign and malignant tumours. Remaining tissue was fixed overnight in 10% formalin for histological sections. Permanent H and E sections were used as the gold standard. The average time required for intraoperative cytological diagnosis was 8 minutes. Out of 100 neurosurgical biopsies, crush smears of 94 were considered suitable for interpretation. There were 8 inflammatory, 41 benign and 41 malignant tumours, including 4 inconclusive. Eighty-four of the crush smears diagnosis agreed with the histological diagnosis. Overall diagnostic accuracy of crush smears was 93.3%. Diagnosis of inflammatory, benign and malignant tumours showed specificity of 98.7%, 96% and 94%, and a sensitivity of 70%, 97.5% and 95% respectively. Crush smears are useful in the intraoperative diagnosis of space occupying lesions of central nervous system. The crush smears cytology was found highly reliable, rapid and inexpensive mode of intraoperative diagnosis. (author)

  20. Immunoperoxidase staining of cervicovaginal smears after radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachtel, M S; Thaler, H T; Gangi, M D; Hajdu, S I

    1992-01-01

    Cervicovaginal smears from 2 women with postirradiation dysplasia, 4 women with postirradiation squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, 30 women with irradiation atypia and 5 healthy, nonirradiated women were stained immunohistochemically with six keratin antibodies. For four of the antibodies--CK19 (BA17), EMA, PKK-1 and CAM 5.2--squamous cells showing irradiation atypia, postirradiation dysplasia or postirradiation squamous cell carcinoma were more likely to stain positively than were nonirradiated squamous cells. For three of the antibodies in which multiple squamous cells stained positively, the proportion of squamous cells showing postirradiation dysplasia or postirradiation squamous cell carcinoma staining strongly was equal to or greater than the corresponding overall proportion for squamous cells showing irradiation atypia. This was statistically significant with only one antibody, PKK-1. No statistically significant differences were seen in staining of irradiated and nonirradiated squamous cells by MAK-6 and AE1:AE3. The data show that some keratin antigens are more often expressed in the irradiated groups and that there may be differences in the degree of antigen expression between squamous cells showing postirradiation dysplasia or postirradiation squamous cell carcinoma and squamous cells showing irradiation atypia. PMID:1580112

  1. Abnormal cervical smears: are we in for an epidemic?

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfendale, M. R.; King, S.; Usherwood, M. M.

    1983-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to examine the pattern of a disturbing increase in abnormal cervical smears in one health district. Past records over fifteen years (1965-79) were analysed to produce pick up rates according to age, screening state, severity of lesion, and area of residence. Main findings included an increased pick up rate in unscreened (5.8 to 12.9/1000 smears) and screened (0.9 to 3.6/1000 smears) women. The order of increase was proportionately much higher in women under...

  2. Comparison of Chest X-Ray Findings of Smear Positive and Smear Negative Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuberculosis is a chronic pulmonary infectious disease that has affected one-third of the people in the world. It causes nine million new cases and two million deaths per year. Chest radiography associated with Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast staining procedure significantly helps the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Chest radiography can help the diagnosis of tuberculosis in patients with a negative smear sample result that is mainly diagnosed with delay. In this study, chest X-ray findings of PTB were compared in two groups of smear positive and smear negative patients. In this retrospective descriptive-analytical study, 376 patients who had been confirmed with PTB were referred to Birjand Health Care Center from 2001 to 2006. Out of the 376 patients, 100 patients with a positive smear based on WHO criteria were selected. In addition, among negative smear patients, 100 were selected in whom similar demographic characteristics with positive smear patients were seen. All of them had undergone chest radiographies that were then interpreted by two expert radiologists independently. Moreover, all patients’ sputa were examined by an expert laboratory technician at the reference laboratory of the health center. The obtained data were analyzed by means of frequency distribution table and descriptive statistics using SPSS (version 15) and Chi-square statistical test. Except reticulo-nodular infiltration, the relative frequency of other radiographic findings in positive smear patients were more than negative smear patients; and only differences in calcification variables, mediastinal widening, patchy infiltration and hilar adenopathy were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Based on the results of this study, although radiographic findings are not diagnostic in PTB, they are helpful if the assessment associates with the view of clinical manifestations and sputum smears

  3. Molecular detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in carrier cattle of Iran - first documented report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Shayan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a zoonotic, tick borne rickettsial pathogen. A. phagocytophilum has been detected in North America, Europe, Africa and Asia by molecular methods. In Iran we have little information about the distribution of this agent in human and animals."nMaterials and Methods: From March 2007 to July 2007, one hundred and fifty blood samples and corresponding blood smears of cattle without any signs of disease were prepared from a region in Isfahan, Iran with previous history of tick borne disease outbreak.The blood smears were first stained with Giemsa and analyzed for the presence of A. phagocytophilum in the neutrophils. The extracted DNA from blood cells were analyzed by A. phagocytophilum specific nested PCR using primers derived from the 16S rRNA gene."nResults: All blood smears were negative for A. phagocytophilum like structures by Giemsa staining, but 2 out of 150 blood samples (1.33% were positive for A. phagocytophilum specific nested PCR using specific primers derived from 16S rRNA gene."nConclusion: This study is the first detection of A. phagocytophilum in carrier cattle in Iran. The present study showed that A. Phagocytophilum is detectable in cattle without any sign of infection but maintained a persistant sub-clinical state in the cattle reservoir, which can be inferred as possible risk for management of public health.

  4. Cytokine responses of CD4+ T cells during a Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi (ER blood-stage infection in mice initiated by the natural route of infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butcher Geoffrey

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigation of host responses to blood stages of Plasmodium spp, and the immunopathology associated with this phase of the life cycle are often performed on mice infected directly with infected red blood cells. Thus, the effects of mosquito bites and the pre-erythrocytic stages of the parasite, which would be present in natural infection, are ignored In this paper, Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi infections of mice injected directly with infected red blood cells were compared with those of mice infected by the bites of infected mosquitoes, in order to determine whether the courses of primary infection and splenic CD4 T cell responses are similar. Methods C57Bl/6 mice were injected with red blood cells infected with P. chabaudi (ER or infected via the bite of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. Parasitaemia were monitored by Giemsa-stained thin blood films. Total spleen cells, CD4+ T cells, and cytokine production (IFN-?, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 were analysed by flow cytometry. In some experiments, mice were subjected to bites of uninfected mosquitoes prior to infectious bites in order to determine whether mosquito bites per se could affect a subsequent P. chabaudi infection. Results P. chabaudi (ER infections initiated by mosquito bite were characterized by lower parasitaemia of shorter duration than those observed after direct blood challenge. However, splenomegaly was comparable suggesting that parasitaemia alone does not account for the increase in spleen size. Total numbers of CD4 T cells and those producing IFN-?, IL-10 and IL-2 were reduced in comparison to direct blood challenge. By contrast, the reduction in IL-4 producing cells was less marked suggesting that there is a proportionally lower Th1-like response in mice infected via infectious mosquitoes. Strikingly, pre-exposure to bites of uninfected mosquitoes reduced the magnitude and duration of the subsequent mosquito-transmitted infection still further, but enhanced the response of CD4 T cells producing IFN-? and IL-4. Conclusion The data in this paper suggest that studying early host responses in blood stage malaria infections measured after direct blood challenge of mice may not completely reflect the natural situation, and more detailed investigations of blood-stage immunity after mosquito transmission in experimental models should be considered.

  5. Papshop: Not a 'melon'choly Pap smear workshop!

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C, Gordon.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available As Head of Undergraduate Education in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at the University of Cape Town, South Africa, I have a particular interest in the competencies needed to perform primary care gynaecological procedures, one of which is the Pap smear. I was approached by a group of ke [...] en volunteer students to assist with Pap smear training to roll out a pilot screening programme at studentrun after-hours clinics in Cape Town and at volunteer rural health promotion clinics. This article describes a novel approach to teaching the Pap smear technique, using fruit and toilet rolls, which can easily be replicated in resource-constrained areas. Students branded the workshops as 'Papshops', and the name has stuck. Increasing numbers of students are now taught by peers already trained in prior Papshops, thereby expanding the teaching workforce. To date, during 2013 - 2014, Papshop students have performed almost 300 Pap smears for eligible women in under-resourced areas.

  6. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis in a rural setup: Comparison of clinical algorithm, smear scoring and culture by semiquantitative technique

    OpenAIRE

    Rao P; Devi S; Shriyan A; Rajaram M.; Jagdishchandra K

    2004-01-01

    This study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in a rural set up and compare the smear scoring system to that of culture by semiquantitative technique. A total of 505 married women, who were in sexually active age group of 15-44 years, were selected from three different villages. High vaginal swabs, endocervical swabs, vaginal discharge and blood were collected and processed in the laboratory. Overall prevalenc...

  7. Surface Microflora of Four Smear-Ripened Cheeses

    OpenAIRE

    Mounier, Jérôme; Gelsomino, Roberto; Goerges, Stefanie; Vancanneyt, Marc; Vandemeulebroecke, Katrien; Hoste, Bart; Scherer, Siegfried; Swings, Jean; Gerald F. Fitzgerald; Cogan, Timothy M.

    2005-01-01

    The microbial composition of smear-ripened cheeses is not very clear. A total of 194 bacterial isolates and 187 yeast isolates from the surfaces of four Irish farmhouse smear-ripened cheeses were identified at the midpoint of ripening using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), repetitive sequence-based PCR, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing for identifying and typing the bacteria and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (mtDNA R...

  8. Smear microscopy and culture conversion rates among smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients by HIV status in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Mfinanga Sayoki G; Senkoro Mbazi; Mørkve Odd

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Tanzania ranks 15th among the world's 22 countries with the largest tuberculosis burden and tuberculosis has continued to be among the major public health problems in the country. Limited data, especially in patients co infected with HIV, are available to predict the duration of time required for a smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patient to achieve sputum conversion after starting effective treatment. In this study we assessed the sputum smear and culture conversion ...

  9. Detección de mutaciones en los genes K-ras, H-ras y EGFR en muestras de plasma sanguíneo y cepillado cervical de pacientes con neoplasia intraepitelial cervical (NIC) III y cáncer de cuello uterino / Detection of genes mutations in the K-RAS, H-RAS and EGFR in samples of blood plasma and cervical smears for patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia III and cervical cancer

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dabeiba Adriana, García; Yazmín Rocío, Arias; Fabio, Ancízar Aristizábal.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El cáncer cervical es el segundo cáncer más importante en mujeres a nivel mundial y la segunda causa de muerte en mujeres por cáncer. Se ha demostrado que el proceso de carcinogénesis cervical presenta componentes tanto genéticos, epigenéticos y medio ambientales. En la actualidad, muc [...] hos estudios se encaminan en la búsqueda de marcadores moleculares como mutaciones en oncogenes y/o genes tumor supresor que se asocien con la progresión de esta entidad. Los genes candidatos más estudiados en cáncer cervical en distintas poblaciones han sido H-ras, K-ras, EGFR entre otros. Objetivos: Se identificó el virus de papiloma humano (VPH) genérico y específico en el ADN libre de plasma y de cepillado cervical de pacientes con cáncer cervical invasivo y con neoplasia intraepitelial cervical (NIC) III además de evaluar alteraciones genéticas, como mutaciones en los genes H-ras, K-ras y EGFR. Metodología: Para ello se detectó el VPH genérico mediante PCR con los iniciadores GP5+/GP6+, y específico para VPH 16 y 18 en la región E6/E7. Para detectar las mutaciones en el codón 12 de H-ras, codones 12 y 13 de K-Ras y el exón 21 de EGFR se realizó mediante secuenciación directa de los productos de PCR de estos fragmentos génicos. Resultados: Obteniendo una buena correlación entre las muestras de plasma sanguíneo y los cepillados cervicales, tanto para los hallazgos de VPH p=0.0374 como para las mutaciones evaluadas p=0. En general, para EGFR en el exón 21 no se encontraron mutaciones, al igual que para los codones 12 y 13 en K-ras y codón 12 en H-ras. Conclusión: El uso del ADN presente en el plasma puede ser relevante para el análisis de mutaciones y de la presencia de marcadores tumorales cuando no se dispone de otras muestras. Abstract in english Introduction: Cervical cancer is the second most important cancer in women worldwide, and the second cause of cancer death in women. It has been shown that the process of cervical carcinogenesis presents as genetic and epigenetic components as environmental issues. At present, many studies are addre [...] ssed in searching for molecular markers such as mutations in oncogenes and/or tumor suppressor genes that are associated with the progression of this disease, the most studied candidate genes in cervical cancer in different populations have been H-ras, K-ras, EGFR among others. Objective: The present study identified human papilloma virus (HPV) generic and specific in DNA-free plasma and cervical smears of invasive cervical cancer patients and patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) III in addition to assessing genetic alterations, such as mutations in the genes H-ras, EGFR and K-ras. Methods: To do so generic HPV was detected by PCR with primers GP5+/GP6+, and specific HPV 16 and 18 in E6/E7 region; to detect mutations in codon 12 of H-ras, codons 12 and 13 of K-ras and EGFR exon 21 was conducted by direct sequencing of PCR products of these gene fragments. Results: Getting a good correlation between samples of blood plasma and cervical smears for both; the findings of HPV p=0.0374 and evaluated mutations p=0. In general, for EGFR in exon 21 mutations were not found, as for codons 12 and 13 in K-ras and codon 12 in H-ras. Conclusion: The use of DNA in plasma may be relevant to the analysis of mutations and the presences of tumor markers are not available from other samples.

  10. Detection of Theileria annulata by PCR and its Comparison With Smear Method in Native Carrier Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Hamidreza Azizi; Behrooz Shiran; Amir Farzaneh Dehkordi; Fazlollah Salehi; Camellia Taghadosi

    2008-01-01

    During March and April 2007, 140 native cows with the mean age of more than one year were selected randomly and their age and sex were registered in the related papers. Primarily, a thin layer smear was prepared from their ear sublime vein blood and was fixed with methanol and then it stained with Gimsa dye. Also, 9 mL blood from the jagular vein of the same cow was taken and collected in autoclaved tubes (containing 1 mL of 3.2% buffered citrate solution) conversely for extracting their DNA ...

  11. Bulk acid-fast staining of sputum smears: time to end a taboo

    OpenAIRE

    Kam, K. M.; Yip, C. W.; Tang, H. S.; Van Deun, A.

    2009-01-01

    SETTING: A high-throughput laboratory routinely performing fluorescence microscopy for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear with automated bulk staining. OBJECTIVES: To determine the risk of false-positive AFB sputum smears from bulk staining showing as smear-positive, culture-negative specimens, or a decrease in smear- and culture-positives. DESIGN: Direct AFB smear and Löwenstein-Jensen culture were performed for a total of 39 350 routine sputum specimens. Of these, 6633 were randomly selected for...

  12. Drug resistance pattern among afb smear positive retreatment completed cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worldwide, multidrug resistance (MDR TB) is a serious issue. It has increased over the last decade. Re-treatment completed sputum smear positive cases have much higher incidence of MDR- TB as compared to primary MDR - TB. Objective: To estimate the incidence of drug resistance pattern among AFB smear positive re-treatment completed cases. Study Design: Evidence based prospective study. Study Setting: Institute of Chest Medicine, Mayo Hospital Lahore, Tertiary care hospital affiliated with King Edward Medical University, Lahore, Pakistan. Methodology: A total 50 (Male 22, Female 28) pulmonary TB patients who had completed Re- treatment regimen in the past and are still sputum smear positive for acid fast Bacilli were included in the study. Three consecutive sputum specimens were collected at Aga Khan University collection center at Lahore. The specimen were sent to Aga Khan University Lab Karachi for AFB smear, culture and drug sensitivity both for essential and reserve drugs. Reports for AFB smear were received within a week, while culture and drug sensitivity' reports after 6 weeks. Reports data was analyzed for essential and reserve anti tuberculous drug sensitivity for mycobacterium tuberculosis. Results: Data Analysis revealed MDR TB in 31(62%) patients which include 11 males and 23 females. Individual drug resistance to essential drugs was INH - 62%, Rifampicin - 68%, Ethambutol - 24%, PZA - 25% and Streptomycin - 21 %. Poly drug resistance was determined in' 38% cases. Individual drug resistance to reserve drugs - kanamycin, Amikacin, ofloxacin, Ethionamide and PAS was 4%, 4%, 36%, 10% and 2% respectively. Conclusion: There is a very high proportion of MDR TB in sputum smear AFB positive retreatment cases. Suggestion: Comprehensive measures including DO- TS PLUS are needed to control MDR TB in Pakistan. (author)

  13. Determination of plutonium in air and smear samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method has been developed for the determination of plutonium in air samples and smear samples that were collected on filter papers. The sample papers are digested in nitric acid, extracted into 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA)-xylene, and evaporated onto stainless steel disks. Alpha spectrometry is employed to determine the activity of each plutonium isotope. Each sample is spiked with plutonium-236. All glassware used in the procedure is disposable. The detection limits are 3 and 5 dpm (disintegrations per minute) for air and smear samples, respectively, with an average recovery of 87%

  14. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis in a rural setup: Comparison of clinical algorithm, smear scoring and culture by semiquantitative technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao P

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs in a rural set up and compare the smear scoring system to that of culture by semiquantitative technique. A total of 505 married women, who were in sexually active age group of 15-44 years, were selected from three different villages. High vaginal swabs, endocervical swabs, vaginal discharge and blood were collected and processed in the laboratory. Overall prevalence of 29% reproductive tract infection was detected. Endogenous infection was commonly observed (27.92%, and very low prevalence of STIs (Trichomonas 1.18%, Syphilis 0%, Gonorrhea 0% was detected. Diagnosis of BV was possible in 104 (20.5% women by smear alone and 88 (17.42% women by semiquantitative culture.

  15. Metal Mesh Smear Sampling for Glow Discharge Analytical Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, R.W.; Barshick, C.M.; Ramsey, J.M.; Smith, D.H.

    2000-06-01

    Metal mesh smear sampling is being developed and evaluated for use in a number of glow discharge and other optical and mass spectrometric techniques. Sensitive elemental and isotopic analyses thus will be coupled with a convenient sampling scheme similar to one that is common for radiological surveys.

  16. Missed Opportunities for Health Education on Pap Smears in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Angela M.; Nussbaum, Lauren; Cabrera, Lilia; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite cervical cancer being one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru, cervical Pap smear coverage is low. This article uses findings from 185 direct clinician observations in four cities of Peru (representing the capital and each of the three main geographic regions of the country) to assess missed opportunities for…

  17. Cytological patterns of cervical pap smears with histopathological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagya Lakshmi Atla

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: Pap smear is simple, inexpensive and can be performed in the outpatient department. Hence, it should be recommended routinely as a method of improving reproductive health, early detection of premalignant and malignant cervical lesions. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(8.000: 1911-1916

  18. Evaluation of oral ulcers appearing in pemphigus patients treated with dexamethasone-cyclophosphamide pulse therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Pasricha J; Kapasi Akila

    1992-01-01

    Twenty cases of pemphigus with oral ulcers who were being treated with dexamethasone-cyclophosphamide pulse therapy were evaluated for the cause of ulcers. The lesions were first classified into pemphigus ulcers, aphthous ulcers, pyogenic infection and candidiasis on the basis of clinical characteristics. Smears from these ulcers were then stained with Giemsa stain to look for acantholytic cells and bacteria. Another smear was mounted in 10% KOH to look for candida. Seven patients were...

  19. A rapid stain for the diagnosis of granuloma inguinale.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Farrell, N; Hoosen, A A; Coetzee, K; van den Ende, J.

    1990-01-01

    Tissue smears were prepared from 55 men and eight women with genital ulceration using two staining techniques and examined by direct microscopy for the presence of Donovan bodies. Twenty three smears were positive using the May-Grunwald-Giemsa staining method and 23 were positive using a rapid technique, the RapiDiff stain. The RapiDiff technique is suitable for use in the diagnosis of granuloma inguinale (donovanosis) in busy sexually transmitted diseases clinics in the developing world.

  20. Psychological effects of a low-grade abnormal cervical smear test result: anxiety and associated factors

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, N.M.; Sharp, L.; Cotton, S C; Masson, L F; Little, J.; Walker, L G; Avis, M.; Philips, Z; Russell, I; Whynes, D; Cruickshank, M; Woolley, C M

    2006-01-01

    Receipt of an abnormal cervical smear result often generates fear and confusion and can have a negative impact on a woman's well-being. Most previous studies have focussed on high-grade abnormal smears. This study describes the psychological and psychosocial effects, on women, of having received a low-grade abnormal smear result. Over 3500 women recruited to TOMBOLA (Trial Of Management of Borderline and Other Low-grade Abnormal smears) participated in this study. Anxiety was assessed using t...

  1. Sensitivity of a papanicolaou smear in the diagnosis of candida albicans infection of the cervix

    OpenAIRE

    Avwioro Og; Olabiyi Oe; Avwioro To

    2010-01-01

    Background: Candida albicans infections of the cervix are not adequately diagnosed in Papanicolaou smears when compared with culture in Sabouraud dextrose agar. Methods: Cervical smears were collected from 1000, non-pregnant, asymptomatic women. The specimens were prepared using the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear method examined by microscopy and subsequently cultured in Sabouraud dextrose agar. Results: The overall incidences of C. albicans in cervical smears cultured in Sabouraud dextrose agar wa...

  2. Sputum Conversion Among Patients With Smear Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soudbakhsh A R

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB bacteriologic assessment of sputum for detection of acid bacilli (AFB Has essential role. This evaluation is accomplished by direct sputum smear & sputum culture. These examinations must be done in regular and preferably monthly after beginning of treatment. These tests have two important aims, including, determining of treatment efficacy & duration of isolation."nMethods and Materials: Most of the studies have that classic six month regimen led to sputum smear conversion & negative sputum culture in 85% of patient. This treatment regimen has two phases, including, attack phase and maintenance phase. In the attack phase we use four drugs, including, Isoniazid (INH, Rifampin (RMP, Pyrazinamide (PZA and Ethambutol (EMB for the first 2 months and if necessary until the end of third month. In the maintenance phase we use INH and Rif for the remaining of treatment course. The main objectives of this study were to determine the time needed for smear conversion and assessment of probable factors which may influence the smear conversion until 4 months after beginning of therapy. The factors that were assessed, were, Age, nationality, sex, clinical symptoms, underlying diseases, chest radiography (number of cavities, smoking, drug abuse and concentration of AF13 in the sputum Generally, we did this cross sectional study on the patient's records, who had been observed in Imam Khomeni Hospital, west health service center and masih daneshvary hospital between."nResults: This study showed that from totally 218 patients, 138(74.6% patients had sputum conversion at the first 2 months of treatment and until the end of 3rd & 4th month this rate reached to 83.3% respectively. So in the end of fourth month only 32(14.7% patients did not show sputum smear conversion. On the other hand this study showed that two factors including presence of cavities in chest radiography & concentration of AFB in the sputum are influencing this rate strongly."nConclusion: Role of other factors such as age, nationality , Smoking, diabetes mellitus and weigh loss are controversial and another studies are necessary for confirming their roles. Other factors including sex, clinical symptoms has not been show to be important. Some factors such as drug abuse and immunosuppresive therapy has not been assessed in this study, because number of cases were not enough for statistical analysis.

  3. Electrochemical Evaluation on Apical Leakage of AH26 Sealer after Smear Layer Removal

    OpenAIRE

    khedmat, Seddigheh; Rezaefar, Mostafa

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Recently, attention has been drawn to the influence of smear layer removal on apical seal, and the relation of root canal filling material with canal wall surface in the presence and absence of the smear layer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of the smear layer removal on the apical sealing ability of AH26 sealer.

  4. Comparison of the thick smear and Kato-Katz techniques for diagnosis of intestinal helminth infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Fred Luciano Neves

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the efficiency of Kato-Katz thick smear and thick smear techniques for the diagnosis of intestinal helminths. The sensitivity of the thick smear technique was higher than that of the Kato-Katz method for the diagnosis of all helminths except Schistosoma mansoni.

  5. Delay in treatment seeking of smear positive tuberculous patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess and identify the causes and circumstances leading to delays in health seeking and diagnosis of tuberculosis patients as they often present with advance disease resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Settings Department of Tuberculosis, DOTS clinic DHQ Hospital, Vehari. Methodology One (author) inspiration diagnosed smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients were included. Information was gathered through interviews and from TB-01 card. Results Maximum patients were in age group of 16-40 years. Median patient delay was 4-6 months; jobless, homeless personnel had longer delay. The main reason for delay was that the symptoms were not considered serious enough. Delay in presentation of smear positive cases may be due to the lack of awareness of patients and the incompetence of some health workers. Training and supervision of staff and awareness campaigns targeted at the population and involvement of private sector will improve TB control in Vehari. (author)

  6. Mass shell smearing effects in top pair production

    OpenAIRE

    Kuksa, V. I.; Pasechnik, R. S.; Vlasenko, D. E.

    2011-01-01

    The top quark pair production and decay are considered in the framework of the smeared-mass unstable particles model. The results for total and differential cross sections in vicinity of $t\\bar{t}$ threshold are in good agreement with the previous ones in the literature. The strategy of calculations of the higher order corrections in the framework of the model is discussed. Suggested approach significantly simplifies calculations compared to the standard perturbative one and...

  7. Pap-smear Benchmark Data For Pattern Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan; Norup, Jonas; Dounias, Georgios; Bjerregaard, Beth

    2005-01-01

    This case study provides data and a baseline for comparing classification methods. The data consists of 917 images of Pap-smear cells, classified carefully by cyto-technicians and doctors. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and the cells fall into 7 classes. A basic data analysis includes scatter plots and linear classification results, in order to provide domain knowledge and lower bounds on the acceptable performance of future classifiers. Students and researchers can access the ...

  8. Optimal kinematics for finite elements with smeared-embedded discontinuity

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, J. Y.; Cervera Ruiz, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    In this paper an optimal kinematics for finite elements with smeared non-uniform discontinuity/crack is proposed to eliminate the spurious stress transfer across a fully softened crack (i.e. stress locking). We first present the optimal kinematics of the finite elements with embedded non-uniform displacement jumps. It is found that, if the regularization bandwidth of the strong discontinuity reaches a critical value, i.e. the so-called consistent characteristic length of an element, the...

  9. ABNORMAL FINDINGS IN PAP SMEARS: ISFAHAN PROVIENCE 1997-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.H SADRI

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cervical cancer is a common female malignancy in developing countries. In our health care system, the screening program is performed by doing pap smears with the interval of three years. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and frequency disturbation of abnormal smears. Methods. This is a cross sectional study was done in 1997-1998. Sample group were all the under coverage married women aged 20-65 years who have a factor of referal criteria. Papsmears samples were interpreted by a pathologist. Papsmear results were documented by colposcopy and biopsy. Results. The prevalence of abnormal smears in under coverage women is 0.05 percent. Results of abnormal papsmears due to more investigations (colposcopy and biopsy were: Normal 25 percent, ASCUS 57 percent, CIN 14 percent, CIN 2 1 percent, CIN 3 1 percent invasive cancer 2 percent. Conclusion. Refering of women with abnormal signs such as leukoplakia, cervical erosion, and history of contact bleeding is necessary. The number of false positive results in cytotechnologlsts diagtlosfs is high. This result shows that on-job-training for cytotechnologists is important.

  10. Blood Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Home > Learn About Blood > Blood Components Printable Version Blood Components How can one donation help multiple people? ... blood. The main transfusable blood components include: Whole Blood Whole blood contains red cells, white cells, and ...

  11. Diagnostic accuracy of slit skin smears in leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of slit skin smears in clinically suspected patients of leprosy using histopathology as gold standard. Study Design: Validation study Place and Duration of Study: Study was carried out at Rawalpindi Leprosy Hospital, Dermatology Department Military Hospital (MH) and Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi from 18th August 2012 to 18 Feb 2013. Methods: Appropriate technical and ethical approval for the study and patient consent were obtained. All suspected patients of leprosy of any age and either gender having typical hypo-aesthetic or anesthetic, erythematous or hypo-pigmented scaly skin lesions on any part of body were included in this study. All patients who have already received treatment for leprosy, patients with pure neural leprosy, patient not giving their consent for skin biopsy and patients with lepra reactions were excluded from this study. Forty eight patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Sample size had been calculated by using WHO sample size calculator taking confidence level 95%, absolute precision required 14% and anticipated population proportion 40%. Non-probability consecutive sampling technique was used to collect sample. Results: The results of the study revealed that out of 48 clinically suspected patients of leprosy skin biopsy confirmed the diagnosis in 34 patients (70.8%) and the slit skin smear had diagnostic accuracy of 68.75% with sensitivity 55.8% and specificity and positive predictive value of 100%. Conclusion: Study suggested that although slit skin smears are rapid and inexpensive method of diagnosis but their diagnostic accuracy is low. (author)

  12. Mass shell smearing effects in top pair production

    CERN Document Server

    Kuksa, V I; Vlasenko, D E

    2011-01-01

    The top quark pair production and decay are considered in the framework of the smeared-mass unstable particles model. The results for total and differential cross sections in vicinity of $t\\bar{t}$ threshold are in good agreement with the previous ones in the literature. The strategy of calculations of the higher order corrections in the framework of the model is discussed. Suggested approach significantly simplifies calculations compared to the standard perturbative one and can serve as a convenient tool for fast and precise preliminary analysis of processes involving intermediate time-like top quark exchanges in the near-threshold region.

  13. Pap-smear Benchmark Data For Pattern Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan; Norup, Jonas

    2005-01-01

    This case study provides data and a baseline for comparing classification methods. The data consists of 917 images of Pap-smear cells, classified carefully by cyto-technicians and doctors. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and the cells fall into 7 classes. A basic data analysis includes scatter plots and linear classification results, in order to provide domain knowledge and lower bounds on the acceptable performance of future classifiers. Students and researchers can access the database on the Internet, and use it to test and compare their own classification methods.

  14. Factorization in the model of unstable particles with smeared mass

    CERN Document Server

    Kuksa, V

    2011-01-01

    The method of factorization based on the model of unstable particles with a smeared mass is applied to the processes with an unstable particle in an intermediate state. It is shown that in the framework of the model the amplitude squared of such processes is exactly factorable. Decay widths and cross sections can be represented in the universal factorized form for an arbitrary set of interacting particles. This exact factorization is caused by the specific structure of unstable particles propagators. We formulate the factorization method and perform a phenomenological analysis of the factorization effects.

  15. Incidence and prevalence of tick-borne haemoparasites in domestic ruminants in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell-Sakyi, L; Koney, E B M; Dogbey, O; Walker, A R

    2004-09-20

    Giemsa-stained thin blood smears prepared monthly from cattle, sheep and goats in the Greater Accra region of Ghana between May 1994 and December 1996 were examined for presence of tick-borne haemoparasites. The majority of animals were less than 2 months old at the start of the survey. Monthly and cumulative incidences are presented of Anaplasma sp., Babesia bigemina, Borrelia sp., Eperythrozoon sp., Theileria mutans and Theileria velifera in cattle, Anaplasma sp., Borrelia sp., and Theileria sp. in sheep, and Anaplasma sp. in goats. T. mutans was the commonest parasite in cattle, with 100% incidence in calves by 10 months of age, and Anaplasma was commonest in small ruminants. The relative prevalence of these haemoparasites in blood smears from cattle, sheep and goats sampled on a single occasion at sites in all 10 regions of Ghana was found to be similar, though actual infection rates were lower. Packed cell volume (PCV) measurements from the sampled animals are also presented; no seasonal trends were evident in the PCV of the cattle, sheep and goats sampled monthly. In animals sampled on a single occasion, mean PCV was significantly higher in cattle and sheep without detectable haemoparasite infection, and in cattle was lowest in animals positive for both Babesia and Anaplasma, while there was no difference in mean PCV levels between parasitised and non-parasitised goats. PMID:15350659

  16. Inflammation on the Cervical Papanicolaou Smear: Evidence for Infection in Asymptomatic Women?

    OpenAIRE

    Stavroula Baka; Ioanna Tsirmpa; Anthia Chasiakou; Iliana Tsouma; Ekaterina Politi; Vassiliki Gennimata; Evangelia Kouskouni

    2013-01-01

    Background. The significance of the possible presence of infection on the Pap smear of asymptomatic women based on cytological criteria is practically unknown. Materials and Methods. A total of 1117 asymptomatic nonpregnant women had Pap smear tests and vaginal as well as cervical cultures completed (622 with and 495 without inflammation on the Pap smear). Results. Out of the 622 women with inflammation on Pap test, 251 (40.4%) had negative cultures (normal flora present), while 371 (59.6%) w...

  17. The Pathogenic Microorganisms in Papanicolaou Vaginal Smears and Correlation with Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Esmat Barouti; Farah Farzaneh; Azadeh Akbari Sene; Zohreh Tajik; Bahar Jafari

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Non-specific cervicitis or inflammatory changes in a smear report are common which are usually unclear for clinical approaches. To investigate the frequency of inflammation and pathogenic vaginal microorganisms in cervical smears among an Iranian population sample.Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on Pap smear samples of women referred to gynecological clinic of Taleghani Hospital in Tehran, Iran, between October 2008 and March 2009. This study was c...

  18. Smear correction of highly variable, frame-transfer CCD images with application to polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Francisco A.; Feller, Alex; Nagaraju, Krishnappa

    2015-07-01

    Image smear, produced by the shutter-less operation of frame transfer CCD detectors, can be detrimental for many imaging applications. Existing algorithms used to numerically remove smear, do not contemplate cases where intensity levels change considerably between consecutive frame exposures. In this report we reformulate the smearing model to include specific variations of the sensor illumination. The corresponding desmearing expression and its noise properties are also presented and demonstrated in the context of fast imaging polarimetry.

  19. Smear correction of highly-variable, frame-transfer-CCD images with application to polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Iglesias, Francisco A; Nagaraju, K

    2015-01-01

    Image smear, produced by the shutter-less operation of frame transfer CCD detectors, can be detrimental for many imaging applications. Existing algorithms used to numerically remove smear, do not contemplate cases where intensity levels change considerably between consecutive frame exposures. In this report we reformulate the smearing model to include specific variations of the sensor illumination. The corresponding desmearing expression and its noise properties are also presented and demonstrated in the context of fast imaging polarimetry.

  20. Survival of tubercle bacilli in heat-fixed and stained sputum smears

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso Celso Luíz; Giacomelli Luiz Roberto Bigão; Helbel César; Sant'Ana Janete Jordão; Martins Fátima Moreira; Barreto Angela Maria Werneck

    2001-01-01

    We used a slide culture technique to detect tubercle bacilli surviving in sputum smears (n=46) after conventional heat fixation and Ziehl-Neelsen staining. In all heat-fixed sputum smears, tubercle bacilli survived after time 0 (n=22), 24 h (n=7), 48 h (n=7), 72 h (n=4), and seven days (n=6). None of the stained sputum smears showed growth on slide cultures. Viable tubercle bacilli remaining in heat-fixed sputum smears for at least seven days may present an infection risk to laboratory staff....

  1. Extraction and detection of Mycobacterium leprae DNA from ZNCF-stained skin smear slides for better identification of negative skin smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamble R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Identification of Mycobacterium leprae, which causes leprosy, is done by Ziehl Neelsen Carbol Fuchsin (ZNCF stained slit skin smear microscopy that aids in the diagnosis and quantification of approximate bacterial load carried by the patient. We attempted M. leprae DNA extraction from 46 stained slit skin smear negative slides, using Proteinase K and SDS lysis, followed by ethanol precipitation. M. leprae specific primers (16SrRNA were used for PCR-based amplification of DNA. We could detect M. leprae DNA in 15 (32.6% samples. The method can be useful in the diagnosis of apparently slit skin smear negative leprosy cases.

  2. Hematology and serum biochemistry of captive gharial (Gavialis gangeticus in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Amin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the hematological and serum biochemical parameters of the critically endangered gharial (Gavialis gangeticus. Materials and Methods: Blood samples for hemato-biochemical analyses were collected from the ventral median coccygeal vein of six juvenile and six sub adult gharials of Dewari Gharial Rearing Centre of National Chambal Sanctuary, Madhya Pradesh, India. Hematological examination was performed manually. Differential leukocyte count was performed on the blood smears stained with Giemsa’s stain. The analysis of serum was conducted by eppendorf ECOM-F 6124 semi auto biochemical analyzer using standard ERBA biochemical reagent kits. Results: Peripheral blood cells of gharial showed erythrocytes with an oval outline and centrally located prominent round to oval nucleus. Erythrocyte count in sub adult gharials was significantly greater than juveniles. Whereas erythrocyte mean corpuscular volume and erythrocyte size in juveniles was significantly larger than sub adults. The average most abundant leukocyte type in gharial was lymphocytes (53%, followed by heterophils (27%, eosinophils (10%, monocytes (7% and basophils (3%. Aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, blood urea nitrogen, triglycerides and albumin concentrations in sub adult gharials were significantly higher than juveniles. No significant differences were determined in other hemato-biochemical parameters between juvenile and sub adult gharials under study. Conclusion: A preliminary database on hematology and blood biochemistry of gharial was established. The data will be useful in routine health evaluations, especially in relation to determining potential effects associated with factors such as pollution and infectious diseases.

  3. Diagnosis of malaria by acridine orange fluorescent microscopy in an endemic area of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Bosch

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent (acridine orange microscopical examination of capillary centrifuged blood (quantitative buffy coat [QBC®] analysis and Giemsa stained thick blood smears (GTS were compared for diagnosis of malaria in blood specimens from adults living in malaria transmission areas of the States of Bolivar and Amazonas in southeastern and south Venezuela, respectively. Of a total of 198 GTS examined, 95 subjects (48% showed parasitaemia. Among the 95 blood films with a positive GTS, 94 were judged positive by the QBC. However, positive QBC tubes were found in 29 out of 103 blood specimens with a negative GTS. Thus, relative to a GTS standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the QBC-test was 99.2% and 72%, respectively. Young trophozoites of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum could not be distinguished with certainty. It is confirmed that the QBC offers many advantages compared with the standard diagnosis of malaria parasites, specifically in the speed of staining and ease of interpretation. However, in places where P. falciparum and P. vivax occur, species and stage differentiation should be confirmed with the GTS.

  4. Comparison of four methods for rapid detection of Pneumocystis carinii in respiratory specimens.

    OpenAIRE

    Cregan, P.; Yamamoto, A; Lum, A; VanDerHeide, T; Macdonald, M; Pulliam, L

    1990-01-01

    Four stains for the detection of Pneumocystis carinii in respiratory specimens were compared for sensitivity, specificity, preparation time, and ease of interpretation. One hundred specimens were collected. Of these, 50 were induced sputum specimens and 50 were bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. All specimens were stained with Diff-Quik (DQ) (a modified Giemsa stain), a quick silver stain, and direct and indirect immunofluorescence stains. A positive specimen was defined as any smear positive by t...

  5. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in HIV-positive patients: A study of two cases

    OpenAIRE

    Shah Sejal; Shah Aditya; Prajapati Sachin; Bilimoria Freny

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection is emerging as increasingly frequent and serious new disease. Leishmaniasis may be acquired before or after HIV infection. We describe two cases of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in HIV-positive patients. Both the patients had papulonodular lesions on upper extremities and back with low CD4 count. Slit skin smear with giemsa stain revealed Leishman Donovan (LD) bodies and skin biopsy of both the patients revealed...

  6. Indigenous cutaneous leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammed K; Narayani K; Aravindan K

    1990-01-01

    A 20 year old male from Nilambur of Malappuram district of Kerala developed an asymptomatic , single, well circumscribed erythomatous indurated plaque about 3x 2.5 cm in size with central crusting, on the left forearm just about the wrist on the lateral aspect, of six months duration. He had never gone out of his native place at any time in his life, Slit smear examination and staining with Giemsa stain showed plenty of extracelluar and intracellular Leishman, Donovan bodies, ,Histopathology ...

  7. DS Hepatic Coccidiosis in Angora Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Zerrin Erdogmus S.; Yesari ErOksuz

    2006-01-01

    Clinical, pathological and parasitological findings were presented in casses of naturally occurring hepatic coccidiosis in 10 Angora rabbits aging 4 to 6 week-old. Macroscopical changes were characterized by mild ascites, multiple 1-3 mm diameter, discrete to colascing, yellow white nodules in the liver. Microgamates, macrogametes and oocysts were detected in Giemsa stained impression smears. Histological lesions were characterized by bile duct dilatation, bile duct epithelial hyperplasia and...

  8. Vomiting blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hematemesis; Blood in the vomit ... may be hard to tell the difference between vomiting blood and coughing up blood (from the lung) or a nosebleed. Conditions that cause vomiting blood can also cause blood in the stool .

  9. Are women sufficiently well informed to provide valid consent for the cervical smear test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, D N

    2000-06-01

    Three hundred women attending colposcopy for the first time, following an abnormal cervical smear, were invited to fill in a questionnaire. This covered aspects of their understanding of the cervical smear test and the NHS Cervical Screening Programme (NHSCSP). In addition, it covered aspects of consent to the test. The response rate was 83%. Seventy percent thought that the NHSCSP is working well and 72% were aware that probably over 3000 cases of cervical cancer per year are being saved by the NHSCSP. However, 55% did not know that the death rate from cervical cancer is decreasing. 96% were aware that the main reason for a cervical smear is to prevent the development of cervical cancer, by finding early treatable abnormalities. Similarly, 94% were aware that the presence of abnormal cells on a cervical smear indicated a possible but not definitive indication of cervical precancer or cancer. Disappointingly, only 5 had seen the new NHSCSP information poster on the cervical smear test and only 44% had been given written information about the test. Consent for the test in 59% of women had been implied rather than expressed and 30% of women providing expressed consent had signed to that effect. In 42% of women, the smear taker or a doctor had failed to discuss the reason for having a cervical smear and had not explained about its advantages and limitations. In 72%, the smear taker or doctor had not explained that the cervical smear test can never be 100% accurate and that some laboratory errors are unavoidable. It is likely that women attending for colposcopy are a highly motivated cohort in relation to their understanding of the cervical smear test and the NHSCSP. Accordingly, understanding in the more general female population is likely to be considerably less. It would appear that women are often suboptimally informed to provide valid consent for the cervical smear test. PMID:10877276

  10. Cervical acid phosphatase detection: A guide to abnormal cells in cytology smear screening for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deb Prabal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical acid phosphatase-Papanicolaou (CAP-PAP test has recently been described for detection of acid phosphatase enzyme in abnormal squamous cells, and has been proposed as a biomarker-based technology for the screening of cervical cancer. Materials and Methods: Eighty-one consecutive cervical smears were subjected to routine Papanicolaou (Pap staining as well as CAP-PAP, which combined cytochemical staining for acid phosphatase with modified Pap stain. Statistical evaluation of its utility was examined. Results: Of 81 smears, 16 (19.75% showed the presence of mature squamous cells with acid phosphatase by CAP-PAP technique and were considered positive. Of these 16, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS or above were initially diagnosed in five of the corresponding routine Pap smears. After re-evaluation with CAP-PAP, eight of the routine Pap smears were considered to have ASCUS or above. Of these eight, three were reported as low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and five as ASCUS on conventional Pap smears. The remaining 8/16 CAP-PAP-positive cases were negative for atypical squamous cells on the corresponding Pap smears. None of the CAP-PAP-negative smears were positive on routine Pap smear screening. Conclusions: This study highlights the efficacy of CAP-PAP in quality assurance of cervical smear screening. It is also an inexpensive method for segregating smears for subsequent re-screening. In the absence of trained cytologists in peripheral laboratories, this technique can be adopted for identifying smears that would require proper evaluation.

  11. A STUDY OF SEX CHEROMATIN FORM BUCCAL SMEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The determination of sex of an individual is an important subject in Forensic Medicine and Criminology and in Civil Law. The determination of sex is necessary in both living and the dead bodies. The expert opinion of the medico legal specialist regarding positive identification of an individual will be required for the following reasons. For the identification of the sex of individual whether living or dead , For deciding cases relating to legitimacy, divorce, paternity, affiliation, marriage, education, im potence, right to disposal of property, and in intersex condition & in cases of concealed sex. Determination of sex will be done by presumptive, probable and certain signs of sex. Sex chromatin is a planoconvex mass of about 1 micron in diameter lying near nuclear membrane - Barr body. In the buccal smear the percentage of the nuclei containing chromatin body ranges from 0 to 4 in males & 20n to 80 in females . In females neutrophil leucocytes contain a small nuclear attachment of drum stick form - David son bo dy in up to 6% of cell . This is absent in males . Exact sex determination can be made by using a single specimen of buccal smear , saliva or hair follicle, by the combined treatment of quinacrinedi hydrochloride staining for Y chromosome which is seen as bright florescent body in the nuclei of male cell & florescent feulgen reaction using acriflavin Schiff reagent for X chromosomes , which is seen as bright yellow spot in the nuclei . The percentage of quanacrine positive bodies ranges from 45 to 80% in male s , and 0 to 4% in females . With feulgen reaction technique florescent bodies are found in 50 to 70 % of cell in females, and 0 to 2% in males. Determination of sex chromatin pattern was done by examination of oral smears technique on 50 males and 50 female s who have attended the Casualty of Government General Hospital, Ananthapuramu., A. P . , in the Dept . of forensic Medicine from 17 - 06 - 2012 to 30 - 12 - 2014. Slides were prepared and stained by Giemsastaining and studied under oil immersion microscope for the presence of Barr bodies. In all 50 female slides the sex chromatin was positive and it varied from 20 to 52% in the age group of 12 years to above 60 years. The mean frequency of sex chromatin positive cells was found 40.14% with the standard deviation of 6.596. In all male buccal smears the sex chromatin was negative. The frequency of incidence of sex chromatin also been studied in different age groups. The lowest count was scored in the 15 to 19 age group and the highest percent was scored in 10 to 14 age group. An attempt has also made to compare the present study findings with the available previous studies on Sex chromatin.

  12. Pap smears for men: a vision of the future?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Oon, S F

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) rarely receives as much publicity as its neighbouring orifice, the cervix. As in the cervix, intraepithelial neoplasias are precursors to cancer in the anal canal. AIN and cervical interstitial neoplasia (CIN) undergo dysplasia as a consequence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Since the advent of screening with the Pap smear in CIN, cervical cancer has plummeted to a fifth of its initial incidence. Anal cancer, however, has been rising, with a predilection for human immunodeficiency virus-infected men. HPV causes a squamous epithelial dysplasia and converts healthy tissue into AINs of increasing severity until anal cancer manifests. CLINICAL CASE: This article describes a clinical case of anogenital HPV infection refractory to medical and surgical therapy. It also describes an effective surgical excision technique associated with a good cosmetic outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The paper concludes by briefly discussing the implications of a national screening programme against AIN in the future.

  13. Extraction and detection of Mycobacterium leprae DNA from ZNCF-stained skin smear slides for better identification of negative skin smears

    OpenAIRE

    Kamble R; Shinde V; Madhale S; Kamble A; Ravikumar B; Jadhav R

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Identification of Mycobacterium leprae, which causes leprosy, is done by Ziehl Neelsen Carbol Fuchsin (ZNCF) stained slit skin smear microscopy that aids in the diagnosis and quantification of approximate bacterial load carried by the patient. We attempted M. leprae DNA extraction from 46 stained slit skin smear negative slides, using Proteinase K and SDS lysis, followed by ethanol precipitation. M. leprae specific primers (16SrRNA) were used for PCR-based amplification of DNA. We co...

  14. Liquid-based cytology versus conventional cytology for evaluation of cervical Pap smears: Experience from the first 1000 split samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrant Bhar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context and Aim: Screening programs using conventional cytology conventional Pap smear (CPS have successfully reduced cervical cancer, but newer tests like liquid-based cytology (LBC and human papillomavirus testing might enhance screening. The main aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of LBC versus CPS using "split samples." Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study comprising of 1000 consecutive cervical "split samples" over a period of 1 year. Split sample was obtained using cervex-brush. CPS was prepared from the brush and the brush head was suspended in the LBC vial and processed by SurePath™ LBC. Results: There were 4.3% unsatisfactory (U/S cases in CPS and 1.7% in LBC; the main cause is insufficient cells, and excess of blood in CPS. About 25/100 (2.5% split samples had epithelial abnormalities both in CPS and LBC (1.2%-atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance; 0.4%-low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; 0.2%-high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; 0.5%-squamous cell carcinoma; 0.1%-atypical glandular cells favouring neoplasia; 0.2%-adenocarcinoma. Inflammatory organisms were almost equally identified in both techniques but were better seen in LBC samples. Conclusions: LBC technique leads to significant reduction of U/S rate. LBC samples offered better clarity, uniform spread of smears, less time for screening and better handling of hemorrhagic and inflammatory samples. LBC had equivalent sensitivity and specificity to CPS.

  15. Survival of tubercle bacilli in heat-fixed and stained sputum smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso Celso Luíz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a slide culture technique to detect tubercle bacilli surviving in sputum smears (n=46 after conventional heat fixation and Ziehl-Neelsen staining. In all heat-fixed sputum smears, tubercle bacilli survived after time 0 (n=22, 24 h (n=7, 48 h (n=7, 72 h (n=4, and seven days (n=6. None of the stained sputum smears showed growth on slide cultures. Viable tubercle bacilli remaining in heat-fixed sputum smears for at least seven days may present an infection risk to laboratory staff. Thus, sputum smears should be stained immediately by the Ziehl-Neelsen method or stored in a safe container to avoid transmission of tuberculosis.

  16. Survival of tubercle bacilli in heat-fixed and stained sputum smears

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Celso Luíz, Cardoso; Luiz Roberto Bigão, Giacomelli; César, Helbel; Janete Jordão, Sant' Ana; Fátima Moreira, Martins; Angela Maria Werneck, Barreto.

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available We used a slide culture technique to detect tubercle bacilli surviving in sputum smears (n=46) after conventional heat fixation and Ziehl-Neelsen staining. In all heat-fixed sputum smears, tubercle bacilli survived after time 0 (n=22), 24 h (n=7), 48 h (n=7), 72 h (n=4), and seven days (n=6). None o [...] f the stained sputum smears showed growth on slide cultures. Viable tubercle bacilli remaining in heat-fixed sputum smears for at least seven days may present an infection risk to laboratory staff. Thus, sputum smears should be stained immediately by the Ziehl-Neelsen method or stored in a safe container to avoid transmission of tuberculosis.

  17. Comparison of amrad ICT test with microscopic examination for rapid diagnosis of malaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the sensitivity and specificity of an alternate and easy technique to diagnose malaria. Design: A prospective study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of pathology, DHQ Hospital, Timergara District, Dir, North-west Frontier Province of Pakistan, from 19th September to 5th October 2000. Subjects and Methods: Smear positive 50 patients (27 males and 23 females, age ranging 2 years to 70 years) were included. Thick and thin smears were stained with Giemsa's stain and examined by the principal author. The ICT malaria test was performed according to the instruction sheet of the manufacturer. Results: on microscopy there were 29 cases of Plasmodium falciparum (P.f) and 21 of Plasmodiium vivax (P.v.). On ICT malaria P.f/P.v, there were 29 samples positive for P. Falciparum and 17 for P. vivax. These results demonstrated that the ICT malaria P.f/P.v test had sensitivity of 100% for P. falciparum and 81% for P. vivax and specificity of 100% for both, when compared to traditional blood films for the detection of P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria. Conclusion: The ICT malaria P.f/P.v test is an effective tool for the rapid diagnosis of malaria and may be used as a first line diagnostic tool. (author)

  18. Comparison of acridine orange, methylene blue, and Gram stains for blood cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Mirrett, S; Lauer, B A; Miller, G A; Reller, L. B.

    1982-01-01

    Direct microscopic screening of blood cultures by Gram stain or methylene blue stain is time consuming and frequently insensitive. Therefore, we evaluated a fluorescent-staining procedure that uses acridine orange (AO) at pH 3.5 and compared it with the methylene blue and Gram stain procedures. All smears were prepared within 24 h of receiving the culture, fixed with methanol, and examined without the results of the companion smears being known. AO-stained smears were examined with incident-l...

  19. Establishment of an adherent cell layer from human umbilical cord blood

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Zeni Z.C., Alfonso; Eduardo D., Forneck; Waldir F., Allebrandt; Nance B., Nardi.

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available As células-mãe são encontradas no sangue do cordão umbilical humano (HUCB), além de na medula óssea e no sangue periférico, e há um crescente interesse no uso desse material como uma fonte alternativa para transplante de medula óssea e terapia gênica. A hematopoiese in vitro tem sido mantida por até [...] 16 semanas em culturas de HUCB, mas o estabelecimento de uma camada estromal aderente tem invariavelmente falhado. Precursores de células aderentes foram pesquisados entre células mononucleares do HUCB em culturas a longo prazo. Células mononucleares obtidas do sangue do cordão depois de partos normais a termo foram cultivadas em diferentes concentrações em meio Dulbecco modificado por Iscove, com alimentação semanal. Uma camada aderente foi detectada em 16 de 30 culturas, 12 das quais em concentrações celulares maiores que 2 x 10(6) células/ml. Ao contrário das culturas de medula óssea, em que o estroma é detectado precocemente, na maioria (10/16) das culturas positivas do HUCB a camada aderente foi identificada apenas depois da quarta semana de cultura. As células nunca atingiram a confluência e se destacaram da placa aproximadamente quatro semanas após sua detecção. A coloração de culturas positivas por May-Grünwald-Giemsa revelou células aderentes semelhantes a fibroblastos ou semelhantes a células endoteliais em um arranjo diferente daquele do estroma da medula óssea em 13 amostras. Em duas dessas, as células aderentes estavam organizadas em cordões característicos e delimitados de células. Ao contrário das culturas de medula óssea, células gordurosas nunca foram observadas nas camadas aderentes. Um rápido desenvolvimento de grandes células mielóides na primeira semana de cultura foi característico de culturas negativas e essas células mantiveram-se por até 12 semanas. HUCB contém precursores de células aderentes que ocorrem em números menores do que na medula óssea e podem estar em um estágio diferente (possivelmente menos maduro) de diferenciação. Abstract in english In addition to bone marrow and peripheral blood, stem cells also occur in human umbilical cord blood (HUCB), and there is an increasing interest in the use of this material as an alternative source for bone marrow transplantation and gene therapy. In vitro hematopoiesis has been maintained for up to [...] 16 weeks in HUCB cultures, but the establishment of an adherent, stromal layer has consistently failed. Adherent cell precursors among mononuclear cells from HUCB were sought for in long-term cultures. Mononuclear cells obtained from cord blood after full term, normal deliveries were cultivated at different concentrations in Iscove's modified Dulbecco's medium (IMDM) with weekly feeding. An adherent layer was detected in 16 of 30 cultures, 12 of which were plated at cell concentrations higher than 2 x 10(6) cells/ml. In contrast to bone marrow cultures, in which the stroma is detected early, in most (10/16) positive cultures from HUCB the adherent layer was identified only after the fourth week of culture. The cells never reached confluence and detached from the plate approximately four weeks after detection. May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining of positive cultures revealed fibroblast- or endothelial-like adherent cells in an arrangement different from that of bone marrow stroma in 13 samples. In two of these, the adherent cells were organized into characteristic, delimited cords of cells. Unlike bone marrow cultures, fat cells were never observed in the adherent layers. A rapid development of large myeloid cells in the first week of culture was characteristic of negative cultures and these cells were maintained for up to 12 weeks. HUCB contains adherent cell precursors which occur in lower numbers than in bone marrow and may be at a different (possibly less mature) stage of differentiation.

  20. Sampling endocervical cells on cervical smears: a comparison of two instruments used in general practice. Cumbrian Practice Research Group.

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    The Aylesbury spatula and a newer plastic device, the Cervex sampler (Steriseal), have been compared in a prospective study, to assess their ability to obtain endocervical cells on cervical smears taken in general practice. Twelve general practitioners in Cumbria took part in the study each taking equal numbers of smears from women with the Aylesbury spatula and the Cervex sampler. On average each practice took 20 smears with each instrument. All women attending for cervical smears for whatev...

  1. Blood Transfusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... comes from people who volunteer to donate their blood . Donors give blood at local blood banks, at community ... meet all the requirements of a regular volunteer blood donor. There is no medical or scientific evidence that ...

  2. Blood differential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differential; White blood cell differential count ... The health care provider will take blood from your vein. The blood collects into an airtight container. In infants or a young child, blood will be taken from a ...

  3. Blood Thinners

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have some kinds of heart or blood vessel disease, or if you have poor blood flow to your brain, your doctor may recommend that you take a blood thinner. Blood thinners reduce the risk of heart ...

  4. Blood culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed. The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  5. Blood Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Blood Transfusion? A blood transfusion is a safe, common ... Very rarely, serious problems develop. Important Information About Blood The heart pumps blood through a network of ...

  6. Identification of mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum smear slide using automatic scanning microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulaningtyas, Riries; Suksmono, Andriyan B.; Mengko, Tati L. R.; Saptawati, Putri

    2015-04-01

    Sputum smear observation has an important role in tuberculosis (TB) disease diagnosis, because it needs accurate identification to avoid high errors diagnosis. In development countries, sputum smear slide observation is commonly done with conventional light microscope from Ziehl-Neelsen stained tissue and it doesn't need high cost to maintain the microscope. The clinicians do manual screening process for sputum smear slide which is time consuming and needs highly training to detect the presence of TB bacilli (mycobacterium tuberculosis) accurately, especially for negative slide and slide with less number of TB bacilli. For helping the clinicians, we propose automatic scanning microscope with automatic identification of TB bacilli. The designed system modified the field movement of light microscope with stepper motor which was controlled by microcontroller. Every sputum smear field was captured by camera. After that some image processing techniques were done for the sputum smear images. The color threshold was used for background subtraction with hue canal in HSV color space. Sobel edge detection algorithm was used for TB bacilli image segmentation. We used feature extraction based on shape for bacilli analyzing and then neural network classified TB bacilli or not. The results indicated identification of TB bacilli that we have done worked well and detected TB bacilli accurately in sputum smear slide with normal staining, but not worked well in over staining and less staining tissue slide. However, overall the designed system can help the clinicians in sputum smear observation becomes more easily.

  7. Sensitivity of a papanicolaou smear in the diagnosis of candida albicans infection of the cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avwioro Og

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida albicans infections of the cervix are not adequately diagnosed in Papanicolaou smears when compared with culture in Sabouraud dextrose agar. Methods: Cervical smears were collected from 1000, non-pregnant, asymptomatic women. The specimens were prepared using the Papanicolaou (Pap smear method examined by microscopy and subsequently cultured in Sabouraud dextrose agar. Results: The overall incidences of C. albicans in cervical smears cultured in Sabouraud dextrose agar was 30.10%, while the incidence in the Pap smears was 7.60%, making the sensitivity of Pap smears for the diagnosis of C. albicans to be 25.25%. Mild, and some moderate, infections detectable in Sabouraud dextrose agar could not be detected in the Pap smear specimens. Vulnerability to C. albicans infection decreased with age, the highest infection rate being between 20 and 39 years of age while the least was between 60 and 69 years of age. Papanicolaou’s method stained the nuclei, chromatin and nucleoli very well and enhanced differentiation between malignant and non-malignant cells. It also stained the cytoplasm and its contents such as keratin, vacuoles and granules and differentiated between acidophilic and basophilic materials. Non-cellular substances such as fibrin, crystals and pigments were also stained using this method. In addition, Papanicolaou’s method also stained some fungal and bacterial species, but did not provide differential staining characteristics seen in Gram staining technique. Conclusions: Papanicolaou stain should not be used as an alternative to culture in the diagnosis of Candida albicans.

  8. PROFILE OF CERVICAL SMEAR CYTOLOGY IN WOMEN ATTENDING HEALTH CENTER IN RURAL AREA OF WESTERN MAHARASHTRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant D Deshpande

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer caused by infection with a sexually transmitted agent human papillomavirus (HPV, can be readily prevented by identifying and treating women with HPV-induced precancerous lesions of the cervix.Objective: To study the profile of cervical smear cytology in rural women in western Maharashtra.Methods: The study was designed to look at the previous reports of the Pap smear present at the health center Pravaranagar in rural area of Western Maharashtra. The reports of 186 smears were analyzed.Results: Maximum numbers of the women (70.43% were less than 40 years of age.  Majority of the women were from lower socio-economic status. There were 29.03 % Pap smears, negative for intraepithelial lesion. Intraepithelial neoplasia of various grade and invasive cervical carcinoma were diagnosed in some cases. Other infections were also detected on Pap smear like bacterial vaginosis, candidial infection and trichomonas vaginalis infestation. Conclusion: An Awareness and education program needs to be implemented to target women about cervical cancer and Pap smear screening. The goal of any screening programme should be to pick up majority of the precursor lesions and not frank cancers; it is desirable to initiate Pap smear screening in women from lower socio-economic status before the 40 years of age.

  9. Does oral contraceptive pill increase the risk of abnormal Pap smear?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binesh, Fariba; Akhavan, Ali; Pirdehghan, Azar; Davoodi, Mahnoosh

    2013-01-01

    Background: It is noted that oral contraceptive pills increase the risk of abnormal Pap smear but results have been inconsistent across the populations. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the association between oral contraceptive pill (OCP) consumption and abnormal Pap smear in women who referred to Shahid Sadoughi and Madar hospitals in Yazd. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out and a database of all Pap smear reports from 2009-2011 at Cytopathology Department of Shahid Sadoughi and Madar hospitals in Yazd, Iran was reviewed. A total number of 1286 women with history of OCP consumption were selected as the case group and 1218 women applying other contraceptive methods were selected as control group for evaluation. Both case and control groups were matched by age, parity and socioeconomic status. All of the women in this study maintained a single partner as their husband and none of them were considered as smokers. The duration of OCP use was at least 5 years. Results: Abnormal Pap smear results were observed in 0.4% of cases and 0.2% of controls. There was no significant association between OCP consumption and abnormal Pap smear (p=0.727). Conclusion: Our findings did not show any specific association between OCP consumption and abnormal Pap smear results. In addition, the number of abnormal Pap smears in women who consumed OCP was lower than that of western countries. More prospective studies are required. PMID:24639817

  10. DIRECT SMEAR VS CELL BLOCK (PLASMA- THROMBIN CLOT METHOD: DIAGNOSTIC VALUE IN SEROSAL CAVITIES FLUIDS CYTOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P MAHZOUNI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To improve testing sensitivity, most laboratories use two or more preparation methods but in our laboratories only one method is used which is "direct smear". In this study we tried to evaluate the diagnostic value of cell block as adjunct to direct smear in the cytologic investigation of serosal cavities fluids. Methods. In a clinical trial study 62 specimens of serosal cavity fluids were investigated in AL-Zahrapathology laboratory (Get. 1998 to Get. 1999. Cytologic slides from each specimens were prepared in two methods: direct smear and cell block (plasma- thrombin clot method. Smears and cell blocks were studied separately by the same cytopathologist. The diagnosis were categorized as positive, negative, suspicious or unsatisfactory. Also, the time required for studing of each slides were noted. Findings. The findings indicated that there are discrepancy between direct smear and cell block methods in the number of "suspicious" cases. Also there is significant difference between the mean time needed for studing of direct smear and cell block. Conclusion. It is recommended that the remainer of each specimen should be kept in refrigerator in order to prepare cell blocks in suspicious cases of direct smear. This method facilitates making a more definite diagnosis and reducing the number of suspicious cases.

  11. Target time smearing with short transmissions and multipath propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Chris H

    2011-09-01

    In active sonar the target echo level is often estimated with a propagation model that adds all multipath arrivals. If the (post-correlator) transmitted pulse is short compared to the multipath time spread then there is effectively an extra loss (which may be substantial) since only a few of the paths contribute to the target echo at any one instant. This well known "time-smearing" loss is treated in a self-consistent manner with previous calculations of reverberation [Harrison, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 114, 2744-2756 (2003)] to estimate the target response and the signal-to-reverberation-ratio. Again isovelocity water, Lambert's law, and reflection loss proportional to angle are assumed. In this important short pulse regime the target response becomes independent of boundary reflection properties but proportional to transmitted pulse length. Thus the signal-to-reverberation-ratio becomes independent of pulse length. The effect on signal-to-ambient-noise is also investigated and the resulting formulas presented in a table. PMID:21895070

  12. Hematozoa of forest birds in American Samoa - Evidence for a diverse, indigenous parasite fauna from the South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, C.T.; Utzurrum, R.C.; Seamon, J.O.; Savage, Amy F.; Lapointe, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    Introduced avian diseases pose a significant threat to forest birds on isolated island archipelagos, especially where most passerines are endemic and many groups of blood-sucking arthropods are either absent or only recently introduced. We conducted a blood parasite survey of forest birds from the main islands of American Samoa to obtain baseline information about the identity, distribution and prevalence of hematozoan parasites in this island group. We examined Giemsa-stained blood smears from 857 individual birds representing 20 species on Tutuila, Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u islands. Four hematozoan parasites were identified - Plasmodium circumflexum (1%, 12/857), Trypanosoma avium (4%, 32/857), microfilaria (9%, 76/857), and an Atoxoplasma sp. (parasite infections. Given the central location of American Samoa in the South Pacific, it is likely that avian malaria and other hematozoan parasites are indigenous and widespread at least as far as the central South Pacific. Their natural occurrence may provide some immunological protection to indigenous birds in the event that other closely related parasites are accidentally introduced to the region.

  13. Thermodynamics of noncommutative geometry inspired black holes based on Maxwell-Boltzmann smeared mass distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to further explore the effects of non-Gaussian smeared mass distribution on the thermodynamical properties of noncommutative black holes, we consider noncommutative black holes based on Maxwell-Boltzmann smeared mass distribution in (2+1)-dimensional spacetime. The thermodynamical properties of the black holes are investigated, including Hawking temperature, heat capacity, entropy and free energy. We find that multiple black holes with the same temperature do not exist, while there exists a possible decay of the noncommutative black hole based on Maxwell-Boltzmann smeared mass distribution into the rotating (commutative) BTZ black hole. (authors)

  14. Improved Laboratory Safety by Decontamination of Unstained Sputum Smears for Acid-Fast Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Giacomelli, Luiz Roberto Bigão; Helbel, Cesar; Ogassawara, Roger Leandro Nunes; Barreto, Ângela Maria Werneck; Martins, Fátima Moreira; Cardoso, Celso Luíz; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura

    2005-01-01

    Tubercle bacilli may survive in unstained heat-fixed sputum smears and may be an infection risk to laboratory staff. We compared the effectiveness of 1% and 5% sodium hypochlorite, 5% phenol, 2% glutaraldehyde, and 3.7% formalin in killing Mycobacterium tuberculosis present in smears prepared from 51 sputum samples. The smears were decontaminated by the tube and slide techniques. Phenol at 5%, glutaraldehyde at 2%, and buffered formalin at 3.7% for 1 min (tube technique) or for 10 min (slide ...

  15. Fecal Occult Blood Test and Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Wakid, Majed H.

    2010-01-01

    Stool specimens of 1238 workers in western region of Saudi Arabia were examined for infection with intestinal parasites and for fecal occult blood (FOB) to investigate the possibility that enteroparasites correlate to occult intestinal bleeding. Direct smears and formal ether techniques were used for detection of diagnostic stages of intestinal parasites. A commercially available guaiac test was used to detect fecal occult blood. 47.01% of the workers were infected with intestinal parasites i...

  16. The smear layer created by scaling and root planing is physiologically eliminated in a biphasic process

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernanda Regina Godoy, ROCHA; Daniela Leal, ZANDIM-BARCELOS; Carlos, ROSSA JUNIOR; José Eduardo Cezar, SAMPAIO.

    Full Text Available Mechanical instrumentation of the root surface causes the formation of a smear layer, which is a physical barrier that can affect periodontal regeneration. Although different procedures have been proposed to remove the smear layer, there is no information concerning how long the smear layer persists [...] on root surfaces after instrumentation in vivo. This study assessed the presence of the smear layer on root surfaces over a 28-day period after subgingival instrumentation with hand instruments. Fifty human teeth that were referred for extraction because of advanced periodontal disease were scaled and root planed (SRP) by a single experienced operator. Ten teeth were randomly assigned to be extracted 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after SRP. Another 10 teeth were extracted immediately after instrumentation (Day 0, control group). The subgingival area of the instrumented roots was evaluated with scanning electron microscopy. Representative photomicrographs were assessed by a blinded and calibrated examiner according to a scoring system. A rapid and significant (p

  17. Analytical solution for vacuum preloading considering the nonlinear distribution of horizontal permeability within the smear zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jie; He, Xiang; Ye, Hanming

    2015-01-01

    The vacuum preloading is an effective method which is widely used in ground treatment. In consolidation analysis, the soil around prefabricated vertical drain (PVD) is traditionally divided into smear zone and undisturbed zone, both with constant permeability. In reality, the permeability of soil changes continuously within the smear zone. In this study, the horizontal permeability coefficient of soil within the smear zone is described by an exponential function of radial distance. A solution for vacuum preloading consolidation considers the nonlinear distribution of horizontal permeability within the smear zone is presented and compared with previous analytical results as well as a numerical solution, the results show that the presented solution correlates well with the numerical solution, and is more precise than previous analytical solution. PMID:26447973

  18. TTV and HPV co-infection in cervical smears of patients with cervical lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tachezy Ruth

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The female lower genital tract is a gateway for pathogens entering the host through the mucous membrane. One of the prevalent human viruses is Torque teno virus (TTV. The major reported routes of TTV transmission are fecal-oral and parenteral. Furthermore, other modes of transmission, e.g. sexual contact, are suggested. To investigate the sexual route of TTV transmission, cervical smears of healthy women and those with cervical lesions were screened for the presence of TTV DNA. Methods TTV DNA was studied in cervical smears of 95 patients with cervical lesions and 55 healthy women. Paired serum samples were available from 55 and 42 women, respectively. All healthy women had normal cytology while 44 patients had histologically confirmed low-grade lesion (LGL and 51 high-grade lesion (HGL. TTV DNA was detected with primers specific for the non-coding region. In 40 paired cervical smears and serum samples, the phylogenetic group of TTV isolates was determined. The presence of HPV DNA in cervical smears was detected by means of PCR with MY09/11 primers. Results The prevalence of TTV DNA in cervical smears of healthy women was 52.7% and was comparable with that in paired serum samples (50%. Symptomatic women had significantly higher prevalence of TTV DNA in cervical smears (74.7% than healthy controls. The TTV DNA prevalence in patient serum samples was 51%. The phylogenetic groups of TTV serum isolates were concordant with those of TTV from cervical smears of the same subjects. In cervical smears, a wider variety of TTV isolates was found. The viral loads in cervical smears were 10 to 1000 times as high as in sera. The HPV-positive study subjects had significantly higher TTV DNA prevalence than HPV negatives. The prevalence of TTV was not associated with disease severity. Conclusion High prevalence of TTV in cervical smears suggests that sexual transmission is another mode of expansion of TTV infection among the population. The higher viral load in cervical smears than in the respective serum samples might indicate active TTV replication in the female genital tract. Nevertheless, cooperation between TTV and HPV needs to be further investigated.

  19. Knowledge Attitudes and Practice about Pap Smear among Women Reffering to A Public Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh- Charandabi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Pap smear is a reliable, inexpensive and effective screening test for cervical cancer; the second most common cancer among women worldwide. We aimed to determine women’s knowledge, attitudes and practice towards Pap smear and barriers for the screening in a public hospital.Materials and methods: This study, was carried out on 350 outpatient married women reffering for a visit at the clinics of the Alzahra educational hospital, Rasht- Iran, 2011. A questionnaire including demographic characteristics (24 questions, knowledge (14 questions, attitudes (11 statments and practice (10 questions towards Pap smear was completed by interview with the women. The data were analyzed using SPSS ver.13.Results: Mean age of participants was 32 (SD 12 years. Of the respondents, only 44.3% were aware of the Pap smear and 27.1% had had it at least once in their life. The most common reason for having the test was physicians’ or other health workers’ advise and for not having the test was no recommendation by health providers and lack of knowledge about Pap smear. Embarrassing, fear of the test result or economic problems mentioned by only 12 (4.2% as the main barrier. Mean (±SD knowledge score of the women who had heard about the Pap smear was 59.4 (24.3 and attitudes score of all participants was 48.5 (11.6 from possible range score of 0-100. Women with a history of Pap smear had had higher awareness and attitudes score.Conclusion: The knowledge and practice of the women was inadequate and need to be promoted. Considering the main reason mentioned by the participants for not having the test, all health providers should educate and encourage women to do regular Pap smear.

  20. Critical appraisal of current recommendations and practices for tuberculosis sputum smear microscopy [workshop report

    OpenAIRE

    Gilpin, C.; Kim, S.J.; Lumb, R; Rieder, H. L.; Van Deun, A.

    2007-01-01

    This report is the consensus-based, agreed position of the participants in a workshop for experts in sputum smear microscopy organised in August 2005 by the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union), and as such reflects their views, but not necessarily those of their respective organisations. The group reviewed current practices in sputum smear microscopy for tuberculosis (TB) and suggests considering certain changes in standard guidelines for the sputum collectio...

  1. Comparison of Gram stain and Pap smear procedures in the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Postaci; Funda Tasli; Özgül Özgüder; Murat Inal; Izzet Maral; Enver Vardar

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of Gram stain versus Pap smear in diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV). METHODS: One-thousand and sixty women were enrolled in this study. All cases with symptoms of BV were determined by Amsel's criteria, which were accepted as the gold standard for diagnosis of BV. Pap smear and Gram stain evaluations were compared according to Amsel's criteria, without viewing the clinical results of the patients. Gram stain and Pap s...

  2. Cervical cancer screening with pattern of pap smear. Review of multicenter studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Altaf, Fadwa J

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To estimate the frequency of abnormal cervical smears and to compare the findings with earlier reported data from Saudi Arabia. METHODS The study was divided into 2 parts. The prospective part was conducted at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital and a private laboratory by using the Bethesda System criteria and diagnostic entities in evaluating all the pap smears that were received during the period of January 2000 to December 2004. All reliable published literature on pap...

  3. Incidence of cervical cancer after several negative smear results by age 50: prospective observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Lynge, Elsebeth; Looman, Caspar; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Boer, Rob; Habbema, Dik

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of cervical cancer after several negative cervical smear tests at different ages. DESIGN: Prospective observational study of incidence of cervical cancer after the third consecutive negative result based on individual level data in a national registry of histopathology and cytopathology (PALGA). SETTING: Netherlands, national data. Population 218,847 women aged 45-54 and 445,382 aged 30-44 at the time of the third negative smear test. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ...

  4. Biodiversity of the Bacterial Flora on the Surface of a Smear Cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Noelle M.; WARD, Alan C.; Beresford, Thomas P.; Fox, Patrick F.; Goodfellow, Michael; Cogan, Timothy M.

    2002-01-01

    The bacteria on the surface of a farmhouse smear-ripened cheese at four stages of ripening (4, 16, 23, and 37 days) from inoculated (i.e., deliberately inoculated with Brevibacterium linens BL2) and noninoculated (not deliberately inoculated with B. linens BL2) cheese were investigated. The results show that, contrary to accepted belief, B. linens is not a significant member of the surface flora of smear cheese and no microbial succession of species occurred during the ripening of the cheeses...

  5. (AH-26,ROTH- 801, PURE ZOE PASTE) IN PRESENCE OR ABSENCE OF SMEAR LAYER

    OpenAIRE

    A.R. Farhad; A. Havaei; N KHAJALI; Karimi, F.; F Poursina

    2002-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of this study was to assess the sealing ability of three sealers (AH-26,Roth-801, Pure ZOE paste) using bacterial penetration method in static salivary system in the presence or absence of smear layer. Methods. The canals in 188 human extracted teeth were prepared and in half of the samples the smear layer was removed using EOTA- Naclo. Then, the samples were divided randomly and each experimental group was obturated with single cone gutta percha and of the mentione...

  6. PROFILE OF CERVICAL SMEAR CYTOLOGY IN WOMEN ATTENDING HEALTH CENTER IN RURAL AREA OF WESTERN MAHARASHTRA

    OpenAIRE

    Vaishali D Phalke; Phalke, Deepak B.; Deshpande, Jayant D

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer caused by infection with a sexually transmitted agent human papillomavirus (HPV), can be readily prevented by identifying and treating women with HPV-induced precancerous lesions of the cervix.Objective: To study the profile of cervical smear cytology in rural women in western Maharashtra.Methods: The study was designed to look at the previous reports of the Pap smear present at the health center Pravaranagar in rural area of Western Maharashtra. The reports of 186...

  7. Comparison of visual inspection of cervix and pap smear for cervical cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the performance of visual inspection of cervix (VIA) after application of 3% acetic acid in cervical cancer screening in comparison with PAP smear. Results: Out of 540 subjects, 356 were negative with both screening techniques. One hundred and fifty-six subjects were positive with VIA (28.9%) while PAP smear was positive in seventy-eight subjects (14.4%). The sensitivity of VIA was 93.9% and of PAP smear was 46.9%. Corresponding specificities were 30.4% and 69.5%. There was no significant difference between the positive predictive value (PPV) of both test (p<0.05). The accuracy of VIA was 77.5% compared to 52.8% of PAP smear. The difference was highly significant (p < 0.01). Conclusion: These results indicate that VIA is more sensitive and has a higher accuracy as compared to PAP smear. It could, therefore, be valuable in detection of precancerous lesions of cervix. Low cost, easy applicability and immediate results make VIA a useful screening test in developing countries like Pakistan as compared to PAP smear. (author)

  8. PRECANCEROUS AND CANCEROUS LESIONS OF CERVIX DIAGNOSED BY PAP’S SMEAR - A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal Singh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cervical intra - epithelial neoplasia (CIN and cervical cancer remain important health problems for women worldwide. It is largely a preventable disease that is characterized by a long lead time. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of precancerous lesions of cervix by Pap smear screening. METHODS : A retrospective hospital based study was conducted at Department of Pathology, in a Tertiary Care Institute and associated hospital, Bhopal. Data was collected from the records of Pap’s smear testing done on 388 patients in years 2011 & 2012. Analysis was done by entering data in SPSS software and Chi - square test was applied to find statistical significance. RESULTS: Most common lesions on Pap’s smear was Low grade squamous intraepithelial les ion (LSIL in 104 (26.8% of cases and High grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL in 15 (3.9% of cases. 44 (11.3% were senile Atopic Changes, parasitic Infection in 27 (7% of cases and 2 (0.5% were carcinoma cervix cases. All the cervical lesion s were most common in age of 31 - 40 yrs. and were significantly associated with age. CONCLUSIONS: Pap’s smear examination information should be spread in community apart from hospitals. Especially the young women should be motivated for regular Pap’s smear. Pap’s smear is the single most important screening method for early detection of precancerous & cancerous cervical lesions

  9. Incidence of cytological abnormalities within 24 months of a normal cervical smear in Soweto, South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Y, Adam; J A, McIntyre; G, de Bruyn.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A screening programme for cervical cancer has been implemented in South Africa (SA) with intervals of 10 years after a normal cytological result. There are no studies that evaluate repeat screening at a shorter interval in SA. OBJECTIVES: (i) To find the incidence of cytological abnormal [...] ities on a repeat test after a report of normal cytology or an inadequate Pap smear; and (ii) to explore the factors associated with an abnormal cytology on repeat testing. METHODS: This was a secondary data analysis of a randomised controlled trial of diaphragm, lubricant gel and condoms v. condoms in the prevention of HIV infection. HIV-negative women were recruited between November 2003 and December 2005, with a normal Pap smear at entry. Observation time was from the first Pap smear to the date of the repeat Pap smear. Explanatory variables used were baseline, excepting any new HIV infection. RESULTS: The incidence of cytological abnormalities was 6.48% yearly in women with a previously normal Pap smear and 11.71% yearly in women with an inadequate smear result (p=0.03). The incidence of high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (HSILs) was

  10. Molecular detection and treatment of tick-borne pathogens in domestic dogs in Khon Kaen, northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laummaunwai, Porntip; Sriraj, Pranee; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Boonmars, Thidarut; Boonjaraspinyo, Sirintip; Sangmaneedet, Somboon; Potchimplee, Prapasara; Khianman, Parin; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2014-09-01

    We determined the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in domestic dogs using microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. A total of 303 EDTA blood samples were collected from domestic dogs in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand, in May 2013. Microscopic observation of Giemsa-stained smears and molecular diagnosis using conventional PCR were performed. Infected dogs were treated with imidocarb dipropionate, a combination of imidocarb dipropionate and doxycycline, or doxycycline alone. Seventy-one (23.4%) out of 303 dogs were positive for DNA of tick-borne pathogens. Of the 303 animals, 13.2% and 1.3% were positive for a single infection with Babesia spp or Ehrlichia canis, respec- tively using microscopy; whereas 19.5% and 3.0% were positive using the PCR technique. Co-infection with Babesia spp and E. canis was observed in 0.7%, and coinfection with Hepatozoon canis and E. canis in 0.3%. Infected dogs were treated with the assigned drugs, and elimination of the pathogens was demonstrated by microscopy and PCR. The results indicated that while both microscopic and PCR diagnostic techniques were useful for tick-borne pathogen detection, PCR was more effective. Imidocarb dipropionate and doxycycline were found to be effective for treatment of babesiosis and ehrlichiosis, respectively. The present study suggests that the PCR technique has high sensitivity and specificity for Babesia and Ehrlichia diagnosis as well as for detection of Babesia spp, E. canis and H. canis DNA in EDTA blood specimens. PMID:25507247

  11. Evaluation of DNA Recombinant Methodologies for the Diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum and their Comparison with the Microscopy Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Urdaneta

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 1984, DNA tests based on the highly repeated subtelomeric sequences of Plasmodium falciparum (rep 20 have been frequently used in malaria diagnosis. Rep 20 is very specific for this parasite, and is made of 21 bp units, organized in repeated blocks with direct and inverted orientation. Based in this particular organization, we selected a unique consensus oligonucleotide (pf-21 to drive a PCR reaction coupled to hybridization to non-radioactive labeled probes. The pf-21 unique oligo PCR (pf-21-I assay produced DNA amplification fingerprints when was applied on purified P. falciparum DNA samples (Brazil and Colombia, as well as in patient's blood samples from a large area of Venezuela. The performance of the Pf-21-I assay was compared against Giemsa stained thick blood smears from samples collected at a malaria endemic area of the Bolívar State, Venezuela, at the field station of Malariología in Tumeremo. Coupled to non-radioactive hybridization the pf-21-I performed better than the traditional microscopic method with a r=1.7:1. In the case of mixed infections the r value of P. falciparum detection increased to 2.5:1. The increased diagnostic sensitivity of the test produced with this homologous oligonucleotide could provide an alternative to the epidemiological diagnosis of P. falciparum being currently used in Venezuela endemic areas, where low parasitemia levels and asymptomatic malaria are frequent. In addition, the DNA fingerprint could be tested in molecular population studies

  12. Prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi infections in horses belonging to resource-poor farmers in the north-eastern Free State Province, South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.Y., Motloang; O.M.M., Thekisoe; A., Alhassan; M., Bakheit; M.P., Motheo; F.E.S., Masangane; M.I., Thibedi; N., Inoue; I., Igarashi; C., Sugimoto; P.A., Mbati.

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi infections in the north-eastern Free State Province of South Africa was determined by examination of thin and thick Giemsa-stained blood smears, IFAT and PCR. No parasites were detected by microscopy from any blood samples collected at five study [...] sites, Qwaqwa, Kestell, Harrismith, Vrede and Warden. Of the tested serum samples, 28/29 (96.5 %), 20/21 (95.2 %) and 42/42 (100 %) were positive by IFAT for T. equi infections in Harrismith, Kestell and Qwaqwa, respectively, and 5/29 (17.2 %>), 13/21 (61.9 %>) and 30/42 (71.4 %>) were sero-positive for B. caballi infections in Harrismith, Kestell and Qwaqwa, respectively. All DNA samples from the study sites were negative for B. caballi infections by PCR, but five samples, two from each of Kestell and Warden and one from Vrede, were PCR positive for T. equi infections. The high prevalence of antibodies against T. equi and B. caballi in the sampled horses indicates that the animals had been exposed to T. equi and B. caballi infections but the absence of parasitaemia and very low number of positive PCR samples, however, imply that T. equi and B. caballi are endemically stable in the north-eastern Free State Province.

  13. Prevalence and Significance of Haemoparasitic Infections of Cattle in North- Central, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Kamani.

    Full Text Available The prevalence and significance of hemoparasites of cattle from north-central Nigeria was determined using diagnostic records from Parasitology Division, National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI Vom, from May 2006 to April 2008. A total of 637 blood samples from cattle from four states (Plateau, Bauchi, Nasarawa and Kaduna of Nigeria in anticoagulant were submitted to the laboratory for parasitological diagnosis. Giemsa stained thin blood smears were examined for hemoparasites. Packed cell volume (PCV for each sample was determined and Hematocrit centrifuge technique (HCT was used to determine the presence of motile parasites. An overall prevalence of 25.7% was recorded for all samples examined. Babesia bigemina and B.bovis accounted for 16.0%, followed by Theileria mutans (3.1%, Trypanosoma spp (T.vivax and T. congolense (2.8%, Anaplasma marginale (1.9%, Microfilaria (1.4%. The hemoparasites identified alone or in combination with others had a significant (P<0.05 effect on the mean PCV of infected animals. Similarly, hemoparasites infection in young animals as well as during the dry season resulted in significant (P<0.05 reduction of PCV values. The result of this study shows these hemoparasites are endemic in cattle in the study area which may result in serious disease conditions when such animals are subjected to stressful condition. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(10.000: 445-448

  14. Prevalence of Hemoprotozoan Diseases in Cattle Population of Chittagong Division, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdul Alim*, Shubhagata Das, Krisna Roy§, Md. Masuduzzaman, Suchandan Sikder1, Mohammad Mahmudul Hassan2, A. Z. Siddiki and Mohammad Alamgir Hossain

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A one year (2009-10 prevalence study on hemoprotozoan diseases was conducted in crossbred and indigenous cattle, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Blood samples were collected randomly from 216 crossbred and 432 indigenous cattle of four representative areas in three consecutive seasons. Samples were examined by Giemsa's stained blood smear method. The effect of topography, season, age and sex was observed in cattle during this study. The overall prevalence of hemoprotozoan diseases was 16.18 and 12.02% in crossbred and indigenous cattle, respectively where babesiosis and anaplasmosis were predominant. Babesiosis was found to be consistent in all the four different areas but highest prevalence (9.25% was found in hilly area. Hemoprotozoan diseases were predominant in summer season followed by rainy and winter seasons. Adult cattle were significantly (P<0.05 susceptible to babesiosis than younger. Female animals were more susceptible to hemoprotozoan infections than male where babesiosis in crossbred cattle was statistically significant (P<0.05. It could be stated that breed and season were the important predictor of hemoprotozoan diseases. We recommended further studies for molecular detection of such diseases and identification of tick vectors in the study areas which will assist to take necessary preventive measures.

  15. Decline in overall, smear-negative and HIV-positive TB incidence while smear-positive incidence stays stable in Guinea-Bissau 2004-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvik, G; Rudolf, F

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To calculate Tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates in Guinea-Bissau over an 8-year period. METHODS: Since 2003, a surveillance system has registered all TB cases in six suburban districts of Bissau. In this population-based prospective follow-up study, 1205 cases of pulmonary TB were identified between January 2004 and December 2011. Incidence rates were calculated using census data from the Bandim Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). RESULTS: The overall incidence of pulmonary TB was 279 per 100 000 person-years of observation; the male incidence being 385, and the female 191. TB incidence rates increased significantly with age in both sexes, regardless of smear or HIV status. Despite a peak with unknown cause of 352 per 100 000 in 2007, the overall incidence of pulmonary TB declined over the period. The incidence of HIV infected TB cases declined significantly from 108 to 39 per 100 000, while the incidence of smear-positive TB cases remained stable; the overall figure was 188 per 100000. CONCLUSIONS: Overall incidence of pulmonary TB in Guinea-Bissau has declined from 2004 to 2011. The decline was also seen in the subgroups of smear-negative and HIV-positive TB cases, probably due to antiretroviral treatment. Smear-positive TB incidence remains stable over the period.

  16. A Comparison of Three Pap Smear Collection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mesdaghinia

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Pap smear test is considered the best screening method for cervical disease, especially for malignant lesions. The crucial factor here is obtaining high-quality samples, as poorly-prepared ones cause a great deal of confusion for patients and physicians alike. Attempts to define an ideal sampling technique have been going on for many years, and in this study we compare three different sampling methods to determine which one provides the best quality. Materials and Methods: This interventional study was performed in a private obstetrics-gynecology clinic and involved 600 women who met the criteria for cervical screening. The Pap test was done by three different methods: "Swab spatula", "Cytobrush – spatula" and "Spatula only". Results: Each method was performed on 200 randomly-selected patients. Cytopathologic examination was done by a single pathologist and in a blind fashion. For each specimen, a quality rating was reported as "satisfactory" or "unsatisfactory". Among the 200 samples obtained by the "Swabspatula” method, 150 (75% were of satisfactory quality and the remaining 50 cases (25% were rated as unsatisfactory. As for the cytobrush–spatula group, 88 samples (94% were satisfactory and 12 (6% were unsatisfactory. Finally, 179 samples (88% in “Spatula-only” group were satisfactory and 24 (12% were unsatisfactory. The difference in the proportion of good-quality samples was significant in pairwise comparisons between the three methods: swab-spatula versus spatula-only (P = 0.0013, swab-spatula versus cytobrush-spatula (P = 0.0001 and cytobrush-spatula versus spatula-only (P = 0.036. Conclusion: The study revealed that the cytobrush-spatula sampling method yielded the highest proportion of high-quality samples. Hence, it would be desirable to familiarize physicians, midwives and other health care workers in this country with the technique of cytobrush cervical sampling and its potential advantages. However, financial and cultural aspects must be taken into account before adopting the procedure for routine cervical screening in Iran.

  17. Now ICT malaria Pf/Pv® frente a microscopía (gota gruesa- extendido) para diagnóstico de malaria en Urabá (Colombia) / Now ICT malaria Pf/Pv ® versus microscopy (thick-smear, thin smear) for diagnosis of malaria in Urabá (Colombia)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jaime, Carmona- Fonseca; Alexander, Franco Gallego; Eliana, Arango Flórez; Olga María, Agudelo García; Amanda, Maestre Buitrago.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Problema: solo conocemos tres informes para Colombia de la prueba diagnóstica de malaria Now ICT Malaria Pf/ Pv ® (NowICT); esos estudios tuvieron resultados de sensibilidad y especificidad muy diferentes. Objetivo: evaluar la capacidad diagnóstica de NowICT frente a la gota gruesa para el diagnósti [...] co de infección plasmodial en sangres periférica materna, del cordón umbilical y placentaria. Metodología: diseño paralelo y enmascarado para evaluación de una prueba diagnóstica. El tamaño de la muestra se calculó con parámetros epidemiológicos y estadísticos y fue de 131 muestras de sangre periférica materna; también se examinaron sendas muestras de sangre placentaria y de cordón umbilical. Resultados: se evaluaron en total 386 muestras. La sensibilidad de NowICT para P. vivax no alcanzó 70% en ninguna de las fuentes (madre, placenta, cordón). La especificidad mínima fue de 99% . Los valores para P. falciparum no se calcularon porque los casos fueron pocos. Conclusión: Now ICT malaria Pf/ Pv® no es una herramienta diagnóstica útil en Colombia porque su sensibilidad para P. vivax es muy deficiente y en el país esta especie es la que predomina en la generación de malaria en humanos. Esta interpretación concuerda con las conclusiones generales de la OMS sobre el estado de desarrollo de las pruebas diagnósticas rápidas para malaria. Abstract in english Problem: To date, there are only three reports from Colombia about the malaria diagnostic test Now ICT Malaria Pf / Pv ® (NowICT). The results from these studies showed major differences in sensitivity and specificity Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of NowICT compared to thick smea [...] r for the diagnosis of Plasmodium infection in matched blood samples from mothers (maternal peripheral blood), umbilical cord and placenta. Methods: We used a closed (blinded/ masked) and parallel design for the evaluation of a diagnostic test. The sample size was calculated with statistical and epidemiological parameters; this consisted of 131 thick smears from maternal peripheral blood. Blood samples from placenta and umbilical cord were also studied (386 samples tested in total). Results: The sensitivity of Now ICT for detection of P. vivax was below 70% in any of the samples (maternal blood, placental blood or cord blood). The specificity was greater than 99% . Values for P. falciparum infection were not calculated since too few cases were detected. Conclusions: Now ICT Malaria Pf / Pv ® is not a useful diagnostic tool in Colombia since the sensitivity for the most frequent species in the country, P. vivax, is poor. This interpretation is consistent with the WHO's general conclusions about the state of development of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria.

  18. Effect of the smear layer on salivary bacterial leakage in endodontically treated teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abasali Khademi, ,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: The success of endodontic treatment depends on the method and quality of cleaning, disinfection and three-dimensional sealing of the root canal. The smear layer can play an important role in the success or failure of endodontic treatment. There is controversy over the presence or removal of the smear layer in relation to the success or failure of endodontic treatment. This study used standard methods of endodontic treatment and whole human saliva to evaluate the effect of the smear layer on salivary bacterial leakage in endodontically treated teeth.Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 48 human single- and multiple-rooted teeth were randomly divided into two experimental groups of 20 and two negative and positive control groups of 4 teeth. After access cavity preparation the root canals were prepared with crown-down technique and irrigated with 10 mL of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution. The canals in one group were irrigated with 17% EDTA and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite to remove the smear layer and in the other only with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite to leave the smear layer in place. Then the teeth were sterilized by autoclave and obturated with gutta-percha sterilized with ethylene oxide and Tubliseal sealer under aseptic conditions. Two mL of human saliva were collected from two persons and injected into the coronal portion of the samples, which was repeated for four months. Leakage of the samples was examined twice daily. Data was analyzed with chi-squared test at a confidence interval of 95%. Results: Presence or absence of the smear layer had no significant effect on salivary bacterial leakage of different root canals filled with gutta-percha and Tubliseal sealer (p value = 0.515, although the number of cases with contamination and leakage of saliva in the group with the smear layer (55% was more than that in the group without the smear layer (44%.Conclusion: The results showed no significant effect of the smear layer on coronal leakage of human saliva into obturated canals. Key words: Bacterial microleakage, Root canal therapy, Saliva, Smear layer, Tooth.

  19. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis ... A blood sample is needed. For information on how this is done, see: Venipuncture

  20. Bacterial retention in canal walls in vitro: effect of smear layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, D R; Wiemann, A H; Rivera, E M; Walton, R E

    1994-02-01

    When dentin is planed by endodontic instruments, a smear layer forms. Whether this layer should be removed is unknown and controversial. This study was conducted to assess the effect of the smear layer on retention of bacteria using an in vitro root canal bacterial colonization model. Canals of 26 extracted human canines were step-back prepared using 2.5% NaOCl. Teeth were then randomly divided into two groups based on the type of high volume final flush: 1-20 ml of sterile saline (0.85% wt/vol) or (2-10 ml of 17% EDTA followed by 10 ml of 2.5% NaOCl which removes smear layer. Streptococcus anginosus (milleri) was cultured in trypticase soy broth supplemented with 0.5% yeast extract at 37 degrees C in 5% CO2. Cells were harvested by centrifugation and resuspended in fresh media. Serial dilutions were performed to achieve inocula of 10(6) colony-forming units in a 30-microliters volume. Teeth were inoculated and incubated for 2 h in 5% CO2 at 37 degrees C. Following incubation, teeth were split and processed for microbiological analysis. Numbers of colonizing bacteria were determined by a spiral-plating system. Enumeration of the numbers of bacteria revealed a reproducible, order of magnitude difference (p = 0.0002) between teeth with smear layer (10(4) colony-forming units) versus teeth without smear layer (10(5) colony-forming units). This suggests that smear layer produced during root canal therapy may inhibit bacterial colonization of root canals. One suggested mechanism is that smear layer may block bacterial entry into dentinal tubules. PMID:8006570

  1. Pathological Study of Blood Parasites in Rice Field Frogs, Hoplobatrachus rugulosus (Wiegmann, 1834)

    OpenAIRE

    Malinee Chutmongkonkul; Achariya Sailasuta; Jetjun Satetasit

    2011-01-01

    One hundred and forty adult rice field frogs, Hoplobatrachus rugulosus (Wiegmann, 1834), were collected in Srakaew province, Thailand. For blood parasite examination, thin blood smears were made and routinely stained with Giemsa. The results showed that 70% of the frogs (98/140) were infected with 5 species of blood parasites, including a Trypanosoma rotatorium-like organism, Trypanosoma chattoni, Hepatozoon sp. a, Hepatozoon sp. b, and Lankesterella minima. Pathological examination of the li...

  2. White Blood Cell Segmentation by Color-Space-Based K-Means Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Congcong Zhang; Xiaoyan Xiao; Xiaomei Li; Ying-Jie Chen; Wu Zhen; Jun Chang; Chengyun Zheng; Zhi Liu

    2014-01-01

    White blood cell (WBC) segmentation, which is important for cytometry, is a challenging issue because of the morphological diversity of WBCs and the complex and uncertain background of blood smear images. This paper proposes a novel method for the nucleus and cytoplasm segmentation of WBCs for cytometry. A color adjustment step was also introduced before segmentation. Color space decomposition and k-means clustering were combined for segmentation. A database including 300 microscopic blood sm...

  3. Comparación de las coloraciones de Giemsa y Grocott en el diagnóstico de la histoplasmosis / Comparison of Giemsa and Grocott stains in the diagnosis of histoplasmosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Amadeo Javier, Bava; María Fernanda, Zuiani.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available El diagnóstico de histoplasmosis se realiza tradicionalmente mediante el reconocimiento de típicas levaduras intracelulares de Histoplasma capsulatum en preparaciones microscópicas teñidas con Giemsa. Se comparó la eficacia de una modificación rápida de la técnica de Grocott (MRG) y la tradicional d [...] e Giemsa para el diagnóstico de la histoplasmosis, a partir de la aplicación de ambas a 10 secreciones respiratorias, 8 escarificaciones de lesiones cutáneas y una biopsia ganglionar, pertenecientes todas a pacientes con sospecha clínica de esta micosis. En 15 de las 19 muestras no se encontraron diferencias significativas en la capacidad y rapidez para arribar al diagnóstico, mientras que en las 4 restantes, fueron reconocidas con la MRG estructuras que pasaron desapercibidas con la coloración de Giemsa. La modificación rápida permitió un reconocimiento más rápido del H. capsulatum en materiales donde este hongo se observó en escaso número y permitió además identificar con seguridad otros patógenos fúngicos diferentes de H. capsulatum, como Pneumocystis jiroveci, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis y Cryptococcus neoformans, difíciles de observar con la coloración de Giemsa. Se propone la técnica de Grocott o su modificación rápida para el diagnóstico de la histoplasmosis, especialmente cuando el empleo de la coloración de Giemsa da lugar a resultados negativos o dudosos. Abstract in english The diagnosis of histoplasmosis is traditionally achieved by recognizing the typical intracellular yeasts of Histoplasma capsulatum, in smears stained with Giemsa stain. The usefulness of a rapid modification of Grocott and of traditional Giemsa stains for the diagnosis of histoplasmosis was compare [...] d applying both techniques in 10 respiratory secretions, 8 cutaneous lesions scrapings and 1 adenomegaly biopsy, all of them belonging to patients with clinically suspected histoplasmosis. In 15 out of the 19 evaluated samples, no significant differences were found in the ability or speed to reach the diagnosis with the applied techniques; while in the remaining 4 samples, structures that had not been observed with Giemsa stain were recognized with the rapid modification. The modification enabled quicker recognition of H. capsulatum than Giemsa stain in those clinical samples where the number of these fungal pathogens was scant. Additionally, the rapid modification also enabled the recognition of fungal pathogens other than H. capsulatum, as Pneumocystis jiroveci, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Cryptococcus neoformans, difficult to observe with the Giemsa stain. Use of Grocott technique or rapid modification stain is proposed for the diagnosis of histoplasmosis, when the result obtained with the Giemsa stain is doubtful or negative.

  4. Chemical extraction versus direct smear for MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry identification of anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Rémi; Wallet, Frédéric; Grandbastien, Bruno; Dubreuil, Luc; Courcol, René; Neut, Christel; Dessein, Rodrigue

    2012-06-01

    In the present study, two pre-analytic processes for mass spectrometric bacterial identification were compared: the time-consuming reference method, chemical extraction, and the direct smear technique directly using cultured colonies without any further preparation. These pre-analytic processes were compared in the identification of a total of 238 strains of anaerobic bacteria representing 34 species. The results showed that 218/238 strains were identified following chemical extraction, 185 identifications (77.7%) were secured to both genus and species [log(score) > 2.0] whereas 33 identifications (14%) were secured to genus only [log(score) between 1.7 and 2.0]. Following direct smear, 207/238 anaerobic bacteria were identified, 158 identifications (66.4%) were secured to both genus and species [log(score) > 2.0] whereas 49 identifications were secured to genus only [log(score) between 1.7 and 2.0]. Twenty strains were not identified [log(score) smear technique. Although direct smear led to a significant decrease of the log(score) values for the Clostridium genus and the Gram positive anaerobic bacteria (GPAC) group (p smear technique appears to both non-inferior to the reference method and relevant for anaerobic bacteria identification. PMID:22503696

  5. Evaluation of AgNOR scores in aspiration cytology smears of breast tumors

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    Ansari Hena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the difference in the silver-stained nucleolar organizer regions (AgNOR scores on aspiration smears from benign and malignant breast tumors, and to determine the feasibility of AgNOR staining as part of the cytological investigation of breast tumors. Settings: AgNOR scores were evaluated on aspiration smears and tissue sections from 42 breast tumor cases. Materials and Methods: Smears from 27 breast tumor cases and tissue sections from 15 surgically resected specimens were examined. Counting was performed on a small number of tumor cells (50 cells. Both the mean (mAgNOR score and the AgNOR proliferative index (pAgNOR index were assessed for each specimen. Statistical Analysis: Statistical evaluation was carried out using the Students? ?t?-test. The result was considered significant when P < 0.05. Results and Conclusions: The mAgNOR score and pAgNOR index were significantly higher in smears from malignant tumors than in those from benign tumors (P = 0.01. These results were similar to those obtained for tissue sections and were comparable to established data. The determination of AgNOR scores on cell smears in a limited cell population has practical advantages.

  6. Assessing the Efficacy of Citrus Aurantifolia Extract on Smear Layer Removal with Scanning Electron Microscope

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    Behnam Bolhari

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of citrus aurantifolia (CA extract on smear layer removal in different parts of root canals. Materials and Methods: Thirty-nine single-rooted human teeth were randomly divided into three experimental (n=12 and one control (n=3 groups. Teeth were instrumented using MTwo rotary instruments. Root canals were irrigated with NaOCl during instrumentation. The canals in each group were irrigated with one of the following: completed mixture of citrus aurantifolia extracts, 17% EDTA, and alcoholic extract of CA. Distilled water was used for the control group. The irrigants were left within the canal for 20 minutes, and then rinsed with normal saline solution. Teeth were subsequently split longitudinally into 2 halves, and the canals were examined by a scanning electron-microscope. Cleanliness was evaluated using a five point scoring system. Results: Statistical significant difference was found between groups (P<0.05. The smear layer was more effectively removed with 17% EDTA compared to alcoholic CA extract. However, they were both able to remove the smear layer in the coronal segment. Completed CA extract removed more smear layer in coronal and middle parts compared with the alcoholic extract (P=0.001; however, there was no significant difference in the apical part. Conclusion: Both of the alcoholic and completed mixtures of citrus aurantifolia extracts were not able to effectively remove smear layer compared with 17% EDTA during root canal therapy.

  7. The Pathogenic Microorganisms in Papanicolaou Vaginal Smears and Correlation with Inflammation

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    Esmat Barouti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Non-specific cervicitis or inflammatory changes in a smear report are common which are usually unclear for clinical approaches. To investigate the frequency of inflammation and pathogenic vaginal microorganisms in cervical smears among an Iranian population sample.Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on Pap smear samples of women referred to gynecological clinic of Taleghani Hospital in Tehran, Iran, between October 2008 and March 2009. This study was conducted on 528 conventional Papanicolaou cervical smears. The frequency and severity of inflammation and prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV, Trichomonas vaginalis (TV, and vaginal candidiasis (VC was determined in the samples. Also co-infection of the microorganisms in Pap samples was evaluated. percentage, mean±standard deviation of the outcome parameters were calculated. The comparison between data was performed with the Pearson’s chi square or Fisher’s exact test.Results: The prevalence of BV, VC, and TV in Pap samples was 17%, 11%, and 0.4% respectively. Overall, the prevalence of these microorganisms in women of reproductive age was higher than menopausal women. There was a significant association between VC and the presence of inflammation in our samples.Conclusion: Based on our results, inflammation in the Pap smears can suggest an infection of VC and the patients should be considered for proper VC treatment.

  8. SEM Analysis of MTAD Efficacy for Smear Layer Removal from Periodontally Affected Root Surfaces

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    R. K. Tabor

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Biopure® MTAD (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, USA has been developed as a final irrigant following root canal shaping to remove intracanal smear layer. Many of the unique properties of MTAD potentially transfer to the conditioning process of tooth roots during periodontal therapy. The aim of this ex vivo studywas to evaluate the effect of MTAD on the removal of smear layer from root surfaces.Materials and Methods: Thirty two longitudinally sectioned specimens from 16 freshly extracted teeth diagnosed with advanced periodontal disease were divided into four groups. In group 1 and 2, the root surfaces were scaled using Gracey curettes. In group 3 and 4, 0.5 mm of the root surface was removed using a fissure bur. The specimens in group 1 and 3 were then irrigated by normal saline. Thespecimens in groups 2 and 4 were irrigated with Biopure MTAD.All specimens were prepared for SEM and scored according to the presence of smear layer.Results: MTAD significantly increased (P=0.001 the smear layer removal in both groups 2 and 4 compared to the associated control groups, in which only saline was used.Conclusion: MTAD increased the removal of the smear layer from periodontally affected root surfaces. Use of MTAD as a periodontal conditioner may be suggested.

  9. The Effect of Smear Layer on Apical Seal of Endodontically Treated Teeth

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    A Farhad

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of smear layer on apical seal of endodontically treated teeth. Methods: Sixty extracted single–rooted human teeth were randomly divided into two experimental groups (n=25 and two control groups (n=5. The teeth were instrumented with K–type files to size 40 and then flared. Apical patency was ensured in all teeth. 5% sodium hypochlorite and 17% Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid was used as irrigants to remove the smear layer in the second experimental group. The experimental groups were obturated by laterally condensed gutta – percha with Roth 801 sealer. The positive control group was obturated with gutta – percha without sealer. The root surfaces were then coated with nail polish and sticky wax except for the apex in the experimental groups and positive control group. The roots were completely covered in the negative control group. The samples were then immersed in India ink for 1 week at 37°C. Results: The statistical analysis of the results showed that the apical leakage was significantly increased in obturated canals with smear layer. Conclusion: The removal of smear layer might improve the long term apical seal and success of endodontically treated teeth. Keywords: Apical Seal, EDTA, Removal, Sodium Hypochlorite, Smear Layer.

  10. ACCEPTABILITY OF A SELF-SAMPLING TECHNIQUE TO COLLECT VAGINAL SMEARS FOR GRAM STAIN DIAGNOSIS OF BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Boskey, Elizabeth R.; Atherly-Trim, Shelly A.; O'Campo, Patricia J.; Strobino, Donna M; Misra, Dawn P.

    2004-01-01

    To diagnose asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis (BV), self-sampled vaginal smears were collected during a study of risk factors for preterm birth in African American women. More than 90% of those women who were willing to participate in the interview portion of the study were also willing to provide a self-sampled vaginal smear. The smears are an acceptable and efficient way of detecting BV in an urban minority population.

  11. Evaluation of nonneoplastic findings on vaginal smears with comparison of intrauterine devices and oral contraceptive pill effects

    OpenAIRE

    FINDIK, Rahime BED?R; GÜRE?C?, Servet; ÜNLÜER, Ay?e Nurcan; Karakaya, Jale

    2013-01-01

    Although the Pap smear is a common screening test for cervical cancer and its precursors, it can detect some benign conditions as well. In this study, the aim was to evaluate smear results with regard to nonneoplastic findings and to compare them to the detectable effects of intrauterine devices (IUDs) and oral contraceptive pills (OPs). Materials and methods: In this retrospective study, the hospital records and cytopathology reports of 4248 patients were recorded. Smear results were evalua...

  12. Press Imprint Smear: A Rapid, Simple, and Cheap Method for the Diagnosis of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Anastácio Q.; Pompeu, Margarida M. L.; Frutuoso, Mércia S.; Lima, José W. O.; Tinel, Juliana M. B. M.; Pearson, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    A modified imprint method, Press-Imprint-Smear, was compared with histopathology for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Amastigotes were seen in 69 (92%) of 75 individuals in one or both assays. The Press-Imprint-Smear was positive in 85.3%, and histopathology was positive in 44%. Press-Imprint-Smear is a rapid and relatively sensitive method for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:25114007

  13. Prevalence of haemoparasites in pet, working and stray dogs of Assam and North-East India: A hospital based study

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharjee, K.; P. C. Sarmah

    2013-01-01

    Aim:This research work is aimed to find out the prevalence of haemoparasitic infections in different categories of dogs.Materials and Methods: Out of 2104 dogs registered in the Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex of the College ofVeterinary Science, Khanapara, Guwahati during January 2009 to December 2010, blood of 424 cases suspected forhaemoparasites on the basis of clinical history were microscopically examined in wet blood film and giemsa stained bloodsmears.Results: The prevalence was ...

  14. Clinicopathological findings in dogs naturally infected dogs with Babesia

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    Egon Andoni

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to describe the clinicopathological findings in dogs naturally infected with Babesia. During the period of February 2011-February 2012 twenty-nine cases of Babesia Canis were diagnosed in the clinic of Small Animal at the Veterinary Faculty of Tirana. The animal was considered infected when pear shaped babesia was observed inside infected erythrocytes in Wright-Giemsa stained blood smears. The animal stay for one week in our clinic and during this period we evaluated the canine babesiosis cases by means of clinical history, physical examination, hematological and biochemical tests. Based in the clinical sing of babesia the animal was divided in two groups with uncomplicated and complicate babesia. The duration of clinical signs ranged from 1 to 5 days prior to the arrival at the clinic and all the animals were positive with B. c. canis infections. The main clinical signs were dehydration and anemia in (79%, apathy (74%, anorexia or decrease appetite (70% and fever (68%. The anemia was present in the dogs and classified severe (13% as mild (45%, and moderate (52% of all the cases. In conclusion, the main clinicopathological findings were a mild to moderate hemolytic anemia and mild to severe thrombocytopenia.

  15. An Investigation on the Ecology of Triatoma vitticeps (Stal, 1859 and its Possible Role in the Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, in the Locality of Triunfo, Santa Maria Madalena Municipal District, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Gonçalves Teresa Cristina M

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available From January 1989 to April 1995, 465 specimens of Triatoma vitticeps were collected in the locality of Triunfo, 2nd District of Santa Maria Madalena municipal district, State of Rio de Janeiro. The bugs were found indoors by local residents with predominance of adults. The flight activity was high in hot months when the incidence in the domicile also increased. Two hundred and two bugs (111 alive and 91 dead were examined for Trypanosoma cruzi infection. This was detected in 31 of the dead bugs (34% and 88 (79% of the live bugs examined. With a view to investigate the possible vertebrate hosts of the T. cruzi isolates, the blood of 122 mammals was examined through Giemsa-stained smears, hemocultures and xenodiagnosis. T. cruzi was detected in three specimens of Didelphis marsupialis and T. (M. theileri was detected in one specimen of Bos taurus. The parasites were isolated from triatomine feces, xenoculture and hemoculture. No evidence of human infection was detected in 58 inhabitants examined, as evaluated by indirect imunofluorescence technique using T. cruzi epimastigotes as antigens. These results show that T. vitticeps is still a sylvatic species although nymphs have been found inside the domicile. Thus, an epidemiological vigilance is necessary to know the behaviour of this species following the continuous modifications promoted by the presence of man.

  16. Search for Borrelia sp. in ticks collected from potential reservoirs in an urban forest reserve in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil: a short report

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    IP da Costa

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 128 ticks of the genus Amblyomma were recovered from 5 marsupials (Didelphis albiventris - with 4 recaptures - and 17 rodents (16 Bolomys lasiurus and 1 Rattus norvegicus captured in an urban forest reserve in Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Of the ticks collected, 95 (78.9% were in larval form and 22 (21.1% were nymphs; the only adult (0.8% was identified as A. cajennense. Viewed under dark-field microscopy in the fourth month after seeding, 9 cultures prepared from spleens and livers of the rodents, blood of the marsupials, and macerates of Amblyomma sp. nymphs revealed spiral-shaped, spirochete-like structures resembling those of Borrelia sp. Some of them showed little motility, while others were non-motile. No such structures could be found either in positive Giemsa-stained culture smears or under electron microscopy. No PCR amplification of DNA from those cultures could be obtained by employing Leptospira sp., B. burgdorferi, and Borrelia sp. primers. These aspects suggest that the spirochete-like structures found in this study do not fit into the genera Borrelia or Leptospira, requiring instead to be isolated for proper identification.

  17. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Leontopithecus rosalia at the Reserva Biológica de Poço das Antas, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Cristiane V Lisboa

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Wild golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia -- endangered primates that are native to the Brazilian Atlantic coastal forest -- were surveyed for the presence of Trypanosoma cruzi with the use of Giemsa-stained blood smears, hemocultures and an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFAT. Positive IFAT with titers ranging from 1:20 to 1:1280 were observed in 52% of the 118 wild tamarins examined and the parasite was isolated from 38 tamarins. No patent parasitemia was observed among the tamarins from which T. cruzi was isolated. Serum conversion and positive hemoculture was observed for three animals that had yielded negative results some months earlier, which indicates that T. cruzi is actively transmitted among tamarins. In contrast to observations with other sylvatic isolates, those from the tamarins were significantly more virulent and most of them produced mortality in experimentally infected Swiss mice. Some variation in the kDNA restriction profiles among the isolates was observed. Electrophoresis with GPI, G6PDH, IDH, MDH and ME enzymes showed a Z2 profile.

  18. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Leontopithecus rosalia at the Reserva Biológica de Poço das Antas, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristiane V, Lisboa; James, Dietz; Andrew J, Baker; Nédia N, Russel; Ana M, Jansen.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Wild golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) -- endangered primates that are native to the Brazilian Atlantic coastal forest -- were surveyed for the presence of Trypanosoma cruzi with the use of Giemsa-stained blood smears, hemocultures and an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFAT). Positiv [...] e IFAT with titers ranging from 1:20 to 1:1280 were observed in 52% of the 118 wild tamarins examined and the parasite was isolated from 38 tamarins. No patent parasitemia was observed among the tamarins from which T. cruzi was isolated. Serum conversion and positive hemoculture was observed for three animals that had yielded negative results some months earlier, which indicates that T. cruzi is actively transmitted among tamarins. In contrast to observations with other sylvatic isolates, those from the tamarins were significantly more virulent and most of them produced mortality in experimentally infected Swiss mice. Some variation in the kDNA restriction profiles among the isolates was observed. Electrophoresis with GPI, G6PDH, IDH, MDH and ME enzymes showed a Z2 profile.

  19. A duplex PCR-based assay for simultaneous detection of Trypanosoma evansi and Theileria annulata infections in water buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudan, Vikrant; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Parashar, Rahul; Shanker, Daya

    2015-06-01

    Trypanosomosis and bovine tropical theileriosis are important vector-borne protozoan diseases imposing some of the serious constraints on the health and productivity of domestic cattle in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Following recovery from primary infection of both these conditions, animals become persistent carriers and act as reservoirs of infection thereby playing a critical role in disease epidemiology. The present study describes development and evaluation of duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for simultaneous detection of Trypanosoma evansi and Theileria annulata in buffaloes. Following in silico screening for candidate target genes representing each of the pathogens, an optimized duplex PCR assay was established using TBR F/R and TAMS F/R as primer sets encoding for products of 164 and 721 bp for T. evansi and T. annulata, respectively. The results were compared and correlated with conventional Giemsa-stained thin blood smear examination and the single PCR assay. The duplex PCR detected each pathogen with the same level of sensitivity, irrespective of whether its DNA was amplified in isolation or together with DNA of another pathogen. Moreover, single and duplex PCRs were able to detect each species with equal sensitivity in serially diluted DNA representing mixtures of T. evansi and T. annulata, and no evidence of nonspecific amplification from nontarget species was observed. The developed assay may be seen as a good tool for epidemiological studies aiming at assessing the burden of dual infections and improving control of the associated diseases in endemic regions. PMID:25846571

  20. Parasitic infections among Karen in Kanchanaburi Province, western Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithikathkul, Choosak; Changsap, Bangon; Wannapinyosheep, Supaporn; Arnat, Naiyana; Kongkham, Somprathana; Benchawattananon, Rachadaporn; Leemingsawat, Somjai

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of intestinal parasitic and malarial infections during a period of low infection among the residents of remote Karen villages in Thailand. Fifty-five males and 64 females, aged 6 months to 70 years, were examined for malaria by thick blood smears using the Giemsa staining technique. Of the 119 subjects, 4 (3.36%) showed positive for malaria with vivax gametocytes. Results suggested that mass screening was not an effective way for diagnosing malaria. Stool samples were examined under a light microscope. The overall intestinal parasitic infection rates were 38.24% in 34 males, and 36.11% in 36 females. These were hookworm (17.14%), Ascaris lumbricoides (7.14%), Trichuris trichiura (1.43%), Strongyloides stercoralis (7.14%), Taenia spp (1.43%), Entamoeba histolytica (1.43%), Entamaeba coli (10.00%) and Giatdia lamblia (1.43%). The highest (55.55%) and lowest (16.66%) rates of infection were observed in age groups 0-5 and over 45, years respectively. In addition, A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura were found more frequently in children, while hookworms was found similarly in every age group. Results showed that the Karen living along the western border of Thailand possessed high rates of intestinal parasitic infections. Strict monitoring and control programs for these parasites should be implemented. PMID:19230576

  1. C-Reactive Protein (CRP in Early Diagnosis of Neonatal Septicemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setal B Chauhan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Early diagnosis of sepsis in the neonate is often difficult because symptoms and signs are usually non-specific. A study was conducted to evaluate C-reactive protein (CRP as a screening tool for neonatal sepsis. Method: The prospective observational study was conducted at NICU, V. S. Hospital, Ahmedabad from January 2008 to June 2009. 75 neonates were included with the age group of first 28days (4week of life (infant age in study, all of which were suspected to have sepsis in clinical settings. All peripheral smear of neonate stained with Giemsa stain were reviewed .CRP performed by semi quantitative latex agglutination method. Positive cultures were the “gold standard” against which the performance of CRP , abnormal white blood cell counts (WBC & absolute neutrophil counts (ANC were compared. Results: Among 75 septic screens, 39 (52% patients had positive cultures. The sensitivity and specificity of CRP 0.6 mg/dL was 92.30% and 85.71% respectively. Abnormal platelet count had the lowest specificity(45% and sensitivity(23.07% among them. Conclusion: CRP assay using semi quantitative latex agglutination method is a valuable adjunct in screening for neonatal sepsis, complementing clinical decision-making. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(3.000: 276-278

  2. Search for Borrelia sp. in ticks collected from potential reservoirs in an urban forest reserve in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil: a short report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    IP da, Costa; VLN, Bonoldi; NH, Yoshinari.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 128 ticks of the genus Amblyomma were recovered from 5 marsupials (Didelphis albiventris) - with 4 recaptures - and 17 rodents (16 Bolomys lasiurus and 1 Rattus norvegicus) captured in an urban forest reserve in Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Of the ticks collected, 95 [...] (78.9%) were in larval form and 22 (21.1%) were nymphs; the only adult (0.8%) was identified as A. cajennense. Viewed under dark-field microscopy in the fourth month after seeding, 9 cultures prepared from spleens and livers of the rodents, blood of the marsupials, and macerates of Amblyomma sp. nymphs revealed spiral-shaped, spirochete-like structures resembling those of Borrelia sp. Some of them showed little motility, while others were non-motile. No such structures could be found either in positive Giemsa-stained culture smears or under electron microscopy. No PCR amplification of DNA from those cultures could be obtained by employing Leptospira sp., B. burgdorferi, and Borrelia sp. primers. These aspects suggest that the spirochete-like structures found in this study do not fit into the genera Borrelia or Leptospira, requiring instead to be isolated for proper identification.

  3. Enhanced detection of gametocytes by magnetic deposition microscopy predicts higher potential for Plasmodium falciparum transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zborowski Maciej

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aggregated haemozoin crystals within malaria-infected erythrocytes confer susceptibility of parasitized cells to a magnetic field. Here the utility of this method for diagnosis of human malaria is evaluated in a malaria-endemic region of Papua New Guinea (PNG. Methods and findings Individuals with Plasmodium falciparum malaria symptoms (n = 55 provided samples for conventional blood smear (CBS and magnetic deposition microscopy (MDM diagnosis. Standard Giemsa staining and light microscopy was performed to evaluate all preparations. Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia observed on MDM slides was consistently higher than parasitaemia observed by (CBS for ring (CBS = 2.6 vs. MDM = 3.4%; t-test P-value = 0.13, trophozoite (CBS = 0.5 vs. MDM = 1.6%; t-test P-value = 0.01, schizont (CBS = 0.003 vs. MDM = 0.1%; t-test P-value = 0.08 and gametocyte (CBS = 0.001 vs. MDM = 0.4%; t-test P-value = 0.0002 parasitaemias. Gametocyte prevalence determined by CBS compared to MDM increased from 7.3% to 45%, respectively. Conclusion MDM increased detection sensitivity of P. falciparum-infected, haemozoin-containing erythrocytes from infected humans while maintaining detection of ring-stage parasites. Gametocyte prevalence five-fold higher than observed by CBS suggests higher malaria transmission potential in PNG endemic sites compared to previous estimates.

  4. Experimental transmission of Anaplasma marginale by male Dermacentor reticulatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocan Katherine M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine anaplasmosis has been reported in several European countries, but the vector competency of tick species for Anaplasma marginale from these localities has not been determined. Because of the wide distributional range of Dermacentor reticulatus within Europe and the major role of Dermacentor spp. as a vector of A. marginale in the United States, we tested the vector competency of D. reticulatus for A. marginale. Results Male D. reticulatus were allowed to feed for 7 days on a calf persistently infected with a Zaria isolate of A. marginale, after which they were removed and held off-host for 7 days. The ticks were then allowed to feed a second time for 7 days on a susceptible tick-naïve calf. Infection of calf No. 4291 was detected 20 days post exposure (p.i. and confirmed by msp4 PCR. Thirty percent of the dissected acquisition fed ticks was infected. In addition, A. marginale colonies were detected by light microscopy in the salivary glands of the acquisition fed ticks. Transmission of A. marginale to calf No. 9191 was confirmed by examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears and msp4 PCR. Ticks were dissected after transmission feeding and presence of A. marginale was confirmed in 18.5% of the dissected ticks. Conclusion This study demonstrates that D. reticulatus males are competent vectors of A. marginale. Further studies are needed to confirm the vector competency of D. reticulatus for other A. marginale strains from geographic areas in Europe.

  5. First case of Plasmodium knowlesi infection in a Japanese traveller returning from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanizaki, Ryutaro; Ujiie, Mugen; Kato, Yasuyuki; Iwagami, Moritoshi; Hashimoto, Aki; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Takeshita, Nozomi; Hayakawa, Kyoko; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Kano, Shigeyuki; Ohmagari, Norio

    2013-01-01

    This is the first case of Plasmodium knowlesi infection in a Japanese traveller returning from Malaysia. In September 2012, a previously healthy 35-year-old Japanese man presented to National Center for Global Health and Medicine in Tokyo with a two-day history of daily fever, mild headaches and mild arthralgia. Malaria parasites were found in the Giemsa-stained thin blood smear, which showed band forms similar to Plasmodium malariae. Although a nested PCR showed the amplification of the primer of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi, he was finally diagnosed with P. knowlesi mono-infection by DNA sequencing. He was treated with mefloquine, and recovered without any complications. DNA sequencing of the PCR products is indispensable to confirm P. knowlesi infection, however there is limited access to DNA sequencing procedures in endemic areas. The extent of P. knowlesi transmission in Asia has not been clearly defined. There is limited availability of diagnostic tests and routine surveillance system for reporting an accurate diagnosis in the Asian endemic regions. Thus, reporting accurately diagnosed cases of P. knowlesi infection in travellers would be important for assessing the true nature of this emerging human infection. PMID:23587117

  6. PARASITISMO DE LEUCOCITOS Y TROMBOCITOS DE Gallus gallus L. POR Plasmodium (Novyella juxtanucleare (APICOMPLEXA: PLASMODIIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLEBER O SOARES

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se realizó una investigación del parasitismo de Plasmodium juxtanucleare en gallinas sin raza definida, provenientes de criaderos rústicos en el município de Seropédica, estado de Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Se realizaron frotis sanguineos periféricos, los cuales fueron coloreados con Giemsa diluído en tampon sorensen pH6,8. En el exámen hemoscópico se puede observar en aves con alto índice de parasitemia (>10% formas parasitarias de trofozoítas y esquizontes en el citoplasma de células de la linea leucocítica y trofozoítas en células de la linea trombocítica. Las observaciones en el presente estudio hacen inferir que la cepa de P. juxtanucleare que ocurre en Seropédica realiza esquizogonia fanerozóica. Este trabajo constituye el primer hallazgo de formas parasitárias de P. juxtanucleare en leucocitosPARASITISM OF LEUKOCYTES AND THROMBOCYTES OF Gallus gallus L. BY Plasmodium (Novyella juxtanucleare (APICOMPLEXA: PLASMODIIDAE A research about parasitism of the Plasmodium juxtanucleare in crossbred fowls from Seropédica municipality, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, were done. Blood smear were done, and stained by Giemsa stain diluted in sorensen buffer pH6.8. The hemoscopical exam of fowls with high parasitaemia (>10% showed trophozoite and meront forms in the cytoplasm of leukocytic cells; and trophozoite forms in the cytoplasm of the thrombocytic cells. These observation do conclude that P. juxtanucleare strain from Seropédica produce phanerozoic meronts. This report constitutes the first finding of P. juxtanucleare forms in the leukocytes.

  7. Pilomyxoid astrocytoma of the pineal region: cytopathological features and differential diagnostic considerations by intraoperative smear preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Toshitetsu; Haba, Reiji; Kushida, Yoshio; Katsuki, Naomi; Shibuya, Shinsuke; Kadota, Kyuichi; Matsunaga, Toru; Miyake, Keisuke; Tamiya, Takashi

    2015-02-01

    Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a recently identified type of pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) with shorter progression-free and overall survival, higher rate of recurrence, and higher risk of leptomeningeal spread compared to pilocytic tumors (WHO grade 2 designation). A case is presented here in which intraoperative imprint smears of a pineal region tumor in a 14-year-old girl revealed cytologic monomorphism, elongated cells with bland nuclei embedded in a myxoid background. The tumor cells possessed uniformly round nuclei with a smooth nuclear outline, fine granular chromatin, and small nucleoli. Slender cytoplasmic fibrillary processes and angiocentric arrangement were observed but Rosenthal fibers or eosinophilic granular bodies were absent. A cytologic diagnosis of PMA of the pineal region was suggested by intraoperative smear preparation. Histology and immunohistochemical results confirmed the final diagnosis. This report shows that smear preparation can be trustworthy for the intraoperative diagnosis of PMA, helping to determine the appropriate neurosurgical procedure and therapeutic implications. PMID:24578310

  8. Smearing induced dynamical stability of NbN and MoN in rocksalt structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Sanjay D. [Department of Physics, Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar 364002 (India); Jha, Prafulla K., E-mail: prafullaj@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar 364002 (India)

    2012-06-15

    The present paper reports a comprehensive first-principles calculation of electronic structure and lattice dynamical properties of niobium and molybdenum mononitrides in rocksalt phase at ground state as well as at finite electronic temperature applied using smearing parameter. The optimized structure with equilibrium parameters in rocksalt phase is dynamically unstable. An increase in smearing parameter or considering the finite temperature effects increases acoustic phonon frequencies at X point of the Brillouin zone and rocksalt structure dynamically stabilized for both compounds. This is because of the lowering of Fermi energy with increase of smearing parameter. Much better agreement between the calculated and experimental data is found as compared to previous calculations and a consistent description of the dynamical stability in the case of rocksalt phase of NbN and MoN is achieved. The thermodynamical functions are also calculated in the frame work of quasi harmonic approximation and discussed.

  9. $J\\/\\psi$ production at the Tevatron and HERA the effect of $k_T$ smearing

    CERN Document Server

    Sridhar, K; Stirling, William James

    1998-01-01

    We study the effects of intrinsic transverse momentum smearing on J/psi production both at the Tevatron and at HERA. For the case of large-p_T J/psi production at the Tevatron, the effects due to k_T smearing are mild. On the other hand, inelastic J/psi photoproduction at HERA is very sensitive to the k_T smearing and, in fact, with a reasonable value of it is possible to resolve the large-z discrepancy seen by comparing non-relativistic QCD (NRQCD) predictions with the HERA data. We conclude that, with the present kinematic cuts, photoproduction at HERA is not a good test of NRQCD.

  10. Slow dynamics at the smeared phase transition of randomly layered magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Huether, S; Vojta, T; Huether, Shellie; Kinney, Ryan; Vojta, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    We investigate a model for randomly layered magnets, viz. a three-dimensional Ising model with planar defects. The magnetic phase transition in this system is smeared because static long-range order can develop on isolated rare spatial regions. Here, we report large-scale kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of the dynamical behavior close to the smeared phase transition which we characterize by the spin (time) autocorrelation function. In the paramagnetic phase, its behavior is dominated by Griffiths effects similar to those in magnets with point defects. In the tail region of the smeared transition the dynamics is even slower: the autocorrelation function decays like a stretched exponential at intermediate times before approaching the exponentially small asymptotic value following a power law at late times. Our Monte-Carlo results are in good agreement with recent theoretical predictions based on optimal fluctuation theory.

  11. Morphology of peripheral blood cells from various species of Turkish Herpetofauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerim Çiçek

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, measurements of morphological and size parameters of peripheral blood cells (erythrocyte, leucocyte, thrombocyte on blood smear preparation devices stained with Wright’s stain were given for 87 species from Turkish herpetofauna (19 amphibian species including 7 urodeles and 12 anurans as well as 68 reptile species including 4 turtles, 30 lizards and 34 snake. It was determined that erythrocyte and nucleus sizes showed great variations among the species of herpetofauna and even among the preparations of the same species; the largest blood cells (erythrocyte, leucocyte, thrombocyte were found in urodeles; aquatic and semiaquatic species had larger erythrocytes than terrestrials, and the largest erythrocytes were in turtles among the reptile species examined. Lymphocytes were determined as the predominant cells among the blood leucocytes in blood smears of all the examined species.

  12. Morphology of Peripheral Blood Cells from Various Species of Turkish Herpetofauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin ARIKAN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 In this study, measurements of morphological and size parameters of peripheral blood cells (erythrocyte, leucocyte, thrombocyte on blood smear preparation devices stained with Wright’s stain were given for 87 species from Turkish herpetofauna (19 amphibian species including 7 urodeles and 12 anurans as well as 68 reptile species including 4 turtles, 30 lizards and 34 snakes. It was determined that erythrocyte and nucleus sizes showed great variations among the species of herpetofauna and even among the preparations of the same species; the largest blood cells (erythrocyte, leucocyte, thrombocyte were found in urodeles; aquatic and semiaquatic species had larger erythrocytes than terrestrials, and the largest erythrocytes were in turtles among the reptile species examined. Lymphocytes were determined as the predominant cells among the blood leucocytes in blood smears of all the examined species.

  13. Artificial blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Suman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  14. Smear layer removal and chelated calcium ion quantification of three irrigating solutions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andre Augusto Franco, Marques; Melissa Andréia, Marchesan; Celso Bernardo de, Sousa-Filho; Yara Teresinha Correa, Silva-Sousa; Manoel D., Sousa-Neto; Antonio Miranda da, Cruz-Filho.

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a remoção de smear layer por meio da microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e quantificar a liberação de íons cálcio resultante da irrigação com as soluções quelantes estudadas, por meio da espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. Dezesseis caninos extraíd [...] os foram instrumentados com a técnica step-back e divididos em 3 grupos de acordo com a solução irrigadora utilizada: G1: 1 mL de EDTAC a 17% entre cada lima; G2: CDTA a 17%; e G3: EGTA a 17%. As soluções foram coletadas após o uso. Os dentes foram secionados longitudinalmente e as raízes examinadas por MEV para verificação de smear layer nos terços por meio de escores (variando de 1 a 4), e avaliadas por três examinadores calibrados "cegos". Para quantificar a liberação de íons cálcio, as soluções coletadas foram avaliadas por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. Com relação ao smear layer, o teste de Friedman evidenciou diferença estatisticamente significante (p Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to evaluate, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), smear layer removal and quantify, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, the amount of calcium ion present in the chelating solutions after their use. Sixteen extracted canines were instrumented using the step-back te [...] chnique and were assigned to 3 groups according to the irrigating solution used: G1: 1 mL 17% EDTAC between each file; G2: 1 mL 17% CDTA; G3: 1 mL 17% EGTA. The solutions were collected after use. The teeth were cleaved longitudinally, evaluated under SEM and assessed for smear layer by blinded examiners and scored from 1 to 4. In order to quantify calcium ion release, the collected solutions were examined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Freidman's test was used for statistical analysis of SEM values and showed that canals irrigated with 17% EDTAC and 17% CDTA had significantly less smear layer throughout the canals than 17% EGTA (p

  15. HPV DNA and Pap smear test results in cases with and without cervical pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabit Sinan Özalp

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the HPV prevalance and its relation to Pap smear, colposcopy and colposcopy directed biopsy in our region of Eskisehir, Turkey.Material and Methods: A total of 615 women who applied to the outpatient clinic between December 2009 and December 2010 constituted our study population. All patients underwent pelvic examination and Pap smear sampling. Patients who had pathological cervical appearance or Pap smear results of ASCUS, AGUS, LSIL or HSIL were referred to colposcopy. Cervical samples for HPV DNA were taken from the patients before Pap smear sampling during the routine examination or before the colposcopic evaluation. Results: Twenty six of 615 patients (4% were HPV positive. Of these 26 patients, 12 were positive for HPV type 16, 3 for type 18, 3 for type 51, 2 for type 6, 1 for type 52, 1 for type 33, 1 for type 16 and type 31, 1 for type 6 and 52, 1 for type 56 and 90, 1 for type 39 and 66. In 4 patients with cervical cancer, and in 3 of 4 CIN III cases both HPV DNA and Pap smear were positive. In the Pap smear examination of 615 patients, cytology revealed 35 ASCUS (5.6% 4 AGUS (0.6%, 2 CIN I (0.3% results who were negative for HPV DNA. These patients with abnormal cytology (n=41 underwent colposcopy directed biopsy, there were 3 CIN I and 1 CIN III and all the other cervical biopsy results of these patients were benign (inflammation, chronic cervicitis. Conclusion: HPV positivity in our hospital setting is low which is compatible with other studies in Turkey. In positive HPV cases there is a good correlation between HPV type and positive cervical biopsy results.

  16. Evaluation of 37,438 consecutive cervical smear results in the Turkish population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Mehmet; Delibas, Ilhan Bahri; Bilici, Ahmet Erkan; Kabalar, Mehmet Esref

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Retrospective evaluation of cervical smear results of women who attended our gynecology policlinics with various symptoms and discussion of the results in the light of the literature. Material and methods We performed a retrospective investigation on 37,438 Pap smear results of women who attended our hospital between January 2011 and December 2012 with a variety of symptoms. Results Average patient age was 43 (18–83) years. Of the Pap smear results analyzed, in 21,503 (57.4%) findings were within normal limits, while 153 (0.41%) showed epithelial cell abnormalities and 15,358 (41%) showed inflammation. Four hundred and twenty-four (1.1%) cases were reported to have inadequate Pap smear samples for evaluation. Of the epithelial cell abnormalities, 136 (88.8%) were squamous cell abnormalities and 17 (11.1%) were glandular cell abnormalities. Atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASCUS) were reported for 117 (0.3%) Pap smears, while other epithelial abnormalities included atypical glandular cells of unknown significance (AGUS) in 17 (0.05%) cases, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) in 8 (0.02%) cases, atypical squamous cells with possible high grade lesion (ASC-H) in 8 (0.02%) cases and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) in 3 (0.008%) cases. Conclusions Public awareness should be raised on the importance of Pap smear testing repeated at appropriate intervals in the prevention and early diagnosis of cervical cancer. Health education should become more widespread, and the importance of screening programs and regular check-ups should be emphasized more often on this issue in the media. PMID:25995758

  17. Evaluation of radioactive surface contamination using polystyrene smears grafted with acrylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a method for obtaining expanded polystyrene smears having a hydrophilic surface, carried out by radioinduced grafting of acrylic acid. Acrylic acid grafting was performed using a 60 Co radiation source, which ensures a maximum of absorbed dose rate of 10 kGy/h. Variation of grafting radiochemical yields were calculated as a function of dose absorbed a dose absorbed rate. Grafting radiochemical yields were calculated with weighting and radiometric method using acrylic acid labeled with 3 H as grafting agent. Drawing coefficients and quenching processes were analysed in relation with the acrylic acid grafting degree on the expanded polystyrene smears

  18. Choice of skin slit smears for study of bacterial and morphological indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, S; Kumar, B; Darshan, H; Singh, S

    1980-10-01

    Skin slit smears of 46 patients of lepromatous leprosy (16 untreated, 30 long treated) were studied from ear lobules, fingers, elbows and knees. In untreated patients ear lobules gave highest BI, as compared to other sites. MI from ear lobules was higher than elbows and knees but slightly lower than that from fingers. In treated patients sites other than ear lobules yielded solid staining bacilli more frequently. Multiple sites and especially peripheral sites are recommended for study of skin slit smears to discover persistent bacilli. PMID:7007725

  19. A General Class of Regular Black Holes based on a Smeared Mass Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Larranaga, Alexis; Torres, Daniel Alexdy

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the behavior of a new class of regular black holes based on a non-Gaussian smeared mass distribution. It is shown that the smeared mass distribution consideration cures the well known problems in the terminal phase of black hole evaporation. We find that there is a finite maximum temperature that the black hole reaches before cooling down to absolute zero so that the evaporation ends up in a zero temperature extremal black hole. Finally, we probe the regular characteristic of the new black holes by showing that there is no curvature singularity at the origin.

  20. Development of portable and automatic smear sampler for measuring surface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In measuring radioactive contamination in radiation controlled area of nuclear facility, the technical criteria to evaluate surface contamination level and to sample by indirect method was established in this paper. Radioactive materials always present on surface within operating nuclear facilities. Because of the presence of interfering radiation field, health physicists take smear samples to monitoring surface contamination according to routine monitoring program. But there are some problems like great errors and difference of personnel. Then, to solve them, The portable and automatic smear sampling apparatus was designed and fabricated

  1. Development of portable and automatic smear sampler for measuring surface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In measuring radioactive contamination in radiation controlled area of nuclear facility, the technical criteria to evaluate surface contamination level and to sample by indirect method was established in this paper. Radioactive materials always present on surface within operating nuclear facilities. Because of the presence of interfering radiation field, health physicists take smear samples to monitoring surface contamination according to routine monitoring program. But there are some problems like great errors and difference of personnel. Then, to solve them, The portable and automatic smear sampling apparatus was designed and fabricated and performance-tested

  2. Development of portable and automatic smear sampler for measuring surface contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bong Jae; Chang, S. Y.; Kim, B. H.; Kim, J. S.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, C. K.; Swol, C. W

    2000-12-01

    In measuring radioactive contamination in radiation controlled area of nuclear facility, the technical criteria to evaluate surface contamination level and to sample by indirect method was established in this paper. Radioactive materials always present on surface within operating nuclear facilities. Because of the presence of interfering radiation field, health physicists take smear samples to monitoring surface contamination according to routine monitoring program. But there are some problems like great errors and difference of personnel. Then, to solve them, The portable and automatic smear sampling apparatus was designed and fabricated.

  3. Chlamydia trachomatis in cervico vaginal smears of irradiated uteri: cytologic and immune cytochemical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervico vaginal smears of women with uterine carcinoma treated with radiotherapy are analyzed in the present work. A series of such smears showed morphological changes suggestive of Chlamydia infection with the Papanicolaou stain. Confirmation of the presence of such agent was done using an avidin-biotin peroxidase technique. A higher prevalence of Chlamydia in the group of patients with carcinoma of the uterus treated with irradiation than in the population without ionizing treatment was verified. The presence of cells with radiotherapic changes infected by Chlamydia is a new finding in cytology. (author)

  4. Comparison of leaf smearing and wick feeding techniques for root distribution studies of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wick feeding and leaf smearing methods have been compared for their relative efficiencies for root distribution studies with tobacco plant. The applied radioactivity gets equilibrated within 3 days in the tobacco plant. Root sections of the plants fed through the wick contained higher quantity for the radioactivity over those of the leaf smeared ones. Because of the case of application and better translocation of applied radioactivity the wick-feeding method appears to have good utility for root distribution studies with hard stemmed plants. (author)

  5. What Is Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... group to view compatibility. RED BLOOD CELLS WHOLE BLOOD PLASMA Donor O Group O can donate red blood cells ... blood donation types here. The Foundation for America's Blood Centers | Thank A Donor Donate Blood Blood Donation 101 Blood Donation FAQs ...

  6. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ASH Annual Meeting For Patients Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy ... Group Links Advocacy Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Disorders Blood Clots Blood Clotting & Pregnancy If you are ...

  7. Blood Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to their work or home. The availability of plastic bags that can have one or more satellite bags ... in preparing the donated blood. The use of plastic bags allows the blood center to make a variety ...

  8. BLOOD DONATION

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

  9. Blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood pressure is considered to be a systolic blood pressure of 115 millimeters of mercury a diastolic pressure of 70 millimeters of mercury (stated as "115 over 70"). If an individual were to have a consistent blood pressure reading of 140 over 90, he would ...

  10. Borrelia sp. in naturally infected Didelphis aurita (Wied, 1826) (marsupialia: didelphidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Isis dos Santos, Abel; Denclair Escobar de, Almeida Junior; Adivaldo Henrique da, Fonseca; Cleber Oliveira, Soares; Márcia Mayumi, Ishikawa.

    Full Text Available Cinquenta e seis gambás (Didelphis aurita) foram capturados no campus da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica - Rio de Janeiro, com o intuito de se investigar a ocorrência de Borrelia sp. entre eles, associada ao estudo da espiroquetemia e de seus ectoparasitos. Amostras de sangu [...] e dos animais foram examinadas à microscopia de campo escuro e contraste de fase, além deste ter se destinado à obtenção de esfregaços sanguíneos, corados pelo método de Giemsa. Não houve relação entre os resultados obtidos através dos exames diretos do sangue (13 gambás positivos para Borrelia sp.) e aqueles observados nos esfregaços sanguíneos (dois animais positivos), o que demonstra a baixa eficácia desta técnica. Estudos sobre a parasitemia de 37 animais mantidos em cativeiro, assim como as várias recapturas nas quais animais uma vez negativos mostraram-se positivos dias mais tarde, revelaram que os estudos hemoscópicos podem ser utilizados eficientemente como ferramentas de diagnóstico. Ectoparasitos colhidos de nove animais foram classificados. Houve ocorrência de ninfas Amblyomma cajennense e adultos Ctenocephalides sp. Abstract in english Fifty-six opossums (Didelphis aurita) were captured on the campus of Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica county, Rio de Janeiro state, in order to investigate the occurrence of Borrelia sp among them in relation with the study of spirochaetemia and its ectoparasites. Blood tests [...] were made through dark field and phase contrast microscopy, as well as the obtainment of blood smears. Smears were stained with Giemsa stain, which did not prove efficacy. There was no relation between results obtained through blood tests (13 opossum positive for Borreliasp.), and this technique (two positive animals). Parasitaemia studies of 37 animals kept in captivity as well as of several recaptures in which animals once negative proved to be positive days later, showed that haemoscopical studies could be used as an effective diagnosis tool. Ectoparasites from nine animals were classified; with the occurrence of nymphal Amblyomma cajennense and adult Ctenocephalides sp..

  11. Borrelia sp. in naturally infected Didelphis aurita (Wied, 1826 (marsupialia: didelphidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isis dos Santos Abel

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-six opossums (Didelphis aurita were captured on the campus of Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica county, Rio de Janeiro state, in order to investigate the occurrence of Borrelia sp among them in relation with the study of spirochaetemia and its ectoparasites. Blood tests were made through dark field and phase contrast microscopy, as well as the obtainment of blood smears. Smears were stained with Giemsa stain, which did not prove efficacy. There was no relation between results obtained through blood tests (13 opossum positive for Borreliasp., and this technique (two positive animals. Parasitaemia studies of 37 animals kept in captivity as well as of several recaptures in which animals once negative proved to be positive days later, showed that haemoscopical studies could be used as an effective diagnosis tool. Ectoparasites from nine animals were classified; with the occurrence of nymphal Amblyomma cajennense and adult Ctenocephalides sp..Cinquenta e seis gambás (Didelphis aurita foram capturados no campus da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica - Rio de Janeiro, com o intuito de se investigar a ocorrência de Borrelia sp. entre eles, associada ao estudo da espiroquetemia e de seus ectoparasitos. Amostras de sangue dos animais foram examinadas à microscopia de campo escuro e contraste de fase, além deste ter se destinado à obtenção de esfregaços sanguíneos, corados pelo método de Giemsa. Não houve relação entre os resultados obtidos através dos exames diretos do sangue (13 gambás positivos para Borrelia sp. e aqueles observados nos esfregaços sanguíneos (dois animais positivos, o que demonstra a baixa eficácia desta técnica. Estudos sobre a parasitemia de 37 animais mantidos em cativeiro, assim como as várias recapturas nas quais animais uma vez negativos mostraram-se positivos dias mais tarde, revelaram que os estudos hemoscópicos podem ser utilizados eficientemente como ferramentas de diagnóstico. Ectoparasitos colhidos de nove animais foram classificados. Houve ocorrência de ninfas Amblyomma cajennense e adultos Ctenocephalides sp.

  12. Evaluation of smear layer removal from ultrasonically prepared retrocavities by three agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghu Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of 35% orthophosphoric acid, 24% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA and 10% citric acid in the removal of smear layer from retrocavities prepared with ultrasonic retro-tips using scanning electron microscopy. Materials and Methods: Root canals of fifty single-rooted teeth were cleaned, shaped, and obturated with gutta-percha and AH plus sealer. The apical 3 mm of each root was sectioned with a diamond disc and retrograde cavities were prepared with Kis # 1 ultrasonic retro-tips to a depth of 3 mm. Retro cavities in Group I were treated with a gel of 35% orthophosphoric acid for 15 seconds, Group II were treated with a gel of 24% EDTA at neutral pH for 2 minutes, and Group III were treated with a gel of 10% citric acid for 2 minutes, followed by 1 minute rinsing with distilled water for all groups. The samples were prepared for scanning electron microscopic observation. Scoring was performed for the presence of the smear layer on the walls of the retrocavity. Results: In the orthophosphoric acid group, it was observed that all dentinal tubules were open in 70% of the samples. The majority of analyzed samples in EDTA and citric acid group showed dentinal tubules covered with the smear layer. Conclusions: Application of 35% orthophosphoric acid gel for 15 seconds on retrocavities prepared with ultrasonic retro-tips is the most effective means for removal of smear layer.

  13. Development of manipulator system for decontamination and surface contamination monitering with smear method of recycled dram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In nuclear power plants, drums are used in carrying out volume reduction treatment of low-level combustible solid wastes. After the treatment process, these drums are decontaminated, subjected to smear testing, and then reutilized. Shikoku Electric Power Co., Ltd. and Meidensha Electric Mfg. Co., Ltd. worked jointly to develop an automatic manipulator system to perform decontamination operation and smear testing for surface contamination of these recycled drums. The system consists of a drum feeder, drum handling equipment, decontamination/testing robot, wiping paper feeder, radioactive ray measuring apparatus, drum conveyor and control system. Major features of the system are as follows: 1) both sides of the lid as well as the body and bottom plate of a drum is decontaminated automatically; 2) liquid secondary wastes are not generated since decontamination is performed by wiping the drum with paper; 3) smear testing is carried out automatically (unaccepted drums are sent back to the decontamination process); 4) three manipulating arms for wet and dry decontamination and smear testing are changed automatically; and 5) several drums are processed continuously. (Nogami, K.)

  14. MICRONUCLEI AND OTHER NUCLEAR ANOMALIES IN BUCCAL SMEARS: FIELD TEST IN SNUFF USERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A revised protocol for the exfoliated cell micronucleus assay was ie d-teste in a population exposed to a genotoxic agent at levels associated with a significant increase in cancer risk. The standard assay involves microscope examination of epithelial smears 0 determine the preva...

  15. Rapid determination of plutonium content on filters and smears using Alpha Liquid Scintillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses a technique for rapidly determining plutonium content on filters and smears using Alpha Liquid Scintillation. Filter and smear samples will be analyzed daily for plutonium (Pu239) content during projected waste retrieval operations at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. daily monitoring will allow for trending of airborne and surface contamination. Alpha Liquid Scintillation (ALS) in conjunction with microwave digestion was investigated as a technique for rapid Pu analyses. Advantages offered by ALS are short turnaround time and field use with acceptable accuracy. A state-of-the-art Photon Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALS) Spectrometer utilizing pulse shape discrimination (PSD), and on oil filled photomultiplier tube counting chamber with 99.7% counting efficiency and 99.95% rejection of beta and gamma pulses, was used. Relatively clean filter samples could be directly counted in an all purpose scintillant, bis 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (HDEHP), 4-biphenyl-6-phenylbenzoxazole (PBBO), toluene and naphthalene. Laboratory preparation of soil samples and smears with high inert solids content was accomplished by dissolution of the sample in nitric and hydrofluoric acids using a microwave digestion system in teflon pressure vessels. The Pu in the dissolved sample was extracted into tertiary amine nitrate and counted in a HDEHP or 1-nonyldecylamine sulfate (NDAS) containing extractive scintillant. This method is applicable to the determination of total plutonium in air filters, smears and soils. 9 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  16. Exact method for the determination of the correlation function from 'infinite-slit' smeared saxs curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series expression has been developed for calculating the correlation function C(r) directly from infinitely long slit-smeared small angle X-ray scattering curves. The differences between the exact solution and the numerical execution of the well-known Hankel transformation are discussed. A possibility is shown of how the method can be applied with a small computer. (author)

  17. "SPECIMEN ADEQUACY AND EFFECT OF HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS IN CERVICOVAGINAL SMEARS WITH SQUAMOUS INTRAEPITHELIAL ABNORMALITY"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Izadi Mood T. Hacopian

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract-Cervicovaginal cytology is still a widely used cancer screening method that is well established in most countries. The present study aims at detecting and classifying squamous intraepithelial abnormalities and effects of certain infectious agents, particularly the cytopathic effects of human papillomavirus (HPV in a series of cervicovaginal smears, according to the Bethesda system (TBS. The significance of specimen adequacy in revealing squamous intraepithelial abnormalities (SIEA was also evaluated. Overall, 9066 smears were examined according to TBS. For interpretation of atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance (ASCUS, certain quality control (QC guidelines were considered. While stressing on koilocytic atypia, the full spectrum of cytologic alterations due to HPV was investigated. Of all smears, 79% were satisfactory for evaluation and 15% were inadequately satisfactory due to absence of the endocervical/transformation zone (EC/TZ component. The proportion of SIEA was significantly (P< 0.05 higher in smears having such a component. Of 246 cases with SIEA, 173 (1.90% cases were classified as ASCUS, 46 (0.50% as low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL, and 27 (0.26% as high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL. Of the latter, 19 cases demonstrated HPV effects. ASCUS was the most frequent diagnosis for which QC criteria were fulfilled. On the basis of our study the adequacy of specimen is of paramount significance, with particular emphasis on the presence of EC/TZ component.

  18. Surface micro-distributions of pigment and the relation between smearing and local mass distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the process of smearing and its time evolution have been investigated. When smearing occurs, the print is removed from the printed paper and colours other parts of the paper or the printing press and destroys the final product. To study the re-distribution of ink, cyan ink with Cu as a tracer in the coloured pigment has been used. Non-printed paper has been pressed against the paper, 1 and 5 s after the printing. The micro-distributions of ink on both printed and non-printed papers have then been studied using particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Basis weight was measured with the off-axis scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) technique and this data was correlated with the data from the print. One conclusion is that the process of smearing is not dependent on the shape of the pigment distribution, i.e. copper, or the content of copper in a specific pixel. On the contrary, the smearing was found to be related to the structure of the paper and that it mainly occurs where the paper is thicker

  19. Exploring free-form smearing for bottomonium and B meson spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Wurtz, Mark; Woloshyn, R M

    2015-01-01

    Free-form smearing was designed as a way to implement source operators of any desired shape. A variation of the method is introduced that reduces the computational cost by reducing the number of link multiplications to its absolute minimum. Practical utility is demonstrated through calculations of bottomonium and B meson masses.

  20. Near-threshold W-pair production in the model of unstable particles with smeared mass

    CERN Document Server

    Kuksa, V I

    2009-01-01

    Near-threshold production of charged boson pairs is considered within the framework of the model of unstable particles with smeared mass. The results of calculations are in good agreement with LEP II data and Monte-Carlo simulations. Suggested approach significantly simplifies calculations with respect to standard perturbative one.

  1. An Improved Computer Vision Method for White Blood Cells Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Cuevas, Erik; Díaz, Margarita; Manzanares, Miguel; Zaldivar, Daniel; Perez-Cisneros, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The automatic detection of white blood cells (WBCs) still remains as an unsolved issue in medical imaging. The analysis of WBC images has engaged researchers from fields of medicine and computer vision alike. Since WBC can be approximated by an ellipsoid form, an ellipse detector algorithm may be successfully applied in order to recognize such elements. This paper presents an algorithm for the automatic detection of WBC embedded in complicated and cluttered smear images that considers the com...

  2. Micronuclei as prognostic indicators in oral cytological smears: A comparison between smokers and non-smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Vishwanath Kamath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Micronucleus is a microscopically visible round or oval cytoplasmic chromatin mass in the extra nuclear vicinity, originated from aberrant mitosis, which consists of eccentric chromosomes that have failed to reach spindle poles during mitosis and are used as biomarkers for assessment of DNA damage. Micronuclei are characteristically seen in exfoliated cells of the buccal mucosa and urinary bladder wall in precancerous and cancerous conditions. Oral habits of smoking tobacco or chewing areca nut damage the oral tissues. An assessment of the damage is feasible by the detection of micronuclei in exfoliated cells of the oral tissues using smears. Objectives: The present study was designed to assess the presence or increase of micronuclei in buccal smears of individuals with tobacco habits against a control group of teetotalers. Materials and Methods: Two groups (smokers and non-smokers of 50 individuals each were examined. Buccal smears of all participants were taken using cytobrush and stained with standard Papanicolaou?s (PAP stain. Presence of micronuclei was assessed under ?100 magnification and a count per 500 cells was determined. The results were analyzed statistically using t-test and Mann-Whitney test. Results: Smears of individuals with tobacco habits showed a significant increase in the total number of micronuclei per 500 cell counts. There was a definite correlation between the occurrence of micronuclei and the frequency and duration of smoking. A paradoxical age related increase in middle-aged groups was also observed. Conclusions: The genotoxic effects of tobacco smoke cause chromosomal damage in the epithelial cells of the oral mucosa and are reflected in the increased micronuclei in smokers. This is present even in the absence of clinically evident changes. This observation is vital in utilization of the micronuclei detection in smears as a prognostic, educational and interventional tool in the management of patients with smoking habits.

  3. High-resolution CT for identify patients with smear-positive, active pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This study evaluates the use of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) to differentiate smear-positive, active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) from other pulmonary infections in the emergency room (ER) setting. Methods: One hundred and eighty-three patients diagnosed with pulmonary infections in an ER were divided into an acid fast bacillus (AFB) smear-positive, active PTB group (G1 = 84) and a non-AFB smear-positive, pulmonary infection group (G2 = 99). HRCT images from a 64-Multidetector CT were analyzed, retrospectively, for the morphology, number, and segmental distribution of pulmonary lesions. Results: Utilizing multivariate analysis, five variables were found to be independent risk factors predictive of G1: (1) consolidation involving the apex segment of right upper lobe, posterior segment of the right upper lobe, or apico-posterior segment of the left upper lobe; (2) consolidation involving the superior segment of the right or left lower lobe; (3) presence of a cavitary lesion; (4) presence of clusters of nodules; (5) absence of centrilobular nodules. A G1 prediction score was generated based on these 5 criteria to help differentiate G1 from G2. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.96 ± 0.012 in our prediction model. With an ideal cut-off point score of 3, the specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) are 90.9%, 96.4%, 90.0% and 96.8%, respectively. Conclusion: The use of this AFB smear-positive, active PTB prediction model based on 5 key HRCT findings may help ER physicians determine whether or not isolation is required while awaiting serial sputum smear results in high risk patients.

  4. Efficiency of final irrigation of root canal in removal of smear layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miti? Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A smear layer forms on the root canal walls as the consequence of root instrumentation. The smear layer formed in such a way considerably influences the quality of root obturation and endodontic treatment outcome. Objective The aim of this study was to ultrastructurally analyze the surface of intracanal dentine after removal of the smear layer by the solution of doxycycline, citric acid and detergent Tween-80 (MTAD. Methods The study involved 60 single-rooted, extracted, human teeth divided into four groups. All samples were instrumented by a step-back technique and manual K-files, and rinsed during instrumentation by 2% CHX and H2O2. The first group of samples was exclusively rinsed by CHX and H2O2; in the second group, besides using CHX and H2O2, MTAD solution was used for the final irrigation. The samples which were rinsed by distilled water (+ control and the samples rinsed by 5.25% NaOCl and 17% Na EDTA (-control served as control groups. All samples were observed under the scanning electronic microscope JEOL-JSM-5300. The coronary, middle and apex thirds of the radix region were analyzed. Results The obtained results of the SEM analysis showed that the application of 2% chlorhexidine and hydrogen peroxide did not give clear dentine walls, and the smear layer could not be removed completely. The application of the same combination (CHX and H2O2, added by the final MTAD irrigation solution, led to the efficient removal of the smear layer, while the morphological structure of dentine surface remained unchanged. Statistical analysis showed that canal walls in the experimental group with MTAD as the final irrigation were significantly clearer compared to the control group (p<0.001. Conclusion Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that MTAD is an efficient solution for the final irrigation of the canal system.

  5. EFFECTS OF SOME TRACE ELEMENTS ON THE BLOOD OF KUWAIT MULLETS 'LIZA MACROLEPS' (SMITH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haemopathological changes attributed to heavy metal poisoning observed in blood smears of Liza macrolepis (Smith) taken after exposures of 96 h to graded doses (mg/l) of copper (0.11-1.80), lead (1.15-18.36), and mercury (0.04-0.59), in a flow-through marine bioassay system. In g...

  6. Blood parameter analysis and morphological alterations as biomarkers on the health of Hoplias malabaricus and Geophagus brasiliensis

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Romão; Lucélia Donatti; Matheus O. Freitas; Josiane Teixeira; Josiana Kusma

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the influence of the environment on fish health. Samples of Hoplias malabaricus and Geophagus brasiliensis, were collected from three different environments: area I was urban and areas II and III were rural. Analyses of red blood cell count, microhematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, white blood cell count and differential white cell count in blood smear were carried out. Mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were calculated. To analy...

  7. Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abroun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord blood is a sample of blood taken from a newborn baby's umbilical cord. It is a rich source of stem cells, umbilical cord blood and tissue are collected from material that normally has no use following a child’s birth. Umbilical cord blood and tissue cells are rich sources of stem cells, which have been used in the treatment of over 80 diseases including leukemia, lymphoma and anemia as bone marrow stem cell potency.  The most common disease category has been leukemia. The next largest group is inherited diseases. Patients with lymphoma, myelodysplasia and severe aplastic anemia have also been successfully transplanted with cord blood. Cord blood is obtained by syringing out the placenta through the umbilical cord at the time of childbirth, after the cord has been detached from the newborn. Collecting stem cells from umbilical blood and tissue is ethical, pain-free, safe and simple. When they are needed to treat your child later in life, there will be no rejection or incompatibility issues, as the procedure will be using their own cells. In contrast, stem cells from donors do have these potential problems. By consider about cord blood potency, cord blood banks (familial or public were established. In IRAN, four cord blood banks has activity, Shariati BMT center cord blood bank, Royan familial cord blood banks, Royan public cord blood banks and Iranian Blood Transfusion Organ cord blood banks. Despite 50,000 sample which storage in these banks, but the user centers are few, we hope in all providence the transplantation center will establish by good activity to improve social welfare. Key words: Bone marrow, Cord blood, Peripheral blood.

  8. Trypanosoma evansi isolated from capybara (Hidrochaeris hidrochaeris)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Karina, Muñoz; Amanda, Chávez.

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the morphological and biometric characteristics of Trypanosoma isolated from 50 capybaras animals, raised in captivity in the Peruvian Amazon. Trypanosoma was found in 14 blood samples using the microhaematocrit, wide drop, and Giemsa-stain methods and T. evansi wa [...] s identified through morphological details in all 14 positive samples (the subterminal kinetoplast, the developed undulating membrane, and a long free flagellum were used for the identification of the agent).

  9. Trypanosoma evansi isolated from capybara (Hidrochaeris hidrochaeris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Muñoz

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the morphological and biometric characteristics of Trypanosoma isolated from 50 capybaras animals, raised in captivity in the Peruvian Amazon. Trypanosoma was found in 14 blood samples using the microhaematocrit, wide drop, and Giemsa-stain methods and T. evansi was identified through morphological details in all 14 positive samples (the subterminal kinetoplast, the developed undulating membrane, and a long free flagellum were used for the identification of the agent.

  10. Isolation of an Anaplasma sp. Organism from White-Tailed Deer by Tick Cell Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Munderloh, Ulrike G.; Tate, Cynthia M.; Lynch, Meghan J.; Howerth, Elizabeth W.; KURTTI, TIMOTHY J.; Davidson, William R

    2003-01-01

    We used tick cell culture to isolate a bacterium previously referred to as the “white-tailed deer (WTD) agent” from two captive fawns inoculated with blood from wild WTD (Odocoileus virginianus). Buffy coat cells were added to ISE6 tick cell cultures and incubated at 34°C, and 8 days later, Anaplasma-like inclusions were demonstrated in Giemsa-stained culture samples. The microbes became established and could be continuously passaged in tick cells. The identity of a culture isolate designated...

  11. Kinetics of viral load and erythrocytic inclusion body formation in pacific herring artificially infected with erythrocytic necrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Jolene A.; Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Grady, Courtney A.; Roon, Sean R.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Conway, Carla M.; Winton, James R.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2012-01-01

    Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a condition that affects marine and anadromous fish species, including herrings and salmonids, in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Infection is frequently associated with severe anemia and causes episodic mortality among wild and hatchery fish when accompanied by additional stressors; VEN can be presumptively diagnosed by (1) light microscopic identification of a single characteristic-a round, magenta-colored, 0.8-?m-diameter inclusion body (IB) within the cytoplasm of erythrocytes and their precursors on Giemsa-stained blood films; or (2) observation (via transmission electron microscopy [TEM]) of the causative iridovirus, erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), within erythrocytes or their precursors. To better understand the kinetics of VEN, specific-pathogen-free Pacific herring Clupea pallasii were infected with ENV by intraperitoneal injection. At 1, 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 d postexposure, samples of blood, spleen, and kidney were collected and assessed (1) via light microscopy for the number of intracytoplasmic IBs in blood smears and (2) via TEM for the number of virions within erythrocytes. The mean prevalence of intracytoplasmic IBs in the blood cells increased from 0% at 0-4 d postexposure to 94% at 28 d postexposure. Viral load within circulating red blood cells peaked at 7 d postexposure, fell slightly, and then reached a plateau. However, blood cells observed within the kidney and spleen tissues demonstrated high levels of ENV between 14 and 28 d postexposure. The results indicate that the viral load within erythrocytes does not correlate well with IB prevalence and that the virus can persist in infected fish for more than 28 d.

  12. Blood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, R J

    1992-08-01

    Modern transfusion therapy offers the seriously ill patient an array of blood products, designed to improve oxygen delivery, maintain intravascular volume, suppress infection, and induce hemostasis. Depending on the patient's clinical circumstance, the choice of product may need to incorporate consideration of the state of intravascular volume, history of prior transfusion reactions, the possible existence of serum antibodies directed against the relevant blood component, and the risk of transmission of infectious disease, as well as the relative cost of the blood product chosen. Fortunately, the contemporary blood bank has acquired considerable expertise in preparing safe products and in providing sound guidance for the clinician in their proper use. PMID:1345491

  13. Associations of demographic variables and the Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McFarl

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ditsapelo M McFarland College of Nursing and Public Health, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA Purpose: Papanicolaou (Pap smear services are available in most urban areas in Botswana. Yet most women in such areas do not screen regularly for cancer of the cervix. The purpose of this article is to present findings on the associations of demographic variables and Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana. Sample and methods: The study included a convenience sample of 353 asymptomatic women aged 30 years and older who were living in Gaborone, Botswana. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and items of the Health Belief Model. Data analysis included descriptive statistics for demographic variables and bivariate and ordinal (logit regression to determine the associations of demographic variables. Results: Having health insurance and having a regular health care provider were significant predictors of whether or not women had a Pap smear. Women with health insurance were more likely to have had a Pap smear test than women without health insurance (91% vs 36%. Similarly, women who had a regular health care provider were more likely to have had a Pap smear test than women without a regular health care provider (94% vs 42%. Major barriers to screening included what was described as "laziness" for women who had ever had a Pap smear (57% and limited information about Pap smear screening for women who had never had a Pap smear (44%. Conclusion: There is a need for more information about the importance of the Pap smear test and for increased access to screening services in Botswana. Keywords: cervical, screening, barriers, access, beliefs

  14. A Framework for White Blood Cell Segmentation in Microscopic Blood Images Using Digital Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghian Farnoosh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evaluation of blood smear is a commonly clinical test these days. Most of the time, the hematologists are interested on white blood cells (WBCs only. Digital image processing techniques can help them in their analysis and diagnosis. For example, disease like acute leukemia is detected based on the amount and condition of the WBC. The main objective of this paper is to segment the WBC to its two dominant elements: nucleus and cytoplasm. The segmentation is conducted using a proposed segmentation framework that consists of an integration of several digital image processing algorithms. Twenty microscopic blood images were tested, and the proposed framework managed to obtain 92% accuracy for nucleus segmentation and 78% for cytoplasm segmentation. The results indicate that the proposed framework is able to extract the nucleus and cytoplasm region in a WBC image sample.

  15. A Framework for White Blood Cell Segmentation in Microscopic Blood Images Using Digital Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seman Zainina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evaluation of blood smear is a commonly clinical test these days. Most of the time, the hematologists are interested on white blood cells (WBCs only. Digital image processing techniques can help them in their analysis and diagnosis. For example, disease like acute leukemia is detected based on the amount and condition of the WBC. The main objective of this paper is to segment the WBC to its two dominant elements: nucleus and cytoplasm. The segmentation is conducted using a proposed segmentation framework that consists of an integration of several digital image processing algorithms. Twenty microscopic blood images were tested, and the proposed framework managed to obtain 92% accuracy for nucleus segmentation and 78% for cytoplasm segmentation. The results indicate that the proposed framework is able to extract the nucleus and cytoplasm region in a WBC image sample.

  16. Histomorphometric study on blood cells in male adult ostrich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Tadjalli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to perform a histomorphometric study of blood cells in male adult ostrich, blood samples were obtained from jugular vein of 10 clinically healthy male adult ostriches (2 - 3 years old. The slides were stained with the Giemsa methods and the smears were evaluated for cellular morphology, with cellular size being determined by micrometry. The findings of this study revealed that the shape of the cell, cytoplasm and nucleus of erythrocytes in male adult ostriches were similar to those in other birds such as quails, chickens, Iranian green-head ducks.

  17. Comparison of coronal leakage after smear layer removal with EDTA or Er:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pécora, Jesus D.; Mamere de Almeida, Yasmine M. E.; Marchesan, Melissa A.; Brugnera J"nior, Aldo, Jr.

    2002-10-01

    This study determined, in vitro, the coronal leakage of root canals evaluating the effect of smear layer removal by either EDTA or laser. Two sealers were also compared. Sixty-four canines were instrumented with the step-back technique and irrigated with 10 ml of 1% sodium hypochlorite. In Group 1, 10 teeth were sealed with Sealer 26 and 10 teeth were sealed with Grossman cement with no attempt of smear layer removal. Group 2 received a final irrigation of 15 ml of 17% EDTA, and was sealed as in Group 1. Group 3 received Er:YAG laser application (140 mJ, 15 Hz and 42 J), and sealed as in Group 1. Root canals sealed with Sealer 26 had significantly less coronal leakage than Grossman cement (P0.01).

  18. Pap-smear Classification Using Efficient Second Order Neural Network Training Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ampazis, Nikolaos; Dounias, George

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we make use of two highly efficient second order neural network training algorithms, namely the LMAM (Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum) and OLMAM (Optimized Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum), for the construction of an efficient pap-smear test classifier. The algorithms are methodologically similar, and are based on iterations of the form employed in the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method for non-linear least squares problems with the inclusion of an additional adaptive momentum term arising from the formulation of the training task as a constrained optimization problem. The classification results obtained from the application of the algorithms on a standard benchmark pap-smear data set reveal the power of the two methods to obtain excellent solutions in difficult classification problems whereas other standard computational intelligence techniques achieve inferior performances.

  19. On the problem of the deuteron smearing corrections - 1: the conventional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive analysis to the problem of deuteron smearing corrections is given. Some problems of the usual approach (conventional approach) are discussed. It is shown that the formalism adopted by this approach leads to i) the existence of the so-called West #betta# corrections and ii) the disagreement of the sum rules with the quark parton model expectations in leptonic scattering. It is also shown that in this formalism the electroproduction expression is not inconsistent, and hence, in contradiction with Bodek's conclusion. Following West for the identification of the wave function, it is found that the smearing correction ?sub(s) of the high-energy (50-370 GeV) pion - and nucleon - process is non-negligible, and hence, in contradiction with the usual expectation. Another test for this approach is suggested. (author)

  20. Effectiveness of a Canal Brush on Removing Smear Layer: A Scanning Electron Microscopic Study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eleni, Protogerou; Ioanna, Arvaniti; Ioannis, Vlachos; Marouan Georgios, Khabbaz.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia de um escova intra-canal (CanalBrush, Coltène) na remoção da smear layer das paredes do canal radicular, quando usada de acordo com as instruções do fabricante. Quarenta e quatro incisivos mandibulares unirradiculares foram instrumentados até o ápice co [...] m instrumentos 30/0.06 e aleatoriamente distribuidos em três grupos A, B e C, com regime de irrigação final de 10 mL a 17% EDTA e 10 mL NaOCl a 2,5% para o Grupo A; irrigação final de 10 mL EDTA, 5 mL NaOCl, uso da escovinha CanalBrush por 20 s a 450 rpm e 5 mL NaOCl para o Grupo B e 10 mL NaOCl, uso da escovinha CanalBrush e 10 mL NaOCl para o Grupo C. Foi utilizada escovinha CanalBrush de tamanho médio para cada canal e todas elas foram examinadas em microscópio para avaliação da deformação de cerdas. Depois as raízes foram cortadas longitudinalmente e a presença da smear layer foi avaliada por microscópio eletrônico de varredura. As escovinhas usadas apresentaram todas alguma deformação das cerdas. No Grupo C foi observada a maior média de área de smear layer em todos os terços dentais. Na comparação dos terços apicais de todos os grupos não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos A e B (3,64±0.48 e 3,68±0,62, respectivamente), enquanto que o Grupo C mostrou escores significativamente mais altos(3,9±0.28) que os outros dois grupos. Concluindo, a escovinha CanalBrush mostrou ser incapaz de remover a smear layer dos canais instrumentados, quando usada de acordo com as instruções do fabricante. Abstract in english This study evaluated the effectiveness of a highly flexible endodontic brush made of polypropylene canal brush (CanalBrush; Coltène) on smear layer removal from the canal walls when used according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Forty-four single-rooted mandibular incisors were prepared to ap [...] ical size 30/0.06 and randomly divided into three groups A, B and C, where the final irrigation regimen was 10 mL 17% EDTA and 10 mL 2.5% NaOCl for group A, 10 mL EDTA, 5 mL NaOCl, CanalBrush for 20 s at 450 rpm and 5 mL NaOCl for group B, 10 mL NaOCl, CanalBrush and 10 mL NaOCl for group C. One medium-sized CanalBrush was used for each root canal and all brushes were examined under the optical microscope after application to evaluate bristle deformation. Afterwards, roots were split longitudinally and the presence of smear layer was evaluated under a scanning electron microscope. Used brushes invariably exhibited bristle deformation. Group C exhibited the highest means of smear layer in all thirds. Comparing the apical thirds in all groups, there was no statistical difference between groups A and B (3.64±0.48 and 3.68±0.62 respectively), while group C exhibited significantly higher scores (3.9±0.28) than the other two groups. In conclusion, the CanalBrush proved unable to remove smear layer from the instrumented root canals, when used according to the manufacturers' instructions.

  1. Blood Transfusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carefully for diseases like HIV (the virus that causes AIDS) and hepatitis. Any blood and blood products that have these diseases are safely discarded and are not used. At this time, the risk of getting an infection in the United States through getting ...

  2. Blood donation

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A blood donation is organised by the Cantonal Hospital of Geneva On Thursday 19 March 2009 from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT 2 Number of donations during the last blood donations :135 donors in July 2008 122 donors in November 2008 Let’s do better in 2009 !!! Give 30 minutes of your time to save lives...

  3. Obese women’s barriers to mammography and Pap smear: The possible role of personality

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, Asia M.; Hemler, Jennifer R.; Rossetti, Elisa; Clemow, Lynn P.; Ferrante, Jeanne M

    2012-01-01

    Obese women are at increased risk of developing and dying from cancer, but are less likely than non-obese women to receive cancer screening examinations. Our qualitative study explores obese women’s barriers to Pap smears and mammograms in greater depth than previous research. We also seek to understand why some obese women undergo screening while others do not. A purposive sample of moderately to severely obese women over age 40 was recruited from community-based organizations, health clinic...

  4. Facing possible illness detected through screening--experiences of healthy women with pathological cervical smears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Petersen, Lone Kjeld; Pedersen, Birthe D

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to gain knowledge about women's perceptions of illness based on their abnormal PAP smears, following screening for cervical cancer. The study uses a phenomenological, hermeneutic approach inspired by Ricoeur's theory of interpretation. Twelve women, aged between 23 and 59 years, were consecutively selected and then followed by participant observation during their examinations and treatment in hospital. They were interviewed on entering the study, a week following their s...

  5. "SPECIMEN ADEQUACY AND EFFECT OF HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS IN CERVICOVAGINAL SMEARS WITH SQUAMOUS INTRAEPITHELIAL ABNORMALITY"

    OpenAIRE

    N. Izadi Mood T. Hacopian

    2004-01-01

    Abstract-Cervicovaginal cytology is still a widely used cancer screening method that is well established in most countries. The present study aims at detecting and classifying squamous intraepithelial abnormalities and effects of certain infectious agents, particularly the cytopathic effects of human papillomavirus (HPV) in a series of cervicovaginal smears, according to the Bethesda system (TBS). The significance of specimen adequacy in revealing squamous intraepithelial abnormalities (SIEA)...

  6. Combined analysis of cervical smears. Cytopathology, image cytometry and in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, H; Bruder, E; Elit, L; Rothblat, I; Warhol, M

    1993-01-01

    This study was an attempt to correlate the Bethesda System of Papanicolaou smear classification with DNA content by image analysis and the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) as determined by in situ hybridization. DNA histograms were classified as normal diploid, diploid proliferative, polyploid and aneuploid. HPV in situ hybridization was performed with a cocktail of probes specific to HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18. There was a good correlation between normal cytology and normal DNA histograms...

  7. Performance of variations of carbolfuchsin staining of sputum smears for AFB under field conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Van Deun, A.; Salim, A. H.; Aung, K. J. M.; Hossain, M. A.; Chambugonj, N.; Hye, M.A.; Kawria, A.; DeClercq, E

    2005-01-01

    SETTING: A field project in Bangladesh. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of commonly used carbolfuchsin staining variations. DESIGN: Routine hot Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) 1% basic fuchsin staining for 15 min in 75 field clinics. Blind reading of duplicate smears stained by ZN 1% vs. 0.3% basic fuchsin applied for 5 min, or by ZN 1% 5 min vs. Kinyoun cold staining. Rechecking of discordant series. RESULTS: For comparable numbers of false positives, sensitivity was significantly lower with Kiny...

  8. Epithelial membrane antigen in cells from the uterine cervix: immunocytochemical staining of cervical smears.

    OpenAIRE

    Valkova, B; Ormerod, M G; Moncrieff, D; Coleman, D V

    1984-01-01

    Smears made from cervical scrapes have been stained immunocytochemically for epithelial membrane antigen using a polyclonal antiserum and two monoclonal antibodies. With the polyclonal antiserum malignant cells and those showing dysplasia consistently expressed the antigen. Normal cells were generally negative, with the exception of some metaplastic cells. The monoclonal antibodies, although they stained the abnormal cells less consistently, gave the same pattern of staining. All three antibo...

  9. Recognition of Pneumocystis carinii by gram stain in impression smears of lung tissue.

    OpenAIRE

    Felegie, T P; Pasculle, A W; Dekker, A.

    1984-01-01

    In 12 of 20 (60%) biopsy-proven cases of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, the diagnosis was first suggested by examination of routine Gram stains of impression smears made from infected lung tissue and later confirmed by methenamine-silver staining. The cysts appeared as 5- to 7-microns unstained spheres, each containing six to eight intracystic gram-negative bodies (sporozoites). Although the Gram stain does not appear to be as sensitive as more traditional staining techniques for the detecti...

  10. Uniform staining of Cyclospora oocysts in fecal smears by a modified safranin technique with microwave heating.

    OpenAIRE

    Visvesvara, G S; Moura, H; Kovacs-Nace, E; Wallace, S.; Eberhard, M. L.

    1997-01-01

    Cyclospora, a coccidian protist, is increasingly being identified as an important, newly emerging parasite that causes diarrhea, flatulence, fatigue, and abdominal pain leading to weight loss in immunocompetent persons with or without a recent travel history as well as in patients with AIDS. Modified Kinyoun's acid-fast stain is the most commonly used stain to identify the oocyst of this parasite in fecal smears. Oocysts of Cyclospora stain variably by the modified acid-fast procedure, result...

  11. Autoinducer-2 activity produced by bacteria found in smear of surface ripened cheeses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gori, Klaus; Moslehi Jenabian, Saloomeh; Purrotti, Micol; Jespersen, Lene

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial strains of the species Arthrobacter nicotianae, Corynebacterium ammoniagenes, Corynebacterium casei, Microbacterium barkeri, Microbacterium gubbeenense and Staphylococcus equorum subsp. linens, all isolated from the smear of surface ripened cheeses, were found to possess autoinducer-2 (AI-2) activity using the Vibrio harveyi (BB170) bioluminescence assay. In contrast, Brevibacterium casei and Brevibacterium linens strains were not found to have AI-2 activity. When exposed to low pH and...

  12. Assessing the Efficacy of Citrus Aurantifolia Extract on Smear Layer Removal with Scanning Electron Microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Behnam Bolhari; Mohammad Reza Sharifian; Mohsen Aminsobhani; Hamid Reza Monsef Esfehani; Pardis Tavakolian

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of citrus aurantifolia (CA) extract on smear layer removal in different parts of root canals. Materials and Methods: Thirty-nine single-rooted human teeth were randomly divided into three experimental (n=12) and one control (n=3) groups. Teeth were instrumented using MTwo rotary instruments. Root canals were irrigated with NaOCl during instrumentation. The canals in each group were irrigated with one of the following: comple...

  13. Awareness and uptake of the Pap smear among market women in Lagos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Francis A. Faduyile; Yetunde A. Kuyinu; Babalola Faseru; Wright, Kikelomo O

    2011-01-01

    Our study evaluates the effect of an educational programme on awareness and uptake of the cervical cancer screening test (Pap smear) by women in a model market in Lagos Nigeria. This was a quasi-experimental study using a multistage sampling technique. A total of 350 women were divided into two groups. A baseline survey on awareness of the Pap test and screening practices was carried out using pre-tested, interviewer administered, structured questionnaires. Participants in the intervention gr...

  14. Near-threshold boson pair production in the model of smeared-mass unstable particles

    OpenAIRE

    Kuksa, V. I.; Pasechnik, R. S.

    2009-01-01

    Near-threshold production of boson pairs is considered within the framework of the model of unstable particles with smeared mass. We describe the principal aspects of the model and consider the strategy of calculations including the radiative corrections. The results of calculations are in good agreement with LEP II data and Monte-Carlo simulations. Suggested approach significantly simplifies calculations with respect to the standard perturbative one.

  15. Near-threshold boson pair production in the model of smeared-mass unstable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Near-threshold production of boson pairs is considered within the framework of the model of unstable particles with smeared mass. We describe the principal aspects of the model and consider the strategy of calculations including the radiative corrections. The results of calculations are in good agreement with LEP II data and Monte-Carlo simulations. Suggested approach significantly simplifies calculations with respect to the standard perturbative one.

  16. Pap-smear Classification Using Efficient Second Order Neural Network Training Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ampazis, Nikolaos; Dounias, George; Jantzen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we make use of two highly efficient second order neural network training algorithms, namely the LMAM (Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum) and OLMAM (Optimized Levenberg-Marquardt with Adaptive Momentum), for the construction of an efficient pap-smear test classifier. The algorithms are methodologically similar, and are based on iterations of the form employed in the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method for non-linear least squares problems with the inclusion of an additional ada...

  17. Citologia de Tzanck: redescobrindo uma antiga ferramenta diagnóstica Tzanck smears: an old but useful diagnostic tool

    OpenAIRE

    Moema Mignac Cumming Brito; Daniela Chaves Tarquínio; Darlene Arruda; Roberto Silva Costa; Ana Maria Roselino

    2009-01-01

    A citologia de Tzanck consiste em método simples e confiável para o diagnóstico de dermatoses virais, parasitárias, autoimunes e tumorais. Para exemplificar o emprego do teste de Tzanck em lesões vésico-bolhosas, um caso de pênfigo vulgar é descrito, cuja citologia e imunofluorescência direta, utilizando-se esfregaço coletado de lesão oral, confirmaram o diagnóstico de forma rápida e fácil.Tzanck smears can be used for the diagnosis of cutaneous infections, autoimmune disorders and cutaneous ...

  18. Abnormal Pap Smear and Diagnosis of High-Grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopracordevole, Francesco; Mancioli, Francesca; Clemente, Nicolò; De Piero, Giovanni; Buttignol, Monica; Giorda, Giorgio; Ciavattini, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between the first diagnosis of high-grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia (HG-VaIN: VaIN 2–VaIN 3) and the cytological abnormalities on the referral pap smear. All the women with histological diagnosis of HG-VaIN consecutively referred to the Gynecological Oncology Unit of the Aviano National Cancer Institute (Aviano, Italy) from January 1991 to April 2014 and with a pap smear performed in the 3 months before the diagnosis were considered, and an observational cohort study was performed. A total of 87 women with diagnosis of HG-VaIN were identified. Major cytological abnormalities (HSIL and ASC-H) on the referral pap smear were significantly more frequent than lesser abnormalities (ASC-US and LSIL) in postmenopausal women (64.9% vs 36.7%, P?=?0.02) and in women with a previous diagnosis of HPV-related cervical preinvasive or invasive lesions (70.5% vs 39.5%, P?=?0.01). Diagnosis of VaIN 3 was preceded by major cytological abnormalities in most of the cases (72.7% vs 27.3%, P?HPV-related disease. However, ASC-US or LSIL do not exclude HG-VaIN, especially VaIN2. An accurate examination of the whole vaginal walls (or vaginal vault) must be performed in all the women who underwent colposcopy for an abnormal pap smear, and a biopsy of all suspicious areas is mandatory. PMID:26496321

  19. Abnormal Pap Smear and Diagnosis of High-Grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopracordevole, Francesco; Mancioli, Francesca; Clemente, Nicolò; De Piero, Giovanni; Buttignol, Monica; Giorda, Giorgio; Ciavattini, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between the first diagnosis of high-grade Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia (HG-VaIN: VaIN 2-VaIN 3) and the cytological abnormalities on the referral pap smear.All the women with histological diagnosis of HG-VaIN consecutively referred to the Gynecological Oncology Unit of the Aviano National Cancer Institute (Aviano, Italy) from January 1991 to April 2014 and with a pap smear performed in the 3 months before the diagnosis were considered, and an observational cohort study was performed.A total of 87 women with diagnosis of HG-VaIN were identified. Major cytological abnormalities (HSIL and ASC-H) on the referral pap smear were significantly more frequent than lesser abnormalities (ASC-US and LSIL) in postmenopausal women (64.9% vs 36.7%, P?=?0.02) and in women with a previous diagnosis of HPV-related cervical preinvasive or invasive lesions (70.5% vs 39.5%, P?=?0.01). Diagnosis of VaIN 3 was preceded by major cytological abnormalities in most of the cases (72.7% vs 27.3%, P?HPV-related disease. However, ASC-US or LSIL do not exclude HG-VaIN, especially VaIN2. An accurate examination of the whole vaginal walls (or vaginal vault) must be performed in all the women who underwent colposcopy for an abnormal pap smear, and a biopsy of all suspicious areas is mandatory. PMID:26496321

  20. Factorization method in the model of unstable particles with a smeared mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of factorization, based on the model of unstable particles with a smeared mass, is applied to the processes with an unstable particle in the intermediate state. It was shown, that in the framework of the method suggested, the decay rate and cross section can be represented in the universal factorized form for an arbitrary set of particles. An exact factorization is caused by the specific structure of unstable particles propagators. We performed the phenomenological analysis of the factorization effect.

  1. Factorization method in the model of unstable particles with a smeared mass

    OpenAIRE

    Kuksa, V. I.

    2009-01-01

    The method of factorization, based on the model of unstable particles with a smeared mass, is applied to the processes with an unstable particle in the intermediate state. It was shown, that in the framework of the method suggested, the decay rate and cross-section can be represented in the universal factorized form for an arbitrary set of particles. An exact factorization is caused by the specific structure of unstable particles propagators. We performed the phenomenologica...

  2. Factorization method in the model of unstable particles with a smeared mass

    CERN Document Server

    Kuksa, V I

    2009-01-01

    The method of factorization, based on the model of unstable particles with a smeared mass, is applied to the processes with an unstable particle in the intermediate state. It was shown, that in the framework of the method suggested, the decay rate and cross-section can be represented in the universal factorized form for an arbitrary set of particles. An exact factorization is caused by the specific structure of unstable particles propagators. We performed the phenomenological analysis of the factorization effect.

  3. Now ICT malaria Pf/Pv® versus microscopy (thick-smear, thin smear for diagnosis of malaria in Urabá (Colombia Now ICT malaria Pf/Pv® frente a microscopía (gota gruesa-extendido para diagnóstico de malaria en Urabá (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Arango

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Problem: To date, there are only three reports from Colombia about the malaria diagnostic test Now ICT Malaria Pf / Pv ® (NowICT. The results from these studies showed major differences in sensitivity and specificity.

     

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of NowICT compared to thick smear for the diagnosis of Plasmodium infection in matched blood samples from mothers (maternal peripheral blood, umbilical cord and placenta.

     

    Methods: We used a closed (blinded/masked and parallel design for the evaluation of a diagnostic test. The sample size was calculated with statistical and epidemiological parameters; this consisted of 131 thick smears from maternal peripheral blood. Blood samples from placenta and umbilical cord were also studied (386 samples tested in total.

     

    Results: The sensitivity of Now ICT for detection of P. vivax was below 70% in any of the samples (maternal blood, placental blood or cord blood. The specificity was greater than 99%. Values for P. falciparum infection were not calculated since too few cases were detected.

     

  4. Influence of smear layer removal on the obturation of root canal ramifications

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elaine Vianna Freitas, Fachin; Roberta Kochenborger, Scarparo; Liliane Inês Sachet, Massoni.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated whether smear layer removal has any influence on the filling of the root canal system, by examining the obturation of lateral canals, secondary canals and apical deltas. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty maxillary and mandibular canines were randomly divided into two group [...] s, according to their irrigation regimen. Both groups were irrigated with 1% NaOCl during canal shaping, but only the teeth in Group II received a final irrigation with 17% EDTA for smear layer removal. The root canals were obturated with lateral condensation of gutta-percha and the specimens were cleared, allowing for observation under the microscope. RESULTS: In Groups I and II, 42.5% and 37.5% of the teeth, respectively, presented at least one filled canal ramification. Although a larger number of obturated ramifications was found in Group I, there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups (p = 0.4957). CONCLUSIONS: Smear layer removal under the conditions tested in this study did not affect the obturation of root canal ramifications when lateral condensation of gutta-percha was the technique used for root canal filling.

  5. Direct-to-digital holography reduction of reference hologram noise and fourier space smearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelkl, Edgar

    2006-06-27

    Systems and methods are described for reduction of reference hologram noise and reduction of Fourier space smearing, especially in the context of direct-to-digital holography (off-axis interferometry). A method of reducing reference hologram noise includes: recording a plurality of reference holograms; processing the plurality of reference holograms into a corresponding plurality of reference image waves; and transforming the corresponding plurality of reference image waves into a reduced noise reference image wave. A method of reducing smearing in Fourier space includes: recording a plurality of reference holograms; processing the plurality of reference holograms into a corresponding plurality of reference complex image waves; transforming the corresponding plurality of reference image waves into a reduced noise reference complex image wave; recording a hologram of an object; processing the hologram of the object into an object complex image wave; and dividing the complex image wave of the object by the reduced noise reference complex image wave to obtain a reduced smearing object complex image wave.

  6. [Factors associated with failure to take a Pap smear test among Quilombola women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Márcio Vasconcelos; Guimarães, Mark Drew Crosland; França, Elisabeth Barboza

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze factors associated with failure to take a Pap smear test among quilombola women living in Vitória da Conquista in the state of Bahia. A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted with women aged 18 to 64. Descriptive analysis and univariate and multivariate analysis using a multinomial logistic model was applied. Women who had never performed the test or had not had one for over three years were compared separately from those who were examined within the preceding three years. Of the 348 women included in the analysis, 27.3%, reported never having a Pap smear test. The following factors were independently associated with never having taken the test: age of 18 to 29 years and 50 to 59 years; lack of education; not having a partner; seeking care in health-related units/establishments other than their place of residence; and having a clinical breast examination three or more years ago or never having one. The findings indicate a need for reflection in order to combat factors that are associated with not having a Pap smear test among quilombola women, since it is important to implement actions for the prevention of cervical cancer. PMID:25351319

  7. Biology of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Google+ LinkedIn Merck Manuals Consumer Version Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Also of Interest ( ... to Consumer Version DOCTORS: Go to Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  8. Blood Type Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Drive Volunteer For Hospitals Home > Donating Blood > Blood Donor Community > Games > Blood Type Game Printable Version Blood ... Directed First Time Donors The Fear of Needles Blood Donor Community Real Stories SleevesUp Games Facebook Fanbox Avatars ...

  9. America's Blood Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... real blood recipients in everyday situations. Without volunteer blood donors, these ordinary people would not be alive today. ... less than an hour! The Foundation for America's Blood Centers | Thank A Donor Donate Blood Blood Donation 101 Blood Donation FAQs ...

  10. Catecholamine blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norepinephrine -- blood; Epinephrine -- blood; Adrenalin -- blood; Dopamine -- blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... the test. This is especially true if both blood and urine catecholamines are to be measured. You ...

  11. Blood Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood > Blood Facts and Statistics Printable Version Blood Facts and Statistics Facts about blood needs Facts about ... donors Facts about American Red Cross Blood Services Facts about blood needs Every two seconds someone in ...

  12. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  13. Smear positive extra pulmonary tuberculosis disease at University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenebe Yohannes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While pulmonary tuberculosis is the most common presentation, extra pulmonary tuberculosis is also an important clinical problem. However, no adequate information had been made available on the prevalence of smear positive extra pulmonary tuberculosis in Gondar. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and possible risk factors of smear positive extra pulmonary tuberculosis among suspected patients at University of Gondar Hospital. Methods A cross-sectional study on extra pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients was conducted at University of Gondar Hospital from January 2012 to April, 2012. Specimens of patients suspected of extra pulmonary tuberculosis were obtained from fine needle aspiration and body fluid samples collected by pathologist. Demographic characteristics and other variables were collected using a pretested semi-structured questionnaire. Smears were prepared from each sample and stained by Ziehel Neelson and Wright stain. The result of the study was analyzed with bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Result A total of 344 extra pulmonary tuberculosis suspected clients were included in the study and specimens were taken from lymph node aspirates and body fluids. The overall prevalence of smear positive extra pulmonary tuberculosis was 34 (9.9%. Of these cases of extra pulmonary tuberculosis, lymph node tuberculosis constituted the largest proportion (82.4%. Among the 34 extra pulmonary tuberculosis patients, over half of them (52.9% were positive for human immunodeficiency virus. The largest proportion of tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus cases occurred among persons with in the age group of 31–40 years. Previous history of tuberculosis (OR?=?4.77, 95% CI 1.86-12.24, contact to a known tuberculosis cases (OR?=?6.67 95% CI 2.78-16.90, history of underlying diseases (OR?=?2.79 95% CI 1.15-6.78 and income (OR?=?12.9 95% CI 2.25-68.02 were significantly associated with extra pulmonary tuberculosis infection. Conclusion The prevalence of smear positive extra pulmonary tuberculosis infection in Gondar is high. Screening of lymph node and other body fluid specimens for extra pulmonary tuberculosis could help for treatment, control and prevention of the disease.

  14. Smearing technique for vibration analysis of simply supported cross-stiffened and doubly curved thin rectangular shells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luan, Yu; Ohlrich, Mogens; Jacobsen, Finn

    2011-01-01

    Plates stiffened with ribs can be modeled as equivalent homogeneous isotropic or orthotropic plates. Modeling such an equivalent smeared plate numerically, say, with the finite element method requires far less computer resources than modeling the complete stiffened plate. This may be important when a number of stiffened plates are combined in a complicated assembly composed of many plate panels. However, whereas the equivalent smeared plate technique is well established and recently improved for...

  15. PAX8/PPARG and RET/PTC rearrangement detection is feasible in routine air dried fine needle aspiration (FNA) smears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferraz, Carolina; Rehfeld, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise; Precht Jensen, Eva; Bösenberg, Eileen; Narz, Frank; Hegedus, Laszlo; Paschke, Ralf; Eszlinger, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Background: The diagnostic limitations of fine needle aspiration (FNA), like the "indeterminate" category, can be partially overcome by molecular analysis. As PAX8/PPARG and RET/PTC rearrangements have been detected in follicular carcinomas (FTC) and papillary carcinomas (PTC), their detection in FNA smears could improve FNA diagnosis. To date, these rearrangements have never been analyzed in routine air-dried FNA smears, but only in frozen tissue, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue,...

  16. Associations of demographic variables and the Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    McFarl; DM.

    2013-01-01

    Ditsapelo M McFarland College of Nursing and Public Health, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA Purpose: Papanicolaou (Pap) smear services are available in most urban areas in Botswana. Yet most women in such areas do not screen regularly for cancer of the cervix. The purpose of this article is to present findings on the associations of demographic variables and Health Belief Model constructs with Pap smear screening among urban women in Botswana. Sample and methods: The study included a...

  17. Pap Smears

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quickly. What Happens? The doctor will use a speculum to gently widen the vagina. A speculum is a thin piece of plastic or metal ... allows it to open and close. If the speculum is metal, the doctor or nurse will warm ...

  18. Pap Smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the situation resolves on its own. Almost all cases of cervical cancer are caused by persistent infections with certain strains ... in some instances can be a risk for cervical cancer ; this test result may ... cases, cancer is evident and requires immediate attention. ^ Back ...

  19. Has the ThinPrep method of cervical screening maintained its improvement over conventional smears in terms of specimen adequacy?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Treacy, A

    2009-04-01

    Liquid-based cytology (LBC) has replaced conventional smear assessment in many centers over recent years. In our laboratory this transfer took place in 1999. At that time we performed a split sample study comparing the conventional method of cervical smear evaluation with the ThinPrep system. This split sample study identified a dramatic improvement in specimen adequacy with LBC. While 11% of conventional preparations were reported as unsatisfactory and almost 9% were reported as suboptimal, evaluation of the same cases using LBC saw this combined figure reduced to 2.3%. AIM: To evaluate whether this dramatic fall in unsatisfactory smears has been maintained with the use of LBC. The database for all smears reported for 2005 (100% LBC) was interrogated. The number of unsatisfactory reports was calculated. The reason for an unsatisfactory report was recorded for each case. The overall unsatisfactory rate was compared with that reported in the 1999 split sample study. A total of 41,312 smear tests were reported in 2005. 1,342 (3.25%) were reported as unsatisfactory. Our findings support the ongoing value of LBC in a routine cervical screening laboratory in terms of continuing to maintain a low rate of unsatisfactory smears.

  20. Smearing technique for vibration analysis of simply supported cross-stiffened and doubly curved thin rectangular shells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luan, Yu; Ohlrich, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    Plates stiffened with ribs can be modeled as equivalent homogeneous isotropic or orthotropic plates. Modeling such an equivalent smeared plate numerically, say, with the finite element method requires far less computer resources than modeling the complete stiffened plate. This may be important when a number of stiffened plates are combined in a complicated assembly composed of many plate panels. However, whereas the equivalent smeared plate technique is well established and recently improved for flat panels, there is no similar established technique for doubly curved stiffened shells. In this paper the improved smeared plate technique is combined with the equation of motion for a doubly curved thin rectangular shell, and a solution is offered for using the smearing technique for stiffened shell structures. The developed prediction technique is validated by comparing natural frequencies and mode shapes as well as forced responses from simulations based on the smeared theory with results from experiments with adoubly curved cross-stiffened shell. Moreover, natural frequencies of cross-stiffened panels determined by finite element simulations that include the exact cross-sectional geometries of panels with cross-stiffeners are compared with predictions based on the smeared theory for a range of different panel curvatures. Good agreement is found.

  1. Blood Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... various infected cells and tumors. B lymphocytes make antibodies, which are proteins that specifically target bacteria, viruses, and other foreign materials. back to top Platelets (also called thrombocytes) Unlike red and white blood ...

  2. Donating Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... play your goals. Hot Topics Stress & Coping Center Writing a Paper Abusive Relationships Dynamic Stretching A Guy's Guide to Body Image Donating Blood KidsHealth > Teens > Body > Health Basics > ...

  3. Myxobolus sp. (Myxozoa) in the circulating blood of Colossoma macropomum (Osteichthyes, Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Patricia Oliveira; Affonso, Elizabeth Gusmão; Boijink, Cheila de Lima; Tavares-Dias, Marcos; Inoue, Luis Antonio Kioshi Aoki

    2011-01-01

    Myxosporea parasitize many organs in fresh and saltwater fish. Species of the genus Myxobolus parasitizing the gills and other organs of the tambaqui Colossoma macropomum have been described. In the present study, blood smears were made from juvenile tambaqui and were stained with May Grunwald-Giemsa-Wright in order to identify myxozoan parasites. Out of a total of 36 fish examined, one specimen (2.7%) that was reared in a cage presented spores that were identified as M. colossomatis, whereas fish kept in 250 L tanks showed prevalence of 5.5%. This is the first report of M. colossomatis in the blood of farmed tambaqui in the Amazon region. These results indicate that myxozoan parasites should also be investigated in fish blood smears. Some myxosporean species may cause diseases in fish, and these species need to be identified so that adequate preventive sanitary control can be instituted. PMID:21439240

  4. White Blood Cell Segmentation by Color-Space-Based K-Means Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congcong Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available White blood cell (WBC segmentation, which is important for cytometry, is a challenging issue because of the morphological diversity of WBCs and the complex and uncertain background of blood smear images. This paper proposes a novel method for the nucleus and cytoplasm segmentation of WBCs for cytometry. A color adjustment step was also introduced before segmentation. Color space decomposition and k-means clustering were combined for segmentation. A database including 300 microscopic blood smear images were used to evaluate the performance of our method. The proposed segmentation method achieves 95.7% and 91.3% overall accuracy for nucleus segmentation and cytoplasm segmentation, respectively. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can segment WBCs effectively with high accuracy.

  5. Emergence of oriental theileriosis in cattle and its transmission through Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikshit Kakati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of Theileria in blood samples of crossbred and indigenous adult cows raised under unorganized small scale farming system in a Babesia and Anaplasma endemic geographical area from Assam, India and to see its transmission through Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus ticks. Materials and Methods: For the present study, 57 clinical cases of cattle suspected to be of hemoparasitic infections were taken into consideration. The parasites were identified based on morphology in giemsa stained blood smear followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Sera samples were tested for T. annulata antibodies in plate and Dot-ELISA. PCR was also conducted in eggs of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus tick collected from a Theileria orientalis positive animal. Results: PCR amplified 1124, 776, and 160 bp DNA fragments of B. bigemina (64.91%,T. orientalis(21.05% and A. marginale (14.03%, respectively. This assay further conducted in 12 T. orientalis positive blood samples with primers of Buffeli, Chitose, and Ikeda variants of T. orientalis showed 3 samples positive to Ikeda type and none for Buffeli and Chitose. Babesia bovis and Theileria annulata specific primers also did not amplify any fragment during the PCR assay of the blood samples. Further, all sera samples tested negative to T. annulata antibodies in Plate and Dot-ELISA. PCR conducted in eggs of R (B.microplus tick collected from a T. orientalis positive animal revealed presence of the parasite DNA. Gradual improvement in physical condition leading to complete recovery in 10 out of 12 T. orientalis infected clinical cases treated with buparvaquone(at 2.5mg/kg.b.wt I/M was the feedback obtained from field veterinarians and the cattle owners. Conclusion: The present investigation represents the first report of occurrence of T. orientalis in cattle of Assam with involvement of pathogenic Ikeda strain in clinical outbreaks and its possible natural transmission by R (B. microplus through the transovarian mode.

  6. Tainted blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Ida; Sheikh, Zainab Afshan; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature on donor screening in transfusion medicine tends to distinguish between social concerns about discrimination and medical concerns about safety. In this article, we argue that the bifurcation into social and medical concerns is problematic. We build our case on a qualitative study of the historical rise and current workings of safety practices in the Danish blood system. Here, we identify a strong focus on contamination in order to avoid 'tainted blood', at the expense of ...

  7. Atypical hyperpachymorph Trypanosoma (Nannomonas) congolense forest-type in a dog returning from Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Desquesnes, M.; Ravel, S.; Deschamps, J.-Y.; Polack, B.; Roux, F.

    2012-01-01

    Trypanosoma congolense forest-type was identified by PCR in France, in a dog returning from Senegal. This paper describes the morphological features of the parasite on Giemsa-stained smears. Slender forms and “latent bodies” represent 30.4% and 20.4%, respectively. Some rosettes have been observed (0.8%). The predominant form (48.4%) is stumpy, close to “montgomeryiform”, but it is unusually broad, with a width/length ratio (WLr) of 0.40-0.55, while that of “montgomeryi-forms” is close to 0.3...

  8. Theileria parva: effects of irradiation on a culture of parasitized bovine lymphoid cells. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvin, A.D.; Brown, C.G.D.; Stagg, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    Aliquots of a culture of Theileria parva-infected bovine lymphoid cells were irradiated at 0, 300, 600, 900, and 1200 rads. The short-term effects of irradiation were evaluated on examination of Giemsa-stained smears and on autoradiography of cells labeled with (/sup 3/H)thymidine. Irradiation inhibited cell division but parasite division did not appear to be inhibited and macroschizont nuclear particles increased in number, frequently to several hundred per schizont. There was no evidence of an increased percentage switch from macro- to microschizont. Apparently viable cells were still present in all cultures 4 days after irradiation.

  9. Development of Theileria mutans (Theiler, 1906) in the gut and the haemolymph of the tick Amblyomma variegatum (Fabricius, 1794).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnecke, M; Schein, E; Voigt, W P; Uilenberg, G; Young, A S

    1980-01-01

    The development of Theileria mutans in the gut and haemolymph of its tick vector, Amblyomma variegatum, was studied by Giemsa-stained smears after the nymphal tick had completed engorgement on parasitaemic calves. Sexual stages occurred in the gut between five and seven days after repletion. The zygotes were observed in the gut from day 29 and the kinetes from day 30, i.e. three and four days after the nymphs moulted to adults. From day 34 kinetes were observed in the haemolymph. The developmental stages of T. mutans in the tick were compared with those of other Theileria spp. of cattle. PMID:6771935

  10. Direct Urease Test and Acridine Orange Staining on Bactec Blood Culture for Rapid Presumptive Diagnosis of Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Maleknejad

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonotic diseases in Iran and human brucellosis is endemic in all parts of the country. Growth of Brucella is slow and blood culture of these bacteria by use of classical methods is time-consuming. Furthermore, in endemic area culture is required for definitive diagnosis. In the present study, direct urease test and acridine orange staining were tried on the BACTEC blood culture broths for early presumptive identification of Brucella growth. Blood cultures were attempted in 102 seropositive patients. In the forty one blood cultures positive for Brucella, coccobacilli were seen in broth smears stained with acridine orange stain, and also were urease test positive, thus providing presumptive identification of Brucella growth. Urease test was negative and bacteria were not seen in the broth smears of the remaining 61 broths negative for Brucella growth. Because of simplicity, reliability and reproducibility, these tests can be routinely incorporated in the laboratory for diagnosis of brucellosis.

  11. Studies on immunoglobulin containing cell in the vaginal smear during radiotherapy for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to observe the immunological responce of the irradiated cervical cancer, vaginal smears were taken from 27 patients during radiotherapy and stained with fluorescent anti-IgG, anti-IgA, and anti-IgM sera by the direct method. The IgG-, IgA-, and IgM-containing cells increase significantly in the cervicitis and cervical cancer as compared with controls. There is no difference between cervicitis and cervical cancer in IgG and IgA, but IgM-containing cells increase significantly in cervical cancer. There is a highly significant correlation between IgM-containing cells in vaginal smear of cervical cancer and lymphoid cell infiltration of primary cancerous tissue. During radiotherapy, there are no changes of the mean percentage of IgM-containing cells in vaginal smears at 1,000 rad and 2,000 rad irradiation, but at 3,000 rad irradiation IgM-containing cells decrease significantly. On the changes of IgM-containing cells during radiotherapy, the patients are classified into three groups. Group A: IgM-containing cells increase in their population temporarity during radiotherapy (11 cases). Group B: IgM-containing cells decrease gradually in their population during radiotherapy (12 cases). Group C: The changes of IgM-Containing cells are irregular and/or show little deviation (4 cases). The three year survivals of group A is 9/12 (82.8%), group B is 6/12 (50.0%), and group C is 4/4. There is significant difference between group A and group B in survival rates, and group A is considered to be an immunoreactive group. (author)

  12. The potential of bovine vaginal smear for biomarker development to trace the misuse of anabolic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedmaier, I; Reiter, M; Tichopad, A; Pfaffl, M W; Meyer, H H D

    2011-02-01

    In the European Union the use of anabolic hormones in meat production is forbidden since 1988 and this ban of anabolic agents in animal production is strictly controlled. New hormone cocktails passing the detection systems are attractive for the practice and so new approaches to discover their illegal use have to be developed steadily. Verifying physiological effects caused by anabolic steroids will be a new way to develop potential monitoring systems. One promising matrix in female animals will be vaginal smear containing vaginal epithelial cells, because the vaginal epithelium is a primary steroid hormone responsive organ. In this study we quantified the gene expression in vaginal smear of sexually mature cattle in order to observe physiological effects. Further we aimed to establish a new screening method by testing the effect of a combination of certain anabolic steroid hormones on physiological regulations of mRNA expression of selected genes. In an animal trial Nguni heifers were treated with the anabolic combination trenbolone acetate plus estradiol. Vaginal smear samples were taken at 4 different time points. Gene expression of 27 candidate genes, selected by screening the actual literature for steroidal effects on vaginal epithelial cells, were estimated using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. There were different expression changes observed at different time points. It could be shown that the applied anabolic combination significantly influenced the expression of the steroid receptor ER?, the keratinization factor CK8, the proinflammatory interleukins IL-1? and IL-1?, the growth factors FGF7, EGF, EGFR, IGF-1R, TGF? and LTF, the oncogen c-jun and other factors like actin? and ubiquitin 3. Using biostatistical tools like principal components analysis or hierarchical cluster analysis, the potential to develop a gene expression pattern for targeting the illegal use of growth promoters could be demonstrated. PMID:21031338

  13. Clinicopathologic significance of Papanicolaou smear study of postmenopausal women in a rural tertiary care center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambedkar Raj Kulandai Velu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is a preventable disease in the vast majority of women. Papanicolaou (Pap smear is still the most effective screening tool available for preventing cervical cancer. Therefore, it is important to investigate the significance of screening in older women. Objective: To study the distribution of cervical cancer among postmenopausal women and to determine the significance of cervical cancer screening in symptomatic and asymptomatic postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: A total of 590 Pap smears were obtained from postmenopausal women between September 2012 and March 2013. Prefixed conventional cervical smears were stained with Pap stain. The cytology results were reported using the Bethesda system terminology. Results: Among the 590 postmenopausal women studied, 38.9% of asymptomatic postmenopausal women had clinically significant lesion whereas only 33.1% of symptomatic women had clinically significant lesion. There was low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion at percentage of 17.5. Asymptomatic and symptomatic were 11.5% and 6.5%, respectively. High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion was 4.5%. Asymptomatic and symptomatic were 7.5% and 2.85%, respectively. Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance were seen in 8.85%. Asymptomatic and symptomatic were 4.25% and 4.6% respectively. Atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance were 1.7%. Only 3.2% of significant lesion was squamous cell carcinoma, and all were symptomatic. Conclusion: Postmenopausal women especially from the rural area and low socioeconomic strata suffered disproportionately from precancerous and cancerous lesions of the cervix. To reduce this burden, it?s mandatory to motivate and screen asymptomatic older women.

  14. Rapid molecular diagnosis of tuberculosis and other mycobacteriosis in smear-negative clinical specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R.A. Leite

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Delay in diagnosis of pulmonary and other forms of tuberculosis (TB can be fatal, particularly in HIV-infected patients. Hence, techniques based on nucleic acid amplification, which are both rapid and of high specificity and sensitivity, are now widely used and recommended for laboratories that diagnose TB. In the present study, diagnostic methods based on mycobacterial DNA amplification were evaluated in comparative trials alongside tradicional bacterial methods, using negative smear samples from patients with clinically-suspected TB (sputum samples from 25 patients with suspected pulmonary TB, urine samples from two patients with suspected renal TB and cerebrospinal fluid samples from one patient with suspected meningeal TB. A specificity of 100% was achieved with DNA amplification methods and tradicional culture/identification methods, in relation to clinical findings and treatment results. For the smear-negative sputa, conventional PCR for M. tuberculosis was positive in 62% of suspected lung TB case, showing the same sensitivity as bacterial identification. Both techniques failed in the detection of extra-pulmonary samples. Nested PCR showed, after species-specific amplification, a sensitivity of 100% for M. avium and 85% for M. tuberculosis. For extra-pulmonary smear-negative samples, only Nested PCR detected M. tuberculosis and all cases were confirmed clinically. Nested PCR, in which two-step amplification reactions are performed, can identify the two most important mycobacteria in human pathology quickly and directly from clinical spicimens. Keywords: tuberculosis; M. avium; Nested PCR; Smearnegative specimens

  15. Pap Smear Screening Test and it’s Applications in Cervical Cancer Detection and Classification

    OpenAIRE

    S.Athinarayanan; Dr.M.V.Srinath

    2013-01-01

    A large group of women population, in the world is affected by the cervical cancer in their different age groups. Hence, most of the researchers, pathologists and also more number of collegiate have provided more number of solutions, to identify this cancer from the test images of pap smear screening test. But their results represent, only to an extent, whether the patient is affected by cancer or not, and do not specially identify the exact nature and severity of the cancer. In this paper, i...

  16. Use of Polyphosphate to Decrease Uranium Leaching in Hanford 300 Area Smear Zone Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szecsody, James E.; Zhong, Lirong; Oostrom, Martinus; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Williams, Mark D.

    2012-09-30

    The primary objective of this study is to summarize the laboratory investigations performed to evaluate short- and long-term effects of phosphate treatment on uranium leaching from 300 area smear zone sediments. Column studies were used to compare uranium leaching in phosphate-treated to untreated sediments over a year with multiple stop flow events to evaluate longevity of the uranium leaching rate and mass. A secondary objective was to compare polyphosphate injection, polyphosphate/xanthan injection, and polyphosphate infiltration technologies that deliver phosphate to sediment.

  17. Detection of mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical samples by smear and culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective study was carried out in order to compare the smear stained by ZN and Lowenstein-Jensen (U) medium for the detection of Mycobacterium in clinical samples from different categories. Study Design: Laboratory based, Retrospective. Place and Duration: Sir Ganga Ram Hospital Fatima Jinnah Medical College, Lahore over a 5 year period between Jan 2001 and June 2006. Material and Methods: A total of 798 clinical samples were collected from patients of both sexes and all ages with a provisional diagnosis of tuberculosis. A Ziehl-Neelsen stain (ZN) and culture on U medium was performed for the detection of Mycobacterium. The specimen categories were sputum, pus, lymph node aspirate, urine and endometrial curetting. Results: Out of 5 types of 798 specimens received over a period of five years, only 46.3%) (n=369) were respiratory whereas the remaining 53.7% (n=429) were non respiratory tract category samples including sputum, pus, lymph node aspirate, urine and endometrial curetting. All were examined for the presence of acid-fast-bacilli (AFB) in ZN smear. Among these 3.578% gave a positive ZN stain while 11.65% were positive on culture. Out of a total of 369 respiratory tract category samples, 38 (10.3%) sputum samples were positive for AFB on both ZN and culture. Among the non respiratory tract category, 47 (28.2%) pus, 26 (31%) LN aspirate, 5 (15.6%) urine, 5 (3.42%) endometrial curetting were reported positive. Only 15.16% of clinical samples belonging to 5 different categories of specimens received from patients of both sexes with a provisional diagnosis of tuberculosis, tested positive for Mycobacterium by both ZN stain smear and culture on U medium. Among these, 3.57% were positive for AFB on ZN smear and 11.65% were positive on culture on U medium. Conclusion: These conventional techniques have proved to be reliable testing tools for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in our settings but there is an urgent need to promote the use of Biotic and Pcr for early detection and drug susceptibility keeping in view the rise in the number of multi-drug resistant cases of tuberculosis in the last few years. (author)

  18. Vacuum Energy Density Fluctuations in Minkowski and Casimir States via Smeared Quantum Fields and Point Separation

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Nicholas G.; Hu, B L

    2000-01-01

    We present calculations of the variance of fluctuations and of the mean of the energy momentum tensor of a massless scalar field for the Minkowski and Casimir vacua as a function of an intrinsic scale defined by a smeared field or by point separation. We point out that contrary to prior claims, the ratio of variance to mean-squared being of the order unity is not necessarily a good criterion for measuring the invalidity of semiclassical gravity. For the Casimir topology we o...

  19. Perturbative determination of c{sub SW} with Symanzik improved gauge action and stout smearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics; Perlt, H.; Schiller, A. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Dept., Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    We determine the improvement factor c{sub SW} in one-loop lattice perturbation theory for the plaquette and Symanzik improved gauge actions. The fermionic action is O(a) clover improved with one-time stout smearing. c{sub SW} is derived from the one-loop correction to the quark-quark-gluon vertex in the off-shell regime. We give a first numerical value for the one-loop contribution to the non gauge-invariant improvement coefficient c{sub NGI} for the quark field using the plaquette action. A discussion of mean field improvement is included. (orig.)

  20. Instructional guidelines on sampling from metal, dyed and other smooth and solid surfaces (by 'smear' method)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instructional guidelines was elaborated in the frame of International Scientific Technic Centre project T-1082.3 and directed on arrangement of radiation environment investigations on the territory of the Republic waste disposal site. Instructional guidelines put requirements on sampling by 'smear' method, tampon preparation, packing, marking, transportation, samples preparation to investigation and storage of samples in laboratory conditions. The aim of investigations is revelation of polluted objects on the territory of the Republic waste disposal site, determination of pollution intensity level, pollution dynamics, determination of pollution impact and elaboration measures in order to eliminate their harmful effect on human body and environment.

  1. The effect of pH of the sodium hypochlorite on smear layer removal

    OpenAIRE

    Karadži? Branislav; Dimitrijevi? Nina; Manojlovi? Dragica; Trišovi? Tomislav

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Canal irrigation is an important segment of endodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of 0.5% NaOCl solutions of different pH values on smear layer removal. Material and Methods. Thirty-two freshly extracted single rooted teeth with gangrenous pulp were used in the study. The samples were divided into four groups of eight teeth in each. Four solutions of 0.5% NaOCl having pH values 5, 7, 9 and 12 respectively, were used during chemomechanical i...

  2. Blood Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The method that is used for the collection, storage and real-time analysis of blood and other bodily fluids has been licensed to DBCD, Inc. by NASA. The result of this patent licensing agreement has been the development of a commercial product that can provide serum or plasma from whole blood volumes of 20 microliters to 4 milliliters. The device has a fibrous filter with a pore size of less than about 3 microns, and is coated with a mixture of mannitol and plasma fraction protein. The coating causes the cellular fraction to be trapped by the small pores, leaving the cellular fraction intact on the fibrous filter while the acellular fraction passes through the filter for collection in unaltered form from the serum sample collection chamber. The method used by this product is useful to NASA for blood analysis on manned space missions.

  3. Increase in dicentric chromosome formation after a single CT scan in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yu; Miura, Tomisato; Yoshida, Mitsuaki A; Ujiie, Risa; Kurosu, Yumiko; Kato, Nagisa; Katafuchi, Atsushi; Tsuyama, Naohiro; Ohba, Takashi; Inamasu, Tomoko; Shishido, Fumio; Noji, Hideyoshi; Ogawa, Kazuei; Yokouchi, Hiroshi; Kanazawa, Kenya; Ishida, Takashi; Muto, Satoshi; Ohsugi, Jun; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Kamiya, Kenji; Sakai, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Excess risk of leukemia and brain tumors after CT scans in children has been reported. We performed dicentric chromosome assay (DCAs) before and after CT scan to assess effects of low-dose ionizing radiation on chromosomes. Peripheral blood (PB) lymphocytes were collected from 10 patients before and after a CT scan. DCA was performed by analyzing either 1,000 or 2,000 metaphases using both Giemsa staining and centromere-fluorescence in situ hybridization (Centromere-FISH). The increment of DIC formation was compared with effective radiation dose calculated using the computational dosimetry system, WAZA-ARI and dose length product (DLP) in a CT scan. Dicentric chromosome (DIC) formation increased significantly after a single CT scan, and increased DIC formation was found in all patients. A good correlation between the increment of DIC formation determined by analysis of 2,000 metaphases using Giemsa staining and those by 2,000 metaphases using Centromere-FISH was observed. However, no correlation was observed between the increment of DIC formation and the effective radiation dose. Therefore, these results suggest that chromosome cleavage may be induced by one CT scan, and we recommend 2,000 or more metaphases be analyzed in Giemsa staining or Centromere-FISH for DCAs in cases of low-dose radiation exposure. PMID:26349546

  4. Prevalence and diversity of Hepatozoon canis in naturally infected dogs in Japanese islands and peninsulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dakhly, Khaled Mohamed; Goto, Minami; Noishiki, Kaori; El-Nahass, El-Shaymaa; Hirata, Akihiro; Sakai, Hiroki; Takashima, Yasuhiro; El-Morsey, Ahmed; Yanai, Tokuma

    2013-09-01

    Canine hepatozoonosis is a worldwide protozoal disease caused by Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon americanum and is transmitted by ixodid ticks, Rhipicephalus and Amblyomma spp., respectively. H. canis infection is widespread in Africa, Europe, South America, and Asia, including Japan. The objective of this study was to study the distribution pattern and diversity of H. canis in naturally infected dogs in nine Japanese islands and peninsulas. Therefore, 196 hunting dogs were randomly sampled during the period from March to September 2011 and the ages and sexes were identified. Direct microscopy using Giemsa-stained blood smears revealed H. canis gametocytes in the peripheral blood of 45 (23.6%) dogs. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on EDTA-anticoagulated blood, initially with the common primer set (B18S-F and B18S-R) amplifying the 1,665-bp portion of the 18S rRNA gene, and then with the specific primer set (HepF and HepR) amplifying about 660 bp fragments of the same gene. Based on PCR, 84 (42.9%) dogs were positive using the common primer and 81 (41.3%) were positive using the specific primer. The current investigation indicated that all screened areas, except for Sado Island and Atsumi Peninsula, were infected. Yaku Island had the highest infection rate (84.6% in males and 100.0% in females), while Ishigaki Island showed the lowest infection rates (8.3% in males and 17.7% in females). Both sexes were infected with no significant difference. However, diversity of infection among the surveyed islands and peninsulas was significantly different (P?canis has previously been reported in dogs in Japan, the higher infection rate described in the current study and the diversity of infection in a wide range of islands strongly encourage prospective studies dealing with the prevention and treatment of the infection in dogs, as well as control of ticks. PMID:23812601

  5. Cord Blood

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Abroun

    2014-01-01

      Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord...

  6. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood ... you are pregnant, or you have just had a baby, you are at greater risk of developing a blood clot. Blood clots in ...

  7. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Disorders Blood Clots Blood Clotting & Pregnancy If you are pregnant, or you ... g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots in Pregnant Women Treated? Typically, blood clots ...

  8. Understanding Blood Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 50 $100 $500 $1000 Other Amount Donate Today Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts SHARE: Print Glossary Blood cell counts ... Guides Things to Tell Your Doctor Before Treatment Understanding Blood, Marrow and the Lymphatic System Normal Blood ...

  9. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For Patients Blood Disorders Blood Clots Blood Clotting & Pregnancy If you are pregnant, or you have just ... The risk of developing a blood clot during pregnancy is increased by the following: Previous blood clots ...

  10. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Blood Pressure Readings Updated:Oct 22,2015 Blood pressure is typically recorded as two numbers, written as a ratio ... blood). What is the AHA recommendation for healthy blood pressure? This chart reflects blood pressure categories defined by ...

  11. Blood pressure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diastolic blood pressure; Systolic blood pressure; Blood pressure reading; Measuring blood pressure ... or your health care provider will wrap the blood pressure cuff snugly around your upper arm. The lower ...

  12. Radiographic evaluation of destructive periodontal disease in blue mink in relation to age and blood morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne Sofie; Andersen, Thomas Holmen; Eriksen, Thomas; Kortegaard, Hanne E.; Dietz, Hans Henrik; Chriél, Mariann

    2005-01-01

    In this study, blood samples and jaws were collected from 2 genotypes of blue mink (n = 289) in order to examine phenotypic expression of specific characteristics of Chediak-Higashi Syndrome (C-HS). Blood samples were subjected to differential counts to assess the proportion of abnormal polymorphonuclear leukocytes characteristic for CH-S (C-HS-leukocytes). Abnormal leukocytes with characteristic signs of C-HS were found in blood smears from all mink included in this study. Four teeth in one hal...

  13. Blood Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood typing is used to identify and match organ and tissue transplant donors with recipients who have the same or ... when a person becomes a candidate for an organ, tissue, or bone marrow transplant, or when a person wishes to become a ...

  14. Effect of sealers on fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth with and without smear layer removal: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhamb Swaty

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The present study involved the in vitro comparison of root reinforcing abilities of two sealers, i.e., Ketac-Endo and Acroseal, in endodontically treated teeth in the presence and absence of smear layer. Materials and Methods : Fifty teeth were taken and sectioned at the cementoenamel junction. The teeth with faults were discarded and a total of 36 teeth were used for study. The samples were biomechanically prepared using step-back technique. In 10 teeth, the smear layer was preserved using sodium hypochlorite. Smear layers were removed from 10 teeth using 17% EDTA, and in another 10 samples, the smear layers were eliminated using 17% EGTA. The remaining samples served as controls. Samples were obturated with sealers using the lateral condensation technique. Ketac-Endo (3M is a glass ionomer based root canal sealer, and Acroseal (Septodont sealers were used. The teeth were then tested by using an Instron testing machine. Results : Ketac-Endo shows higher fracture resistance values in comparison to Acroseal. Other factors as the amount of tooth structure remaining, the agents used for the removal of smear layer and instrumentation techniques may alter the tooth resistance to fracture. Conclusion : Ketac-Endo shows higher fracture resistance values in comparison to Acroseal.

  15. Prevalence of abnormal Pap smear during pregnancy in a teaching hospital in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Mishra

    2015-10-01

    Results: Among the 316 women studied the mean (SD age at marriage was 22 (3 years. The mean period of gestation was 30 weeks. Only one participant (0.3% reported high risk behaviour. The speculum examination was found to be normal in 99.7% women. There was one abnormal Pap smear report. Specific infection with Candida was reported in 14.6%; in none of these the speculum examination showed a characteristic discharge of candidiasis. Further a significantly higher prevalence of Candida infection was found in rural compared to urban population (Chi square 3.7, p=0.046. Conclusions: The prevalence of abnormal Pap smear is particularly low at 0.3% in our study group. However the prevalence of asymptomatic Candida infection which was missed on speculum exam because of lack of the characteristic discharge was high at 14.6%. Thus the authors recommend routine prenatal microbiological examination to detect candida infection. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(5.000: 1296-1299

  16. Defect motions and smearing of Shapiro steps in Josephson-junction ladders under magnetic frustration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present simulation results on the dynamics of 1D Josephson ladder arrays at zero temperature in the presence of uniform magnetic fields when dc plus ac currents are applied. For a frustration f=p/q, the dynamics of the array can be described by the reduced equations for only q variables, if the initial configuration is assumed to be invariant under the q-lattice translation. When dc plus ac currents are injected, fractional Shapiro steps are found at time-averaged voltage left-angle V right-angle=(n/q)(??/2e) with n an integer and ? the external driving frequency. If the ladder array is wound into an annular geometry, we can have defects in the vortex configuration depending on the initial random-phase configuration which cannot evolve into q-periodic states, and these defects are shown to smear the Shapiro steps. The dynamic resistance on the smeared Shapiro step is proportional to the number density of the defects

  17. Vacuum Energy Density Fluctuations in Minkowski and Casimir States via Smeared Quantum Fields and Point Separation

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, N G; Phillips, Nicholas. G.

    2000-01-01

    We present calculations of the variance of fluctuations and of the mean of the energy momentum tensor of a massless scalar field for the Minkowski and Casimir vacua as a function of an intrinsic scale defined by a smeared field or by point separation. We point out that contrary to prior claims, the ratio of variance to mean-squared being of the order unity is not necessarily a good criterion for measuring the invalidity of semiclassical gravity. For the Casimir topology we obtain expressions for the variance to mean-squared ratio as a function of the intrinsic scale (defined by a smeared field) compared to the extrinsic scale (defined by the separation of the plates, or the periodicity of space). Our results make it possible to identify the spatial extent where negative energy density prevails which could be useful for studying quantum field effects in worm holes and baby universe, and for examining the design feasibility of real-life `time-machines'. For the Minkowski vacuum we find that the ratio of the var...

  18. Performance of Low Smeared Density Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor Metal Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. L. Porter; H. J. M. Chichester; P. G. Medvedev; S. L. Hayes; M. C. Teague

    2015-10-01

    An experiment was performed in the Experimental Breeder Rector-II (EBR-II) in the 1990s to show that metallic fast reactor fuel could be used in reactors with a single, once-through core. To prove the long duration, high burnup, high neutron exposure capability an experiment where the fuel pin was designed with a very large fission gas plenum and very low fuel smeared density (SD). The experiment, X496, operated to only 8.3 at. % burnup because the EBR-II reactor was scheduled for shut-down at that time. Many of the examinations of the fuel pins only funded recently with the resurgence of reactor designs using very high-burnup fuel. The results showed that, despite the low smeared density of 59% the fuel swelled radially to contact the cladding, fission gas release appeared to be slightly higher than demonstrated in conventional 75%SD fuel tests and axial growth was about the same as 75% SD fuel. There were axial positions in some of the fuel pins which showed evidence of fuel restructuring and an absence of fission products with low metaling points and gaseous precursors (Cs and Rb). A model to investigate whether these areas may have overheated due to a loss of bond sodium indicates that it is a possible explanation for the fuel restructuring and something to be considered for fuel performance modeling of low SD fuel.

  19. Performance of low smeared density sodium-cooled fast reactor metal fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, D. L.; Chichester, H. J. M.; Medvedev, P. G.; Hayes, S. L.; Teague, M. C.

    2015-10-01

    An experiment was performed in the Experimental Breeder Rector-II (EBR-II) in the 1990s to show that metallic fast reactor fuel could be used in reactors with a single, once-through core. To prove the long duration, high burnup, high neutron exposure capability an experiment where the fuel pin was designed with a very large fission gas plenum and very low fuel smeared density (SD). The experiment, X496, operated to only 8.3 at.% burnup because the EBR-II reactor was scheduled for shut-down at that time. Many of the examinations of the fuel pins only funded recently with the resurgence of reactor designs using very high-burnup fuel. The results showed that, despite the low smeared density of 59% the fuel swelled radially to contact the cladding, fission gas release appeared to be slightly higher than demonstrated in conventional 75%SD fuel tests and axial growth was about the same as 75% SD fuel. There were axial positions in some of the fuel pins which showed evidence of fuel restructuring and an absence of fission products with low melting points and gaseous precursors (Cs and Rb). A model to investigate whether these areas may have overheated due to a loss of bond sodium indicates that it is a possible explanation for the fuel restructuring and something to be considered for fuel performance modeling of low SD fuel.

  20. Development of floor smear sampler (floor radioactive contamination measuring instrument) for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control of the floor contamination with radioactive substances in nuclear facilities is strictly carried out by smear method, in which the contaminants on floor surfaces are wiped off with filter papers or cloths, and the contamination density on the floor surfaces is measured through their intensity of radioactivity. This wiping work is laborious since it is carried out in leaning-over posture when many samples must be taken in wide floor area. Therefore, to achieve labor saving in this work, an automatic sampler was developed. In the floor smear sampler developed, samples are taken on long band type wiping cloths only by handle operation, and the sample numbers are printed. When many samples are taken in wide floor area, this is especially effective, and the labor saving by 1/3 to 1/2 can be achieved. At present, this sampler is put in practical use in Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station. At the time of trial manufacture, the method of wiping, the mechanisms of wiping, cloth feeding and running, the contact pressure and the number of times of wiping affecting wiping efficiency and the required torque of a motor were examined. The developed sampler is that of constant contact pressure, vibration wiping type, and the rate of sampling is 10 sec per one sample. 100 samples can be taken on one roll of wiping cloth. The results of performance test are reported. (Kako, I.)

  1. Intelligent and nature inspired optimization methods in medicine : The Pap smear cell classification problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinakis, Yannis; Marinaki, Magdalene

    2009-01-01

    The classification problem consists of using some known objects, usually described by a large vector of features, to induce a model that classifies others into known classes. Feature selection is widely used as the first stage of the classification task to reduce the dimension of the problem, decrease noise and improve speed by the elimination of irrelevant or redundant features. The present paper deals with the optimization of nearest neighbour classifiers via intelligent and nature inspired algorithms for a very significant medical problem, the Pap smear cell classification problem. The algorithms used include tabu search, genetic algorithms, particle swarm optimization and ant colony optimization. The proposed complete algorithmic scheme is tested on two sets of data. The first consists of 917 images of Pap smear cells and the second set consists of 500 images, classified carefully by expert cyto-technicians and doctors. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and the cells fall into seven classesrepresenting a variety of normal and abnormal cases. Nevertheless, from the medical diagnosis viewpoint, a minimum requirement corresponds to the general two-class problem of correct separation between normal and abnormal cells.

  2. Autoinducer-2 activity produced by bacteria found in smear of surface ripened cheeses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gori, Klaus; Moslehi Jenabian, Saloomeh

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial strains of the species Arthrobacter nicotianae, Corynebacterium ammoniagenes, Corynebacterium casei, Microbacterium barkeri, Microbacterium gubbeenense and Staphylococcus equorum subsp. linens, all isolated from the smear of surface ripened cheeses, were found to possess autoinducer-2 (AI-2) activity using the Vibrio harveyi (BB170) bioluminescence assay. In contrast, Brevibacterium casei and Brevibacterium linens strains were not found to have AI-2 activity. When exposed to low pH and high NaCl concentrations, AI-2 activities increased between 5.0 and 11.6× for C. casei 44701, M. gubbeenense 15944 and S. equorum subsp. linens 15097, whereas AI-2 activities did not increase for A. nicotianae 20123, C. ammoniagenes 20305, C. ammoniagenes 20306 and M. barkeri 20145. The fact that AI-2 activity is produced by bacterial strains found in the smear of surface ripened cheeses, and also increased by dairy-relevant stress conditions, indicates that AI-2 signalling might be important in regulation of microbial succession during ripening of surface ripened cheeses.

  3. Role of Clinical Presentations and Routine CSF Analysis in the Rapid Diagnosis of Acute Bacterial Meningitis in Cases of Negative Gram Stained Smears

    OpenAIRE

    Rabab Fouad; Marwa Khairy; Waleed Fathalah; Taha Gad; Badawy El-Kholy; Ayman Yosry

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim. Bacterial meningitis is a lethal, disabling endemic disease needing prompt antibiotic management. Gram stained smears is rapid accurate method for diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. In cases of negative gram stained smears diagnosis is delayed till culture results. We aim to assess the role of clinical presentations and routine CSF analysis in the cost-effective rapid diagnosis of negative gram stained smears bacterial meningitis. Methods. Cross sectional study including 6...

  4. Commercial Ripening Starter Microorganisms Inoculated into Cheese Milk Do Not Successfully Establish Themselves in the Resident Microbial Ripening Consortia of a South German Red Smear Cheese?

    OpenAIRE

    Goerges, Stefanie; Mounier, Jérôme; Rea, Mary C.; Gelsomino, Roberto; Heise, Valeska; Beduhn, Rüdiger; Cogan, Timothy M.; Vancanneyt, Marc; Scherer, Siegfried

    2008-01-01

    Production of smear-ripened cheese critically depends on the surface growth of multispecies microbial consortia comprising bacteria and yeasts. These microorganisms often originate from the cheese-making facility and, over many years, have developed into rather stable, dairy-specific associations. While commercial smear starters are frequently used, it is unclear to what degree these are able to establish successfully within the resident microbial consortia. Thus, the fate of the smear starte...

  5. Effectiveness of EDTA and EDTA-T brushingm on the removal of root surface smear layer / Efeito do EDTA e EDTA-T aplicado de forma ativa na remoção de "smear layer" de superfícies radiculares

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Eduardo Cezar, Sampaio; Ricardo Samih Georges Abi, Rached; Gibson Luiz, Pilatti; Letícia Helena, Theodoro; Luiz Henrique Carvalho, Batista.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar, através de microscopia eletrônica de varredura, o efeito da aplicação de gel de EDTA e de EDTA-T (texapon) em diferentes concentrações (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% e 24%) na remoção de "smear layer" de superfícies radiculares previamente raspadas com instrumentos ma [...] nuais. Duzentos e vinte espécimes de superfícies radiculares submetidas à raspagem foram divididos em 3 grupos. Grupo I - (controle) solução salina (n = 20); Grupo II - gel de EDTA (pH 7,0) nas concentrações de 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% e 24% (n = 100); Grupo III - gel de EDTA-T (pH 7,0) nas concentrações acima descritas (n = 100). As fotomicrografias obtidas foram avaliadas por um examinador calibrado através da aplicação de um índice de remoção de "smear layer", e os dados foram analisados através de análise estatística (teste de Kruskal-Wallis). Os resultados demonstraram que todos os tratamentos com EDTA e EDTA-T foram mais efetivos na remoção de "smear layer" quando comparados com o grupo controle (p 0,05). Dentro dos limites deste estudo, pode-se concluir que todas as modalidades de tratamento foram efetivas na remoção de "smear layer" e a adição de texapon ao gel de EDTA não aumentou a efetividade do tratamento. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to compare the removal of root surface smear layer following active application of EDTA gel and EDTA-T (texapon) gel in different concentrations (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 24%), using scanning electron microscopy. A total of 220 dentin blocks obtained from the root surfaces [...] of extracted teeth were divided into 3 groups: Group I - (control) application of saline solution (n = 20); Group II - EDTA gel (pH 7.0) was applied in the following concentrations: 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 24% (n = 100); Group III - EDTA-T gel (pH 7.0) applied in the same concentrations described above (n = 100). The photomicrographs were evaluated by one calibrated examiner using a smear layer removal index and following statistical analysis (Kruskal-Wallis test). The results demonstrated that the specimens treated with EDTA and EDTA-T gel presented a better smear layer removal than the control group (p 0.05). Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that all treatment modalities effectively removed the smear layer from the root surface. The addition of texapon into the EDTA gel formulation did not increase its effectiveness.

  6. Effectiveness of EDTA and EDTA-T brushingm on the removal of root surface smear layer Efeito do EDTA e EDTA-T aplicado de forma ativa na remoção de "smear layer" de superfícies radiculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Cezar Sampaio

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the removal of root surface smear layer following active application of EDTA gel and EDTA-T (texapon gel in different concentrations (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 24%, using scanning electron microscopy. A total of 220 dentin blocks obtained from the root surfaces of extracted teeth were divided into 3 groups: Group I - (control application of saline solution (n = 20; Group II - EDTA gel (pH 7.0 was applied in the following concentrations: 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 24% (n = 100; Group III - EDTA-T gel (pH 7.0 applied in the same concentrations described above (n = 100. The photomicrographs were evaluated by one calibrated examiner using a smear layer removal index and following statistical analysis (Kruskal-Wallis test. The results demonstrated that the specimens treated with EDTA and EDTA-T gel presented a better smear layer removal than the control group (p 0.05. Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that all treatment modalities effectively removed the smear layer from the root surface. The addition of texapon into the EDTA gel formulation did not increase its effectiveness.O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar, através de microscopia eletrônica de varredura, o efeito da aplicação de gel de EDTA e de EDTA-T (texapon em diferentes concentrações (5%, 10%, 15%, 20% e 24% na remoção de "smear layer" de superfícies radiculares previamente raspadas com instrumentos manuais. Duzentos e vinte espécimes de superfícies radiculares submetidas à raspagem foram divididos em 3 grupos. Grupo I - (controle solução salina (n = 20; Grupo II - gel de EDTA (pH 7,0 nas concentrações de 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% e 24% (n = 100; Grupo III - gel de EDTA-T (pH 7,0 nas concentrações acima descritas (n = 100. As fotomicrografias obtidas foram avaliadas por um examinador calibrado através da aplicação de um índice de remoção de "smear layer", e os dados foram analisados através de análise estatística (teste de Kruskal-Wallis. Os resultados demonstraram que todos os tratamentos com EDTA e EDTA-T foram mais efetivos na remoção de "smear layer" quando comparados com o grupo controle (p 0,05. Dentro dos limites deste estudo, pode-se concluir que todas as modalidades de tratamento foram efetivas na remoção de "smear layer" e a adição de texapon ao gel de EDTA não aumentou a efetividade do tratamento.

  7. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Patients Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and Travel ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots in Pregnant Women Treated? Typically, blood clots ...

  8. Thermodynamics of noncommutative high-dimensional AdS black holes with non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Miao, Yan-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Considering non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions, we investigate thermodynamic behaviors of the noncommutative high-dimensional Schwarzschild-Tangherlini anti-de Sitter black hole, and obtain the condition for the existence of extreme black holes. We indicate that the Gaussian smeared matter distribution, which is a special case of non-Gaussian smeared matter distributions, is not applicable for the 6- and higher-dimensional black holes due to the hoop conjecture. In particular, the phase transition is analyzed in detail. Moreover, we point out that the Maxwell equal area law maintains for the noncommutative black hole with the Hawking temperature within a specific range, but fails with the Hawking temperature beyond this range.

  9. Vacuum structure revealed by over-improved stout-link smearing compared with the overlap analysis for quenched QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilgenfritz, E.M.; Leinweber, D.; Moran, P. [Adelaide Univ., SA (AU). Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter (CSSM); Koller, K. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Sektion Physik; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Weinberg, V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2008-01-11

    A detailed comparison is made between the topological structure of quenched QCD as revealed by the recently proposed over-improved stout-link smearing in conjunction with an improved gluonic definition of the topological density on one hand and a similar analysis made possible by the overlap-fermionic topological charge density both with and without variable ultraviolet cutoff {lambda}{sub cut}. The matching is twofold, provided by fitting the density-density two-point functions on one hand and by a point-by-point fitting of the topological densities according to the two methods. We point out the similar cluster structure of the topological density for moderate smearing and 200 MeV<{lambda}{sub cut}<600 MeV, respectively. We demonstrate the relation of the gluonic topological density for extensive smearing to the location of the overlap zero modes and the lowest overlap non-zero mode as found for the unsmeared configurations. (orig.)

  10. Clinico-pathological profile and treatment outcome in smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis patients at a teaching hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuberculosis remains the single highest contributor to the world's morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is essential to prevent its transmission. To see the treatment response of anti tuberculosis drugs in smear negative patients and study the predictors of culture positive among smear negative tuberculosis patients. Ninety four sputum smear negative patients clinically and radiologically suggestive of tuberculosis were selected. These patients were put on anti tuberculosis drugs without waiting for their culture results. They were then followed for 8 months to see their treatment outcome. A total of 94 smear negative patients were selected and given anti tuberculosis treatment. Of these 37(39%) were culture positive and 57(61%) were culture negative. Of the 37 culture positive patients 36(97%) showed clinical or radiological improvement as compared to 46(81%) out of 57 in culture negative cases. Symptoms of cough with sputum production was significantly associated with culture positivity. On x-ray chest moderate lesion with diffuse infiltration was more common finding in 64% while extensive and cavitatory lesion was seen in 24% of all cases. Association of extensive and cavitatory lesion were seen in culture positive group. Response to anti tuberculosis drugs in sputum smear negative tubercolosis suspects was found to be effective in majority of the patients. Cough, sputum and extensive cavitatory lung lesion were the predictors of culture positive cases. There is need to train physicians on the use of anti tuberculosis therapy in smear negative suspected pulmonary tuberculosis cases, especially if they have productive cough and cavitatory lung lesions. (author)

  11. Antimicrobial Effect of Citrus Aurantifolia Extract on Enterococcus Faecalis Within the Dentinal Tubules in The Presence of Smear Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifian MR

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Instrumentation of the root canals results in formation of smear layer which covers the dentinal tubules. In infected teeth, it is ideal to achieve a material that has the ability to remove the smear layer besides antimicrobial activity. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of Citrus aurantifolia extracts (lime juice and rind extract on Enterococcus faecalis within dentinal tubules in the presence of smear layer.Materials and Methods: One-hundred and forty dentin tubes were prepared from bovine incisors. After removal the smear layer, the specimens were infected with Enterococcus faecalis. Then, the smear layer was reformed. Test solutions were used as the irrigants in study roups as follows: group 1: 5.25% NaOCl; group 2: 17% EDTA; group 3: NaOCl+EDTA; group 4: Lime juice; group 5: ethanolic rind extract of C.aurantifolia; group 6: 96% ethanol. Dentin chips were collected from inner and outer layers of dentinal walls and optical density was measured. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tamhane tests.Results: In outer layer of dentin, the efficacy of rind extract was less than that of NaOCl+EDTA (P<0.05. Also Lime juice was less effective than EDTA, NaOCl and NaOCl+EDTA (P<0.05. In inner layer of dentin, Lime juice was significantly less effective than NaOCl and NaOCl+EDTA (P<0.05. The efficacy of rind extract was less than that of NaOCl+EDTA (P<0.05.Conclusion: In the presence of smear layer, the antimicrobial activity of Lime juice was less than that of NaOCl but the efficacy of rind extract was similar to that of NaOCl.

  12. Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum treatment on radiolabeling of blood constituents and morphology of red blood cells in Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benarroz, Monica Oliveira; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria]. E-mail: adenilso@uerj.br; Rocha, Gabrielle de Souza; Pereira, Marcia Oliveira [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Geller, Mauro [Centro Universitario Serra dos Orgaos, Teresopolis, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude; Presta, Giuseppe Antonio [Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UNIRIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Biomedico. Dept. de Fisiologia Humana

    2008-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of in vivo treatment with an aqueous cinnamon extract on the labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc and on the morphology of red blood cells from Wistar rats. Animals were treated with cinnamon extract at different doses and for different periods of time. As controls, animals treated with 0.9% NaCl. Labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99}mTc was performed. Plasma, blood cells and insoluble fractions were isolated. Radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) was calculated. Also, blood smears were prepared to morphological analysis of red blood cells from. Data showed that in vivo cinnamon extract did not significantly (p>0.05) modify the %ATI of blood constituents and morphology of red blood cells. The results suggest that in vivo aqueous cinnamon could not affect the membrane structures involved in transport of ions or the oxidation state of stannous and pertechnetate ions. (author)

  13. Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract on the radiolabelling of blood constituents and the morphometry of red blood cells: In vitro assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) on the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99 m(99mTc) and on the morphology of red blood cells were studied. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with cinnamon extract for 1hour or with 0.9% NaCl, as control. Labelling of blood constituents with 99mTc was performed. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC), soluble (SF-P and SF-BC) and insoluble (IF-P and IF-BC) fractions were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity incorporated (%ATI) was calculated. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphological analysis of the red blood cells was evaluated. The data showed that the cinnamon extract decreased significantly (p99mTc, and although our results were obtained with animals, precaution is suggested in interpretations of nuclear medicine examinations involving the labelling of blood constituents in patients who are using cinnamon

  14. Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum treatment on radiolabeling of blood constituents and morphology of red blood cells in Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of in vivo treatment with an aqueous cinnamon extract on the labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc and on the morphology of red blood cells from Wistar rats. Animals were treated with cinnamon extract at different doses and for different periods of time. As controls, animals treated with 0.9% NaCl. Labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc was performed. Plasma, blood cells and insoluble fractions were isolated. Radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) was calculated. Also, blood smears were prepared to morphological analysis of red blood cells from. Data showed that in vivo cinnamon extract did not significantly (p>0.05) modify the %ATI of blood constituents and morphology of red blood cells. The results suggest that in vivo aqueous cinnamon could not affect the membrane structures involved in transport of ions or the oxidation state of stannous and pertechnetate ions. (author)

  15. Retrospective evaluation of laboratory data on canine vector-borne infections from the years 2004-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrig, Eva; Hamel, Dietmar; Pfister, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    The detection and therapy of canine vector-borne diseases in imported dogs are of major importance in small animal practice. Over the last years, the import of dogs from the Mediterranean region and Southeast Europe has increased, countries often endemic for a variety of vector-borne diseases such as babesiosis, hepatozoonosis, leishmaniosis, dirofilariosis or ehrlichiosis. This retrospective study presents the evaluation of data from our diagnostic laboratory on vector-borne infections in imported dogs from the years 2004-2008. Specific antibodies were detectable in 20.5% of all samples with individual detection rates of 8.9%, 9.6% and 10.8% for Babesia canis ssp., Leishmania spp. and/or Ehrlichia canis. A total of 5.5% of all samples tested by direct methods were positive. Up to 1.1% of Giemsa-stained blood/buffy coat smears were positive for B. canis ssp., Rickettsia spp. or Hepatozoon spp. Microfilariae were detectable by the Knott's Test in 6.4% and heartworm antigen was detectable using the DiroChek-ELISA in 3% of the examined samples. EDTA-blood samples were positive for Leishmania spp.-(14.9%), E. canis- (5.3%) and A. phagocytophilum-DNA (5.0%) by PCR. Therewith, imported dogs have a high chance of being carriers of pathogens. As some diseases may also be of a zoonotic concern, in case of the availability of competent vectors, the key focus in the future should be aimed at the prevention of importing infected dogs or at compulsory diagnostic screening and treatment of infected dogs at the time of import. PMID:21950219

  16. Pap Smear Diagnosis Using a Hybrid Intelligent Scheme Focusing on Genetic Algorithm Based Feature Selection and Nearest Neighbor Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinakis, Yannis; Dounias, Georgios; Jantzen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The term pap-smear refers to samples of human cells stained by the so-called Papanicolaou method. The purpose of the Papanicolaou method is to diagnose pre-cancerous cell changes before they progress to invasive carcinoma. In this paper a metaheuristic algorithm is proposed in order to classify the cells. Two databases are used, constructed in different times by expert MDs, consisting of 917 and 500 images of pap smear cells, respectively. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and the...

  17. In-hospital contact investigation among health care workers after exposure to smear-negative tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schultze-Werninghaus Gerhard

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (TB accounts for a considerable proportion of TB transmission, which especially endangers health care workers (HCW. Novel Mycobacterium-tuberculosis-specific interferon-? release assays (IGRAs may offer the chance to define the burden of TB in HCW more accurately than the Mantoux tuberculin skin test (TST, but the data that is available regarding their performance in tracing smear-negative TB in the low-incidence, in-hospital setting, is limited. We conducted a large-scale, in-hospital contact investigation among HCW of a German university hospital after exposure to a single case of extensive smear-negative, culture-positive TB with pulmonary involvement. The objective of the present study was to evaluate an IGRA in comparison to the TST and to identify risk factors for test positivity. Methods Contacts were prospectively enrolled, evaluated using a standardized questionnaire, the IGRA QuantiFERON®-TB Gold in Tube (QFT-GIT and the TST, and followed-up for two years. Active TB was ruled out by chest x-ray in QFT-GIT-positive subjects. Independent predictors of test positivity were established through the use of logistic regression analysis. Results Out of the 143 subjects analyzed, 82 (57.3% had close contact, but only four (2.8% experienced cumulative exposure to the index case >40 hours. QFT-GIT results were positive in 13 subjects (9.1%, while TST results were positive in 40 subjects (28.0% at an induration >5 mm. Overall agreement was poor between both tests (kappa = 0.15. Age was the only predictor of QFT-GIT-positivity (Odds ratio 2.7, 95% confidence interval 1.32–5.46, while TST-positivity was significantly related to Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination and foreign origin. Logistic regression analysis showed no relation between test results and exposure. No secondary cases of active TB were detected over an observational period of two years. Conclusion Our findings suggest a low contagiosity of the particular index case. The frequency of positive QFT-GIT results may in fact reflect the pre-existing prevalence of latent TB infection among the study population. TB transmission seems unlikely and contact tracing not generally warranted after cumulative exposure

  18. Radiologic Manifestations of Patients with Smear Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Zabol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Sajadi Nassab

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nIntroduction:Tuberculosis (TB is one of the most important causes of mortality in the world. If not treated, this disease will kill 50 – 65% of the patients in five years. Chest X ray has an important role in the diagnosis of TB. Diagnosis of this disease and starting the appropriate treatment interrupts tuberculosis transmission by rendering patients noninfectious. In this study, we evaluated the radiologic manifestations of patients with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Zabol. "nMaterials and Methods: In this cross–sectional study, 325 patients with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis from March 2004 to March 2005 were evaluated. Data were collected and analyzed using SPSS ver 15 software. "nResults: Of 325 patients with a smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis, 116 (35.7% were male and 209 (64.3% were female. The left upper lobe was the most frequent site involved 175 (53.8% and the second was the right upper lobe 134 (41.2%. The most frequently observed pulmonary involved form was bronchopneumonia 242 (74.4%. Patchy consolidation was detected in 99 (30.4% patients. Cavitary lesions and pleural effusion were observed in 68 (20.9% and 35 (10.7% patients, respectively. In 8 cases (2.4% the CXR was normal. After six months treatment, the CXR of the patients were evaluated. In 90 (27.7% patients CXRs were resolved entirely. In 169 (52% cases CXRs were resolved slightly and in 66 (20.3% patients, CXR did not show any changes. "nConclusion: Tuberculosis, one of the oldest diseases known to affect humans, is a major cause of death worldwide. HIV infection and other immunodeficiency states increase the prevalence of TB. It is one of the most important infectious diseases in Afghanistan (in the east border of Iran and immigration of Afghans causes TB to become a health problem. Pulmonary TB has different radiological manifestations and CXR has an important role in the diagnosis of TB. Consolidation, cavitations and other radiological manifestations especially in the upper lobes help the diagnosis of TB. This disease is one of the most important differential diagnoses of these changes.   

  19. Papillomavirus in cervicovaginal smears of women infected with human immunodefficiency virus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edenilson Eduardo, Galore; Maria José, Cavaliere; Neuza Kasumi, Shirata; Maria de Fátima, Araújo.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Tem sido relatado que mulheres infectadas pelo HIV apresentam maior incidência de atipias citológicas nos esfregaços cérvico-vaginais, relacionadas principalmente com a infecção pelo HPV. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: O presente trabalho representa o estudo de esfregaços cérvico-vaginais de 147 mu [...] lheres HIV-soropositivas, submetidas a exame ginecológico de rotina. Os esfregaços foram corados pelo método de Papanicolaou. Sinais citopáticos de infecção por HPV foram encontrados em 38 (25,8%) casos. RESULTADOS: Atipias nucleares de neoplasia intra-epitelial cervical foram evidentes em 36 (24,5%) destes casos sendo 27 (18,4%) grau I (NIC I), 6 (4,0%) NIC II e 3 (2,0%) NIC III. Observaram-se 2(1,4%) casos de carcinoma invasor e 1 (0,7%) de displasia endocervical. Outros agentes encontrados foram: Cândida sp, 19 casos (12,9%), Gardnerella vaginalis, 19 (12,9%), Trichomonas vaginalis, 13 (8,4%), Chlamydia trachomatis, 5 (3,4%), Mobiluncus sp, 2 (1,4%) e Herpes simplex virus, 1 (0,7%). CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo ressalta a alta Incidência de HPV/NIC em pacientes HIV-positivas em nosso meio. É provável que fatores imunológicos e promiscuidade estejam envolvidos neste fenômeno. Abstract in english It has been described that women infected with the human immunodeffciency virus (HIV) present more frequent cytological abnormalities in cervicovaginal smears, generally related to infection by human papillomavirus (HPV). The present work is a study of cervicovaginal smears of 147 HIV-seropositive w [...] omen submitted to routine gynecological examinations. The smears were stained by the Papanicolaou method. Cytopathic effects of HPV were found in 38 (25.8%) cases. Nuclear atypias of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) were evident in 36 (24.5%) of these cases: 27 (18.4%), CIN I; 6 (4.0%), CIN II and 3 (2.0%) CIN III. Also 2 (1.4%) invasive carcinomas and one (0.7%) endocervical dysplasia were found. Other agents observed were: Candida sp, 19 (12.9%) cases, Gardnerella vaginalis, 19 (12.9%), Trichomonas vaginalis, 13 (8.4%), Chlamydia trachomatis 5 (3.4%), Mobiluncus sp 2 (1.4%) and Herpes simplex virus 1 (0.7%). This study emphasizes the high frequency of HPV/CIN cervicovaginal abnormalities in HIV-seropositive in our population. It is possible that immunological factors and sexual promiscuity are involved in this phenomenon.

  20. Deconvolving out indicator smearing in the right ventricle facilitates left-to-right shunt quantitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple algorithm is developed to enhance the resolution of components of multimodal pulmonary radiohistograms. Based on the assessed right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF), it deconvolves out the effect of indicator smearing in the right ventricle on the heart rate samples of the pulmonary radiohistogram, ck. The output is the ideal curve, c'k = ck/RVEF -(1-RVEF).ck-1/RVEF, that would be obtained if RVEF equalled unity. Since the formula is not a recursive one, it does not suffer from error propagation pertinent to numerical deconvolution. One RVEF is known, implementation of the algorithm is simple. If RVEF is not known accurately it may be replaced with its upper estimate, RVEFup > RVEF, yielding a partial deconvolution of the curve. When applied to studies of patients with left-to-right shunt the method improves the accuracy and lessens the interobserver variation of the Maltz-Treves method. (orig.)

  1. Role of intraoperative squash smear cytology as a diagnostic modality in lipoma of quadrigeminal cistern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Majumdar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quadrigeminal lipoma is a rare tumor that has been categorized as developmental malformation rather than a hamartoma or true neoplasm, due to its origin from abnormal persistence and mal-differentiation of meninx primitiva during the development of the subarachnoid cisterns. Reported admixture of adipose tissue with heterotopic elements also supports a developmental origin. Quadrigeminal lipomas are frequently asymptomatic and detected incidentally. Though a favorable clinical course is usually expected, recurrences may occur due to partial removal of lesions in close relation to vital structure. We describe the role of intraoperative squash smear cytology as a diagnostic aid in quadrigeminal cistern lipoma and an alternative to frozen sections that are technically difficult to obtain due to presence of lobules of fibro-adipose tissue. With radiological correlation, squash cytology can be an economical method for intraoperative diagnosis, pending subsequent histopathological confirmation.

  2. Improved stochastic estimation of quark propagation with Laplacian Heaviside smearing in lattice QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morningstar, C.; Bulava, J.; Foley, J.; Juge, K. J.; Lenkner, D.; Peardon, M.; Wong, C. H.

    2011-06-01

    A new method of stochastically estimating the low-lying effects of quark propagation is proposed which allows accurate determinations of temporal correlations of single-hadron and multihadron operators in lattice QCD. The method is well suited for calculations in large volumes. Contributions involving quark propagation connecting hadron sink operators at the same final time can be handled in a straightforward manner, even for a large number of final time slices. The method exploits Laplacian Heaviside (LapH) smearing. ZN noise is introduced in a novel way, and variance reduction is achieved using judiciously-chosen noise-dilution projectors. The method is tested using isoscalar mesons in the scalar, pseudoscalar, and vector channels, and using the two-pion system of total isospin I=0, 1, 2 on large anisotropic 243×128 lattices with spatial spacing as˜0.12fm and temporal spacing at˜0.034fm for pion masses m??390 and 240 MeV.

  3. Improved stochastic estimation of quark propagation with Laplacian Heaviside smearing in lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method of stochastically estimating the low-lying effects of quark propagation is proposed which allows accurate determinations of temporal correlations of single-hadron and multihadron operators in lattice QCD. The method is well suited for calculations in large volumes. Contributions involving quark propagation connecting hadron sink operators at the same final time can be handled in a straightforward manner, even for a large number of final time slices. The method exploits Laplacian Heaviside (LapH) smearing. ZN noise is introduced in a novel way, and variance reduction is achieved using judiciously-chosen noise-dilution projectors. The method is tested using isoscalar mesons in the scalar, pseudoscalar, and vector channels, and using the two-pion system of total isospin I=0, 1, 2 on large anisotropic 243x128 lattices with spatial spacing as?0.12 fm and temporal spacing at?0.034 fm for pion masses m??390 and 240 MeV.

  4. On a general class of regular rotating black holes based on a smeared mass distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Larranaga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigate the behavior of a new general class of rotating regular black holes based on a non-Gaussian smeared mass distribution. It is shown that the existence of a fundamental minimal length cures the well-known problems in the terminal phase of black hole evaporation, since we find that there is a finite maximum temperature that the black hole reaches before cooling down to absolute zero, so that the evaporation ends up in a zero temperature extremal black hole whose mass and size depends on the value of the fundamental length and on the rotation parameter of the black hole. We also study the geodesic structure in these spacetimes and calculate the shadows that these black holes produce.

  5. Two-Color Schrodinger Functional with Six-Flavors of Stout-Smeared Wilson Fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Voronov, Gennady

    2012-01-01

    We study the Schr\\"odinger functional running coupling in the SU(2) gauge theory with six-flavors of massless fermions. The aim is to determine whether the above theory has an infrared fixed point (IRFP). We use the standard Wilson gauge action and the stout-smeared Wilson fermion action. Here we present a determination of the critical mass as a function of the bare coupling and a preliminary study of the phase diagram of this lattice action. We also find preliminary indication that this theory has no IRFP. While this conclusion is not yet definite, we also show that with this approach we will be able to take a proper continuum limit and clearly determine the status of this theory with a reasonable amount of computer time.

  6. Effect of final irrigating solution on smear layer removal and penetrability of the root canal sealer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarnath Shenoy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of final rinsing solution on smear layer removal through penetrability of the root canal sealer. Materials and Methods: Each of the 30 teeth selected was decoronated and the root length standardized at 16 mm measured from the apex of the tooth to the cementoenamel junction (CEJ. A size 10-k file was used and working length was determined by subtracting 1mm from the measured length so that the length of the sample was 15mm. A combination of step back and crown down technique was done and apical portion was prepared till H-file no. 30. 3% NaOCl was used during cleaning and shaping of the canals. Finally the teeth were divided into three groups of 10 teeth each. Group-I was irrigated with 17% EDTA, Group-II with TUBLICID plus, and Group-III with Biopure MTAD® . ISO 30 size gutta-percha points were selected as master cones. The Acroseal sealer was mixed with approximated concentration 0.1% fluorescent rhodamine B isothiocyanate dye. Obturation was done and after 48 hours, the roots were sectioned and subjected to confocal laser scanning microscopy. Results: Comparisons among the three groups were done by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Newman-Keuls multiple post-hoc procedures. The two-way ANOVA showed statistically highly significant results. The maximum depth of sealer penetration was observed in Group II followed by Group III and Group I. Conclusion: The use of -Tubulicid plus as a final irrigant provided better smear layer removal than Biopure a mixture of doxicycline, citric acid and a detergent (Tween 80 (MTAD® and 17% EDTA.

  7. Obese women's barriers to mammography and pap smear: the possible role of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Asia M; Hemler, Jennifer R; Rossetti, Elisa; Clemow, Lynn P; Ferrante, Jeanne M

    2012-08-01

    Obese women are at increased risk of developing and dying from cancer, but are less likely than nonobese women to receive cancer screening examinations. Our qualitative study explores obese women's barriers to Pap smears and mammograms in greater depth than previous research. We also seek to understand why some obese women undergo screening whereas others do not. A purposive sample of moderately to severely obese women over age 40 was recruited from community-based organizations, health clinics, and retail establishments. Semi-structured in-depth interviews (N = 33) informed by the Theory of Care-Seeking Behavior and three prior focus groups of obese women (N = 18) were recorded and transcribed. Qualitative analysis was iterative, using a grounded theory approach involving a series of immersion/crystallization cycles. Participants verified many barriers to cervical and breast cancer screening previously identified in the general population, including fear, modesty, competing demands, and low perceived risk. Participants also highlighted several weight-related barriers, including insensitive comments about weight and equipment and gowns that could not accommodate them. Comparison of participants who were up-to-date with both Pap smears and mammograms with those not up-to-date with either screening showed no discernable differences in these barriers, however. Instead, we found that the participants who followed through on their cancer screenings may share certain personality traits, such as conscientiousness or self-regulatory ability, that allow them to complete difficult or feared tasks. Our research therefore suggests that personality may act as an important mediator in health behavior, and should be taken into account in future theoretical models and health behavior interventions, particularly for obese women. PMID:22370590

  8. Pacientes con Giardia lamblia diagnosticada por frotis duodenal / Patients with Giardia lamblia diagnosed through duodenal smear

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hidelisa, Herrero Aguirre; Jesús, Fernández Duharte; Suleidy, Vega Sam; José Antonio, Candel Herrero.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 105 pacientes mayores de 15 años con infección por Giardia lamblia, diagnosticada por frotis duodenal mediante endoscopia en el Servicio de Gastroenterología del Policlínico de Especialidades del Hospital Provincial Docente Clinicoquirúrgico "Saturn [...] ino Lora Torres" de Santiago de Cuba, desde enero hasta diciembre del 2012, con vistas a caracterizarles. Entre las variables analizadas figuraron: edad, sexo, síntomas digestivos referidos, positividad del frotis e imagen endoscópica. Se utilizó el porcentaje como medida de resumen. Predominaron el sexo femenino (58,0 %), el grupo etario de 29-39 años (38,0 %), la epigastralgia como síntoma principal (66,6 %) y las imágenes endoscópicas grados I y II como las más frecuentes (68,4 y 41,3 %, respectivamente). El índice de positividad a la giardiasis fue relevante Abstract in english A descriptive and cross sectional study of 105 patients older than 15 years with infection by Giardia lamblia, diagnosed through duodenal smear by means of endoscopy was carried out in the Gastroenterology Service of the Specialties Polyclinic from "Saturnino Lora Torres" Teaching Provincial Clinica [...] l Surgical Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, from January to December, 2012, with the objective of characterizing them. Among the analyzed variables there were: age, sex, referred digestive symptoms, positivity of the smear and endoscopic image. The percentage was used as summary measure. Female sex (58.0%), the age group 29-39 years (38.0%), the epigastralgia as main symptom (66.6%) and the endoscopic images grades I and II prevailed as the most frequent (68.4 and 41.3%, respectively). The positivity index for giardiasis was relevant

  9. Vacuum energy density fluctuations in Minkowski and Casimir states via smeared quantum fields and point separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Nicholas G.; Hu, B. L.

    2000-10-01

    We present calculations of the variance of fluctuations and of the mean of the energy momentum tensor of a massless scalar field for the Minkowski and Casimir vacua as a function of an intrinsic scale defined by a smeared field or by point separation. We point out that, contrary to prior claims, the ratio of variance to mean-squared being of the order unity is not necessarily a good criterion for measuring the invalidity of semiclassical gravity. For the Casimir topology we obtain expressions for the variance to mean-squared ratio as a function of the intrinsic scale (defined by a smeared field) compared to the extrinsic scale (defined by the separation of the plates, or the periodicity of space). Our results make it possible to identify the spatial extent where negative energy density prevails which could be useful for studying quantum field effects in worm holes and baby universes, and for examining the design feasibility of real-life ``time machines.'' For the Minkowski vacuum we find that the ratio of the variance to the mean-squared, calculated from the coincidence limit, is identical to the value of the Casimir case at the same limit for spatial point separation while identical to the value of a hot flat space result with a temporal point separation. We analyze the origin of divergences in the fluctuations of the energy density and discuss choices in formulating a procedure for their removal, thus raising new questions about the uniqueness and even the very meaning of regularization of the energy momentum tensor for quantum fields in curved or even flat spacetimes when spacetime is viewed as having an extended structure.

  10. Interferon release does not add discriminatory value to smear-negative HIV-tuberculosis algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaka, M X; Gideon, H P; Wilkinson, K A; Pai, M; Mwansa-Kambafwile, J; Maartens, G; Glynn, J R; Boulle, A; Fielding, K; Goliath, R; Titus, R; Mathee, S; Wilkinson, R J

    2012-01-01

    Clinical algorithms for evaluating HIV-infected individuals for tuberculosis (TB) prior to isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) perform poorly, and interferon-? release assays (IGRAs) have moderate accuracy for active TB. It is unclear whether, when used as adjunct tests, IGRAs add any clinical discriminatory value for active TB diagnosis in the pre-IPT assessment. 779 sputum smear-negative HIV-infected persons, established on or about to commence combined antiretroviral therapy (ART), were screened for TB prior to IPT. Stepwise multivariable logistic regression was used to develop clinical prediction models. The discriminatory ability was assessed by receiver operator characteristic area under the curve (AUC). QuantiFERON-TB Gold in-tube (QFT-GIT) was evaluated. The prevalence of smear-negative TB by culture was 6.4% (95% CI 4.9-8.4%). Used alone, QFT-GIT and the tuberculin skin test (TST) had comparable performance; the post-test probability of disease based on single negative tests was 3-4%. In a multivariable model, the QFT-GIT test did not improve the ability of a clinical algorithm, which included not taking ART, weight comparison p=0.33). The TST marginally improved the discriminatory ability of the clinical model (to 77%, AUC comparison p=0.04). QFT-GIT does not improve the discriminatory ability of current TB screening clinical algorithms used to evaluate HIV-infected individuals for TB ahead of preventive therapy. Evaluation of new TB diagnostics for clinical relevance should follow a multivariable process that goes beyond test accuracy. PMID:21719487

  11. Blood cytology of the common jollytail (Galaxias maculatus) (Jenyns, 1842) (Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae) at postlarval and adult stages Estudio de la citología sanguínea del puye (Galaxias maculatus) (Jenyns, 1842) (Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae) en estado postlarval y adulto

    OpenAIRE

    Valdebenito, I.; K Busse; N Jaramillo; Hernández, A.

    2011-01-01

    “Puye” (Galaxias maculatus) is a small freshwater fish species of great interest to Chilean aquaculture diversification, because of the high commercial value reached by its transparent larvae or “cristalino”. This study presents the first data with regard to blood cytology in larvae and adults of this specie. Blood smears stained with May Grünwald-Giemsa were analysed through optical microscopy. The results show that in G. maculatus larvae the flowing blood has a trans...

  12. High blood pressure - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypertension - infants ... and blood vessels The health of the kidneys High blood pressure in infants may be due to kidney or ... Bronchopulmonary dysplasia Renal artery stenosis In newborn babies, high blood pressure is often caused by a blood clot in ...

  13. Blood donation before surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you, if you need blood transfusion after surgery. Blood from these donors must be collected at least a few days ... blood bank before your surgery to have directed donor blood. It is important to note that there is ...

  14. Blood Transfusion (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cases, the blood comes from volunteer donors. The blood of the donor, which is carefully screened to ensure its safety, ... Volunteer donation. Since there's no medical evidence that blood from directed donors is any safer than blood from volunteer donors, ...

  15. A "Pap" test for men? Male urethral smears as screening tool for detecting subclinical human papillomavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, R; Choudhury, M; Fischer, J; Ezpeleta, C

    1991-02-01

    We have explored the potential of using immunoperoxidase staining and in situ DNA hybridization techniques to detect the HPV common antigen and HPV DNA (subtypes 6/11 and 16/18) in urethral smears obtained from men with no grossly visible urethral lesions, with or without HPV-related clinical history. A total of 91 such smears were studied of which 25 (27.5%) were positive for HPV antigen. Of the latter, 20 (80%) were positive for HPV 6/11 DNA, 3 (12%) were positive for HPV 16/18 DNA, one smear (4%) was positive for both, and one was negative for both. The technique of obtaining male urethral smears and immunostaining them for HPV antigen is simple, rapid, specific, and far more sensitive than conventional morphologic observations. Since antigen-positive cells are the source for spreading HPV infection, identifying individuals with such cells can help limit the spread of infection by alerting sexual partners, and also can be used to monitor the infectious status of the patient after therapy. DNA subtyping of HPV-positive patients may be useful in predicting the potential for malignant transformation which varies among the different HPV subtypes. PMID:1846989

  16. Comparison of a radiometric (BACTEC) and conventional culture method for recovery and identification of mycobacteria from smear-negative specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to evaluate the BACTEC system and conventional methods for detecting mycobacteria in specimens with a negative acid-fast smear and a positive culture. In addition, the study evaluates p-nitro-a-acetyl-amino-b-hydroxypropiophenone (NAP), 8-azaguanine (8-AZG) and para-nitrobenzoic acid (PNB) inhibition for the rapid differentiation of TB from MOTT bacilli. (Auth.)

  17. Cytopathologic changes associated with intrauterine contraceptive devices. A review of cervico-vaginal smears in 350 women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, B; Gregory, A R; Subbiah, M

    1994-03-01

    Cervico-vaginal smears from 350 IUCD users were analysed to ascertain the range of abnormalities induced in the genital tract of these women. Alteration of the microbial environment, inflammatory, degenerative, reparative and proplastic epithelial changes were the salient cytological findings. The clinical implications of these are briefly discussed. PMID:8057995

  18. DETECTION OF ABNORMAL CERVICAL CYTOLOGY BY PAP’S SMEAR AND COMPARISON BETWEEN RURAL AND URBAN WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : BACKGROUND: This study was carried out in department of ob stetrics and gynaecology G.R. Medical College Gwalior (MP. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study the incidence of malignant and pre malignant cases of cancer cervix in women attending outdoor patient department of G R medical college Gwalior. To find out the role of PAP's smear in early detection of premalignant and early carcinoma cervix and to compare the results between urban and rural women. MATERIAL AND METHOD: a total of 400 subjects were selected attending outdoor patient department of G R medical college G walior with equal number of urban and rural areas. Information about age, parity, age at marriage, complaints, clinical findings, Pap’s smears were prepared and histological interpretations were recorded. RESULTS : Maximum number of patients was in the age group of 31 - 40 years. Mean age at marriage was 17.5 years for woman of rural areas and that for urban woman was 21.5 years. In the rural patients highest number were P2 - P4 (53% followed by > P4 (46.5%. In urban patients too maximum number of patients had parity between P2 - P4 (69.5% followed by > P4 (28.5%. Grand multiparity was seen in 20.5% among rural women as compared to 1.5 % among urban women. Among the rural patients use of barrier method of contraception was only 12% while in urban areas it was 3 0%. Percentage of couples who were not using any contraception was 47.5% in rural area and 33% in urban area. The most common presenting complaint was white discharge among both rural and urban groups (75% vs. 72%. The most common clinical finding was cer vical erosion (57.5% Histopathological interpretation of Pap’s smear revealed cervical squamous epithelial lesions (LSIL and HSIL in 10.5% smears of rural and 4.5% smears of urban women. A total of 4% smears were found positive for malignancy in rural wo men as compared to 1.5% smears in urban women

  19. Establishing a protocol for immunocytochemical staining and chromogenic in situ hybridization of Giemsa and Diff-Quick prestained cytological smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Beraki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Protocols for immunocytochemical staining (ICC and in situ hybridization (ISH of air-dried Diff-Quick or May-Grünwald Giemsa (MGG-stained smears have been difficult to establish. An increasing need to be able to use prestained slides for ICC and ISH in specific cases led to this study, aiming at finding a robust protocol for both methods. Materials and Methods: The material consisted of MGG- and Diff-Quick-stained smears. After diagnosis, one to two diagnostic smears were stored in the department. Any additional smear(s containing diagnostic material were used for this study. The majority were fine needle aspirates (FNAC from the breast, comprising materials from fibroadenomas, fibrocystic disease, and carcinomas. A few were metastatic lesions (carcinomas and malignant melanomas. There were 64 prestained smears. Ten smears were Diff-Quick stained, and 54 were MGG stained. The antibodies used for testing ICC were Ki-67, ER, and PgR, CK MNF116 (pancytokeratin and E-cadherin. HER-2 Dual SISH was used to test ISH. Citrate, TRS, and TE buffers at pH6 and pH9 were tested, as well as, different heating times, microwave powers and antibody concentrations. The ICC was done on the Dako Autostainer (Dako®, Glostrup, Denmark, and HER-2 Dual SISH was done on the Ventana XT-machine (Ventana / Roche® , Strasbourg, France. Results: Optimal results were obtained with the TE buffer at pH 9, for both ICC and ISH. Antibody concentrations generally had to be higher than in the immunohistochemistry (IHC. The optimal microwave heat treatment included an initial high power boiling followed by low power boiling. No post fixation was necessary for ICC, whereas, 20 minutes post fixation in formalin (4% was necessary for ISH. Conclusions: Microwave heat treatment, with initial boiling at high power followed by boiling at low power and TE buffer at pH 9 were the key steps in the procedure. Antibody concentrations has to be adapted for each ICC marker. Post fixation in formalin is necessary for ISH.

  20. A comparative scanning electron microscopy evaluation of smear layer removal with apple vinegar and sodium hypochlorite associated with EDTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Táccio de Miranda Candeiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate by scanning electron microscopy (SEM the removal of smear layer from the middle and apical root thirds after use of different irrigating solutions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty roots of permanent human teeth had their canals instrumented and were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n=10, according to the irrigating solution: apple vinegar (group A, apple vinegar finished with 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA (group B, 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl finished with 17% EDTA (group C and saline (group D - control. After chemomechanical preparation, the roots were cleaved longitudinally and their middle and apical thirds were examined by SEM at ×1,000 magnification. Two calibrated examiners (kappa=0.92 analyzed the SEM micrographs qualitatively attributing scores that indicated the efficacy of the solutions in removing the smear layer from the surface of the dentin tubules (1 - poor, 2 - good and 3 - excellent. Data from the control and experimental groups were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's test, while the Wilcoxon test was used to compare the middle and apical thirds of the canals within the same group (a=0.05. RESULTS: The middle third presented less amount of smear layer than the apical third, regardless of the irrigant. There was statistically significant difference (p=0.0402 among the groups in the middle third. In the apical third, the apple vinegar/EDTA group showed the greatest removal of smear layer (p=0.0373. CONCLUSION: Apple vinegar associated or not with EDTA was effective in removing smear layer when used as an endodontic irrigant.

  1. A comparative scanning electron microscopy evaluation of smear layer removal with apple vinegar and sodium hypochlorite associated with EDTA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    George Táccio de Miranda, Candeiro; Isabela Barbosa de, Matos; Clarice Fernandes Eloy da, Costa; Cristiane Sá Roriz, Fonteles; Mônica Sampaio do, Vale.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) the removal of smear layer from the middle and apical root thirds after use of different irrigating solutions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty roots of permanent human teeth had their canals instrumented and were [...] randomly assigned to 4 groups (n=10), according to the irrigating solution: apple vinegar (group A), apple vinegar finished with 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (group B), 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) finished with 17% EDTA (group C) and saline (group D - control). After chemomechanical preparation, the roots were cleaved longitudinally and their middle and apical thirds were examined by SEM at ×1,000 magnification. Two calibrated examiners (kappa=0.92) analyzed the SEM micrographs qualitatively attributing scores that indicated the efficacy of the solutions in removing the smear layer from the surface of the dentin tubules (1 - poor, 2 - good and 3 - excellent). Data from the control and experimental groups were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's test, while the Wilcoxon test was used to compare the middle and apical thirds of the canals within the same group (a=0.05). RESULTS: The middle third presented less amount of smear layer than the apical third, regardless of the irrigant. There was statistically significant difference (p=0.0402) among the groups in the middle third. In the apical third, the apple vinegar/EDTA group showed the greatest removal of smear layer (p=0.0373). CONCLUSION: Apple vinegar associated or not with EDTA was effective in removing smear layer when used as an endodontic irrigant.

  2. Utility of high-resolution computed tomography for predicting risk of sputum smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: To diagnose sputum smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is difficult and the ability of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for diagnosing PTB has remained unclear in the sputum smear-negative setting. We retrospectively investigated whether or not this imaging modality can predict risk for sputum smear-negative PTB. Methods: We used HRCT to examine the findings of 116 patients with suspected PTB despite negative sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). We investigated their clinical features and HRCT-findings to predict the risk for PTB by multivariate analysis and a combination of HRCT findings by stepwise regression analysis. We then designed provisional HRCT diagnostic criteria based on these results to rank the risk of PTB and blinded observers assessed the validity and reliability of these criteria. Results: A positive tuberculin skin test alone among clinical laboratory findings was significantly associated with an increase of risk of PTB. Multivariate regression analysis showed that large nodules, tree-in-bud appearance, lobular consolidation and the main lesion being located in S1, S2, and S6 were significantly associated with an increased risk of PTB. Stepwise regression analysis showed that coexistence of the above 4 factors was most significantly associated with an increase in the risk for PTB. Ranking of the results using our HRCT diagnostic criteria by blinded observers revealed good utility and agreement for predicting PTB risk. Conclusions: Even in the sputum smear-negative setting, HRCT can predict the risk of PTB with good reproducibility and can select patients having a high probability of PTB.

  3. Comparison of Visual Inspection with acetic acid and Pap smear in cervical cancer screening at a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the accuracy of visual inspection with acetic acid in comparison with Pap smear against colposcopic directed biopsy, for detection of pre-cancerous lesion. Methods: The comparative cross-sectional study was conducted at the Maternal and Child Health Centre (MCHC), Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad, from January to December 2010. Every married women with age range 19 to 51 years underwent conventional cytology and visual inspection with 5% acetic acid. Distinct acetowhite areas were taken as positive, while cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia on cytology was labelled as Pap smear positive. Colposcopic directed biopsy was taken as the gold standard. SPSS 13 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of 519 subjects, 70(13.4%) were screened positive and 29(5.6%) were biopsy positive for cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia. Of these, 26(37.1 %) were positive on visual inspection; 14 (20 %) on cytology; and 30 (42.8%) on combined test. The sensitivity of visual inspection was 78.5% vs 61.1% for Pap smear (p<0.001). The specificity of visual inspection was 99.3% vs 99.4% for cytology (p<0.1). Significantly higher sensitivity and specificity was found for the combined test than either of the two alone; 93.1% and 99.1% respectively (p<0.001). The positive predictive value of visual inspection vs pap was 84.6% vs 78.5% (p<0.001) and negative predictive value was 98.6% vs 96.5% (p<0.1). Both values of combined test were significantly higher than either of the two tests alone (p<0.01). Conclusion: Visual inspection with acetic acid has significantly higher sensitivity than Pap smear and may replace pap smear as a primary screening tool for universal screening. Combined test with higher predictive accuracy may be used for opportunistic screening. (author)

  4. Propagation of the Israeli vaccine strain of Anaplasma centrale in tick cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Palomar, Ana M.; Bradford, Emma L.; Shkap, Varda

    2015-01-01

    Anaplasma centrale has been used in cattle as a live blood vaccine against the more pathogenic Anaplasma marginale for over 100 years. While A. marginale can be propagated in vitro in tick cell lines, facilitating studies on antigen production, immunisation and vector-pathogen interaction, to date there has been no in vitro culture system for A. centrale. In the present study, 25 cell lines derived from 13 ixodid tick species were inoculated with the Israeli vaccine strain of A. centrale and monitored for at least 12 weeks by microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained cytocentrifuge smears. Infection of 19 tick cell lines was subsequently attempted by transfer of cell-free supernate from vaccine-inoculated tick cells. In two separate experiments, rickettsial inclusions were detected in cultures of the Rhipicephalus appendiculatus cell line RAE25 28–32 days following inoculation with the vaccine. Presence of A. centrale in the RAE25 cells was confirmed by PCR assays targeting the 16S rRNA, groEL and msp4 genes; sequenced PCR products were 100% identical to published sequences of the respective genes in the Israeli vaccine strain of A. centrale. A. centrale was taken through three subcultures in RAE25 cells over a 30 week period. In a single experiment, the Dermacentor variabilis cell line DVE1 was also detectably infected with A. centrale 11 weeks after inoculation with the vaccine. Availability of an in vitro culture system for A. centrale in tick cells opens up the possibility of generating a safer and more ethical vaccine for bovine anaplasmosis. PMID:26210950

  5. Brote de micoplasmosis clínica por Mycoplasma ovis en ovinos de Salta, Argentina: Diagnóstico clínico, microbiológico y molecular / Clinical mycoplasmosis outbreak due to Mycoplasma ovis in sheep from Salta, Argentina: Clinical, microbiological and molecular diagnosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D. H., Aguirre; C., Thompson; R. D., Neumann; A. O., Salatin; A. B., Gaido; S., Torioni de Echaide.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma ovis es un parásito obligado de los eritrocitos de los pequeños rumiantes (ovinos, caprinos), en los que produce anemia crónica o aguda. Su distribución es mundial, aunque se desconoce la difusión de esta bacteria en la Argentina. Este trabajo describe un brote de micoplasmosis en un reba [...] ño ovino de la localidad salteña de Rosario de la Frontera, ocurrido en enero de 2007. Durante ese brote resultó afectada la categoría de ovinos adultos, con una mortalidad del 17,8%. El diagnóstico en extendidos de sangre (tinción de Giemsa) reveló pequeños cuerpos basófilos, característicos de la infección por M. ovis, en todas las muestras examinadas (n = 11), lo que indica una alta prevalencia de la infección en la majada. El diagnóstico molecular (n = 9) confirmó los hallazgos mediante la amplificación de dos fragmentos del gen 16S rRNA. Este representa el tercer registro del microorganismo en la Argentina y el primero con expresión clínica a escala poblacional (rebaño). Abstract in english Mycoplasma ovis is an obligatory parasite of the erythrocytes from small ruminants (sheep, goat), wherein it causes chronic or acute anaemia. This agent shows worldwide distribution. However, its dispersion is still unknown in Argentina. This work describes an outbreak of mycoplasmosis occurred in J [...] anuary 2007 in a sheep flock from Rosario de la Frontera, Salta, Argentina. Adult sheep became ill with a mortality rate of 17.8%. All blood smears (n = 11) examined by Giemsa stain showed the presence of small basophile bodies characteristic of M. ovis infection, indicating a high prevalence of the infection in the flock. The molecular diagnosis (n = 9) confirmed the findings through the amplification of two fragments from the 16S rRNA gene. This is the third report of M. ovis in Argentina and the first one concomitant with clinical signs at flock level.

  6. Distribution patterns of Babesia gibsoni infection in hunting dogs from nine Japanese islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dakhly, Khaled Mohamed; Goto, Minami; Noishiki, Kaori; El-Nahass, El-Shaymaa; Sakai, Hiroki; Yanai, Tokuma; Takashima, Yasuhiro

    2015-04-01

    Canine babesiosis constitutes a major global veterinary medical problem caused by tick-borne hemoparasites Babesia gibsoni and Babesia canis. Babesia gibsoni induces more severe clinical signs and is mainly transmitted by the ixodid Haemaphysalis longicornis. In Japan, B. gibsoni is primarily found in the western districts, with few records in the eastern parts. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate distribution patterns of B. gibsoni infection in 9 Japanese islands and peninsulas using direct microscopy and PCR. Therefore, 196 hunting dogs were randomly sampled during the period from March to September 2011. Ages and sexes of dogs were identified. Direct microscopy of Giemsa-stained blood smear revealed pear-shaped piroplasms of B. gibsoni in 3 (1.6%) dogs. PCR was done initially with the universal primer set (B18S-F and B18S-R) amplifying the 1,665-bp portion of the 18S rRNA gene, followed by the specific primer set (Bg18F1 and Bg18R2) amplifying 2,363-bp fragments of the same gene. Accordingly, 84 (42.9%) and 8 (4.1%) dogs were positive, respectively. The current investigation shows that canine babesiosis was recorded in all islands except for Sado Island, Atsumi Peninsula, and Tanegashima Island. The highest infection rate was detected in the main island of Okinawa, while the lowest was on Ishigaki Island. Both sexes were non-significantly infected. However, the diversity of infection in islands was significantly different (P < 0.05). Although B. gibsoni has been previously found in western and eastern Japan, the present work highlights the prevalence of infection in many Japanese districts, including islands and peninsulas, giving realistic data that can facilitate treatment and control. PMID:25419881

  7. Propagation of the Israeli vaccine strain of Anaplasma centrale in tick cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Palomar, Ana M; Bradford, Emma L; Shkap, Varda

    2015-09-30

    Anaplasma centrale has been used in cattle as a live blood vaccine against the more pathogenic Anaplasma marginale for over 100 years. While A. marginale can be propagated in vitro in tick cell lines, facilitating studies on antigen production, immunisation and vector-pathogen interaction, to date there has been no in vitro culture system for A. centrale. In the present study, 25 cell lines derived from 13 ixodid tick species were inoculated with the Israeli vaccine strain of A. centrale and monitored for at least 12 weeks by microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained cytocentrifuge smears. Infection of 19 tick cell lines was subsequently attempted by transfer of cell-free supernate from vaccine-inoculated tick cells. In two separate experiments, rickettsial inclusions were detected in cultures of the Rhipicephalus appendiculatus cell line RAE25 28-32 days following inoculation with the vaccine. Presence of A. centrale in the RAE25 cells was confirmed by PCR assays targeting the 16S rRNA, groEL and msp4 genes; sequenced PCR products were 100% identical to published sequences of the respective genes in the Israeli vaccine strain of A. centrale. A. centrale was taken through three subcultures in RAE25 cells over a 30 week period. In a single experiment, the Dermacentor variabilis cell line DVE1 was also detectably infected with A. centrale 11 weeks after inoculation with the vaccine. Availability of an in vitro culture system for A. centrale in tick cells opens up the possibility of generating a safer and more ethical vaccine for bovine anaplasmosis. PMID:26210950

  8. Emerging status of anaplasmosis in cattle in Hisar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Anaplasma marginale is a rickettsial pathogen responsible for progressive anemia in ruminants leading to huge economic losses. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to determine the prevalence of anaplasmosis and therapeutic evaluation of traditional line of treatment. Materials and Methods: A total of 168 cattle presented to Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Hisar during the period of 3 months (July-September, 2014 with history of fever, anorexia, reduced milk yield and tick infestation were analyzed for prevalence of hemoprotozoan diseases using classical giemsa stained thin blood smear parasitological method. Results: Out of these 168 animals, 7 (4.17% were found to be suffering from anaplasmosis on the basis of presence of dense, rounded, intra-erythrocytic bodies situated on or near the margin of the erythrocytes. Overall prevalence of theileriosis and babesiosis were found to be 42.9% and 1.8%, respectively. Level of parasitemia was noticed to be 1.2%, 0.8% and 0.9% in babesiosis, theileriosis, and anaplasmosis, respectively. The most marked and common clinical signs reported in all the cases were severe anemia (hemoglobin=3-6 g/dl and history of fever, followed by normal body temperature. Following treatment with oxytetracycline parenterally along with supportive therapy out of seven cases six got recovered without any side-effects. Conclusion: The current study indicates the emerging status of anaplasmosis in this part of the country as during the past few years there are very few reports showing the prevalence of clinical cases of anaplasmosis. Treatment with oxytetracycline yielded excellent result showing recovery in most of the clinical cases.

  9. Detection of GBV-C/HGV RNA in cervico-vaginal smears from healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angelica Ehara Watanabe

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the sexual transmission of GBV-C/HGV, through RNA detection in cervicovaginal smears. Therefore the GBV-C/HGV RNA in cervicovaginal smears from apparently healthy women was investigated using routine proceedings for prophylactic screening to cervical cancer. GBV-C/HGV RNA was detected by reverse transcriptase and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Only one woman presented co-infection with human papilloma virus (HPV. The GBV-C/HGV RNA was detected in 13/73 (17.57% healthy women and it's prevalence in participating women between 28-43 years old was 53.85%. No association was found with GBV-C/HGV for the age of first sexual intercourse and number of pregnancies. In GBV-C/HGV RNA positive women, 69.23% were married. In conclusion, the present findings show that cervical and vaginal specimens could contain the GBV-C/HGV RNA.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a transmissão sexual de GBV-C/HBV, através da detecção do RNA viral em raspados cérvico-vaginais. Portanto, a presença do RNA GBV-C/HGV foi investigada em raspados cérvico-vaginais em mulheres aparentemente saudáveis que realizaram exames preventivos para câncer cervical. GBV-C/HGV RNA foi detectado por reação de transcriptase reversa e reação em cadeia da polimerase (RT-PCR. Apenas uma mulher apresentou a co-infecção com o papiloma vírus humano (HPV. O RNA GBV-C/HGV foi detectado em 13/73 (17,57% mulheres saudáveis e sua prevalência entre participantes da idade de 28-43 anos foi de 53,85%. Não foi observada relação entre a presença do RNA GBV-C/HGV com a idade de primeira relação sexual, nem com o número de gestações. Entre as mulheres que apresentavam o RNA viral, 69,23% eram casadas. O presente estudo demonstrou que secreções cérvico-vaginais podem conter o RNA viral GBV-C/HBV.

  10. Use of conventional PCR and smear microscopy to diagnose pulmonary tuberculosis in the Amazonian rainforest area

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F., Carniel; E.R., Dalla Costa; G., Lima-Bello; C., Martins; L.C., Scherer; M.L., Rossetti.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The diagnostic usefulness of Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN)-stained sputum smears combined with conventional polymerase chain reaction (ZN/PCR) to amplify IS6110 region DNA extracted from ZN slides was evaluated. The objective was to verify if this association could improve tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis in patien [...] ts at remote sites. The study was carried out in 89 patients with culture-confirmed pulmonary TB as defined by the Brazilian Manual for TB Treatment. The participants were recruited in a reference unit for TB treatment in Rondônia, a state in the Amazonian area in northern Brazil. ZN, PCR, and culture performed in the sputum samples from these patients were analyzed in different combinations (i.e., ZN plus PCR and ZN plus culture). The prevalence rates of pulmonary TB in these patients were 32.6 and 28.1% considering culture and ZN/PCR, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of ZN/PCR were 86 and 93%, respectively. ZN/PCR was able to detect more TB cases than ZN alone. This method could offer a new approach for accurate tuberculosis diagnosis, especially in remote regions of the world where culture is not available.

  11. Photometry of Very Bright Stars with Kepler and K2 Smear Data

    CERN Document Server

    Pope, Benjamin; Huber, Daniel; Murphy, Simon; Bedding, Tim; Caldwell, Douglas; Sarai, Aleksa; Aigrain, Suzanne; Barclay, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    High-precision time series photometry with the Kepler satellite has been crucial to our understanding both of exoplanets, and via asteroseismology, of stellar physics. After the failure of two reaction wheels, the Kepler satellite has been repurposed as Kepler-2 (K2), observing fields close to the ecliptic plane. As these fields contain many more bright stars than the original Kepler field, K2 provides an unprecedented opportunity to study nearby objects amenable to detailed follow-up with ground-based instruments. Due to bandwidth constraints, only a small fraction of pixels can be downloaded, with the result that most bright stars which saturate the detector are not observed. We show that engineering data acquired for photometric calibration, consisting of collateral `smear' measurements, can be used to reconstruct light curves for bright targets not otherwise observable with Kepler/K2. Here we present some examples from Kepler Quarter 6 and K2 Campaign 3, including the delta Scuti variables HD 178875 and 7...

  12. Implementation of a Smeared Crack Band Model in a Micromechanics Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Waas, Anthony M.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    The smeared crack band theory is implemented within the generalized method of cells and high-fidelity generalized method of cells micromechanics models to capture progressive failure within the constituents of a composite material while retaining objectivity with respect to the size of the discretization elements used in the model. An repeating unit cell containing 13 randomly arranged fibers is modeled and subjected to a combination of transverse tension/compression and transverse shear loading. The implementation is verified against experimental data (where available), and an equivalent finite element model utilizing the same implementation of the crack band theory. To evaluate the performance of the crack band theory within a repeating unit cell that is more amenable to a multiscale implementation, a single fiber is modeled with generalized method of cells and high-fidelity generalized method of cells using a relatively coarse subcell mesh which is subjected to the same loading scenarios as the multiple fiber repeating unit cell. The generalized method of cells and high-fidelity generalized method of cells models are validated against a very refined finite element model.

  13. Improved stochastic estimation of quark propagation with Laplacian Heaviside smearing in lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morningstar, C.; Lenkner, D.; Wong, C.H. [Pittsburgh Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Bulava, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Foley, J. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Juge, K.J. [University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Peardon, M. [Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland). School of Mathematics

    2011-08-15

    A new method of stochastically estimating the low-lying effects of quark propagation is proposed which allows accurate determinations of temporal correlations of single-hadron and multi-hadron operators in lattice QCD. The method is well suited for calculations in large volumes. Contributions involving quark propagation connecting hadron sink operators at the same final time can be handled in a straightforward manner, even for a large number of final time slices. The method exploits Laplacian Heaviside (LapH) smearing. Z{sub N} noise is introduced in a novel way, and variance reduction is achieved using judiciously-chosen noise dilution projectors. The method is tested using isoscalar mesons in the scalar, pseudoscalar, and vector channels, and using the two-pion system of total isospin I=0,1,2 on large anisotropic 24{sup 3} x 128 lattices with spatial spacing a{sub s} {proportional_to}0.12 fm and temporal spacing a{sub t} {proportional_to}0.034 fm for pion masses m{sub {pi}} {approx} 390 and 240 MeV. (orig.)

  14. Improved stochastic estimation of quark propagation with Laplacian Heaviside smearing in lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Morningstar, Colin; Foley, Justin; Juge, Keisuke J; Lenkner, David; Peardon, Mike; Wong, Chik Him

    2011-01-01

    A new method of stochastically estimating the low-lying effects of quark propagation is proposed which allows accurate determinations of temporal correlations of single-hadron and multi-hadron operators in lattice QCD. The method is well suited for calculations in large volumes. Contributions involving quark propagation connecting hadron sink operators at the same final time can be handled in a straightforward manner, even for a large number of final time slices. The method exploits Laplacian Heaviside (LapH) smearing. ZN noise is introduced in a novel way, and variance reduction is achieved using judiciously-chosen noise dilution projectors. The method is tested using isoscalar mesons in the scalar, pseudoscalar, and vector channels, and using the two-pion system of total isospin I=0,1,2 on large anisotropic 24^3 x 128 lattices with spatial spacing a_s~0.12 fm and temporal spacing a_t~0.034 fm for pion masses mpi~390 and 240 MeV.

  15. Improved stochastic estimation of quark propagation with Laplacian Heaviside smearing in lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method of stochastically estimating the low-lying effects of quark propagation is proposed which allows accurate determinations of temporal correlations of single-hadron and multi-hadron operators in lattice QCD. The method is well suited for calculations in large volumes. Contributions involving quark propagation connecting hadron sink operators at the same final time can be handled in a straightforward manner, even for a large number of final time slices. The method exploits Laplacian Heaviside (LapH) smearing. ZN noise is introduced in a novel way, and variance reduction is achieved using judiciously-chosen noise dilution projectors. The method is tested using isoscalar mesons in the scalar, pseudoscalar, and vector channels, and using the two-pion system of total isospin I=0,1,2 on large anisotropic 243 x 128 lattices with spatial spacing as ?0.12 fm and temporal spacing at ?0.034 fm for pion masses m? ? 390 and 240 MeV. (orig.)

  16. Role of AgNORs in thyroid lesions on fine needle aspiration cytology smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asotra Sarita

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fine needle aspiration has an important role in diagnosis of thyroid neoplasm. However, it is difficult to differentiate between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma by cytology alone. Recently, silver staining has been performed for nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs to differentiate various tumors. Aims: The present study was undertaken to see if the AgNOR technique could distinguish between benign and malignant lesions, particularly, follicular neoplasm. Materials and Methods: One hundred forty cases of thyroid lesions were examined, which included colloid goiter (n = 36, multinodular goiter (n = 38, subacute thyroiditis (n = 6, Hashimoto?s thyroiditis (n = 17, lymphocytic thyroiditis (n = 3, follicular neoplasm (n = 18, Hurthle cell neoplasm (n = 3, papillary carcinoma (n = 16, and medullary carcinoma (n = 3. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology in 80 cases. The usual one-step silver colloidal reaction was performed at room temperature for 35 minutes and intranuclear dots of silver deposits were counted in 100 cells. Results: AgNOR counts of benign and malignant lesions were compared and were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.001. The mean AgNOR counts were higher in neoplastic lesions. Conclusions: AgNOR counting in fine needle aspiration smears is a simple, sensitive, and cost-effective method for differentiating benign from malignant thyroid follicular neoplasms.

  17. Prevalence of HPV Infection and Its Association with Cytological Abnormalities of Pap Smears in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jamali Zavarei Jamali Zavarei

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human papillomavirus infection is one of the most common genital infections. More than 100 types of this virus have been identified, and most of them are capable of infecting the genital mucosa. Human papillomavirus is in association with cancerous and precancerous lesions of the cervix; some types like HPV 16 and 18 are highly carcinogenic, some types like HPV 31 and 33 are moderately and some types like HPV 6 and 11 are mildly carcinogenic. In this research, the relationship between cytological changes of the squamous epithelial cells and the presence of HPV infections in our cases has been assessed."nMethods: In this prospective study, we collected 681 samples from women admitted to different hospitals and private gynecological clinics in Tehran, during the years 2003-2005. Two specimens were collected from each patient; one for a Pap smear study and the other for PCR assay in order to detect HPV."nResults: Out of our 681 samples, 600 specimens were suitable for PCR assay, and 34 cases were HPV positive in PCR assay. This means that 5.7 percent of our patients were infected with HPV."nConclusion: HPV infection is common in Iran and is nearly identical to European countries such as Germany, and Spain. Also, we found that using PCR assay in order to detect the presence of HPV viruses in vaginal discharges can be very helpful.

  18. Effect of the sodium hypochlorite and citric acid association on smear layer removal of primary molars Efeito da associação de hipoclorito de sódio e ácido cítrico na remoção de "smear layer" de molares decíduos

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela da Rosa Götze; Cristiane Beatriz Costa Sales Cunha; Laura Salignac de Souza Guimarães Primo; Lucianne Cople Maia

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the capacity of a sodium hypochlorite and citric acid (CA) association (the latter at different concentrations) in removing coronal smear layer (SL) of primary teeth. For this purpose, the pulp chamber roof and floor of 28 primary molars were removed to obtain enamel and dentine disks. SL was produced on the internal walls of the disks using high-speed drills. The disks were irrigated with 1% sodium hypochlorite and citric acid at different concentrations (CA-4%, CA...

  19. Self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Northern Italy: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghinelli Florio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of invasive cervical cancer in HIV-positive women is higher than in the general population. There is evidence that HIV-positive women do not participate sufficiently in cervical cancer screening in Italy, where cervical cancer is more than 10-fold higher in women with AIDS than in the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women in Italy in recent years. We also examined the sociodemographic, clinical, and organizational factors associated with adherence to cervical cancer screening. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between July 2006 and June 2007 in Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy. All HIV-positive women who received a follow-up visit in one of the 10 regional infectivology units were invited to participate. History of Pap-smear, including abnormal smears and subsequent treatment, was investigated through a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. The association between lack of Pap-smear in the year preceding the interview and selected characteristics was assessed by means of odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for study centre and age. Results A total of 1,002 HIV-positive women were interviewed. Nine percent reported no history of Pap-smear, and 39% had no Pap-smear in the year prior to the date of questionnaire (last year. The lack of Pap-smear in the last year was significantly associated with age Three hundred five (34% women reported a previous abnormal Pap-smear, and of the 178 (58% referred for treatment, 97% complied. Conclusions In recent years the self-reported history of Pap-smear in HIV-positive women, in some public clinics in Italy, is higher than previously reported, but further efforts are required to make sure cervical cancer screening is accessible to all HIV-positive women.

  20. A comparative study of cervical smears in an urban Hospital in India and a population-based screening program in Mauritius

    OpenAIRE

    Mulay Kaustubh; Swain Meenakshi; Patra Sushma; Gowrishankar Swarnalata

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study cervical smear abnormalities in urban women in India and women in Mauritius and to compare the results in the two groups. Study Design: An analysis of 6010 cervical smears taken as part of routine check-ups in an urban hospital was done and an analysis of 10,000 cervical smears taken from women participating in a National Cancer Screening Program in Mauritius was done. Emphasis was put on cervical epithelial cell abnormalities and the results in the two populations are ...

  1. Microscopic evaluation of methods of fixation and preservation of vaginal smears taken from normal women submitted to radiotherapy for uterine cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two methods were evaluated for fixation and conservation of vaginal smears of normal and irradiated women for periods as long as four months. An initial fixation was used with 95% alcohol for 24 hours followed by either air storage or 0,5% alcohol - ether celoidina solution coating. It is concluded that through microscopic evaluation, the smears of non-irradiated women treated by both methods in long run observation are only worthwhile for oncotic studies. On the other hand, the smears of irradiated women are not valid either for hormonal or oncotic analysis. (Author)

  2. Effects of fenoprofen on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m, the morphology of red blood cells and the plasmid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Marcia de Oliveira; Rocha, Gabrielle de Souza [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude; Lombardi, Simone dos Santos; Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria]. E-mail: adenilso@uerj.br; Pereira, Mario Jose [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Fisiologia; Geller, Mauro [Centro Universitario Serra dos Orgaos, Teresopolis, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude

    2008-12-15

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of fenoprofen on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium- 99m, on the morphology of red blood cells and on the plasmid DNA. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with fenoprofen and the assay of labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) was performed. Blood cells, plasma, soluble and insoluble fractions of blood cells and plasma were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) was determined. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphology of the red blood cells (RBC) was evaluated. Plasmid (pBSK) was incubated with fenoprofen with stannous chloride, and agarose gel electrophoresis procedure was carried out to evaluate genotoxic and the protection of this drug against stannous chloride effect on DNA. In conclusion, under the conditions used in this work, our data suggest that fenoprofen would not affect the fixation of the {sup 99m}Tc on the blood constituents, alter the RBC membrane and present genotoxic and redox effects. (author)

  3. Effects of fenoprofen on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m, the morphology of red blood cells and the plasmid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of fenoprofen on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium- 99m, on the morphology of red blood cells and on the plasmid DNA. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with fenoprofen and the assay of labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc) was performed. Blood cells, plasma, soluble and insoluble fractions of blood cells and plasma were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) was determined. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphology of the red blood cells (RBC) was evaluated. Plasmid (pBSK) was incubated with fenoprofen with stannous chloride, and agarose gel electrophoresis procedure was carried out to evaluate genotoxic and the protection of this drug against stannous chloride effect on DNA. In conclusion, under the conditions used in this work, our data suggest that fenoprofen would not affect the fixation of the 99mTc on the blood constituents, alter the RBC membrane and present genotoxic and redox effects. (author)

  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  5. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clots and Travel DVT Myths vs. Facts Blood Detectives Find a ... you are pregnant, or you have just had a baby, you are at greater risk of developing a blood clot. Blood clots in ...

  6. Postpartum Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Infection Postpartum Blood Clots Postpartum Thyroid Disorders Postpartum Depression The risk of developing blood clots (thrombophlebitis) is ... Breast Infection Postpartum Blood Clots Postpartum Thyroid Disorders Postpartum Depression NOTE: This is the Consumer Version. CONSUMERS: Click ...

  7. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots in ... may be of some help: Results of Clinical Studies Published in Blood Search Blood , the official journal ...

  8. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... Oral & Poster Sessions Housing | Fraud Alert Education Program Travel Information Scientific Program Trainee Activities & Services Friday Scientific ... Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and Travel DVT Myths vs. Facts Blood Detectives Find a ...

  9. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... increased by the following: Previous blood clots A genetic predisposition to blood clots Obesity Prolonged immobility (e. ... you are interested in learning more about blood diseases and disorders, here are a few other resources ...

  10. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...

  11. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  12. High blood pressure medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your blood vessels, which lowers your blood pressure. Angiotensin II receptor blockers (also called ARBs ) work in about the same way as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Calcium channel blockers relax blood ...

  13. Red blood cell production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to one part of the body or another. Red blood cells are an important element of blood. Their job ... is carried to and eliminated by the lungs. Red blood cells are formed in the red bone marrow of ...

  14. Special Blood Donation Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the platelets and returns the rest of the blood to the donor. Because donors get most of their blood back, ... stem cells and returns the rest of the blood to the donor. Stem cell donors and recipients must have compatible ...

  15. Blood Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... approximate distribution of blood types in the U.S. blood donor population is as follows. Distribution may be different ... she may be able to recruit a suitable donor. Blood banks are always in need of volunteers to ...

  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools ... Complications Neuropathy Foot Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Treatment & Care Blood Glucose ...

  17. Magnesium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnesium - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel slight pain. Others feel a prick or stinging. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon ...

  18. Ketones blood test

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    ... Ketones - serum; Nitroprusside test; Ketone bodies - serum; Ketones - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel slight ... there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon ...

  19. CEA blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcinoembryonic antigen blood test ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick or stinging sensation. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. ...

  20. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... these blood conditions and increase research on the causes, prevention, and treatment. Blood clots are also potentially ... are treated with an anticoagulant, a medicine that prevents the blood from clotting. Certain anticoagulants are safe ...

  1. High Blood Pressure Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... dollars every year . 4 Top of Page CDC Fact Sheets Related to High Blood Pressure High Blood ...

  2. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots in Pregnant Women Treated? Typically, blood ... safe to use during pregnancy. back to top Are Blood Clots Preventable? There are a few things ...

  3. Blood Culture (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Keeping Kids Safe Concussions: What to Know Blood Culture KidsHealth > Parents > General Health > Sick Kids > Blood Culture ... fungi has been determined. Why Do a Blood Culture? During some illnesses, certain infection-causing bacteria and ...

  4. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Full Text Available ... Attendee Resources Presenter Resources View all meeting information Publications Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood: How ... on Lymphoma Biology ASH Workshop on Genome Editing Publications Blood The Hematologist ASH Clinical News ASH Self- ...

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & ...

  6. High Blood Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... removes the cholesterol from your body. What Is High Blood Cholesterol? High blood cholesterol is a condition in which ... and obesity, and others. Updated: September 19, 2012 High Blood Cholesterol in the News August 4, 2015 Measurement of ...

  7. Blood Glucose Log

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    ... cut here ¢ cut here ¢ If you have high blood glucose , make notes in your log and talk with ... plan, physical activity, or diabetes medicines. Having low blood glucose means that your blood glucose level is too ...

  8. Blood Test: Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sports: Keeping Kids Safe Concussions: What to Know Blood Test: Glucose KidsHealth > Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Medical Tests & Exams > Blood ... If You Have Questions What It Is A blood glucose test measures the amount of glucose (the main ...

  9. Comparación de cuatro métodos de restauración del ADN en muestras de plasma y láminas de citología cérvico-uterina como una herramienta para mejorar la calidad de la muestra / Comparison of four methods of DNA restoration in samples from plasma and pap smears as a tool for better the samples

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Caterin, Márquez; Dabeiba Adriana, García-Robayo; Marcos, Castillo; Ignacio, Briceño; Jairo, Amaya; Fabio Ancízar, Aristizábal-Gutiérrez.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: comparar cuatro métodos de restauración del ADN en plasma y láminas cérvico-uterinas como una herramienta para mejorar la calidad de la muestra. Métodos: a 20 muestras de plasma sanguíneo y 20 muestras de láminas citológicas, se les realizó aislamiento de ADN mediante kit comercial y feno [...] l-cloroformo. A todas las muestras se les realizó un tratamiento pre-PCR con cuatro diferentes tipos de actividad de ADN polimerasa: 1. Exonucleasa y endonucleasa 5'-3'. 2. Exonucleasa 5'-3'. 3. Klenow, y 4. Klenow más ligasa. Los diferentes métodos se evaluaron mediante PCR en tiempo real con el gen ALU. Resultados: todos los métodos de restauración mejoran la calidad del ADN en los dos tipos de muestras. El método 3 mostró mejores resultados en plasma y en lámina, incrementando la concentración del ADN de 0,0022 ng/µL a 0,6474 ng/µL en láminas de citología y de 0,0039 ng/µL a 0,435 ng/µL en plasma sanguíneo. Conclusiones: ADN de las muestras de plasma y lámina al ser tratadas con un proceso de restauración aumenta la calidad del ADN en comparación a las muestras no tratadas. Abstract in english Objetives: To compare four methods of restoration of DNA in plasma and PAP smears as a tool to improve the quality of the samples. Methods: 20 blood samples and 20 PAP smears samples, we performed DNA isolation by commercial kit and phenol-chloroform respectively. Then all samples underwent a pre-PC [...] R treatment with four different types of activity DNA polymerase: 1. Exonuclease and endonuclease 5'-3'. 2. Exonuclease 5'-3'. 3. Klenow, and 4. Klenow more ligase. Different restoration methods were evaluated quantitatively by real-time PCR with gene ALU. Results: All restoration methods improve the quality of DNA in both types of samples. However, the 3th method showed better results in both plasma and PAP smears, increasing the concentration of DNA from 0.0022 ng/mL to 0.6474 ng/mL in PAP smears and 0.0039 ng/mL to 0.435 ng/mL in blood plasma. Conclusions: DNA from plasma samples and PAP smears to be treated with a restoration process increases the quality of DNA compared to untreated samples.

  10. Pap Smear Diagnosis Using a Hybrid Intelligent Scheme Focusing on Genetic Algorithm Based Feature Selection and Nearest Neighbor Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinakis, Yannis; Dounias, Georgios

    2009-01-01

    The term pap-smear refers to samples of human cells stained by the so-called Papanicolaou method. The purpose of the Papanicolaou method is to diagnose pre-cancerous cell changes before they progress to invasive carcinoma. In this paper a metaheuristic algorithm is proposed in order to classify the cells. Two databases are used, constructed in different times by expert MDs, consisting of 917 and 500 images of pap smear cells, respectively. Each cell is described by 20 numerical features, and the cells fall into 7 classes but a minimal requirement is to separate normal from abnormal cells, which is a 2 class problem. For finding the best possible performing feature subset selection problem, an effective genetic algorithm scheme is proposed. This algorithmic scheme is combined with a number of nearest neighbor based classifiers. Results show that classification accuracy generally outperforms other previously applied intelligent approaches.

  11. Acid fast bacilli in lymph node aspirate and smears from ear lobules and fingers in long treated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B; Kaur, S; Gupta, S K; Rajwanshi, A; Darshan, H

    1984-01-01

    Skin slit smears from fingers and ear lobules and lymph node aspiration smears stained with Ziehl-Neelsen stain were studied in 43 patients of LL or BL disease. All the patients had taken dapsone monotherapy for 3-7 years. None of the patients had clinical evidence of dapsone resistance. Small number of bacilli were detected in 16 patients. Lymph node aspirate was positive in 5 cases, whereas ear lobule and fingers yielded bacilli in 12 and 13 cases respectively. It is recommended that in addition to the traditional ear lobe it is imperative to study other sites as well. Study from fingers is recommended for the sake of simplicity. Where facilities are available sampling of the lymph node may also be attempted to advantage. PMID:6384382

  12. Blood rheology and aging

    OpenAIRE

    Simmonds, Michael J.; Meiselman, Herbert J.; Baskurt, Oguz K

    2013-01-01

    The flow properties of blood play significant roles in tissue perfusion by contributing to hydrodynamic resistance in blood vessels. These properties are influenced by pathophysiological processes, thereby increasing the clinical relevance of blood rheology information. There is well-established clinical evidence for impaired blood fluidity in humans of advanced age, including enhanced plasma and whole blood viscosity, impaired red blood cell (RBC) deformability and enhanced RBC aggregation. ...

  13. Identification of ticks and detection of blood protozoa in friesian cattle by polmerase chain reacton test and estimation of blood parameters in district Kasur, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrani, A Z; Kamal, N

    2008-08-01

    The study was carried out to detect Theileria annulata, the causative agent of theileriosis, and Babesia bovis, the causative agent for babesiosis, in Friesian cattle by PCR and conventional blood smear examination. One hundred blood samples obtained from diseased Friesian cattle kept on private livestock farms at Pattoki, District Kasur, Pakistan were collected in addition to 20 blood samples obtained from non-diseased animals. The disease manifestations observed clinically included high fever, swelling of sub mandibular and sub scapular lymph nodes, weakness, increased respiration and pulse, anorexia, loss of condition and rough hair coat. Neurologic sign of in coordination was also seen in weak animals. Signs of lacrimation, pale conjunctiva, diarrhoea, dyspnea and frothy nasal discharge were observed in only one animal. Clinically nine animals showed signs of haemoglobinuria. Diagnosis of bovine theileria and babesia species was based on finding many intraerythrocytic piroplasms of both blood protozoa with clinical signs associated with anaemia, lymph node hyperplasia and haemoglobinuria. One hundred samples of ticks were also collected for identification of vector. Results showed that the prevalence of Hyalomma tick was highest (15%) followed by Boophilus (12%), Haemaphysalis (5%) and Rhipicephalus (3%). The blood smear examination showed 21% (21/100) samples positive for blood parasites out of which 66.6% (14/ 21) samples were positive for theileriosis while 42.8% (9/21) were positive for babesiosis. It was also recorded that 66.66% (6/9) samples were positive for B.bigemina while 33.33% (3/9) were positive for B.bovis. The results showed that 60% (60/100) samples were positive for blood parasites by PCR test. Out of these 60% (36/60) were positive for T.annulata while 33.33% (20/60) were positive for babesia. The specificity and sensitivity of PCR test was higher than blood smear examination. The blood parameters in haemoparasites infection were also analyzed and the results showed significant decrease in total erythrocyte count and haemoglobin while MCV, MCH values increased and MCHC was slightly less than normal indicating macrocytic hypochromic anaemia. PMID:18575972

  14. Prevention of an additional surgery for regional lymphadenectomy in melanoma: rapid intraoperative immunostaining of sentinel lymph node imprint smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Bruce H

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sentinel lymph node (SLN biopsy is performed at many institutions and is considered a standard of care in the management of cutaneous melanoma. The discriminatory immunostaining pattern with the 'MCW Melanoma Cocktail' (a mixture of MART-1 {1:500}, Melan- A {1:100}, and Tyrosinase {1:50} monoclonal antibodies allows intraoperative immunocytochemical evaluation of imprint smears of SLNs for melanoma metastases. Cohesive cells of benign capsular melanocytic nevi that were also immunoreactive with the cocktail do not exfoliate easily for imprint smear detection. Methods We prospectively evaluated 73 lymph nodes (70 SLN & 3 non-SLN from 41 cases (mean 1.8, 1 to 4 SLNs/case of cutaneous melanoma using a rapid 17-minute immunostaining previously published protocol. The results were compared with permanent sections also immunostained with 'the cocktail'. Results 19.5%, 8/41 cases (12%, 9/73 lymph nodes were positive for melanoma metastases on permanent sections immunostained with the 'MCW melanoma cocktail'. Melanoma metastases in 87.5% (7/8 of these cases were also detected in rapidly immunostained imprint smears, with 100% specificity and 90% sensitivity. None of the 7 SLNs from 7 cases with capsular nevi showed false positive results. Conclusion Melanoma metastases could be detected in imprint smears immunostained with 'MCW Melanoma Cocktail' utilizing a rapid intraoperative protocol. The cohesive cells of the capsular nevi do not readily exfoliate and do not lead to false positive interpretation. In a majority of positive cases, a regional lymphadenectomy could have been completed during the same surgery for SLN biopsy and wide excision of primary melanoma site, potentially eliminating the need for an additional surgery.

  15. Pattern of cervical smear abnormalities using the revised Bethesda system in a tertiary care hospital in Western Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Altaf, Fadwa J; Shagufta T. Mufti

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To evaluate Pap smear (PS) diagnoses at a tertiary care hospital using the revised Bethesda system, and to compare the results with other similar studies. METHODS We designed a retrospective study to review all PS from the Cytopathology Department of King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia from January 2005 to December 2009. RESULTS Of the 7297 cases reviewed, 1254 cases (17.3%) had epithelial cell abnormalities. The categories included: atypical squ...

  16. Comparison of two procedures for routine IUD exchange in women with positive Pap smears for actinomyces-like organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Merki-Feld, G S; Rosselli, M; Imthurn, B

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the female genital tract, up to 30% of Papanicolaou (Pap)-stained cervicovaginal smears of intrauterine device (IUD) users are positive for actinomyces-like organisms (ALOs). Many clinicians believe that no therapeutic intervention is necessary if women with ALOs are without symptoms. However, there are no recommendations for the procedure in ALO-positive women with need for a routine IUD exchange. STUDY DESIGN: In this retrospective study, the incidence of ALOs was compared in...

  17. Evaluation of a Worksite Cervical Screening Initiative to Increase Pap Smear Uptake in Malaysia: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Fauziah Abdullah; Michael O’Rorke; Liam Murray; Tin Tin Su

    2013-01-01

    Background. Despite the significant burden of cervical cancer, Malaysia like many middle-income countries relies on opportunistic cervical screening as opposed to a more organized population-based program. The aim of this study was to ascertain the effectiveness of a worksite screening initiative upon Papanicolaou smear test (Pap test) uptake among educated working women in Malaysia. Methods. 403 female teachers who never or infrequently attended for a Pap test from 40 public secondary school...

  18. A STUDY ON TREATMENT OUTCOME OF NEW SPUTUM SMEAR POSITIVE TUBERCULOSIS PATIENTS AMONG TRIBAL POPULATION IN KURNOOL DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.KasiSrinivas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: India accounts for nearly 20% of the global burden of tuberculosis, with global tuberculosis ranking of ‘one’. It is the leading infections cause of death in India. Around 1.8 million people are detected to have tuberculosis every year in India, of which about 0.8 million are new smear positive highly infections cases. Aims & Objectives: To find out various treatment outcome rates of tuberculosis patients among tribal population. To study on factors influencing cure rates among tribal population. Material & methods: The present study of treatment outcome of new sputum positive tuberculosispatients’ is a prospective, community based study. Patients diagnosed and registered from IVth quarter of 2006 to 1st quarter of 2008 in Athmakur tuberculosis unit, Kurnool district are selected for prospective study. They are followed from the time of registration and treatment till the completion of treatment. The study is continued till the last registered tuberculosis case completes the treatment. All the cases were followed for sputum smear conversions, smear examination at the end of treatment regimen. Duration of study is 1year and 3 months. Results: A total 45 tribal cases of Athmakur tuberculosis unit, Kurnool district were studied for treatment outcomes.31 (68.89% were males and 14 (31.11% were females. Male to Female ratio of 2.21:1 was observed among the patients. There is ahigh prevalence in .Conclusion: The expected treatment outcome norms (cure rate > 85%, failure rate 90% were observed in the present study. Cure rate of 91.11%, failure rate of 4.4%, death rate of 4.4%, smear conversion rate of 93.33% were observed in the study, which shows that the implementation of Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme in the study area has achieved the prescribed goals.

  19. A STUDY ON TREATMENT OUTCOME OF NEW SPUTUM SMEAR POSITIVE TUBERCULOSIS PATIENTS AMONG TRIBAL POPULATION IN KURNOOL DISTRICT

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.KasiSrinivas; Dr.Sreedevi. A

    2013-01-01

    Background: India accounts for nearly 20% of the global burden of tuberculosis, with global tuberculosis ranking of ‘one’. It is the leading infections cause of death in India. Around 1.8 million people are detected to have tuberculosis every year in India, of which about 0.8 million are new smear positive highly infections cases. Aims & Objectives: To find out various treatment outcome rates of tuberculosis patients among tribal population. To study on factors influencing cure rates among t...

  20. Evaluation of Apical Leakage in Root Canals Obturated with Three Different Sealers in Presence or Absence of Smear Layer

    OpenAIRE

    Mokhtari, Hadi; Shahi, Shahriar; Janani, Maryam; Reyhani, Mohammad Frough; Mokhtari Zonouzi, Hamid Reza; Rahimi, Saeed; Sadr Kheradmand, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Microleakage can result in failure of endodontic treatment. An important characteristic of endodontic sealer is sealing ability. The aim of this experimental study was to compare the apical leakage of teeth obturated with gutta-percha and three different sealers (resin- and zinc oxide eugenol-based) with/without smear layer (SL). Materials and Methods: In this study, 100 single-rooted teeth were used after cutting off their crowns. Cleaning and shaping was carried out with step-...